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Sample records for haemophilus influenzae type

  1. Characterization of Haemophilus influenzae type b fimbriae.

    PubMed Central

    Stull, T L; Mendelman, P M; Haas, J E; Schoenborn, M A; Mack, K D; Smith, A L

    1984-01-01

    We confirmed that the fimbriae of Haemophilus influenzae type b conferred hemagglutinating activity (HA) towards human erythrocytes, and erythrocytes of certain other species. Most (17/25) cerebrospinal fluid isolates lacked detectable HA on direct testing, but selective enrichment for fimbriation (f+) indicated that 22 of 25 strains could produce these surface structures. HA was unchanged from pH 4.5 to 9.5 and was not inhibited by mannose or certain other simple sugars. The HA titer of a suspension of three f+ strains was slightly decreased at 50 degrees C; HA was lost by heating at 60 degrees C for 3 min. Growth on a variety of solid and liquid media and under differing degrees of oxygenation did not change the HA titer of a suspension of three f+ strains. Fimbriation was not lost on repeated subculture. Wild-type fimbriated strains, and those derived by transformation, did not contain detectable plasmid DNA. Transformation of a strain lacking fimbriae to f+ was associated with the appearance of an outer membrane protein of 24 kilodaltons. This protein was purified from one strain to homogeneity on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by selective detergent solubilization and ammonium sulfate fractionation. Colonization capacity was equivalent with an isogenic untypable strain lacking or possessing fimbriae. Fimbriae of type b H. influenzae possess characteristics similar to those structures on other gram-negative bacteria; their role in cell physiology or pathogenesis of invasive disease is unknown. Images PMID:6150012

  2. Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc. ... statements/hib.pdf . CDC review information for Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) VIS: Page last reviewed: April 2, ...

  3. Haemophilus influenza organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prior to the widespread use of the H. influenza vaccine). The large red-colored objects are cells in the spinal fluid. A vaccine to prevent infection by Haemophilus influenza (type B) is available as one of the ...

  4. Global use of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Linda R; O'Loughlin, Rosalyn E; Cohen, Adam L; Loo, Jennifer D; Edmond, Karen M; Shetty, Sharmila S; Bear, Allyson P; Privor-Dumm, Lois; Griffiths, Ulla K; Hajjeh, Rana

    2010-10-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have been underutilized globally. We report progress in global use of Hib vaccines included in national immunization schedules. The number of countries using Hib vaccine increased from 89/193 (46%) in 2004 to 158/193 (82%) by the end of 2009. The increase was greatest among low-income countries eligible for financial support from the GAVI Alliance [13/75 (17%) in 2004, 60/72 (83%) by the end of 2009], and can be attributed to various factors. Additional efforts are still needed to increase vaccine adoption in lower middle income countries [20/31 (65%) by the end of 2009].

  5. Differential Complement Resistance Mediates Virulence of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Ann; Schneerson, Rachel; Kendall-Morris, Saundra; Robbins, John B.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to gain insight into the virulence of type b in contrast to the other Haemophilus influenzae capsular types. A relationship was found between the comparative virulence of H. influenzae types in humans and their resistance to the bactericidal effect of antibody-free complement. Type b was most resistant to the bactericidal effect of complement. The other types could be divided into three groups based upon their susceptibility to complement; this grouping was also related to their structural similarities. No association between virulence and either the biotype, source of isolate, in vitro association with peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes, or the total amount of capsular polysaccharide was found. However, among the type b strains, higher levels of cell-associated polysaccharide were associated with increased resistance to complement. The relative virulence of the six H. influenzae types in the infant rat model was generally similar to that in humans. After intraperitoneal challenge, type b and type a strains had the lowest 50% effective doses for bacteremia, removed by several logs from the values of the other types. By intranasal challenge, type b strains produced higher rates and levels of bacteremia than did type a strains. High levels of natural bactericidal antibodies to types c and e were found in adult female rats; this finding alone could not account for the differences in virulence among the H. influenzae types in the infant rat model. We propose that the virulence of type b strains is due to their greater resistance to the bactericidal activity of serum complement alone. Resistance to type b disease requires serum antibody to induce the complement-mediated reaction. PMID:6976328

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the Gambia.

    PubMed Central

    Bijlmer, H A; van Alphen, L; Geelen-van den Broek, L; Greenwood, B M; Valkenburg, H A; Dankert, J

    1992-01-01

    One hundred two invasive and 64 noninvasive isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were collected in the course of a 2-year prospective field study on the epidemiology of H. influenzae meningitis in The Gambia. The isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and subtyped by outer membrane protein (OMP) profile analysis (OMP subtyping). H. influenzae meningitis was found to be caused by serotype b (95%). In invasive disease, serotype a, although present in the throat of healthy children, caused only occasionally (5.9%) disease. The distribution of biotypes of H. influenzae appeared to be very similar to that found outside The Gambia. A distinct pattern of OMP subtypes, different from other parts of the world, is prevalent in H. influenzae type b (Hib) in The Gambia. OMP subtypes 2, 4, 5, 8, and 9 were observed to be predominant. These subtypes, except subtype 2, have not been described. L subtypes (subtypes 2, 4, and 8) were associated with invasive disease, whereas non-L subtypes (subtypes 5 and 9) were found more often in healthy carriers (P less than 0.001). A significant difference in geographical distribution was found in subtypes of noninvasive Hib strains (P less than 0.05). We conclude that in The Gambia H. influenzae invasive disease is caused mainly by type b strains with a limited number of OMP subtypes, which are different from the subtypes found elsewhere in the world. These data are important for the surveillance of Hib disease in developing countries and are baseline data for a Hib polyribosyl-ribitolphosphate-conjugated vaccine trial in The Gambia. Alternative Hib OMP vaccines should include a set of representative OMPs. Images PMID:1537907

  7. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Marien I.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of severe Haemophilus influenza infections, such as sepsis and meningitis, has declined substantially since the introduction of the H. influenzae serotype b vaccine. However, the H. influenzae type b vaccine fails to protect against nontypeable H. influenzae strains, which have become increasingly frequent causes of invasive disease, especially among children and the elderly. We summarize recent literature supporting the emergence of invasive nontypeable H. influenzae and describe mechanisms that may explain its increasing prevalence over the past 2 decades. PMID:26407156

  8. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of a synthetic oligosaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santana, V; Cardoso, Félix; Rodriguez, Arlene; Carmenate, Tania; Peña, Luis; Valdés, Yuri; Hardy, Eugenio; Mawas, Fatme; Heynngnezz, Lazaro; Rodríguez, Maria C; Figueroa, Ignacio; Chang, Janoi; Toledo, Maria E; Musacchio, Alexis; Hernández, Ibis; Izquierdo, Mabel; Cosme, Karelia; Roy, Rene; Verez-Bencomo, V

    2004-12-01

    Polysaccharide-protein conjugates as vaccines have proven to be very effective in preventing Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in industrialized countries. However, cost-effective technologies need to be developed for increasing the availability of anti-H. influenzae type b vaccines in countries from the developing world. Consequently, vaccine production with partially synthetic antigens is a desirable goal for many reasons. They may be rigidly controlled for purity and effectiveness while at the same time being cheap enough that they may be made universally available. We describe here the antigenicity and immunogenicity of several H. influenzae type b synthetic oligosaccharide-protein conjugates in laboratory animals. The serum of H. influenzae type b-immunized animals recognized our synthetic H. influenzae type b antigens to the same extent as the native bacterial capsular polysaccharide. Compared to the anti-H. influenzae type b vaccine employed, these synthetic versions induced similar antibody response patterns in terms of titer, specificity, and functional capacity. The further development of synthetic vaccines will meet urgent needs in the less prosperous parts of the world and remains our major goal.

  9. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Synthetic Oligosaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Santana, V.; Cardoso, Félix; Rodriguez, Arlene; Carmenate, Tania; Peña, Luis; Valdés, Yuri; Hardy, Eugenio; Mawas, Fatme; Heynngnezz, Lazaro; Rodríguez, Maria C.; Figueroa, Ignacio; Chang, Janoi; Toledo, Maria E.; Musacchio, Alexis; Hernández, Ibis; Izquierdo, Mabel; Cosme, Karelia; Roy, Rene; Verez-Bencomo, V.

    2004-01-01

    Polysaccharide-protein conjugates as vaccines have proven to be very effective in preventing Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in industrialized countries. However, cost-effective technologies need to be developed for increasing the availability of anti-H. influenzae type b vaccines in countries from the developing world. Consequently, vaccine production with partially synthetic antigens is a desirable goal for many reasons. They may be rigidly controlled for purity and effectiveness while at the same time being cheap enough that they may be made universally available. We describe here the antigenicity and immunogenicity of several H. influenzae type b synthetic oligosaccharide-protein conjugates in laboratory animals. The serum of H. influenzae type b-immunized animals recognized our synthetic H. influenzae type b antigens to the same extent as the native bacterial capsular polysaccharide. Compared to the anti-H. influenzae type b vaccine employed, these synthetic versions induced similar antibody response patterns in terms of titer, specificity, and functional capacity. The further development of synthetic vaccines will meet urgent needs in the less prosperous parts of the world and remains our major goal. PMID:15557635

  10. Impact of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine introduction in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    von Gottberg, A.; de Gouveia, L.; Madhi, S. A.; du Plessis, M.; Quan, V.; Soma, K.; Huebner, R.; Flannery, B.; Schuchat, A.; Klugman, Kp

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in reported invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in South Africa within the first five years of introduction of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the routine child immunization schedule. METHODS: We used national laboratory-based surveillance data to identify cases of invasive H. influenzae disease between July 1999 and June 2004, and submitted isolates for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. FINDINGS: The absolute number of Hib cases (reported to the national surveillance system) among children below one year of age decreased by 65%, from 55 cases in 1999-2000 to 19 cases in 2003-04. Enhanced surveillance initiated in 2003, identified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and incomplete vaccination as contributing factors for Hib transmission. The total number of laboratory-confirmed cases of H. influenzae remained unchanged because non-type b disease was being increasingly reported to the surveillance system concomitant with system enhancements. Children with non-typable disease were more likely to be HIV-positive (32 of 34, 94%) than children with Hib disease (10 of 14, 71%), P = 0.051. Recent Hib isolates were more likely to be multidrug resistant (2% in 1999-2000 versus 19% in 2003-04, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Data from a newly established national laboratory-based surveillance system showed a decrease in Hib disease burden among South African children following conjugate vaccine introduction and identified cases of non-typable disease associated with HIV infection. PMID:17128361

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Eight Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains Previously Characterized Using an Electrophoretic Typing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Mussa, Huda J.; VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Whitby, Paul W.; Stull, Terrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of human disease. Strains were selected for genome sequencing to represent the breadth of nontypeable strains within the species, as previously defined by the electrophoretic mobility of 16 metabolic enzymes. PMID:26607889

  12. Genotyping of Haemophilus influenzae type b strains and their incidence in the clinical samples isolated from Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Bagherzadeh Khodashahri, Somayeh; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Rahbar, Mohammad; Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad; Vaziri, Farzam; Rahnamaye-Farzami, Mrjan; Mohammadzadeh, Mona; Davari, Mehdi; Fateh, Abolfazl; Masoumi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is divided into two distinct genotypes, type I and type II, based on the structure of capsular polysaccharides. The capsulation locus of Haemophilus influenzae type b consists of three functionally distinct regions, designated regions 1 to 3. Region III contains hcsA and hcsB genes; however, notable sequence variation in this region can be used to recognize different Hib genotypes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotype of the Hib strains isolated from patients with invasive disease in Iran. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 8 pairs of primers were used for identification and serotyping of encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae strains, as well as confirmation of species identification. Additionally, in order to identify the capsular genotypes of Haemophilus influenzae type b (type I and II), two additional primer pairs were used to amplify the hcsA gene. Results: Out of 50 isolates of H. influenzae, four were found to be type b. Interestingly, among these 4 Hib isolates, 2 strains belonged to the type-II category. Conclusion: Our study shows that the prevalence of both Hib types I and II seems to be high in Iran. PMID:26668700

  13. Impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program on HIB meningitis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranzi, Sybelle de Souza Castro; de Moraes, Suzana Alves; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins

    2007-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) in Brazil on the morbidity, mortality, and case fatality of HIB meningitis, using the Ministry of Health database and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE). Impact was evaluated through a time series analysis (1983-2002), using regression forecasting (RF) by dividing the time series into two periods: (a) historical (1983-1998) and (b) validation (1999-2002). Impact of the vaccination was positive, although more significant for incidence and mortality than for case fatality rates.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide subtypes of Haemophilus influenzae type b from an outbreak of invasive disease.

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, T J; Pichichero, M E

    1984-01-01

    Thirty isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b were obtained during an outbreak of invasive H. influenzae type b disease and were classified by the electrophoretic profile of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS was extracted by a rapid micromethod and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The isolates could be divided into 1 of 14 subtypes based on the profile of two to four bands. No subtype was predominant. However, all isolates obtained from duplicate sites of the same individual were of the same subtype. Isolates obtained from two patients (6 weeks apart) who attended the same day-care center differed in LPS subtype but were identical in their major outer membrane protein electrophoretic profile. Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained from healthy children, their immediate families, and employees of the day-care center. Of 13 H. influenzae isolates examined from these contacts, only 1 was type b, which was obtained from a day-care worker and had the same LPS subtype and major outer membrane protein electrophoretic profile as one of the disease isolates. The remaining nasopharyngeal isolates were untypable, and most, but not all, were different in LPS pattern. Thus, LPS subtyping of H. influenzae type b may be useful in examining the predominance or transmission of a strain during an outbreak and may distinguish some strains not differentiated by outer membrane protein pattern. Images PMID:6333433

  15. Haemophilus influenzae type B in an immunocompetent, fully vaccinated ALL survivor.

    PubMed

    Nevin, John; Kanter Washko, Julie; Arnold, John

    2013-05-01

    A 7-year-old boy with a history of recurrent acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), in remission, presented to primary care clinic after 2 days of progressive right hip pain with weight-bearing activities. He was otherwise asymptomatic at the time of presentation. Blood cultures revealed Gram-negative diplococci, which prompted an MRI that was significant for a hip joint effusion and femoral head bone marrow edema. The patient had no sick contacts and no significant past medical history other than ALL. The patient had been given all recommended childhood vaccinations. Arthrocentesis and needle biopsy of the femoral neck were not diagnostic for malignancy and revealed only mild hip joint inflammation, leading to a diagnosis of osteomyelitis. The organism in the original blood culture was identified as Haemophilus influenzae type b, β-lactamase negative. Review of the patient's medical records showed a history of complete immunization to Haemophilus influenzae type b. An immunologic evaluation was made to determine if the patient retained immunity from his other vaccinations. Pathogen-specific antibody testing revealed detectable antibodies to polio but not measles, mumps, rubella, varicella-zoster virus, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, or hepatitis B. This loss of immunologic memory appears to be a rarely described side effect of ALL chemotherapy. There is currently no protocol to evaluate the immunologic memory of patients who underwent chemotherapy for ALL or to revaccinate them after their treatment. It is unclear whether the loss of immunologic memory is genuinely rare or is underdiagnosed because affected patients are protected by herd immunity.

  16. Naturally Acquired Antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae Type a in Aboriginal Adults, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Nix, Eli B.; Williams, Kylie; Cox, Andrew D.; St. Michael, Frank; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Schmidt, Daniel S.; McCready, William G.

    2015-01-01

    In the post-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine era that began in the 1980's, H. influenzae type a (Hia) emerged as a prominent cause of invasive disease in North American Aboriginal populations. To test whether a lack of naturally acquired antibodies may underlie increased rates of invasive Hia disease, we compared serum bactericidal activity against Hia and Hib and IgG and IgM against capsular polysaccharide between Canadian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal healthy and immunocompromised adults. Both healthy and immunocompromised Aboriginal adults exhibited significantly higher bactericidal antibody titers against Hia than did non-Aboriginal adults (p = 0.042 and 0.045 respectively), with no difference in functional antibody activity against Hib. IgM concentrations against Hia were higher than IgG in most study groups; the inverse was true for antibody concentrations against Hib. Our results indicate that Aboriginal adults possess substantial serum bactericidal activity against Hia that is mostly due to IgM antibodies. The presence of sustained IgM against Hia suggests recent Hia exposure. PMID:25626129

  17. DNA aptamers for the detection of Haemophilus influenzae type b by cell SELEX.

    PubMed

    Bitaraf, F S; Rasooli, I; Mousavi Gargari, S L

    2016-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) causes acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in children, with a mortality rate of about 3-6 % of the affected patients. ABM can lead to death during a period of hours to several days and, hence, rapid and early detection of the infection is crucial. Aptamers, the short single-stranded DNA or RNA with high affinity to target molecules, are selected by a high-flux screening technique known as in vitro screening and systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment technology (SELEX). In this study, whole-cell SELEX was applied for the selection of target-specific aptamers with high affinity to Hib. ssDNA aptamers prepared by lambda exonuclease were incubated with the target cells (Hib). The aptameric binding rate to Hib was characterized for binding affinity after seven SELEX rounds by flow cytometry. The aptamers with higher binding affinity were cloned. Four of 68 aptamer clones were selected for sequencing. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the high-affinity aptamer clones 45 and 63 were 47.10 and 28.46 pM, respectively. These aptamers did not bind to other bacterial species, including the seven meningitis-causing bacteria. They showed distinct affinity to various H. influenzae strains only. These aptamers showed the highest affinity to Hib and the lowest affinity to H. influenzae type c and to other meningitis-causing bacteria. Clone 63 could detect Hib in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples at 60 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. The results indicate applicability of the aptamers for rapid and early detection of infections brought about by Hib.

  18. OpsX from Haemophilus influenzae Represents a Novel Type of Heptosyltransferase I in Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gronow, Sabine; Brabetz, Werner; Lindner, Buko; Brade, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    The inner core region of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Haemophilus influenzae is characterized by the presence of a phosphorylated 3-deoxy-α-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo). In this study, we show that the heptosyltransferase I adding the first l-glycero-d-manno-heptose residue to this acceptor is encoded by the gene opsX, which differs in substrate specificity from the other heptosyltransferase I, known as WaaC. PMID:16109967

  19. Haemophilus influenzae and the lung (Haemophilus and the lung)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is present as a commensal organism in the nasopharynx of most healthy adults from where it can spread to cause both systemic and respiratory tract infection. This bacterium is divided into typeable forms (such as type b) or nontypeable forms based on the presence or absence of a tough polysaccharide capsule. Respiratory disease is predominantly caused by the nontypeable forms (NTHi). Haemophilus influenzae has evolved a number of strategies to evade the host defense including the ability to invade into local tissue. Pathogenic properties of this bacterium as well as defects in host defense may result in the spread of this bacterium from the upper airway to the bronchi of the lung. This can result in airway inflammation and colonization particularly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Treatment of respiratory tract infection with Haemophilus influenzae is often only partially successful with ongoing infection and inflammation. Improvement in patient outcome will be dependent on a better understanding of the pathogenesis and host immune response to this bacterium. PMID:23369277

  20. Comparison of naturally acquired and vaccine-induced antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Jelonek, M T; Chang, S J; Chiu, C Y; Park, M K; Nahm, M H; Ward, J I

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess qualitative differences in the types of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate [PRP]) antibodies induced in children 15 to 27 months of age by (i) natural exposure, (ii) PRP vaccine, and by (iii) PRP-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine, (iv) PRP-group B Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane vesicle conjugate vaccine, and (v) Haemophilus type B oligosaccharide conjugate vaccine (HbOC). The highest levels of total Hib-PRP antibody measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoglobulin G (IgG) measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were seen after HbOC immunization. IgG1 Hib-PRP antibodies predominated in all groups, and there were no differences between the groups in the proportion of IgG and IgA Hib-PRP antibodies. However, the proportions of IgM differed significantly by group. The highest proportions of IgM occurred in naturally acquired antibody and after PRP vaccine, and the lowest proportion occurred after HbOC vaccine. IgG light-chain V kappa type alpha PRP antibody was present in all groups, and the level correlated with the total IgG Hib-PRP antibody level. Therefore, HbOC induced the highest concentrations of V kappa II type alpha PRP antibody, and the naturally acquired antibody group had the lowest levels. IgG light-chain V kappa III antibody levels were also highest in the HbOC group, but there was no correlation between V kappa III antibody levels and total amount of IgG Hib-PRP antibody. These data demonstrate qualitative differences in the antibody repertoires induced by natural exposure, the Hib-PRP vaccine, and each of the different Hib conjugate vaccines. We doubt that there are major differences in the protection afforded by these different antibody repertoires, because these differences do not appear to correlate with differences in protective efficacy in older children. PMID:8225608

  1. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Immunization in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sangjin; Ki, Moran

    2008-01-01

    An economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) immunization was conducted to examine whether Hib immunization should be included in the Korea's national immunization program. The costs and benefits included direct and indirect values and an estimation of the economic efficiency. We determined that a universal Hib immunization program in Korea would prevent 17 deaths and 280 invasive Hib cases. When we assumed the one Hib immunization cost as 26,000 won, the national Hib immunization would cost 34.6 billion won. Costs for various Hib diseases were estimated at 26.8 billion won (11.8 billion won from direct costs and 14.9 billion won from indirect costs). A benefit-cost ratio of 0.77 showed that the economic efficiency of the integration of Hib immunization in Korea is low because of the low incidence rate of Hib disease and high price of vaccine. However, if the Hib immunization cost decrease to less than 20,000 won, a benefit-cost ratio increase to 1.0 and above, integrating Hib immunization into the national immunization program with economic efficiency can be considered. PMID:18436997

  2. Spectrum and burden of severe Haemophilus influenzae type b diseases in Asia.

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, H.

    1999-01-01

    The validity of the commonly held view that Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) diseases are rare in Asia is challenged in this article by a thorough analysis of the data available, often in languages other than English. The entire spectrum of Hib disease, not only meningitis, was taken into account, and over 100 reports from 25 countries were explored. Hib was the leading agent among nontuberculous childhood meningitis cases in two-thirds of 48 studies from 22 countries. Data from six countries showed that all the classical manifestations of invasive Hib diseases are also found in Asia, except epiglottitis, which was nearly absent. In Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China Hib disease is rare, but otherwise the incidences seemed not to deviate much from those in Europe until recently, around 25 per 100,000 for meningitis and at least 40 per 100,000 per year for the classical Hib manifestations combined at age 0-4 years. In total, more than 200,000 cases of Hib disease are estimated to occur annually in Asia. Because nonbacteraemic Hib pneumonia remains mostly undetected, the total burden is probably significantly greater. The issue will be fully elucidated only by prospective epidemiological and clinical studies, but awaiting them should not delay large-scale vaccinations against Hib throughout Asia. PMID:10612883

  3. Development and technology transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Beurret, Michel; Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2012-07-13

    This paper describes the development of a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment/Netherlands Vaccine Institute (RIVM/NVI, Bilthoven, The Netherlands), and the subsequent transfer of its production process to manufacturers in developing countries. In 1998, at the outset of the project, the majority of the world's children were not immunized against Hib because of the high price and limited supply of the conjugate vaccines, due partly to the fact that local manufacturers in developing countries did not master the Hib conjugate production technology. To address this problem, the RIVM/NVI has developed a robust Hib conjugate vaccine production process based on a proven model, and transferred this technology to several partners in India, Indonesia, Korea and China. As a result, emerging manufacturers in developing countries acquired modern technologies previously unavailable to them. This has in turn facilitated their approach to producing other conjugate vaccines. As an additional spin-off from the project, a World Health Organization (WHO) Hib quality control (QC) course was designed and conducted at the RIVM/NVI, resulting in an increased regulatory capacity for conjugate vaccines in developing countries at the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) level. For the local populations, this has translated into an increased and sustainable supply of affordable Hib conjugate-containing combination vaccines. During the course of this project, developing countries have demonstrated their ability to produce large quantities of high-quality modern vaccines after a successful transfer of the technology.

  4. Induction of active immunity with membrane fractions from Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Burans, J P; Lynn, M; Solotorovsky, M

    1983-01-01

    Using Escherichia coli strain E-1 as a model, we developed procedures for the preparation of outer- and inner-membrane-enriched fractions as structural units. These procedures could be used to prepare relatively pure inner and outer membrane fractions as determined by succinate dehydrogenase activity, ketodeoxyoctonate levels, and polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. The use of these procedures to fractionate membrane components from Haemophilus influenzae type b strains H-2 and H-E led to good separation of outer- and inner-membrane-enriched fractions as determined by succinate dehydrogenase and ketodeoxyoctonate levels but incomplete separation as determined by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Although there were differences between the electrophoresis profiles of outer membrane fractions of strains H-2 and H-E, immunization with outer membrane of either strain led to the induction of a high degree of immunoprotection against challenge with the H-2 strain. Protection could also be elicited with inner membrane preparations, but such protection may be due to contamination with outer membrane. Extracted membrane protein induced levels of protection that were comparable to those induced by whole membrane fractions. Images PMID:6602769

  5. Two or three primary dose regime for Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Thumburu, Kiran K.; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Jaiswal, Nishant; Agarwal, Amit; Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of meningitis and pneumonia in children. Despite the availability of Hib conjugate vaccine, many countries are still to implement it in their immunization schedule. Before introducing the vaccine in routine immunization programs, it is important to know not only the cumulative efficacy but also the efficacy of each vaccine dose. The primary objective of this review is to find whether two primary dose schedule of Hib vaccine is equally efficacious as the standard three primary dose schedule. A highly sensitive online search was run using the terms ‘Haemophilus Vaccines’ or ‘Haemophilus influenzae type b’ and ‘conjugate vaccine’, and Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and Scopus were explored for prospective randomized controlled studies. Data were extracted in a predesigned proforma and analyzed using RevMan software. Nine randomized studies were included in the analysis. Pooled vaccine efficacy using a fixed effects model against confirmed invasive Hib disease following the 3, 2 and 1 primary dose schedule were 82% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73-87], 79% (95% CI 54–90) and 65% (95% CI 23–84), respectively, and the overall efficacy was 80% (95% CI 72–85). To conclude, we found that Hib conjugate vaccine is highly efficacious and that the two dose regime is as good as the three dose regime. [The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013004490)]. PMID:25984342

  6. Effect of epithelial cell type on in vitro invasion of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Kunde, Dale A; Tristram, Stephen G

    2016-10-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) have been shown to have variable ability for in vitro invasion with a range of epithelial cells, and increased invasion of BEAS-2B cells has been associated with altered penicillin binding protein3 (PBP3), which is concerning as these strains are increasing worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of respiratory cell type and the presence of altered PBP3 on the in vitro invasion of NTHi. A collection of 16 clinical NTHi isolates was established, 7 had normal PBP3, and 9 had altered PBP3 as defined by an N526K substitution. The isolates were tested for invasion of BEAS-2B, NHBE, A549 and NCI-H292 respiratory epithelial cells in vitro using a gentamicin survival assay, with invasion measured as the percentage of intracellular organisms relative to the initial inoculum. The overall median invasion for the 16 NTHi isolates for cell types BEAS-2B, NHBE, A549 and NCI-H292 cells were 3.17, 2.31, 0.11 and 1.52 respectively. The differences were statistically significant for BEAS-2B compared to A549 (P=0.015) and A549 compared to NCI-H292 (P=0.015), and there were also very marked differences in invasion for some individual isolates depending on the cell type used. There was a consistent bias for invasion of isolates with normal versus abnormal PBP3: and this was statistically significant for BEAS-2B (0.07 to 9.90, P=0.031) and A549 cells (0.02 to 1.68, P=0.037). These results show that NTHi invasion of respiratory epithelial cells in vitro is both strain dependant and influenced significantly by the cell line used, and that the association between altered PBP3 and increased invasion is conserved across multiple cell lines.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Tristram, Stephen; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major community-acquired pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Meningitis and bacteremia due to type b strains occur in areas where the protein-conjugated type b vaccine is not in use, whereas nontypeable strains are major causes of otitis media, sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia. Antibiotic resistance in this organism is more diverse and widespread than is commonly appreciated. Intrinsic efflux resistance mechanisms limit the activity of the macrolides, azalides, and ketolides. β-Lactamase production is highly prevalent worldwide and is associated with resistance to ampicillin and amoxicillin. Strains with alterations in penicillin binding proteins, particularly PBP3 (β-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant and β-lactamase positive amoxicillin-clavulanate resistant), are increasing in prevalence, particularly in Japan, with increasing resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and many cephalosporins, limiting the efficacy of expanded-spectrum cephalosporins against meningitis and of many oral cephalosporins against other diseases. Most strains remain susceptible to the carbapenems, which are not affected by penicillin binding protein changes, and the quinolones. The activity of many oral agents is limited by pharmacokinetics achieved with administration by this route, and the susceptibility of isolates based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters is reviewed. PMID:17428889

  8. Preclinical evaluation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine process intended for technology transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Ahd; Verdijk, Pauline; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by cost and availability of Hib conjugate vaccines for a long time. It was previously recognized by the Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc, originating from the former Vaccinology Unit of the National Institute of Public Health [RIVM] and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute [NVI]) that local production of a Hib conjugate vaccine would increase the affordability and sustainability of the vaccine and thereby help to speed up Hib introduction in these countries. A new affordable and a non-infringing production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine was developed, including relevant quality control tests, and the technology was transferred to a number of vaccine manufacturers in India, Indonesia, and China. As part of the Hib technology transfer project managed by Intravacc, a preclinical toxicity study was conducted in the Netherlands to test the safety and immunogenicity of this new Hib conjugate vaccine. The data generated by this study were used by the technology transfer partners to accelerate the clinical development of the new Hib conjugate vaccine. A repeated dose toxicity and local tolerance study in rats was performed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new Hib conjugate vaccine compared to a licensed vaccine. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in rats, no major differences in both safety and immunogenicity in rats were found between the vaccine produced according to the production process developed by Intravacc and the licensed one. Rats may be useful to verify the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines and for preclinical evaluation. In general, nonclinical evaluation of the new Hib conjugate vaccine, including this proof of concept (safety and immunogenicity study in rats), made it possible for technology transfer partners, having implemented the original process with no changes

  9. Prospective safety monitoring of Haemophilus influenzae type b and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Kagoshima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Junichiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Imuta, Naoko; Minami, Taketsugu; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in Japan in December 2008 and February 2010, respectively. The concurrent administration of these vaccines is routinely performed worldwide. However, the safety of the simultaneous administration of these vaccines has not been fully evaluated in Japan, because it has rarely been performed thus far. We conducted a 2-year prospective, observational, multicenter study on PRP-T and PCV7 safety from February 2009 through January 2011 in 29 facilities located in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Objective severe adverse events included anaphylactoid reaction, encephalitis/encephalopathy, neurological events, severe focal reactions, systemic eruption/urticaria, fever above 39℃ within 2 days after inoculation, and other complications requiring hospitalization. The incidences of these events for PRP-T and PCV7 administration were 0.68% (76/11,197) and 0.92% (28/3,049), respectively. No deaths or subsequent complications were reported during the course of the study. There was no significant difference in the incidence of severe adverse events between the single and co-administration groups for both vaccines: PRP-T, 0.55% (31/5,662) versus 0.81% (45/5,535; P = 0.11); PCV7, 0.88% (11/1,247) versus 0.94% (17/1,802; P = 0.86). These results suggest that the simultaneous administration of vaccines including PRP-T and/or PCV7 does not increase the incidence of severe adverse events in Japanese children.

  10. Study on Haemophilus influenzae type b diseases in China: the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Shen, X; Jiang, Z; Liu, X; Leng, Z; Lu, D; Rao, J; Liu, J; Chang, L

    1998-09-01

    Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a common and serious disease for which there now are WHO-certified vaccines that are recommended for universal infant immunization in North America and European countries. If these vaccines are to be recommended in Asia, it is necessary to know the incidence, age distribution and clinical outcome of Hib meningitis and other systemic infections in this region. Data on Hib disease in China are scanty. Hib meningitis was common during the 1950s in China, accounting for up to 16% of all of pyogenic meningitis (up to 38% of cases were caused by unknown pathogens), despite severe epidemics of meningococcal meningitis during that period. Since 1989 we have conducted hospital- and community-based etiologic and epidemiologic studies of bacterial meningitis. Hib accounts for 30 to 50% of bacterial meningitis in China. The incidence of Hib meningitis in Hefei City was 10.4 per 100000 children <5 years, a result relatively lower than in the West but higher than the rate of 2.7 found in a retrospective study in Hong Kong. Pneumonia is the primary cause of death for Chinese children. From 1991 to 1993 the average mortality of children<5 years because of pneumonia was 1563.2 per 100000. To achieve the goal of reducing the death rate of children by one-third by the year 2000, greater efforts should be made to reduce the mortality of children with pneumonia. Our preliminary study showed that about one-fourth to one-third of cases of pneumonia in Chinese children might be caused by Hib. Therefore Hib vaccination for infants and children in China might be an effective and valuable procedure to achieve the goal.

  11. Preparation and testing of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b/Hepatitis B surface antigen conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    An, So Jung; Woo, Joo Sung; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kothari, Sudeep; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-03-24

    The majority of conjugate vaccines focus on inducing an antibody response to the polysaccharide antigen and the carrier protein is present primarily to induce a T-cell dependent response. In this study conjugates consisting of poly(ribosylribitolphosphate) (PRP) purified from Haemophilus influenzae Type b bound to Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) virus like particles were prepared with the aim of inducing an antibody response to not only the PRP but also the HBsAg. A conjugate consisting of PRP bound to HBsAg via an adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer induced strong IgG antibodies to both the PRP and HBsAg. When conjugation was performed without the ADH spacer the induction of an anti-PRP response was equivalent to that seen by conjugate with the ADH spacer, however, a negligible anti-HBsAg response was induced. For comparison, PRP was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and Vi polysaccharide purified from Salmonella Typhi conjugated to HBsAg both using an ADH spacer. The PRPAH-DT conjugate induced strong anti-PRP and anti-DT responses, the Vi-AHHBsAg conjugate induced a good anti-HBsAg response but not as strong as that induced by the PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate. This study demonstrated that in mice it was possible to induce robust antibody responses to both polysaccharide and carrier protein provided the conjugate has certain physico-chemical properties. A PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate with the capacity to induce anti-PRP and anti-HBsAg responses could be incorporated into a multivalent pediatric vaccine and simplify formulation of such a vaccine. PMID:25659268

  12. Preclinical evaluation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine process intended for technology transfer.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Ahd; Verdijk, Pauline; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by cost and availability of Hib conjugate vaccines for a long time. It was previously recognized by the Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc, originating from the former Vaccinology Unit of the National Institute of Public Health [RIVM] and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute [NVI]) that local production of a Hib conjugate vaccine would increase the affordability and sustainability of the vaccine and thereby help to speed up Hib introduction in these countries. A new affordable and a non-infringing production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine was developed, including relevant quality control tests, and the technology was transferred to a number of vaccine manufacturers in India, Indonesia, and China. As part of the Hib technology transfer project managed by Intravacc, a preclinical toxicity study was conducted in the Netherlands to test the safety and immunogenicity of this new Hib conjugate vaccine. The data generated by this study were used by the technology transfer partners to accelerate the clinical development of the new Hib conjugate vaccine. A repeated dose toxicity and local tolerance study in rats was performed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new Hib conjugate vaccine compared to a licensed vaccine. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in rats, no major differences in both safety and immunogenicity in rats were found between the vaccine produced according to the production process developed by Intravacc and the licensed one. Rats may be useful to verify the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines and for preclinical evaluation. In general, nonclinical evaluation of the new Hib conjugate vaccine, including this proof of concept (safety and immunogenicity study in rats), made it possible for technology transfer partners, having implemented the original process with no changes

  13. Prospects for prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease by immunization.

    PubMed

    Granoff, D M; Munson, R S

    1986-03-01

    A vaccine consisting of the polysaccharide (PS) capsule of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has recently been licensed in the United States. This vaccine is safe and effective in preventing invasive Hib disease in children two years of age and older, but it is ineffective in younger children, the group at greatest risk of disease. The PS vaccine also may be ineffective in preventing disease in certain subgroups of the population that are genetically at increased risk of disease and show impaired antibody responses to immunization. Thus, new strategies need to be considered. Currently, several new Hib PS-protein conjugate vaccines are being evaluated. These vaccines differ in their method of preparation, carrier protein, and PS size. In contrast to the plain Hib PS vaccine, conjugate vaccines are immunogenic in infants and elicit boostable increases in antibody to PS upon reinjection of vaccine. However, some infants less than six months of age do not respond. To confer protection on all infants, it may be necessary to modify further the conjugate vaccines. One approach is to use outer membrane proteins (OMPs) as vaccine components. Five major OMPs have been purified from Hib, and three, P1 (50 kilodalton [kDa]), P2 (37 kDa), and P6 (16 kDa), contain antigens capable of eliciting strain-specific protective antibodies in experimental animals. In summary, PS-protein conjugate vaccines hold enormous promise for the prevention of Hib disease in infants, but further work is needed to define the optimal carrier protein, PS size, and method of coupling. Information is also needed on whether genetic factors influence responses to these vaccines. PMID:3485160

  14. Preparation and testing of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b/Hepatitis B surface antigen conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    An, So Jung; Woo, Joo Sung; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kothari, Sudeep; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-03-24

    The majority of conjugate vaccines focus on inducing an antibody response to the polysaccharide antigen and the carrier protein is present primarily to induce a T-cell dependent response. In this study conjugates consisting of poly(ribosylribitolphosphate) (PRP) purified from Haemophilus influenzae Type b bound to Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) virus like particles were prepared with the aim of inducing an antibody response to not only the PRP but also the HBsAg. A conjugate consisting of PRP bound to HBsAg via an adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer induced strong IgG antibodies to both the PRP and HBsAg. When conjugation was performed without the ADH spacer the induction of an anti-PRP response was equivalent to that seen by conjugate with the ADH spacer, however, a negligible anti-HBsAg response was induced. For comparison, PRP was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and Vi polysaccharide purified from Salmonella Typhi conjugated to HBsAg both using an ADH spacer. The PRPAH-DT conjugate induced strong anti-PRP and anti-DT responses, the Vi-AHHBsAg conjugate induced a good anti-HBsAg response but not as strong as that induced by the PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate. This study demonstrated that in mice it was possible to induce robust antibody responses to both polysaccharide and carrier protein provided the conjugate has certain physico-chemical properties. A PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate with the capacity to induce anti-PRP and anti-HBsAg responses could be incorporated into a multivalent pediatric vaccine and simplify formulation of such a vaccine.

  15. Identification of surface-exposed B-cell epitopes recognized by Haemophilus influenzae type b P1-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Panezutti, H; James, O; Hansen, E J; Choi, Y; Harkness, R E; Klein, M H; Chong, P

    1993-05-01

    A panel of P1 synthetic peptides was synthesized to map the surface-exposed epitopes of Haemophilus influenzae type b outer membrane protein P1 recognized by three murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 7C8, 3E12, and 6B1). By using peptide-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, MAbs 6B1, 7C8, and 3E12 were shown to recognize distinct epitopes localized within residues 60 to 88, 165 to 193, and 400 to 437 of mature P1, respectively. Since MAb 7C8 was shown previously to be protective against certain H. influenzae type b subtypes in the infant rat model of bacteremia, its cognate epitope was further characterized by using truncated peptide analogs. Fine mapping of the 7C8 epitope by competitive inhibition studies revealed that it was localized within residues 184 and 193.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Phuc; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Anh, Dang Duc; Franzini, Luisa; Chan, Wenyaw; Swint, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background With GAVI support, Vietnam introduced Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in 2010 without evidence on cost-effectiveness. We aimed to analyze the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccine from societal and governmental perspectives. Method We constructed a decision-tree cohort model to estimate the costs and effectiveness of Hib vaccine versus no Hib vaccine for the 2011 birth cohort. The disease burden was estimated from local epidemiologic data and literature. Vaccine delivery costs were calculated from governmental reports and 2013 vaccine prices. A prospective cost-of-illness study was conducted to estimate treatment costs. The human capital approach was employed to estimate productivity loss. The incremental costs of Hib vaccine were divided by cases, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted. We used the WHO recommended cost-effectiveness thresholds of an intervention being highly cost-effective if incremental costs per DALY were below GDP per capita. Result From the societal perspective, incremental costs per discounted case, death and DALY averted were US$ 6,252, US$ 26,476 and US$ 1,231, respectively; the break-even vaccine price was US$ 0.69/dose. From the governmental perspective, the results were US$ 6,954, US$ 29,449, and US$ 1,373, respectively; the break-even vaccine price was US$ 0.48/dose. Vietnam's GDP per capita was US$ 1,911 in 2013. In deterministic sensitivity analysis, morbidity and mortality parameters were among the most influential factors. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, Hib vaccine had an 84% and 78% probability to be highly cost-effective from the societal and governmental perspectives, respectively. Conclusion Hib vaccine was highly cost-effective from both societal and governmental perspectives. However, with GAVI support ending in 2016, the government will face a six-fold increase in its vaccine budget at the 2013 vaccine price. The variability of vaccine market prices adds an element of uncertainty

  17. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Carriage among Young Children in Metropolitan Atlanta in the Context of Vaccine Shortage and Booster Dose Deferral ▿

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer Dolan; Jackson, Michael L.; Sharma, Dolly; Mair, Raydel; Bach, Michelle C.; Castillo, Dana; Ejigiri, O. Grace; Satola, Sarah; Cohn, Amanda C.; Jerris, Robert; Jain, Shabnam; Farley, Monica M.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Messonnier, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term deferral of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine booster dose during a recent U.S. Hib vaccine shortage did not result in widespread Hib carriage in Atlanta, as the Hib carriage rate was found to be 0.3% (1/342). Hib colonization was significantly more common among males and day care attendees. PMID:22012977

  18. Interlaboratory study evaluating quantitation of antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Madore, D V; Anderson, P; Baxter, B D; Carlone, G M; Edwards, K M; Hamilton, R G; Holder, P; Käyhty, H; Phipps, D C; Peeters, C C; Schneerson, R; Siber, G R; Ward, J I; Frasch, C E

    1996-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to determine whether an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an antigen preparation composed of various-sized fragments of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide conjugated to human serum albumin could be standardized across laboratories and whether the ELISA-derived results from different laboratories are equivalent to those obtained by the standard radioactive antigen binding assay (RABA) for quantitation of anti-H, influenzae type b polysaccharide antibodies. Twenty coded human serum samples were quantitated by ELISA in 11 laboratories and by RABA in 5 laboratories. The mean RABA-derived values served as the basis for all comparisons. While the overall correspondence of antibody values between the two methods was good, significant differences were found among some of the 11 ELISA data sets and among the mean RABA values. Seven laboratories generated higher ELISA antibody values for low-titered sera. Four laboratories generated antibody concentrations that were not statistically different between the two assay methods. The results therefore indicate that the ELISA can tolerate substantial variations in protocol, such as the use of different plates and different antibody reagents, without affecting the quantitation of serum antibodies. However, attention should be focused on low-titered sera, as some assay conditions may yield spurious results. This ELISA is a serologic assay which can serve as an alternative to the RABA for quantitation of antibodies to H. influenzae type h polysaccharide. PMID:8770509

  19. [Multilocus sequence-typing for characterization of Moscow strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b].

    PubMed

    Platonov, A E; Mironov, K O; Iatsyshina, S B; Koroleva, I S; Platonova, O V; Gushchin, A E; Shipulin, G A

    2003-01-01

    Haemophilius influenzae, type b (Hib) bacteria, were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using 5 loci (adk, fucK, mdh, pgi, recA). 42 Moscow Hib strains (including 38 isolates form cerebrospinal fluid of children, who had purulent meningitis in 1999-2001, and 4 strains isolated from healthy carriers of Hib), as well as 2 strains from Yekaterinburg were studied. In MLST a strain is characterized, by alleles and their combinations (an allele profile) referred to also as sequence-type (ST). 9 Sts were identified within the Russian Hib bacteria: ST-1 was found in 25 strains (57%), ST-12 was found in 8 strains (18%), ST-11 was found in 4 strains (9%) and ST-15 was found in 2 strains (4.5%); all other STs strains (13, 14, 16, 17, 51) were found in isolated cases (2.3%). A comparison of allelic profiles and of nucleotide sequences showed that 93% of Russian isolates, i.e. strain with ST-1, 11, 12, 13, 15 and 17, belong to one and the same clonal complex. 2 isolates from Norway and Sweden from among 7 foreign Hib strains studied up to now can be described as belonging to the same clonal complex; 5 Hib strains were different from the Russian ones. PMID:12800772

  20. Molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in non-typable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, L; Leranoz, S; Puig, M; Lorén, J G; Nikaido, H; Viñas, M

    1997-09-01

    Strains of the facultative anaerobe Haemophilus influenzae, both type b and non typable strains, are frequently multiresistant. The measurement of the antibiotic permeability of Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane (OM) shows that antibiotics can cross through the OM easily. Thus, enzymatic activity or efflux pumps could be responsible for multiresistance. An efflux system closely related to AcrAB of Escherichia coli is present in Haemophilus influenzae. However, their role in multiresistance seems irrelevant. Classical mechanisms such as plasmid exchange seems to be playing a major role in the multidrug resistance in Haemophilus influenzae.

  1. Hospital Surveillance of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis in Senegal and the Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Osseynou; Fleming, Jessica A.; Dieye, Yakou; Mutombo wa Mutombo, Boniface; Ba, Mamadou; Cisse, Moussa Fafa; Diallo, Aissatou Gaye; Sow, Iyane; Slack, Mary P. E.; Faye, Pape Coumba; Ba, Mady; Diallo, Ndiouga; Weiss, Noel S.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children living in low-resource settings. Pediatric bacterial meningitis cases < 5 years of age were identified through a regional hospital surveillance system for 3 years after introduction of routine immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in Senegal in July 2005. Cases from the national pediatric hospital were also tracked from 2002 to 2008. The regional surveillance system recorded 1,711 suspected pediatric bacterial meningitis cases. Of 214 laboratory-confirmed cases, 108 (50%) were caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, 42 (20%) to Hib, and 13 (6%) to Neisseria meningitidis. There was a 98% reduction in the number of hospitalized Hib meningitis cases from Dakar Region in 2008 compared with 2002. The surveillance system provides important information to the Ministry of Health as they consider self-funding Hib vaccine and introducing pneumococcal vaccine. PMID:21118944

  2. The continuing role of Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage surveillance as a mechanism for early detection of invasive disease activity.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P

    2011-12-01

    Prior to the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under five years of age worldwide. In countries that have adopted Hib vaccination schedules, invasive disease has reduced markedly. Oro-naso pharyngeal carriage is recognized as the most significant source of infection. Hib carriage is significantly associated with poverty, such as overcrowding, poor ventilation in houses, lack of running water, and high smoking rates. Additionally, many Indigenous minority groups report high rates of Hib carriage. A resurgence of Hib disease among Alaskan children in the 1990s, lead to a change in approach to eliminate Hib disease and carriage in high-risk populations. This new approach identifies strategies for eliminating Hib disease focusing on the reservoirs of colonization within families and communities. Monitoring Hib carriage continues to offer an early warning system, whereby intervention could prevent invasive disease resurgence.

  3. Complete Deletion of the Fucose Operon in Haemophilus influenzae Is Associated with a Cluster in Multilocus Sequence Analysis-Based Phylogenetic Group II Related to Haemophilus haemolyticus: Implications for Identification and Typing

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Camilla; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    Nonhemolytic variants of Haemophilus haemolyticus are difficult to differentiate from Haemophilus influenzae despite a wide difference in pathogenic potential. A previous investigation characterized a challenging set of 60 clinical strains using multiple PCRs for marker genes and described strains that could not be unequivocally identified as either species. We have analyzed the same set of strains by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. MLSA unambiguously allocated all study strains to either of the two species, while identification by 16S rRNA sequence was inconclusive for three strains. Notably, the two methods yielded conflicting identifications for two strains. Most of the “fuzzy species” strains were identified as H. influenzae that had undergone complete deletion of the fucose operon. Such strains, which are untypeable by the H. influenzae multilocus sequence type (MLST) scheme, have sporadically been reported and predominantly belong to a single branch of H. influenzae MLSA phylogenetic group II. We also found evidence of interspecies recombination between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus within the 16S rRNA genes. Establishing an accurate method for rapid and inexpensive identification of H. influenzae is important for disease surveillance and treatment. PMID:26378279

  4. Complete Deletion of the Fucose Operon in Haemophilus influenzae Is Associated with a Cluster in Multilocus Sequence Analysis-Based Phylogenetic Group II Related to Haemophilus haemolyticus: Implications for Identification and Typing.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Camilla; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Nonhemolytic variants of Haemophilus haemolyticus are difficult to differentiate from Haemophilus influenzae despite a wide difference in pathogenic potential. A previous investigation characterized a challenging set of 60 clinical strains using multiple PCRs for marker genes and described strains that could not be unequivocally identified as either species. We have analyzed the same set of strains by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. MLSA unambiguously allocated all study strains to either of the two species, while identification by 16S rRNA sequence was inconclusive for three strains. Notably, the two methods yielded conflicting identifications for two strains. Most of the "fuzzy species" strains were identified as H. influenzae that had undergone complete deletion of the fucose operon. Such strains, which are untypeable by the H. influenzae multilocus sequence type (MLST) scheme, have sporadically been reported and predominantly belong to a single branch of H. influenzae MLSA phylogenetic group II. We also found evidence of interspecies recombination between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus within the 16S rRNA genes. Establishing an accurate method for rapid and inexpensive identification of H. influenzae is important for disease surveillance and treatment.

  5. Development and Optimization of a Homemade ELISA Kit for Detection of Antibodies Against Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Fazlolah; Fatemi, Sara; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Nikanpour, Elnaz; Malekan, Mohamad Ali; Khabiri, Ali Reza; Janani, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection has high morbidity and mortality rate, especially in children under 5 years of age. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique is the most used method to detect antibodies against H. influenzae. Available commercial ELISA kits are expensive and not always readily available, particularly for epidemiological studies. Objectives: This study was performed to develop and optimize a homemade ELISA kit for the detection of Hib anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) antibodies in children. Materials and Methods: To develop and optimize an indirect ELISA method, pure PRP was prepared. The PRP was coupled to bovine serum albumin, using sodium periodate. Then optimal conditions for ELISA, including coating antigen concentration and peroxidase labeled conjugate concentrations, incubation temperature and incubation time, were determined. To confirm the efficacy of optimized kit, 83 serum samples from non-vaccinated children, aged less than 6 years were collected and analyzed, using homemade and commercial ELISA. Results: The optimal conditions were considered to perform ELISA. Comparison between results obtained from optimized ELISA kit and commercial ELISA kit showed a good agreement. Conclusions: Taking into account these data, we elaborated a homemade ELISA kit that is an efficacious and cost-effective substitute for commercial kit, in disease control and diagnosis. PMID:27540453

  6. Comparison and analysis of the nucleotide sequences of pilin genes from Haemophilus influenzae type b strains Eagan and M43.

    PubMed Central

    Forney, L J; Marrs, C F; Bektesh, S L; Gilsdorf, J R

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated antigenic differences among the pili expressed by various strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). In order to understand the molecular basis for these differences, the structural gene for pilin was cloned from Hib strain Eagan (p+) and the nucleotide sequence was compared to those of strains M43 (p+) and 770235 b0f+, which had been previously determined. The pilin gene of Hib strain Eagan (p+) had a 648-bp open reading frame that encoded a 20-amino-acid leader sequence followed by the 196 amino acids found in mature pilin. The translated sequence was three amino acids larger than pilins of strains M43 (p+) and 770235 b0f+ and was 78% identical and 95% homologous when conservative amino acid substitutions were considered. Differences between the amino acid sequences were not localized to any one region but rather were distributed throughout the proteins. Comparison of protein hydrophilicity profiles showed several hydrophilic regions with sequences that were conserved between strain Eagan (p+) and pilins of other Hib strains, and these regions represent potentially conserved antigenic domains. Southern blot analyses using an intragenic probe from the pilin gene of strain Eagan (p+) showed that the pilin gene was conserved among all type b and nontypeable strains of H. influenzae examined, and only a single copy was present in these strains. Homologous genes were not present in the phylogenetically related species Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. These data indicate that the pilin gene was highly conserved among different strains of H. influenzae and that small differences in the pilin amino acid sequences account for the observed antigenic differences of assembled pili from these strains. Images PMID:2037360

  7. Leaning in to the power of the possible: the crucial role of women scientists on preventing Haemophilus influenzae type b disease.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Katherine L; Anderson, Porter W

    2014-03-01

    Beginning in an era when female scientists were a lonely minority, women have made major contributions to our understanding of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as a pathogen, its treatment and its prevention. The individual scientific and public health contributions, and their collective impact, are reviewed in the context of the development and successful implementation of highly efficacious Hib vaccines that are now being deployed to nearly every country worldwide for the prevention of life-threatening pediatric Hib disease.

  8. Cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of the Haemophilus influenzae type b strain M43p+ pilin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Gilsdorf, J R; Marrs, C F; McCrea, K W; Forney, L J

    1990-01-01

    By using antiserum against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) strain M43p+ denatured pilin, we screened a genomic library of Hib strain M43p+ and identified a clone that expressed pilin, but not assembled pili, on its surface. Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of one structural gene, which was also present in strain M42p-, a nonpiliated variant. Five exonuclease III deletion mutants, two of which had deletions that extended into the structural gene and failed to express pilin, were used to obtain the nucleotide sequence of the structural gene. The amino acid sequence of the open reading frame agrees with 38 of 40 amino acids from the published sequence of purified Hib M43p+ pilin. The pilin gene coded for a mature protein of 193 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 21,101 daltons. Comparison of the Hib M43p+ pilin amino acid sequence with those of pilins of other bacteria revealed strong conservation of amino- and carboxy-terminal regions in M43p+ and Escherichia coli F17, type 1C, and several members of the P pili family, as well as Klebsiella pneumoniae type 3 MR/K, Bordetella pertussis serotype 2, and Serratia marcescens US46 fimbriae. Images PMID:1969389

  9. Applying Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Growth and Biomass Production of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Seyed Bahman; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Akbari, Neda; Ranjbar, Bijan; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-01-01

    Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, cellulitis, bacteremia, and septic arthritis in infants and young children. The Hib capsule contains the major virulence factor, and is composed of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) that can induce immune system response. Vaccines consisting of Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) conjugated to a carrier protein are effective in the prevention of the infections. However, due to costly processes in PRP production, these vaccines are too expensive. Objectives To enhance biomass, in this research we focused on optimizing Hib growth with respect to physical factors such as pH, temperature, and agitation by using a response surface methodology (RSM). Materials and Methods We employed a central composite design (CCD) and a response surface methodology to determine the optimum cultivation conditions for growth and biomass production of H. influenzae type b. The treatment factors investigated were initial pH, agitation, and temperature, using shaking flasks. After Hib cultivation and determination of dry biomass, analysis of experimental data was performed by the RSM-CCD. Results The model showed that temperature and pH had an interactive effect on Hib biomass production. The dry biomass produced in shaking flasks was about 5470 mg/L, which was under an initial pH of 8.5, at 250 rpm and 35° C. Conclusions We found CCD and RSM very effective in optimizing Hib culture conditions, and Hib biomass production was greatly influenced by pH and incubation temperature. Therefore, optimization of the growth factors to maximize Hib production can lead to 1) an increase in bacterial biomass and PRP productions, 2) lower vaccine prices, 3) vaccination of more susceptible populations, and 4) lower risk of Hib infections.

  10. Applying Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Growth and Biomass Production of Haemophilus influenzae Type b

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Seyed Bahman; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Akbari, Neda; Ranjbar, Bijan; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-01-01

    Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, cellulitis, bacteremia, and septic arthritis in infants and young children. The Hib capsule contains the major virulence factor, and is composed of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) that can induce immune system response. Vaccines consisting of Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) conjugated to a carrier protein are effective in the prevention of the infections. However, due to costly processes in PRP production, these vaccines are too expensive. Objectives To enhance biomass, in this research we focused on optimizing Hib growth with respect to physical factors such as pH, temperature, and agitation by using a response surface methodology (RSM). Materials and Methods We employed a central composite design (CCD) and a response surface methodology to determine the optimum cultivation conditions for growth and biomass production of H. influenzae type b. The treatment factors investigated were initial pH, agitation, and temperature, using shaking flasks. After Hib cultivation and determination of dry biomass, analysis of experimental data was performed by the RSM-CCD. Results The model showed that temperature and pH had an interactive effect on Hib biomass production. The dry biomass produced in shaking flasks was about 5470 mg/L, which was under an initial pH of 8.5, at 250 rpm and 35° C. Conclusions We found CCD and RSM very effective in optimizing Hib culture conditions, and Hib biomass production was greatly influenced by pH and incubation temperature. Therefore, optimization of the growth factors to maximize Hib production can lead to 1) an increase in bacterial biomass and PRP productions, 2) lower vaccine prices, 3) vaccination of more susceptible populations, and 4) lower risk of Hib infections. PMID:27630761

  11. Haemophilus influenzae sepsis resulting from pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Marinella, M A

    1997-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a pleomorphic gram-negative bacterium that causes a myriad of infections in both adults and children. The organism frequently causes respiratory infections in patients with obstructive lung disease but may on occasion cause invasive infections including pneumonia with bacteremia. We report the case of a patient with underlying lung disease and metastatic malignancy in whom sepsis related to pneumonia caused by H. influenzae developed.

  12. Complement component 3 binding to Haemophilus influenzae type b in the presence of anticapsular and anti-outer membrane antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Hetherington, S V; Patrick, C C

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies directed against the capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate [PRP]) or the outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) promote bactericidal activity, complement 3 (C3) binding, and ingestion by phagocytic cells. To assess the relative contribution of anti-OMP to host defense against Hib, we compared the opsonic activities of anti-PRP and anti-OMP as reflected by the amounts of C3 bound to the bacterial surface. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) fractions containing either anti-PRP or anti-OMP were incubated with Hib in the presence of a C5-deficient complement source. C3, total IgG, and IgG subclasses bound to the bacteria were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The maximum amount of C3 which could be bound to Hib was greater in the presence of anti-PRP than in the presence of anti-OMP. Also, except at low IgG concentrations, the rate of increase in bound C3 as a function of increasing IgG concentration was greater for anti-PRP than for anti-OMP. Hib-bound anti-OMP consisted primarily of IgG1 and IgG3, whereas bound anti-PRP was primarily IgG1 and IgG2. Thus, the potential for C3 binding to Hib is greater in the presence of anti-PRP than in the presence of anti-OMP, probably because of the larger number of binding sites available to the former. Nonetheless, OMP appear to provide important targets for opsonic antibody and would be logical components of a PRP-conjugate vaccine or may be efficacious as vaccines against nontypeable H. influenzae. Images PMID:1729183

  13. Molecular cloning, expression, and primary sequence of outer membrane protein P2 of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, R; Tolan, R W

    1989-01-01

    The structural gene for the porin of Haemophilus influenzae type b, designated outer membrane protein P2, was cloned, and the DNA sequence was determined. An oligonucleotide probe generated by reverse translation of N-terminal amino acid sequence data from the purified protein was used to screen genomic DNA. The probe detected a single EcoRI fragment of approximately 1,700 base pairs which was cloned to lambda gt11 and then into M13 and partially sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence indicated that we had cloned the N-terminal portion of the P2 gene. An overlapping approximately 1,600-base-pair PvuII genomic fragment was cloned into M13, and the sequence of the remainder of the P2 gene was determined. The gene for P2 was then reconstructed under the control of the T7 promoter and expressed in Escherichia coli. The N-terminal sequence of the purified protein corresponds to residues 21 through 34 of the derived amino acid sequence. Thus, the protein is synthesized with a 20-amino-acid leader peptide. The Mr of the processed protein is 37,782, in good agreement with the estimate of 37,000 from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:2535836

  14. Post-GAVI sustainability of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine program: The potential role of economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuc; Nghiem, Van T; Swint, J Michael

    2016-09-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can cause severe invasive diseases which are, however, preventable by vaccination. To increase access to Hib vaccine, GAVI - the Vaccine Alliance - has provided financial support for 73 lower income countries worldwide. At the same time, GAVI has been implementing its co-financing policy, requiring recipient countries to pay a portion of vaccine costs and to increase this amount over time. Starting in 2016, 5 countries will stop receiving GAVI funding and procure the vaccine themselves. Although the graduating countries have access to the UNICEF/GAVI tendered vaccine price for 5 more years, the uncertainty in market vaccine price may hamper the post-GAVI program sustainability. A possible increase in vaccine price would cause a significant burden on governmental budgets, discouraging countries to continue the program. As a special tool, economic evaluation (EE) can assist decision makers by identifying the maximum affordable vaccine price for countries to pay. Given that only 6 GAVI-eligible countries have such analyses published, more EEs are necessary to strengthen countries' commitment during this transition period. The information will also be useful for manufacturers to determine their pricing policy.

  15. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G; Morris, Gordon A; Almutairi, Fahad M; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E

    2016-02-26

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution.

  16. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 serves as a primary cognate receptor for the Type IV pilus of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Laura A; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2016-08-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) utilizes the Type IV pilus (Tfp) to adhere to respiratory tract epithelial cells thus colonizing its human host; however, the host cell receptor to which this adhesive protein binds is unknown. From a panel of receptors engaged by Tfp expressed by other bacterial species, we showed that the majority subunit of NTHI Tfp, PilA, bound to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and that this interaction was both specific and of high affinity. Further, Tfp-expressing NTHI inoculated on to polarized respiratory tract epithelial cells that expressed ICAM1 were significantly more adherent compared to Tfp-deficient NTHI or NTHI inoculated on to epithelial cells to which ICAM1 gene expression was silenced. Moreover, pre-incubation of epithelial cells with recombinant soluble PilA (rsPilA) blocked adherence of NTHI, an outcome that was abrogated by admixing rsPilA with ICAM1 prior to application on to the target cells. Epithelial cells infected with adenovirus or respiratory syncytial virus showed increased expression of ICAM1; this outcome supported augmented adherence of Tfp-expressing NTHI. Collectively, these data revealed the cognate receptor for NTHI Tfp as ICAM1 and promote continued development of a Tfp-targeted vaccine for NTHI-induced diseases of the airway wherein upper respiratory tract viruses play a key predisposing role.

  17. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G.; Morris, Gordon A.; Almutairi, Fahad M.; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 106 g.mol−1) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 106 g.mol−1). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 106 g.mol−1), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution. PMID:26915577

  18. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience.

    PubMed

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-10-12

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in vaccine adoption by these countries. The experience with Hib vaccines, as well as similar efforts by GAVI to support the introduction of new pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, provides a strategy for new vaccine adoption that is reviewed in this paper, providing a useful model to help accelerate the uptake of other life-saving vaccines. This strategy addresses barriers for vaccine adoption by focusing on three major areas: (i) communications to increase awareness about the various factors needed for evidence-based decisions that meet a country's health goals; (ii) research activities to answer key questions that support vaccine introduction and long-term programme sustainability; and (iii) coordination with the various stakeholders at global, regional and country levels to ensure successful programme implementation.

  19. A glycoconjugate of Haemophilus influenzae Type b capsular polysaccharide with tetanus toxoid protein: hydrodynamic properties mainly influenced by the carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Adams, Gary G; Morris, Gordon A; Almutairi, Fahad M; Duvivier, Pierre; Conrath, Karel; Harding, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Three important physical properties which may affect the performance of glycoconjugate vaccines against serious disease are molar mass (molecular weight), heterogeneity (polydispersity), and conformational flexibility in solution. The dilute solution behaviour of native and activated capsular polyribosylribitol (PRP) polysaccharides extracted from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and the corresponding glycoconjugate made by conjugating this with the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein have been characterized and compared using a combination of sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge with viscometry. The weight average molar mass of the activated material was considerably reduced (Mw ~ 0.24 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)) compared to the native (Mw ~ 1.2 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)). Conjugation with the TT protein yielded large polydisperse structures (of Mw ~ 7.4 × 10(6) g.mol(-1)), but which retained the high degree of flexibility of the native and activated polysaccharide, with frictional ratio, intrinsic viscosity, sedimentation conformation zoning behaviour and persistence length all commensurate with highly flexible coil behaviour and unlike the previously characterised tetanus toxoid protein (slightly extended and hydrodynamically compact structure with an aspect ratio of ~3). This non-protein like behaviour clearly indicates that it is the carbohydrate component which mainly influences the physical behaviour of the glycoconjugate in solution. PMID:26915577

  20. Rethinking the benefits and costs of childhood vaccination: the example of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Friedman, Abigail; Levine, Orin S; O'Brien, Jennifer; Privor-Dumm, Lois; Walker, Damian

    2011-03-16

    Economic evaluations of health interventions, such as vaccinations, are important tools for informing health policy. Approaching the analysis from the appropriate perspective is critical to ensuring the validity of evaluation results for particular policy decisions. Using the example of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination, we demonstrate that past economic evaluations have mostly adopted narrow evaluation perspectives, focusing primarily on health gains, health-care cost savings, and reductions in the time costs of caring, while usually ignoring other important benefits including outcome-related productivity gains (improved economic productivity due to prevention of mental and physical disabilities), behavior-related productivity gains (economic growth due to fertility reductions as vaccination improves child survival), and community externalities (herd immunity and prevention of antibiotic resistance). We further show that potential cost reductions that could be attained through changes in the delivery of the Hib vaccine have also generally been ignored in economic evaluations. Future economic evaluations of childhood vaccinations should take full account of benefits and costs, so that policymakers have sufficient information to make well-informed decisions on vaccination implementation.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine for infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Kristina A; Marshall, Gary S

    2011-07-01

    The highest rates of invasive meningococcal disease occur in children under 2 years of age, yet as of early 2011 no vaccine was licensed for the youngest infants. However, a novel vaccine consisting of capsular polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y conjugated to tetanus toxoid (HibMenCY-TT; MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is in the late stages of development. In clinical trials involving more than 7800 children, HibMenCY-TT was shown to be safe and immunogenic when administered at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months of age. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate antibody responses were noninferior to those elicited by licensed monovalent Hib vaccines, and most vaccinees developed bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis serogroups C and Y. The majority of subjects retained antibody responses as far as 3 years after vaccination. If licensed, HibMenCY-TT not only represents an incremental option for protection against invasive Hib, but also has the potential to prevent invasive meningococcal disease without increasing the number of injections.

  2. Experimental design to optimize an Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine made with hydrazide-derivatized tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Laferriere, Craig; Ravenscroft, Neil; Wilson, Seanette; Combrink, Jill; Gordon, Lizelle; Petre, Jean

    2011-10-01

    The introduction of type b Haemophilus influenzae conjugate vaccines into routine vaccination schedules has significantly reduced the burden of this disease; however, widespread use in developing countries is constrained by vaccine costs, and there is a need for a simple and high-yielding manufacturing process. The vaccine is composed of purified capsular polysaccharide conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein. To improve the yield and rate of the reductive amination conjugation reaction used to make this vaccine, some of the carboxyl groups of the carrier protein, tetanus toxoid, were modified to hydrazides, which are more reactive than the ε -amine of lysine. Other reaction parameters, including the ratio of the reactants, the size of the polysaccharide, the temperature and the salt concentration, were also investigated. Experimental design was used to minimize the number of experiments required to optimize all these parameters to obtain conjugate in high yield with target characteristics. It was found that increasing the reactant ratio and decreasing the size of the polysaccharide increased the polysaccharide:protein mass ratio in the product. Temperature and salt concentration did not improve this ratio. These results are consistent with a diffusion controlled rate limiting step in the conjugation reaction. Excessive modification of tetanus toxoid with hydrazide was correlated with reduced yield and lower free polysaccharide. This was attributed to a greater tendency for precipitation, possibly due to changes in the isoelectric point. Experimental design and multiple regression helped identify key parameters to control and thereby optimize this conjugation reaction.

  3. Comparison of multiple immunization schedules for Haemophilus influenzae type b-conjugate and tetanus toxoid vaccines following bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vance, E; George, S; Guinan, E C; Wheeler, C; Antin, J H; Ambrosino, D M; Molrine, D C

    1998-10-01

    Antibody concentrations to vaccine-preventable diseases decline following BMT and an optimal schedule for vaccination after transplant has not been established. We examined antibody responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) and Haemophilus influenzae type b-conjugate (HIB) vaccines of BMT patients immunized at 6, 12 and 24 months (6 month group, n = 21) and compared them to those previously reported for patients immunized at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months (3 month group, n = 74) or at 12 and 24 months (12 month group, n = 17) following transplantation. Geometric mean total anti-HIB and IgG anti-TT concentrations were significantly higher after the 12 month dose in the 3 and 6 month immunization groups compared to the group who received their first dose at 12 months. Although HIB antibody concentrations were higher in the 3 month and 6 month groups 12 to 24 months after BMT, the proportion of patients with protective levels was not significantly different from the proportion protected in the 12 month group. Following the 24 month immunizations, geometric mean antibody concentrations to HIB and TT were similar for all three immunization groups. The proportion of patients in each group with protective levels of HIB antibody after the 24 month dose was > or = 80%. A two dose schedule of HIB and TT vaccines at 12 and 24 months after BMT should afford protection.

  4. Post-GAVI sustainability of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine program: The potential role of economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Le, Phuc; Nghiem, Van T.; Swint, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can cause severe invasive diseases which are, however, preventable by vaccination. To increase access to Hib vaccine, GAVI – the Vaccine Alliance – has provided financial support for 73 lower income countries worldwide. At the same time, GAVI has been implementing its co-financing policy, requiring recipient countries to pay a portion of vaccine costs and to increase this amount over time. Starting in 2016, 5 countries will stop receiving GAVI funding and procure the vaccine themselves. Although the graduating countries have access to the UNICEF/GAVI tendered vaccine price for 5 more years, the uncertainty in market vaccine price may hamper the post-GAVI program sustainability. A possible increase in vaccine price would cause a significant burden on governmental budgets, discouraging countries to continue the program. As a special tool, economic evaluation (EE) can assist decision makers by identifying the maximum affordable vaccine price for countries to pay. Given that only 6 GAVI-eligible countries have such analyses published, more EEs are necessary to strengthen countries' commitment during this transition period. The information will also be useful for manufacturers to determine their pricing policy. PMID:27135964

  5. Low occurrence of 'non-haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus' misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in cystic fibrosis respiratory specimens, and frequent recurrence of persistent H. influenzae clones despite antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    Fenger, Mette G; Ridderberg, Winnie; Olesen, Hanne V; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2012-12-01

    Non-influenzae commensal Haemophilus species of low pathogenicity may be difficult to discriminate from Haemophilus influenzae. We investigated the level of misidentifications in respiratory specimens from cystic fibrosis patients and evaluated the colonisation dynamics of genuine H. influenzae isolates. One hundred and ninety-two presumptive H. influenzae isolates were re-examined by assessment of marker genes sodC and fucK, and isolates with aberrant genotypes were subjected to multilocus sequence typing. Misidentifications (3%) were mainly caused by failure to identify porphyrin-synthesising strains, and only a single strain (0.5%) could be classified as 'non-haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus'. Sequential isolates of confirmed H. influenzae isolates from individual patients were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Despite the routine prescription of antimicrobial therapy, the majority of H. influenzae isolates were identical with at least one of the strains cultured from the two preceding positive samples from the same patient.

  6. Low occurrence of 'non-haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus' misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in cystic fibrosis respiratory specimens, and frequent recurrence of persistent H. influenzae clones despite antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    Fenger, Mette G; Ridderberg, Winnie; Olesen, Hanne V; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2012-12-01

    Non-influenzae commensal Haemophilus species of low pathogenicity may be difficult to discriminate from Haemophilus influenzae. We investigated the level of misidentifications in respiratory specimens from cystic fibrosis patients and evaluated the colonisation dynamics of genuine H. influenzae isolates. One hundred and ninety-two presumptive H. influenzae isolates were re-examined by assessment of marker genes sodC and fucK, and isolates with aberrant genotypes were subjected to multilocus sequence typing. Misidentifications (3%) were mainly caused by failure to identify porphyrin-synthesising strains, and only a single strain (0.5%) could be classified as 'non-haemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus'. Sequential isolates of confirmed H. influenzae isolates from individual patients were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Despite the routine prescription of antimicrobial therapy, the majority of H. influenzae isolates were identical with at least one of the strains cultured from the two preceding positive samples from the same patient. PMID:23177564

  7. Further Studies on the Immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Pneumococcal Type 6A Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chiayung; Schneerson, Rachel; Robbins, John B.; Rastogi, Suresh C.

    1983-01-01

    Conjugates were prepared by carbodiimide-mediated coupling of adipic acid hydrazide derivatives of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Escherichia coli K100, and pneumococcal 6A (Pn6A) polysaccharides with tetanus toxoid (TT), as an example of a “useful” carrier, and horseshoe crab hemocyanin (HCH), as an example of a “nonsense” carrier. These conjugates were injected into NIH mice, and their serum antibody responses to the polysaccharides and proteins were characterized. As originally reported, Hib conjugates increased the immunogenicity of the capsular polysaccharide and elicited greater than the estimated protective levels of anti-Hib antibodies in most recipients after one injection and in all after the third injection (Schneerson et al., J. Exp. Med. 152:361-376, 1980). Both Hib conjugates induced similar anti-Hib responses. The K100-HCH conjugate was more immunogenic than the K100-TT conjugate and elicited anti-Hib responses similar to the Hib conjugates after the third injection. Simultaneous injection of the K100 and the Hib conjugates did not enhance the anti-Hib response. The Pn6A-TT conjugate induced low levels of anti-Hib antibodies; when injected simultaneously with the Hib conjugates, the anti-Hib response was enhanced, as all mice responded after the first injection and with higher levels of anti-Hib than observed with the Hib conjugates alone (P < 0.05). The Pn6A conjugates were not as immunogenic as the Hib conjugates. Pn6A-TT was more effective than was Pn6A-HCH; it elicited anti-Pn6A (>100 ng of antibody nitrogen per ml) in 6 of 10 mice after the third injection. The addition of the Hib-HCH conjugate to the Pn6A-TT conjugate increased the anti-Pn6A response with a higher geometric mean antibody titer, and 9 of 10 mice responded after the third injection. A preparation of diphtheria toxoid, TT, and pertussis vaccine increased the anti-Hib antibody levels after the first injection only in mice receiving Hib-TT, but not in mice receiving

  8. Epidemiology of meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b in children in Bulgaria: a prospective, population-based surveillance study.

    PubMed Central

    Kojouharova, Mira; Gatcheva, Nina; Setchanova, Lena; Robertson, Susan E.; Wenger, Jay D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) among children in Bulgaria and to provide evidence for an informed decision on the use of Hib vaccines in Bulgaria. METHODS: From 1 July 1997 to 31 December 1999, active surveillance for meningitis was conducted in six regions. For children with suspected meningitis, a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen was sent for cytology, chemistry, latex agglutination testing, culture and sensitivity. FINDINGS: During the 2.5-year study period, surveillance was conducted among 138 249 children aged <5 years - a sample representing 40% of all Bulgarian children in this age group. Overall, 285 children with suspected meningitis were identified. In eight children, clinical symptoms of meningitis resolved rapidly before a CSF specimen could be obtained. Of the remaining 277 children, 121 (44%) were classified as having probable bacterial meningitis on the basis of a CSF examination. An organism was identified for 88 (73%) of the 121 cases with probable bacterial meningitis. There were 21 cases of Hib, giving a mean annual incidence of 6.1 Hib meningitis cases per 100 000 children <5 years; the case-fatality rate was 10%. Nearly 60% of Hib isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics, but they were not resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. CONCLUSION: On the basis of these findings, Hib conjugate vaccines have been included in the list of vaccines recommended for children by the Bulgarian Ministry of Health. The recommended initial treatment for paediatric bacterial meningitis has been changed to third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:12378285

  9. The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood pneumonia incidence, severe morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Jhass, Arnoupe; Madhi, Shabir A; Clark, Andrew; Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Bhopal, Sunil; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Background With the aim of populating the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) with parameters of effectiveness of existing interventions, we conducted a systematic review of the literature assessing the effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal (PC) conjugate vaccines on incidence, severe morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia. Methods We summarized cluster randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) and case–control studies of Hib conjugate vaccines and RCTs of 9- and 11-valent PC conjugate vaccines conducted in developing countries across outcome measures using standard meta-analysis methods. We used a set of standardized rules developed for the purpose of populating the LiST tool with required parameters to promote comparability across reviews of interventions against the major causes of childhood mortality. The estimates could be adjusted further to account for factors such as PC vaccine serotype content, PC serotype distribution and human immunodeficiency virus prevalence but this was not included as part of the LiST model approach. Results The available evidence from published data points to a summary effect of the Hib conjugate vaccine on clinical pneumonia of 4%, on clinical severe pneumonia of 6% and on radiologically confirmed pneumonia of 18%. Respective effectiveness estimates for PC vaccines (all valent) on clinical pneumonia is 7%, clinical severe pneumonia is 7% and radiologically confirmed pneumonia is 26%. Conclusions The findings indicated that radiologically confirmed pneumonia, as a severe morbidity proxy for mortality, provided better estimates for the LiST model of effect of interventions on mortality reduction than did other outcomes evaluated. The LiST model will use this to estimate the pneumonia mortality reduction which might be observed when scaling up Hib and PC conjugate vaccination in the context of an overall package of child health interventions. PMID:20348119

  10. Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b carrier status among children 10 years after the introduction of Hib vaccine in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Rosemeire Cobo; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de Cunto; Andrade, Ana Lúcia; Ogassavara, Cinthya Terumi; Fiório, Cleiton Eduardo; Brandão, Angela Pires; Almeida, Samanta Cristine Grassi; Lemos, Ana Paula Silva; Gorla, Maria Cecília; Carvalhanas, Telma Regina; Sato, Helena; Liphaus, Bernadete; Nerger, Maria Lígia; Conde, Monica; Ribeiro, Ana Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonisation among healthy children where Hib vaccination using a 3p+0 dosing schedule has been routinely administered for 10 years with sustained coverage (> 90%). NP swabs were collected from 2,558 children who had received the Hib vaccine, of whom 1,379 were 12-< 24 months (m) old and 1,179 were 48-< 60 m old. Hi strains were identified by molecular methods. Hi carriage prevalence was 45.1% (1,153/2,558) and the prevalence in the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups were 37.5% (517/1,379) and 53.9% (636/1,179), respectively. Hib was identified in 0.6% (16/2,558) of all children in the study, being 0.8% (11/1,379) and 0.4% (5/1,179) among the 12-< 24 m and 48-< 60 m age groups, respectively. The nonencapsulate Hi colonisation was 43% (n = 1,099) and was significantly more frequent at 48-< 60 m of age (51.6%, n = 608) compared with that at 12-< 24 m of age (35.6%, n = 491). The overall resistance rates to ampicillin and chloramphenicol were 16.5% and 3.7%, respectively; the co-resistance was detected in 2.6%. Our findings showed that the Hib carrier rate in healthy children under five years was very low after 10 years of the introduction of the Hib vaccine. PMID:26517654

  11. Antibody responses to tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT).

    PubMed

    Chan, C Y; Molrine, D C; Antin, J H; Wheeler, C; Guinan, E C; Weinstein, H J; Phillips, N R; McGarigle, C; Harvey, S; Schnipper, C; Ambrosino, D M

    1997-07-01

    Accelerated granulocyte and platelet recovery following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are well documented. We hypothesize that functional immunity may also be enhanced in PBSCT and performed a phase II trial of immunizations in patients with lymphoma undergoing autologous transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow. Seventeen BMT and 10 PBSCT recipients were immunized at 3, 6, 12, and 24-months post-transplantation with Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB)-conjugate and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines. IgG anti-HIB and anti-TT antibody concentrations were measured and compared between the two groups. Geometric mean IgG anti-HIB antibody concentrations were significantly higher for PBSCT recipients compared to BMT recipients at 24 months post-transplantation (11.3 micrograms/ml vs 0.93 microgram/ml, P = 0.051) and following the 24 month immunization (66.2 micrograms/ml vs 1.30 micrograms/ml, P = 0.006). Similar results were noted for IgG anti-TT antibody with significantly higher geometric mean antibody concentrations in the PBSCT group at 24 months post-transplantation (182 micrograms/ml vs 21.6 micrograms/ml, P = 0.039). Protective levels of total anti-HIB antibody were achieved earlier in PBSCT recipients compared with those of BMT recipients. PBSCT recipients had higher antigen-specific antibody concentrations following HIB and TT immunizations. These results suggest enhanced recovery of humoral immunity in PBSCT recipients and earlier protection against HIB with immunization.

  12. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine booster dose coadministered with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Alfonso; Miranda, Mariano; Barrio, Francisco; De Vicente, Ana; Mares, Josep; Muñoz, Eulalia; Diez-Delgado, Javier; Alonso, Angeles; Giménez-Sánchez, Francisco; Merino, José; García-Corbeira, Pilar; Maechler, Gudrun; Boutriau, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    A booster dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C conjugate (Hib-MenC-TT) vaccine simultaneously administered with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine in 13- to 14-month-old Spanish toddlers, primed with 3 doses of a combined Diphteria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertusis DTPa-Hib-containing vaccine and a MenC-CRM197 conjugate vaccine, had a good reactogenicity profile and induced similar Hib and MenC booster responses and MMR seropositivity rates as the vaccines given alone.

  13. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in an Amish population: studies of the effects of genetic factors, immunization, and rifampin prophylaxis on the course of an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Granoff, D M; McKinney, T; Boies, E G; Steele, N P; Oldfather, J; Pandey, J P; Suarez, B K

    1986-03-01

    In 1982, an outbreak of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease occurred in a 379-member Amish community. In an attempt to control the outbreak after the occurrence of the second case of disease, we investigated the combination of (1) rifampin chemoprophylaxis of all carriers of H influenzae type b and their household contacts from 1 month to 5 years of age and (2) H influenzae type b polysaccharide vaccine immunoprophylaxis of all community members 12 months of age and older. Despite our intervention, two additional cases of bacteremic H influenzae type b disease occurred in the ensuing 5 months, one in a 22-month-old infant who had been immunized at 19 months of age and the other in a child who had not been immunized because she was younger than 12 months of age. The outbreak ended following rifampin prophylaxis of all community members younger than 15 years of age. All of the children with disease were genetically related to one another, and three of the four were inbred. However, analysis of their coancestry revealed that neither the average level of kinship nor the average inbreeding level of the affected children differed significantly from those of the other children in the community. Furthermore, none of the four children with disease shared a human leukocyte antigen haplotype. Our observations suggest that inbreeding was not a risk factor in this community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3485275

  14. Culture and PCR detection of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in Australian Indigenous children with bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Binks, M J; Grimwood, K; Chang, A B; Leach, A J; Smith-Vaughan, H

    2012-07-01

    A PCR for protein D (hpd#3) was used to differentiate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) from Haemophilus haemolyticus. While 90% of nasopharyngeal specimens and 100% of lower-airway specimens from 84 Indigenous Australian children with bronchiectasis had phenotypic NTHI isolates confirmed as H. influenzae, only 39% of oropharyngeal specimens with phenotypic NTHI had H. influenzae. The nasopharynx is therefore the preferred site for NTHI colonization studies, and NTHI is confirmed as an important lower-airway pathogen.

  15. The effect of Haemophilus influenzae type B and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on childhood meningitis mortality: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two of the most prevalent causes of severe bacterial meningitis in children, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are preventable by existing vaccines increasingly available in developing countries. Our objective was to estimate the dose-specific effect of Hib and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) on childhood meningitis mortality in low-income countries for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods We systematically searched and reviewed published vaccine efficacy trials and observational studies reporting the effect of Hib or PCV vaccines on organism-specific meningitis, bacterial meningitis and all-cause meningitis incidence and mortality among children less than five years old in low- and middle-income countries. Data collection and quality assessments were performed using standardized guidelines. For outcomes available across multiple studies (≥2) and approximating meningitis mortality, we pooled estimates reporting dose-specific effects using random effects meta-analytic methods, then combined these with meningitis etiology data to determine the preventable fraction of childhood meningitis mortality for inclusion in LiST. Results We identified 18 studies of Hib conjugate vaccines reporting relevant meningitis morbidity and mortality outcomes (2 randomized controlled trials [RCTs], 16 observational studies) but few provided dose-specific effects. A meta-analysis of four case-control studies examined the dose-specific effect of Hib conjugate vaccines on Hib meningitis morbidity (1 dose: RR=0.64, 95% CI 0.38-1.06; 2 doses: RR=0.09, 95% CI 0.03-0.27; 3 doses: RR=0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.22), consistent with results from single RCTs. Pooled estimates of two RCTs provided evidence for the effect of three doses of PCV on vaccine-serotype meningitis morbidity (RR=0.16, 95% CI 0.02-1.20). We considered these outcomes of severe disease as proxy estimates for meningitis mortality and combined the estimates of protective effects

  16. Influence of prevaccination immunity on the human B-lymphocyte response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Barington, T; Kristensen, K; Henrichsen, J; Heilmann, C

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preexisting immunity to components of a polysaccharide-protein conjugate influences the B-lymphocyte response to vaccination with the conjugate. Thirty-two healthy adults were vaccinated once or twice with a conjugate (PRP-D) consisting of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (PRP) and diphtheria toxoid (DT), and the response was related to the prevaccination levels of PRP and DT antibodies. Positive correlations were found between increases in plasma PRP (median, 32.0 micrograms/ml) and DT (1.14 IU/ml) antibodies and numbers of circulating PRP and DT antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) (postvaccination days 6 to 9). The B-cell responses (antibody response and AbSC) to both PRP and DT correlated positively with prevaccination levels of anti-DT. DT AbSC appeared earlier (peak, day 7) than PRP AbSC (peak, day 8). Individuals whose PRP AbSC peaked early (day 7) had higher prevaccination anti-DT levels than those who peaked later (P less than 0.05). In contrast, the prevaccination levels of anti-PRP did not correlate significantly with the magnitude of the antibody or AbSC response and did not affect the kinetics of the AbSC. Following revaccination with PRP-D, small increases in the level of PRP antibodies (median, 2.9 micrograms/ml; n = 11) were found; no significant increase in the level of DT antibodies was seen. The numbers of PRP AbSC were lower (P = 0.04) and peaked earlier (day 7) than after the first vaccination. The isotype pattern of PRP AbSC, which was dominated by immunoglobulin A (IgA) after the first vaccination, now showed a more equal distribution between IgG and IgA AbSC. It is concluded that after immunization with PRP-D both the magnitude and the kinetics of the antipolysaccharide B-cell response are influenced by prevaccination immunity to the carrier molecule. PMID:1997409

  17. Haemophilus influenzae serotype f as a rare cause of septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Prasidthrathsint, Kunatum; Permpalung, Nitipong; Srivali, Narat; Kaewpoowat, Quanhathai

    2013-07-01

    Non-type B Haemophilus influenzae emerges as a new pathogen in the post H. influenzae serotype b vaccine era. We describe a case of polyarticular septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae serotype f in an adult. The patient was successfully treated with surgical debridement and antibiotic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fourth reported case of H. influenzae serotype f septic arthritis in adults.

  18. Identification of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Isolates by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Månsson, Viktor; Kostrzewa, Markus; Nilson, Bo; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is, in contrast to non-type b H. influenzae, associated with severe invasive disease, such as meningitis and epiglottitis, in small children. To date, accurate H. influenzae capsule typing requires PCR, a time-consuming and cumbersome method. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) provides rapid bacterial diagnostics and is increasingly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. Here, MALDI-TOF MS was evaluated as a novel approach to separate Hib from other H. influenzae. PCR-verified Hib and non-Hib reference isolates were selected based on genetic and spectral characteristics. Mass spectra of reference isolates were acquired and used to generate different classification algorithms for Hib/non-Hib differentiation using both ClinProTools and the MALDI Biotyper software. A test series of mass spectra from 33 Hib and 77 non-Hib isolates, all characterized by PCR, was used to evaluate the algorithms. Several algorithms yielded good results, but the two best were a ClinProTools model based on 22 separating peaks and subtyping main spectra (MSPs) using MALDI Biotyper. The ClinProTools model had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99%, and the results were 98% reproducible using a different MALDI-TOF MS instrument. The Biotyper subtyping MSPs had a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 100%, and 93% reproducibility. Our results suggest that it is possible to use MALDI-TOF MS to differentiate Hib from other H. influenzae. This is a promising method for rapidly identifying Hib in unvaccinated populations and for the screening and surveillance of Hib carriage in vaccinated populations. PMID:25926500

  19. Serine Biosynthesis and Regulation in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Lewis I.; Ponce-De-Leon, Manuel; Michalka, Jack

    1969-01-01

    Nutritional mutants of Haemophilus influenzae requiring l-serine for growth were shown to be deficient in their capacity to synthesize serine-phosphate from 3-phosphoglycerate. On the basis of the correlation between this block and the requirement for an exogenous supply of the amino acid, it was concluded that the “phosphorylated” pathway is the only pathway used by H. influenzae for serine biosynthesis. Serine inhibits serine-phosphate production, thereby regulating its own synthesis in a manner analagous to the Enterobacteriaceae. A mutant strain that required either serine or tryptophan for growth was normal in serine-phosphate synthesis and regulation. It was concluded that this strain probably has a tryptophan synthetase with an increased Michaelis constant for serine. PMID:5305003

  20. A clinical trial examining the effect of increased total CRM(197) carrier protein dose on the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM(197) conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Usonis, Vytautas; Bakasenas, Vytautas; Lockhart, Stephen; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William; Laudat, France

    2008-08-18

    CRM(197) is a carrier protein in certain conjugate vaccines. When multiple conjugate vaccines with the same carrier protein are administered simultaneously, reduced response to vaccines and/or antigens related to the carrier protein may occur. This study examined responses of infants who, in addition to diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) received either diphtheria CRM(197)-based Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) or HbOC and a diphtheria CRM(197)-based combination 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine/meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine. Administration of conjugate vaccines with CRM(197) carrier protein load >50 microg did not reduce response to CRM(197) conjugate vaccines or immunogenicity to immunologically cross-reactive diphtheria toxoid.

  1. Comparison of nonhuman primate antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide with human antibodies in oligoclonality and in vivo protective potency.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Park, M K; Peeters, C C; Poolman, J T; Shearer, M H; Kennedy, R C; Nahm, M H

    1994-06-01

    Nonhuman primates are often used as a model for studying vaccines for humans. However, it is not always clear how closely the antibody responses in these species mimic human responses. Recent studies have characterized the human antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in great detail. In this study, we have compared the antibody response to Hib of humans with those of other primates. Studies of isoelectric points and V kappa subgroup usage show that, like humans, nonhuman primates produce oligoclonal antibodies. Also, monkey antibodies to the Hib polysaccharide are as protective as human antibodies in an in vivo model of Hib infection. Thus, we conclude that nonhuman primates produce antibodies to Hib polysaccharide that are structurally and functionally similar to human antibodies and are a good model for testing human vaccines.

  2. Comparative analysis of the structures of the outer membrane protein P1 genes from major clones of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, R; Grass, S; Einhorn, M; Bailey, C; Newell, C

    1989-01-01

    P1 outer membrane proteins from Haemophilus influenzae type b are heterogeneous antigenically and with respect to apparent molecular weight in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. For determination of the molecular basis for the differences in the P1 proteins, the genes for the P1 proteins from strain 1613, representative of outer membrane protein subtype 3L, and strain 8358, representative of outer membrane protein subtype 6U, were cloned, sequenced, and compared with the previously reported gene for the P1 protein from strain MinnA, a strain with the outer membrane protein subtype 1H. These prototype strains are representatives of the three major clonal families of H. influenzae type b responsible for invasive disease in diverse areas of the world. The nucleotide sequences of the P1 genes from strains 1613 and 8358 were 94 and 90% identical to the MinnA sequence, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences were 91 and 86% identical, respectively. Heterogeneity between the MinnA and 1613 proteins was largely localized to two short variable regions; the protein from strain 8538 contained a third variable region not observed in the other P1 proteins. Thus, the outer membrane protein P1 genes are highly conserved; the variable regions may code for the previously demonstrated strain-specific antigenic determinants. Images PMID:2572549

  3. Identifying Haemophilus haemolyticus and Haemophilus influenzae by SYBR Green real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Latham, Roger; Zhang, Bowen; Tristram, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    SYBR Green real time PCR assays for protein D (hpd), fuculose kinase (fucK) and [Cu, Zn]-superoxide dismutase (sodC) were designed for use in an algorithm for the identification of Haemophilus influenzae and H. haemolyticus. When tested on 127 H. influenzae and 60 H. haemolyticus all isolates were identified correctly. PMID:25753676

  4. Evaluation of new biomarker genes for differentiating Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Theodore, M Jordan; Anderson, Raydel D; Wang, Xin; Katz, Lee S; Vuong, Jeni T; Bell, Melissa E; Juni, Billie A; Lowther, Sara A; Lynfield, Ruth; MacNeil, Jessica R; Mayer, Leonard W

    2012-04-01

    PCR detecting the protein D (hpd) and fuculose kinase (fucK) genes showed high sensitivity and specificity for identifying Haemophilus influenzae and differentiating it from H. haemolyticus. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated two distinct groups for H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus. PMID:22301020

  5. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, J.; Cartwright, K.; Stuart, J.; Brookes, S.; Morris, R.; Slack, M.

    2000-01-01

    We reviewed retrospectively all invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) infections in adults ascertained from reference laboratory records and notifications from five NHS regions over the 5 years from 1 October 1990, a period encompassing the introduction of routine Hib childhood immunization (October 1992). A total of 446 cases were identified, a rate of 0.73 infections per 10(5) adults per annum. Though numbers of Hib infections in adults fell after the introduction of Hib vaccines for children (P = 0.035), and there was no increase in infections caused by other capsulated Hi serotypes, total numbers of invasive Hi infections increased due to a large rise in infections caused by non-capsulated Hi (ncHi) strains (P = 0.0067). There was an unexpectedly low rate of infections in those aged 75 years or more (P < 0.0001). The commonest clinical presentations were pneumonia with bacteraemia (227/350, 65%) and bacteraemia alone (62/350, 18%) and the highest rates of disease were in the 65-74 years age group (P < 0.0001). Clinical presentation was not influenced by the capsulation status of the invading Hi strain. 103/350 cases (29%) died within 1 month, and 207/350 (59%) within 6 months of their Hi infection. Case fatality rates were high in all age groups. Pre-existing diseases were noted in 220/350 cases and were associated with a higher case fatality rate (82% vs. 21%, P < 0.0001). After the introduction of Hib immunization in children, invasive Hib infections in unimmunized adults also declined, but the overall rate of invasive Hi disease in adults increased, with most infections now caused by non-capsulated strains. Physicians and microbiologists should be aware of the changing epidemiology, the high associated mortality and high risk of underlying disease. Invasive haemophilus infections in adults should be investigated and treated aggressively. PMID:10982068

  6. Food and Drug Administration Approval for Use of Hiberix as a 3-Dose Primary Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccination Series.

    PubMed

    Briere, Elizabeth C

    2016-04-29

    On January 14, 2016, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expand use of Hiberix (Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine [Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate]) for a 3-dose infant primary vaccination series at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. Hiberix was first licensed in the United States in August 2009 for use as a booster dose in children aged 15 months through 4 years under the Accelerated Approval Regulations, in response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine shortage that lasted from December 2007 to July 2009 (1). Expanding the age indication to include infants provides another vaccine option in addition to other currently licensed monovalent or combination Hib vaccines recommended for the primary vaccination series.* Hiberix contains 10 μg purified capsular polyribosyl ribitolphosphate (PRP) conjugated to 25 μg tetanus toxoid (PRP-T) and is supplied as a single-dose vial of lyophilized vaccine to be reconstituted with saline diluent. For the 3-dose primary series, a single (0.5 mL) dose should be given by intramuscular injection at ages 2, 4, and 6 months; the first dose may be given as early as age 6 weeks. The recommended catch-up schedule for PRP-T vaccines (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/child-adolescent.html) should be followed. As previously recommended, a single booster dose should be administered to children aged 15 months through 18 months; to facilitate timely booster vaccination, Hiberix can be administered as early as age 12 months, in accordance with Hib vaccination schedules for routine and catch-up immunization (1-3).

  7. Food and Drug Administration Approval for Use of Hiberix as a 3-Dose Primary Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccination Series.

    PubMed

    Briere, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    On January 14, 2016, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina) received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expand use of Hiberix (Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine [Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate]) for a 3-dose infant primary vaccination series at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. Hiberix was first licensed in the United States in August 2009 for use as a booster dose in children aged 15 months through 4 years under the Accelerated Approval Regulations, in response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine shortage that lasted from December 2007 to July 2009 (1). Expanding the age indication to include infants provides another vaccine option in addition to other currently licensed monovalent or combination Hib vaccines recommended for the primary vaccination series.* Hiberix contains 10 μg purified capsular polyribosyl ribitolphosphate (PRP) conjugated to 25 μg tetanus toxoid (PRP-T) and is supplied as a single-dose vial of lyophilized vaccine to be reconstituted with saline diluent. For the 3-dose primary series, a single (0.5 mL) dose should be given by intramuscular injection at ages 2, 4, and 6 months; the first dose may be given as early as age 6 weeks. The recommended catch-up schedule for PRP-T vaccines (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/child-adolescent.html) should be followed. As previously recommended, a single booster dose should be administered to children aged 15 months through 18 months; to facilitate timely booster vaccination, Hiberix can be administered as early as age 12 months, in accordance with Hib vaccination schedules for routine and catch-up immunization (1-3). PMID:27124887

  8. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in blood culture by a single PCR assay.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan-King, M; Baldeh, I; Adegbola, R; Omosigho, C; Usen, S O; Oparaugo, A; Greenwood, B M

    1996-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay was developed to screen blood cultures from children in The Gambia with suspected pneumonia for the simultaneous detection of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Analysis of 295 blood cultures showed that PCR detected the organisms in all samples positive by culture in two samples infected with H. influenzae type b and four samples infected with S. pneumoniae that were culture negative, indicating that this method is sensitive for detecting these organisms in blood cultures. PMID:8818907

  9. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of serum antibodies elicited in adults by Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcus type 6A capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B; Parke, J C; Bell, C; Schlesselman, J J; Sutton, A; Wang, Z; Schiffman, G; Karpas, A; Shiloach, J

    1986-01-01

    Covalent binding to immunogenic proteins increases the immunogenicity of the capsular polysaccharides of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcus type 6A (Pn6A). Conjugates composed of Hib, Pn6A, or the cross-reacting Escherichia coli K100 covalently bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) were injected into young adult volunteers. Local reactions were common and were probably due to Arthus reactivity mediated by the preexisting antibodies reacting with the TT component of the conjugates. Fever occurred in about 10% of the volunteers after the first injection; no volunteers had fever after the second injection. Similar levels of Hib or Pn6A antibodies were elicited by either 50- or 100-micrograms doses or by concurrent injection of two different conjugates (Hib-TT and Pn6A-TT or Hib-TT and K100-TT). The Hib-TT elicited about a 180-fold increase in Hib antibodies, and the Pn6A-TT conjugate elicited about an 8-fold increase in Pn6A antibodies after one injection. Booster reactions were not elicited in adults; similar levels of antibodies in the five experimental groups suggested that the responses elicited by the conjugates were maximal. A one-way cross-reaction was noted as Pn6A conjugates elicited rises of Hib antibodies in 13 of 20 volunteers; only 4 of 59 volunteers immunized with Hib-TT had increases in Pn6A antibodies. The preimmunization Hib antibodies were composed of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG. The postimmunization sera showed an increase in all three isotypes; the elevation of the IgG was the highest of the three isotypes. Conjugate-induced antibodies to both the polysaccharide and TT exerted biological activities that have been correlated with immunity. Adsorption of the Hib-TT onto aluminium hydroxide resulted in higher levels and an earlier Hib antibody response in infant rhesus. These results encourage the evaluation of Hib and Pn6A conjugates in human children and infants. PMID:3516876

  10. Metabolic versatility in Haemophilus influenzae: a metabolomic and genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Dk Seti Maimonah Pg; Schirra, Horst; McEwan, Alastair G.; Kappler, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a host adapted human pathogen known to contribute to a variety of acute and chronic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract as well as the middle ear. At the sites of infection as well as during growth as a commensal the environmental conditions encountered by H. influenzae will vary significantly, especially in terms of oxygen availability, however, the mechanisms by which the bacteria can adapt their metabolism to cope with such changes have not been studied in detail. Using targeted metabolomics the spectrum of metabolites produced during growth of H. influenzae on glucose in RPMI-based medium was found to change from acetate as the main product during aerobic growth to formate as the major product during anaerobic growth. This change in end-product is likely caused by a switch in the major route of pyruvate degradation. Neither lactate nor succinate or fumarate were major products of H. influenzae growth under any condition studied. Gene expression studies and enzyme activity data revealed that despite an identical genetic makeup and very similar metabolite production profiles, H. influenzae strain Rd appeared to favor glucose degradation via the pentose phosphate pathway, while strain 2019, a clinical isolate, showed higher expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis. Components of the respiratory chain were most highly expressed during microaerophilic and anaerobic growth in both strains, but again clear differences existed in the expression of genes associated e.g., with NADH oxidation, nitrate and nitrite reduction in the two strains studied. Together our results indicate that H. influenzae uses a specialized type of metabolism that could be termed “respiration assisted fermentation” where the respiratory chain likely serves to alleviate redox imbalances caused by incomplete glucose oxidation, and at the same time provides a means of converting a variety of compounds including nitrite and nitrate that arise as part

  11. Metabolic versatility in Haemophilus influenzae: a metabolomic and genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Othman, Dk Seti Maimonah Pg; Schirra, Horst; McEwan, Alastair G; Kappler, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a host adapted human pathogen known to contribute to a variety of acute and chronic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract as well as the middle ear. At the sites of infection as well as during growth as a commensal the environmental conditions encountered by H. influenzae will vary significantly, especially in terms of oxygen availability, however, the mechanisms by which the bacteria can adapt their metabolism to cope with such changes have not been studied in detail. Using targeted metabolomics the spectrum of metabolites produced during growth of H. influenzae on glucose in RPMI-based medium was found to change from acetate as the main product during aerobic growth to formate as the major product during anaerobic growth. This change in end-product is likely caused by a switch in the major route of pyruvate degradation. Neither lactate nor succinate or fumarate were major products of H. influenzae growth under any condition studied. Gene expression studies and enzyme activity data revealed that despite an identical genetic makeup and very similar metabolite production profiles, H. influenzae strain Rd appeared to favor glucose degradation via the pentose phosphate pathway, while strain 2019, a clinical isolate, showed higher expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis. Components of the respiratory chain were most highly expressed during microaerophilic and anaerobic growth in both strains, but again clear differences existed in the expression of genes associated e.g., with NADH oxidation, nitrate and nitrite reduction in the two strains studied. Together our results indicate that H. influenzae uses a specialized type of metabolism that could be termed "respiration assisted fermentation" where the respiratory chain likely serves to alleviate redox imbalances caused by incomplete glucose oxidation, and at the same time provides a means of converting a variety of compounds including nitrite and nitrate that arise as part of

  12. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination without a booster dose on invasive H influenzae type b disease, nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity in Kilifi, Kenya: a 15-year regional surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Hammitt, Laura L; Crane, Rosie J; Karani, Angela; Mutuku, Alex; Morpeth, Susan C; Burbidge, Polly; Goldblatt, David; Kamau, Tatu; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Mturi, Neema; Scott, J Anthony G

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, delivered as a three-dose series without a booster, was introduced into the childhood vaccination programme in Kenya in 2001. The duration of protection and need for a booster dose are unknown. We aimed to assess vaccine effectiveness, the impact of the vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity after introduction of conjugate Hib vaccine in infancy without a booster dose in Kenya. Methods This study took place in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), an area of Kenya that has been monitored for vital events and migration every 4 months since 2000. We analysed sterile site cultures for H influenzae type b from children (aged ≤12 years) admitted to the Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) from Jan 1, 2000, through to Dec 31, 2014. We determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage by undertaking cross-sectional surveys in random samples of KHDSS residents (of all ages) once every year from 2009 to 2012, and measured Hib antibody concentrations in five cross-sectional samples of children (aged ≤12 years) within the KHDSS (in 1998, 2000, 2004–05, 2007, and 2009). We calculated incidence rate ratios between the prevaccine era (2000–01) and the routine-use era (2004–14) and defined vaccine effectiveness as 1 minus the incidence rate ratio, expressed as a percentage. Findings 40 482 children younger than 13 years resident in KHDSS were admitted to KCH between 2000 and 2014, 38 206 (94%) of whom had their blood cultured. The incidence of invasive H influenzae type b disease in children younger than 5 years declined from 62·6 (95% CI 46·0–83·3) per 100 000 in 2000–01 to 4·5 (2·5–7·5) per 100 000 in 2004–14, giving a vaccine effectiveness of 93% (95% CI 87–96). In the final 5 years of observation (2010–14), only one case of invasive H influenzae type b disease was detected in a child younger than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal H

  13. Patterns of binding of aluminum-containing adjuvants to Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines and components

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Robert B.D.; Burkin, Karena; Amir, Saba Erum; Crane, Dennis T.; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The basis of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugates binding to aluminum-containing adjuvants was studied. By measuring the amount of polysaccharide and protein in the non-adsorbed supernatant, the adjuvant, aluminum phosphate, AlPO4, was found to be less efficient than aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3 at binding to the conjugates, at concentrations relevant to licensed vaccine formulations and when equimolar. At neutral pH, binding of TT conjugates to AlPO4 was facilitated through the carrier protein, with only weak binding of AlPO4 to CRM197 being observed. There was slightly higher binding of either adjuvant to tetanus toxoid conjugates, than to CRM197 conjugates. This was verified in AlPO4 formulations containing DTwP–Hib, where the adsorption of TT-conjugated Hib was higher than CRM197-conjugated Hib. At neutral pH, the anionic Hib and MenC polysaccharides did not appreciably bind to AlPO4, but did bind to Al(OH)3, due to electrostatic interactions. Phosphate ions reduced the binding of the conjugates to the adjuvants. These patterns of adjuvant adsorption can form the basis for future formulation studies with individual and combination vaccines containing saccharide-protein conjugates. PMID:26194164

  14. Trimethoprim and rifampin in combination for chemoprophylaxis of household contacts of patients with invasive infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Daum, R S; Glode, M P; Ambrosino, D; Halsey, N; Goldmann, D A; Mather, F J; Russell, R; Kamon, J; Murray, M; Band, J D

    1983-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of rifampin-trimethoprim in fixed combination (3.75:1) to rifampin alone in the eradication of Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage among contacts of patients with invasive infection caused by this organism. The study population was composed of 127 index patients and 620 contacts. Twenty-six percent of contacts were colonized. Rifampin-trimethoprim eradicated carriage in 77.6% of contacts (71.1% in contacts less than 5 years, 84.2% in contacts greater than or equal to 5 years) whereas rifampin eradicated carriage in 69.9% of contacts (56.4% in contacts less than 5 years, 81.8% in contacts greater than or equal to 5 years). A single isolate resistant to rifampin and rifampin-trimethoprim was encountered. The eradication rate achieved with this regimen of rifampin-trimethoprim was too low to recommend its routine use. However, a higher dose or longer course might merit clinical trial. PMID:6607027

  15. A simple and rapid method for measuring unconjugated capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b in PRP-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y Y; Anderson, R; McIver, J; Gupta, R K; Siber, G R

    1998-03-01

    The authors developed a simple and rapid method for quantitation of free capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate, PRP) in PRP-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine based on acid precipitation of tetanus toxoid (TT). Acid hydrolysis of PRP during the assay was not detected. The conditions used in the assay did not precipitate unconjugated PRP or adipic acid dihydrazide derivatized PRP. The method was highly reliable, reproducible and sensitive. The accuracy of the assay was confirmed by spiking known amounts of unconjugated PRP to PRP-TT conjugate preparations. A PRP-TT preparation, incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 months showing most of the PRP as unconjugated (87% determined by this method), was not immunogenic in mice for the PRP component even after two injections. In contrast, the same preparation held at 4 degrees C for 20 months, showing 17% unconjugated PRP, induced IgG antibodies to PRP which were boosted after second injection. Therefore, this method is very useful to evaluate the stability of PRP-TT conjugate vaccine. The assay may be useful for characterizing other polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines. PMID:9637747

  16. Clonality of multidrug-resistant nontypeable strains of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Fusté, M C; Pineda, M A; Palomar, J; Viñas, M; Lorén, J G

    1996-01-01

    The genetic structure of a population of multidrug-resistant nontypeable (unencapsulated) Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated at a hospital in Barcelona, Spain, was investigated by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis to determine the allelic variation in 15 structural loci. In our study we have also included some antimicrobial agent-susceptible strains isolated at the same hospital. All enzymes were polymorphic for two to eight electromorphs, and the analysis revealed 43 distinct electrophoretic types among the 44 isolates. The mean genetic diversity of the entire population was 0.55. Multilocus linkage disequilibrium analysis of the isolates revealed a strong association between alleles, suggesting little possibility of recombination. Furthermore, the dendrogram and the allele mismatch distribution are typical of a population with no extensive genetic mixing. PMID:8897179

  17. Pharyngeal Colonization Dynamics of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus in Healthy Adult Carriers▿

    PubMed Central

    Mukundan, Deepa; Ecevit, Zafer; Patel, Mayuri; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2007-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of respiratory infections, including acute otitis media, sinusitis, and chronic bronchitis, which are preceded by asymptomatic H. influenzae colonization of the human pharynx. The aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of pharyngeal colonization by H. influenzae and an intimately related species, Haemophilus haemolyticus, in healthy adults. Throat specimens from four healthy adult carriers were screened for Haemophilus species; 860 isolates were identified as H. influenzae or H. haemolyticus based on the porphyrin test and on dependence on hemin and NAD for growth. Based on tests for hemolysis, for the presence of the 7F3 epitope of the P6 protein, and for the presence of iga in 412 of the isolates, 346 (84%) were H. influenzae, 47 (11%) were H. haemolyticus, 18 (4%) were nonhemolytic H. haemolyticus, and 1 was a variant strain. Carriers A and B were predominantly colonized with nontypeable H. influenzae, carrier C predominantly with b− H. influenzae mutants, and carrier D with H. haemolyticus. A total of 358 H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus isolates were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following SmaI or EagI digestion of their DNA, and the carriers displayed the following: carrier A had 11 unique PFGE genotypes, carrier B had 15, carrier C had 7, and carrier D had 10. Thus, adult H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus carriers are colonized with multiple unique genotypes, the colonizing strains exhibit genetic diversity, and we observed day-to-day and week-to-week variability of the genotypes. These results appear to reflect both evolutionary processes that occur among H. influenzae isolates during asymptomatic pharyngeal carriage and sample-to-sample collection bias from a large, variable population of colonizing bacteria. PMID:17687018

  18. Serum Resistance in an Invasive, Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strain

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryan J.; Morlin, Gregory; Valentine, Nathan; Smith, Arnold L.

    2001-01-01

    A common feature of many different organisms causing bacteremia is the ability to avoid the bactericidal effects of normal human serum. In Haemophilus influenzae encapsulated strains are particularly serum resistant; however, we found that a nonencapsulated strain (R2866) isolated from the blood of an immunocompetent child with meningitis who had been successfully immunized with H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccine was serum resistant. Since serum resistance usually involves circumventing the action of the complement system, we defined the deposition of various complement components on the surfaces of this H. influenzae strain (R2866), a nonencapsulated avirulent laboratory strain (Rd), and a virulent type b encapsulated strain (Eagan). Membrane attack complex (MAC) accumulation correlated with the loss of bacterial viability; correspondingly, the rates of MAC deposition on the serum-sensitive strain Rd and the serum-resistant strains differed. Analysis of cell-associated immunoglobulin G (IgG), C1q, C3b, and C5b indicated that serum-resistant H. influenzae prevents MAC accumulation by delaying the synthesis of C3b through the classical pathway. Among the initiators of the classical pathway, IgG deposition contributes most of the C3 convertase activity necessary to start the cascade ending with MAC deposition. Despite similar IgG binding, strain R2866 delays C3 convertase activity compared to strain Rd. We conclude that strain R2866 can persist in the bloodstream, in part by inhibiting or delaying C3 deposition on the cell surface, escaping complement mediated killing. PMID:11159957

  19. Immunoinformatics Approach in Designing Epitope-based Vaccine Against Meningitis-inducing Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae Type b)

    PubMed Central

    Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Ma’rup, Ahmad; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend; Parikesit, Arli Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis infection is one of the major threats during Hajj season in Mecca. Meningitis vaccines are available, but their uses are limited in some countries due to religious reasons. Furthermore, they only give protection to certain serogroups, not to all types of meningitis-inducing bacteria. Recently, research on epitope-based vaccines has been developed intensively. Such vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines in that they are safer to use and well responded to the antibody. In this study, we developed epitope-based vaccine candidates against various meningitis-inducing bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. The epitopes were selected from their protein of polysaccharide capsule. B-cell epitopes were predicted by using BCPred, while T-cell epitope for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I was predicted using PAProC, TAPPred, and Immune Epitope Database. Immune Epitope Database was also used to predict T-cell epitope for MHC class II. Population coverage and molecular docking simulation were predicted against previously generated epitope vaccine candidates. The best candidates for MHC class I- and class II-restricted T-cell epitopes were MQYGDKTTF, MKEQNTLEI, ECTEGEPDY, DLSIVVPIY, YPMAMMWRNASNRAI, TLQMTLLGIVPNLNK, ETSLHHIPGISNYFI, and SLLYILEKNAEMEFD, which showed 80% population coverage. The complexes of class I T-cell epitopes–HLA-C*03:03 and class II T-cell epitopes–HLA-DRB1*11:01 showed better affinity than standards as evaluated from their ΔGbinding value and the binding interaction between epitopes and HLA molecules. These peptide constructs may further be undergone in vitro and in vivo testings for the development of targeted vaccine against meningitis infection. PMID:27812281

  20. Factors Affecting the Introduction of New Vaccines to Poor Nations: A Comparative Study of the Haemophilus influenzae Type B and Hepatitis B Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Cohen, Mary-Louise; Nichols, Katherine A.; Porges, Robert F.; Saludes, Ivy Rayos; Steffens, Kevin; Rodwin, Victor G.; Britt, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background A major effort to introduce new vaccines into poor nations of the world was initiated in recent years with the help of the GAVI alliance. The first vaccines introduced have been the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and the hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccines. The introduction of these vaccines during the first phase of GAVI's operations demonstrated considerable variability. We set out to study the factors affecting the introduction of these vaccines. The African Region (AFRO), where new vaccines were introduced to a substantial number of countries during the first phase of GAVI's funding, was selected for this study. Methodology/Principal Findings GAVI-eligible AFRO countries with a population of 0.5 million or more were included in the study. Countries were analyzed and compared for new vaccine introduction, healthcare indicators, financial indicators related to healthcare and country-level Governance Indicators, using One Way ANOVA, correlation analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Introduction of new vaccines into AFRO nations was associated primarily with high country-level Governance Indicator scores. The use of individual Governance Indicator scores, as well as a combined Governance Indicator score we developed, demonstrated similar results. Conclusions/Significance Our study results indicate that good country-level governance is an imperative pre-requisite for the successful early introduction of new vaccines into poor African nations. Enhanced support measures may be required to effectively introduce new vaccines to countries with low governance scores. The combined governance score we developed may thus constitute a useful tool for helping philanthropic organizations make decisions regarding the type of support needed by different countries to achieve success. PMID:21072192

  1. Molecular tools for differentiation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Janessa; Richmond, Peter C.; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus are closely related bacteria that reside in the upper respiratory tract. NTHi is associated with respiratory tract infections that frequently result in antibiotic prescription whilst H. haemolyticus is rarely associated with disease. NTHi and H. haemolyticus can be indistinguishable by traditional culture methods and molecular differentiation has proven difficult. This current review chronologically summarizes the molecular approaches that have been developed for differentiation of NTHi from H. haemolyticus, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each target and/or technique. We also provide suggestions for the development of new tools that would be suitable for clinical and research laboratories. PMID:25520712

  2. Diversity of the P2 protein among nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, J; Grass, S; Jeanteur, D; Munson, R S

    1994-01-01

    The genes for outer membrane protein P2 of four nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae strains were cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequences were compared with the outer membrane protein P2 sequence from H. influenzae type b MinnA and the sequences of P2 from three additional nontypeable H. influenzae strains. The sequences were 76 to 94% identical. The sequences had regions with considerable variability separated by regions which were highly conserved. The variable regions mapped to putative surface-exposed loops of the protein. PMID:8188390

  3. Haemophilus influenzae triggers autophagy in HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Mellado, María del Rosario; Reyes-Picaso, Carolina; Garcés-Pérez, Miriam S; Jardón-Serrano, Cynthia V; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    The MAP-LC3 system regulates the intracellular formation of autophagy-associated vacuoles. These vacuoles contain the LC3 protein; thus it has been utilized as a marker to identify autophagosomes. The aim of our study was to investigate whether Haemophilus influenzae strains and their supernatants could activate autophagy in human larynx carcinoma cell line (HEp-2). We demonstrate that higher expression of the LC3B-II protein was induced, particularly by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) 49766 and by supernatants, containing <50 kDa proteins, of both strains. Ultrastructural studies demonstrate vacuoles with a double membrane and/or membrane material inside, showing similar features to those of autophagic vacuoles. Together, our findings demonstrate that H. influenzae strains and their supernatants trigger an autophagic process.

  4. Haemophilus influenzae triggers autophagy in HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Mellado, María del Rosario; Reyes-Picaso, Carolina; Garcés-Pérez, Miriam S; Jardón-Serrano, Cynthia V; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    The MAP-LC3 system regulates the intracellular formation of autophagy-associated vacuoles. These vacuoles contain the LC3 protein; thus it has been utilized as a marker to identify autophagosomes. The aim of our study was to investigate whether Haemophilus influenzae strains and their supernatants could activate autophagy in human larynx carcinoma cell line (HEp-2). We demonstrate that higher expression of the LC3B-II protein was induced, particularly by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) 49766 and by supernatants, containing <50 kDa proteins, of both strains. Ultrastructural studies demonstrate vacuoles with a double membrane and/or membrane material inside, showing similar features to those of autophagic vacuoles. Together, our findings demonstrate that H. influenzae strains and their supernatants trigger an autophagic process. PMID:26537814

  5. Recognition of riboflavin and the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b by antibodies generated to the haptenic epitope D-ribitol.

    PubMed

    Ravi, G; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2014-04-01

    D-Ribitol, a five-carbon sugar alcohol, is an important metabolite in the pentose phosphate pathway; it is an integral part of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and cell wall polysaccharides in most Gram-positive and a few Gram-negative bacteria. Antibodies specific to D-ribitol were generated in New Zealand white rabbits by using reductively aminated D-ribose-BSA conjugate as the immunogen. MALDI-TOF and amino group analyses of ribitol-BSA conjugate following 120 h reaction showed ~27-30 mol of ribitol conjugated per mole BSA. The presence of sugar alcohol in the conjugates was also confirmed by an increase in molecular mass and a positive periodic acid-Schiff staining in SDS-PAGE. Caprylic acid precipitation of rabbit serum followed by hapten affinity chromatography on ribitol-KLH-Sepharose CL-6B resulted in pure ribitol-specific antibodies (~45-50 μg/mL). The affinity constant of ribitol antibodies was found to be 2.9 × 10(7) M(-1) by non-competitive ELISA. Ribitol antibodies showed 100% specificity towards ribitol, ~800% cross-reactivity towards riboflavin, 10-15% cross-reactivity with sorbitol, xylitol and mannitol, and 5-7% cross-reactivity with L-arabinitol and meso-erythritol. The specificity of antibody to ribitol was further confirmed by its low cross-reactivity (0.4%) with lumichrome. Antibodies to D-ribitol recognized the purified capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b, which could be specifically inhibited by ribitol. In conclusion, antibodies specific to D-ribitol have been generated and characterized, which have potential applications in the detection of free riboflavin and ribitol in biological samples, as well as identification of cell-surface macromolecules containing ribitol. PMID:24643482

  6. Recognition of flavin mononucleotide, Haemophilus influenzae type b and its capsular polysaccharide vaccines by antibodies specific to D-ribitol-5-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Ravi, G; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2014-11-01

    D-Ribitol-5-phosphate (Rbt-5-P) is an important metabolite in the pentose phosphate pathway and an integral part of bacterial cell wall polysaccharides, specifically as polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The major objective of this study was to investigate whether an antibody specific to Rbt-5-P can recognize the PRP of Hib. D-Ribose-5-phosphate was reacted with proteins in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride to obtain Rbt-5-P epitopes; 120 h reaction resulted in conjugation of ~30 and ~17 moles of Rbt-5-P/mole of BSA and OVA, respectively, based on decrease in amino groups, MALDI-TOF analyses, an increase in apparent molecular weight (SDS-PAGE) and glycoprotein staining. Immunization of rabbits with Rbt-5-P-BSA conjugate generated antibodies to Rbt-5-P as demonstrated by dot immunoblot and non-competitive ELISA. Homogeneous Rbt-5-P-specific antibody was purified from Rbt-5-P-BSA antiserum subjected to caprylic acid precipitation followed by hapten-affinity chromatography; its affinity constant is 7.1 × 10(8) M(-1). Rbt-5-P antibody showed 100 % specificity to Rbt-5-P, ~230 %, 10 % and 3.4 % cross-reactivity to FMN, riboflavin and FAD, respectively; the antibody showed ~4 % cross-reactivity to D-ribitol and <3 % to other sugars/sugar alcohols. Rbt-5-P-specific antibody recognized Hib conjugate vaccines containing PRP which was inhibited specifically by Rbt-5-P, and also detected Hib cell-surface capsular polysaccharides by immunofluorescence. In conclusion, Rbt-5-P-protein conjugate used as an immunogen elicited antibodies binding to an epitope also present in PRP and Hib bacteria. Rbt-5-P-specific antibody has potential applications in the detection and quantification of free/bound Rbt-5-P and FMN as well as immunological recognition of Hib bacteria and its capsular polysaccharide. PMID:25108762

  7. Process development of a New Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and the use of mathematical modeling to identify process optimization possibilities.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans; V D Pol, Leo; Ghimire, Saroj; V D Wielen, Luuk A M; Ottens, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions being a cost-effective tool in preventing deaths among young children. The earliest vaccines were developed following empirical methods, creating vaccines by trial and error. New process development tools, for example mathematical modeling, as well as new regulatory initiatives requiring better understanding of both the product and the process are being applied to well-characterized biopharmaceuticals (for example recombinant proteins). The vaccine industry is still running behind in comparison to these industries. A production process for a new Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, including related quality control (QC) tests, was developed and transferred to a number of emerging vaccine manufacturers. This contributed to a sustainable global supply of affordable Hib conjugate vaccines, as illustrated by the market launch of the first Hib vaccine based on this technology in 2007 and concomitant price reduction of Hib vaccines. This paper describes the development approach followed for this Hib conjugate vaccine as well as the mathematical modeling tool applied recently in order to indicate options for further improvements of the initial Hib process. The strategy followed during the process development of this Hib conjugate vaccine was a targeted and integrated approach based on prior knowledge and experience with similar products using multi-disciplinary expertise. Mathematical modeling was used to develop a predictive model for the initial Hib process (the 'baseline' model) as well as an 'optimized' model, by proposing a number of process changes which could lead to further reduction in price. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:568-580, 2016.

  8. Quality of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) antibody response induced by diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis/Hib combination vaccines.

    PubMed

    Denoël, Philippe A; Goldblatt, David; de Vleeschauwer, Isabel; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie; Pichichero, Michael E; Poolman, Jan T

    2007-10-01

    It has been repeatedly observed that mixing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines with acellular pertussis-containing vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis [DTPa]) resulted in a reduced magnitude of the anti-polyriboseribitolphosphate antibody response compared to that obtained when Hib vaccines were administered separately and not mixed. Nevertheless, the quality and functionality of the immune responses have been shown to be the same. With the purpose of investigating the quality of the anti-Hib immune responses that are elicited under different vaccination regimens, we report here four primary and booster-based pediatric clinical trials in which Hib vaccine was either mixed with DTPa or diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw)-based vaccines or was coadministered. Our results show that avidity maturation of the antibodies was lower when primary vaccination involved DTPa mixed with Hib compared to when DTPa and Hib were coadministered. No such difference was observed between mixed and separately administered Hib when associated with DTPa-hepatitis B virus-inactivated poliovirus or DTPw-based vaccines. All different combinations and regimens elicited the same opsonophagocytic and bactericidal activity as well as the same ability to protect in a passive infant rat protection assay. The functional activity of mixed DTPa-based and Hib vaccines was similar to that of mixed DTPw-based/Hib combinations. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo data as well as postmarketing vaccine effectiveness data attest to the ability of DTPa-based/Hib combination vaccines to effectively prevent Hib-induced disease in children.

  9. Elevated levels of maternal anti-tetanus toxin antibodies do not suppress the immune response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosylphosphate-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Panpitpat, C.; Thisyakorn, U.; Chotpitayasunondh, T.; Fürer, E.; Que, J. U.; Hasler, T.; Cryz, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    Reported are the effects of elevated levels of anti-tetanus antibodies on the safety and immune response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosylphosphate (PRP)-tetanus toxoid conjugate (PRP-T) vaccine. A group of Thai infants (n = 177) born to women immunized against tetanus during pregnancy were vaccinated with either a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) PRP-T vaccine or DTP and a PRP-conjugate vaccine using Neisseria meningitidis group B outer-membrane proteins as a carrier (PedVax HIB). Although most infants possessed high titres (> 1 IU/ml) of anti-tetanus antibodies, the DTP-PRP-T combined vaccine engendered an excellent antibody response to all vaccine components. In both vaccine groups > 98% of infants attained anti-PRP antibody titres > or = 0.15 microgram/ml. The geometric mean anti-PRP antibody titres were 5.41 micrograms/ml and 2.1 micrograms/ml for infants immunized with three doses of PRP-T versus two doses of PedVax HIB vaccines, respectively (P < 0.005). Similarly, the proportion of infants who achieved titres > or = 1 microgram/ml was higher in the PRP-T group (87.8%) than in the group immunized with PedVax HIB (74.2%) (P = 0.036). A subgroup analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the anti-PRP antibody response for infants exhibiting either < 1 IU of anti-tetanus antibody per millilitre or > or = 1 IU/ml at baseline. These finding indicate that pre-existing anti-carrier antibody does not diminish the immune response to the PRP moiety. All infants possessed protective levels of anti-D and anti-T antibody levels after immunization. PMID:10812736

  10. Impaired Haemophilus influenzae Type b Transplacental Antibody Transmission and Declining Antibody Avidity through the First Year of Life Represent Potential Vulnerabilities for HIV-Exposed but -Uninfected Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rakhola, Jeremy T.; Onyango-Makumbi, Carolyne; Mubiru, Michael; Westcott, Jamie E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Asturias, Edwin J.; Fowler, Mary Glenn; McFarland, Elizabeth; Janoff, Edward N.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether immune function is impaired among HIV-exposed but -uninfected (HEU) infants born to HIV-infected mothers and to identify potential vulnerabilities to vaccine-preventable infection, we characterized the mother-to-infant placental transfer of Haemophilus influenzae type b-specific IgG (Hib-IgG) and its levels and avidity after vaccination in Ugandan HEU infants and in HIV-unexposed U.S. infants. Hib-IgG was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 57 Ugandan HIV-infected mothers prenatally and in their vaccinated HEU infants and 14 HIV-unexposed U.S. infants at birth and 12, 24, and 48 weeks of age. Antibody avidity at birth and 48 weeks of age was determined with 1 M ammonium thiocyanate. A median of 43% of maternal Hib-IgG was transferred to HEU infants. Although its level was lower in HEU infants than in U.S. infants at birth (P < 0.001), Hib-IgG was present at protective levels (>1.0 μg/ml) at birth in 90% of HEU infants and all U.S. infants. HEU infants had robust Hib-IgG responses to a primary vaccination. Although Hib-IgG levels declined from 24 to 48 weeks of age in HEU infants, they were higher than those in U.S. infants (P = 0.002). Antibody avidity, comparable at birth, declined by 48 weeks of age in both populations. Early vaccination of HEU infants may limit an initial vulnerability to Hib disease resulting from impaired transplacental antibody transfer. While initial Hib vaccine responses appeared adequate, the confluence of lower antibody avidity and declining Hib-IgG levels in HEU infants by 12 months support Hib booster vaccination at 1 year. Potential immunologic impairments of HEU infants should be considered in the development of vaccine platforms for populations with high maternal HIV prevalence. PMID:25298109

  11. Recent trends in pediatric Haemophilus influenzae type B infections in Canada. Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT) of the Canadian Paediatric Society and the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control.

    PubMed Central

    Scheifele, D W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in the number of cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections among Canadian children before and after the introductory phases of Hib vaccination. DESIGN: Multicentre case series. SETTING: All 10 pediatric tertiary care centres across Canada participating in the Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT) of the Canadian Paediatric Society and the Laboratory Centre for Disease control. PATIENTS: Children with a Hib infection admitted to any of the participating hospitals from 1985 to 1994. Annual case totals from 1985 to 1990 were determined from records of hospital laboratories or coded discharge diagnoses, or both. From 1991 to 1994 intensive case surveillance was conducted on the wards in addition to thorough record searches as above. OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimated annual case totals for 1985-90. For 1991-94 intensive surveillance for quarterly case totals, yearly age distribution of cases, and proportion of recent cases that represent vaccination failures or missed opportunities to prevent infection. RESULTS: The total number of Hib cases from 1985 to 1990 was 2095; from 1991 to 1994, there were 326 laboratory-confirmed cases and 15 probably cases supported by Hib antigen detection. The annual number of cases declined from an estimated 485 in 1985 to 24 in 1994, a decrease of 95.1%. The steepest interannual decrease (63.7%) occurred between 1992 and 1993, following the introduction of infant-based vaccination programs across Canada. The number of Hib cases involving children most at risk (those 6 to 18 months old) decreased from 78 in 1991 to 4 in 1994. Of the 24 cases in 1994, 6 were categorized as preventable, 1 was fatal, and 8 were vaccine failures (2 of which involved currently used vaccines). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Hib infections reported by the IMPACT centres has declined greatly since the introduction of vaccination programs. However, deaths and complications continue to occur, attesting to the need to

  12. Economic aspects of a general vaccination against invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) via the experience of the Children's Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Asensi, F; Otero, M C; Pérez-Tamarit, D; Miranda, J; Picó, L; Nieto, A

    1995-11-01

    With the aim of studying whether a general vaccination against invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is economically profitable bearing in mind the efficacy and safety of the vaccine, its price and the global cost that this disease has in our area, a review is conducted of patients admitted due to invasive disease caused by Hib in the Children's Hospital La Fe, Valencia, born between 1984 and 1993. They total 100, 63 who have meningitis. In the 81 cases (56 with meningitis) born between 1984 and 1990 (years that can be regarded as "closed" since all the patients were younger than 5 years of age) the total cost has been calculated for hospitalization, care during the acute phase, care for the sequelae (6 severe and 7 mild) and death (5 cases). The mean annual cost of care can be calculated at 62 million pesetas, without making an economic valuation of the loss of life, and at 205 million pesetas taking this factor into account. The annual cost of vaccinating the 7000 babies under one year of age and falling within the Hospital's catchment area, on the basis of a vaccination pattern of three doses (at 2, 4 and 6 months) or four doses (at 2, 4, 6 and 15 months) would amount to 63 or 84 million pesetas, normal price to public (not covered by National Health Service), and 40 or 51 million pesetas if acquired by National Health Service. As a conclusion we can state that, even from the economic point of view, without quantifying the cost of the loss of life, a public general anti-Hib vaccination would be profitable in our area since it would mean an administration cost lower than that of the care required by patients. This is without taking into account the fact that emotional, family and social serious disturbances would also be avoided due to hospitalization, sequelae and deaths caused by a disease which is today perfectly preventable.

  13. MF59 adjuvant enhances antibody responses of infant baboons immunized with Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis group C oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Granoff, D M; McHugh, Y E; Raff, H V; Mokatrin, A S; Van Nest, G A

    1997-01-01

    The ability of the adjuvant MF59 to enhance the immunogenicity of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines was investigated in infant baboons. MF59 consists of stable droplets (<250 nm) of the metabolizable oil squalene and two surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate and sorbitan trioleate, in an oil-in-water emulsion. In humans, MF59 is well tolerated and enhances the immunogenicity of recombinant protein subunit or particle vaccines. Its effect on the immunogenicity of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines is unknown. Baboons 1 to 4 months of age were immunized intramuscularly with Neisseria meningitidis group C and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccines. The lyophilized vaccines were reconstituted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Al(OH)3 (alum), or MF59. Groups of five animals each were given three injections of the respective formulations, with one injection every 4 weeks. Four weeks after each immunization, the MF59 group had up to 7-fold-higher geometric mean anticapsular-antibody titers than the alum group and 5- to 10-fold-higher N. meningitidis group C bactericidal-antibody titers. Twenty-one weeks after the third immunization, the MF59 group still showed 5- to 10-fold-higher anticapsular-antibody titers. The antibody responses of the animals given the vaccines reconstituted with PBS were low at all times measured. Both the MF59 and alum groups, but not the PBS group, showed booster antibody responses to unconjugated Hib and N. meningitidis group C polysaccharides, results consistent with induction of memory B cells. Thus, MF59 may be useful for accelerating and augmenting immunity to polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in infants. PMID:9125551

  14. Epidemiology of childhood bacterial meningitis in Poland. Incidence of bacterial meningitis with special reference to Haemophilus influenzae type b among children 0-59 months old in the former Kielce and Bydgoszcz districts in Poland in 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, A; Tomaszunas-Blaszczyk, J; Kuklińska, D

    2001-01-01

    Population based surveillance was undertaken to assess the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in children 0-59 months old in Kielce and Bydgoszcz districts in Poland in 1998 and 1999. The cases were prospectively identified in pediatric and neuroinfection wards of local hospitals where all cases of children with suspected meningitis are referred in both districts. The mean annual incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in children 0-59 months old in Kielce district during the study period was estimated at 3.1 per 100,000 per year (10.3% of cases of bacterial meningitis with confirmed etiology). In Bydgoszcz district, the annual incidence was 9.7 per 100,000 (50% of confirmed cases). These estimations are lower than reported in most Western European countries before the immunization against Hib was introduced. Small numbers of Hib vaccinations reported from both districts do not seem likely to have influenced the data significantly.

  15. Children with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine failure have long-term bactericidal antibodies against virulent Hib strains with multiple capsular loci.

    PubMed

    Townsend-Payne, Kelly; Ladhani, Shamez N; Findlow, Helen; Slack, Mary; Borrow, Ray

    2016-07-25

    Children who develop invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease after immunisation with a highly-effective conjugate vaccine are more likely to have been infected with Hib strains possessing multiple copies of the capsulation locus. Using a recently-validated serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay, we tested convalescent sera from 127 Hib vaccine failure cases against clinical Hib strains expressing 1-5 copies of the capsulation locus. SBA titres correlated weakly with anti-capsular IgG antibody concentrations and there was no association between SBA geometric mean titres and number of capsulation locus copies. After infection, children with Hib vaccine failure were equally protected against Hib strains with 1-5 copies of the capsulation locus.

  16. Major subtypes of invasive Haemophilus influenzae from 1983 to 1985 in Atlanta, Ga.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J A; Pigott, N; Cochi, S L; Facklam, R R

    1990-01-01

    We compared outer membrane protein (OMP) patterns of Haemophilus influenzae isolated in metropolitan Atlanta, Ga., from July 1983 to June 1985. Of 74 randomly selected H. influenzae serotype b, biotype I, isolates (24% of the total number of H. influenzae, and 32% of the total number of H. influenzae serotype b, biotype I, isolates), 66 (89.2%) had the same OMP pattern. Of the remaining eight, five (6.7%) had an identical OMP pattern. The other three isolates had separate and distinct patterns. A greater diversity of OMP patterns was found with H. influenzae serotype b, biotype II, and nonserotypeable H. influenzae. Of the 18 H. influenzae serotype b, biotype II, isolates (5.8% of the total number of H. influenzae isolates), 1 had an OMP pattern similar to that of the predominate biotype I OMP type, 6 (33% of the biotype II) had the same pattern, and 11 had heterogeneous patterns. Of the 19 recoverable, nonserotypeable biotype II isolates (6.8% of the total number of H. influenzae), 18 had different OMP patterns, and no pattern was similar to those observed with serotype b. These findings indicate that most H. influenzae strains isolated during this 2-year period were indistinguishable by serotype, biotype, or OMP patterns. Images PMID:2191007

  17. Non-epitope-specific suppression of the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines by preimmunization with vaccine components.

    PubMed Central

    Barington, T; Skettrup, M; Juul, L; Heilmann, C

    1993-01-01

    Recently, conjugate vaccines containing Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to protein carriers were introduced for use in infants and certain adult risk groups. Similar conjugate vaccines against other capsulated bacteria are currently under development for both children and adults. Despite its potential importance, the possible influence of preexisting immunity to the components of such conjugates on the vaccination response in humans has been addressed by few studies. To study this issue, we randomized 82 healthy adult volunteers into six groups and vaccinated them twice, with a 4-week interval between immunizations. Four groups received tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and then HibCP coupled to TT (HibCP-TT) or DT (HibCP-DT). Two groups received HibCP-TT followed by HibCP-DT or vice versa. The total antibody levels to HibCP, TT, and DT and the anti-HibCP immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 levels were measured before and 4 weeks after the immunizations. For some of the vaccinees, the number of circulating antibody-secreting cells was evaluated 7 days after immunization. Surprisingly, preimmunization with the relevant carrier protein reduced the subsequent increase in the total HibCP antibody levels (P < 0.05), affecting the IgG1 and the IgG2 subclasses equally. Also, the responses to the carrier portions of the conjugates were suppressed, as demonstrated by the lack of significant increases in the antibody levels (P > or = 0.29) and, for HibCP-TT, by reduced numbers of anticarrier antibody-secreting cells (P = 0.009). Similar non-epitope-specific suppression was seen in the groups receiving both conjugates. Thus, preimmunization with one conjugate reduced the subsequent response to the carrier portion of the other conjugate (HibCP-DT and then HibCP-TT, P = 0.00002; HibCP-TT and then HibCP-DT, P = 0.06) as well as to HibCP itself. Possible mechanisms behind this non-epitope-specific suppression and its relevance for

  18. Analysis of Haemophilus influenzae serotype f isolated from three Japanese children with invasive H. influenzae infection.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tadashi; Hachisu, Yushi; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tokutake, Shoko; Okui, Hideyuki; Kutsuna, Satoru; Fukasawa, Chie; Murayama, Kei; Oohara, Asami; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ito, Midori; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko

    2015-04-01

    In Japan, publicly subsidized Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccines became available in 2011; consequently, the incidence of invasive H. influenzae infection in paediatric patients of less than 5 years of age decreased dramatically. In 2013, the first case of H. influenzae serotype f (Hif) meningitis in a Japanese infant was reported, and another case of Hif meningitis in a Japanese infant was observed in 2013. We experienced a fatal paediatric case of Hif bacteraemia in 2004; therefore, we conducted an analysis of the three Hif strains isolated from these three Japanese children with invasive Hif infections. All three strains were β-lactamase-non-producing, ampicillin-sensitive strains, with MICs of 1 µg ml(-1) or less. However, one of the three strains showed slightly elevated MICs for ampicillin (1 µg ml(-1)), cefotaxime (0.25 µg ml(-1)) and meropenem (0.13 µg ml(-1)). A molecular analysis by multilocus sequence typing identified all three strains as sequence type (ST) 124, which is a predominant invasive Hif strain in many countries. SmaI-digested PFGE showed variable DNA fragmentation patterns among the strains, suggesting that some highly virulent strains have originated from a single ST124 clone and caused invasive Hif infections in Japan. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors that have led to the clonal expansion of virulent ST124 strains.

  19. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae infection and moxalactam on platelet function in children.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S L; Courtney, J T; Kenal, K A

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective randomized study, children with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis received moxalactam or ampicillin or chloramphenicol. Of 41 children, 6 had prolonged bleeding times (greater than 6 min), and 7 of 9 tested had abnormal platelet aggregation at hospital admission. At the end of therapy, no children in the ampicillin-chloramphenicol group, compared with 5 of 22 moxalactam-treated children (23%) (P = 0.08), had prolonged bleeding times (6.5 to 7.5 min). Our data suggest that H. influenzae meningitis and treatment with moxalactam may each have an effect on platelet function in children. PMID:3579263

  20. Vaccines for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: the Future Is Now.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2015-05-01

    Infections due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae result in enormous global morbidity in two clinical settings: otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recurrent otitis media affects up to 20% of children and results in hearing loss, delays in speech and language development and, in developing countries, chronic suppurative otitis media. Infections in people with COPD result in clinic and emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and respiratory failure. An effective vaccine would prevent morbidity, help control health care costs, and reduce antibiotic use, a major contributor to the global crisis in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is causing a relative increase in H. influenzae otitis media. The partial protection against H. influenzae otitis media induced by the pneumococcal H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine represents a proof of principle of the feasibility of a vaccine for nontypeable H. influenzae. An ideal vaccine antigen should be conserved among strains, have abundant epitopes on the bacterial surface, be immunogenic, and induce protective immune responses. Several surface proteins of H. influenzae have been identified as potential vaccine candidates and are in various stages of development. With continued research, progress toward a broadly effective vaccine to prevent infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae is expected over the next several years. PMID:25787137

  1. Vaccines for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: the Future Is Now

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infections due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae result in enormous global morbidity in two clinical settings: otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recurrent otitis media affects up to 20% of children and results in hearing loss, delays in speech and language development and, in developing countries, chronic suppurative otitis media. Infections in people with COPD result in clinic and emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and respiratory failure. An effective vaccine would prevent morbidity, help control health care costs, and reduce antibiotic use, a major contributor to the global crisis in bacterial antibiotic resistance. The widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is causing a relative increase in H. influenzae otitis media. The partial protection against H. influenzae otitis media induced by the pneumococcal H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine represents a proof of principle of the feasibility of a vaccine for nontypeable H. influenzae. An ideal vaccine antigen should be conserved among strains, have abundant epitopes on the bacterial surface, be immunogenic, and induce protective immune responses. Several surface proteins of H. influenzae have been identified as potential vaccine candidates and are in various stages of development. With continued research, progress toward a broadly effective vaccine to prevent infections caused by nontypeable H. influenzae is expected over the next several years. PMID:25787137

  2. Invasive Disease Due to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae among Children in Arkansas

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Joshua M.; St. Geme III, Joseph W.; Cutter, David; Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Anyanwu, Juliana; Jacobs, Richard F.; Schutze, Gordon E.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we reviewed cases of invasive disease due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae among children hospitalized at Arkansas Children's Hospital from 1993 to 2001. A total of 28 cases were examined, including 21 associated with bacteremia and 4 associated with meningitis. Of the patients examined, 86% were ≤4 years of age, and 68% had underlying medical conditions. Characterization of the bacterial isolates by multilocus sequence type genotyping revealed significant overall genetic diversity, similar to the diversity in the general population structure for nontypeable H. influenzae. However, four separate pairs of isolates were closely related genetically, a relationship confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization studies using probes for the major H. influenzae adhesin genes. These results suggest that selected strains of nontypeable H. influenzae may have more invasive potential, especially in young children and patients with underlying medical conditions. At this point, the specific factors that contribute to enhanced virulence remain unclear. PMID:12843045

  3. Antigenic diversity of lipooligosaccharides of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Campagnari, A A; Gupta, M R; Dudas, K C; Murphy, T F; Apicella, M A

    1987-01-01

    The lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae are an antigenically heterogeneous group of macromolecules. Immunodiffusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition studies with phenol-water-extracted LOS and absorbed antisera specific for the oligosaccharide portion of the LOS identified six LOS strain-specific antigens. To facilitate screening large numbers of strains to search for LOS antigenic heterogeneity, a system utilizing proteinase K whole cell digests in Western blots was developed. Seventy-two nontypable H. influenzae LOS extracts were analyzed in this Western blot assay. Thirty-seven of these extracts could be segregated into 10 antigenically distinct LOS groups based on immunologic recognition by one or more of the rabbit antisera. Thirty-five of the strains did not contain these LOS antigens. These results demonstrate that antigenic differences exist among the LOS of nontypable H. influenzae strains, and this heterogeneity has the potential to be used to establish an LOS-based serogrouping system. Images PMID:3549563

  4. MALDI-TOF MS Distinctly Differentiates Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Yongchan; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Li; Lv, Jing; Wang, Yingtong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Shao, Zhujun

    2013-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus exhibit different pathogenicities, but to date, there remains no definitive and reliable strategy for differentiating these strains. In this study, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a potential method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. The phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 16S rRNA and recombinase A (recA) gene sequences, outer membrane protein P6 gene sequencing and single-gene PCR were used as reference methods. The original reference database (ORD, provided with the Biotyper software) and new reference database (NRD, extended with Chinese strains) were compared for the evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS. Through a search of the ORD, 76.9% of the NTHi (40/52) and none of the H. haemolyticus (0/20) strains were identified at the species level. However, all NTHi and H. haemolyticus strains used for identification were accurately recognized at the species level when searching the NRD. From the dendrogram clustering of the main spectra projections, the Chinese and foreign H. influenzae reference strains were categorized into two distinct groups, and H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus were also separated into two categories. Compared to the existing methods, MALDI-TOF MS has the advantage of integrating high throughput, accuracy and speed. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is an excellent method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. This method can be recommended for use in appropriately equipped laboratories. PMID:23457514

  5. TEM-1-encoding small plasmids impose dissimilar fitness costs on Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Annette; Lund, Marianne; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Only two beta-lactamases, TEM-1 and ROB-1, have been observed in Haemophilus influenzae, while four different TEM but no ROB enzymes have been found in Haemophilus parainfluenzae. In order to investigate the mechanisms behind the dissemination of small beta-lactamase-encoding plasmids in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae, we assessed the fitness cost of three TEM-1- (pPN223, pA1209, pA1606), one TEM-15- (pSF3) and one ROB-1-bearing (pB1000) plasmid when expressed in either bacterial species. All plasmids were stable in H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae except pB1000, which showed on average (sample mean) 76% curing in H. parainfluenzae after 5  days of subculture. Competition assays between isogenic strains with and without plasmid showed no competitive disadvantage of pPN223 and pA1606 in H. influenzae, or of pA1209 in H. parainfluenzae. In contrast, pSF3 and pB1000 were associated with significant competitive disadvantages in both species. Some of the competitive disadvantages may be related to differences in plasmid copy number and mRNA expression of the beta-lactamase genes, as revealed by quantitative PCR analysis. In conclusion, plasmids encoding TEM beta-lactamases isolated from H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae can be stably transferred between species. The fast curing of pB1000 in H. parainfluenzae observed in this study correlates to the fact that ROB-1 has never been reported for this species. TEM-1-encoding plasmids are associated with the lowest level of fitness cost, but different TEM-1 plasmids confer different levels of fitness cost on the two hosts.

  6. Airway dysbiosis: Haemophilus influenzae and Tropheryma in poorly controlled asthma.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jodie L; Daly, Joshua; Baines, Katherine J; Yang, Ian A; Upham, John W; Reynolds, Paul N; Hodge, Sandra; James, Alan L; Hugenholtz, Philip; Willner, Dana; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways where bacteria may act as protagonists of chronic inflammation. Little is known about the relation of airway inflammation to the presence of specific bacterial taxa. We sought to describe the sputum microbiome in adults with poorly controlled asthma.DNA was extracted from induced sputum and microbial communities were profiled using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Bacterial species were characterised, and the relationship between microbial populations, asthma inflammatory subtypes and other covariates was explored. Real-time PCR was used to identify Tropheryma whipplei and Haemophilus influenzae in sputum.Adults with neutrophilic asthma had reduced bacterial diversity and species richness. Tropheryma was identified and confirmed with real-time PCR in 12 (40%) participants. Haemophilus occurred most often in a group of younger atopic males with an increased proportion of neutrophils. PCR confirmed the presence of H. influenzae in 35 (76%) participants with poorly controlled asthma.There are phenotype-specific alterations to the airway microbiome in asthma. Reduced bacterial diversity combined with a high prevalence of H. influenzae was observed in neutrophilic asthma, whereas eosinophilic asthma had abundant T. whipplei.

  7. Nasopharyngeal and Adenoid Colonization by Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in Children Undergoing Adenoidectomy and the Ability of Bacterial Isolates to Biofilm Production

    PubMed Central

    Kosikowska, Urszula; Korona-Głowniak, Izabela; Niedzielski, Artur; Malm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Haemophili are pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria often colonizing the upper respiratory tract mucosa. The prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae (with serotypes distribution), and H. parainfluenzae in the nasopharynx and/or the adenoid core in children with recurrent pharyngotonsillitis undergoing adenoidectomy was assessed. Haemophili isolates were investigated for their ability to biofilm production. Nasopharyngeal swabs and the adenoid core were collected from 164 children who underwent adenoidectomy (2–5 years old). Bacteria were identified by the standard methods. Serotyping of H. influenzae was performed using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Biofilm formation was detected spectrophotometrically using 96-well microplates and 0.1% crystal violet. Ninety seven percent (159/164) children who underwent adenoidectomy were colonized by Haemophilus spp. The adenoid core was colonized in 99.4% (158/159) children, whereas the nasopharynx in 47.2% (75/159) children (P < 0.0001). In 32% (51/159) children only encapsulated (typeable) isolates of H. influenzae were identified, in 22.6% (36/159) children only (nonencapsulated) H. influenzae NTHi (nonencapsulated) isolates were present, whereas 7.5% (12/159) children were colonized by both types. 14.5% (23/159) children were colonized by untypeable (rough) H. influenzae. In 22% (35/159) children H. influenzae serotype d was isolated. Totally, 192 isolates of H. influenzae, 96 isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 14 isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were selected. In 20.1% (32/159) children 2 or 3 phenotypically different isolates of the same species (H. influenzae or H. parainfluenzae) or serotypes (H. influenzae) were identified in 1 child. 67.2% (129/192) isolates of H. influenzae, 56.3% (54/96) isolates of H. parainfluenzae and 85.7% (12/14) isolates of other Haemophilus spp. were positive for biofilm production. Statistically significant differences (P = 0.0029) among H. parainfluenzae

  8. Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... many different kinds of infections. These infections can range from mild ear infections to severe diseases, like bloodstream infections. When the bacteria invade parts of the body that are normally free from germs, like spinal fluid or blood, this ...

  9. Viability and growth of clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Flournoy, D J; Jones, J B

    1985-08-01

    Studies were done on clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae to investigate viability and determine the effects of disc-agar diffusion (DAD) medium modification on antimicrobial susceptibility results. Most isolates were viable for two days in distilled water, up to a week on chocolate agar and months when frozen in skim milk at -70 degrees C. Differences in viability were not related to biotype, serotype, beta-lactamase production or site of isolation of isolates. Several medium modifications resulted in better growth of isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by DAD, but the zone sizes of inhibition differed from those of the recommended medium.

  10. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years.

  11. Synthetic trimer and tetramer of 3-beta-D-ribose-(1-1)-D-ribitol-5-phosphate conjugated to protein induce antibody responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide in mice and monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, C C; Evenberg, D; Hoogerhout, P; Käyhty, H; Saarinen, L; van Boeckel, C A; van der Marel, G A; van Boom, J H; Poolman, J T

    1992-01-01

    Synthetic oligosaccharides derived from the capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b were conjugated to carrier proteins via a thioether linkage. Conjugates were made of trimeric and tetrameric ribose-ribitol-phosphate and tetanus toxoid or diphtheria toxin. All conjugates elicited anti-PRP antibody responses with an increasing immunoglobulin G/immunoglobulin M ratio in adult mice and monkeys. Trimer conjugates elicited lower anti-PRP antibody responses compared with tetramer conjugates. Adult monkeys responded equally well to the tetrameric oligosaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate as to the oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate (HbOC), which elicits protective levels of serum antibodies in human infants after two or three injections. PMID:1563770

  12. The 1996 Albert Lasker Medical Research Awards. Prevention of systemic infections, especially meningitis, caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b. Impact on public health and implications for other polysaccharide-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Robbins, J B; Schneerson, R; Anderson, P; Smith, D H

    1996-10-01

    The development of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines has led to the virtual elimination of systemic infections caused by that pathogen, has provided insights into the pathogenesis of and immunity to other capsulated bacteria, and has contributed to the development of new vaccines. Meningitis, a common and serious infection of children, and other infections caused by Hib have been virtually eliminated in countries that have achieved widespread vaccination with Hib conjugates, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Iceland, Scandinavia, France, and Germany. Hib conjugates have also been shown to be highly effective in developing countries. The principles derived from the use of these vaccines, along with studies of other capsulated pathogens, should allow the rapid inclusion of new polysaccharide-based conjugates into routine vaccination schedules of infants, and should help to realize further reductions in serious systemic infectious diseases.

  13. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-01-01

    abstract The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years. PMID:26337197

  14. Identification of hifD and hifE in the pilus gene cluster of Haemophilus influenzae type b strain Eagan.

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, K W; Watson, W J; Gilsdorf, J R; Marrs, C F

    1994-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae produces surface structures called pili that promote adherence to human cells. Three genes encoding the major pilus structural component (pilin), chaperone, and usher proteins (designated hifA, -B, and -C, respectively) have been identified previously. In this study, transposon mutagenesis and DNA sequence analysis identified two open reading frames (ORFs) downstream of, and in the same orientation as, hifC. These genes have been designated hifD and hifE. Both genes have predicted C-terminal amino acid homology to HifA, and mutations in either gene resulted in the loss of morphologic and functional pili, indicating that hifD and hifE encode pilus structural components and are required for pilus expression. Another ORF, identified immediately downstream of hifE, has a predicted amino acid sequence that is 70% identical to an aminopeptidase of Escherichia coli called PepN, and a mutation within this ORF did not alter pilus expression. These data indicate that the pepN homolog is not required for pilus biogenesis and that one end of the pilus gene cluster has been defined. PMID:7927773

  15. Action of restriction endonucleases on transforming DNA of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, K L; Wakil, A E; Driggers, P H

    1982-01-01

    Cleavage of DNA from Haemophilus influenzae with restriction endonucleases caused inactivation of transforming ability to an extent that depended on the genetic marker and the enzyme. The rate of inactivation, but not the final level of survival, depended on the concentration of enzyme in the restriction digest. In general, the greatest extent of inactivation of transforming activity was obtained with endonucleases that are known to produce the shortest fragments. We electrophoresed restriction digests of H. influenzae DNA in agarose gels and assayed transforming activity of DNA extracted from gel slices. In this way, we determined the lengths of restriction fragments that contain genetic markers of H. influenzae. For the marker that we studied most thoroughly (nov), the shortest restriction fragment that possessed detectable transforming activity was a 0.9-kilobase pair fragment produced by endonuclease R . PstI. The shortest marker-bearing restriction fragment that retained substantial transforming activity (50% of value for undigested DNA) was a 2.1-kilobase pair EcoRI fragment bearing the kan marker. Among marker-bearing restriction fragments 1 to 4 kilobase pairs in length, survival of transforming activity varied 10,000-fold. We relate these observations to the recent findings by Sisco and Smith (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:972-976, 1979) that efficient entry of DNA into competent H. influenzae cells appears to require the presence of a recognition sequence that is scattered throughout the Haemophilus genome in many more copies than in unrelated genomes. Images PMID:6288662

  16. Vaccine-induced waning of Haemophilus influenzae empyema and meningitis, Angola.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Heikki; Pelkonen, Tuula; Bernardino, Luis; Monteiro, Lurdes; Silvestre, Silvia da Conceição; Anjos, Elizabete; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Pitkäranta, Anne; Roine, Irmeli

    2014-11-01

    In Angola during 2003-2012, we detected Haemophilus influenzae in 18% of 2,634 and 26% of 2,996 bacteriologically positive pleural or cerebrospinal fluid samples, respectively, from children. After vaccination launch in 2006, H. influenzae empyema declined by 83% and meningitis by 86%. Severe H. influenzae pneumonia and meningitis are preventable by vaccination.

  17. Immunoglobulin A1 protease production by Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Male, C J

    1979-01-01

    Bacterial strains of Haemophilus species and Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined for synthesis of the enzyme immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease. Of 36 H. influenzae strains examined, 35 produced IgA1 protease; strains included all six capsular types, unencapsulated variants of types b and d, and untypable H. influenzae. Eight Haemophilus strains (non-H. influenzae) were studied, and two produced IgA1 protease. All 10 strains of S. pneumoniae produced IgA1 protease; these strains included 9 different capsular polysaccharide types and 1 untypable strain. Both IgA1 proteases cleaved myeloma IgA1 and secretory IgA but not myeloma IgA2, IgM, or IgG as determined by immunoelectrophoresis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that both enzymes cleaved IgA1 myeloma sera, but not IgA2, into two fragments. The apparent molecular weight of the cleaved fragments was dependent both on the apparent molecular weight of the cleaved fragments was dependent both on the specific IgA1 protease assayed and the specific IgA1 substrate utilized. It is postulated that both carbohydrate variation between the IgA1 substrates studied and the ability of S. pneumoniae glycosidases to cleave carbohydrates from glycoprotein offer an explanation for the different fragment sizes observed. Images PMID:40880

  18. Phylogenetic relationship of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Zain, Zaini; Kamsani, Nurul H; Ahmad, Norazah; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiology of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains poorly understood. We therefore sought to determine the genetic relationship of 25 NTHi isolated from various states in Malaysia using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of isolates were obtained from sputum. There were 24 novel sequence types (STs). Eight isolates were single-locus variants, the remainder being singletons. Clustering was not based on clinical site of isolation or geographical origin. Despite the limited number of isolates examined in this study, we demonstrate that NTHi isolates in Malaysia are diverse and warrant further investigation.

  19. Systems properties of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd metabolic genotype.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J S; Palsson, B O

    1999-06-18

    Haemophilus influenzae Rd was the first free-living organism for which the complete genomic sequence was established. The annotated sequence and known biochemical information was used to define the H. influenzae Rd metabolic genotype. This genotype contains 488 metabolic reactions operating on 343 metabolites. The stoichiometric matrix was used to determine the systems characteristics of the metabolic genotype and to assess the metabolic capabilities of H. influenzae. The need to balance cofactor and biosynthetic precursor production during growth on mixed substrates led to the definition of six different optimal metabolic phenotypes arising from the same metabolic genotype, each with different constraining features. The effects of variations in the metabolic genotype were also studied, and it was shown that the H. influenzae Rd metabolic genotype contains redundant functions under defined conditions. We thus show that the synthesis of in silico metabolic genotypes from annotated genome sequences is possible and that systems analysis methods are available that can be used to analyze and interpret phenotypic behavior of such genotypes. PMID:10364169

  20. A review of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in the Indigenous populations of North America.

    PubMed

    Tsang, R S W; Bruce, M G; Lem, M; Barreto, L; Ulanova, M

    2014-07-01

    Historically, the highest incidence rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in the world were found in North American and Australian Indigenous children. Although immunization against H. influenzae type b (Hib) led to a marked decrease in invasive Hib disease in countries where it was implemented, this disease has not been eliminated and its rates in Indigenous communities remain higher than in the general North American population. In this literature review, we examined the epidemiology of invasive H. influenzae disease in the pre-Hib vaccine era, effect of carriage on disease epidemiology, immune response to H. influenzae infection and Hib vaccination in Indigenous and Caucasian children, and the changing epidemiology after Hib conjugate vaccine has been in use for more than two decades in North America. We also explored reasons behind the continued high rates of invasive H. influenzae disease in Indigenous populations in North America. H. influenzae type a (Hia) has emerged as a significant cause of severe disease in North American Indigenous communities. More research is needed to define the genotypic diversity of Hia and the disease burden that it causes in order to determine if a Hia vaccine is required to protect the vulnerable populations.

  1. Evaluation of Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assays for Haemophilus influenzae Serotype a ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rouphael, Nadine G.; Satola, Sarah; Farley, Monica M.; Rudolph, Karen; Schmidt, Daniel S.; Gomez-de-León, Patricia; Robbins, John B.; Schneerson, Rachel; Carlone, George M.; Romero-Steiner, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type a (Hia) is an important pathogen for some American Indian, Alaskan native, and Northern Canada aboriginal populations. Assays to measure serum bactericidal activity (SBA) to Hia have not been developed or validated. Here, we describe two methods for the measurement of SBA: SBA with a viability endpoint (CFU counts) and SBA with a fluorometric endpoint using alamarBlue as the metabolic indicator. Both SBA assays measure Hia-specific functional antibody and correlate with anti-Hia IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) concentration of naturally acquired antibodies. PMID:21177919

  2. Protein D of Haemophilus influenzae is not a universal immunoglobulin D-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, K; Munson, R S

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b and nontypeable H. influenzae have been reported to bind human immunoglobulin D (IgD). IgD myeloma sera from five patients were tested for the ability of IgD to bind to H. influenzae. Serotype b strains bound human IgD in four of the five sera tested. IgD in the fifth serum bound strongly to type b strain MinnA but poorly to other type b strains. Additionally, IgD binding was not observed when nontypeable strains were tested. The gene for protein D, the putative IgD-binding protein, was cloned from the IgD-binding H. influenzae type b strain MinnA and expressed in Escherichia coli. IgD binding to E. coli expressing protein D was not demonstrable. Recombinant protein D was purified, and antisera were generated in rabbits. Using these rabbit sera, we detected protein D in nontypeable as well as serotype b strains by Western blotting (immunoblotting). In contrast, IgD myeloma protein 4490, which was previously reported to bind to protein D by Ruan and coworkers (M. Ruan, M. Akkoyunlu, A. Grubb, and A. Forsgren, J. Immunol. 145:3379-3384), bound strongly to both type b and nontypeable H. influenzae as well as to E. coli expressing protein D. Thus, IgD binding is a general property of H. influenzae type b strains but not a general property of nontypeable strains, although both type b and nontypeable strains produce protein D. With the exception of IgD myeloma protein 4490 binding, we have no evidence for a role of protein D in IgD binding to H. influenzae. Images PMID:8514409

  3. Polymerase chain reaction-based strain characterization of noncapsulate Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Jordens, J Z; Leaves, N I; Anderson, E C; Slack, M P

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-based typing method for noncapsulate Haemophilus influenzae was developed. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints were generated from boiled supernatants prepared directly from bacterial colonies without the need for DNA extraction. The technique was applied to isolates obtained during putative outbreaks of chest infection and validated by comparison with sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of outer membrane protein-enriched preparations and rRNA gene restriction analysis. There was complete concordance between the three techniques. The results show that randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis provides a highly discriminatory method of characterizing strains of noncapsulate H. influenzae which is eminently suitable as an epidemiological tool for the rapid investigation of outbreaks of infection. Images PMID:8263183

  4. Evaluation of a diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis–inactivated poliovirus–Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine given concurrently with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Kitchin, N R E; Southern, J; Morris, R; Hemme, F; Thomas, S; Watson, M W; Cartwright, K; Miller, E

    2007-01-01

    Background and objective In view of the possible introduction of diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis–inactivated poliovirus–Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP‐IPV‐Hib, eg Pediacel) vaccine in the UK, a study of the immunogenicity of Pediacel when given with one of two different meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was conducted. Methods Randomised controlled study in 241 infants. Results Post vaccination, the proportion of infants with anti‐polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) levels ⩾0.15 μg/ml was 93.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 86.6 to 96.7) in the Pediacel group compared with 100% (95% CI 96.4 to 100) in the diphtheria–tetanus–whole‐cell pertussis–Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTwP‐Hib) group. The anti‐PRP response was lower in infants receiving either Pediacel or DTwP‐Hib when these vaccines were given concomitantly with meningococcal group C conjugate with diphtheria‐derived protein CRM197 as conjugate protein (MCC‐CRM) compared with meningococcal group C conjugate with tetanus toxoid as conjugate protein (MCC‐TT). For group C meningococcus, the proportion of infants with serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titre ⩾1:8 in the Pediacel group was 99.0% compared with 100% in the DTwP‐Hib group. The MCC SBA geometric mean titre (GMT) was lower in those receiving Pediacel with MCC‐TT than in those receiving DTwP‐Hib with MCC‐TT, although all titres were well above the protective threshold. The MCC SBA GMT was similar in those receiving Pediacel and DTwP‐Hib and MCC‐CRM. Responses to all other vaccine components were equivalent in the two groups. Conclusions Pediacel is immunogenic when given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Coadministration of MCC vaccine can influence the Hib response, and the MCC response to a tetanus conjugate can be influenced by the nature of the coadministered DTP‐Hib vaccine. PMID:16670121

  5. Whole-Genome Sequences of Nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae Strains Isolated in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Giufrè, Maria; De Chiara, Matteo; Censini, Stefano; Guidotti, Silvia; Torricelli, Giulia; De Angelis, Gabriella; Cardines, Rita; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Muzzi, Alessandro; Soriani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen involved in invasive disease. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of 11 nonencapsulated H. influenzae (ncHi) strains isolated from both invasive disease and healthy carriers in Italy. This genomic information will enrich our understanding of the molecular basis of ncHi pathogenesis. PMID:25814593

  6. Whole-Genome Sequences of Nonencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae Strains Isolated in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giufrè, Maria; De Chiara, Matteo; Censini, Stefano; Guidotti, Silvia; Torricelli, Giulia; De Angelis, Gabriella; Cardines, Rita; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Muzzi, Alessandro; Cerquetti, Marina; Soriani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen involved in invasive disease. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of 11 nonencapsulated H. influenzae (ncHi) strains isolated from both invasive disease and healthy carriers in Italy. This genomic information will enrich our understanding of the molecular basis of ncHi pathogenesis.

  7. Haemophilus influenzae P4 Interacts With Extracellular Matrix Proteins Promoting Adhesion and Serum Resistance.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Ching; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Singh, Birendra; Hallgren, Oskar; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla; Hood, Derek; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-15

    Interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM) is one of the successful colonization strategies employed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Here we identified Haemophilus lipoprotein e (P4) as a receptor for ECM proteins. Purified recombinant P4 displayed a high binding affinity for laminin (Kd = 9.26 nM) and fibronectin (Kd = 10.19 nM), but slightly less to vitronectin (Kd = 16.51 nM). A P4-deficient NTHi mutant showed a significantly decreased binding to these ECM components. Vitronectin acquisition conferred serum resistance to both P4-expressing NTHi and Escherichia coli transformants. P4-mediated bacterial adherence to pharynx, type II alveolar, and bronchial epithelial cells was mainly attributed to fibronectin. Importantly, a significantly reduced bacterial infection was observed in the middle ear of the Junbo mouse model when NTHi was devoid of P4. In conclusion, our data provide new insight into the role of P4 as an important factor for Haemophilus colonization and subsequent respiratory tract infection.

  8. Variable number of tandem repeats in clinical strains of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    van Belkum, A; Scherer, S; van Leeuwen, W; Willemse, D; van Alphen, L; Verbrugh, H

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm capable of identifying short repeat motifs was developed and used to screen the whole genome sequence available for Haemophilus influenzae, since some of these repeats have been shown to affect bacterial virulence. Various di- to hexanucleotide repeats were identified, confirming and extending previous findings on the existence of variable-number-of-tandem-repeat loci (VNTRs). Repeats with units of 7 or 8 nucleotides were not encountered. For all of the 3- to 6-nucleotide repeats in the H. influenzae chromosome, PCR tests capable of detecting allelic polymorphisms were designed. Fourteen of 18 of the potential VNTRs were indeed highly polymorphic when different strains were screened. Two of the potential VNTRs appeared to be short and homogeneous in length; another one may be specific for the H. influenzae Rd strain only. One of the primer sets generated fingerprint-type DNA banding patterns. The various repeat types differed with respect to intrinsic stability as well. It was noted for separate colonies derived from a single clinical specimen or strains passaged for several weeks on chocolate agar plates that the lengths of the VNTRs did not change. When several strains from different patients infected during an outbreak of lung disease were analyzed, increased but limited variation was encountered in all VNTR sites analyzed. One of the 5-nucleotide VNTRs proved to be hypervariable. This variability may reflect the molecular basis of a mechanism used by H. influenzae bacteria to successfully colonize and infect different human individuals. PMID:9393791

  9. The Lung Immune Response to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (Lung Immunity to NTHi)

    PubMed Central

    King, Paul T.; Sharma, Roleen

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is divided into typeable or nontypeable strains based on the presence or absence of a polysaccharide capsule. The typeable strains (such as type b) are an important cause of systemic infection, whilst the nontypeable strains (designated as NTHi) are predominantly respiratory mucosal pathogens. NTHi is present as part of the normal microbiome in the nasopharynx, from where it may spread down to the lower respiratory tract. In this context it is no longer a commensal and becomes an important respiratory pathogen associated with a range of common conditions including bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia, and particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NTHi induces a strong inflammatory response in the respiratory tract with activation of immune responses, which often fail to clear the bacteria from the lung. This results in recurrent/persistent infection and chronic inflammation with consequent lung pathology. This review will summarise the current literature about the lung immune response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, a topic that has important implications for patient management. PMID:26114124

  10. Haemophilus influenzae: comparison of respiratory tract isolates with genitourinary tract isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Albritton, W L; Brunton, J L; Meier, M; Bowman, M N; Slaney, L A

    1982-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae isolates recovered from the genitourinary (GU) tract were shown to have a significantly different biotype distribution compared with respiratory tract isolates. Biotype IV strains were recovered more commonly from the GU tract, and most strains were non-serotypable. Antibiotic-susceptible strains isolated from the GU tract more frequently harbored plasmids of less than 10 megadaltons than did antibiotic-susceptible respiratory tract strains. One 2.8-megadalton plasmid resident in a GU tract isolate and one 1.8-megadalton plasmid resident in a respiratory tract isolate were shown to be related to the small ampicillin resistance plasmids previously described in H. influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. This supports the suggestion that these ampicillin resistance plasmids originated by transposition or recombination of the ampicillin transposon (TnA) with cryptic endogenous Haemophilus plasmids. Images PMID:6984048

  11. Antibodies against the majority subunit of Type IV pili disperse nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilms in a LuxS-dependent manner and confer therapeutic resolution of experimental otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Laura A.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; Ward, Michael O.; Jordan, Zachary B.; Goodman, Steven D.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite resulting in a similar overall outcome, unlike antibodies directed against the DNABII protein, integration host factor (IHF), which induce catastrophic structural collapse of biofilms formed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), those directed against a recombinant soluble form of PilA [the majority subunit of Type IV pili (Tfp) produced by NTHI], mediated gradual ‘top-down’ dispersal of NTHI from biofilms. This dispersal occurred via a mechanism that was dependent upon expression of both PilA (and by inference, Tfp) and production of AI-2 quorum signaling molecules by LuxS. The addition of rsPilA to a biofilm-targeted therapeutic vaccine formulation comprised of IHF plus the powerful adjuvant dmLT, and delivered via a non-invasive transcutaneous immunization route, induced an immune response that targeted two important determinants essential for biofilm formation by NTHI. This resulted in significantly earlier eradication of NTHI from both planktonic and adherent populations in the middle ear, disruption of mucosal biofilms already resident within middle ears prior to immunization, and rapid resolution of signs of disease in an animal model of experimental otitis media. These data support continued development of this novel combinatorial immunization approach for resolution and/or prevention of multiple diseases of the respiratory tract caused by NTHI. PMID:25597921

  12. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    PubMed

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam. PMID:26867396

  13. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    PubMed

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam.

  14. Why we need a vaccine for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Cerquetti, Marina; Giufrè, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is increasingly recognized as emerging pathogen. The routine immunization of infants with conjugated vaccines against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has greatly reduced the incidence of invasive Hib disease; however a marked change in the predominant invasive serotype from Hib to NTHi has occurred. Localized infections where the role of H. influenzae is important, such as otitis media in children and acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, are almost exclusively associated with NTHi isolates. The implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has resulted in changes in frequency of nasopharynx colonizing pathogens with an increase of NTHi, although this data is yet under debate. An effective vaccine against NTHi is not currently available. The major challenge in developing a successful vaccine is the intrinsic heterogeneity of NTHi. H. influenzae protein D is used as carrier protein in the licensed 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Synflorix, GlaxoSmithKline), but no robust evidences for protective efficacy against NTHi otitis have been until now obtained. Several other vaccine candidates are under investigations and we hope that significant advancements in vaccine development will be achieved in the next future. Genome-based vaccine strategy might provide an additional useful tool for discovering further vaccine antigens.

  15. Difficult identification of Haemophilus influenzae, a typical cause of upper respiratory tract infections, in the microbiological diagnostic routine.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Rebecca; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a key pathogen of upper respiratory tract infections. Its reliable discrimination from nonpathogenic Haemophilus spp. is necessary because merely colonizing bacteria are frequent at primarily unsterile sites. Due to close phylogenetic relationship, it is not easy to discriminate H. influenzae from the colonizer Haemophilus haemolyticus. The frequency of H. haemolyticus isolations depends on factors like sampling site, patient condition, and geographic region. Biochemical discrimination has been shown to be nonreliable. Multiplex PCR including marker genes like sodC, fucK, and hpd or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the P6 gene, or multilocus-sequence-typing is more promising. For the diagnostic routine, such techniques are too expensive and laborious. If available, matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a routine-compatible option and should be used in the first line. However, the used database should contain well-defined reference spectra, and the spectral difference between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus is small. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization is an option for less well-equipped laboratories, but the available protocol will not lead to conclusive results in all instances. It can be used as a second line approach. Occasional ambiguous results have to be resolved by alternative molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:25883794

  16. Difficult identification of Haemophilus influenzae, a typical cause of upper respiratory tract infections, in the microbiological diagnostic routine

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Rebecca; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a key pathogen of upper respiratory tract infections. Its reliable discrimination from nonpathogenic Haemophilus spp. is necessary because merely colonizing bacteria are frequent at primarily unsterile sites. Due to close phylogenetic relationship, it is not easy to discriminate H. influenzae from the colonizer Haemophilus haemolyticus. The frequency of H. haemolyticus isolations depends on factors like sampling site, patient condition, and geographic region. Biochemical discrimination has been shown to be nonreliable. Multiplex PCR including marker genes like sodC, fucK, and hpd or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, the P6 gene, or multilocus-sequence-typing is more promising. For the diagnostic routine, such techniques are too expensive and laborious. If available, matrix-assisted laser-desorption–ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a routine-compatible option and should be used in the first line. However, the used database should contain well-defined reference spectra, and the spectral difference between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus is small. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization is an option for less well-equipped laboratories, but the available protocol will not lead to conclusive results in all instances. It can be used as a second line approach. Occasional ambiguous results have to be resolved by alternative molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:25883794

  17. Immune enhancement of pulmonary clearance of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, E J; Hart, D A; McGehee, J L; Toews, G B

    1988-01-01

    BALB/c mice systemically immunized by intraperitoneal injection with whole, viable cells of two different strains of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) exhibited a markedly enhanced ability to clear the homologous strain of NTHI from the lower respiratory tract. Immunization did not influence the number of phagocytic cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from mice before or after intrapulmonary challenge with NTHI. Immunization also induced the synthesis of relatively large quantities of NTHI-directed antibodies which were detectable in both the bloodstream and the alveolar spaces of the lung. Radioimmunoprecipitation and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses indicated that these antibodies were directed against both the proteins and lipooligosaccharide (LOS) in the NTHI outer membrane. Bactericidal and opsonophagocytic assays determined that the NTHI-directed antibodies in the serum were functional and able to kill or opsonize the homologous NTHI strain. Mice immunized with an NTHI major outer membrane protein-LOS complex also had an increased ability to effect pulmonary clearance of NTHI. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from these animals immunized with the outer membrane protein-LOS complex contained relatively high levels of antibodies to both of these antigens. The serum from these animals also possessed bactericidal and opsonic activity against the homologous NTHI strain. These results indicate that systemic immunization can enhance the ability of experimental animals to clear NTHI from the lower respiratory tract and suggest that immunoprophylaxis of NTHI pulmonary disease may be feasible. Images PMID:3257203

  18. Biofilm-specific extracellular matrix proteins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Siva; Baum, Marc M; Kerwin, James; Guerrero, Debbie; Webster, Simon; Schaudinn, Christoph; VanderVelde, David; Webster, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen, can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24- and 96-h NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM that were not detected in planktonic bacteria. One ECM protein was unique to 24-h biofilms, two were found only in 96-h biofilms, and fifteen were present in the ECM of both 24- and 96-h NTHi biofilms. All proteins identified were either associated with bacterial membranes or cytoplasmic proteins. Immunocytochemistry showed two of the identified proteins, a DNA-directed RNA polymerase and the outer membrane protein OMP P2, associated with bacteria and biofilm ECM. Identification of biofilm-specific proteins present in immature biofilms is an important step in understanding the in vitro process of NTHi biofilm formation. The presence of a cytoplasmic protein and a membrane protein in the biofilm ECM of immature NTHi biofilms suggests that bacterial cell lysis may be a feature of early biofilm formation.

  19. Haemophilus influenzae Porin Contributes to Signaling of the Inflammatory Cascade in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, Massimiliano; D'Amico, Michele; Gorga, Fernanda; Di Filippo, Clara; D'Isanto, Marina; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Longanella, Anna; Tortora, Annalisa

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we observed that the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) porin, among the different surface bacterial components, is involved in the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis. This study demonstrates that inoculation of Hib porin into the fourth cerebral ventricle causes the simultaneous expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) at 6 h after inoculation. At 24 h, the expression of MIP-2 decreases while the expression of IL-1α and TNF-α increases. The mRNA expression of IL-1α, TNF-α, and MIP-2 is correlated with injury to the blood-brain barrier as demonstrated by the appearance of serum proteins and leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid and by the increase in brain water content. PMID:11119509

  20. Molecular cloning, expression, and sequence of the pilin gene from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae M37.

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, T; Grass, S; Munson, R

    1991-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae M37 adheres to human buccal epithelial cells and exhibits mannose-resistant hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. An isogenic variant of this strain which was deficient in hemagglutination was isolated. A protein with an apparent molecular weight of 22,000 was present in the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel profile of sarcosyl-insoluble proteins from the hemagglutination-proficient strain but was absent from the profile of the isogenic hemagglutination-deficient variant. A monoclonal antibody which reacts with the hemagglutination-proficient isolate but not with the hemagglutination-deficient isolate has been characterized. This monoclonal antibody was employed in an affinity column for purification of the protein as well as to screen a genomic library for recombinant clones expressing the gene. Several clones which contained overlapping genomic fragments were identified by reaction with the monoclonal antibody. The gene for the 22-kDa protein was subcloned and sequenced. The gene for the type b pilin from H. influenzae type b strain MinnA was also cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence of the strain MinnA gene was identical to that reported previously for two other type b strains. The DNA sequence of the strain M37 gene is 77% identical to that of the type b pilin gene, and the derived amino acid sequence is 68% identical to that of the type b pilin. Images PMID:1673447

  1. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b–Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6–23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2–5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6–23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2–5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases. PMID:25833163

  2. Worldwide Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Global Analysis of the Disease Burden 25 Years after the Use of the Polysaccharide Vaccine and a Decade after the Advent of Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Heikki

    2000-01-01

    Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) diseases began a quarter of a century ago with a polysaccharide vaccine; this vaccine was followed by four different conjugates 10 years later. In this review, the burden of global Hib disease is quantified following this 25-year period of vaccine availability to determine the potential impact of conjugate vaccines. This task was accomplished by analysis of data available in 10 languages in 75 geographical regions of over 50 countries. All severe Hib diseases, not only meningitis, were characterized, and special attention was paid to the most vulnerable age group, i.e., children aged 0 to 4 years. Prior to vaccination, the weighted worldwide incidence of meningitis in patients younger than 5 years was 57/100,000, and for all Hib diseases except nonbacteremic pneumonia, it was 71/100,000, indicating 357,000 and 445,000 cases per year, respectively. At least 108,500 of these children died. For all age groups combined, there were 486,000 cases of Hib disease, excluding pneumonia, with 114,200 deaths and probably an equal number of sequelae per annum. If the figures for nonbacteremic pneumonia are included, a conservative estimate is that over 2.2 million cases of infection and 520,000 deaths from Hib disease occurred worldwide, but the true numbers might have been greater. Despite these large numbers and availability of safe and efficacious vaccines, only 38,000 cases annually are prevented—a meager 8% or less than a 2% reduction in cases, depending on whether nonbacteremic pneumonia is included in the calculations. Although vaccination has had great success in some affluent countries, the current level of activity has had a very small impact globally. The use of conjugates, preferably with a reduced number of doses and in combination with other vaccines or perhaps in fractional doses, should be extended to less privileged countries, where most Hib disease occurs. PMID:10756001

  3. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  4. IGH V3-23*01 and its allele V3-23*03 differ in their capacity to form the canonical human antibody combining site specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed

    Liu, Leyu; Lucas, Alexander H

    2003-08-01

    The IGH V3-23*01 gene is used in the formation of the canonical combining site which dominates the human antibody repertoire to the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide (PS). An allele of the human IGH V3-23*01 gene, known as V3-23*03, differs from V3-23*01 in nine bases, eight of which are located in the second complementarity determining region. These eight differences encode five amino acid substitutions. In this study we investigated whether the V3-23*03 sequence polymorphism affected Hib PS binding. We constructed two Fab fragments that had the canonical Hib PS combining site VH-VL configuration but that had either V3-23*01 or V3-23*03. Radioantigen binding assay showed that on a concentration basis the V3-23*03 Fab was 20-fold more effective in binding Hib PS than the V3-23*01 Fab. The V3-23*03 Fab was 4-fold more effective than the V3-23*01 Fab in mediating facilitated bactericidal activity against Hib organisms. These findings identify a functional consequence of V3-23 allelism, and suggest that utilization of the V3-23*03 gene in the human Hib PS repertoire would generate canonical antibodies with higher affinity and protective efficacy than canonical antibodies utilizing V3-23*01. Thus, IGH V gene allelic variation has the potential to impact the generation of protective immunity to Hib.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines coadministered with a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in toddlers: a pooled analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Kristina; McVernon, Jodie; Marchant, Colin; Nolan, Terry; Marshall, Gary; Richmond, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Nissen, Michael; Lambert, Stephen; Aris, Emmanuel; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline

    2012-08-01

    A pooled analysis was conducted of 1257 toddlers who received a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) or Hib conjugate vaccine (Hib polysaccharide conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein) coadministered with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (VAR) vaccines (NCT00134719/NCT00289783). Noninferiority of immunological responses to MMR and VAR was demonstrated between groups and incidences of MMR- and VAR-specific solicited symptoms were similar, indicating that HibMenCY-TT can be coadministered with MMR and VAR.

  6. In vitro capability of faropenem to select for resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Beachel, Linda; Ednie, Lois; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2008-02-01

    When tested against nine strains of pneumococci and six of Haemophilus influenzae of various resistotypes, faropenem failed to select for resistant mutants after 50 days of consecutive subculture in subinhibitory concentrations. Faropenem also yielded low rates of spontaneous mutations against all organisms of both species. By comparison, resistant clones were obtained with macrolides, ketolides, and quinolones. PMID:18086853

  7. Predicted Configurations of Oligosaccharide Extensions in the Lipooligosaccharide of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Kirk W.; Xie, Jingping; Daniel, Deborah; Ulrich-Lewis, Justin Theophilus

    2014-01-01

    Lipooligosaccharide configurations were predicted in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates based on the presence of seven oligosaccharide extension-initiating genes (or alleles). Predicted configurations with 2 to 3 oligosaccharide extensions were more prevalent among middle ear than throat strains. In addition, strains with these configurations averaged higher levels of serum resistance than strains with other configurations. PMID:24789190

  8. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  9. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  10. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strains That Establish Bacteremia in the Infant Rat Model of Invasive Disease

    PubMed Central

    VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Mussa, Huda J.; Cole, Brett K.; Whitby, Paul W.; Stull, Terrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive disease. The infant rat is the accepted model of invasive H. influenzae disease. Here, we report the genome sequences of six nontypeable H. influenzae strains that establish bacteremia in the infant rat. PMID:26404588

  12. Use of automated riboprinter and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiological studies of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C C; Siu, L K; Chen, M K; Yu, Y L; Lin, F M; Ho, M; Chu, M L

    2001-03-01

    A total of 87 invasive isolates of Haemophilus influenzae isolated throughout Taiwan from 1994 to 1998 was collected; 57 were from children <14 years old. In all, 60.9% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin and produced beta-lactamase. Ribotyping revealed six different profiles in 55 isolates of type b, nine profiles in 10 isolates of non-type b and 12 profiles in 22 isolates of non-typable H. influenzae. Among isolates from 35 cases of meningitis, 30 (86%) were in ribogroups 1, 2 and 3 with >90% genetic similarity. Compared with all the other ribogroups, ribogroups 1, 2 and 3, which encompassed all H. influenzae type b, were significantly more prevalent as a cause of meningitis in children <14 years old. Further subtyping of the predominant ribogroup by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified differences of 0-6 bands among these isolates of ribogroup 1, which indicated distant relatedness. Automated ribotyping was found to be a useful method and was less time-consuming for molecular epidemiology studies of H. influenzae. PFGE is suggested as an addition to ribotyping to improve discrimination if H. influenzae type b is involved. Differentiating ribogroups between type b and non-type b H. influenzae by genotyping may help to understand the molecular characteristics of outbreaks, endemicity and value of vaccination. According to the results of ribotyping and PFGE, it seems possible that spread of invasive H. influenzae type b had occurred and ribotyping confirmed that there was no clonal spread of non-type b H. influenzae in Taiwan.

  13. Maturation of molybdoenzymes and its influence on the pathogenesis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Dhouib, Rabeb; Pg Othman, Dk S. M.; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Hansbro, Phil M.; Hanson, Jeffrey O.; McEwan, Alastair G.; Kappler, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear molybdenum enzymes of the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase family occur exclusively in prokaryotes, and a loss of some these enzymes has been linked to a loss of bacterial virulence in several cases. The MobA protein catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the molybdenum guanine dinucleotide (MGD) cofactor that is exclusive to enzymes of the DMSO reductase family. MobA has been proposed as a potential target for control of virulence since its inhibition would affect the activities of all molybdoenzymes dependent upon MGD. Here, we have studied the phenotype of a mobA mutant of the host-adapted human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae. H. influenzae causes and contributes to a variety of acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory tract, and several enzymes of the DMSO reductase family are conserved and highly expressed in this bacterium. The mobA mutation caused a significant decrease in the activities of all Mo-enzymes present, and also resulted in a small defect in anaerobic growth. However, we did not detect a defect in in vitro biofilm formation nor in invasion and adherence to human epithelial cells in tissue culture compared to the wild-type. In a murine in vivo model, the mobA mutant showed only a mild attenuation compared to the wild-type. In summary, our data show that MobA is essential for the activities of molybdenum enzymes, but does not appear to affect the fitness of H. influenzae. These results suggest that MobA is unlikely to be a useful target for antimicrobials, at least for the purpose of treating H. influenzae infections. PMID:26594204

  14. Maturation of molybdoenzymes and its influence on the pathogenesis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Dhouib, Rabeb; Pg Othman, Dk S M; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Hansbro, Phil M; Hanson, Jeffrey O; McEwan, Alastair G; Kappler, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Mononuclear molybdenum enzymes of the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase family occur exclusively in prokaryotes, and a loss of some these enzymes has been linked to a loss of bacterial virulence in several cases. The MobA protein catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the molybdenum guanine dinucleotide (MGD) cofactor that is exclusive to enzymes of the DMSO reductase family. MobA has been proposed as a potential target for control of virulence since its inhibition would affect the activities of all molybdoenzymes dependent upon MGD. Here, we have studied the phenotype of a mobA mutant of the host-adapted human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae. H. influenzae causes and contributes to a variety of acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory tract, and several enzymes of the DMSO reductase family are conserved and highly expressed in this bacterium. The mobA mutation caused a significant decrease in the activities of all Mo-enzymes present, and also resulted in a small defect in anaerobic growth. However, we did not detect a defect in in vitro biofilm formation nor in invasion and adherence to human epithelial cells in tissue culture compared to the wild-type. In a murine in vivo model, the mobA mutant showed only a mild attenuation compared to the wild-type. In summary, our data show that MobA is essential for the activities of molybdenum enzymes, but does not appear to affect the fitness of H. influenzae. These results suggest that MobA is unlikely to be a useful target for antimicrobials, at least for the purpose of treating H. influenzae infections. PMID:26594204

  15. Characterization of Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity of Invasive Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Alice L.; Nelson, Kevin L.; Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Tendai; Bonthuis, Paul J.; Geelhood, Jennifer L.; Morlin, Gregory; Unrath, William C. T.; Campos, Jose; Crook, Derrick W.; Farley, Monica M.; Henderson, Frederick W.; Jacobs, Richard F.; Mühlemann, Kathrin; Satola, Sarah W.; van Alphen, Loek; Golomb, Miriam; Smith, Arnold L.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of unencapsulated (nontypeable) Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) to cause systemic disease in healthy children has been recognized only in the past decade. To determine the extent of similarity among invasive nontypeable isolates, we compared strain R2866 with 16 additional NTHi isolates from blood and spinal fluid, 17 nasopharyngeal or throat isolates from healthy children, and 19 isolates from middle ear aspirates. The strains were evaluated for the presence of several genetic loci that affect bacterial surface structures and for biochemical reactions that are known to differ among H. influenzae strains. Eight strains, including four blood isolates, shared several properties with R2866: they were biotype V (indole and ornithine decarboxylase positive, urease negative), contained sequence from the adhesin gene hia, and lacked a genetic island flanked by the infA and ksgA genes. Multilocus sequence typing showed that most biotype V isolates belonged to the same phylogenetic cluster as strain R2866. When present, the infA-ksgA island contains lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic genes, either lic2B and lic2C or homologs of the losA and losB genes described for Haemophilus ducreyi. The island was found in most nasopharyngeal and otitis isolates but was absent from 40% of invasive isolates. Overall, the 33 hmw-negative isolates were much more likely than hmw-containing isolates to have tryptophanase, ornithine decarboxylase, or lysine decarboxylase activity or to contain the hif genes. We conclude (i) that invasive isolates are genetically and phenotypically diverse and (ii) that certain genetic loci of NTHi are frequently found in association among NTHi strains. PMID:16113304

  16. Activities of HMR 3787 and RU 64399 Compared with Those of Four Other Agents against Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae

    PubMed Central

    Bozdogan, Bülent; Clark, Catherine; Bryskier, Andre; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2003-01-01

    Activities of HMR 3787, a new 2-fluoroketolide, and its (des)-fluor derivative, RU 64399, were tested against 111 Haemophilus influenzae and 26 H. parainfluenzae strains and compared with those of telithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. HMR 3787 and RU 64399 MICs were comparable with those of azithromycin but were less affected by incubation in CO2. Time-kill studies of 12 strains showed that HMR 3787, RU 64399, and telithromycin were bactericidal against all strains after 24 h at two times the MIC. PMID:12499225

  17. Absence of an important vaccine and diagnostic target in carriage- and disease-related nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C; Chang, Anne B; Sarovich, Derek S; Marsh, Robyn L; Grimwood, Keith; Leach, Amanda J; Morris, Peter S; Price, Erin P

    2014-02-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-associated disease is a major health problem globally. Whole-genome sequence analysis identified the absence of hpd genes encoding Haemophilus protein D in 3 of 16 phylogenetically distinct NTHi isolates. This novel finding is of potential clinical significance, as protein D and hpd represent important NTHi vaccine antigen and diagnostic targets, respectively.

  18. Isolation, expression, and nucleotide sequencing of the pilin structural gene of the Brazilian purpuric fever clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius.

    PubMed Central

    St Geme, J W; Falkow, S

    1993-01-01

    In this study we isolated the pilin gene from the Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius, expressed the gene in Escherichia coli, and determined its nucleotide sequence. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the BPF pilin gene with the sequences of pilin genes from strains of H. influenzae sensu stricto demonstrated a high degree of identity. Consistent with this observation, hemagglutination inhibition studies performed with a series of glycoconjugates indicated that BPF pili and H. influenzae type b pili possess the same erythrocyte receptor specificity. Images PMID:8478116

  19. Intra-tracheal Administration of Haemophilus influenzae in Mouse Models to Study Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Venuprasad, K; Theivanthiran, Balamayooran; Cantarel, Brandi

    2016-03-02

    Here, we describe a detailed procedure to efficiently and directly deliver Haemophilus influenzae into the lower respiratory tracts of mice. We demonstrate the procedure for preparing H. influenzae inoculum, intra-tracheal instillation of H. influenzae into the lung, collection of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), analysis of immune cells in the BALF, and RNA isolation for differential gene expression analysis. This procedure can be used to study the lung inflammatory response to any bacteria, virus or fungi. Direct tracheal instillation is mostly preferred over intranasal or aerosol inhalation procedures because it more efficiently delivers the bacterial inoculum into the lower respiratory tract with less ambiguity.

  20. Duplex Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Haemophilus influenzae That Distinguishes Fucose- and Protein D-Negative Strains.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Camilla; Pickering, Janessa L; Richmond, Peter C; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a specific Haemophilus influenzae quantitative PCR (qPCR) that also identifies fucose-negative and protein D-negative strains. Analysis of 100 H. influenzae isolates, 28 Haemophilus haemolyticus isolates, and 14 other bacterial species revealed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 96% to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 92% to 100%) for this assay. The evaluation of 80 clinical specimens demonstrated a strong correlation between semiquantitative culture and the qPCR (P < 0.001).

  1. Haemophilus haemolyticus Interaction with Host Cells Is Different to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Prevents NTHi Association with Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Janessa L; Prosser, Amy; Corscadden, Karli J; de Gier, Camilla; Richmond, Peter C; Zhang, Guicheng; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S

    2016-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that resides in the upper respiratory tract and contributes to a significant burden of respiratory related diseases in children and adults. Haemophilus haemolyticus is a respiratory tract commensal that can be misidentified as NTHi due to high levels of genetic relatedness. There are reports of invasive disease from H. haemolyticus, which further blurs the species boundary with NTHi. To investigate differences in pathogenicity between these species, we optimized an in vitro epithelial cell model to compare the interaction of 10 H. haemolyticus strains with 4 NTHi and 4 H. influenzae-like haemophili. There was inter- and intra-species variability but overall, H. haemolyticus had reduced capacity to attach to and invade nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar epithelial cell lines (D562 and A549) within 3 h when compared with NTHi. H. haemolyticus was cytotoxic to both cell lines at 24 h, whereas NTHi was not. Nasopharyngeal epithelium challenged with some H. haemolyticus strains released high levels of inflammatory mediators IL-6 and IL-8, whereas NTHi did not elicit an inflammatory response despite higher levels of cell association and invasion. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with H. haemolyticus or NTHi released similar and high levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNFα when compared with unstimulated cells but only NTHi elicited an IFNγ response. Due to the relatedness of H. haemolyticus and NTHi, we hypothesized that H. haemolyticus may compete with NTHi for colonization of the respiratory tract. We observed that in vitro pre-treatment of epithelial cells with H. haemolyticus significantly reduced NTHi attachment, suggesting interference or competition between the two species is possible and warrants further investigation. In conclusion, H. haemolyticus interacts differently with host cells compared to NTHi, with different immunostimulatory and cytotoxic

  2. Immunologic and Structural Relationships of the Minor Pilus Subunits among Haemophilus influenzae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Kirk W.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Marrs, Carl F.; Clemans, Daniel; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    1998-01-01

    Two proteins, HifD and HifE, have been identified as structural components of Haemophilus influenzae pili. Both are localized at the pilus tip, and HifE appears to mediate pilus adherence to host cells. In this study we examined the immunologic and structural diversity of these pilus subunits among type b H. influenzae (Hib) and nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI) strains. Western immunoblot analysis revealed that antibodies directed against the C terminus of HifD and HifE from Hib strain Eagan bound to HifD and HifE proteins, respectively, of all piliated Hib and NTHI strains tested. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that antibodies specific for native HifD or HifE of strain Eagan also bound to all piliated Hib strains but did not bind to the piliated NTHI strains. Antibodies against HifE of strain Eagan inhibited the binding of Hib to human erythrocytes but did not inhibit the binding of NTHI strains. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was used to determine strain-to-strain structural differences within hifD and hifE genes, either by PCR or by nucleotide sequence analysis. DNA and derived amino acid sequence analyses of HifD and HifE confirmed the uniqueness of the RFLP types. The hifD and hifE genes of all type b strains showed identical restriction patterns. Analysis of hifD and hifE genes from the NTHI strains, however, revealed seven unique RFLP patterns, suggesting that these genes encode proteins with diverse primary structures. These results indicate that HifD and HifE are immunologically and structurally similar among the Hib strains but vary among the NTHI strains. PMID:9746580

  3. Genetics and complementation of Haemophilus influenzae mutants deficient in adenosine 5'-triphosphate-dependent nuclease.

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, J; Small, G D; Setlow, J K; Shapanka, R

    1976-01-01

    Eight different mutations in Haemophilus influenzae leading to deficiency in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent nuclease have been investigated in strains in which the mutations of the originally mutagenized strains have been transferred into the wild type. Sensitivity to mitomycin C and deoxycholate and complementation between extracts and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-dependent ATPase activity have been measured. Genetic crosses have provided information on the relative position of the mutations on the genome. There are three complementation groups, corresponding to three genetic groups. The strains most sensitive to mitomycin and deoxycholate, derived from mutants originally selected on the basis of sensitivity to mitomycin C or methyl methanesulfonate, are in one group. Apparently all these sensitive strains lack DNA-dependent ATPase activity, as does a strain intermediate in sensitivity to deoxycholate, which is the sole representative of another group. There are four strains that are relatively resistant to deoxycholate and mitomycin C, and all of these contain the ATPase activity. Three of these are in the same genetic and complementation group, whereas the other incongruously belongs in the same group as the sensitive strains. It is postulated that there are three cistrons in H. influenzae that code for the three known subunits of the ATP-dependent nuclease. PMID:177397

  4. Laboratory characterization of invasive Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Nunavut, Canada, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Li, Y. Anita; Mullen, Angie; Baikie, Maureen; Whyte, Kathleen; Shuel, Michelle; Tyrrell, Gregory; Rotondo, Jenny A. L.; Desai, Shalini; Spika, John

    2016-01-01

    Background With invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease controlled by vaccination with conjugate Hib vaccines, there is concern that invasive disease due to non-serotype b strains may emerge. Objective This study characterized invasive H. influenzae (Hi) isolates from Nunavut, Canada, in the post-Hib vaccine era. Methods Invasive H. influenzae isolates were identified by conventional methods at local hospitals; and further characterized at the provincial and federal public health laboratories, including detection of serotype antigens and genes, multi-locus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility. Results Of the 89 invasive H. influenzae cases identified from 2000 to 2012, 71 case isolates were available for study. There were 43 serotype a (Hia), 12 Hib, 2 Hic, 1 Hid, 1 Hie, 2 Hif and 10 were non-typeable (NT). All 43 Hia were biotype II, sequence type (ST)-23. Three related STs were found among the Hib isolates: ST-95 (n=9), ST-635 (n=2) and ST-44 (n=1). Both Hif belonged to ST-124 and the 2 Hic were typed as ST-9. The remaining Hid (ST-1288) and Hie (ST-18) belonged to 2 separate clones. Of the 10 NT strains, 3 were typed as ST-23 and the remaining 7 isolates each belonged to a unique ST. Eight Hib and 1 NT-Hi were found to be resistant to ampicillin due to β-lactamase production. No resistance to other antibiotics was detected. Conclusion During the period of 2000–2012, Hia was the predominant serotype causing invasive disease in Nunavut. This presents a public health concern due to an emerging clone of Hia as a cause of invasive H. influenzae disease and the lack of published guidelines for the prophylaxis of contacts. The clonal nature of Hia could be the result of spread within an isolated population, and/or unique characteristics of this strain to cause invasive disease. Further study of Hia in other populations may provide important information on this emerging pathogen. No antibiotic resistance was detected among Hia isolates; a

  5. A novel nickel responsive MerR-like regulator, NimR, from Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Stephen P; Djoko, Karrera Y; Ng, JiaQi; Argente, M Pilar; Jennings, Michael P; McEwan, Alastair G

    2011-10-01

    We have identified a novel regulator from the MerR family of transcription factors in the bacterial pathogen Haemophilus influenzae (HI1623; nickel-associated merR-like Regulator--NimR). NimR regulates the expression of a Ni(2+) uptake transporter (NikKLMQO). The promoters for nimR and the nik operon are divergent and overlapping and NimR binds at a site between the promoter elements for nikKLMQO. Expression of this operon requires NimR and depends on Ni(2+). Growth rates of the H. influenzae nimR and nikQ mutants were reduced in chemically defined media compared to the wild type and the mutants were unable to grow in the presence of EDTA. The mutant strains were less tolerant of acidic pH and the wild type Rd KW20 could not tolerate low pH in the presence of fluoramide, a urease specific inhibitor, confirming that both nickel transport and urea hydrolysis are a central process in pH control. H. influenzae nimR and nikQ strains were deficient in urease activity, but this could be specifically restored by the addition of excess Ni(2+). NimR did not directly regulate the expression of urease genes but the activity of urease requires both nimR and nikQ. Purified NimR is a dimer that binds 1 Ni(2+)ion. NimR is the first example of a Ni-dependent regulator from the MerR family and targeting a metal ion uptake system; it is distinct from NikR the Ni-responsive regulators of the ribbon-helix-helix family. PMID:21952667

  6. Characterization of lactate utilization and its implication on the physiology of Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenegger, Sabine; Bina, Isabelle; Roier, Sandro; Bauernfeind, Stilla; Keidel, Kristina; Schild, Stefan; Anthony, Mark; Reidl, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative bacillus and a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx. Earlier work demonstrated that in H. influenzae type b, l-lactate metabolism is associated with serum resistance and in vivo survival of the organism. To further gain insight into lactate utilization of the non-typeable (NTHi) isolate 2019 and laboratory prototype strain Rd KW20, deletion mutants of the l-lactate dehydrogenase (lctD) and permease (lctP) were generated and characterized. It is shown, that the apparent KM of l-lactate uptake is 20.1 μM as determined for strain Rd KW20. Comparison of the COPD isolate NTHi 2019-R with the corresponding lctP knockout strain for survival in human serum revealed no lactate dependent serum resistance. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold attenuation of the mutant strain in a murine model of nasopharyngeal colonization. Characterization of lctP transcriptional control shows that the lactate utilization system in H. influenzae is not an inductor inducible system. Rather negative feedback regulation was observed in the presence of l-lactate and this is dependent on the ArcAB regulatory system. Additionally, for 2019 it was found that lactate may have signaling function leading to increased cell growth in late log phase under conditions where no l-lactate is metabolized. This effect seems to be ArcA independent and was not observed in strain Rd KW20. We conclude that l-lactate is an important carbon-source and may act as host specific signal substrate which fine tunes the globally acting ArcAB regulon and may additionally affect a yet unknown signaling system and thus may contribute to enhanced in vivo survival. PMID:24674911

  7. Distribution and Diversity of hmw1A Among Invasive Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Isolates in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahini Shams Abadi, Milad; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Vaziri, Farzam; Davari, Mehdi; Fateh, Abolfazl; Pourazar, Shahin; Abdolrahimi, Farid; Ghazanfari, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) begins with adhesion to the rhinopharyngeal mucosa. Almost 38–80% of NTHi clinical isolates produce proteins that belong to the High Molecular Weight (HMW) family of adhesins, which are believed to facilitate colonization. Methods: In the present study, the prevalence of hmwA, which encodes the HMW adhesin, was determined for a collection of 32 NTHi isolates. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed to advance our understanding of hmwA binding sequence diversity. Results: The results demonstrated that hmwA was detected in 61% of NTHi isolates. According to RFLP, isolates were divided into three groups. Conclusion: Based on these observations, it is hypothesized that some strains of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae infect some specific areas more than other parts. PMID:27141269

  8. Septic Arthritis and Hemarthroses Caused by Haemophilus Influenzae Serotype A in Children

    PubMed Central

    Samraj, Ravi S.; Fergie, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype A (Hia) is rare in children. Clinical syndromes caused by Hia include meningitis, sepsis and respiratory tract infections. Septic arthritis is rare in children with invasive Hia infection and hemarthrosis has not been described in the published literature. We report a case of septic arthritis and hemarthrosis caused by Hia infection in a 2.5 year-old-boy and review invasive Hia infection in children.

  9. Haemophilus influenzae as a cause of Brodie's abscess in an infant.

    PubMed

    Kurlandsky, L E; Quinn, P H; Sills, E M

    1979-01-01

    Brodie's abscess is a form of subacute osteomyelitis which is defined by a particular constellation of clinical, radiological and pathological features. Its occurrence in infants is extremely rare. This case documents just such an occurrence. To our knowledge, the pathogen Haemophilus influenzae has not been previously recognized as a cause of Brodie's abscess in particular or subacute osteomyelitis in general. The clinical presentation and diagnostic pitfalls which may be encountered in this age group are discussed.

  10. The influence of protein binding on the antibacterial activity of faropenem against Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, I; Cars, O

    2004-10-01

    The effects of albumin and human serum on the pharmacodynamics of faropenem were studied. The protein binding of faropenem was 91-95%, corresponding to the increase in MICs for Haemophilus influenzae in broth supplemented with albumin. Time-kill experiments in albumin-containing medium and in inactivated human serum 50% v/v showed that much higher drug concentrations were needed to achieve a bactericidal effect than were needed in broth. Active human serum alone exerted a strain-dependent bactericidal effect. It was concluded that it is the free fraction of faropenem in serum that has antibacterial activity against H. influenzae. PMID:15373892

  11. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin Tested against Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Rhomberg, Paul R; Huband, Michael D; Farrell, David J

    2016-10-01

    Delafloxacin, an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone, is active against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, 200 Streptococcus pneumoniae (plus 30 levofloxacin-resistant isolates), 200 Haemophilus influenzae, and 100 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates selected primarily from the United States (2014) were tested against delafloxacin and comparator agents. Delafloxacin was the most potent agent tested. MIC50 and MIC90 values against all S. pneumoniae isolates were 0.008 and 0.015 μg/ml. Delafloxacin susceptibility was not affected by β-lactamase status against H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

  12. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae purulent pericarditis in a child with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Downes, Kevin J; Abulebda, Kamal; Siracusa, Christopher; Moore, Ryan; Staat, Mary A; Poynter, Sue E

    2016-07-01

    Early airway colonization and infection with Haemophilus influenzae in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is common. Although the pathogenicity of non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) in patients with CF is controversial, this organism can cause both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Extra-pulmonary disease, however, is rare. Purulent pericarditis is a suppurative complication of bacterial infection of the pericardial space that can arise as a result of direct extension from an adjacent infection. We describe a case of purulent pericarditis due to NTHi in a young child with CF that developed as a complication of inadequately treated bronchopneumonia.

  13. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae purulent pericarditis in a child with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Downes, Kevin J; Abulebda, Kamal; Siracusa, Christopher; Moore, Ryan; Staat, Mary A; Poynter, Sue E

    2016-07-01

    Early airway colonization and infection with Haemophilus influenzae in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is common. Although the pathogenicity of non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi) in patients with CF is controversial, this organism can cause both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Extra-pulmonary disease, however, is rare. Purulent pericarditis is a suppurative complication of bacterial infection of the pericardial space that can arise as a result of direct extension from an adjacent infection. We describe a case of purulent pericarditis due to NTHi in a young child with CF that developed as a complication of inadequately treated bronchopneumonia. PMID:26842501

  14. Comparative Analyses of the Lipooligosaccharides from Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Show Differences in Sialic Acid and Phosphorylcholine Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Post, Deborah M. B.; Ketterer, Margaret R.; Coffin, Jeremy E.; Reinders, Lorri M.; Munson, Robert S.; Bair, Thomas; Murphy, Timothy F.; Foster, Eric D.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease. PMID:26729761

  15. Induction of L Forms of Haemophilus influenzae in Culture and Their Demonstration in Human Bronchial Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Lapinski, Elsie M.; Flakas, E. Delle

    1967-01-01

    Transitional forms and round bodies of Haemophilus influenzae were identified in sputa from patients with chronic bronchitis who were receiving penicillin therapy for H. influenzae infections. In vitro growth of L forms of this organism was induced by penicillin and glycine and was studied for comparison with development in vivo. Variant forms demonstrated in sputum were similar to variant forms observed in penicillin-induced L colonies. Recurrence of infection after cessation of therapy was related to reversion of persisting L forms to bacillary forms. That these forms were derived from H. influenzae was established by direct staining with fluoresceinlabeled specific antibody. This demonstration that transitional forms and round bodies of H. influenzae occurred in vivo suggests that L forms of bacteria may be significant in chronic or recurrent infections. Images PMID:5340311

  16. Cell vacuolation induced by Haemophilus influenzae supernatants in HEp-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza-Mellado, María del Rosario; López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver; Arteaga-Garibay, Ramón I; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae belongs to respiratory tract microbiota. We observed vacuoles formation in previous studies with H. influenzae culture supernatants, so in this work we characterised that cytotoxic effect. We observed an abundant production of acidic cytoplasmic vacuoles due to the presence of a “vacuolating factor” in H. influenzae supernatants which was characterised as thermolabile. Greatest vacuolating activity was observed when utilizing the fraction > 50 kDa. The presence of a large number of vacuoles in HEp-2 cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy and some vacuoles were identified with a double membrane and/or being surrounded by ribosomes. These results suggest similar behaviour to that of vacuolating effects described by autotransporter proteins an undescribed cytotoxic effect induced by H. influenzae . PMID:24402145

  17. Contribution of a 28-kilodalton membrane protein to the virulence of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Chanyangam, M; Smith, A L; Moseley, S L; Kuehn, M; Jenny, P

    1991-01-01

    A Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) membrane protein with a molecular mass of 28 kDa bound polyclonal antisera raised against a highly purified Hib fimbrial subunit. We cloned the gene encoding this protein and found that the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. DNA sequence analysis identified an 843-bp open reading frame which predicted a 26.78-kDa protein with an amino-terminal signal sequence and a mature protein with 70% similarity to the 28-kDa lipoprotein of E. coli (F. Yu, S. Inouye, and M. Inouye, J. Biol. Chem. 261:2284, 1986). Colony blot hybridization analysis with an intergenic probe of the cloned gene demonstrated that 29 of 32 H. influenzae strains hybridize with this gene. Insertion of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene into the open reading frame inactivated expression of the 28-kDa protein in E. coli. Isogenic Hib strains were derived by marker exchange mutagenesis to generate mutants which no longer expressed the 28-kDa protein as recognized with Western immunoblot analysis. There was no difference in the rate of nasopharyngeal colonization of infant rats or monkeys by the isogenic mutants which lacked the 28-kDa protein compared with colonization by the wild-type strain. In contrast, the frequency of invasion and density of bacteremia in infant rats caused by the isogenic mutants were reduced relative to those caused by the wild-type Hib strain. We conclude that this 28-kDa outer membrane protein aids transepithelial invasion of type b strains but is not essential. Images PMID:1987077

  18. Outer membrane protein D15 is conserved among Haemophilus influenzae species and may represent a universal protective antigen against invasive disease.

    PubMed Central

    Loosmore, S M; Yang, Y P; Coleman, D C; Shortreed, J M; England, D M; Klein, M H

    1997-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the d15 gene from two strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and two strains of nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHI). The nucleotide and deduced protein sequences of d15 are highly conserved, with only a small variable region identified near the carboxyl terminus of the protein. Analysis of upstream sequences revealed that the H. influenzae d15 gene may be part of a large potential operon of closely spaced open reading frames, including one with significant homology to the Escherichia coli cds gene encoding CDP-diglyceride synthetase. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the d15 gene is also present in H. influenzae types a, c, d, e, and f and in Haemophilus parainfluenzae. A recombinant D15 (rD15) protein was expressed in good quantity in E. coli from the inducible T7 promoter, and monospecific anti-rD15 antibodies were raised. Immunoblot analysis of H. influenzae serotypes a, b, c, d, e, and f, NTHI, and H. parainfluenzae lysates revealed that they all expressed a cross-reactive D15-like protein. Purified rD15 was found to be highly immunogenic in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, and passive transfer of anti-rD15 antibodies protected infant rats from challenge with H. influenzae type b or type a in infant rat models of bacteremia. Thus, D15 is a highly conserved antigen that is protective in animal models and it may be a useful component of a universal subunit vaccine against Haemophilus infection and disease. PMID:9284140

  19. Comparative Profile of Heme Acquisition Genes in Disease-Causing and Colonizing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Hariadi, Nurul I.; Zhang, Lixin; Patel, Mayuri; Sandstedt, Sara A.; Davis, Gregg S.; Marrs, Carl F.

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are Gram-negative bacteria that colonize the human pharynx and can cause respiratory tract infections, such as acute otitis media (AOM). Since NTHI require iron from their hosts for aerobic growth, the heme acquisition genes may play a significant role in avoiding host nutritional immunity and determining virulence. Therefore, we employed a hybridization-based technique to compare the prevalence of five heme acquisition genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, hemR, and hup) between 514 middle ear strains from children with AOM and 235 throat strains from healthy children. We also investigated their prevalences in 148 Haemophilus haemolyticus strains, a closely related species that colonizes the human pharynx and is considered to be nonpathogenic. Four out of five genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, and hemR) were significantly more prevalent in the middle ear strains (96%, 100%, 100%, and 97%, respectively) than in throat strains (80%, 92%, 93%, and 85%, respectively) of NTHI, suggesting that strains possessing these genes have a virulence advantage over those lacking them. All five genes were dramatically more prevalent in NTHI strains than in H. haemolyticus, with 91% versus 9% hxuA, 98% versus 11% hxuB, 98% versus 11% hxuC, 93% versus 20% hemR, and 97% versus 34% hup, supporting their potential role in virulence and highlighting their possibility to serve as biomarkers to distinguish H. influenzae from H. haemolyticus. In summary, this study demonstrates that heme acquisition genes are more prevalent in disease-causing NTHI strains isolated from the middle ear than in colonizing NTHI strains and H. haemolyticus isolated from the pharynx. PMID:25903577

  20. Molecular basis for the transformation defects in mutants of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Notani, N K; Setlow, J K; Joshi, V R; Allison, D P

    1972-06-01

    To determine the molecular basis of transformation defects in Haemophilus influenzae, the fate of genetically marked, (32)P-labeled, heavy deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was examined in three mutant strains (rec(1) (-), rec(2) (-), and KB6) and in wild type having (3)H-labeled DNA and a second genetic marker. Transforming cells upon lysis with digitonin followed by low-speed centrifugation are separable into the supernatant fraction, containing mainly the unintegrated donor DNA, and the pellet, containing most of the resident DNA along with integrated donor DNA. Electron micrographs of digitonin-treated cells also indicate that the resident DNA is trapped inside a cellular structure but that cytoplasmic elements such as ribosomes are extensively released. DNA synthesis in digitonin-treated cells is immediately blocked, as is any further integration of donor DNA into the resident genome. Isopycnic and sedimentation analysis of supernatant fluids and pellets revealed that in strains rec(2) (-) and KB6 there is little or no association between donor and resident DNA, and thus there is negligible transfer of donor DNA genetic information. In these strains, the donor DNA is not broken into pieces of lower molecular weight as it is in strain rec(1) (-) and in the wild type, both of which show association between donor and recipient DNA. In strain rec(1) (-), although some donor DNA atoms become covalently linked to resident DNA, the incorporated material does not have the donor DNA transforming activity. PMID:4537421

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Causing Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Calatayud, Laura; Martí, Sara; Tubau, Fe; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen which causes a variety of respiratory infections. The objectives of the study were to determine its antimicrobial susceptibility, to characterize the β-lactam resistance, and to establish a genetic characterization of NTHi isolates. Ninety-five NTHi isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by microdilution, and the ftsI gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, PBP3) was PCR amplified and sequenced. Thirty (31.6%) isolates were non-susceptible to ampicillin (MIC≥2 mg/L), with 10 of them producing β-lactamase type TEM-1 as a resistance mechanism. After ftsI sequencing, 39 (41.1%) isolates showed amino acid substitutions in PBP3, with Asn526→ Lys being the most common (69.2%). Eighty-four patients were successfully treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin. Eight patients died due either to aspiration or complication of their comorbidities. In conclusion, NTHi causing CAP in adults shows high genetic diversity and is associated with a high rate of reduced susceptibility to ampicillin due to alterations in PBP3. The analysis of treatment and outcomes demonstrated that NTHi strains with mutations in the ftsI gene could be successfully treated with ceftriaxone or fluoroquinolones. PMID:24349303

  2. Detection of cryptic genospecies misidentified as Haemophilus influenzae in routine clinical samples by assessment of marker genes fucK, hap, and sodC.

    PubMed

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2009-08-01

    Clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were assessed for the presence of fucK, hap, and sodC by hybridization with gene-specific probes, and isolates diverging from the expected H. influenzae genotype were characterized by phenotype and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Two of 480 isolates were finally classified as variant strains ("nonhemolytic Haemophilus haemolyticus"). PMID:19535530

  3. Haemophilus haemolyticus Interaction with Host Cells Is Different to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Prevents NTHi Association with Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Janessa L.; Prosser, Amy; Corscadden, Karli J.; de Gier, Camilla; Richmond, Peter C.; Zhang, Guicheng; Thornton, Ruth B.; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that resides in the upper respiratory tract and contributes to a significant burden of respiratory related diseases in children and adults. Haemophilus haemolyticus is a respiratory tract commensal that can be misidentified as NTHi due to high levels of genetic relatedness. There are reports of invasive disease from H. haemolyticus, which further blurs the species boundary with NTHi. To investigate differences in pathogenicity between these species, we optimized an in vitro epithelial cell model to compare the interaction of 10 H. haemolyticus strains with 4 NTHi and 4 H. influenzae-like haemophili. There was inter- and intra-species variability but overall, H. haemolyticus had reduced capacity to attach to and invade nasopharyngeal and bronchoalveolar epithelial cell lines (D562 and A549) within 3 h when compared with NTHi. H. haemolyticus was cytotoxic to both cell lines at 24 h, whereas NTHi was not. Nasopharyngeal epithelium challenged with some H. haemolyticus strains released high levels of inflammatory mediators IL-6 and IL-8, whereas NTHi did not elicit an inflammatory response despite higher levels of cell association and invasion. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with H. haemolyticus or NTHi released similar and high levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNFα when compared with unstimulated cells but only NTHi elicited an IFNγ response. Due to the relatedness of H. haemolyticus and NTHi, we hypothesized that H. haemolyticus may compete with NTHi for colonization of the respiratory tract. We observed that in vitro pre-treatment of epithelial cells with H. haemolyticus significantly reduced NTHi attachment, suggesting interference or competition between the two species is possible and warrants further investigation. In conclusion, H. haemolyticus interacts differently with host cells compared to NTHi, with different immunostimulatory and cytotoxic

  4. Molecular characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae causing invasive disease during the period of vaccination in Switzerland: analysis of strains isolated between 1986 and 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Muhlemann, K; Balz, M; Aebi, S; Schopfer, K

    1996-01-01

    The broad use of conjugated vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b may select for strains to which the polysaccharide vaccine does not provide immunity. We analyzed 392 consecutive H. influenzae isolates from Swiss children 0 to 16 years of age with invasive disease during the years 1986 to 1993. Bacterial strains were characterized by serotyping, capsular genotyping, outer membrane protein (OMP) subtyping, and ribotyping. Of 392 strains, 372 were serotype b, 1 was serotype a, 3 were serotype f, and 16 were nontypeable H. influenzae. After the introduction of Haemophilus conjugate vaccines in 1990, there was a relative increase of nontypeable strains from 3 to 6.6% (P = 0.27). Of the type b strains, 281 (75.5%) had the same OMP subtype and ribotype pattern. This clone predominated in the pre- and postvaccine periods. After the year 1990, the proportions of OMP subtype 1c and OMP subtype 3 tended to increase. Isolates from previously vaccinated (n = 10) and nonvaccinated patients did not differ in their subtype distributions. We conclude that the administration of conjugated vaccines decreased invasive disease caused by the most prevalent H. influenzae type b clone. However, further surveillance of circulating H. influenzae strains during the period of vaccination is indicated. PMID:8904414

  5. Molecular Characterization of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Tirado-Vélez, José Manuel; Calatayud, Laura; Tubau, Fe; Garmendia, Junkal; Ardanuy, Carmen; Marti, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common cause of respiratory infections in adults, who are frequently treated with fluoroquinolones. The aims of this study were to characterize the genotypes of fluoroquinolone-resistant NTHi isolates and their mechanisms of resistance. Among 7,267 H. influenzae isolates collected from adult patients from 2000 to 2013, 28 (0.39%) were ciprofloxacin resistant according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. In addition, a nalidixic acid screening during 2010 to 2013 detected five (0.23%) isolates that were ciprofloxacin susceptible but nalidixic acid resistant. Sequencing of their quinolone resistance-determining regions and genotyping by pulse-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing of the 25 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates available and all 5 nalidixic acid-resistant isolates were performed. In the NTHi isolates studied, two mutations producing changes in two GyrA residues (Ser84, Asp88) and/or two ParC residues (Ser84, Glu88) were associated with increased fluoroquinolone MICs. Strains with one or two mutations (n = 15) had ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin MICs of 0.12 to 2 μg/ml, while those with three or more mutations (n = 15) had MICs of 4 to 16 μg/ml. Long persistence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains was observed in three chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. High genetic diversity was observed among fluoroquinolone-resistant NTHi isolates. Although fluoroquinolones are commonly used to treat respiratory infections, the proportion of resistant NTHi isolates remains low. The nalidixic acid disk test is useful for detecting the first changes in GyrA or in GyrA plus ParC among fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains that are at a potential risk for the development of resistance under selective pressure by fluoroquinolone treatment. PMID:25385097

  6. Shp2 Deficiency Impairs the Inflammatory Response Against Haemophilus influenzae by Regulating Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lifang; Xia, Jingyan; Li, Tiantian; Zhou, Hui; Ouyang, Wei; Hong, Zhuping; Ke, Yuehai; Qian, Jing; Xu, Feng

    2016-08-15

    Macrophages can polarize and differentiate to regulate initiation, development, and cessation of inflammation during pulmonary infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms driving macrophage phenotypic differentiation are largely unclear. Our study investigated the role of Shp2, a Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase, in the regulation of pulmonary inflammation and bacterial clearance. Shp2 levels were increased upon NTHi stimulation. Selective inhibition of Shp2 in mice led to an attenuated inflammatory response by skewing macrophages toward alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization. Upon pulmonary NTHi infection, Shp2(-/-) mice, in which the gene encoding Shp2 in monocytes/macrophages was deleted, showed an impaired inflammatory response and decreased antibacterial ability, compared with wild-type controls. In vitro data demonstrated that Shp2 regulated activated macrophage (M1) gene expression via activation of p65-nuclear factor-κB signaling, independent of p38 and extracellular regulated kinase-mitogen-activated proteins kinase signaling pathways. Taken together, our study indicates that Shp2 is required to orchestrate macrophage function and regulate host innate immunity against pulmonary bacterial infection.

  7. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae Causing Invasive Disease in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Grau, Imma; Tubau, Fe; Calatayud, Laura; Pallares, Roman; Liñares, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) has changed since the introduction of the Hi type b (Hib) vaccine. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and molecular epidemiology of Hi invasive disease in adults. Methods Clinical data of the 82 patients with Hi invasive infections were analyzed. Antimicrobial susceptibility, serotyping, and genotyping were studied (2008–2013). Results Men accounted for 63.4% of patients (whose mean age was 64.3 years). The most frequent comorbidities were immunosuppressive therapy (34.1%), malignancy (31.7%), diabetes, and COPD (both 22%). The 30-day mortality rate was 20.7%. The majority of the strains (84.3%) were nontypeable (NTHi) and serotype f was the most prevalent serotype in the capsulated strains. The highest antimicrobial resistance was for cotrimoxazole (27.1%) and ampicillin (14.3%). Twenty-three isolates (32.9%) had amino acid changes in the PBP3 involved in resistance. Capsulated strains were clonal and belonged to clonal complexes 6 (serotype b), 124 (serotype f), and 18 (serotype e), whereas NTHi were genetically diverse. Conclusions Invasive Hi disease occurred mainly in elderly and those with underlying conditions, and it was associated with a high mortality rate. NTHi were the most common cause of invasive disease and showed high genetic diversity. PMID:25379704

  8. Polyarticular Septic Arthritis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f in an 8-Month-Old Immunocompetent Infant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Raheel Ahmed; Kaplan, Sheldon L.; Rosenfeld, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The standard use of vaccinations against pathogens has resulted in a decreased incidence of musculoskeletal infections caused by these previously common bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the incidence of infections caused by atypical bacteria is rising. This report presents a case of septic arthritis caused by non-type b H. influenzae in a pediatric patient. Methods. We report a case of an infant with polyarticular septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae serotype f. A literature review was conducted with the inclusion criteria of case reports and studies published between 2004 and 2013 addressing musculoskeletal H. influenzae infections. Results. An 8-month-old female presented with pain and swelling in her right ankle and left elbow. The patient was diagnosed with septic arthritis and underwent incision and drainage. Wound and blood cultures were positive for Haemophilus influenzae serotype f. In addition to treatment with IV antibiotics, the patient underwent immunocompetency studies, which were normal. Subsequent follow-up revealed eradication of the infection. Conclusions. Haemophilus influenzae non-type b may cause serious invasive infections such as sepsis or septic arthritis in children with or without predisposing factors such as immunodeficiency or asplenia. Optimal treatment includes surgical management, culture driven IV antibiotics, and an immunologic workup. PMID:26064739

  9. Polyarticular Septic Arthritis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f in an 8-Month-Old Immunocompetent Infant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ali, Raheel Ahmed; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Rosenfeld, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Background. The standard use of vaccinations against pathogens has resulted in a decreased incidence of musculoskeletal infections caused by these previously common bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the incidence of infections caused by atypical bacteria is rising. This report presents a case of septic arthritis caused by non-type b H. influenzae in a pediatric patient. Methods. We report a case of an infant with polyarticular septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae serotype f. A literature review was conducted with the inclusion criteria of case reports and studies published between 2004 and 2013 addressing musculoskeletal H. influenzae infections. Results. An 8-month-old female presented with pain and swelling in her right ankle and left elbow. The patient was diagnosed with septic arthritis and underwent incision and drainage. Wound and blood cultures were positive for Haemophilus influenzae serotype f. In addition to treatment with IV antibiotics, the patient underwent immunocompetency studies, which were normal. Subsequent follow-up revealed eradication of the infection. Conclusions. Haemophilus influenzae non-type b may cause serious invasive infections such as sepsis or septic arthritis in children with or without predisposing factors such as immunodeficiency or asplenia. Optimal treatment includes surgical management, culture driven IV antibiotics, and an immunologic workup.

  10. Cloning of a DNA fragment encoding a heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding outer membrane protein from Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, H; Ren, Z; Pozsgay, J M; Elkins, C; Whitby, P W; Morton, D J; Stull, T L

    1996-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is able to use hemoglobin as a sole source of heme, and heme-repressible hemoglobin binding to the cell surface has been demonstrated. Using an affinity purification methodology, a hemoglobin-binding protein of approximately 120 kDa was isolated from H. influenzae type b strain HI689 grown in heme-restricted but not in heme-replete conditions. The isolated protein was subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and the derived amino acid sequence was used to design corresponding oligonucleotides. The oligonucleotides were used to probe a Southern blot of EcoRI-digested HI689 genomic DNA. A hybridizing band of approximately 4.2 kb was successfully cloned into pUC19. Using a 1.9-kb internal BglII fragment of the 4.2-kb clone as a probe, hybridization was seen in both typeable and nontypeable H. influenzae but not in other bacterial species tested. Following partial nucleotide sequencing of the 4.2-kb insert, a putative open reading frame was subcloned into an expression vector. The host Escherichia coli strain in which the cloned fragment was expressed bound biotinylated human hemoglobin, whereas binding of hemoglobin was not detected in E. coli with the vector alone. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the DNA fragment encoding an approximately 120-kDa heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding protein mediates one step in the acquisition of hemoglobin by H. influenzae in vivo. PMID:8757844

  11. Microbiological Characterization of Haemophilus influenzae Isolated from Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital, South India

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Padmaja Ananth; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Shaw, Dipika

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Haemophilus influenzae is responsible for wide range of localized and invasive lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) with the highest burden of disease in low and middle income countries. Aim The aim of the present study was to characterize the H.influenzae isolates from suspected LRTI. Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted over a period of one and half years (December 2012 to May 2014) including patients with LRTI. H.influenzae was isolated from lower respiratory specimens following standard procedures. Complete characterization of the isolates was performed by bio typing, capsular serotyping, molecular genotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing. The predisposing factors and clinical presentation were studied in the infected patients. Results A total of 8995 samples were received during the study period, out of which growth was significantly observed in 2848 (31.7%) samples. Among the various respiratory pathogens, H.influenzae was isolated from 175 (6.14%) patients. Majority (78.9%) of the patients presented with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The isolates most frequently were of Biotype II (35.42%). Only four of the 50 isolates subjected to capsular serotyping were typeable and were of type b, e and f. All the 50 isolates tested were found to be non-typeable by PCR for capsular genotyping. Maximum resistance was found against ampicillin (9.71%). Conclusion H.influenzae was found to be a significant cause of LRTI. Majority of the isolates were found to be non typeable strains. Non typeable H. influenzae isolates should not be neglected as they can colonize the respiratory tract in COPD patients and can lead to biofilm formation and treatment failure. PMID:27437218

  12. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... among children under 5 years old in the United States. Meningitis is an infection of the lining of ... Hib vaccine, about 20,000 children in the United States under 5 years old got Hib disease each ...

  13. Capsule Gene Analysis of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae: Accuracy of Serotyping and Prevalence of IS1016 among Nontypeable Isolates▿

    PubMed Central

    Satola, Sarah W.; Collins, Julie T.; Napier, Ruth; Farley, Monica M.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of serologic capsule typing by analyzing capsule genes and related markers among invasive Haemophilus influenzae isolates before and after the introduction of H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccines. Three hundred and sixty invasive H. influenzae isolates were collected as part of Active Bacterial Core surveillance within the Georgia Emerging Infections Program between 1 January 1989 and 31 July 1998. All isolates were biotyped, serotyped by slide agglutination serotyping (SAST), and evaluated using PCR capsule typing. Nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) isolates were probed with Hib cap-gene-containing plasmid pUO38 and with IS1016; a subset was examined with phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi) genotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Discrepancies between SAST and PCR capsule typing were found for 64/360 (17.5%) of the isolates; 48 encapsulated by SAST were NTHi by PCR, 8 NTHi by SAST were encapsulated by PCR, 6 encapsulated by SAST were a different capsule type by PCR, and 2 encapsulated by SAST were capsule-deficient Hib variants (Hib-minus). None of the PCR-confirmed NTHi isolates demonstrated homology with residual capsule gene sequences; 19/201 (9.5%) had evidence of IS1016, an insertion element associated with division I H. influenzae capsule serotypes. The majority of IS1016-positive NTHi were biotypes I and V and showed some genetic relatedness by PFGE. In conclusion, PCR capsule typing was more accurate than SAST and Hib-minus variants were rare. IS1016 was present in 9.5% of NTHi isolates, suggesting that this subset may be more closely related to encapsulated organisms. A better understanding of NTHi may contribute to vaccine development. PMID:17699642

  14. Biotypes, serotypes, and susceptibility to antibiotics of 60 Haemophilus influenzae strains from genitourinary tracts.

    PubMed Central

    Casin, I; Sanson-Le Pors, M J; Felten, A; Perol, Y

    1988-01-01

    Sixty strains of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from the genitourinary tracts of adults: 19 from cervicovaginal secretions, one from a woman with bartholinitis, 37 from urethral exudates, and three from urine. Non-capsulated strains were recovered predominantly, and biotype III accounted for 28 isolates and biotype IV for 25. Many of the H influenzae strains were found to be resistant to one or more of the antibiotics commonly used against sexually transmitted diseases. Resistance to tetracycline was prevalent and was found in 17 of the strains. Ten strains were ampicillin resistant and beta lactamase producing. Kanamycin resistance was less common (two strains). Trospectomycin (U-63366), a new spectinomycin analogue, was eight to 16 times more active than spectinomycin. All the quinolones tested were very active against all strains and may provide an effective alternative for the treatment of resistant H influenzae in genitourinary infections. PMID:2970427

  15. Inflammatory response of Haemophilus influenzae biotype aegyptius causing Brazilian Purpuric Fever

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Gisele Cristiane Gentile; Pereira, Rafaella Fabiana Carneiro; de Hollanda, Luciana Maria; Lancellotti, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Purpuric Fever (BPF) is a systemic disease with many clinical features of meningococcal sepsis and is usually preceded by purulent conjunctivitis. The illness is caused by Haemophilus influenza biogroup aegyptius, which was associated exclusively with conjunctivitis. In this work construction of the las gene, hypothetically responsible for this virulence, were fusioned with ermAM cassette in Neisseria meningitidis virulent strains and had its DNA transfer to non BPF H. influenzae strains. The effect of the las transfer was capable to increase the cytokines TNFα and IL10 expression in Hec-1B cells line infected with these transformed mutants (in eight log scale of folding change RNA expression). This is the first molecular study involving the las transfer to search an elucidation of the pathogenic factors by horizontal intergeneric transfer from meningococci to H. influenzae. PMID:25763053

  16. Duplex Quantitative PCR Assay for Detection of Haemophilus influenzae That Distinguishes Fucose- and Protein D-Negative Strains.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Camilla; Pickering, Janessa L; Richmond, Peter C; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a specific Haemophilus influenzae quantitative PCR (qPCR) that also identifies fucose-negative and protein D-negative strains. Analysis of 100 H. influenzae isolates, 28 Haemophilus haemolyticus isolates, and 14 other bacterial species revealed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 96% to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 92% to 100%) for this assay. The evaluation of 80 clinical specimens demonstrated a strong correlation between semiquantitative culture and the qPCR (P < 0.001). PMID:27335148

  17. [Isolation of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes from deep sites in sick children].

    PubMed

    Gatti, B M; Ramirez Gronda, G A; Etchevarría, M; Vescina, C M; Varea, A M; González Ayala, S E

    2004-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) is the causative agent of several human diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, celulitis, and osteoarthritis. We investigated the isolation of Hi serotypes from sterile sites in sick children. One hundred and seventy nine strains from 146 patients were studied, period 1996-2002, at the Microbiology Laboratory, Hospital de Niños Superiora Sor María Ludovica, Argentina. The serotype distribution was:1 a, 112 b,1 c,1 d, 4 e, 3 f y 24 no typable. Since the beginning of universal Hi b vaccination in 1998, we have observed the fast decrease of serotype b and a relative increase of other serotypes.

  18. Transcription of genes encoding iron and heme acquisition proteins of Haemophilus influenzae during acute otitis media.

    PubMed Central

    Whitby, P W; Sim, K E; Morton, D J; Patel, J A; Stull, T L

    1997-01-01

    Unencapsulated Haemophilus influenzae is the second most common etiologic agent of otitis media in children. H. influenzae requires heme for aerobic growth in vitro and is able to utilize hemoglobin and complexes of heme-hemopexin, heme-albumin, and hemoglobin-haptoglobin and ferritransferrin as sources of iron and heme in vitro. Several of the acquisition mechanisms have been characterized and been shown to be heme repressible in vitro. However, little is known about the expression of heme and/or iron acquisition mechanisms during infections in the middle ear. This study was performed to determine if the genes encoding heme and iron acquisition proteins are transcribed during in vivo growth and to compare these findings with those for samples grown in vitro. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was used to analyze total RNA fractions derived from in vitro- and in vivo-grown H. influenzae. Genes encoding the transferrin-binding proteins TbpA and TbpB, the 100-kDa hemopexin-binding protein HxuA, and the hemoglobin-binding protein HgpA were transcribed during otitis media. Twelve middle ear fluid samples were analyzed by blind RT-PCR to determine the transcriptional status of these genes in H. influenzae during otitis media. Five isolates had transcripts corresponding to tbpA, tbpB, and hxuA. The presence of hgpA transcripts was variable, depending on the presence of hgpA in the genome of the H. influenzae isolate. Samples without H. influenzae gene transcripts contained other etiologic agents commonly causing otitis media. These data demonstrate that H. influenzae iron and/or heme acquisition genes are transcribed during otitis media and suggest that the microenvironment during acute otitis media starves H. influenzae of heme. PMID:9353052

  19. Interspecies Transfer of the Penicillin-Binding Protein 3-Encoding Gene ftsI between Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus Can Confer Reduced Susceptibility to β-Lactam Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Søndergaard, Annette; Witherden, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ftsI, encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, can cause decreased β-lactam susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae. Sequencing of ftsI from clinical strains has indicated interspecies recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. This study documented apparently unrestricted homologous recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus in vitro. Transfer of ftsI from resistant isolates conferred similar but not identical increases in the MICs of susceptible strains of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus. PMID:25918135

  20. A population genetic framework for the study of invasive diseases caused by serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Musser, J M; Granoff, D M; Pattison, P E; Selander, R K

    1985-01-01

    One hundred seventy-seven isolates of serotype b Haemophilus influenzae recovered largely from children with invasive disease in the United States were characterized by the electrophoretic mobilities of 16 metabolic enzymes, the NaDodSO4/PAGE pattern of outer-membrane proteins (OMP), and biotype. Thirty-two distinctive multilocus genotypes (electrophoretic types, ETs) were distinguished on the basis of allele profiles at the enzyme loci. Twenty-eight OMP types and five biotypes were identified, but only 55 distinctive combinations of ET, OMP type, and biotype were represented. The strong nonrandom associations of characters and the recovery of isolates with identical properties in widely separated geographic regions and over a 40-year period suggest that the population structure of H. influenzae is basically clonal. Examination of nonserotype b isolates indicated that clones of serotype b are a restricted subset of the genotypes in the species as a whole. Currently, most of the invasive H. influenzae disease in the United States is caused by serotype b strains of two related ETs, and, more specifically, much of it is attributable to two subclones marked by OMP type. There is evidence that the frequency of the ET-1/OMP 1H/biotype I subclone has increased dramatically in the United States since the 1939-1954 period. The hypothesis that populations of H. influenzae are subject to marked temporal variation in clonal composition is supported by evidence of major differences in the genetic structure of populations in the United States and the Netherlands. PMID:3875093

  1. Lower airway colonization and inflammatory response in COPD: a focus on Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Finney, Lydia J; Ritchie, Andrew; Pollard, Elizabeth; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is common both in stable patients and during acute exacerbations. The most frequent bacteria detected in COPD patients is Haemophilus influenzae, and it appears this organism is uniquely adapted to exploit immune deficiencies associated with COPD and to establish persistent infection in the lower respiratory tract. The presence of bacteria in the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD is termed colonization; however, there is increasing evidence that this is not an innocuous phenomenon but is associated with airway inflammation, increased symptoms, and increased risk for exacerbations. In this review, we discuss host immunity that offers protection against H. influenzae and how disturbance of these mechanisms, combined with pathogen mechanisms of immune evasion, promote persistence of H. influenzae in the lower airways in COPD. In addition, we examine the role of H. influenzae in COPD exacerbations, as well as interactions between H. influenzae and respiratory virus infections, and review the role of treatments and their effect on COPD outcomes. This review focuses predominantly on data derived from human studies but will refer to animal studies where they contribute to understanding the disease in humans. PMID:25342897

  2. Relationship between clinical site of isolation and ability to form biofilms in vitro in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Najla A; Jacobson, Glenn A; Tristram, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen associated with a range of infections, including various lower respiratory infections, otitis media, and conjunctivitis. There is some debate as to whether or not NTHi produces biofilms and, if so, whether or not this is relevant to pathogenesis. Although many studies have examined the association between in vitro biofilm formation and isolates from a specific infection type, few have made comparisons from isolates from a broad range of isolates grouped by clinical source. In our study 50 NTHi from different clinical sources, otitis media, conjunctivitis, lower respiratory tract infections in both cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients, and nasopharyngeal carriage, plus 10 nasopharyngeal isolates of the commensal Haemophilus haemolyticus were tested for the ability to form biofilm by using a static microtitre plate crystal violet assay. A high degree of variation in biofilm forming ability was observed across all isolates, with no statistically significant differences observed between the groups, with the exception of the isolates from conjunctivitis. These isolates had uniformly lower biofilm forming ability compared with isolates from the other groups (p < 0.005). PMID:25706230

  3. Dual orientation of the outer membrane lipoprotein P6 of nontypeable haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Michel, Lea Vacca; Snyder, Joy; Schmidt, Rachel; Milillo, Jennifer; Grimaldi, Kyle; Kalmeta, Breanna; Khan, M Nadeem; Sharma, Sharad; Wright, Leslie Kate; Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-07-01

    The majority of outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins in Gram-negative bacteria are tethered to the membrane via an attached lipid moiety and oriented facing in toward the periplasmic space; a few lipoproteins have been shown to be surface exposed. The outer membrane lipoprotein P6 from the Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is surface exposed and a leading vaccine candidate for prevention of NTHi infections. However, we recently found that P6 is not a transmembrane protein as previously thought (L. V. Michel, B. Kalmeta, M. McCreary, J. Snyder, P. Craig, M. E. Pichichero, Vaccine 29:1624-1627, 2011). Here we pursued studies to show that P6 has a dual orientation, existing infrequently as surface exposed and predominantly as internally oriented toward the periplasmic space. Flow cytometry using three monoclonal antibodies with specificity for P6 showed surface staining of whole NTHi cells. Confocal microscopy imaging confirmed that antibodies targeted surface-exposed P6 of intact NTHi cells and not internal P6 in membrane-compromised or dead cells. Western blots of two wild-type NTHi strains and a mutant NTHi strain that does not express P6 showed that P6 antibodies do not detect a promiscuous epitope on NTHi. Depletion of targets to nonlipidated P6 significantly decreased bactericidal activity of human serum. Protease digestion of surface-exposed P6 demonstrated that P6 is predominantly internally localized in a manner similar to its homologue Pal in Escherichia coli. We conclude that P6 of NTHi is likely inserted into the OM in two distinct orientations, with the predominant orientation facing in toward the periplasm.

  4. Identification and Characterization of msf, a Novel Virulence Factor in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Kress-Bennett, Jennifer M; Hiller, N Luisa; Eutsey, Rory A; Powell, Evan; Longwell, Mark J; Hillman, Todd; Blackwell, Tenisha; Byers, Barbara; Mell, Joshua C; Post, J Christopher; Hu, Fen Z; Ehrlich, Garth D; Janto, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic pathogen. The emergence of virulent, non-typeable strains (NTHi) emphasizes the importance of developing new interventional targets. We screened the NTHi supragenome for genes encoding surface-exposed proteins suggestive of immune evasion, identifying a large family containing Sel1-like repeats (SLRs). Clustering identified ten SLR-containing gene subfamilies, each with various numbers of SLRs per gene. Individual strains also had varying numbers of SLR-containing genes from one or more of the subfamilies. Statistical genetic analyses of gene possession among 210 NTHi strains typed as either disease or carriage found a significant association between possession of the SlrVA subfamily (which we have termed, macrophage survival factor, msf) and the disease isolates. The PittII strain contains four chromosomally contiguous msf genes. Deleting all four of these genes (msfA1-4) (KO) resulted in a highly significant decrease in phagocytosis and survival in macrophages; which was fully complemented by a single copy of the msfA1 gene. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media and invasive disease, the KO strain displayed a significant decrease in fitness compared to the WT in co-infections; and in single infections, the KO lost its ability to invade the brain. The singly complemented strain showed only a partial ability to compete with the WT suggesting gene dosage is important in vivo. The transcriptional profiles of the KO and WT in planktonic growth were compared using the NTHi supragenome array, which revealed highly significant changes in the expression of operons involved in virulence and anaerobiosis. These findings demonstrate that the msfA1-4 genes are virulence factors for phagocytosis, persistence, and trafficking to non-mucosal sites.

  5. Identification and Characterization of msf, a Novel Virulence Factor in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Kress-Bennett, Jennifer M; Hiller, N Luisa; Eutsey, Rory A; Powell, Evan; Longwell, Mark J; Hillman, Todd; Blackwell, Tenisha; Byers, Barbara; Mell, Joshua C; Post, J Christopher; Hu, Fen Z; Ehrlich, Garth D; Janto, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic pathogen. The emergence of virulent, non-typeable strains (NTHi) emphasizes the importance of developing new interventional targets. We screened the NTHi supragenome for genes encoding surface-exposed proteins suggestive of immune evasion, identifying a large family containing Sel1-like repeats (SLRs). Clustering identified ten SLR-containing gene subfamilies, each with various numbers of SLRs per gene. Individual strains also had varying numbers of SLR-containing genes from one or more of the subfamilies. Statistical genetic analyses of gene possession among 210 NTHi strains typed as either disease or carriage found a significant association between possession of the SlrVA subfamily (which we have termed, macrophage survival factor, msf) and the disease isolates. The PittII strain contains four chromosomally contiguous msf genes. Deleting all four of these genes (msfA1-4) (KO) resulted in a highly significant decrease in phagocytosis and survival in macrophages; which was fully complemented by a single copy of the msfA1 gene. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media and invasive disease, the KO strain displayed a significant decrease in fitness compared to the WT in co-infections; and in single infections, the KO lost its ability to invade the brain. The singly complemented strain showed only a partial ability to compete with the WT suggesting gene dosage is important in vivo. The transcriptional profiles of the KO and WT in planktonic growth were compared using the NTHi supragenome array, which revealed highly significant changes in the expression of operons involved in virulence and anaerobiosis. These findings demonstrate that the msfA1-4 genes are virulence factors for phagocytosis, persistence, and trafficking to non-mucosal sites. PMID:26977929

  6. Relationship between Azithromycin Susceptibility and Administration Efficacy for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Euba, Begoña; Moleres, Javier; Viadas, Cristina; Barberán, Montserrat; Caballero, Lucía; Grilló, María-Jesús; Bengoechea, José Antonio; de-Torres, Juan Pablo; Liñares, Josefina; Leiva, José

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an opportunistic pathogen that is an important cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). COPD is an inflammatory disease of the airways, and exacerbations are acute inflammatory events superimposed on this background of chronic inflammation. Azithromycin (AZM) is a macrolide antibiotic with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and a clinically proven potential for AECOPD prevention and management. Relationships between AZM efficacy and resistance by NTHI and between bactericidal and immunomodulatory effects on NTHI respiratory infection have not been addressed. In this study, we employed two pathogenic NTHI strains with different AZM susceptibilities (NTHI 375 [AZM susceptible] and NTHI 353 [AZM resistant]) to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of AZM on the NTHI-host interplay. At the cellular level, AZM was bactericidal toward intracellular NTHI inside alveolar and bronchial epithelia and alveolar macrophages, and it enhanced NTHI phagocytosis by the latter cell type. These effects correlated with the strain MIC of AZM and the antibiotic dose. Additionally, the effect of AZM on NTHI infection was assessed in a mouse model of pulmonary infection. AZM showed both preventive and therapeutic efficacies by lowering NTHI 375 bacterial counts in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and by reducing histopathological inflammatory lesions in the upper and lower airways of mice. Conversely, AZM did not reduce bacterial loads in animals infected with NTHI 353, in which case a milder anti-inflammatory effect was also observed. Together, the results of this work link the bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects of AZM and frame the efficacy of this antibiotic against NTHI respiratory infection. PMID:25712355

  7. Identification and Characterization of msf, a Novel Virulence Factor in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Kress-Bennett, Jennifer M.; Hiller, N. Luisa; Eutsey, Rory A.; Powell, Evan; Longwell, Mark J.; Hillman, Todd; Blackwell, Tenisha; Byers, Barbara; Mell, Joshua C.; Post, J. Christopher; Hu, Fen Z.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Janto, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic pathogen. The emergence of virulent, non-typeable strains (NTHi) emphasizes the importance of developing new interventional targets. We screened the NTHi supragenome for genes encoding surface-exposed proteins suggestive of immune evasion, identifying a large family containing Sel1-like repeats (SLRs). Clustering identified ten SLR-containing gene subfamilies, each with various numbers of SLRs per gene. Individual strains also had varying numbers of SLR-containing genes from one or more of the subfamilies. Statistical genetic analyses of gene possession among 210 NTHi strains typed as either disease or carriage found a significant association between possession of the SlrVA subfamily (which we have termed, macrophage survival factor, msf) and the disease isolates. The PittII strain contains four chromosomally contiguous msf genes. Deleting all four of these genes (msfA1-4) (KO) resulted in a highly significant decrease in phagocytosis and survival in macrophages; which was fully complemented by a single copy of the msfA1 gene. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media and invasive disease, the KO strain displayed a significant decrease in fitness compared to the WT in co-infections; and in single infections, the KO lost its ability to invade the brain. The singly complemented strain showed only a partial ability to compete with the WT suggesting gene dosage is important in vivo. The transcriptional profiles of the KO and WT in planktonic growth were compared using the NTHi supragenome array, which revealed highly significant changes in the expression of operons involved in virulence and anaerobiosis. These findings demonstrate that the msfA1-4 genes are virulence factors for phagocytosis, persistence, and trafficking to non-mucosal sites. PMID:26977929

  8. Identification of a group of Haemophilus influenzae penicillin-binding proteins that may have complementary physiological roles

    SciTech Connect

    Malouin, F.; Parr, T.R. Jr.; Bryan, L.E. )

    1990-02-01

    (35S)penicillin bound to different Haemophilus influenzae proteins in assays performed at 20, 37, or 42{degrees}C. Penicillin-binding proteins 3a, 3b, 4, and 4' formed a group characterized by their affinity for moxalactam, cefotaxime, and piperacillin. Penicillin-binding protein 4' showed specific properties that may reflect its complementary role in septation.

  9. Biotypes and serotypes of Haemophilus influenzae from patients with meningitis in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, I M; Vieira, M F

    1993-01-01

    A total of 1,094 Haemophilus influenzae isolates from cerebrospinal fluid were examined by biochemical and serological means. Most of them belonged to biotype I (70.9%) and to serotype b (99.4%). The relationship of biotypes I and II to the ages of the patients was shown to be significant (P < 0.001). PMID:8458978

  10. Loss of activity of transforming deoxyribonucleic acid after uptake by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Voll, M J; Goodgal, S H

    1965-10-01

    Voll, Mary Jane (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia), and Sol H. Goodgal. Loss of activity of transforming deoxyribonucleic acid after uptake by Haemophilus influenzae. J. Bacteriol. 90:873-883. 1965.-Transforming deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which has been irreversibly removed from solution by competent cells undergoes a progressive loss in marker activity when tested by lysis of the cells and exposure to new recipient cells. The loss of activity is limited and marker-specific, with greater inactivation of those markers with lower efficiencies of transformation. Recipient factors or donor factors which have undergone recombination, as measured by the appearance of linked markers, do not undergo inactivation. The efficiency of transformation can be correlated with the sensitivity of a marker to inactivation after DNA uptake. A mutation which affects the efficiency of transformation is found to increase sensitivity to postuptake inactivation. The rate of inactivation is temperature-dependent. At temperatures of 20 and 45 C, marker inactivation can occur without concomitant recombination. During the uptake process, DNA is retained in an acid-insoluble form, indicating that the fate of Haemophilus influenzae DNA differs from the fate of transforming DNA in pneumococcus.

  11. Outer Membrane Lipoprotein e (P4) of Haemophilus influenzae Is a Novel Phosphomonoesterase

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Thomas J.; Chance, Deborah L.; Smith, Arnold L.

    1999-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae exists as a commensal of the upper respiratory tract of humans but also causes infections of contiguous structures. We describe the identification, localization, purification, and characterization of a novel, surface-localized phosphomonoesterase from a nontypeable H. influenzae strain, R2866. Sequences obtained from two CNBr-derived fragments of this protein matched lipoprotein e (P4) within the H. influenzae sequence database. Escherichia coli DH5α transformed with plasmids containing the H. influenzae hel gene, which encodes lipoprotein e (P4), produced high levels of a membrane-associated phosphomonoesterase. The isolated ∼28-kDa enzyme was tartrate resistant and displayed narrow substrate specificity with the highest activity for arylphosphates, excluding 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate. Optimum enzymatic activity was observed at pH 5.0 and only in the presence of divalent copper. The enzyme was inhibited by vanadate, molybdate, and EDTA but was resistant to inorganic phosphate. The association of phosphomonoesterase activity with a protein that has also been recognized as a heme transporter suggests a unique role for this unusual phosphohydrolase. PMID:10542183

  12. Experimental otitis media in gerbils and chinchillas with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fulghum, R S; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M; Daniel, H J; Loesche, P J

    1982-05-01

    To ascertain the usefulness of Mongolian gerbils as an inbred model for otitis media, 52 Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, strain MONT/Tum) were compared with 26 chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) for susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a polymicrobic culture including anaerobes (Streptococcus intermedius, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Corynebacterium sp.). Organisms were inoculated percutaneously into the superior chamber of the middle ear bulla. The gerbils and chinchillas shared similar susceptibilities and responses to the inoculated organisms as determined by X-ray, otoscopic, histopathological, and microbiological determinations at 5 to 7 days. Koch's postulate studies proved the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in the pathology found in both animal models. The animals were also susceptible to the polymicrobic culture, although the relative virulence of the individual members of this mixture was low, suggesting that these species potentiated as a polymicrobic mixture. The Corynebacterium sp. appeared to elicit the greatest histopathological response in chronic (8-week) studies in gerbils. The gerbils were found to be useful as an alternative animal model for the study of otitis media of bacterial etiology.

  13. Purification and characterization of a pilin specific for Brazilian purpuric fever-associated Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (H. aegyptius) strains.

    PubMed Central

    Weyant, R S; Bibb, W F; Stephens, D S; Holloway, B P; Moo-Penn, W F; Birkness, K A; Helsel, L O; Mayer, L W

    1990-01-01

    Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) is a recently described fatal pediatric disease caused by systemic infection with Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius. Previous studies have shown that all H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius strains isolated from BPF cases and case contacts share several unique phenotypic and genotypic characteristics that differentiate them from other H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius strains isolated from conjunctivitis cases in Brazil. One key characteristic of this BPF clone is reactivity in a BPF-specific monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We have purified and partially characterized a pilin, referred to as the 25-kilodalton (kDa) protein. Aggregates of this protein contain a heat-labile epitope which is recognized by a monoclonal antibody used in the BPF-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 25,000, is insoluble in most detergents, and fractionates with outer membrane vesicles after LiCl extraction. Biochemical analysis of the 25-kDa protein shows it to have an amino acid composition similar but not identical to that of the H. influenzae type b pilin. The sequence of 20 N-terminal amino acids of the 25-kDa protein shows almost complete homology with the N terminus of the H. influenzae type b pilin and the types 1 and P pilins of Escherichia coli. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of the purified protein shows the presence of filamentous structures similar in morphology to those of H. influenzae pili. Reactivity between the 25-kDa protein and the BPF-specific monoclonal antibody is demonstrated by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and colloidal gold-enhanced immunoelectron microscopy. Hemadsorption analysis shows that expression of this protein is associated with increases in piliated cells and enhanced binding of these cells to human erythrocytes. These studies indicate that expression of the 25-kDa protein is a characteristic unique to the BPF clone and

  14. Prevalence of macrolide-non-susceptible isolates among β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in a tertiary care hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Takeaki; Seyama, Shoji; Nakamura, Yuka; Kashima, Chihiro; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Ushio, Masanobu; Fujii, Takeshi; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-09-01

    β-Lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae account for a large portion of H. influenzae clinical isolates in Japan. The aim of this study was to clarify the antimicrobial susceptibility of BLNAR H. influenzae clinical isolates as well as the annual changes in susceptibility. BLNAR H. influenzae isolates were collected from a tertiary care hospital from 2007 to 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance mechanisms were analysed. All of the isolates (n=304) had amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) and isolates were classified by these amino acid substitutions: R517H or N526K (class I); S385T and R517H (class II); and S385T and N526K (class III). Classes I, II and III represented 8.2% (n=25), 9.5% (n=29) and 81.6% (n=248) of the isolates, respectively; 2 isolates could not be classified because they had a PBP3 with a substantially mutated FtsI transpeptidase domain. All of the isolates were highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems. The number of clarithromycin (CAM)-non-susceptible [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥16μg/mL] H. influenzae isolates increased significantly between 2010 and 2012. Moreover, CAM-non-susceptible H. influenzae isolates were prevalent among class II and class III BLNAR H. influenzae. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the CAM-resistant (MIC ≥32μg/mL) H. influenzae isolates showed that they were not specific sequence types, suggesting that CAM resistance may occur in any isolates. These results raise concern regarding the occurrence of multidrug-resistant BLNAR H. influenzae.

  15. Prevalence of macrolide-non-susceptible isolates among β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in a tertiary care hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Takeaki; Seyama, Shoji; Nakamura, Yuka; Kashima, Chihiro; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Ushio, Masanobu; Fujii, Takeshi; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-09-01

    β-Lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae account for a large portion of H. influenzae clinical isolates in Japan. The aim of this study was to clarify the antimicrobial susceptibility of BLNAR H. influenzae clinical isolates as well as the annual changes in susceptibility. BLNAR H. influenzae isolates were collected from a tertiary care hospital from 2007 to 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and resistance mechanisms were analysed. All of the isolates (n=304) had amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) and isolates were classified by these amino acid substitutions: R517H or N526K (class I); S385T and R517H (class II); and S385T and N526K (class III). Classes I, II and III represented 8.2% (n=25), 9.5% (n=29) and 81.6% (n=248) of the isolates, respectively; 2 isolates could not be classified because they had a PBP3 with a substantially mutated FtsI transpeptidase domain. All of the isolates were highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones and carbapenems. The number of clarithromycin (CAM)-non-susceptible [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥16μg/mL] H. influenzae isolates increased significantly between 2010 and 2012. Moreover, CAM-non-susceptible H. influenzae isolates were prevalent among class II and class III BLNAR H. influenzae. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the CAM-resistant (MIC ≥32μg/mL) H. influenzae isolates showed that they were not specific sequence types, suggesting that CAM resistance may occur in any isolates. These results raise concern regarding the occurrence of multidrug-resistant BLNAR H. influenzae. PMID:27530834

  16. When co-colonizing the nasopharynx haemophilus influenzae predominates over Streptococcus pneumoniae except serotype 19A strains to cause acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Casey, Janet R; Chang, Arthur; Pichichero, Michael E

    2012-06-01

    Of 368 acute otitis media (AOM) cases among 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate-vaccinated children, 43.5% were colonized by multiple otopathogens in the nasopharynx but only 7.1% experienced polymicrobial AOM. When co-colonization occurred, Haemophilus influenzae predominated over all Streptococcus pneumoniae strains except 19A strains to cause AOM. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae both predominated over Moraxella catarrhalis to cause AOM.

  17. [Relationship between protein binding and antimicrobial activities of antibiotics against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae].

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    Fifty isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 42 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated from the blood of children admitted to pediatric wards of hospitals in subprefucture between January 1998 and December 2005. The susceptibilities were measured by a microbroth dilution method using a standard broth and a broth containing 4.5% albumin. Against S. pneumoniae, penicillin G, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, panipenem, meropenem, vancomycin, cefditoren, cefcapene, cefteram, faropenem and tebipenem were used and against H. influenzae, ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, panipenem, meropenem, clavulanic acid/ amoxicillin, cefditoren, cefcapene, cefteram, faropenem and tebipenem were used. Against S. pneumoniae, tebipenem was the highest antimicrobial activity in oral antibiotics (MIC90; < or = 0.06 microg/ml) and panipenem showed the highest activity for intravenous antibiotics (MIC90; < or = 0.12 microg/ml). Against H. influenzae, cefditoren was the highest activity for oral antibiotics (MIC90; < or = 0.06 microg/ml) and meropenem showed the highest activity for intravenous antibiotics (MIC90; < or = 50.06 microg/ml). The MIC90s measured by albumin containing broth were higher than those measured by standard broth. Protein binding rates of ceftriaxone, cefditoren, and faropenem were greater than 90%, and the MIC90 of these antibiotics measured by albumin addition methods were over 4-fold higher than those measured by standard methods. PMID:17180806

  18. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f Case Reports in Mazovia Province, Poland.

    PubMed

    Golebiewska, Anna; Kuch, Alicja; Gawrońska, Agnieszka; Albrecht, Piotr; Skoczyńska, Anna; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Kutylowska, Ewa; Feleszko, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    After successful introduction of anti-Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b vaccination program in Poland, invasive non-b or nontypeable H. influenzae infections have been reported more frequently alike in other countries all over the world. In this paper, we report 2 cases of H. influenzae serotype f (Hif) meningitis with severe clinical presentations which are rarely seen in previously healthy children.The first case is a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to pediatric ward with signs of meningitis. Laboratory tests confirmed bacteremic meningitis caused by Hif. The girl responded very well to administered treatment and recovered without any further complications. No underlying comorbidities were found. The second patient was a 4-year-old boy who, in course of Hif bacteremic meningitis, developed rapid septicemia and, despite aggressive treatment, died within a few hours of hospitalization. The child's past history was unremarkable.By presenting these cases, we would like to remind clinicians that invasive non-b Hi infections can become fatal not only in the group of the youngest children or children with coexisting comorbidities, as most commonly reported in the worldwide literature. At the same time, we want to emphasize the legitimacy of constant monitoring Hi epidemiology in order to take accurate actions if necessary.

  19. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f Case Reports in Mazovia Province, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Golebiewska, Anna; Kuch, Alicja; Gawrońska, Agnieszka; Albrecht, Piotr; Skoczyńska, Anna; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Kutylowska, Ewa; Feleszko, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After successful introduction of anti-Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) serotype b vaccination program in Poland, invasive non-b or nontypeable H. influenzae infections have been reported more frequently alike in other countries all over the world. In this paper, we report 2 cases of H. influenzae serotype f (Hif) meningitis with severe clinical presentations which are rarely seen in previously healthy children. The first case is a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to pediatric ward with signs of meningitis. Laboratory tests confirmed bacteremic meningitis caused by Hif. The girl responded very well to administered treatment and recovered without any further complications. No underlying comorbidities were found. The second patient was a 4-year-old boy who, in course of Hif bacteremic meningitis, developed rapid septicemia and, despite aggressive treatment, died within a few hours of hospitalization. The child's past history was unremarkable. By presenting these cases, we would like to remind clinicians that invasive non-b Hi infections can become fatal not only in the group of the youngest children or children with coexisting comorbidities, as most commonly reported in the worldwide literature. At the same time, we want to emphasize the legitimacy of constant monitoring Hi epidemiology in order to take accurate actions if necessary. PMID:26844500

  20. Localization of high-molecular-weight adhesion proteins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by immunoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Bakaletz, L O; Barenkamp, S J

    1994-01-01

    A family of high-molecular-weight (HMW) surface-exposed proteins important in the attachment of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) to human epithelial cells was previously identified (J. W. St. Geme III, S. Falkow, and S. J. Barenkamp, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:2875-2879, 1993). In the present investigation, indirect immunogold labeling and electron microscopy were used to localize these proteins on three clinical isolates of NTHi, mutants deficient in expression of one or both HMW proteins, and embedded sections of human oropharyngeal cells after incubation with NTHi strain 12. The filamentous material comprising the proteins was labeled with monoclonal antibodies directed against two prototype HMW proteins (HMW1 and HMW2) of prototype NTHi strain 12. Gold labeling was observed as a cap or discrete aggregate off one pole or centrally along one long axis of the bacterial cell. Heavily labeled, non-bacterial-cell-associated, disk-like aggregates of the HMW proteins were frequently noted in both bacterial preparations as well as in association with the oropharyngeal cell surface and intracellularly. Mutants demonstrated diminished labeling or an absence thereof, respectively, which correlated well with their previously demonstrated reduced ability or inability to adhere to Chang conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro. The Haemophilus HMW proteins share antigenic determinants with and demonstrate amino acid sequence similarity to the filamentous hemagglutinin protein of Bordetella pertussis, a critical adhesin of that organism. The studies presented here demonstrate that the Haemophilus proteins and B. pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin show impressive morphologic and perhaps additional functional similarity. Images PMID:7927710

  1. Mechanism of Inactivation of Haemophilus influenzae Transforming Deoxyribonucleic Acid by Sonic Radiation1

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, M. L.; Setlow, Jane K.

    1972-01-01

    Transforming deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Haemophilus influenzae was exposed to sonic radiation of various durations. Reductions in transforming ability of the DNA, cellular DNA uptake, and integration into the genome, and single- and double-stranded molecular weights of the transforming DNA were measured and compared. We conclude that (i) sonic radiation causes DNA strand breaks (almost always double-strand breaks with relatively few alkaline-labile bonds), the number increasing with exposure until the double-stranded molecular weight is reduced to less than 106 daltons; and (ii) since transformation is reduced about as much as integration and much more than uptake, inactivation of transforming DNA by sonic radiation appears to be caused mostly by failure of Haemophilus cells to integrate the transforming DNA that is taken into the cells. These results are similar to those for inactivation by X radiation but differ from those for ultraviolet radiation. A strand break caused by sonic radiation, however, does not necessarily inactivate the transforming DNA, whereas in the case of ionizing radiation it may. The results may be fit by the model proposed by Cato and Guild. From our data and the equation of Lacks, the minimum active site of DNA necessary for transformation and the frequency of exchanges between donor and recipient strands upon integration of transforming DNA were estimated as 0.35 × 106 to 0.7 × 106 daltons and 0.15 to 0.4 switches per 106 daltons, respectively. PMID:4544285

  2. [Haemophilus influenzae b: a review on the determinants of pathogenicity and immune response to the infection].

    PubMed

    Gómez de León, P; Cabrera-Contreras, R; Cravioto, A

    1991-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is still one of the main causes of diverse invasive diseases in children in México. Epidemiologic data indicate that these processes affect primarily the central nervous system and the respiratory tract. Several factors are involved in the expression of infectious disease by this organism, among them the pathogenic determinants of the parasite and those related with resistance in the host. Occurrence of disease is usually the result of the interaction between these determinants. Knowledge of these pathogenic determinants of the parasite and of factors involved in the immune response of the host have allowed an understanding of the infectious process and have directed research in a least three areas: 1) identification of bacterial membrane fractions related with diagnosis of the disease, 2) screening for immunogenic components in the bacterias as vaccine candidates to be used in the prevention of the disease and, 3) the planning of appropriate alternatives for specific antimicrobial therapy.

  3. Developing a vaccine to prevent otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nadeem; Ren, Dabin; Kaur, Ravinder; Basha, Saleem; Zagursky, Robert; Pichichero, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a predominant organism of the upper respiratory nasopharyngeal microbiota. Its disease spectrum includes otitis media, sinusitis, non-bacteremic pneumonia and invasive infections. Protein-based vaccines to prevent NTHi infections are needed to alleviate these infections in children and vulnerable populations such as the elderly and those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One NTHi protein is included in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and has been shown to provide efficacy. Our lab has been interested in understanding the immunogenicity of NTHi vaccine candidates P6, protein D and OMP26 for preventing acute otitis media in young children. We expect that continued investigation and progress in the development of an efficacious protein based vaccine against NTHi infections is achievable in the near future.

  4. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Seyed Javad; Ochoa, Cesar E; Sethi, Sanjay; Dickey, Burton F

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become the third leading cause of death in the world by 2020. It is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles and gases, most commonly cigarette smoke. Among smokers with COPD, even following withdrawal of cigarette smoke, inflammation persists and lung function continues to deteriorate. One possible explanation is that bacterial colonization of smoke-damaged airways, most commonly with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), perpetuates airway injury and inflammation. Furthermore, COPD has also been identified as an independent risk factor for lung cancer irrespective of concomitant cigarette smoke exposure. In this article, we review the role of NTHi in airway inflammation that may lead to COPD progression and lung cancer promotion.

  5. Expression and Purification of Haemophilus influenzae Rhomboid Intramembrane Protease GlpG for Structural Studies.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Pankaj; Lemieux, M Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Rhomboid proteases are membrane-embedded proteases that cleave peptide bonds of transmembrane proteins. They play a variety of roles in cell signaling events. The rhomboid protease GlpG from Haemophilus influenzae (hiGlpG) is a canonical form of rhomboid protease having six transmembrane segments. In this unit, detailed protocols are presented for optimization of hiGlpG expression using the araBAD promotor system in the pBAD vector. The parameters for optimization include concentration of inducing agent, induction temperature, and time. Optimization of these key factors led to the development of a protocol yielding 1.6 to 2.5 mg/liter protein purified after ion metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Further purification can include size exclusion chromatography (SEC). PMID:24692018

  6. Immunogenicity of a Heptavalent Conjugate Pneumococcal Vaccine Administered Concurrently with a Combination Diphtheria, Tetanus, Five-Component Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Polio, and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine and a Meningococcal Group C Conjugate Vaccine at 2, 3, and 4 Months of Age ▿

    PubMed Central

    Moss, S. J.; Fenton, A. C.; Toomey, J.; Grainger, A.; Borrow, R.; Balmer, P.; Smith, J.; Gennery, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The immunogenicities of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines have been demonstrated when they are administered at 2, 3, and 4 months of age. There is a paucity of data on the immunogenicity of this vaccine when it is administered concurrently with other vaccines in the primary immunization schedule of the United Kingdom. We immunized 55 term infants at 2, 3, and 4 months of age with the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccine, and the diphtheria, tetanus, five-component acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP5/IPV/Hib-TT) vaccine. The immune responses to the H. influenzae type b (Hib), MCC, and tetanus vaccines were measured at 2, 5, and 12 months of age; and the immune responses to PCV7 were measured at 2 and 5 months and then either at 12 months or following a 4th dose of PCV7. There were increases in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of all antigens postimmunization. Greater than or equal to 90% of the infants achieved putatively protective levels postimmunization for all vaccine antigens except pneumococcal serotype 6B and Hib. The GMCs of the PCV7 serotypes increased following a 4th dose, although one infant had not reached putative levels of protection against serotype 6B. In conclusion, when infants were vaccinated according to the schedule described above, they had lower postprimary immunization responses to Hib, meningococcus group C capsular polysaccharide, and pneumococcal serotype 6B than the responses demonstrated by use of the other schedules. Despite this finding, there was a good response following a 4th dose of PCV7. PMID:20042517

  7. Co-administration of a novel Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine does not interfere with the immune response to antigens contained in infant vaccines routinely used in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gary S; Marchant, Colin D; Blatter, Mark; Friedland, Leonard R; Aris, Emmanuel; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2011-02-01

    An investigational combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) has been developed to protect infants from invasive disease caused by Hib and these meningococcal serogroups without adding injections to the immunization schedule. Incorporation of this novel vaccine into the US vaccination schedule will require demonstration of a lack of immunologic interference with other routine pediatric vaccines. This study assessed the immune response to 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTaP-HepB-IPV) when separately co-administered with HibMenCY-TT as compared to a US-licensed H. influenzae type b tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT) at 2, 4, 6 (N=606) and 12-15 months of age (N=366). HibMenCY-TT was non-inferior to Hib-TT in terms of antibody responses to all Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes contained in PCV7 and the diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and poliovirus antigens contained in DTaP-HepB-IPV one month after the third vaccine dose, and the anti-tetanus geometric mean antibody concentration (GMC) was significantly higher in the HibMenCY-TT group than in the Hib-TT group. In an exploratory analysis, no significant differences in the proportion of subjects with anti-pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 µg/ml or anti-pneumococcal GMC were seen between the two groups after the fourth vaccine dose. A schedule of HibMenCY-TT given concomitantly with PCV7 and DTaP-HepB-IPV would be expected to protect infants against all of the targeted diseases.

  8. Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates with plasmid pB1000 bearing blaROB-1: fitness cost and interspecies dissemination.

    PubMed

    San Millan, Alvaro; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Escudero, Jose Antonio; Hidalgo, Laura; Gutierrez, Belen; Carrilero, Laura; Campos, Jose; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    Plasmid pB1000 is a mobilizable replicon bearing the bla(ROB-1) beta-lactamase gene that we have recently described in Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida animal isolates. Here we report the presence of pB1000 and a derivative plasmid, pB1000', in four Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates of human origin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed unrelated patterns in all strains, indicating that the existence of pB1000 in H. influenzae isolates is not the consequence of clonal dissemination. The replicon can be transferred both by transformation and by conjugation into H. influenzae, giving rise to recipients resistant to ampicillin and cefaclor (MICs, > or =64 microg/ml). Stability experiments showed that pB1000 is stable in H. influenzae without antimicrobial pressure for at least 60 generations. Competition experiments between isogenic H. influenzae strains with and without pB1000 revealed a competitive disadvantage of 9% per 10 generations for the transformant versus the recipient. The complete nucleotide sequences of nine pB1000 plasmids from human and animal isolates, as well as the epidemiological data, suggest that animal isolates belonging to the Pasteurellaceae act as an antimicrobial resistance reservoir for H. influenzae. Further, since P. multocida is the only member of this family that can colonize both humans and animals, we propose that P. multocida is the vehicle for the transport of pB1000 between animal- and human-adapted members of the Pasteurellaceae.

  9. Quantitative PCR confirms culture as the gold standard for detection of lower airway infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in Australian Indigenous children with bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Marsh, Robyn L; Binks, Michael J; Grimwood, Keith; Pizzutto, Susan J; Leach, Amanda J; Chang, Anne B; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C

    2013-03-01

    Correlation was observed between quantitative PCR and semi-quantitative culture for definition of Haemophilus influenzae infection in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from 81 children with bronchiectasis. However, qPCR data correlated less well with airway neutrophilia, and supports continued use of culture as the gold standard for defining H. influenzae lower airway infection. PMID:23266579

  10. Quantitative PCR confirms culture as the gold standard for detection of lower airway infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in Australian Indigenous children with bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kim M; Marsh, Robyn L; Binks, Michael J; Grimwood, Keith; Pizzutto, Susan J; Leach, Amanda J; Chang, Anne B; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C

    2013-03-01

    Correlation was observed between quantitative PCR and semi-quantitative culture for definition of Haemophilus influenzae infection in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from 81 children with bronchiectasis. However, qPCR data correlated less well with airway neutrophilia, and supports continued use of culture as the gold standard for defining H. influenzae lower airway infection.

  11. Structural organization, nucleotide sequence, and regulation of the Haemophilus influenzae rec-1+ gene.

    PubMed Central

    Zulty, J J; Barcak, G J

    1993-01-01

    The Haemophilus influenzae rec-1+ protein plays a central role in DNA metabolism, participating in general homologous recombination, recombinational (postreplication) DNA repair, and prophage induction. Although many H. influenzae rec-1 mutants have been phenotypically characterized, little is known about the rec-1+ gene at the molecular level. In this study, we present the genetic organization of the rec-1+ locus, the DNA sequence of rec-1+, and studies of the transcriptional regulation of rec-1+ during cellular assault by DNA-damaging agents and during the induction of competence for genetic transformation. Although little is known about promoter structure in H. influenzae, we identified a potential rec-1+ promoter that is identical in 11 of 12 positions to the bacterial sigma 70-dependent promoter consensus sequence. Results from a primer extension analysis revealed that the start site of rec-1+ transcription is centered 6 nucleotides downstream of this promoter. We identified potential DNA binding sites in the rec-1+ gene for LexA, integration host factor, and cyclic AMP receptor protein. We obtained evidence that at least one of the proposed cyclic AMP receptor protein binding sites is active in modulating rec-1+ transcription. This finding makes rec-1+ control circuitry novel among recA+ homologs. Two H. influenzae DNA uptake sequences that may function as a transcription termination signal were identified in inverted orientations at the end of the rec-1+ coding sequence. In addition, we report the first use of the Escherichia coli lacZ operon fusion technique in H. influenzae to study the transcriptional control of rec-1+. Our results indicate that rec-1+ is transcriptionally induced about threefold during DNA-damaging events. Furthermore, we show that rec-1+ can substitute for recA+ in E. coli to modulate SOS induction of dinB1 expression. Surprisingly, although 5% of the H. influenzae genome is in the form of single-stranded DNA during competence for

  12. Clarithromycin Resistance Mechanisms of Epidemic β-Lactamase-Nonproducing Ampicillin-Resistant Haemophilus influenzae Strains in Japan.

    PubMed

    Seyama, Shoji; Wajima, Takeaki; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Noguchi, Norihisa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clarithromycin resistance mechanisms of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae strains. In all clarithromycin-resistant strains, the transcript level of acrB was significantly elevated, and these strains had a frameshift mutation in acrR Introduction of the acrR mutation into H. influenzae Rd generated a clarithromycin-resistant transformant with the same MIC as the donor strain. Our results indicate that the acrR mutation confers clarithromycin resistance by the increasing the transcription of acrB.

  13. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids on Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation in vitro under stationary conditions.

    PubMed

    Kosikowska, Urszula; Andrzejczuk, Sylwia; Plech, Tomasz; Malm, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus influenzae, upper respiratory tract microbiota representatives, are able to colonize natural and artificial surfaces as biofilm. The aim of the present study was to assay the effect of ten 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids on planktonic or biofilm-forming haemophili cells in vitro under stationary conditions on the basis of MICs (minimal inhibitory concentrations) and MBICs (minimal biofilm inhibitory concentrations). In addition, anti-adhesive properties of these compounds were examined. The reference strains of H. parainfluenzae and H. influenzae were included. The broth microdilution microtiter plate (MTP) method with twofold dilution of the compounds, or ciprofloxacin (reference agent) in 96-well polystyrene microplates, was used. The optical density (OD) reading was made spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 570 nm (OD570) both to measure bacterial growth and to detect biofilm-forming cells under the same conditions with 0.1% crystal violet. The following values of parameters were estimated for 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids - MIC = 0.03-15.63 mg/L, MBIC = 0.03-15.63 mg/L, MBIC/MIC = 0.125-8, depending on the compound, and for ciprofloxacin - MIC = 0.03-0.06 mg/L, MBIC = 0.03-0.12 mg/L, MBIC/MIC = 1-2. The observed strong anti-adhesive properties (95-100% inhibition) of the tested compounds were reversible during long-term incubation at subinhibitory concentrations. Thus, 1,2,4-triazole-ciprofloxacin hybrids may be considered as starting compounds for designing improved agents not only against planktonic but also against biofilm-forming Haemophilus spp. cells.

  14. [Influenza outbreak in weaners with involvement of Mycoplasma hyorhinis and Haemophilus parasuis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Christine; Wöchtl, Bettina; Spergser, Joachim; Brunthaler, Rene; Untersperger, Matthias; Lillie-Jaschniski, Kathrin; Dürrwald, Ralf; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel

    2016-08-17

    In a closed farrow-to-finish piglet producing farm 80% of 7-week-old piglets displayed respiratory disease with a 5% mortality rate. In addition to purulent bronchopneumonia in combination with interstitial pneumonia predominantly in the apical and middle lobes, fibrinous serositis was present in the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Further investigations succeeded in confirming the non-pandemic strain of porcine influenza A virus (FLUAVsw) subtype H1avN1. The molecular genetic studies on Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus were negative, whereas M. hyorhinis and Haemophilus parasuis were isolated from serous membranes. The possible importance of the underrated M. hyorhinis as a cofactor for viral infections should be emphasized and we demonstrated that the cause of apical lobe pneumonia is not restricted to M. hyopneumoniae. Mother pigs had been vaccinated with an influenza vaccine covering the subtype H1avN1. Only 33% of the examined piglets had maternal antibodies in the 7th week of life. The difficulty of prophylaxis of infections by FLUAVsw in weaners due to lack of vaccine authorization for piglets before their 56th day is reflected by this observation. PMID:27273027

  15. Molecular Cloning, Expression and Purification of Truncated hpd Fragment of Haemophilus influenzae in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Jafari, Anis; Irani, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a significant pathogen in children, causing otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, and occasionally invasive infections. Protein D (PD) belongs to the minor outer-membrane proteins of H. influenza. Moreover, it has been shown that this protein is one of the most potent vaccine candidates against the NTHi strain. Objectives: In the present study, a new truncated form of PD was designed based on conserved areas, and recombinant truncated PD was expressed. Materials and Methods: Truncated PD was designed using bioinformatics tools, and a 345 bp fragment of the truncated hpd gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from H. influenzae and subsequently cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. In addition, for the expression of the recombinant protein, the pBAD-truncated PD plasmid was transformed into competent TOP10 cells. The recombinant protein was expressed with Arabinose. The expressed protein was purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA resin. Results: The cloning of PD was confirmed by colony-PCR and enzymatic digestion. Arabinose 0.2% was able to efficiently induce protein expression. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed that our constructed pBAD-PD-TOP10 efficiently produced a target recombinant protein with a molecular weight of 16 kDa. A high concentration of the recombinant protein was obtained via the purification process by affinity chromatography. The recombinant PD was reacted with peroxidase-conjugated rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins. Conclusions: Our results showed that the recombinant protein produced by the pBAD vector in the Escherichia coli system was very efficient. PMID:26464772

  16. The channel-tunnel HI1462 of Haemophilus influenzae reveals differences to Escherichia coli TolC.

    PubMed

    Polleichtner, Georg; Andersen, Christian

    2006-06-01

    Efflux pumps play a major role in multidrug resistance of pathogenic bacteria. The TolC homologue HI1462 was identified as the single channel-tunnel in Haemophilus influenzae required to form a functional multidrug efflux pump. The outer-membrane protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and reconstituted in black lipid membranes. It exhibited a comparatively small single-channel conductance of 43 pS in 1 M KCl and is the first known TolC homologue which is anion-selective. The HI1462 structure was modelled and an arginine residue lining the tunnel entrance was identified. The channel-tunnel of a mutant with the arginine substituted by an alanine residue was cation-selective and had a sevenfold higher single-channel conductance compared to wild-type. These results confirm that the arginine is responsible for anion selectivity and forms a salt bridge with a glutamate residue of the adjacent monomer, establishing a circular network, which keeps the tunnel entrance in a tightly closed conformation. In in vivo experiments, both the wild-type HI1462 and the mutant were able to substitute for E. coli TolC in the haemolysin secretion system, but not in the AcrAB/TolC multidrug efflux pump. The structure-function relationship of HI1462 is discussed in the context of the well-studied TolC channel-tunnel of E. coli.

  17. Effect of Fluoroquinolones and Macrolides on Eradication and Resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Tsuji, Brian T; Gent, Janneane F; Kong, Yong; Holden, Patricia N; Sethi, Sanjay; Murphy, Timothy F

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the effect of antibiotics on eradication of carriage and development of resistance in Haemophilus influenzae in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our goals were to assess antibiotic susceptibilities, prevalence of resistance genes, and development of resistance in H. influenzae and to evaluate the effect of macrolide and fluoroquinolone administration on H. influenzae eradication. Data were from a 15-year longitudinal study of COPD. Genome sequence data were used to determine genotype and identify resistance genes. MICs of antibiotics were determined by reference broth microdilution. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between antibiotic use and H. influenzae eradication. We examined 267 H. influenzae isolates from 77 individuals. All newly acquired H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to azithromycin. Five of 27 (19%) strains developed 4-fold increases in azithromycin MICs and reached or exceeded the susceptibility breakpoint (≤4 μg/ml) during exposure. H. influenzae isolates were uniformly susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin (MIC90s of 0.015, 0.015, and 0.06, respectively); there were no mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions. Fluoroquinolone administration was associated with increased H. influenzae eradication compared to macrolides (odds ratio [OR], 16.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67 to 104.09). There was no difference in H. influenzae eradication when comparing macrolide administration to no antibiotic (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.43 to 8.30). Fluoroquinolones are effective in eradicating H. influenzae in individuals with COPD. Macrolides are ineffective in eradicating H. influenzae, and their use in COPD patients may lead to decreased macrolide susceptibility and resistance.

  18. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in respiratory secretions from pneumonia patients by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Kirsebom, Leif A; Olcén, Per; Blomberg, Jonas; Herrmann, Björn

    2009-08-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the omp P6 gene was developed to detect Haemophilus influenzae. Its specificity was determined by analysis of 29 strains of 11 different Haemophilus spp. and was compared with PCR assays having other target genes: rnpB, 16S rRNA, and bexA. The method was evaluated on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. When 10(4) DNA copies/mL was used as cutoff limit for the method, P6 PCR had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 96.0% compared with the culture. Of 20 culture-negative but P6 PCR-positive cases, 18 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Five (5.9%) of 84 nasopharyngeal aspirates from adult controls tested PCR positive. We conclude that the P6 real-time PCR is both sensitive and specific for identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. Quantification facilitates discrimination between disease-causing H. influenzae strains and commensal colonization. PMID:19446978

  19. Transferable Antibiotic Resistance Elements in Haemophilus influenzae Share a Common Evolutionary Origin with a Diverse Family of Syntenic Genomic Islands

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Zain, Zaini; Turner, Sarah L.; Cerdeño-Tárraga, Ana M.; Lilley, Andrew K.; Inzana, Thomas J.; Duncan, A. Jane; Harding, Rosalind M.; Hood, Derek W.; Peto, Timothy E.; Crook, Derrick W.

    2004-01-01

    Transferable antibiotic resistance in Haemophilus influenzae was first detected in the early 1970s. After this, resistance spread rapidly worldwide and was shown to be transferred by a large 40- to 60-kb conjugative element. Bioinformatics analysis of the complete sequence of a typical H. influenzae conjugative resistance element, ICEHin1056, revealed the shared evolutionary origin of this element. ICEHin1056 has homology to 20 contiguous sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Systematic comparison of these homologous sequences resulted in identification of a conserved syntenic genomic island consisting of up to 33 core genes in 16 β- and γ-Proteobacteria. These diverse genomic islands shared a common evolutionary origin, insert into tRNA genes, and have diverged widely, with G+C contents ranging from 40 to 70% and amino acid homologies as low as 20 to 25% for shared core genes. These core genes are likely to account for the conjugative transfer of the genomic islands and may even encode autonomous replication. Accessory gene clusters were nestled among the core genes and encode the following diverse major attributes: antibiotic, metal, and antiseptic resistance; degradation of chemicals; type IV secretion systems; two-component signaling systems; Vi antigen capsule synthesis; toxin production; and a wide range of metabolic functions. These related genomic islands include the following well-characterized structures: SPI-7, found in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi; PAP1 or pKLC102, found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and the clc element, found in Pseudomonas sp. strain B13. This is the first report of a diverse family of related syntenic genomic islands with a deep evolutionary origin, and our findings challenge the view that genomic islands consist only of independently evolving modules. PMID:15547285

  20. An innovative method for quality control of conjugated Haemophilus influenzae vaccines: A short review of two-dimensional nanoparticle electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Dietmar

    2009-12-25

    This article provides an overview of a 2D agarose electrophoretic procedure for the characterization of semi-synthetic Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis vaccines that were prepared for the immunization of small children. The analysis of such vaccines has been particularly challenging because the vaccine particles (i) are highly negatively charged, (ii) are as large as or even larger than intact viruses, and (iii) have a continuous (polydisperse) size distribution because of randomizing steps in the vaccine production (sonification and crosslinking). As a result of these characteristics, 1D electrophoresis of the vaccines produced smears without discernable peaks, but with a second dimension of separation a characteristic vaccine fingerprint was obtained. Whereas O'Farrell gels can accomplish a 2D separation according to size and charge for samples with protein-sized particles, nondenaturing 2D agarose electrophoresis achieves a similar result for much larger virus-sized particles. The separation principle, however, is different. Even though the 2D electrophoretic method was developed from 1983 to 1995, it remains a promising tool for vaccine quality control and for predicting vaccine effectiveness. Modern technology makes the analysis significantly more practical and affordable than it was more than 10 years ago, and the method is applicable to a variety of conjugated vaccines and complex mixtures of virus-sized particles.

  1. Seventeen Sxy-Dependent Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Site-Regulated Genes Are Needed for Natural Transformation in Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Mell, Joshua C.; Redfield, Rosemary J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural competence is the ability of bacteria to actively take up extracellular DNA. This DNA can recombine with the host chromosome, transforming the host cell and altering its genotype. In Haemophilus influenzae, natural competence is induced by energy starvation and the depletion of nucleotide pools. This induces a 26-gene competence regulon (Sxy-dependent cyclic AMP receptor protein [CRP-S] regulon) whose expression is controlled by two regulators, CRP and Sxy. The role of most of the CRP-S genes in DNA uptake and transformation is not known. We have therefore created in-frame deletions of each CRP-S gene and studied their competence phenotypes. All but one gene (ssb) could be deleted. Although none of the remaining CRP-S genes were required for growth in rich medium or survival under starvation conditions, DNA uptake and transformation were abolished or reduced in most of the mutants. Seventeen genes were absolutely required for transformation, with 14 of these genes being specifically required for the assembly and function of the type IV pilus DNA uptake machinery. Only five genes were dispensable for both competence and transformation. This is the first competence regulon for which all genes have been mutationally characterized. PMID:22821979

  2. Persistence of non-typeable Haemophilus Influenzae in the pharynx of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy after treatment with azithromycin.

    PubMed

    Olszewska-Sosińska, O; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, B; Stępińska, M; Antos-Bielska, M; Lau-Dworak, M; Kozłowska, K; Trafny, E A

    2016-02-01

    This study was performed in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy to evaluate the effect of azithromycin (AZT) on the presence of NTHi in monocyte/macrophages (CD14(+) cells) of adenoids/tonsils and the persistence of NTHi after adenotonsillectomy. A total of 36 pediatric patients participated in the study: 20 children were treated with AZT before adenotonsillectomy, and 16 children did not receive the antibiotic prior to surgery. NTHi were identified by culture and PCR in swabs and tissue samples. NTHi was detected in the lysates of CD14(+) cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and by culture. The molecular typing was used to cluster NTHi isolates from each child. The intracellular NTHi was found in 10 (62.5%) untreated patients and was identified in three (15%) azithromycin-treated patients (P = 0.003). The proportion of the persistent NTHi strains was similar in both groups. AZT treatment followed by adenotonsillectomy did not completely eliminate NTHi from pharynges; however, it significantly reduced the risk of carriage of Haemophilus influenzae inside the CD14(+) cells.

  3. Molecular characterisation of the clonal emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant Haemophilus influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark.

    PubMed

    Fuursted, Kurt; Hartmeyer, Gitte Nyvang; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2016-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen usually susceptible to quinolones. Here we report the emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark. Four isolates were collected for phenotypic and molecular characterisation using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). During an 18-month period, the occurrence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in patients aged 1-77 years from sputum, ear and eye samples was detected. An epidemiological link between the patients could not be identified. The isolates were non-encapsulated, biotype III and were demonstrated by WGS to be clonal belonging to a single clade with an unknown multilocus sequence type (double-locus variant of ST196). The antibiogram demonstrated that they were all monoresistant to ciprofloxacin with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >32mg/L. In silico resistome analysis revealed identical, both previously characterised and novel, putative resistance-related mutations in gyrA (S84L and D88N), parC (K20R, S84I, D356A or T356A, and M481I) and parE (E151K, I159A, D420N and S599A) in all isolates. The isolates were otherwise negative for any resistance genes. This is the first description of the clonal emergence of high-level monoresistant H. influenzae due to amino acid substitutions in gyrA, parC and parE. PMID:27436470

  4. Molecular characterisation of the clonal emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant Haemophilus influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark.

    PubMed

    Fuursted, Kurt; Hartmeyer, Gitte Nyvang; Stegger, Marc; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2016-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important human pathogen usually susceptible to quinolones. Here we report the emergence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in the Region of Southern Denmark. Four isolates were collected for phenotypic and molecular characterisation using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). During an 18-month period, the occurrence of high-level ciprofloxacin-monoresistant H. influenzae in patients aged 1-77 years from sputum, ear and eye samples was detected. An epidemiological link between the patients could not be identified. The isolates were non-encapsulated, biotype III and were demonstrated by WGS to be clonal belonging to a single clade with an unknown multilocus sequence type (double-locus variant of ST196). The antibiogram demonstrated that they were all monoresistant to ciprofloxacin with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >32mg/L. In silico resistome analysis revealed identical, both previously characterised and novel, putative resistance-related mutations in gyrA (S84L and D88N), parC (K20R, S84I, D356A or T356A, and M481I) and parE (E151K, I159A, D420N and S599A) in all isolates. The isolates were otherwise negative for any resistance genes. This is the first description of the clonal emergence of high-level monoresistant H. influenzae due to amino acid substitutions in gyrA, parC and parE.

  5. Purification and characterization of Haemophilus influenzae pili, and their structural and serological relatedness to Escherichia coli P and mannose-sensitive pili

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae pili were purified, and their physical and serological properties were examined. The solution properties of the pili were determined, and then a purification scheme involving repeated cycles of precipitation and solubilization was developed. The purified pili from one type b isolate (A02) were found to consist of multiple copies of a 25,000 mol wt subunit. Amino-terminal sequence analysis of A02 pili was carried out to 40 amino acid residues, and a remarkable degree of sequence homology was found with E. coli P and mannose- sensitive (MS) pili (27.5 and 25% homology, respectively). Purified A02 pili were found to be highly immunogenic, and serological analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and whole piliated cell agglutination revealed significant cross-reactivity between A02 pilus antiserum and the pili of seven other H. influenzae strains tested (heterologous titers = 2-100% of the homologous titer). Cross-reactivity was also observed between the H. influenzae pili (five of eight strains tested) and the P pili from E. coli strains HU849 and 3669; no cross-reactivity was detected with MS pili from E. coli strain H10407 and C94. The structural similarities between H. influenzae and E. coli P and MS pili suggest a common gene ancestry. PMID:2857190

  6. Cellular immunity to the P6 outer membrane protein of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, H; Faden, H

    1995-01-01

    Cellular immunity to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in a population of 10 healthy, immune adults was determined by measuring lymphocyte blast transformation and antibody secretion in response to the P6 outer membrane protein. P6 (200 microliters/ml) induced lymphocyte blast transformation that peaked on day 10 of incubation. The peak induction of antibody-secreting cells occurred on day 8 of incubation. In comparison with the response to tetanus toxoid stimulation, the peak lymphocyte blast transformation response to P6 was reduced (mean counts per minute +/- standard error of the mean [SEM], 3,457 +/- 503 versus 9,414 +/- 1,464; P = 0.0051) and delayed (mean days +/- SEM, 10.3 +/- 0.4 versus 8.4 +/- 0.5; P = 0.0169); however, P6 was a better stimulus of antibody secretion from lymphocytes, particularly antibody of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class (mean peak numbers of antibody-secreting cells per 10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells +/- SEM: IgG, 85 +/- 29 versus 42 +/- 16 [P = 0.0469]; IgM, 81 +/- 20 versus 25 +/- 7 [P = 0.0125]; IgA, 24 +/- 8 versus 16 +/- 6 [P = 0.0526]). Thus, lymphocytes from immune individuals recognize P6 of nontypeable H. influenzae as an immunogen. These data provide a basis for future studies with otitis-prone children who fail to develop a normal antibody response to P6 antigen (N. Yamanaka and H. Faden, J. Pediatr. 122:212-218, 1993). PMID:7790058

  7. Biofilm-specific extracellular matrix proteins of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Siva; Baum, Marc M.; Kerwin, James; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Webster, Simon; Schaudinn, Christoph; VanderVelde, David; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM that were not detected in planktonic bacteria. One ECM protein was unique to 24 hr biofilms, two were found only in 96 hr biofilms, and fifteen were present in the ECM of both 24 hr and 96 hr NTHi biofilms. All proteins identified were either associated with bacterial membranes or were cytoplasmic proteins. Immunocytochemistry showed two of the identified proteins, a DNA-directed RNA polymerase and the outer membrane protein OMP P2, associated with bacteria and biofilm ECM. Identification of biofilm-specific proteins present in immature biofilms is an important step in understanding the in vitro process of NTHi biofilm formation. The presence of a cytoplasmic protein and a membrane protein in the biofilm ECM of immature NTHi biofilms suggests that bacterial cell lysis may be a feature of early biofilm formation. PMID:24942343

  8. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Atack, John M.; Srikhanta, Yogitha N.; Fox, Kate L.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; Brockman, Kenneth L.; Clark, Tyson A.; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M.; Jen, Freda E.-C.; McEwan, Alastair G.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Smith, Arnold L.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N6-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system. PMID:26215614

  9. Modelling the impact of vaccination on curtailing Haemophilus influenzae serotype 'a'.

    PubMed

    Konini, Angjelina; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2015-12-21

    Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) is a human-restricted bacterial pathogen transmitted via direct contacts with an infectious individual. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of Hia, and the disease is treated with antibiotics upon diagnosis. With ongoing efforts for the development of an anti-Hia protein-polysaccharide conjugated vaccine, we sought to investigate the effect of vaccination on curtailing Hia infection. We present the first stochastic model of Hia transmission and control dynamics, and parameterize it using available estimates in the literature. Since both naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity wane with time, model simulations show three important results. First, vaccination of only newborns cannot eliminate the pathogen from the population, even when a booster program is implemented with a high coverage. Second, achieving and maintaining a sufficiently high level of herd immunity for pathogen elimination requires vaccination of susceptible individuals in addition to a high vaccination coverage of newborns. Third, for a low vaccination rate of susceptible individuals, a high coverage of booster dose may be needed to raise the level of herd immunity for Hia eradication. Our findings highlight the importance of vaccination and timely boosting of the individual׳s immunity within the expected duration of vaccine-induced protection against Hia. When an anti-Hia vaccine becomes available, enhanced surveillance of Hia incidence and herd immunity could help determine vaccination rates and timelines for booster doses necessary to eliminate Hia from affected populations.

  10. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system.

  11. Overlapping and complementary oxidative stress defense mechanisms in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Baker, Beth D; Munson, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative commensal bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) can cause respiratory tract diseases that include otitis media, sinusitis, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchitis. During colonization and infection, NTHI withstands oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species produced endogenously, by the host, and by other copathogens and flora. These reactive oxygen species include superoxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals, whose killing is amplified by iron via the Fenton reaction. We previously identified genes that encode proteins with putative roles in protection of the NTHI isolate strain 86-028NP against oxidative stress. These include catalase (HktE), peroxiredoxin/glutaredoxin (PgdX), and a ferritin-like protein (Dps). Strains were generated with mutations in hktE, pgdX, and dps. The hktE mutant and a pgdX hktE double mutant were more sensitive than the parent to killing by H2O2. Conversely, the pgdX mutant was more resistant to H2O2 due to increased catalase activity. Supporting the role of killing via the Fenton reaction, binding of iron by Dps significantly mitigated the effect of H2O2-mediated killing. NTHI thus utilizes several effectors to resist oxidative stress, and regulation of free iron is critical to this protection. These mechanisms will be important for successful colonization and infection by this opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:25368297

  12. Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Displays a Prevalent Surface Structure Molecular Pattern in Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Silvia; Hood, Derek W.; Viadas, Cristina; Calatayud, Laura; Morey, Pau; Servin, Alain; Liñares, Josefina; Oliver, Antonio; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Garmendia, Junkal

    2011-01-01

    Non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram negative pathogen that causes acute respiratory infections and is associated with the progression of chronic respiratory diseases. Previous studies have established the existence of a remarkable genetic variability among NTHi strains. In this study we show that, in spite of a high level of genetic heterogeneity, NTHi clinical isolates display a prevalent molecular feature, which could confer fitness during infectious processes. A total of 111 non-isogenic NTHi strains from an identical number of patients, isolated in two distinct geographical locations in the same period of time, were used to analyse nine genes encoding bacterial surface molecules, and revealed the existence of one highly prevalent molecular pattern (lgtF+, lic2A+, lic1D+, lic3A+, lic3B+, siaA−, lic2C+, ompP5+, oapA+) displayed by 94.6% of isolates. Such a genetic profile was associated with a higher bacterial resistance to serum mediated killing and enhanced adherence to human respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:21698169

  13. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Induces Sustained Lung Oxidative Stress and Protease Expression

    PubMed Central

    King, Paul T.; Sharma, Roleen; O’Sullivan, Kim; Selemidis, Stavros; Lim, Steven; Radhakrishna, Naghmeh; Lo, Camden; Prasad, Jyotika; Callaghan, Judy; McLaughlin, Peter; Farmer, Michael; Steinfort, Daniel; Jennings, Barton; Ngui, James; Broughton, Bradley R. S.; Thomas, Belinda; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Hickey, Michael; Holmes, Peter W.; Hansbro, Philip; Bardin, Philip G.; Holdsworth, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a prevalent bacterium found in a variety of chronic respiratory diseases. The role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation is not well defined. In this study we examined the effect of NTHi on two important lung inflammatory processes 1), oxidative stress and 2), protease expression. Bronchoalveolar macrophages were obtained from 121 human subjects, blood neutrophils from 15 subjects, and human-lung fibroblast and epithelial cell lines from 16 subjects. Cells were stimulated with NTHi to measure the effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and extracellular trap formation. We also measured the production of the oxidant, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in the lungs of mice infected with this bacterium. NTHi induced widespread production of 3-NT in mouse lungs. This bacterium induced significantly increased ROS production in human fibroblasts, epithelial cells, macrophages and neutrophils; with the highest levels in the phagocytic cells. In human macrophages NTHi caused a sustained, extracellular production of ROS that increased over time. The production of ROS was associated with the formation of macrophage extracellular trap-like structures which co-expressed the protease metalloproteinase-12. The formation of the macrophage extracellular trap-like structures was markedly inhibited by the addition of DNase. In this study we have demonstrated that NTHi induces lung oxidative stress with macrophage extracellular trap formation and associated protease expression. DNase inhibited the formation of extracellular traps. PMID:25793977

  14. Structural Analysis of Substrate, Reaction Intermediate, and Product Binding in Haemophilus influenzae Biotin Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Tyler C.; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Neau, David B.; Bonnot, Ross; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2015-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the first and regulated step in fatty acid synthesis. In most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, the enzyme is composed of three proteins: biotin carboxylase, a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase. The reaction mechanism involves two half-reactions with biotin carboxylase catalyzing the ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin-BCCP in the first reaction. In the second reaction, carboxyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin-BCCP to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. In this report, high-resolution crystal structures of biotin carboxylase from Haemophilus influenzae were determined with bicarbonate, the ATP analogue AMPPCP; the carboxyphosphate intermediate analogues, phosphonoacetamide and phosphonoformate; the products ADP and phosphate; and the carboxybiotin analogue N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester. The structures have a common theme in that bicarbonate, phosphate, and the methyl ester of the carboxyl group of N1′-methoxycarbonyl biotin methyl ester all bound in the same pocket in the active site of biotin carboxylase and as such utilize the same set of amino acids for binding. This finding suggests a catalytic mechanism for biotin carboxylase in which the binding pocket that binds tetrahedral phosphate also accommodates and stabilizes a tetrahedral dianionic transition state resulting from direct transfer of CO2 from the carboxyphosphate intermediate to biotin. PMID:26020841

  15. Structural basis for haem piracy from host haemopexin by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Zambolin, Silvia; Clantin, Bernard; Chami, Mohamed; Hoos, Sylviane; Haouz, Ahmed; Villeret, Vincent; Delepelaire, Philippe

    2016-05-18

    Haemophilus influenzae is an obligate human commensal/pathogen that requires haem for survival and can acquire it from several host haemoproteins, including haemopexin. The haem transport system from haem-haemopexin consists of HxuC, a haem receptor, and the two-partner-secretion system HxuB/HxuA. HxuA, which is exposed at the cell surface, is strictly required for haem acquisition from haemopexin. HxuA forms complexes with haem-haemopexin, leading to haem release and its capture by HxuC. The key question is how HxuA liberates haem from haemopexin. Here, we solve crystal structures of HxuA alone, and HxuA in complex with the N-terminal domain of haemopexin. A rational basis for the release of haem from haem-haemopexin is derived from both in vivo and in vitro studies. HxuA acts as a wedge that destabilizes the two-domains structure of haemopexin with a mobile loop on HxuA that favours haem ejection by redirecting key residues in the haem-binding pocket of haemopexin.

  16. Antisera Against Certain Conserved Surface-Exposed Peptides of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Are Protective

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) cause significant disease, including otitis media in children, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and invasive disease in susceptible populations. No vaccine is currently available to prevent NTHi disease. The interactions of NTHi and the human host are primarily mediated by lipooligosaccharide and a complex array of surface-exposed proteins (SEPs) that act as receptors, sensors and secretion systems. We hypothesized that certain SEPs are present in all NTHi strains and that a subset of these may be antibody accessible and represent protective epitopes. Initially we used 15 genomic sequences available in the GenBank database along with an additional 11 genomic sequences generated by ourselves to identify the core set of putative SEPs present in all strains. Using bioinformatics, 56 core SEPs were identified. Molecular modeling generated putative structures of the SEPs from which potential surface exposed regions were defined. Synthetic peptides corresponding to ten of these highly conserved surface-exposed regions were used to raise antisera in rats. These antisera were used to assess passive protection in the infant rat model of invasive NTHi infection. Five of the antisera were protective, thus demonstrating their in vivo antibody accessibility. These five peptide regions represent potential targets for peptide vaccine candidates to protect against NTHi infection. PMID:26390432

  17. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.

    2010-12-08

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  18. Recognition of nucleoside monophosphate substrates by Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Tanner, John J

    2010-12-10

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD(+) utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5',3'-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and 2'-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5'-nucleotides and 3'-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5' substrates in an anti conformation and 3' substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition. PMID:20934434

  19. A biphasic epigenetic switch controls immunoevasion, virulence and niche adaptation in non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Brockman, Kenneth L; Clark, Tyson A; Boitano, Matthew; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; McEwan, Alastair G; Grimmond, Sean M; Smith, Arnold L; Barenkamp, Stephen J; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae contains an N(6)-adenine DNA-methyltransferase (ModA) that is subject to phase-variable expression (random ON/OFF switching). Five modA alleles, modA2, modA4, modA5, modA9 and modA10, account for over two-thirds of clinical otitis media isolates surveyed. Here, we use single molecule, real-time (SMRT) methylome analysis to identify the DNA-recognition motifs for all five of these modA alleles. Phase variation of these alleles regulates multiple proteins including vaccine candidates, and key virulence phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance (modA2, modA5, modA10), biofilm formation (modA2) and immunoevasion (modA4). Analyses of a modA2 strain in the chinchilla model of otitis media show a clear selection for ON switching of modA2 in the middle ear. Our results indicate that a biphasic epigenetic switch can control bacterial virulence, immunoevasion and niche adaptation in an animal model system. PMID:26215614

  20. Overlapping and complementary oxidative stress defense mechanisms in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Baker, Beth D; Munson, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative commensal bacterium nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) can cause respiratory tract diseases that include otitis media, sinusitis, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchitis. During colonization and infection, NTHI withstands oxidative stress generated by reactive oxygen species produced endogenously, by the host, and by other copathogens and flora. These reactive oxygen species include superoxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals, whose killing is amplified by iron via the Fenton reaction. We previously identified genes that encode proteins with putative roles in protection of the NTHI isolate strain 86-028NP against oxidative stress. These include catalase (HktE), peroxiredoxin/glutaredoxin (PgdX), and a ferritin-like protein (Dps). Strains were generated with mutations in hktE, pgdX, and dps. The hktE mutant and a pgdX hktE double mutant were more sensitive than the parent to killing by H2O2. Conversely, the pgdX mutant was more resistant to H2O2 due to increased catalase activity. Supporting the role of killing via the Fenton reaction, binding of iron by Dps significantly mitigated the effect of H2O2-mediated killing. NTHI thus utilizes several effectors to resist oxidative stress, and regulation of free iron is critical to this protection. These mechanisms will be important for successful colonization and infection by this opportunistic human pathogen.

  1. Structural basis for haem piracy from host haemopexin by Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Zambolin, Silvia; Clantin, Bernard; Chami, Mohamed; Hoos, Sylviane; Haouz, Ahmed; Villeret, Vincent; Delepelaire, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an obligate human commensal/pathogen that requires haem for survival and can acquire it from several host haemoproteins, including haemopexin. The haem transport system from haem-haemopexin consists of HxuC, a haem receptor, and the two-partner-secretion system HxuB/HxuA. HxuA, which is exposed at the cell surface, is strictly required for haem acquisition from haemopexin. HxuA forms complexes with haem-haemopexin, leading to haem release and its capture by HxuC. The key question is how HxuA liberates haem from haemopexin. Here, we solve crystal structures of HxuA alone, and HxuA in complex with the N-terminal domain of haemopexin. A rational basis for the release of haem from haem-haemopexin is derived from both in vivo and in vitro studies. HxuA acts as a wedge that destabilizes the two-domains structure of haemopexin with a mobile loop on HxuA that favours haem ejection by redirecting key residues in the haem-binding pocket of haemopexin. PMID:27188378

  2. Molecular Epidemiological Study of Haemophilus influenzae Serotype b Strains Obtained from Children with Meningitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Kuroki, Haruo; Ishikawa, Nobuyasu; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Ito, Schuichi; Miyamae, Takako; Mori, Masaaki; Uehara, Suzuko; Yokota, Shumpei

    1999-01-01

    We report an epidemiological study of 30 Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) strains derived from the cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis. The Hib strains were biotyped, tested for β-lactamase production, and genotyped by long PCR-ribotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, and genomic DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The phenotypic study characterized 22 of the strains (73%) as biotype I. A genotypic study using long PCR-ribotyping with HaeIII restriction digestion showed no polymorphisms among these 30 Hib strains, but RAPD analysis with two sets of primers demonstrated two distinctive subtypes: one typical of the strains of biotype group II and the second characteristic of the strains of biotype groups I and IV. Each RAPD group was subtyped into several genotypic groups by PFGE-RFLP with SmaI digestion. The genotyping of clinically isolated Hib strains may help to elucidate transmission routes in community infections, endemicity, and the reasons for vaccine failure. PMID:10405399

  3. Transcriptome signature in young children with acute otitis media due to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keyi; Chen, Linlin; Kaur, Ravinder; Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-06-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) causes acute otitis media (AOM) in young children. In our recent paper in Microbes and Infection we described the transcriptome signature elicited from PBMCs at onset of AOM caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the current study we found very different results with NTHi AOM infections; 5.1% of 29 187 genes were differentially regulated by more than 2-fold at the onset of AOM compared with the pre-infection healthy state in the same children. Among the 1487 transcripts, 100 genes associated with the immune defense response were specifically analyzed. About half of the differentially regulated genes associated with antibacterial activity and the cell-mediated immune response were activated and half were suppressed. The important signatures for NTHi in children suggested that the balance of the immune response was toward suppression. Moreover, 90% of the genes associated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine response were down-regulated. The genes associated with the classic complement pathway were down-regulated, although the alternative complement pathway genes were up-regulated. These results provide the first human transcriptome data identifying gene expression in the immune response to be predominantly down-regulated at the onset of AOM due to NTHi.

  4. Antisera Against Certain Conserved Surface-Exposed Peptides of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Are Protective.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Paul W; Seale, Thomas W; Morton, Daniel J; Stull, Terrence L

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) cause significant disease, including otitis media in children, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and invasive disease in susceptible populations. No vaccine is currently available to prevent NTHi disease. The interactions of NTHi and the human host are primarily mediated by lipooligosaccharide and a complex array of surface-exposed proteins (SEPs) that act as receptors, sensors and secretion systems. We hypothesized that certain SEPs are present in all NTHi strains and that a subset of these may be antibody accessible and represent protective epitopes. Initially we used 15 genomic sequences available in the GenBank database along with an additional 11 genomic sequences generated by ourselves to identify the core set of putative SEPs present in all strains. Using bioinformatics, 56 core SEPs were identified. Molecular modeling generated putative structures of the SEPs from which potential surface exposed regions were defined. Synthetic peptides corresponding to ten of these highly conserved surface-exposed regions were used to raise antisera in rats. These antisera were used to assess passive protection in the infant rat model of invasive NTHi infection. Five of the antisera were protective, thus demonstrating their in vivo antibody accessibility. These five peptide regions represent potential targets for peptide vaccine candidates to protect against NTHi infection. PMID:26390432

  5. Relative Contributions of Lipooligosaccharide Inner and Outer Core Modifications to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Pau; Viadas, Cristina; Euba, Begoña; Hood, Derek W.; Barberán, Montserrat; Gil, Carmen; Grilló, María Jesús; Bengoechea, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a frequent commensal of the human nasopharynx that causes opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Existing evidence associates lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with disease, but the specific and relative contributions of NTHi LOS modifications to virulence properties of the bacterium have not been comprehensively addressed. Using NTHi strain 375, an isolate for which the detailed LOS structure has been determined, we compared systematically a set of isogenic mutant strains expressing sequentially truncated LOS. The relative contributions of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, the triheptose inner core, oligosaccharide extensions on heptoses I and III, phosphorylcholine, digalactose, and sialic acid to NTHi resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), self-aggregation, biofilm formation, cultured human respiratory epithelial infection, and murine pulmonary infection were assessed. We show that opsX, lgtF, lpsA, lic1, and lic2A contribute to bacterial resistance to AMP; lic1 is related to NTHi self-aggregation; lgtF, lic1, and siaB are involved in biofilm growth; opsX and lgtF participate in epithelial infection; and opsX, lgtF, and lpsA contribute to lung infection. Depending on the phenotype, the involvement of these LOS modifications occurs at different extents, independently or having an additive effect in combination. We discuss the relative contribution of LOS epitopes to NTHi virulence and frame a range of pathogenic traits in the context of infection. PMID:23980106

  6. Population subdivision and the detection of recombination in non-typable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Thomas Richard; Corander, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    The disparity in diversity between unencapsulated (non-typable; NT) and encapsulated, serotypable Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) has been recognized for some time. It has previously been suggested that the wider diversity evidenced within NTHi compared with typable lineages may be due to different rates of recombination within the encapsulated and NT populations. To examine whether there is evidence for different levels of recombination within typable and NT lineages of Hi, we performed a statistical genetic analysis of 819 distinct genotypes of Hi to explore the congruence of serotype with population genetic clustering, and to identify patterns of recombination within the Hi population. We find that a significantly larger proportion of NT isolates show evidence of recombination, compared with typable isolates, and also that when admixture is present, the total amount of recombination per strain is greater within NT isolates, compared with the typable population. Furthermore, we demonstrate significant heterogeneity in the number of admixed individuals between NT lineages themselves, while such variation was not observed in typable lineages. This variability suggests that factors other than the presence of capsule are important determinants of recombination rate in the Hi population. PMID:23038806

  7. Analysis of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Phase-Variable Genes During Experimental Human Nasopharyngeal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Jessica; Foster, Eric; Chaloner, Kathryn; Hunt, Jason; Jennings, Michael P.; Bair, Thomas; Knudtson, Kevin; Christensen, Erik; Munson, Robert S.; Winokur, Patricia L.; Apicella, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Studies of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) have demonstrated that a number of genes associated with infectivity have long repeat regions associated with phase variation in expression of the respective gene. The purpose of this study was to determine the genes that underwent phase variation during a 6-day period of experimental human nasopharyngeal colonization. Methods. Strain NTHi 2019StrR1 was used to colonize the nasopharynx of human subjects in a study of experimental colonization. Thirteen phase-variable genes were analyzed in NTHi 2019StrR1. Samples of NTHi 2019StrR1 were cultured from subjects during the 6-day colonization period. We used capillary electrophoresis and Roche 454 pyrosequencing to determine the number of repeats in each gene from each sample. Results. A significant number of samples switched licA and igaB from phase off in the inoculated strain to phase on during the 4-day period of observation. lex2A also showed variability as compared to baseline, but the differences were not significant. The remaining genes showed no evidence of phase variation. Conclusions. Our studies suggest that the phase-on genotypes of licA and igaB are important for early human nasopharynx colonization. lex2A showed a trend from phase off to phase on, suggesting a potentially important role in the colonization process. PMID:23715658

  8. Haemophilus influenzae responds to glucocorticoids used in asthma therapy by modulation of biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Chris S; Keong, Teh Wooi; An, Shi-qi; Murdoch, Sarah; McCarthy, Yvonne; Garmendia, Junkal; Ward, Joseph; Dow, J Maxwell; Yang, Liang; O’Toole, George A; Ryan, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are used as a main treatment to reduce airway inflammation in people with asthma who suffer from neutrophilic airway inflammation, a condition frequently associated with Haemophilus influenzae colonization. Here we show that glucocorticosteroids have a direct influence on the behavior of H. influenzae that may account for associated difficulties with therapy. Using a mouse model of infection, we show that corticosteroid treatment promotes H. influenzae persistence. Transcriptomic analysis of bacteria either isolated from infected mouse airway or grown in laboratory medium identified a number of genes encoding regulatory factors whose expression responded to the presence of glucocorticosteroids. Importantly, a number of these corticosteroid-responsive genes also showed elevated expression in H. influenzae within sputum from asthma patients undergoing steroid treatment. Addition of corticosteroid to H. influenzae led to alteration in biofilm formation and enhanced resistance to azithromycin, and promoted azithromycin resistance in an animal model of respiratory infection. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that H. influenzae can respond directly to corticosteroid treatment in the airway potentially influencing biofilm formation, persistence and the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. PMID:25995336

  9. N-Nitrosocarbaryl-induced mutagenesis in Haemophilus influenzae strains deficient in repair and recombination.

    PubMed

    Beattie, K L

    1975-02-01

    Mutagenesis was studied in repair- and recombination-deficient strains of Haemophilus influenzae after treatment with N-nitrosocarbaryl (NC). Three different strains of H. influenzae carrying mutations affecting excision-repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers exhibited normal repair of premutational lesions (as detected by decreased mutation yield resulting from post-treatment DNA synthesis delay) and normal nonreplicative mutation fixation. This indicated that neither of these phenomena are caused by the smae repair mechanism that removes UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the DNA. The recombination-deficient mutant recI is apparently deficient in the replication-dependent mode of NC-induced mutation fixation. This conclusion is based on the following results: (I) NC-induced mutagenesis is lower in the recI strain than in rec+ cells. (2) Repair of premutational lesions (which depends on the existence of replication-dependent mutation fixation for its detection) was not detected in the recI strain. (3) When nonreplicative mutation fixation and final mutation frequency were measured in the same experiment, about I/4 to I/3 of the final mutation yield could be accounted for by nonreplicative mutation fixation in the rec+ strain, whereas all of the mutation could be accounted for in the recI strain by the nonreplicative mutation fixation. (4) When mutation fixation in strain dna9 recI was followed at the permissive (36 degrees) and nonpermissive (41 degrees) temperatures, it became apparent that in the recI strain replication-dependent mutation fixation occurs at early times, but these newly fixed mutations are unstable and disappear at later times, leaving only the mutations fixed by the nonreplicative process. The recI strain exhibits normal repair of NC-induced single-strand breaks or alkali-labile bonds in the DNA labeled before treatment, but is slow in joining discontinuties present in DNA synthesized after treatment. The results are consistent with the idea that

  10. Nonencapsulated or nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae are more likely than their encapsulated or serotypeable counterparts to have mutations in their fucose operon.

    PubMed

    Shuel, Michelle L; Karlowsky, Kathleen E; Law, Dennis K S; Tsang, Raymond S W

    2011-12-01

    Population biology of Haemophilus influenzae can be studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and isolates are assigned sequence types (STs) based on nucleotide sequence variations in seven housekeeping genes, including fucK. However, the ST cannot be assigned if one of the housekeeping genes is absent or cannot be detected by the current protocol. Occasionally, strains of H. influenzae have been reported to lack the fucK gene. In this study, we examined the prevalence of this mutation among our collection of H. influenzae isolates. Of the 704 isolates studied, including 282 encapsulated and 422 nonencapsulated isolates, nine were not typeable by MLST owing to failure to detect the fucK gene. All nine fucK-negative isolates were nonencapsulated and belonged to various biotypes. DNA sequencing of the fucose operon region confirmed complete deletion of genes in the operon in seven of the nine isolates, while in the remaining two isolates, some of the genes were found intact or in parts. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:22107351

  11. Structure of YciA from Haemophilus influenzae (HI0827), a Hexameric Broad Specificity Acyl-Coenzyme A Thioesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, Mark A.; Zhuang, Zhihao; Song, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2008-04-02

    The crystal structure of HI0827 from Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20, initially annotated 'hypothetical protein' in sequence databases, exhibits an acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioesterase 'hot dog' fold with a trimer of dimers oligomeric association, a novel assembly for this enzyme family. In studies described in the preceding paper [Zhuang, Z., Song, F., Zhao, H., Li, L., Cao, J., Eisenstein, E., Herzberg, O., and Dunaway-Mariano, D. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 2789-2796], HI0827 is shown to be an acyl-CoA thioesterase that acts on a wide range of acyl-CoA compounds. Two substrate binding sites are located across the dimer interface. The binding sites are occupied by two CoA molecules, one with full occupancy and the second only partially occupied. The CoA molecules, acquired from HI0827-expressing Escherichia coli cells, remained tightly bound to the enzyme through the protein purification steps. The difference in CoA occupancies indicates a different substrate affinity for each of the binding sites, which in turn implies that the enzyme might be subject to allosteric regulation. Mutagenesis studies have shown that the replacement of the putative catalytic carboxylate Asp44 with an alanine residue abolishes activity. The impact of this mutation is seen in the crystal structure of D44A HI0827. Whereas the overall fold and assembly of the mutant protein are the same as those of the wild-type enzyme, the CoA ligands are absent. The dimer interface is perturbed, and the channel that accommodates the thioester acyl chain is more open and wider than that observed in the wild-type enzyme. A model of intact substrate bound to wild-type HI0827 provides a structural rationale for the broad substrate range.

  12. Decreasing Prevalence of β-Lactamase Production among Respiratory Tract Isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Kris P.; Rice, Cassie L.; Miller, Ashley L.; Miller, Norma J.; Beekmann, Susan E.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Richter, Sandra S.; Doern, Gary V.

    2005-01-01

    A total of 986 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from patients with respiratory tract infections in 45 United States medical centers were characterized during the winter of 2002-2003. β-Lactamase production was noted with 26.2% of isolates; 14.6% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents was extremely uncommon. In comparison to the results of four previous national surveys conducted since 1994, the prevalence of β-lactamase production with this pathogen appears to be decreasing. PMID:15917574

  13. The modA10 phasevarion of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae R2866 regulates multiple virulence-associated traits.

    PubMed

    VanWagoner, Timothy M; Atack, John M; Nelson, Kevin L; Smith, Hannah K; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P; Stull, Terrence L; Smith, Arnold L

    2016-03-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a human restricted commensal and pathogen that elicits inflammation by adhering to and invading airway epithelia cells: transcytosis across these cells can result in systemic infection. NTHi strain R2866 was isolated from the blood of a normal 30-month old infant with meningitis, and is unusual for NTHi in that it is able to cause systemic infection. Strain R2866 is able to replicate in normal human serum due to expression of lgtC which mimics human blood group p(k). R2866 contains a phase-variable DNA methyltransferase, modA10 which switches ON and OFF randomly and reversibly due to polymerase slippage over a long tetrameric repeat tract located in its open reading frame. Random gain or loss of repeats during replication can results in expressed (ON), or not expressed (OFF) states, the latter due to a frameshift or transcriptional termination at a premature stop codon. We sought to determine if the unusual virulence of R2866 was modified by modA10 phase-variation. A modA10 knockout mutant was found to have increased adherence to, and invasion of, human ear and airway monolayers in culture, and increased invasion and transcytosis of polarized human bronchial epithelial cells. Intriguingly, the rate of bacteremia was lower in the infant rat model of infection than a wild-type R2866 strain, but the fatality rate was greater. Transcriptional analysis comparing the modA10 knockout to the R2866 wild-type parent strain showed increased expression of genes in the modA10 knockout whose products mediate cellular adherence. We conclude that loss of ModA10 function in strain R2866 enhances colonization and invasion by increasing expression of genes that allow for increased adherence, which can contribute to the increased virulence of this strain.

  14. [Incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in the state of Rio Grande do Sul 1999-2010: impact of vaccination campaign].

    PubMed

    Schossler, João Guilherme Stadler; Beck, Sandra Trevisan; de Campos, Marli Matiko Anraku; Farinha, Lourdes Boufleur

    2013-05-01

    This article seeks to analyze and update the epidemiological situation of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in the past 10 years in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). It is a retrospective, descriptive study, which used the data notification system of meningitis and vaccination campaign coverage, stored in the Epidemiological TABNET online database, for the period from 1999 to 2010. Cases notified and confirmed were used and the selection criteria were the year when the symptoms were detected, age, diagnosis, and evolution. Nineteen health centers in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. The z-test was used to evaluate comparisons between the proportions. In the period studied, 3043 confirmed cases of bacterial meningitis were reported, of which 6.77% were caused by H. influenzae. The incidence and mortality rates of meningitis caused by H. influenzae, without taking age group into consideration, fell significantly (95.6%) after 1999. Children under one year old continue to be the most affected (52%), there being no change in lethality. The results presented revealed a positive impact of Hib vaccination strategies in the state of Rio Grande do Sul over the past ten years.

  15. Dynamics of Long-Term Colonization of Respiratory Tract by Haemophilus influenzae in Cystic Fibrosis Patients Shows a Marked Increase in Hypermutable Strains

    PubMed Central

    Román, Federico; Cantón, Rafael; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Baquero, Fernando; Campos, José

    2004-01-01

    The persistence and variability of 188 Haemophilus influenzae isolates in respiratory tract of 30 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over the course of 7 years was studied. Antibiotic susceptibility testing, DNA fingerprinting, and analysis of outer membrane protein profiles were performed on all isolates. A total of 115 distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified. Ninety percent of patients were cocolonized with two or more clones over the studied period. A third of the patients were cross-colonized with one or two H. influenzae strains; 11% of the clones persisted for 3 or more months. Biotype, outer membrane protein profiles, and resistance profiles showed variation along the studied period, even in persisting clones. Four isolates (2.1%) recovered from 3 patients were type f capsulate, with three of them belonging to the same clone. β-Lactamase production was detected in 23.9% of isolates while 7% of the β-lactamase-negative isolates presented diminished susceptibility to ampicillin (β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance phenotype). Remarkably, 21.3% of the H. influenzae isolates presented decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, which was mainly observed in persisting clones. Of the H. influenzae isolates from CF patients, 18 (14.5%) were found to be hypermutable in comparison with 1 (1.4%) from non-CF patients (P < 0.0001). Ten patients (33.3%) were colonized by hypermutable strains over the study period. A multiresistance phenotype and long-term clonal persistence were significantly associated in some cases for up to 7 years. These results suggest that H. influenzae bronchial colonization in CF patients is a dynamic process, but better-adapted clones can persist for long periods of time. PMID:15070988

  16. [Activity of cefpodoxime and other oral beta-lactams against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin].

    PubMed

    Fenoll, A; Robledo, O; Lerma, M; Giménez, M J; Cebrián, L; Casal, J; Aguilar, L; Gómez-Lus, M L

    2006-03-01

    This study explores the influence on the intrinsic activity of different oral beta-lactams of beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus influenzae and penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three substudies were performed: a) a general susceptibility study, analyzing 550 strains received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout February and March 2005; b) a study on the influence of penicillin resistance on the activity of beta-lactams, analyzing 251 penicillin-susceptible strains (MICor=2 mg/l) randomly chosen among those received by the Spanish Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococos throughout 2005; and c) an H. influenzae susceptibility study analyzing 150 strains received by Instituto Valenciano de Microbiologia throughout 2005. A total of 71% of S. pneumoniae strains were susceptible to penicillin, 21% exhibited intermediate resistance and 8% strains presented full resistance. H. influenzae beta-lactamase production rate was 18.6%. Of the non-beta-lactamase-producing strains, 3% were not susceptible to ampicillin. Cefpodoxime and cefixime exhibited the highest intrinsic activity against H. influenzae, while amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were the most active compounds against S. pneumoniae. All H. influenzae strains were susceptible to oral cephalosporins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The increase in penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae influenced cefixime, cefaclor and cefuroxime to a higher degree than amoxicillin and cefpodoxime.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and immunologic properties of detoxified lipooligosaccharide from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae conjugated to proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, X X; Tsai, C M; Ueyama, T; Barenkamp, S J; Robbins, J B; Lim, D J

    1996-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important cause of otitis media in children and of pneumonitis in adults with depressed resistance. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is a major surface antigen of NTHi and elicits bactericidal and opsonic antibodies. We prepared detoxified LOS (dLOS) protein conjugates from NTHi for use as experimental vaccines. LOS from NTHi 9274 was treated with anhydrous hydrazine and had its toxicity reduced to clinically acceptable levels. dLOS was bound to tetanus toxoid (TT) or high- molecular-weight proteins (HMPs) from NTHi through a linker of adipic acid dihydrazide to form dLOS-TT or dLOS-HMP. The molar ratio of the dLOS to protein carriers ranged from 26:1 to 50:1. The antigenicity of the conjugates was similar to that of the LOS alone as determined by double immunodiffusion. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of the conjugates elicited a 28- to 486-fold rise in the level of immunoglobulin G antibodies in mice to the homologous LOS after two or three injections and a 169- to 243-fold rise in the level of immunoglobulin G antibodies in rabbits after two injections. The immunogenicity of the conjugates in mice and rabbits was enhanced by formulation with monophosphoryl lipid A plus trehalose dimycolate. In rabbits, conjugate-induced LOS antibodies induced complement-mediated bactericidal activity against the homologous strain 9274 and prototype strain 3189. These results indicate that a detoxified LOS-protein conjugate is a candidate vaccine for otitis media and pneumonitis caused by NTHi. PMID:8926067

  18. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Clearance by Alveolar Macrophages Is Impaired by Exposure to Cigarette Smoke ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Regueiro, Verónica; Morey, Pau; Hood, Derek W.; Saus, Carles; Sauleda, Jaume; Agustí, Alvar G. N.; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Garmendia, Junkal

    2009-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen that causes respiratory infections and is associated with progression of respiratory diseases. Cigarette smoke is a main risk factor for development of respiratory infections and chronic respiratory diseases. Glucocorticoids, which are anti-inflammatory drugs, are still the most common therapy for these diseases. Alveolar macrophages are professional phagocytes that reside in the lung and are responsible for clearing infections by the action of their phagolysosomal machinery and promotion of local inflammation. In this study, we dissected the interaction between NTHI and alveolar macrophages and the effect of cigarette smoke on this interaction. We showed that alveolar macrophages clear NTHI infections by adhesion, phagocytosis, and phagolysosomal processing of the pathogen. Bacterial uptake requires host actin polymerization, the integrity of plasma membrane lipid rafts, and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade. Parallel to bacterial clearance, macrophages secrete tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) upon NTHI infection. In contrast, exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytosis, although NTHI-induced TNF-α secretion was not abrogated. Mechanistically, our data showed that CSE reduced PI3K signaling activation triggered by NTHI. Treatment of CSE-exposed cells with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone reduced the amount of TNF-α secreted upon NTHI infection but did not compensate for CSE-dependent phagocytic impairment. The deleterious effect of cigarette smoke was observed in macrophage cell lines and in human alveolar macrophages obtained from smokers and from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:19620348

  19. Prokaryotic High-Level Expression System in Producing Adhesin Recombinant Protein E of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Minoo; Bouzari, Saeed; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Najar Peerayeh, Shahin; Jafari, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adhesion protein E (PE) of Haemophilus influenzae is a 16 - 18 kDa protein with 160 amino acids which causes adhesion to epithelial cells and acts as a major factor in pathogenesis. Objectives: In this study, we performed cloning, expression and purification of PE as a candidate antigen for vaccine design upon further study. Materials and Methods: At first, the pe gene of NTHi ATCC 49766 strain (483 bp) was amplified by PCR. Then, to sequence the resulted amplicon, it was cloned into TA vector (pTZ57R/T). In the next step, the sequenced gene was sub-cloned in pBAD/gIII A vector and transformed into competent Escherichia coli TOP10. For overexpression, the recombinant bacteria were grown in broth medium containing arabinose and the recombinant protein was purified using metal affinity chromatography (Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid) (Ni-NTA agarose). Finally, the protein was detected using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophores (SDS-PAG) and confirmed by western blotting. Results: The cloned gene was confirmed by PCR, restriction digestion and sequencing. The sequenced gene was searched for homology in GenBank and 99% similarity was found to the already deposited genes in GenBank. Then we obtained PE using Ni-NTA agarose with up to 7 mg/mL concentration. Conclusions: The pe gene was successfully cloned and confirmed by sequencing. Finally, PE was obtained with high concentration. Due to high homology and similarity among the pe gene from NTHi ATCC 49766 and other NTHi strains in GenBank, we believe that the protein is a universal antigen to be used as a vaccine design candidate and further studies to evaluate its immunogenicity is underway. PMID:26034537

  20. Resolvin D1 Dampens Pulmonary Inflammation and Promotes Clearance of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Croasdell, Amanda; Lacy, Shannon H; Thatcher, Thomas H; Sime, Patricia J; Phipps, Richard P

    2016-03-15

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes ear infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, and exacerbations in patients with underlying inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In mice, NTHi is rapidly cleared, but a strong inflammatory response persists, underscoring the concept that NTHi induces dysregulation of normal inflammatory responses and causes a failure to resolve. Lipid-derived specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) play a critical role in the active resolution of inflammation by both suppressing proinflammatory actions and promoting resolution pathways. Importantly, SPMs lack the immunosuppressive properties of classical anti-inflammatory therapies. On the basis of these characteristics, we hypothesized that aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) would dampen NTHi-induced inflammation while still enhancing bacterial clearance. C57BL/6 mice were treated with AT-RvD1 and infected with live NTHi. AT-RvD1-treated mice had lower total cell counts and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and had earlier influx of macrophages. In addition, AT-RvD1-treated mice showed changes in temporal regulation of inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, with decreased KC at 6 h and decreased IL-6, TNF-α, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression at 24 h post infection. Despite reduced inflammation, AT-RvD1-treated mice had reduced NTHi bacterial load, mediated by enhanced clearance by macrophages and a skewing toward an M2 phenotype. Finally, AT-RvD1 protected NTHi-infected mice from weight loss, hypothermia, hypoxemia, and respiratory compromise. This research highlights the beneficial role of SPMs in pulmonary bacterial infections and provides the groundwork for further investigation into SPMs as alternatives to immunosuppressive therapies like steroids.

  1. Early-Life Intranasal Colonization with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Exacerbates Juvenile Airway Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    McCann, Jessica R; Mason, Stanley N; Auten, Richard L; St Geme, Joseph W; Seed, Patrick C

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a connection between asthma development and colonization with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Specifically, nasopharyngeal colonization of human infants with NTHi within 4 weeks of birth is associated with an increased risk of asthma development later in childhood. Monocytes derived from these infants have aberrant inflammatory responses to common upper respiratory bacterial antigens compared to those of cells derived from infants who were not colonized and do not go on to develop asthma symptoms in childhood. In this study, we hypothesized that early-life colonization with NTHi promotes immune system reprogramming and the development of atypical inflammatory responses. To address this hypothesis in a highly controlled model, we tested whether colonization of mice with NTHi on day of life 3 induced or exacerbated juvenile airway disease using an ovalbumin (OVA) allergy model of asthma. We found that animals that were colonized on day of life 3 and subjected to induction of allergy had exacerbated airway disease as juveniles, in which exacerbated airway disease was defined as increased cellular infiltration into the lung, increased amounts of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 in lung lavage fluid, decreased regulatory T cell-associated FOXP3 gene expression, and increased mucus production. We also found that colonization with NTHi amplified airway resistance in response to increasing doses of a bronchoconstrictor following OVA immunization and challenge. Together, the murine model provides evidence for early-life immune programming that precedes the development of juvenile airway disease and corroborates observations that have been made in human children.

  2. Quantitation and biological properties of released and cell-bound lipooligosaccharides from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, X X; Tsai, C M; Apicella, M A; Lim, D J

    1995-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major pathogen causing otitis media in children. NTHi releases lipooligosaccharide (LOS) as outer membrane fragments during its growth. The release of LOS may play an important role in the pathogenicity of otitis media caused by this organism. The amounts of LOS in bacterial cells and growth media for five NTHi strains were determined by quantitative silver staining after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These strains were estimated to have 1.6 x 10(6) to 4.8 x 10(6) LOS molecules per bacterium. During a 3-day growth period, these NTHi strains released variable but significant amounts of LOS into the growth medium. Cells started to release detectable amounts of LOS into the medium at 2 to 5 h and continued to do so for up to 48 or 72 h. The concentrations of LOS in the culture supernatants released by these five strains were 10 to 55 micrograms/ml at 24 h and 40 to 100 micrograms/ml at 72 h, which was 34 to 189% of the cell-bound LOS concentration. The biological properties of released and cell-bound LOSs from two representative strains were compared. Released LOS showed an approximately 10-fold increase in inducing human monocytes to produce tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta, and interleukin 6, a 13- to 28-fold increase in mouse lethal toxicity, and a 16- to 37-fold increase in the clotting of Limulus amebocyte lysate. These results suggested that released LOS or its inflammatory mediators play a more important role than the LOS in bacteria in the pathogenicity of otitis media caused by this organism. PMID:7558327

  3. Transformed Recombinant Enrichment Profiling Rapidly Identifies HMW1 as an Intracellular Invasion Locus in Haemophilus influenza.

    PubMed

    Mell, Joshua Chang; Viadas, Cristina; Moleres, Javier; Sinha, Sunita; Fernández-Calvet, Ariadna; Porsch, Eric A; St Geme, Joseph W; Nislow, Corey; Redfield, Rosemary J; Garmendia, Junkal

    2016-04-01

    Many bacterial species actively take up and recombine homologous DNA into their genomes, called natural competence, a trait that offers a means to identify the genetic basis of naturally occurring phenotypic variation. Here, we describe "transformed recombinant enrichment profiling" (TREP), in which natural transformation is used to generate complex pools of recombinants, phenotypic selection is used to enrich for specific recombinants, and deep sequencing is used to survey for the genetic variation responsible. We applied TREP to investigate the genetic architecture of intracellular invasion by the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae, a trait implicated in persistence during chronic infection. TREP identified the HMW1 adhesin as a crucial factor. Natural transformation of the hmw1 operon from a clinical isolate (86-028NP) into a laboratory isolate that lacks it (Rd KW20) resulted in ~1,000-fold increased invasion into airway epithelial cells. When a distinct recipient (Hi375, already possessing hmw1 and its paralog hmw2) was transformed by the same donor, allelic replacement of hmw2AHi375 by hmw1A86-028NP resulted in a ~100-fold increased intracellular invasion rate. The specific role of hmw1A86-028NP was confirmed by mutant and western blot analyses. Bacterial self-aggregation and adherence to airway cells were also increased in recombinants, suggesting that the high invasiveness induced by hmw1A86-028NP might be a consequence of these phenotypes. However, immunofluorescence results found that intracellular hmw1A86-028NP bacteria likely invaded as groups, instead of as individual bacterial cells, indicating an emergent invasion-specific consequence of hmw1A-mediated self-aggregation. PMID:27124727

  4. Transformed Recombinant Enrichment Profiling Rapidly Identifies HMW1 as an Intracellular Invasion Locus in Haemophilus influenza

    PubMed Central

    Moleres, Javier; Sinha, Sunita; Fernández-Calvet, Ariadna; Porsch, Eric A.; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Nislow, Corey; Redfield, Rosemary J.; Garmendia, Junkal

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species actively take up and recombine homologous DNA into their genomes, called natural competence, a trait that offers a means to identify the genetic basis of naturally occurring phenotypic variation. Here, we describe “transformed recombinant enrichment profiling” (TREP), in which natural transformation is used to generate complex pools of recombinants, phenotypic selection is used to enrich for specific recombinants, and deep sequencing is used to survey for the genetic variation responsible. We applied TREP to investigate the genetic architecture of intracellular invasion by the human pathogen Haemophilus influenzae, a trait implicated in persistence during chronic infection. TREP identified the HMW1 adhesin as a crucial factor. Natural transformation of the hmw1 operon from a clinical isolate (86-028NP) into a laboratory isolate that lacks it (Rd KW20) resulted in ~1,000-fold increased invasion into airway epithelial cells. When a distinct recipient (Hi375, already possessing hmw1 and its paralog hmw2) was transformed by the same donor, allelic replacement of hmw2AHi375 by hmw1A86-028NP resulted in a ~100-fold increased intracellular invasion rate. The specific role of hmw1A86-028NP was confirmed by mutant and western blot analyses. Bacterial self-aggregation and adherence to airway cells were also increased in recombinants, suggesting that the high invasiveness induced by hmw1A86-028NP might be a consequence of these phenotypes. However, immunofluorescence results found that intracellular hmw1A86-028NP bacteria likely invaded as groups, instead of as individual bacterial cells, indicating an emergent invasion-specific consequence of hmw1A-mediated self-aggregation. PMID:27124727

  5. The structure of Haemophilus influenzae prephenate dehydrogenase suggests unique features of bifunctional TyrA enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Carlton, Dennis; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase from Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of chorismate to prephenate and the NAD(P)+-dependent oxidative decarboxyl­ation of prephenate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate in tyrosine biosynthesis. The crystal structure of the prephenate dehydrogenase component (HinfPDH) of the TyrA protein from H. influenzae Rd KW20 in complex with the inhibitor tyrosine and cofactor NAD+ has been determined to 2.0 Å resolution. HinfPDH is a dimeric enzyme, with each monomer consisting of an N-terminal α/β dinucleotide-binding domain and a C-terminal α-helical dimerization domain. The structure reveals key active-site residues at the domain interface, including His200, Arg297 and Ser179 that are involved in catalysis and/or ligand binding and are highly conserved in TyrA proteins from all three kingdoms of life. Tyrosine is bound directly at the catalytic site, suggesting that it is a competitive inhibitor of HinfPDH. Comparisons with its structural homologues reveal important differences around the active site, including the absence of an α–β motif in HinfPDH that is present in other TyrA proteins, such as Synechocystis sp. arogenate dehydrogenase. Residues from this motif are involved in discrimination between NADP+ and NAD+. The loop between β5 and β6 in the N-terminal domain is much shorter in HinfPDH and an extra helix is present at the C-terminus. Furthermore, HinfPDH adopts a more closed conformation compared with TyrA proteins that do not have tyrosine bound. This conformational change brings the substrate, cofactor and active-site residues into close proximity for catalysis. An ionic network consisting of Arg297 (a key residue for tyrosine binding), a water molecule, Asp206 (from the loop between β5 and β6) and Arg365′ (from the additional C-terminal helix of the adjacent monomer) is observed that might be involved in gating the active site. PMID:20944228

  6. LytM Proteins Play a Crucial Role in Cell Separation, Outer Membrane Composition, and Pathogenesis in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Ercoli, Giuseppe; Tani, Chiara; Pezzicoli, Alfredo; Vacca, Irene; Martinelli, Manuele; Pecetta, Simone; Petracca, Roberto; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Soriani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT LytM proteins belong to a family of bacterial metalloproteases. In Gram-negative bacteria, LytM factors are mainly reported to have a direct effect on cell division by influencing cleavage and remodeling of peptidoglycan. In this study, mining nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) genomes, three highly conserved open reading frames (ORFs) containing a LytM domain were identified, and the proteins encoded by the ORFs were named YebA, EnvC, and NlpD on the basis of their homology with the Escherichia coli proteins. Immunoblotting and confocal analysis showed that while NTHI NlpD is exposed on the bacterial surface, YebA and EnvC reside in the periplasm. NTHI ΔyebA and ΔnlpD deletion mutants revealed an aberrant division phenotype characterized by an altered cell architecture and extensive membrane blebbing. The morphology of the ΔenvC deletion mutant was identical to that of the wild-type strain, but it showed a drastic reduction of periplasmic proteins, including the chaperones HtrA, SurA, and Skp, and an accumulation of β-barrel-containing outer membrane proteins comprising the autotransporters Hap, IgA serine protease, and HMW2A, as observed by proteomic analysis. These data suggest that EnvC may influence the bacterial surface protein repertoire by facilitating the passage of the periplasmic chaperones through the peptidoglycan layer to the close vicinity of the inner face of the outer membrane. This hypothesis was further corroborated by the fact that an NTHI envC defective strain had an impaired capacity to adhere to epithelial cells and to form biofilm. Notably, this strain also showed a reduced serum resistance. These results suggest that LytM factors are not only important components of cell division but they may also influence NTHI physiology and pathogenesis by affecting membrane composition. PMID:25714719

  7. Haemophilus influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years at -70 °C in skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB) if thawing is avoided during re-culture.

    PubMed

    Hare, K M; Smith-Vaughan, H C; Beissbarth, J; Leach, A J

    2015-12-01

    Haemophilus influenzae remains a major cause of disease worldwide requiring continued study. Recently, isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis, but not H. influenzae, were reported to survive long-term ultra-freeze storage in STGGB. We show that nontypeable H. influenzae isolates survive for up to 20 years when thawing is avoided.

  8. The capsule biosynthesis locus of Haemophilus influenzae shows conspicuous similarity to the corresponding locus in Haemophilus sputorum and may have been recruited from this species by horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Signe M; de Gier, Camilla; Dimopoulou, Chrysoula; Gupta, Vikas; Hansen, Lars H; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-06-01

    The newly described species Haemophilus sputorum has been cultured from the upper respiratory tract of humans and appears to have little pathogenic potential. The species encodes a capsular biosynthesis locus of approximately 12  kb composed of three distinct regions. Region I and III genes, involved in export and processing of the capsular material, show high similarity to the corresponding genes in capsulate lineages of the pathogenic species Haemophilus influenzae; indeed, standard bexA and bexB PCRs for detection of capsulated strains of H. influenzae give positive results with strains of H. sputorum. Three ORFs are present in region II of the sequenced strain of H. sputorum, of which a putative phosphotransferase showed homology with corresponding genes from H. influenzae serotype c and f. Phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes from 24 Pasteurellaceae species showed that H. sputorum was only distantly related to H. influenzae. In contrast to H. influenzae, the capsule locus in H. sputorum is not associated with transposases or other transposable elements. Our data suggest that the capsule locus of capsulate lineages of H. influenzae may have been recruited relatively recently from the commensal species H. sputorum by horizontal gene transfer.

  9. Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Olcén, Per; Blomberg, Jonas; Mölling, Paula; Herrmann, Björn

    2013-06-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions. PMID:23541117

  10. Genomic Variability of Haemophilus influenzae Isolated from Mexican Children Determined by Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequences and PCR

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-De-Leon, Patricia; Santos, Jose I.; Caballero, Javier; Gomez, Demostenes; Espinosa, Luz E.; Moreno, Isabel; Piñero, Daniel; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Genomic fingerprints from 92 capsulated and noncapsulated strains of Haemophilus influenzae from Mexican children with different diseases and healthy carriers were generated by PCR using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequences. A cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages based on the overall similarity as estimated from the characteristics of the genomic fingerprints, was conducted to group the strains. A total of 69 fingerprint patterns were detected in the H. influenzae strains. Isolates from patients with different diseases were represented by a variety of patterns, which clustered into two major groups. Of the 37 strains isolated from cases of meningitis, 24 shared patterns and were clustered into five groups within a similarity level of 1.0. One fragment of 1.25 kb was common to all meningitis strains. H. influenzae strains from healthy carriers presented fingerprint patterns different from those found in strains from sick children. Isolates from healthy individuals were more variable and were distributed differently from those from patients. The results show that ERIC-PCR provides a powerful tool for the determination of the distinctive pathogenicity potentials of H. influenzae strains and encourage its use for molecular epidemiology investigations. PMID:10878033

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine administered concomitantly with either a measles-mumps-rubella or a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine mixed with a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in infants aged 12-18 months.

    PubMed

    Usonis, V; Meriste, S; Bakasenas, V; Lutsar, I; Collard, F; Stoffel, M; Tornieporth, N

    2005-04-01

    Two studies were undertaken to investigate the concomitant administration of combined hepatitis A/B vaccine with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine mixed with Haemophilus influenzae vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib), or with a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR), during the second year of life. On completion of the vaccination course, all subjects were seropositive or seroprotected against all antigens except for one subject who was seronegative for anti-PT. Seropositivity and seroprotection rates for all other antibodies were comparable to reference values for each vaccine component, indicating that the immunogenicity of MMR, DTPa-IPV/Hib and combined hepatitis A/B vaccines is not impaired by co-administration. All vaccines were well tolerated.

  12. Haemophilus influenzae LicB contributes to lung damage in an aged mice co-infection model.

    PubMed

    Bondy, Jessica; Osharovich, Sofya; Storm, Julie; Durning, Graham; McAuliffe, Timothy; Fan, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylcholine (ChoP) decoration of lipopolysaccharides is an important virulence strategy adopted by Haemophilus influenzae to establish a niche on the mucosal surface and to promote adherence to the host cells. The incorporation of ChoP on the LPS surface involves the lic1 operon, which consists of the licA, licB, licC, and licD genes. Among which, licB is a choline transporter gene required for acquisition of choline from environmental sources. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of the licB gene in an aged mice infection model. Due to immediate clearance of H. influenzae upon infection in mice, we employed influenza A virus and H. influenzae co-infection model. Our data showed that in the co-infection model, the secondary bacterial infection with a very low H. influenzae concentration of 100 colony forming unit is lethal to the aged mice. Although we did not observe any differences in weight loss between parent and licB mutant strains during the course of infection, a significant reduction of lung tissue damage was observed in the licB mutant infected aged mice. These results suggest that the licB gene is a virulence factor during H. influenzae infection in the lung in aged mice, possibly due to the increased binding to the host cell receptor via ChoP expression on the bacterial surface. In addition, when aged mice and mature mice were compared in the challenge experiments, we did not observe any protective immunity in the co-infection model suggesting the detrimental effects of the secondary bacterial infection on the aged mice in contrast to obvious immune-protections observed in the mature mice. The results of our experiments also implied that the co-infection model with influenza A virus and H. influenzae may be employed as a model system to study H. influenzae pathogenesis in vivo in aged mice.

  13. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae causes otitis media during single-species infection and during polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Murrah, Kyle A; Pang, Bing; Richardson, Stephen; Perez, Antonia; Reimche, Jennifer; King, Lauren; Wren, John; Swords, W Edward

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains lacking capsular polysaccharide have been increasingly reported in carriage and disease contexts. Since most cases of otitis media involve more than one bacterial species, we aimed to determine the capacity of a nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae clinical isolate to induce disease in the context of a single-species infection and as a polymicrobial infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media, we found that nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx following intranasal inoculation, but does not readily ascend into the middle ear. However, when we inoculated nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae directly into the middle ear, the bacteria persisted for two weeks post-inoculation and induced symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media. During coinfection with nontypeable H. influenzae, both species persisted for one week and induced polymicrobial otitis media. We also observed that nontypeable H. influenzae conferred passive protection from killing by amoxicillin upon S. pneumoniae from within polymicrobial biofilms in vitro. Therefore, based on these results, we conclude that nonencapsulated pneumococci are a potential causative agent of chronic/recurrent otitis media, and can also cause mutualistic infection with other opportunists, which could complicate treatment outcomes. PMID:26014114

  14. Vaccine Candidate P6 of Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae is Not a Transmembrane Protein Based on Protein Structural Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Lea Vacca; Kalmeta, Breanna; McCreary, Mark; Snyder, Joy; Craig, Paul; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    P6 has been a vaccine candidate for nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) based on its location on the outer membrane and immunogenicity. Because P6 is attached to the inner peptidoglycan layer of NTHi, and is putatively surface exposed, it must be a transmembrane protein. We examined the P6 structure using computational modeling, a P6 modified by site-directed mutagenesis to study monoclonal antibody attachment to P6, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We found that P6 cannot be a transmembrane protein, and therefore may not be surface exposed. We conclude that there may be another protein on the surface of NTHi that has epitopes similar if not identical to P6. PMID:21215345

  15. ModA2 Phasevarion Switching in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Increases the Severity of Experimental Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Brockman, Kenneth L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Jennings, Michael P; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2016-09-01

    Several human-adapted bacterial pathogens use a phasevarion (ie, a phase-variable regulon) to rapidly and reversibly regulate the expression of many genes, which include known virulence factors, yet the influence of phasevarion-mediated regulation in pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we examine the impact of the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) ModA2 phasevarion on pathogenesis and disease severity in a chinchilla model of experimental otitis media. Chinchillas were challenged with NTHI variant populations that were either inoculated ON and remained ON, inoculated OFF and shifted ON, or inoculated OFF and remained OFF, within the middle ear. We show that populations that shift from OFF to ON within the middle ear induce significantly greater disease severity than populations that are unable to shift. These observations support the importance of phasevarion switching in NTHI pathogenesis and the necessity to considered phasevarion regulation when developing methods to treat and prevent infection.

  16. Antibacterial FabH Inhibitors with Mode of Action Validated in Haemophilus influenzae by in Vitro Resistance Mutation Mapping.

    PubMed

    McKinney, David C; Eyermann, Charles J; Gu, Rong-Fang; Hu, Jun; Kazmirski, Steven L; Lahiri, Sushmita D; McKenzie, Andrew R; Shapiro, Adam B; Breault, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is essential to bacterial growth in Gram-negative pathogens. Several small molecules identified through a combination of high-throughput and fragment screening were cocrystallized with FabH (β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III) from Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Structure-based drug design was used to merge several scaffolds to provide a new class of inhibitors. After optimization for Gram-negative enzyme inhibitory potency, several compounds demonstrated antimicrobial activity against an efflux-negative strain of Haemophilus influenzae. Mutants resistant to these compounds had mutations in the FabH gene near the catalytic triad, validating FabH as a target for antimicrobial drug discovery.

  17. ModA2 Phasevarion Switching in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Increases the Severity of Experimental Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Brockman, Kenneth L; Jurcisek, Joseph A; Atack, John M; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Jennings, Michael P; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2016-09-01

    Several human-adapted bacterial pathogens use a phasevarion (ie, a phase-variable regulon) to rapidly and reversibly regulate the expression of many genes, which include known virulence factors, yet the influence of phasevarion-mediated regulation in pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we examine the impact of the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) ModA2 phasevarion on pathogenesis and disease severity in a chinchilla model of experimental otitis media. Chinchillas were challenged with NTHI variant populations that were either inoculated ON and remained ON, inoculated OFF and shifted ON, or inoculated OFF and remained OFF, within the middle ear. We show that populations that shift from OFF to ON within the middle ear induce significantly greater disease severity than populations that are unable to shift. These observations support the importance of phasevarion switching in NTHI pathogenesis and the necessity to considered phasevarion regulation when developing methods to treat and prevent infection. PMID:27288538

  18. Antibacterial FabH Inhibitors with Mode of Action Validated in Haemophilus influenzae by in Vitro Resistance Mutation Mapping.

    PubMed

    McKinney, David C; Eyermann, Charles J; Gu, Rong-Fang; Hu, Jun; Kazmirski, Steven L; Lahiri, Sushmita D; McKenzie, Andrew R; Shapiro, Adam B; Breault, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is essential to bacterial growth in Gram-negative pathogens. Several small molecules identified through a combination of high-throughput and fragment screening were cocrystallized with FabH (β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III) from Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Structure-based drug design was used to merge several scaffolds to provide a new class of inhibitors. After optimization for Gram-negative enzyme inhibitory potency, several compounds demonstrated antimicrobial activity against an efflux-negative strain of Haemophilus influenzae. Mutants resistant to these compounds had mutations in the FabH gene near the catalytic triad, validating FabH as a target for antimicrobial drug discovery. PMID:27626097

  19. Erythromycin and azithromycin transport into Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 19418 under conditions of depressed proton motive force (delta mu H)

    SciTech Connect

    Capobianco, J.O.; Goldman, R.C. )

    1990-09-01

    The effect of collapsing the electrochemical proton gradient (delta mu H) on ({sup 3}H)erythromycin and ({sup 14}C)azithromycin transport in Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 19418 was studied. The proton gradient and membrane potential were determined from the distribution of (2-{sup 14}C)dimethadione and rubidium-86, respectively. delta mu H was reduced from 124 to 3 mV in EDTA-valinomycin-treated cells at 22{degrees}C with 150 mM KCl and 0.1 mM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. During the collapse of delta mu H, macrolide uptake increased. Erythromycin efflux studies strongly suggested that this increase was not due to an energy-dependent efflux pump but was likely due to increased outer membrane permeability. These data indicated that macrolide entry was not a delta mu H-driven active transport process but rather a passive diffusion process.

  20. [Real-time PCR detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Vacková, Z; Lžičařová, D; Stock, N K; Kozáková, J

    2015-10-01

    The study aim was to implement a molecular real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay recommended by the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) for the detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in clinical (culture negative) specimens from patients with suspected invasive bacterial disease. Clinical specimens are referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Meningococcal Infections, Unit for Airborne Bacterial Infections, Centre for Epidemiology and Microbiology, National Institute of Public Health from various regions of the Czech Republic. Clinical specimens are, in particular, cerebrospinal fluid, anti-coagulated blood or serum and, exceptionally, post-mortem specimens. The NRL has implemented molecular diagnosis of these bacterial pathogens involved in meningitis and sepsis from clinical specimens since 1999. The first diagnostic method was semi-nested PCR followed by electrophoretic analysis. In 2014, a molecular qualitative real-time PCR assay was implemented.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize

    PubMed Central

    Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion. PMID:26354813

  2. Haemophilus influenzae with Non-Beta-Lactamase-Mediated Beta-Lactam Resistance: Easy To Find but Hard To Categorize.

    PubMed

    Skaare, Dagfinn; Lia, Astrid; Hannisdal, Anja; Tveten, Yngvar; Matuschek, Erika; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Kristiansen, Bjørn-Erik

    2015-11-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen, and beta-lactams are first-line drugs. Resistance due to altered penicillin-binding protein 3 (rPBP3) is frequent, and susceptibility testing of such strains is challenging. A collection of 154 beta-lactamase-negative isolates with a large proportion of rPBP3 (67.5%) was used to evaluate and compare Etest (Haemophilus test medium [HTM]) and disk diffusion (EUCAST method) for categorization of susceptibility to aminopenicillins and cefuroxime, using MICs generated with broth (HTM) microdilution and clinical breakpoints from CLSI and EUCAST as the gold standards. In addition, the proficiency of nine disks in screening for the rPBP3 genotype (N526K positive) was evaluated. By Etest, both essential and categorical agreement were generally poor (<70%), with high very major errors (VME) (CLSI, 13.0%; EUCAST, 34.3%) and falsely susceptible rates (FSR) (CLSI, 87.0%; EUCAST, 88.3%) for ampicillin. Ampicillin (2 μg) with adjusted (+2 mm) zone breakpoints was superior to Etest for categorization of susceptibility to ampicillin (agreement, 74.0%; VME, 11.0%; FSR, 28.3%). Conversely, Etest was superior to 30 μg cefuroxime for categorization of susceptibility to cefuroxime (agreement, 57.1% versus 60.4%; VME, 2.6% versus 9.7%; FSR, 7.1% versus 26.8%). Benzylpenicillin (1 unit) (EUCAST screening disk) and cefuroxime (5 μg) identified rPBP3 isolates with highest accuracies (95.5% and 92.2%, respectively). In conclusion, disk screening reliably detects rPBP3 H. influenzae, but false ampicillin susceptibility is frequent with routine methods. We suggest adding a comment recommending high-dose aminopenicillin therapy or the use of other agents for severe infections with screening-positive isolates that are susceptible to aminopenicillins by gradient or disk diffusion. PMID:26354813

  3. The Epidemiology of Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Non-Serotype B Disease in Ontario, Canada from 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Shalini; Jamieson, Frances B.; Patel, Samir N.; Seo, Chi Yon; Dang, Vica; Fediurek, Jill; Navaranjan, Debeka; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) type b (Hib) vaccines among children aged <5 years, an increase in invasive non-Hib disease incidence has been reported internationally. We sought to describe the epidemiology of invasive non-Hib disease in Ontario, Canada (population ~13.5 million). Methods Confirmed invasive non-Hib cases (non-typeable [NTHi] and serotypes a, c, d, e, and f) were obtained from the provincial laboratory data system from 2004–2013. Data were deterministically linked to the provincial reportable disease system to provide further case information. Antibiotic resistance data were analysed separately from 2010–2014. Descriptive analyses included incidence rates, age group, serotype, site of specimen collection and resistance patterns; ethnicity data were not available. Temporal trends were evaluated by Poisson regression and p-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results A total of 1307 cases of invasive non-Hib disease were included, increasing from 0.67 cases to 1.60 cases /100,000 from 2004 to 2013. Significant increases in the incidence of NTHi (0.50 to 1.28 cases/100 000 population), Hia (0.02 to 0.08 cases/100, 000) and Hif (0.13 to 0.18 cases/100, 000 population) were seen. Among persons aged 40–64 years, 3 Hi strains significantly increased over time; NTHi (0.22 to 0.99 cases/100, 000), Hia (0.00 to 0.06 cases/100, 000) and Hif (0.05 to 0.21 cases/100, 000). Among persons aged 65–84 years, there was a significant increase of NTHi (1.62 to 3.14 cases/100, 000) and Hia (0.00 to 0.34 cases/100, 000). Among persons aged 85+ years, only NTHi significantly increased from 4.89 to 10.28 cases/100, 000). Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to ampicillin and clarithromycin was seen in greater than 25% of isolates but AMR did not increase over the duration of this study. Conclusions The incidence of invasive non-Hib disease has increased over time; NTHi, Hif and Hia are emerging pathogens, and should be monitored

  4. Pasteurella multocida produces a protein with homology to the P6 outer membrane protein of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, R W; Hansen, L M; Hinojoza, J; Bieber, D; Ruehl, W W; Hirsh, D C

    1995-01-01

    An antibody specific for a 16-kDa outer membrane protein of a rabbit strain of Pasteurella multocida was used to probe representatives of all 16 somatic serotypes of P. multocida, as well as the vaccine strains CU and M9, and all were shown to express the protein. The gene encoding this protein was cloned and sequenced and found to have extensive sequence homology with the gene encoding the P6 protein of Haemophilus influenzae. The protein in P. multocida has been designated P6-like. The gene encoding the P6-like protein was used to probe members of the family Pasteurellaceae and other gram-negative bacteria. Representatives of all 16 somatic serotypes (as well as the vaccine strains CU and M9) of P. multocida hybridized with the P6-like gene under conditions of high stringency. The DNA from H. influenzae hybridized weakly with the P6-like gene under these conditions, but Pasteurella haemolytica (representatives of A and T biotypes), Bordetella bronchiseptica, B. avium, Actinobacillus suis, A. suis-like, A. lignieresii, A. ureae, A. rossii, A. pleuropneumoniae, A. equuli, and various members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhimurium) did not hybridize detectably. Under conditions of lower stringency, the P6-like gene also hybridized strongly with DNA from P. multocida, H. influenzae, and A. rossii but weakly with DNA from P. haemolytica and members of the genus Actinobacillus. These results suggest that the P6-like protein of P. multocida might be useful as an immunizing product to protect poultry from avian cholera. This suggestion stems from (i) our finding that the P6-like protein in P. multocida is widely distributed among all the somatic serotypes and (ii) the previous work of others demonstrating that the P6 protein of H. influenzae elicits a protective immune response in animal models of human disease. PMID:7868272

  5. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronically colonized with Haemophilus influenzae during stable disease phase have increased airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif; Ekberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) show increased airway inflammation and bacterial colonization during stable phase. The aim of this study was to follow COPD patients and investigate chronic colonization with pathogenic bacteria during stable disease phase, and relate these findings to clinical parameters, inflammatory pattern, lung function, and exacerbations. Methods Forty-three patients with COPD were included while in a stable state and followed up monthly until exacerbation or for a maximum of 6 months. The patients completed the Clinical COPD Questionnaire and Medical Research Council dyspnea scale questionnaires, and exhaled breath condensate was collected, followed by spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and sputum induction. Results Ten patients were chronically colonized (ie, colonized at all visits) with Haemophilus influenzae during stable phase. These patients had higher sputum levels of leukotriene B4 (P<0.001), 8-isoprostane (P=0.002), myeloperoxidase activity (P=0.028), and interleukin-8 (P=0.02) during stable phase when compared with other patients. In addition, they had lower forced vital capacity (P=0.035) and reactance at 5 Hz (P=0.034), but there was no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1 % predicted, forced vital capacity % predicted, exhaled breath condensate biomarkers, C-reactive protein, or Clinical COPD Questionnaire and Medical Research Council dyspnea scale results. Three patients had intermittent colonization (colonized at only some visits) of H. influenzae during stable phase, and had lower levels of inflammatory biomarkers in sputum when compared with the chronically colonized patients. The difference in airway inflammation seen during stable phase in patients chronically colonized with H. influenzae was not observed during exacerbations. Conclusion Some COPD patients who were chronically colonized with H. influenzae during stable phase showed increased airway

  6. Identification of Alloiococcus otitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae in Children With Otitis Media With Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Farajzadah Sheikh, Ahmad; Saki, Nader; Roointan, Mitra; Ranjbar, Reza; Yadyad, Mohammad Jaafar; Kaydani, Abbas; Aslani, Sajad; Babaei, Mansoor; Goodarzi, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Based on many studies, otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the major causes of childhood hearing loss, social malformation and medical costs. The pathogenesis still remains unclear, though it is known that this complication is closely related to bacterial infections. Alloiococcus otitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common bacterial pathogens isolated from middle ear effusions (MEEs). Objectives: Due to the prevalence of OME in children, we decided to investigate bacterial agents that cause diseases such as A. otitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumonia and M. catarrhalis in these subjects. Patients and Methods: Forty-five children between one and 15 years of age were selected for this study. Seventy specimens were collected from MEE by myringotomy and inoculated in PBS buffer. Conventional culture and PCR methods were used for identification of bacterial agents. Results: The bacterial cultures in 8.6% of samples were positive by conventional culture, with A. otitidis, M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae present in 1.4%, 2.9% and 4.3% of samples, respectively. No H. influenzae was isolated. By the PCR method, A. otitidis was the most frequently isolated bacterium, found in 25.7% of samples, followed by S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae, which were identified in 20%, 12% and 20% of samples, respectively. Overall, 55 out of 70 samples were positive by both the PCR and culture method. Conclusions: It can be concluded that A. otitidis was the major causative agent of MEE in children with OME. Therefore clinicians should be aware that bacterial infection plays an important role in the progression of acute otitis media to OME in children of our region. PMID:25861433

  7. A new insight into the role of intracellular nickel levels for the stress response, surface properties and twitching motility by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, Alexandra; Jiang, Donald; Kidd, Stephen P

    2015-04-01

    Nickel acts as a co-factor for a small number of enzymes in bacteria. Urease is one of the two nickel-dependent enzymes that have been identified in Haemophilus influenzae; glyoxalase I is the other. However, nickel has been suggested to have roles in H. influenzae that can not attributed to the function of these enzymes. We have previously shown that in the H. influenzae strain Rd KW20 the inability to acquire nickel led to alterations to the cell-type; an increased biofilm formation and changes in cell surface properties. Here we report the differences in the genome wide gene expression between Rd KW20 and a strain incapable of importing nickel (nikQ); revealing a link between intracellular nickel levels and genes involved in metabolic pathways, stress responses and genes associated with surface factors such as type IV pili. We have then taken a strain previously shown to use type IV pili both in biofilm formation and for twitching motility (86-028NP) and have shown its homologous genes (NTHI1417-1422; annotated as cobalt transporter, cbiKLMOQ) did import nickel and mutations in this locus had pleiotropic effects correlating to stress response and motility. Compared to wild type cells, the nickel depleted cells were more electronegativity charged, they aggregated and formed a biofilm. Correct intracellular nickel levels were also important for resistance to oxidative stress; the nickel depleted cells were more sensitive to oxidative stress. The nickel depleted cells were also non-motile, but the addition specifically of nickel returned these cells to a wild type motility state. We have also analysed the role of nickel uptake in a naturally, urease negative strain (the blood isolate R2866) and depleting intracellular nickel (a nikQ mutant) in this strain effected a similar range of cell functions. These data reveal a role for the capacity to acquire nickel from the environment and for the correct intracellular nickel levels as part of H. influenzae stress response

  8. A new insight into the role of intracellular nickel levels for the stress response, surface properties and twitching motility by Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Tikhomirova, Alexandra; Jiang, Donald; Kidd, Stephen P

    2015-04-01

    Nickel acts as a co-factor for a small number of enzymes in bacteria. Urease is one of the two nickel-dependent enzymes that have been identified in Haemophilus influenzae; glyoxalase I is the other. However, nickel has been suggested to have roles in H. influenzae that can not attributed to the function of these enzymes. We have previously shown that in the H. influenzae strain Rd KW20 the inability to acquire nickel led to alterations to the cell-type; an increased biofilm formation and changes in cell surface properties. Here we report the differences in the genome wide gene expression between Rd KW20 and a strain incapable of importing nickel (nikQ); revealing a link between intracellular nickel levels and genes involved in metabolic pathways, stress responses and genes associated with surface factors such as type IV pili. We have then taken a strain previously shown to use type IV pili both in biofilm formation and for twitching motility (86-028NP) and have shown its homologous genes (NTHI1417-1422; annotated as cobalt transporter, cbiKLMOQ) did import nickel and mutations in this locus had pleiotropic effects correlating to stress response and motility. Compared to wild type cells, the nickel depleted cells were more electronegativity charged, they aggregated and formed a biofilm. Correct intracellular nickel levels were also important for resistance to oxidative stress; the nickel depleted cells were more sensitive to oxidative stress. The nickel depleted cells were also non-motile, but the addition specifically of nickel returned these cells to a wild type motility state. We have also analysed the role of nickel uptake in a naturally, urease negative strain (the blood isolate R2866) and depleting intracellular nickel (a nikQ mutant) in this strain effected a similar range of cell functions. These data reveal a role for the capacity to acquire nickel from the environment and for the correct intracellular nickel levels as part of H. influenzae stress response

  9. The concentration of intracellular nickel in Haemophilus influenzae is linked to its surface properties and cell-cell aggregation and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jiaqi; Kidd, Stephen P

    2013-04-01

    Of the known proteins which use nickel as a co-factor, Haemophilus influenzae contains only urease and glyoxalase I (gloA). We have recently reported that this pathogen harbours a unique nickel uptake system (nikKLMQO-nimR). Unusually, the disruption of the nickel uptake system (nikQ or nimR mutants) resulted in cells that aggregated and formed an increased biofilm compared to the wild type cells. Using a gloA mutant strain and urease-specific inhibitor we showed that this phenotype is not due to the loss-of-function of these enzymes. By generating H. influenzae "resting cells" which are enzymatically inactive but maintain their structural integrity we have shown that the cell aggregation in the nikQ/nimR mutants is not due to the loss of enzymatic function. The nikQ mutant was unable to accumulate nickel but the addition of excess nickel did restore intracellular nickel levels and this resulted in the nikQ mutant returning to the wild type "free-living" phenotype; cells with no aggregation and no biofilm formation. We used a range of techniques which showed that the nikQ mutant possesses changes to its cell surface properties. The mutant was more negatively charged than wild type cells as well as being more hydrophobic. Analysis of the outer membrane constituents showed that there were molecular differences. Although the nikQ mutant appears to grow the same as its wild type cell we have shown that there is a change in the "lifestyle" of these nickel limited cells and this induces changes to the surface of the cell to promote cell-cell aggregation and biofilm formation. PMID:23499478

  10. Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib): Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... five cases of invasive Hib disease in children younger than 5 years from 2008, the largest number ... the leading cause of bacterial meningitis among children younger than age five years in the United States. ...

  11. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protects human airway epithelial cells from a subsequent respiratory syncytial virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Stacey M; Ketterer, Margaret; Apicella, Michael A; Varga, Steven M

    2016-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the common commensal and opportunistic pathogen, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) both serve as a frequent cause of respiratory infection in children. Although it is well established that some respiratory viruses can increase host susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, few studies have examined how commensal bacteria could influence a secondary viral response. Here, we examined the impact of NTHi exposure on a subsequent RSV infection of human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-). Co-culture of 16HBE14o- cells with NTHi resulted in inhibition of viral gene expression following RSV infection. 16HBE14o- cells co-cultured with heat-killed NTHi failed to protect against an RSV infection, indicating that protection requires live bacteria. However, NTHi did not inhibit influenza A virus replication, indicating that NTHi-mediated protection was RSV-specific. Our data demonstrates that prior exposure to a commensal bacterium such as NTHi can elicit protection against a subsequent RSV infection.

  12. Selection against glycosylation sites in potential target proteins of the general HMWC N-glycosyltransferase in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Tan, Nikki Y; Bailey, Ulla-Maja; Davis, Margaret R; Wong, Linette W; Naidu, Ranjitha; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2014-03-14

    The HMWABC system of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) encodes the HMWA adhesin glycoprotein, which is glycosylated by the HMWC glycosyltransferase. HMWC is a cytoplasmic N-glycosyltransferase, homologues of which are widespread in the Pasteurellaceae. We developed an assay for nonbiased detection of glycoproteins in NTHi based on metabolic engineering of the Leloir pathway and growth in media containing radiolabelled monosaccharides. The only glycoprotein identified in NTHi by this assay was HMWA. However, glycoproteomic analyses ex vivo in Escherichia coli showed that HMWC of NTHi was a general glycosyltransferase capable of glycosylating selected asparagines in proteins other than its HMWA substrate, including Asn78 in E. coli 30S ribosomal protein S5. The equivalent residue in S5 homologues in H. influenzae or other sequenced Pasteurellaceae genomes is not asparagine, and these organisms also showed significantly fewer than expected potential sites of glycosylation in general. Expression of active HMWC in E. coli resulted in growth inhibition compared with expression of inactive enzyme, consistent with glycosylation by HMWC detrimentally affecting the function of some E. coli proteins. Together, this supports the presence of a selective pressure in the Pasteurellaceae against glycosylation sites that would be modified by the general N-glycosyltransferase activity of HMWC.

  13. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protects human airway epithelial cells from a subsequent respiratory syncytial virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Stacey M; Ketterer, Margaret; Apicella, Michael A; Varga, Steven M

    2016-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the common commensal and opportunistic pathogen, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) both serve as a frequent cause of respiratory infection in children. Although it is well established that some respiratory viruses can increase host susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, few studies have examined how commensal bacteria could influence a secondary viral response. Here, we examined the impact of NTHi exposure on a subsequent RSV infection of human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-). Co-culture of 16HBE14o- cells with NTHi resulted in inhibition of viral gene expression following RSV infection. 16HBE14o- cells co-cultured with heat-killed NTHi failed to protect against an RSV infection, indicating that protection requires live bacteria. However, NTHi did not inhibit influenza A virus replication, indicating that NTHi-mediated protection was RSV-specific. Our data demonstrates that prior exposure to a commensal bacterium such as NTHi can elicit protection against a subsequent RSV infection. PMID:27573069

  14. High-affinity binding by the periplasmic iron-binding protein from Haemophilus influenzae is required for acquiring iron from transferrin

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ali G.; Shouldice, Stephen R.; Kirby, Shane D.; Yu, Rong-hua; Tari, Leslie W.; Schryvers, Anthony B.

    2007-01-01

    The periplasmic iron-binding protein, FbpA (ferric-ion-binding protein A), performs an essential role in iron acquisition from transferrin in Haemophilus influenzae. A series of site-directed mutants in the metal-binding amino acids of FbpA were prepared to determine their relative contribution to iron binding and transport. Structural studies demonstrated that the mutant proteins crystallized in an open conformation with the iron atom associated with the C-terminal domain. The iron-binding properties of the mutant proteins were assessed by several assays, including a novel competitive iron-binding assay. The relative ability of the proteins to compete for iron was pH dependent, with a rank order at pH 6.5 of wild-type, Q58L, H9Q>H9A, E57A>Y195A, Y196A. The genes encoding the mutant FbpA were introduced into H. influenzae and the resulting strains varied in the level of ferric citrate required to support growth on iron-limited medium, suggesting a rank order for metal-binding affinities under physiological conditions comparable with the competitive binding assay at pH 6.5 (wild-type=Q58L>H9Q>H9A, E57A>Y195A, Y196A). Growth dependence on human transferrin was only obtained with cells expressing wild-type, Q58L or H9Q FbpAs, proteins with stability constants derived from the competition assay >2.0×1018 M−1. These results suggest that a relatively high affinity of iron binding by FbpA is required for removal of iron from transferrin and its transport across the outer membrane. PMID:17313366

  15. β-Lactamase-Producing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Fails To Protect Streptococcus pneumoniae from Amoxicillin during Experimental Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Eva; Lundin, Susanne; Hermansson, Ann; Melhus, Åsa

    2004-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common reason for outpatient antimicrobial therapy. Mixed infections pose a potential problem, since the first-line drug used for the treatment of AOM, amoxicillin, can be neutralized by β-lactamase-producing pathogens of the upper respiratory tract. To study the effects of a 5-day course of amoxicillin on a mixed middle ear infection, rats were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae alone or in combination with β-lactamase-producing nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Amoxicillin was introduced at the clinical peak of the infection. Local and systemic changes were monitored by otomicroscopy, bacterial culture, and analysis of histological changes and the expression of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) gene. β-Lactamase-producing H. influenzae did not demonstrate an ability to protect S. pneumoniae. Amoxicillin eradicated the pneumococci in all treated animals but increased to some degree the ability of H. influenzae to persist at the site of infection. Thus, only an insignificant acceleration of the resolution of the AOM caused by a mixture of pathogens was observed during treatment. Moderate to major morphological changes could not be avoided by treatment of the mixed infections, but a slight downregulation of TGF-β expression was observed. In contrast to infections caused by a single pathogen, the mixed infections induced white plaques in the tympanic membrane at a remarkably high frequency independent of treatment. These experimental findings constitute support for further studies of antimicrobial drugs and AOM caused by bacteria with and without mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. PMID:15328122

  16. Nationwide survey of the development of drug resistance in the pediatric field in 2007, 2010, and 2012: drug sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b strain in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hiroaki; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2015-04-01

    Based on the results of surveillance in the pediatric field conducted in 2007, 2010, and 2012, we examined the frequency of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) strains, the susceptibility for Hib strains to various types of antimicrobial agent, and the relations to patients' background factors. Among all of Haemophilus influenzae, the frequency of Hib strains was 3.6% (14/386 strains) in 2007, 4.8% (23/484 strains) in 2010, 1.2% (5/411 strains) in 2012, and decreasing in 2012. Hib strains were isolated in patients with the following infections: nine patients with respiratory tract infections (upper respiratory tract infection, bronchitis, and pneumonia), three patients with sepsis, one patient with meningitis, and one patient with purulent inflammation of a tendon sheath in 2007; 11 patients with respiratory tract infections (upper respiratory tract infection, bronchitis, and pneumonia), four patients with sepsis, and eight patients with meningitis in 2010, demonstrating a relatively high frequency in patients with invasive infections. However, in 2012, Hib strains were isolated in only four patients with respiratory tract infections (upper respiratory tract infection) and one patient with bronchial asthma. Evaluation of background factors with pediatric patients in whom Hib strains were isolated showed that approximately 70% were male; majority was children under three years of age; and higher detection rates were also related to the background of patients who were attendant to daycare center, had siblings, had received no antimicrobial agents within the previous one month before collecting specimens. Throughout the surveillance between 2007 and 2012, antimicrobial agents with all phases' MICs ≤ 1 μg/mL were cefditoren, cefcapene, and cefteram in the oral β-lactams; tazobactam/piperacillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and meropenem in the injectable β-lactams; azithromycin in the macrolide; and levofloxacin in the quinolone. After 2010, MIC ranges were

  17. Role of fimbriae expressed by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in pathogenesis of and protection against otitis media and relatedness of the fimbrin subunit to outer membrane protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Sirakova, T; Kolattukudy, P E; Murwin, D; Billy, J; Leake, E; Lim, D; DeMaria, T; Bakaletz, L

    1994-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a primary pathogen in both acute otitis media (OM) and chronic OM, yet the pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. Although fimbriae have been observed on all clinical OM isolates examined to date, their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, the gene which codes for the fimbrial subunit protein (fimbrin) in nontypeable H. influenzae 1128 was isolated, cloned, and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the fimbrin gene was found to contain an open reading frame of 1,077 bp which would encode a mature fimbrin protein consisting of 338 amino acid with a calculated molecular mass of 36.4 kDa. The translated amino acid sequence was found to be homologous with various OmpA proteins of other gram-negative bacteria, and algorithmic analysis predicted that this protein is organized as a coiled coil. To directly test whether fimbriae are involved in pathogenesis, the fimbrin gene was disrupted, and the biological consequences of disruption were absence of both expression of the fimbrial appendage and the specific immunogold labeling thereof with antisera directed against isolated fimbrial protein, reduced adherence to human oropharyngeal cells in vitro, augmented clearance from the tympanum post-transbullar inoculation, and significantly reduced induction of OM post-intranasal inoculation in a chinchilla model compared with the fimbriated parent strain. We additionally find that either passive immunization or active immunization against isolated fimbrial protein confers partial protection against transbullar challenge. A Western blot (immunoblot) indicated a degree of serological relatedness among fimbrin proteins of 15 nontypeable and type b isolates. These data suggest that fimbrin could be useful as a component of a vaccine to protect against OM. Images PMID:7909539

  18. The structural heterogeneity of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) expressed by pathogenic non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae strain NTHi 9274.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Gu, X X; Tsai, C M; Kolli, V S; Carlson, R W

    1999-12-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an important pathogen responsible for otitis media in children and of pneumonitis in adults with depressed resistance. NTHi is acapsular and, therefore, capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines are ineffective for preventing infections by this pathogen. Recently it was found that a detoxified lipooligo-saccharide (LOS) conjugate from NTHi 9274 induced bactericidal antibodies effective against a large number of NTHi isolates, and conferred protection against NTHi otitis media in chinchillas (X.-X.Gu et al., 1996, Infect. Immun.,64, 4047-4053; X. -X.Gu et al., 1997., Infect. Immun.,65, 4488-4493). In this paper we report the chemical character-ization of the LOS from NTHi 9274 LOS. NTHi is capable of expressing a heterogenous population of LOS exhibited by multiple oligosaccharide (OS) epitopes. OSs released from the LOS of NTHi 9274 by mild acid hydrolysis were purified using Bio-Gel P4 gel permeation chromatography. The OSs were characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), fast atom bombardment mass spectro-metry (FAB-MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectro-metry (MALDITOF-MS), and tandem MS/MS. At least 17 different OS molecules were observed. These contained variable glycosyl residues, phosphate (P), and phospho-ethanolamine (PEA) substituents. These molecules contained either three, four, or five hexoses, and all contained four heptosyl residues. The four heptosyl residues consisted of one D,D-Hep and three L,D-Hep. Dephosphorylation of the OSs with aqueous 48% hydrofluoric acid (HF) reduced the number of molecules to about to seven; Hex(1)-(7)Hep(4)Kdo(1). Of these seven, Hex(2)Hep(4)Kdo(1), Hex(3)Hep(4)Kdo(1), and Hex(4)Hep(4)Kdo(1)were the major constituents. Thus, this NTHi LOS preparation is very heterogeneous, and contains structures different from those previously published for Haemophilus influenzae. The tandem

  19. Molecular Detection of Genomic Islands Associated With Class 1 and 2 Integron in Haemophilus influenzae Isolated in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Boroumand, Mojgan; Irani, Shiva; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Bouzari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Background: High levels of multidrug resistance are usually associated with mobile genetic elements that encode specific resistance genes. Integrons are important genetic elements involved in spreading antibiotic multi-resistance. In special cases, large exogenous segments in bacterial genomes form genomic islands, and one of the functions of these genomic islands is antibiotic resistance. Due to geographical heterogeneity in antibiotic resistance pattern, it is mandatory to determine resistance patterns that are region-specific rather than generalized. Objectives: The objective of this study was to detect class 1 and 2 integrons in clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae. Patients and Methods: Antibiogram tests were carried out for twenty clinical isolates collected from different patients admitted to the Milad hospital. The PCR reactions were performed using universal primers specified for Int1 and Int2 genes attributed to class 1 and 2 integrons. Also amplification of integrase genes related to genomic islands was investigated by designing specific primers. Results: Of the twenty isolates, all (100%) were resistant to clindamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, 95% to amoxicillin, 50% to ceftriaxone, 45% to ciprofloxacin and 5% to azithromycin. Also, all isolates (100%) were sensitive to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Class 1 and 2 integrons were not detected in any of the isolates; however the integrase gene attributed to genomic islands was identified in twelve isolates. Conclusions: Antibiotic resistance gene cassettes may be carried on integron or other genetic elements. The purpose of this study was to detect integron or genomic islands involved in antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates of H. influenzae collected in this study. PMID:26034545

  20. Structure of recombinant Haemophilus influenzae e (P4) acid phosphatase reveals a new member of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Felts, Richard L; Ou, Zhonghui; Reilly, Thomas J; Tanner, John J

    2007-10-01

    Lipoprotein e (P4) from Haemophilus influenzae belongs to the "DDDD" superfamily of phosphohydrolases and is the prototype of class C nonspecific acid phosphatases. P4 is also a component of a H. influenzae vaccine. We report the crystal structures of recombinant P4 in the ligand-free and tungstate-inhibited forms, which are the first structures of a class C phosphatase. P4 has a two-domain architecture consisting of a core alpha/beta domain and a smaller alpha domain. The core domain features a five-stranded beta-sheet flanked by helices on both sides that is reminiscent of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily. The alpha domain appears to be unique and plays roles in substrate binding and dimerization. The active site is solvent accessible and located in a cleft between the two domains. The structure shows that P4 is a metalloenzyme and that magnesium is the most likely metal ion in the crystalline recombinant enzyme. The ligands of the metal ion are the carboxyl groups of the first and third Asp residues of the DDDD motif, the backbone carbonyl of the second Asp of the DDDD motif, and two water molecules. The structure of the tungstate-bound enzyme suggests that Asp64 is the nucleophile that attacks the substrate P atom. Dimerization appears to be important for catalysis because intersubunit contacts stabilize the active site. Analysis of the structural context of mutations engineered for vaccine studies shows that the most promising mutations are located in the dimer interface. This observation suggests a structure-based vaccine design strategy in which the dimer interface is disrupted in order to expose epitopes that are buried in dimeric P4.

  1. Improvement rate of acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae at 1 week is significantly associated with time to recovery.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hisakazu; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Qin, Liang; Okitsu, Naohiro; Yahara, Koji; Irimada, Mihoko; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common upper respiratory tract infection in childhood. Children with AOM were enrolled at Tohoku Rosai Hospital between July 2006 and June 2011 if their middle ear fluid cultures after tympanocentesis yielded only Haemophilus influenzae. The susceptibilities of the isolates to ampicillin were determined, and microtiter biofilm assays and invasion assays using BEAS-2B cells were performed. The association between these bacterial characteristics and clinical relapses of AOM and treatment failures was evaluated. Seventy-four children (39 boys and 35 girls) with a median age of 1 year (interquartile range [IQR], 0.25 to 2 years) were enrolled. Among 74 H. influenzae isolates, 37 showed intermediate resistance or resistance to ampicillin (MIC, ≥ 2 μg/ml). In the microtiter biofilm assay, the median optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was 0.68 (IQR, 0.24 to 1.02), and 70 isolates formed biofilms. The median invasion rate was 15% (IQR, 0 to 10%), and 46 isolates invaded BEAS-2B cells. Relapses and treatment failures occurred in 19 and 6 children, respectively. There was no significant difference in the invasion rates between patients with and those without relapses or treatment failures. Also, there was no significant association between biofilm formation and relapse or treatment failure. The improvements in the severity scores after 1 week were significantly associated with the recovery time (P < 0.0001). We did not identify any significant association between relapse or treatment failure and bacterial factors. AOM has a multifactorial etiology, and this may explain why we could not find a significant association. An improvement in the severity score after 1 week of treatment may be a useful predictor of the outcome of AOM.

  2. Effects of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D–Conjugate Vaccine on Nasopharyngeal Bacterial Colonization in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; Swinnen, Kristien M.; François, Nancy A.; Pascal, Thierry G.; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; IJzerman, Ed P. F.; Bruin, Jacob P.; van der Ende, Arie; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effects of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D–conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization compared with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) in young children. Methods. A randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, initiated 2 years after 7vCRM introduction, was conducted between 1 April 2008 and 1 December 2010. Infants (N = 780) received either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (2:1) at 2, 3, 4, and 11–13 months of age. Nasopharyngeal samples taken at 5, 11, 14, 18, and 24 months of age were cultured to detect Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Polymerase chain reaction assays quantified H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae and confirmed H. influenzae as nontypeable (NTHi). Primary outcome measure was vaccine efficacy (VE) against NTHi colonization. Results. In both groups, NTHi colonization increased with age from 33% in 5-month-olds to 65% in 24-month-olds. Three months postbooster, VE against colonization was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], −21.8% to 18.4%) and VE against acquisition 10.9% (95% CI, −31.3% to 38.9%). At each sampling moment, no differences between groups in either NTHi prevalence or H. influenzae density were detected. Streptococcus pneumoniae (range, 39%–57%), M. catarrhalis (range, 63%­–69%), and S. aureus (range, 9%–30%) colonization patterns were similar between groups. Conclusions. PHiD-CV had no differential effect on nasopharyngeal NTHi colonization or H. influenzae density in healthy Dutch children up to 2 years of age, implying that herd effects for NTHi are not to be expected. Other bacterial colonization patterns were also similar. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00652951. PMID:23118268

  3. A practical method for preparation of pneumococcal and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae inocula that preserves viability and immunostimulatory activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Convenience is a major reason for using killed preparations of bacteria to investigate host-pathogen interactions, however, host responses to such preparations can result in different outcomes when compared to live bacterial stimulation. We investigated whether cryopreservation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) permitted investigation of host responses to infection without the complications of working with freshly prepared live bacteria on the day of experimental challenge. Findings S. pneumoniae and NTHi retained >90% viability following cryopreservation in fetal calf serum for at least 8 weeks. Host responses to live, cryopreserved (1 week and 4 weeks), heat-killed or ethanol-killed S. pneumoniae and NTHi were assessed by measuring cytokine release from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that cryopreserved bacteria, in contrast to heat-killed and ethanol-killed preparations, resulted in comparable levels of inflammatory cytokine release from PBMCs when compared with fresh live bacterial cultures. Conclusion Cryopreservation of S. pneumoniae and NTHi does not alter the immunostimulatory properties of these species thereby enabling reproducible and biologically relevant analysis of host responses to infection. This method also facilitates the analysis of multiple strains on the same day and allows predetermination of culture purity and challenge dose. PMID:24321049

  4. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Disease Predisposes to More Severe Infection with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: Protective Effects of Andrographolide.

    PubMed

    Tan, W S Daniel; Peh, Hong Yong; Liao, Wupeng; Pang, Chu Hui; Chan, Tze Khee; Lau, Suk Hiang; Chow, Vincent T; Wong, W S Fred

    2016-05-27

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with many maladies, one of which is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the disease progresses, patients are more prone to develop COPD exacerbation episodes by bacterial infection, particularly to nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHi) infection. The present study aimed to develop a CS-exposed mouse model that increases inflammation induced by NTHi challenge and investigate the protective effects of andrographolide, a bioactive molecule with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata. Female BALB/c mice exposed to 2 weeks of CS followed by a single intratracheal instillation of NTHi developed increased macrophage and neutrophil pulmonary infiltration, augmented cytokine levels, and heightened oxidative damage. Andrographolide effectively reduced lung cellular infiltrates and decreased lung levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, 8-OHdG, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and MMP-9. The protective actions of andrographolide on CS-predisposed NTHi inflammation might be attributable to increased nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and decreased Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) repressor function, resulting in enhanced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPx-2), glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Taken together, these findings strongly support a therapeutic potential for andrographolide in preventing lung inflammation caused by NTHi in cigarette smokers.

  5. Combined Bacteria Microarray and Quartz Crystal Microbalance Approach for Exploring Glycosignatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Recognition by Host Lectins.

    PubMed

    Kalograiaki, Ioanna; Euba, Begoña; Proverbio, Davide; Campanero-Rhodes, María A; Aastrup, Teodor; Garmendia, Junkal; Solís, Dolores

    2016-06-01

    Recognition of bacterial surface epitopes by host receptors plays an important role in the infectious process and is intimately associated with bacterial virulence. Delineation of bacteria-host interactions commonly relies on the detection of binding events between purified bacteria- and host-target molecules. In this work, we describe a combined microarray and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) approach for the analysis of carbohydrate-mediated interactions directly on the bacterial surface, thus preserving the native environment of the bacterial targets. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was selected as a model pathogenic species not displaying a polysaccharide capsule or O-antigen-containing lipopolysaccharide, a trait commonly found in several important respiratory pathogens. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of NTHi microarrays for exploring the presence of carbohydrate structures on the bacterial surface. Furthermore, the microarray approach is shown to be efficient for detecting strain-selective binding of three innate immune lectins, namely, surfactant protein D, human galectin-8, and Siglec-14, to different NTHi clinical isolates. In parallel, QCM bacteria-chips were developed for the analysis of lectin-binding kinetics and affinity. This novel QCM approach involves capture of NTHi on lectin-derivatized chips followed by formaldehyde fixation, rendering the bacteria an integrated part of the sensor chip, and subsequent binding assays with label-free lectins. The binding parameters obtained for selected NTHi-lectin pairs provide further insights into the interactions occurring at the bacterial surface.

  6. Structure of a small-molecule inhibitor complexed with GlmU from Haemophilus influenzae reveals an allosteric binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Lightle, Sandra; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Bornemeier, Dirk; Melnick, Michael; VanderRoest, Steven; McDowell, Laura

    2008-04-02

    N-Acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU) is an essential enzyme in aminosugars metabolism and an attractive target for antibiotic drug discovery. GlmU catalyzes the formation of uridine-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), an important precursor in the peptidoglycan and lipopolisaccharide biosynthesis in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Here we disclose a 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a synthetic small-molecule inhibitor of GlmU from Haemophilus influenzae (hiGlmU). The compound was identified through a high-throughput screening (HTS) configured to detect inhibitors that target the uridyltransferase active site of hiGlmU. The original HTS hit exhibited a modest micromolar potency (IC{sub 50} - 18 {mu}M in a racemic mixture) against hiGlmU and no activity against Staphylococcus aureus GlmU (saGlmU). The determined crystal structure indicated that the inhibitor occupies an allosteric site adjacent to the GlcNAc-1-P substrate-binding region. Analysis of the mechanistic model of the uridyltransferase reaction suggests that the binding of this allosteric inhibitor prevents structural rearrangements that are required for the enzymatic reaction, thus providing a basis for structure-guided design of a new class of mechanism-based inhibitors of GlmU.

  7. Combined Bacteria Microarray and Quartz Crystal Microbalance Approach for Exploring Glycosignatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Recognition by Host Lectins.

    PubMed

    Kalograiaki, Ioanna; Euba, Begoña; Proverbio, Davide; Campanero-Rhodes, María A; Aastrup, Teodor; Garmendia, Junkal; Solís, Dolores

    2016-06-01

    Recognition of bacterial surface epitopes by host receptors plays an important role in the infectious process and is intimately associated with bacterial virulence. Delineation of bacteria-host interactions commonly relies on the detection of binding events between purified bacteria- and host-target molecules. In this work, we describe a combined microarray and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) approach for the analysis of carbohydrate-mediated interactions directly on the bacterial surface, thus preserving the native environment of the bacterial targets. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was selected as a model pathogenic species not displaying a polysaccharide capsule or O-antigen-containing lipopolysaccharide, a trait commonly found in several important respiratory pathogens. Here, we demonstrate the usefulness of NTHi microarrays for exploring the presence of carbohydrate structures on the bacterial surface. Furthermore, the microarray approach is shown to be efficient for detecting strain-selective binding of three innate immune lectins, namely, surfactant protein D, human galectin-8, and Siglec-14, to different NTHi clinical isolates. In parallel, QCM bacteria-chips were developed for the analysis of lectin-binding kinetics and affinity. This novel QCM approach involves capture of NTHi on lectin-derivatized chips followed by formaldehyde fixation, rendering the bacteria an integrated part of the sensor chip, and subsequent binding assays with label-free lectins. The binding parameters obtained for selected NTHi-lectin pairs provide further insights into the interactions occurring at the bacterial surface. PMID:27176788

  8. Development of a diagnostic real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of invasive Haemophilus influenzae in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Meyler, Kenneth L; Meehan, Mary; Bennett, Desiree; Cunney, Robert; Cafferkey, Mary

    2012-12-01

    Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae serotype b vaccine, invasive H. influenzae disease has become dominated by nontypeable (NT) strains. Several widely used molecular diagnostic methods have been shown to lack sensitivity or specificity in the detection of some of these strains. Novel real-time assays targeting the fucK, licA, and ompP2 genes were developed and evaluated. The fucK assay detected all strains of H. influenzae tested (n = 116) and had an analytical sensitivity of 10 genome copies/polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This assay detected both serotype b and NT H. influenzae in 12 previously positive specimens (culture and/or bexA PCR) and also detected H. influenzae in a further 5 of 883 culture-negative blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The fucK assay has excellent potential as a diagnostic test for detection of typeable and nontypeable strains of invasive H. influenzae in clinical samples of blood and CSF. PMID:23017260

  9. Nationwide survey of the development of drug-resistance in the pediatric field: drug sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroshi; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Sato, Yoshitake; Hanaki, Hideaki; Nonoyama, Masato; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated the beta-lactamase-producing ability and resistance to 20 antibacterial agents of 448 clinically isolated strains of Haemophilus influenzae accumulated from October 2000 to July 2001 (phase 1) and of 376 different strains accumulated from January to June 2004 (phase 2), from institutions that participated in a nationwide Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease. Between phase 1 and phase 2 the proportion of beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin (ABPC)-susceptible (BLNAS) strains declined from 62.9% to 34.3%; the proportions of beta-lactamase-positive ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains were 8.3% and 6.4% in phases 1 and 2, but the proportion of beta-lactamase-negative ABPC-resistant (BLNAR) strains increased from 28.8% in phase 1 to 59.3% in phase 2. Comparison of the MIC(90) values of the antibacterial agents for H. influenzae in phase 1 and phase 2 showed that cefcapene, cefpodoxime, ceftriaxone, panipenem, and clarithromycin kept the same level, while cefdinir, faropenem, and rokitamycin showed 2-fold to 8-fold decreases. With the exception of the above antibiotics, all of the other antibacterial agents tested showed 2-fold to 4-fold increases. The MIC(90) values of the beta-lactam drugs for BLNAR were 2-fold to 32-fold higher than the values for BLNAS. The proportion of BLNAR H. influenzae strains rose dramatically over the 3 years between phases 1 and 2. In relation to age, prior administration of antibacterial agents, and attendance at a day nursery as background factors, no significant differences between BLNAS and BLNAR were detected in phase 1. In the phase 2 survey, the proportion of BLNAR strains showed significant differences between children under 3 years and those aged 3 years or more, and there were also significant differences according to whether antibacterial agents, especially beta-lactams, had been administered previously. No significant difference was found in resistant bacteria according to whether or not

  10. Haemophilus parasuis exhibits IgA protease activity but lacks homologs of the IgA protease genes of Haemophilus influenzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis, the bacterium responsible for Glasser's disease, is a pathogen of significant concern in modern high-health swine production systems but there is little information regarding the identity or function of its virulence factors. Several important human mucosal pathogens, including...

  11. Comprehensive Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Acute Otitis Media Reveal Bacterial Aerobic Respiration in an Immunosuppressed Environment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Dubois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Moseley, M Arthur; Hardison, Rachael L; Heimlich, Derek R; Stoddard, Alexander; Kerschner, Joseph E; Justice, Sheryl S; Thompson, J Will; Mason, Kevin M

    2016-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the molecular details of the interactions between bacteria and host are critical to ultimately prevent disease. Recent technological advances allow simultaneous analysis of host and bacterial protein and metabolic profiles from a single small tissue sample to provide insight into pathogenesis. We used the chinchilla model of human otitis media to determine, for the first time, the most expansive delineation of global changes in protein and metabolite profiles during an experimentally induced disease. After 48 h of infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, middle ear tissue lysates were analyzed by high-resolution quantitative two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic changes in 105 chinchilla proteins and 66 metabolites define the early proteomic and metabolomic signature of otitis media. Our studies indicate that establishment of disease coincides with actin morphogenesis, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and bacterial aerobic respiration. We validated the observed increase in the actin-remodeling complex, Arp2/3, and experimentally showed a role for Arp2/3 in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasion. Direct inhibition of actin branch morphology altered bacterial invasion into host epithelial cells, and is supportive of our efforts to use the information gathered to modify outcomes of disease. The twenty-eight nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae proteins identified participate in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and include cell wall-associated metabolic proteins. Quantitative characterization of the molecular signatures of infection will redefine our understanding of host response driven developmental changes during pathogenesis. These data represent the first comprehensive study of host protein and metabolite profiles in vivo in response to infection and show the feasibility of extensive characterization of host protein profiles during disease. Identification of

  12. Comprehensive Proteomic and Metabolomic Signatures of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Acute Otitis Media Reveal Bacterial Aerobic Respiration in an Immunosuppressed Environment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Alistair; Dubois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Moseley, M Arthur; Hardison, Rachael L; Heimlich, Derek R; Stoddard, Alexander; Kerschner, Joseph E; Justice, Sheryl S; Thompson, J Will; Mason, Kevin M

    2016-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the molecular details of the interactions between bacteria and host are critical to ultimately prevent disease. Recent technological advances allow simultaneous analysis of host and bacterial protein and metabolic profiles from a single small tissue sample to provide insight into pathogenesis. We used the chinchilla model of human otitis media to determine, for the first time, the most expansive delineation of global changes in protein and metabolite profiles during an experimentally induced disease. After 48 h of infection with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, middle ear tissue lysates were analyzed by high-resolution quantitative two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Dynamic changes in 105 chinchilla proteins and 66 metabolites define the early proteomic and metabolomic signature of otitis media. Our studies indicate that establishment of disease coincides with actin morphogenesis, suppression of inflammatory mediators, and bacterial aerobic respiration. We validated the observed increase in the actin-remodeling complex, Arp2/3, and experimentally showed a role for Arp2/3 in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae invasion. Direct inhibition of actin branch morphology altered bacterial invasion into host epithelial cells, and is supportive of our efforts to use the information gathered to modify outcomes of disease. The twenty-eight nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae proteins identified participate in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and include cell wall-associated metabolic proteins. Quantitative characterization of the molecular signatures of infection will redefine our understanding of host response driven developmental changes during pathogenesis. These data represent the first comprehensive study of host protein and metabolite profiles in vivo in response to infection and show the feasibility of extensive characterization of host protein profiles during disease. Identification of

  13. Quantitative detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in patients with new influenza A (H1N1)/2009 and influenza A/2010 virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Nahaei, Mohammad Reza; Seifi, Sirus Jedary; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Sadeghi, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Viral influenza is a seasonal infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the United States more than 35,000 deaths and 200,000 hospitalizations are recorded annually due to influenza. Secondary bacterial infections or co-infections associated with cases of influenza are a leading cause of severe morbidity and mortality, especially among high-risk groups such as the elderly and young children. Aim: The aim of the present study was the quantitative detection of S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in a group of patients with seasonal influenza A, influenza A (H1N1) pandemic 2009, and patients with symptoms of respiratory infection, but the negative for H1N1 serving as control group. Method: In total, 625 patients suspected respiratory infection from April 2009 to April 2010 were studied. There were 58 patients with influenza A H1N1 and 567 patients negative for influenza A H1N1. From November 2010 to February 2011, 158 patients with respiratory symptoms were analyzed for seasonal influenza A. There were 25 patients with seasonal influenza A. To check the colonization status among the healthy individuals 62 healthy persons were further investigated. Individual were screened in parallel. The choices of special genes were amplified from clinical specimens using real-time PCR with a cutoff of 104 CFU/mL to differentiate colonization from infection in respiratory tract. Results: S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were detected in 12%, 26% and 33% of patients with H1N1, while the corresponding figures were 9%, 19%, and 31% for H1N1 negative patients. Among patients with seasonal influenza A 12% S. aureus, 24% S. pneumoniae, and 32% H. influenzae co-infections were detected, while influenza negative control group yielded 5% S. aureus, 11% S. pneumoniae, and 10% H. influenzae, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the serotype of pandemic H1N1 2009 did not increase incidence of secondary

  14. [Comparison of culture and real-time PCR methods in the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in acute otitis media effusion specimens].

    PubMed

    Eser, Ozgen Köseoğlu; Alp, Sehnaz; Ergin, Alper; Ipçi, Kaan; Alp, Alpaslan; Gür, Deniz; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2012-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the major etiologic agents of acute otitis media. This study was aimed to compare the detection rate of S.pneumoniae and H.influenzae by culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) in the middle ear effusions of patients diagnosed as acute otitis media. A total of 60 middle ear effusion samples collected from children with acute otitis media were included in the study. The samples were inoculated and incubated in BACTEC Ped Plus blood culture bottles and BACTEC 9120 system (BD Diagnostic Systems, MD), respectively, and the isolates were identified by conventional methods. For the molecular diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae, ply pneumolysin gene and HIB capsule region, respectively were amplified by Rt-PCR (LightCycler, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were isolated from 5 (8.3%) and 3 (5%) of the patient samples with conventional culture methods, respectively. In addition in 11.6% of the samples other microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) were also isolated. On the other hand H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were detected in 38 (63.3%) and 24 (40%) of the samples with Rt-PCR, respectively. There was about eight fold increase in the detection frequency of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae with Rt-PCR compared to culture methods. When culture was accepted as the gold standard method, the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of Rt-PCR in the detection of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae were estimated as 80%, 51% and 98.2%, respectively. As a result, Rt-PCR was shown to be a sensitive method and could be preferred for the rapid diagnosis of H.influenzae and S.pneumoniae in the etiological diagnosis of acute otitis media, especially in culture negative cases.

  15. Serum Concentrations of Antibodies against Outer Membrane Protein P6, Protein D, and T- and B-Cell Combined Antigenic Epitopes of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in Children and Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Chun-Zhen; Hu, Wei-Lin; Li, Jian-Ping; Hong, Li-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is one of the most common etiologies of acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis, and pneumonia. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the main focus in new vaccine development against NTHi, as the H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine does not cover noncapsulated NTHi. The OMPs P6 and protein D are the most promising candidate antigens for an NTHi vaccine, and low antibody levels against them in serum may be correlated with infection caused by NTHi. In the current study, we measured the antibody titers against P6, protein D, and their T- and B-cell combined peptide epitopes in healthy individuals of different ages. We found that children <1 month old had the lowest antibody levels against NTHi P6, protein D, and their T- and B-cell combined antigenic epitopes. Antibody titers increased at ages 1 to 6 months, peaked at 7 months to 3 years, and remained high at 4 to 6 years. The antibody titers started to decrease after 6 years and were the lowest in the 21- to 30-year group. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of T- and B-cell combined antigenic epitopes in P6 and protein D were positively correlated with those of the protein antigens. Among 12 peptides tested, P6-61, P6-123, and protein D-167 epitopes were better recognized than others in human serum. These findings might contribute to the development of an effective serotype-independent vaccine for H. influenzae. PMID:26677200

  16. Increased biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with invasive disease or otitis media versus strains recovered from cases of respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Puig, Carmen; Domenech, Arnau; Garmendia, Junkal; Langereis, Jeroen D; Mayer, Pascal; Calatayud, Laura; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen; Marti, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm formation by nontypeable (NT) Haemophilus influenzae remains a controversial topic. Nevertheless, biofilm-like structures have been observed in the middle-ear mucosa of experimental chinchilla models of otitis media (OM). To date, there have been no studies of biofilm formation in large collections of clinical isolates. This study aimed to investigate the initial adhesion to a solid surface and biofilm formation by NT H. influenzae by comparing isolates from healthy carriers, those with noninvasive respiratory disease, and those with invasive respiratory disease. We used 352 isolates from patients with nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (NB-CAP), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), OM, and invasive disease and a group of healthy colonized children. We then determined the speed of initial adhesion to a solid surface by the BioFilm ring test and quantified biofilm formation by crystal violet staining. Isolates from different clinical sources displayed high levels of biofilm formation on a static solid support after growth for 24 h. We observed clear differences in initial attachment and biofilm formation depending on the pathology associated with NT H. influenzae isolation, with significantly increased biofilm formation for NT H. influenzae isolates collected from patients with invasive disease and OM compared with NT H. influenzae isolates from patients with NB-CAP or COPD and healthy colonized subjects. In all cases, biofilm structures were detached by proteinase K treatment, suggesting an important role for proteins in the initial adhesion and static biofilm formation measured by crystal violet staining. PMID:25192997

  17. Increased Biofilm Formation by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Isolates from Patients with Invasive Disease or Otitis Media versus Strains Recovered from Cases of Respiratory Infections

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Domenech, Arnau; Garmendia, Junkal; Langereis, Jeroen D.; Mayer, Pascal; Calatayud, Laura; Liñares, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation by nontypeable (NT) Haemophilus influenzae remains a controversial topic. Nevertheless, biofilm-like structures have been observed in the middle-ear mucosa of experimental chinchilla models of otitis media (OM). To date, there have been no studies of biofilm formation in large collections of clinical isolates. This study aimed to investigate the initial adhesion to a solid surface and biofilm formation by NT H. influenzae by comparing isolates from healthy carriers, those with noninvasive respiratory disease, and those with invasive respiratory disease. We used 352 isolates from patients with nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (NB-CAP), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), OM, and invasive disease and a group of healthy colonized children. We then determined the speed of initial adhesion to a solid surface by the BioFilm ring test and quantified biofilm formation by crystal violet staining. Isolates from different clinical sources displayed high levels of biofilm formation on a static solid support after growth for 24 h. We observed clear differences in initial attachment and biofilm formation depending on the pathology associated with NT H. influenzae isolation, with significantly increased biofilm formation for NT H. influenzae isolates collected from patients with invasive disease and OM compared with NT H. influenzae isolates from patients with NB-CAP or COPD and healthy colonized subjects. In all cases, biofilm structures were detached by proteinase K treatment, suggesting an important role for proteins in the initial adhesion and static biofilm formation measured by crystal violet staining. PMID:25192997

  18. Defining the DNA uptake specificity of naturally competent Haemophilus influenzae cells

    PubMed Central

    Mell, Joshua Chang; Hall, Ira M.; Redfield, Rosemary J.

    2012-01-01

    Some naturally competent bacteria exhibit both a strong preference for DNA fragments containing specific ‘uptake sequences’ and dramatic overrepresentation of these sequences in their genomes. Uptake sequences are often assumed to directly reflect the specificity of the DNA uptake machinery, but the actual specificity has not been well characterized for any bacterium. We produced a detailed analysis of Haemophilus influenzae’s uptake specificity, using Illumina sequencing of degenerate uptake sequences in fragments recovered from competent cells. This identified an uptake motif with the same consensus as the motif overrepresented in the genome, with a 9 bp core (AAGTGCGGT) and two short flanking T-rich tracts. Only four core bases (GCGG) were critical for uptake, suggesting that these make strong specific contacts with the uptake machinery. Other core bases had weaker roles when considered individually, as did the T-tracts, but interaction effects between these were also determinants of uptake. The properties of genomic uptake sequences are also constrained by mutational biases and selective forces acting on USSs with coding and termination functions. Our findings define constraints on gene transfer by natural transformation and suggest how the DNA uptake machinery overcomes the physical constraints imposed by stiff highly charged DNA molecules. PMID:22753031

  19. Frequency of Spontaneous Resistance to Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 in Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ingraham, Karen; Huang, Jianzhong; McCloskey, Lynn; Rilling, Sarah; Windau, Anne; Pizzollo, Jason; Butler, Deborah; Aubart, Kelly; Miller, Linda A.; Zalacain, Magdalena; Holmes, David J.; O'Dwyer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is compromising the successful treatment of serious microbial infections. GSK1322322, a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor, shows good in vitro antibacterial activity and has demonstrated safety and efficacy in human proof-of-concept clinical studies. In vitro studies were performed to determine the frequency of resistance (FoR) to this antimicrobial agent in major pathogens that cause respiratory tract and skin infections. Resistance to GSK1322322 occurred at high frequency through loss-of-function mutations in the formyl-methionyl transferase (FMT) protein in Staphylococcus aureus (4/4 strains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (4/4 strains) and via missense mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae (6/21 strains), but the mutations were associated with severe in vitro and/or in vivo fitness costs. The overall FoR to GSK1322322 was very low in Haemophilus influenzae, with only one PDF mutant being identified in one of four strains. No target-based mutants were identified from S. pyogenes, and only one or no PDF mutants were isolated in three of the four S. aureus strains studied. In S. pneumoniae, PDF mutants were isolated from only six of 21 strains tested; an additional 10 strains did not yield colonies on GSK1322322-containing plates. Most of the PDF mutants characterized from those three organisms (35/37 mutants) carried mutations in residues at or in close proximity to one of three highly conserved motifs that are part of the active site of the PDF protein, with 30 of the 35 mutations occurring at position V71 (using the S. pneumoniae numbering system). PMID:26014938

  20. Immune Responses to HBsAg Conjugated to Protein D of Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Lu, Xuexin; Ding, Junying; Jia, Zhiyuan; Tian, Ruiguang; Gao, Yan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B vaccine that contains an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant induces apoptotic death of Hepa 1–6 cells. Difficult-to-degrade chemical additives in vaccines effectively enhance vaccine immunogenicity, but also affect the host tissue. Identification of bio-molecules that are readily degraded and compatible in vivo as an adjuvant is important for vaccine research. The hapten–carrier effect suggests that stimulation of helper T (Th) cells by carrier adjuvants is feasible. Protein D (PD) of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae covalently conjugated to some polysaccharide vaccines has been confirmed to convert T-cell independent (TI) antigens into T-cell dependent (TD) antigens, and elicit strong T-cell responses ultimately. Herein, we would substitube PD for aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in Hepatitis B vaccine. Methods and results Truncated PD (amino acids 20–364) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and DEAE chromatography. After evaluation of antigenicity by western blotting, PD was covalently conjugated to yeast-derived recombinant HBsAg by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Intramuscular immunization with the conjugate induced higher level of HBsAg-specific antibody than did HBsAg alone (p < 0.05), and was comparable to commercial Hepatitis B vaccine. During the surveillance period (days 35–105), anti-HBs titers were hold high. Moreover, the conjugated vaccine enhanced Th1 immune responses, while Th2 responses were also activated and induced an antibody response, as determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and IgG1/IgG2a ratio assays. Conclusions Recombinant truncated PD covalently conjugated to HBsAg antigen enhanced the immunogenicity of the antigen in mice simultaneously by humoral and cellular immune response, which would facilitate therapeutic hepatitis B vaccines. PMID:25689855

  1. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D M; Cheeseman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (10(4)-10(5) colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria. PMID:26611891

  2. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D. M.; Cheeseman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria. PMID:26611891

  3. Investigation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae outer membrane protein P6 as a new carrier for lipooligosaccharide conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tinghuai; Chen, Jing; Murphy, Timothy F; Green, Bruce A; Gu, Xin-Xing

    2005-10-25

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) outer membrane protein P6 was used as a new protein carrier for NTHi detoxified lipooligosaccharide (dLOS) conjugates due to its conservation and potential to elicit bactericidal antibodies. P6 was covalently conjugated to dLOS of strain 9274 through adipic acid dihydrazide with different ratios of dLOS to P6, which resulted in two conjugate formulations with weight ratios of dLOS to P6 of 3.7 for dLOS-P6 (I) and 1.6 for dLOS-P6 (II). Binding activity of the conjugates was examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to LOS and P6 and a rabbit anti-P6 serum. The results showed that the conjugates bound not only to the LOS antibody but also to both P6 antibodies, suggesting that the conjugates retained epitopes of both LOS and P6 antigens. Animal studies revealed that dLOS-P6 (II) induced high levels of anti-LOS and anti-P6 IgGs in mice and rabbits. However, dLOS-P6 (I) induced lower levels of anti-LOS IgGs in mice and rabbits and anti-P6 IgGs in rabbits with no anti-P6 IgGs in mice. In addition, all rabbit, but not mouse, antisera elicited by the conjugates showed bactericidal activity against the homologous strain, and two of them elicited by each conjugate plus Ribi adjuvant showed cross-bactericidal activity against three of five major serotype stains. These data indicate that P6 could serve as an effective carrier for dLOS or other carbohydrate conjugates and that the ratio of carbohydrate to P6 might contribute to immune responses in vivo. PMID:16039021

  4. Frequency of Spontaneous Resistance to Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 in Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Min, Sharon; Ingraham, Karen; Huang, Jianzhong; McCloskey, Lynn; Rilling, Sarah; Windau, Anne; Pizzollo, Jason; Butler, Deborah; Aubart, Kelly; Miller, Linda A; Zalacain, Magdalena; Holmes, David J; O'Dwyer, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is compromising the successful treatment of serious microbial infections. GSK1322322, a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor, shows good in vitro antibacterial activity and has demonstrated safety and efficacy in human proof-of-concept clinical studies. In vitro studies were performed to determine the frequency of resistance (FoR) to this antimicrobial agent in major pathogens that cause respiratory tract and skin infections. Resistance to GSK1322322 occurred at high frequency through loss-of-function mutations in the formyl-methionyl transferase (FMT) protein in Staphylococcus aureus (4/4 strains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (4/4 strains) and via missense mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae (6/21 strains), but the mutations were associated with severe in vitro and/or in vivo fitness costs. The overall FoR to GSK1322322 was very low in Haemophilus influenzae, with only one PDF mutant being identified in one of four strains. No target-based mutants were identified from S. pyogenes, and only one or no PDF mutants were isolated in three of the four S. aureus strains studied. In S. pneumoniae, PDF mutants were isolated from only six of 21 strains tested; an additional 10 strains did not yield colonies on GSK1322322-containing plates. Most of the PDF mutants characterized from those three organisms (35/37 mutants) carried mutations in residues at or in close proximity to one of three highly conserved motifs that are part of the active site of the PDF protein, with 30 of the 35 mutations occurring at position V71 (using the S. pneumoniae numbering system).

  5. Activities of Faropenem, an Oral β-Lactam, against Recent U.S. Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Ian A.; Karlowsky, James A.; Draghi, Deborah C.; Jones, Mark E.; Thornsberry, Clyde; Murfitt, Kate; Sahm, Daniel F.

    2002-01-01

    The in vitro activities of faropenem and other antimicrobial agents were determined against 4,725 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 2,614 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 1,193 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 273 U.S. laboratories during 1999. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.008, 0.25, and 1 μg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant S. pneumoniae strains, respectively; 0.5 and 1 μg/ml for β-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae strains, respectively; and 0.12 and 0.5 μg/ml for β-lactamase-negative and -positive M. catarrhalis strains, respectively. Faropenem holds promise as an oral therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections. PMID:11796376

  6. Activities of faropenem, an oral beta-lactam, against recent U.S. isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Ian A; Karlowsky, James A; Draghi, Deborah C; Jones, Mark E; Thornsberry, Clyde; Murfitt, Kate; Sahm, Daniel F

    2002-02-01

    The in vitro activities of faropenem and other antimicrobial agents were determined against 4,725 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 2,614 Haemophilus influenzae isolates, and 1,193 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates collected from 273 U.S. laboratories during 1999. Faropenem MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were 0.008, 0.25, and 1 microg/ml for penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant S. pneumoniae strains, respectively; 0.5 and 1 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae strains, respectively; and 0.12 and 0.5 microg/ml for beta-lactamase-negative and -positive M. catarrhalis strains, respectively. Faropenem holds promise as an oral therapy for community-acquired respiratory tract infections. PMID:11796376

  7. Cellulitis and myositis caused by Agrobacterium radiobacter and Haemophilus parainfluenzae after influenza virus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Owensby, J E; Elliott, S; Tu, K; Hernandez, J E

    1997-07-01

    Agrobacterium radiobacter is a gram-negative aerobic bacillus that has been reported as a cause of disease only 36 times in the literature. More than half of the patients (25) have had bacteremia. Peritonitis, urinary tract infection, endocarditis, and one case of cellulitis associated with bacteremia have also been reported. Infection is often associated with immunosuppression and the presence of a plastic foreign body, such as central venous catheters, nephrostomy tubes, intraperitoneal catheters, and prosthetic cardiac valves. We present apparently the first case of A radiobacter causing myositis after influenza virus vaccination.

  8. Recombinant C-terminal 311 amino acids of HapS adhesin as a vaccine candidate for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: A study on immunoreactivity in Balb/C mouse.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaee Bafroee, Akram Sadat; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Khorsand, Hashem; Nejati, Mehdi; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Hap, an auto-transporter protein, is an antigenically conserved adhesion protein which is present on both typeable and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. This protein has central role in bacterial attachment to respiratory tract epithelial cells. A 1000bp C-terminal fragment of Hap passenger domain (HapS) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector, pET-24a. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rC-HapS. Serum IgG responses to purified rC-HapS, serum IgG subclasses were determined by ELISA and functional activity of antibodies was examined by Serum Bactericidal Assay. The output of rC-HapS was approximately 62% of the total bacterial proteins. Serum IgG responses were significantly increased in immunized group with rC-HapS mixed with Freund's adjuvant in comparison with control groups. Analysis of the serum IgG subclasses showed that the IgG1 subclass was predominant after subcutaneous immunization in BALB/c mice (IgG2a/IgG1 < 1). The sera from rC-HapS immunized animals were strongly bactericidal against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. These results suggest that rC-HapS may be a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

  9. Recombinant C-terminal 311 amino acids of HapS adhesin as a vaccine candidate for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: A study on immunoreactivity in Balb/C mouse.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaee Bafroee, Akram Sadat; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Mousavi, Seyed Fazlollah; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Khorsand, Hashem; Nejati, Mehdi; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Hap, an auto-transporter protein, is an antigenically conserved adhesion protein which is present on both typeable and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. This protein has central role in bacterial attachment to respiratory tract epithelial cells. A 1000bp C-terminal fragment of Hap passenger domain (HapS) from nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector, pET-24a. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rC-HapS. Serum IgG responses to purified rC-HapS, serum IgG subclasses were determined by ELISA and functional activity of antibodies was examined by Serum Bactericidal Assay. The output of rC-HapS was approximately 62% of the total bacterial proteins. Serum IgG responses were significantly increased in immunized group with rC-HapS mixed with Freund's adjuvant in comparison with control groups. Analysis of the serum IgG subclasses showed that the IgG1 subclass was predominant after subcutaneous immunization in BALB/c mice (IgG2a/IgG1 < 1). The sera from rC-HapS immunized animals were strongly bactericidal against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. These results suggest that rC-HapS may be a potential vaccine candidate for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. PMID:27377430

  10. An Application of Outer Membrane Protein P6-Specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in Middle Ear Fluids and Nasopharyngeal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Hotomi, Muneki; Togawa, Akihisa; Kono, Masamitsu; Sugita, Gen; Sugita, Rinya; Fujimaki, Yutaka; Kamide, Yosuke; Uchizono, Akihiro; Kanesada, Keiko; Sawada, Shoichi; Okitsu, Naohiro; Masuda, Hisayo; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yumi; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to outer membrane protein P6 (P6-ELISA) was applied for detecting Haemophilus influenzae in middle ear fluids (MEFs) from acute otitis media (AOM) patients and in nasopharyngeal secretions (NPSs) from acute rhinosinusitis patients. P6-ELISA had a sensitivity of 83.3% for MEFs and 71.5% for NPSs and a specificity of 85.6% for MEFs and 92.5% for NPSs, respectively. Real-time PCR exhibited significant differences in the number of ompP1 gene copies among samples determined by P6-ELISA to be positive and negative for H. influenzae. However, because the P6-ELISA test has the reactivity in Haemophilus species include two commensals H. haemolyticus and H. parainfluenzae, it is thus a weak method in order to detect only NTHi correctly. Consequently, diagnosis using the P6-ELISA should be based on an overall evaluation, including the results of other related examinations and clinical symptoms to prevent misleading conclusions in clinical setting. PMID:24015192

  11. Characterization of the N-Acetyl-5-neuraminic Acid-binding Site of the Extracytoplasmic Solute Receptor (SiaP) of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Strain 2019

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jason W.; Coussens, Nathan P.; Allen, Simon; Houtman, Jon C.D.; Turner, Keith H.; Zaleski, Anthony; Ramaswamy, S.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Apicella, Michael A.

    2012-11-14

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic human pathogen causing otitis media in children and chronic bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The outer membrane of nontypeable H. influenzae is dominated by lipooligosaccharides (LOS), many of which incorporate sialic acid as a terminal nonreducing sugar. Sialic acid has been demonstrated to be an important factor in the survival of the bacteria within the host environment. H. influenzae is incapable of synthesizing sialic acid and is dependent on scavenging free sialic acid from the host environment. To achieve this, H. influenzae utilizes a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter. In this study, we characterize the binding site of the extracytoplasmic solute receptor (SiaP) from nontypeable H. influenzae strain 2019. A crystal structure of N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-bound SiaP was determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. Thermodynamic characterization of Neu5Ac binding shows this interaction is enthalpically driven with a substantial unfavorable contribution from entropy. This is expected because the binding of SiaP to Neu5Ac is mediated by numerous hydrogen bonds and has several buried water molecules. Point mutations targeting specific amino acids were introduced in the putative binding site. Complementation with the mutated siaP constructs resulted either in full, partial, or no complementation, depending on the role of specific residues. Mass spectrometry analysis of the O-deacylated LOS of the R127K point mutation confirmed the observation of reduced incorporation of Neu5Ac into the LOS. The decreased ability of H. influenzae to import sialic acid had negative effects on resistance to complement-mediated killing and viability of biofilms in vitro, confirming the importance of sialic acid transport to the bacterium.

  12. Quantitative detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in patients with new influenza A (H1N1)/2009 and influenza A/2010 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Nahaei, Mohammad Reza; Seifi, Sirus Jedary; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Sadeghi, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Virusgrippe ist eine saisonale Infektionskrankheit, die mit ausgeprägterer Morbidität und Mortalität einhergeht. In den USA werden jährlich mehr als 35.000 Todesfälle und 200.000 Krankenhausbehandlungen erfasst. Die mit der viralen Primärinfektion assoziierte bakterielle Superinfektion oder Ko-Infektion verursacht schwere Krankheitsverläufe speziell bei Hochrisikogruppen wie alten Menschen und Kleinkindern. Zielsetzung: Die Zielsetzung der Studie bestand in der quantitativen Bestimmung von S. aureus, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae bei Patienten mit saisonaler Influenza A bzw. pandemischer Influenza A (H1N1) und Symptomen respiratorischer Infektionen, im Vergleich zu je einer Kontrollgruppe. Methode: Insgesamt wurden von April 2009 bis April 2010 625 Patienten mit Verdacht auf eine respiratorische Infektion untersucht, davon 58 Patienten mit Nachweis von Influenza A (H1N1). Vom November 2010 bis zum Februar 2011 wurden 158 Patienten mit respiratorischen Symptomen auf das Vorkommen der saisonalen Influenza A untersucht, davon erwiesen sich 25 als positiv. Zur Ermittlung der bakteriellen Kolonisation wurden parallel 62 gesunde Personen untersucht (Kontrollgruppe). Bei der verwendeten Real-time PCR wurde als Cutoff zur Unterscheidung von Koloniation und Infektion im Respirationstrakt 10(4) CFU/ml eingeführt. Ergebnisse:S. aureus, S. pneumoniae und H. influenzae wurden bei 12%, 26% bzw. 33% der Patienten mit Nachweis von Influenzavirus A (H1N1) gefunden; die Häufigkeit in der Kontrollgruppe betrug 9%, 19% bzw. 31%. Bei der saisonalen Influenza A waren bei 12%, 24% bzw. 32% die Erreger nachweisbar, in der parallelen Kontrollgruppe bei 5%, 11% bzw. 10%. Schlussfolgerung: Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Serotyp der pandemischen Influenza A (H1N1) die Inzidenz der bakteriellen Superinfektion für die drei untersuchten Bakterienspecies nicht erhöht hat. Die quantitative Detektion einer sekundären bakteriellen Infektion mittels Real-time PCR ist

  13. Inhibitory mechanism of novel inhibitors of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase from Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bong-Suk; Han, Seong-Gu; Lee, Won-Kyu; Ryoo, Sung Weon; Lee, Sang Jae; Suh, Se-Won; Yu, Yeon Gyu

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) catalyzes the transfer of enolpyruvate from phosphoenolphyruvate (PEP) to uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG), which is the first step of bacterial cell wall synthesis. We identified thimerosal, thiram, and ebselen as effective inhibitors of Heamophilus influenzae MurA by screening a chemical library that consisted of a wide range of bioactive compounds. When MurA was preincubated with these inhibitors, their 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were found to range from 0.1 to 0.7 microM. In particular, thimerosal suppressed the growth of several different Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium at a concentration range of 1-2 microg/ml. These inhibitors covalently modified the cysteine residue near the active site of MurA. This modification changed the open conformation of MurA to a more closed configuration, which may have prevented the necessary conformational change from occurring during the enzyme reaction.

  14. The Structure of MurNAc 6-Phosphate Hydrolase (MurQ) from Haemophilus influenzae with Bound Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Timin; Hazra, Saugata; Tanner, Martin E.; Blanchard, John S.

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown and recycling of peptidoglycan, an essential polymeric cell structure, occurs in a number of bacterial species. A key enzyme in the recycling pathway of one of the components of the peptidoglycan layer, N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc), is MurNAc 6-phosphate hydrolase (MurQ). This enzyme catalyzes the cofactor-independent cleavage of a relatively non-labile ether bond and presents an interesting target for mechanistic studies. Open-chain product and substrate analogs were synthesized and tested as competitive inhibitors (Kis values of 1.1 +/− 0.3 mM and 0.23 +/− 0.02 mM, respectively) of the MurNAc 6P hydrolase from Escherichia coli (MurQ-EC). To identify the roles of active site residues important for catalysis, the substrate analog was co-crystallized with the MurNAc 6P hydrolase from Haemophilus influenzae (MurQ-HI) that was amenable to crystallographic studies. The co-crystal structure of MurQ-HI with the substrate analog showed that Glu89 was located in close proximity to both the carbon at the C2 position and the oxygen at the C3 position of the bound inhibitor, and that no other potential acid/base residue that could act as an active site acid/base was located in the vicinity. The conserved residues Glu120 and Lys239 were found within hydrogen-bonding distance of the C5 hydroxyl group and C6 phosphate group, suggesting that they play a role in substrate binding and ring-opening. Combining these results with previous biochemical data, a one base mechanism of action where Glu89 functions to both deprotonate at the C2 position and assist in the departure of the lactyl ether at the C3 position is proposed. This same residue would serve to deprotonate the incoming water and reprotonate the enolate in the second half of the catalytic cycle. PMID:24251551

  15. Interchangeable Domains in the Kdo Transferases of Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hak Suk; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Kdo2-lipid A, a conserved substructure of lipopolysaccharide, plays critical roles in Gram-negative bacterial survival and interaction with host organisms. Inhibition of Kdo biosynthesis in Escherichia coli results in cell death and accumulation of the tetra-acylated precursor lipid IVA. E. coli KdtA (EcKdtA) is a bi-functional enzyme that transfers two Kdo units from two CMP-Kdo molecules to lipid IVA. In contrast, H. influenzae KdtA (HiKdtA) transfers only one Kdo unit. E. coli CMR300, which lacks Kdo-transferase because of a deletion in kdtA, can be rescued to grow in broth at 37 °C if multiple copies of msbA are provided in trans. MsbA, the inner membrane transporter for nascent lipopolysaccharide, prefers hexa-acylated to tetra-acylated lipid A, but with the excess MsbA present in CMR300, lipid IVA is efficiently exported to the outer membrane. CMR300 is hypersensitive to hydrophobic antibiotics and bile salts, and does not grow at 42 °C. Expressing HiKdtA in CMR300 results in the accumulation of Kdo-lipid IVA in place of lipid IVA without suppression of its growth phenotypes at 30 °C. EcKdtA restores intact lipopolysaccharide, together with normal antibiotic resistance, detergent resistance and growth at 42 °C. To determine which residues are important for the mono- or bi-functional character of KdtA, protein chimeras were constructed using EcKdtA and HiKdtA. These chimeras, which are catalytically active, were characterized by in vitro assays and in vivo complementation. The N-terminal half of KdtA, especially the first 30 amino acid residues, specifies whether one or two Kdo units are transferred to lipid IVA. PMID:20394418

  16. [An influenza outbreak of type A and type B influenza viruses].

    PubMed

    Profeta, M L; Pontello, M; Zanchetta, N

    1983-03-31

    Results of investigations carried out during an outbreak of influenza occurred in January 1981 in a School of Milan are reported and discussed. A total of 9 type A (H1N1) influenza virus strains, antigenically intermediate between A/USSR/90/77 and A/Brazil/11/78 variants, and 2 type B influenza virus strains, antigenically intermediate between B/Hong Kong/8/73 and B/Singapore/222/79 variants, have been isolated. In one case both epidemic strains have been simultaneously detected. From the results of type-specific complement-fixing antibody titration it appears that an influenza virus infection occurred in 64% of the 300 subjects serologically examined. In 43% of the cases type A strain was involved, in 12% type B strain and in 9% both serotypes. Judging from the data of school absenteeism it seems that infections by type A virus were more severe than those by type B virus. Finally, because a group of pupils attending the school had been vaccinated in December 1978, it has been demonstrated that the rate of type A presumptive infections was correlated to the hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers attained after vaccination.

  17. The high-resolution crystal structure of periplasmic Haemophilus influenzae NAD nucleotidase reveals a novel enzymatic function of human CD73 related to NAD metabolism.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Silvia; Bruzzone, Santina; Cassani, Camilla; Canella, Laura; Allegrone, Gianna; Sturla, Laura; Mannino, Elena; Millo, Enrico; De Flora, Antonio; Rizzi, Menico

    2012-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a major pathogen of the respiratory tract in humans that has developed the capability to exploit host NAD(P) for its nicotinamide dinucleotide requirement. This strategy is organized around a periplasmic enzyme termed NadN (NAD nucleotidase), which plays a central role by degrading NAD into adenosine and NR (nicotinamide riboside), the latter being subsequently internalized by a specific permease. We performed a biochemical and structural investigation on H. influenzae NadN which determined that the enzyme is a Zn2+-dependent 5'-nucleotidase also endowed with NAD(P) pyrophosphatase activity. A 1.3 Å resolution structural analysis revealed a remarkable conformational change that occurs during catalysis between the open and closed forms of the enzyme. NadN showed a broad substrate specificity, recognizing either mono- or di-nucleotide nicotinamides and different adenosine phosphates with a maximal activity on 5'-adenosine monophosphate. Sequence and structural analysis of H. influenzae NadN led us to discover that human CD73 is capable of processing both NAD and NMN, therefore disclosing a possible novel function of human CD73 in systemic NAD metabolism. Our data may prove to be useful for inhibitor design and disclosed unanticipated fascinating evolutionary relationships. PMID:21933152

  18. Origin of the diversity in DNA recognition domains in phasevarion associated modA genes of pathogenic Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Beatson, Scott A; Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Fox, Kate L; Jennings, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Phase variable restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified in a range of pathogenic bacteria. In some it has been demonstrated that the random switching of the mod (DNA methyltransferase) gene mediates the coordinated expression of multiple genes and constitutes a phasevarion (phase variable regulon). ModA of Neisseria and Haemophilus influenzae contain a highly variable, DNA recognition domain (DRD) that defines the target sequence that is modified by methylation and is used to define modA alleles. 18 distinct modA alleles have been identified in H. influenzae and the pathogenic Neisseria. To determine the origin of DRD variability, the 18 modA DRDs were used to search the available databases for similar sequences. Significant matches were identified between several modA alleles and mod gene from distinct bacterial species, indicating one source of the DRD variability was via horizontal gene transfer. Comparison of DRD sequences revealed significant mosaicism, indicating exchange between the Neisseria and H. influenzae modA alleles. Regions of high inter- and intra-allele similarity indicate that some modA alleles had undergone recombination more frequently than others, generating further diversity. Furthermore, the DRD from some modA alleles, such as modA12, have been transferred en bloc to replace the DRD from different modA alleles.

  19. Effects of Vaccination with 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenza Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) on the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome of Kenyan Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Feazel, Leah M.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Robertson, Charles E.; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines reduce the prevalence of vaccine serotypes carried in the nasopharynx. Because this could alter carriage of other potential pathogens, we assessed the nasopharyngeal microbiome of children who had been vaccinated with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Methods Profiles of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of 60 children aged 12-59 months, who had been randomized to receive 2 doses of PHiD-CV (n=30) or Hepatitis A vaccine (n=30) 60 days apart, were constructed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of swab specimens collected before vaccination and 180 days after dose 1. Results Prior to vaccination, Moraxella catarrhalis (median of 12.3% of sequences/subject), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (5.6%) were the most abundant nasopharyngeal bacterial species. Vaccination with PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the species composition, abundance, or prevalence of known pathogens. Distinct microbiomes were identified based on the abundances of Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Haemophilus species. These microbiomes shifted in composition over the study period and were independent of age, sex, school attendance, antibiotic exposure, and vaccination. Conclusions Vaccination of children with two doses of PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome. This suggests limited replacement carriage with pathogens other than non-vaccine strains of S. pneumoniae. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01028326 PMID:26083474

  20. Sequence analysis of serotype-specific synthesis regions II of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes c and d: evidence for common ancestry of capsule synthesis in Pasteurellaceae and Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Lâm, Thiên-Trí; Claus, Heike; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    Sequencing of yet unknown Haemophilus influenzae serotype c (Hic) and d (Hid) capsule synthesis regions II revealed four (ccs1-4) and five (dcs1-5) open reading frames, respectively. The inferred gene functions were in line with capsular polysaccharide structures. One or more proteins encoded by the Hic capsule synthesis region II showed similarity to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and Actinobacillus suis K1 enzymes. Orthologues to the complete operon were observed in Actinobacillus minor strain 202, where even the gene order was conserved. Furthermore, Ccs4 was related to the capsule O-acetyltransferase of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135. For the Hid locus, similarities to Hie, Mannheimia haemolytica A1 and N. meningitidis serogroup A were identified and the succession of genes was similar in the different species. The resemblance of genes and gene organization found for Hic and Hid with other species suggested horizontal gene transfer during capsule evolution across the bacterial classes.

  1. Antagonism of miR-328 Increases the Antimicrobial Function of Macrophages and Neutrophils and Rapid Clearance of Non-typeable Haemophilus Influenzae (NTHi) from Infected Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Hock L.; Kaiko, Gerard E.; Plank, Maximilian; Li, JingJing; Maltby, Steven; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Jarnicki, Andrew; Yang, Ming; Mattes, Joerg; Hansbro, Philip M.; Foster, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacterial infections of the lung are life threatening and underpin chronic lung diseases. Current treatments are often ineffective potentially due to increasing antibiotic resistance and impairment of innate immunity by disease processes and steroid therapy. Manipulation miRNA directly regulating anti-microbial machinery of the innate immune system may boost host defence responses. Here we demonstrate that miR-328 is a key element of the host response to pulmonary infection with non-typeable haemophilus influenzae and pharmacological inhibition in mouse and human macrophages augments phagocytosis, the production of reactive oxygen species, and microbicidal activity. Moreover, inhibition of miR-328 in respiratory models of infection, steroid-induced immunosuppression, and smoke-induced emphysema enhances bacterial clearance. Thus, miRNA pathways can be targeted in the lung to enhance host defence against a clinically relevant microbial infection and offer a potential new anti-microbial approach for the treatment of respiratory diseases. PMID:25894560

  2. Minimal biofilm eradication concentration of antimicrobial agents against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluids of intractable acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Takei, Shin; Hotomi, Muneki; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2013-06-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) makes the clinical course of acute otitis media (AOM) intractable by forming a biofilm that may hamper the clearance of the bacteria from middle ear cavity. In this study, we evaluated the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of antimicrobial agents against biofilm-forming NTHi strains. Twelve NTHi strains isolated from middle ear fluids of Japanese children with intractable AOM before antimicrobial treatment were evaluated for MBEC of fluoroquinolones in comparison with those of β-lactams and macrolides. AMPC and CDTR required much higher concentration, i.e., high MBECs, to suppress the biofilm formation of NTHi. In contrast, fluoroquinolones followed by macrolides showed lower MBECs. MBEC would be a good parameter to infer the efficacies of antimicrobials against NTHi in biofilm.

  3. Minimal biofilm eradication concentration of antimicrobial agents against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluids of intractable acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Takei, Shin; Hotomi, Muneki; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2013-06-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) makes the clinical course of acute otitis media (AOM) intractable by forming a biofilm that may hamper the clearance of the bacteria from middle ear cavity. In this study, we evaluated the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of antimicrobial agents against biofilm-forming NTHi strains. Twelve NTHi strains isolated from middle ear fluids of Japanese children with intractable AOM before antimicrobial treatment were evaluated for MBEC of fluoroquinolones in comparison with those of β-lactams and macrolides. AMPC and CDTR required much higher concentration, i.e., high MBECs, to suppress the biofilm formation of NTHi. In contrast, fluoroquinolones followed by macrolides showed lower MBECs. MBEC would be a good parameter to infer the efficacies of antimicrobials against NTHi in biofilm. PMID:23549738

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis Respiratory Tract Isolates: Results of the Canadian Respiratory Organism Susceptibility Study, 1997 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Zhanel, George G.; Palatnick, Lorraine; Nichol, Kimberly A.; Low, Don E.; Hoban, Daryl J.

    2003-01-01

    A total of 7,566 unique patient isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and 2,314 unique patient isolates of Moraxella catarrhalis were collected between October 1997 and June 2002 from 25 medical centers in 9 of the 10 Canadian provinces. Among the 7,566 H. influenzae isolates, 22.5% produced β-lactamase, while 92.4% of the 2,314 M. catarrhalis isolates produced β-lactamase. The incidence of β-lactamase-producing H. influenzae isolates decreased significantly over the 5-year study period, from 24.2% in 1997-1998 to 18.6% in 2001-2002 (P < 0.01). The incidence of β-lactamase-producing M. catarrhalis isolates did not change over the study period. The overall rates of resistance to amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate for H. influenzae were 19.3 and 0.1%, respectively. The rank order of cephalosporin activity based on the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) was cefotaxime > cefixime > cefuroxime > cefprozil > cefaclor. On the basis of the MICs, azithromycin was more active than clarithromycin (14-OH clarithromycin was not tested); however, on the basis of the NCCLS breakpoints, resistance rates were 2.1 and 1.6%, respectively. Rates of resistance to other agents were as follows: doxycycline, 1.5%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 14.2%; and chloramphenicol, 0.2%. All fluoroquinolones tested, including the investigational fluoroquinolones BMS284756 (garenoxacin) and ABT-492, displayed potent activities against H. influenzae, with MIC90s of ≤0.03 μg/ml. The MIC90s of the investigational ketolides telithromycin and ABT-773 were 2 and 4 μg/ml, respectively, and the MIC90 of the investigational glycylcycline GAR-936 (tigecycline) was 4 μg/ml. Among the M. catarrhalis isolates tested, the resistance rates derived by using the NCCLS breakpoint criteria for H. influenzae were <1% for all antibiotics tested except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.5%). In summary, the incidence of β-lactamase-positive H. influenzae strains in Canada is decreasing (18

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China. PMID:27436464

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  7. Longitudinal study on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal colonization in HIV-infected and -uninfected infants vaccinated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Madhi, Shabir A.; Izu, Alane; Nunes, Marta C.; Violari, Avye; Cotton, Mark F.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Klugman, Keith P.; von Gottberg, Anne; van Niekerk, Nadia; Adrian, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus are all potentially pathogenic, which frequently colonize the nasopharynx (NP) prior to causing disease. We studied bacterial NP-colonization in 321 HIV-infected and 243 HIV-uninfected children vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Methods HIV-uninfected infants included those born to HIV-uninfected (HUU) and HIV-infected women (HEU); HIV-infected children with CD4+ lymphocyte ≥25% were randomised to initiate antiretroviral therapy immediately (ART-Immed) or when clinically indicated (ART-Def). Nasopharyngeal swabs for bacterial culture were taken prior to each PCV7 dose (Visits 1–3) and at 20, 39, 47 and 67 weeks of age (Visits 4–7). Swabs were cultured by standard methods and pneumococcal serotyping done by the Quellung method. Results Colonization patterns for pneumococcus, H. influenzae and S. aureus did not differ between HUU and HEU children; and were also generally similar between ART-Def and ART-Immed children. Prevalence of PCV7-serotype colonization was similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children, however, overall pneumococcal and specifically non-vaccine serotype colonization tended to be lower in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children also had a 44% lower prevalence of S. aureus colonization at Visit-1 (p=0.010); and H. influenzae colonization was also lower among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected children at Visit-2, Visit-3, Visit-6 and Visit-7. Conclusion Vaccine-serotype colonization is similar in PCV-immunized HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children. We, however, identified a lower prevalence of overall-pneumococcal and H. influenzae colonization in HIV-infected children post-PCV vaccination, the clinical-relevance of which warrants further study. PMID:25910923

  8. Development of a test system for rapid differentiation of Neisseria and Haemophilus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Eriquez, L A; Hodinka, N E

    1983-01-01

    A qualitative micromethod (IDS Rapid NH system) employing conventional and single-substrate enzyme tests was developed for the biochemical characterization of Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp., and other gram-negative species. A total of over 140 dehydrated, miniaturized biochemical tests were investigated for their ability to distinguish species. Computer-assisted test selection and pair separation analysis of the data allowed the selection of 11 4-h tests that would identify Haemophilus and Neisseria spp. implicated as etiological agents as well as differentiate them from other Neisseria spp., Moraxella spp., Branhamella catarrhalis, Centers for Disease Control M groups, and Kingella spp. The final test configuration included modified glucose, sucrose, galactosidase, nitrate, phosphatase, resazurin reduction, and two arylamidase tests. In addition, indole, urea, and ornithine decarboxylase tests were included to biochemically type strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. PMID:6358247

  9. Efficacy of Solithromycin (CEM-101) for Experimental Otitis Media Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Figueira, M; Fernandes, P; Pelton, S I

    2016-09-01

    Solithromycin (CEM-101) is a "fourth-generation" macrolide, as it has three binding site and is acid stable. The three binding sites confer activity against bacteria resistant to the older macrolides and ketolides, including multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The objective of this study was to evaluate solithromycin pharmacokinetics (PK), middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations, and microbiologic efficacy in a chinchilla model of experimental otitis media (EOM) due to strains of S. pneumoniae or NTHi. Plasma PK (maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax] and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0-24]) and middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations were determined. Isolates with specified antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were inoculated directly into the middle ear (ME). Plasma and MEF were collected for PK and MEF cultures performed to determine efficacy. Solithromycin administered at 150 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in Cmax and AUC0-24 values of 2.2 μg/ml and 27.4 μg · h/ml in plasma and 1.7 μg/ml and 28.2 μg · h/ml in extracellular MEF on day 1. By day 3, Cmax and AUC0-24 values had increased to 4.5 μg/ml and 54 μg · h/ml in plasma and 4.8 μg/ml and 98.6 μg · h/ml in extracellular MEF. For NTHi EOM, three isolates with MIC/minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) ratios of 0.5/1 μg/ml (isolate BCH1), 2/2 μg/ml (isolate BMC1247C), and 4/4 μg/ml (isolate BMC1213C) were selected. The MEF of >85% of animals infected with BCH1 and BMC1247C was sterilized. For NTHi BMC1213, >85% of MEF cultures remained positive. For S. pneumoniae EOM, 3 isolates with MIC/MBC ratios of 0.06/0.125 μg/ml (S. pneumoniae 331), 0.125/1 μg/ml (S. pneumoniae CP-645 [MLSB phenotype]), and 0.5/2 μg/ml (CP-712 [mefA subclass mefA resistance]) were selected. Solithromycin sterilized MEF in 100% of animals infected with S. pneumoniae 331 and S. pneumoniae CP-645. ME infection persisted in 60% of

  10. Efficacy of Solithromycin (CEM-101) for Experimental Otitis Media Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Figueira, M; Fernandes, P; Pelton, S I

    2016-09-01

    Solithromycin (CEM-101) is a "fourth-generation" macrolide, as it has three binding site and is acid stable. The three binding sites confer activity against bacteria resistant to the older macrolides and ketolides, including multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The objective of this study was to evaluate solithromycin pharmacokinetics (PK), middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations, and microbiologic efficacy in a chinchilla model of experimental otitis media (EOM) due to strains of S. pneumoniae or NTHi. Plasma PK (maximum concentration of drug in serum [Cmax] and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0-24]) and middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations were determined. Isolates with specified antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were inoculated directly into the middle ear (ME). Plasma and MEF were collected for PK and MEF cultures performed to determine efficacy. Solithromycin administered at 150 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in Cmax and AUC0-24 values of 2.2 μg/ml and 27.4 μg · h/ml in plasma and 1.7 μg/ml and 28.2 μg · h/ml in extracellular MEF on day 1. By day 3, Cmax and AUC0-24 values had increased to 4.5 μg/ml and 54 μg · h/ml in plasma and 4.8 μg/ml and 98.6 μg · h/ml in extracellular MEF. For NTHi EOM, three isolates with MIC/minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) ratios of 0.5/1 μg/ml (isolate BCH1), 2/2 μg/ml (isolate BMC1247C), and 4/4 μg/ml (isolate BMC1213C) were selected. The MEF of >85% of animals infected with BCH1 and BMC1247C was sterilized. For NTHi BMC1213, >85% of MEF cultures remained positive. For S. pneumoniae EOM, 3 isolates with MIC/MBC ratios of 0.06/0.125 μg/ml (S. pneumoniae 331), 0.125/1 μg/ml (S. pneumoniae CP-645 [MLSB phenotype]), and 0.5/2 μg/ml (CP-712 [mefA subclass mefA resistance]) were selected. Solithromycin sterilized MEF in 100% of animals infected with S. pneumoniae 331 and S. pneumoniae CP-645. ME infection persisted in 60% of

  11. The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae HMW1C-Like Glycosyltransferase Mediates N-Linked Glycosylation of the Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Grass, Susan; Paek, Seonghee; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2010-01-01

    The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is an important virulence exoprotein that is secreted via the two-partner secretion pathway and is glycosylated at multiple asparagine residues in consensus N-linked sequons. Unlike the heavily branched glycans found in eukaryotic N-linked glycoproteins, the modifying glycan structures in HMW1 are mono-hexoses or di-hexoses. Recent work demonstrated that the H. influenzae HMW1C protein is the glycosyltransferase responsible for transferring glucose and galactose to the acceptor sites of HMW1. An Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae protein designated ApHMW1C shares high-level homology with HMW1C and has been assigned to the GT41 family, which otherwise contains only O-glycosyltransferases. In this study, we demonstrated that ApHMW1C has N-glycosyltransferase activity and is able to transfer glucose and galactose to known asparagine sites in HMW1. In addition, we found that ApHMW1C is able to complement a deficiency of HMW1C and mediate HMW1 glycosylation and adhesive activity in whole bacteria. Initial structure-function studies suggested that ApHMW1C consists of two domains, including a 15-kDa N-terminal domain and a 55-kDa C-terminal domain harboring glycosyltransferase activity. These findings suggest a new subfamily of HMW1C-like glycosyltransferases distinct from other GT41 family O-glycosyltransferases. PMID:21209858

  12. Reevaluation of interpretive criteria for Haemophilus influenzae by using meropenem (10-microgram), imipenem (10-microgram), and ampicillin (2- and 10-microgram) disks.

    PubMed Central

    Zerva, L; Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N

    1996-01-01

    A collection of 300 Haemophilus influenzae clinical strains was used to assess in vitro susceptibility to carbapenems (meropenem, imipenem) by MIC and disk diffusion methods and to compare disk diffusion test results with two potencies of ampicillin disks (2 and 10 micrograms). The isolates included ampicillin-susceptible or- intermediate (167 strains), beta-lactamase-positive (117 strains), and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR; 16 strains) organisms. Disk diffusion testing was performed with 10-micrograms meropenem disks from two manufacturers. Meropenem was highly active against H. influenzae strains (MIC50, 0.06 microgram/ml; MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml; MIC50 and MIC90, MICs at which 50 and 90%, respectively, of strains are inhibited) and was 8- to 16-fold more potent than imipenem (MIC50, 1 microgram/ml; MIC90, 2 micrograms/ml). Five non-imipenem-susceptible strains were identified (MIC, 8 micrograms/ml), but the disk diffusion test indicated susceptibility (zone diameters, 18 to 21 mm). MIC values of meropenem, doxycycline, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone for BLNAR strains were two- to fourfold greater than those for other strains. The performance of both meropenem disks was comparable and considered acceptable. A single susceptible interpretive zone diameter of > or = 17 mm (MIC, < = or 4 micrograms/ml) was proposed for meropenem. Testing with the 2-micrograms ampicillin disk was preferred because of an excellent correlation between MIC values and zone diameters (r = 0.94) and superior interpretive accuracy with the susceptible criteria at > or = 17 mm (MIC, < or = 1 microgram/ml) and the resistant criteria at < or = 13 mm (MIC, > or = 4 micrograms/ml). Among the BLNAR strains tested, 81.3% were miscategorized as susceptible or intermediate when the 10-micrograms ampicillin disk was used, while the 2-micrograms disk produced only minor interpretive errors (12.5%). Use of these criteria for testing H. influenzae against meropenem and ampicillin

  13. Multilocus sequence typing and virulence analysis of Haemophilus parasuis strains isolated in five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyan; Ma, Lina; Liu, Yongan; Gao, Pengcheng; Li, Youquan; Li, Xuerui; Liu, Yongsheng

    2016-10-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässers disease, which causes high morbidity and mortality in swine herds. Although H. parasuis strains can be classified into 15 serovars with the Kielstein-Rapp-Gabrielson serotyping scheme, a large number of isolates cannot be classified and have been designated 'nontypeable' strains. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of H. parasuis was used to analyze 48 H. parasuis field strains isolated in China and two strains from Australia. Twenty-six new alleles and 29 new sequence types (STs) were detected, enriching the H. parasuis MLST databases. A BURST analysis indicated that H. parasuis lacks stable population structure and is highly heterogeneous, and that there is no association between STs and geographic area. When an UPGMA dendrogram was constructed, two major clades, clade A and clade B, were defined. Animal experiments, in which guinea pigs were challenged intraperitoneally with the bacterial isolates, supported the hypothesis that the H. parasuis STs in clade A are generally avirulent or weakly virulent, whereas the STs in clade B tend to be virulent. PMID:27431332

  14. Relative Contribution of P5 and Hap Surface Proteins to Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Interplay with the Host Upper and Lower Airways

    PubMed Central

    Viadas, Cristina; Ruiz de los Mozos, Igor; Valle, Jaione; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Garmendia, Junkal

    2015-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major cause of opportunistic respiratory tract disease, and initiates infection by colonizing the nasopharynx. Bacterial surface proteins play determining roles in the NTHi-airways interplay, but their specific and relative contribution to colonization and infection of the respiratory tract has not been addressed comprehensively. In this study, we focused on the ompP5 and hap genes, present in all H. influenzae genome sequenced isolates, and encoding the P5 and Hap surface proteins, respectively. We employed isogenic single and double mutants of the ompP5 and hap genes generated in the pathogenic strain NTHi375 to evaluate P5 and Hap contribution to biofilm growth under continuous flow, to NTHi adhesion, and invasion/phagocytosis on nasal, pharyngeal, bronchial, alveolar cultured epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, and to NTHi murine pulmonary infection. We show that P5 is not required for bacterial biofilm growth, but it is involved in NTHi interplay with respiratory cells and in mouse lung infection. Mechanistically, P5NTHi375 is not a ligand for CEACAM1 or α5 integrin receptors. Hap involvement in NTHi375-host interaction was shown to be limited, despite promoting bacterial cell adhesion when expressed in H. influenzae RdKW20. We also show that Hap does not contribute to bacterial biofilm growth, and that its absence partially restores the deficiency in lung infection observed for the ΔompP5 mutant. Altogether, this work frames the relative importance of the P5 and Hap surface proteins in NTHi virulence. PMID:25894755

  15. Comparison of Established Diagnostic Methodologies and a Novel Bacterial smpB Real-Time PCR Assay for Specific Detection of Haemophilus influenzae Isolates Associated with Respiratory Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Reddington, Kate; Schwenk, Stefan; Tuite, Nina; Platt, Gareth; Davar, Danesh; Coughlan, Helena; Personne, Yoann; Gant, Vanya; Enne, Virve I.; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a significant causative agent of respiratory tract infections (RTI) worldwide. The development of a rapid H. influenzae diagnostic assay that would allow for the implementation of infection control measures and also improve antimicrobial stewardship for patients is required. A number of nucleic acid diagnostics approaches that detect H. influenzae in RTIs have been described in the literature; however, there are reported specificity and sensitivity limitations for these assays. In this study, a novel real-time PCR diagnostic assay targeting the smpB gene was designed to detect all serogroups of H. influenzae. The assay was validated using a panel of well-characterized Haemophilus spp. Subsequently, 44 Haemophilus clinical isolates were collected, and 36 isolates were identified as H. influenzae using a gold standard methodology that combined the results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and a fucK diagnostic assay. Using the novel smpB diagnostic assay, 100% concordance was observed with the gold standard, demonstrating a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.26% to 100.00%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 63.06% to 100.00%) when used on clinical isolates. To demonstrate the clinical utility of the diagnostic assay presented, a panel of lower RTI samples (n = 98) were blindly tested with the gold standard and smpB diagnostic assays. The results generated were concordant for 94/98 samples tested, demonstrating a sensitivity of 90.91% (95% CI, 78.33% to 97.47%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 93.40% to 100.00%) for the novel smpB assay when used directly on respiratory specimens. PMID:26109443

  16. Comparison of Established Diagnostic Methodologies and a Novel Bacterial smpB Real-Time PCR Assay for Specific Detection of Haemophilus influenzae Isolates Associated with Respiratory Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Reddington, Kate; Schwenk, Stefan; Tuite, Nina; Platt, Gareth; Davar, Danesh; Coughlan, Helena; Personne, Yoann; Gant, Vanya; Enne, Virve I; Zumla, Alimuddin; Barry, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a significant causative agent of respiratory tract infections (RTI) worldwide. The development of a rapid H. influenzae diagnostic assay that would allow for the implementation of infection control measures and also improve antimicrobial stewardship for patients is required. A number of nucleic acid diagnostics approaches that detect H. influenzae in RTIs have been described in the literature; however, there are reported specificity and sensitivity limitations for these assays. In this study, a novel real-time PCR diagnostic assay targeting the smpB gene was designed to detect all serogroups of H. influenzae. The assay was validated using a panel of well-characterized Haemophilus spp. Subsequently, 44 Haemophilus clinical isolates were collected, and 36 isolates were identified as H. influenzae using a gold standard methodology that combined the results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and a fucK diagnostic assay. Using the novel smpB diagnostic assay, 100% concordance was observed with the gold standard, demonstrating a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.26% to 100.00%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 63.06% to 100.00%) when used on clinical isolates. To demonstrate the clinical utility of the diagnostic assay presented, a panel of lower RTI samples (n = 98) were blindly tested with the gold standard and smpB diagnostic assays. The results generated were concordant for 94/98 samples tested, demonstrating a sensitivity of 90.91% (95% CI, 78.33% to 97.47%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 93.40% to 100.00%) for the novel smpB assay when used directly on respiratory specimens. PMID:26109443

  17. Dual RNA-seq of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Host Cell Transcriptomes Reveals Novel Insights into Host-Pathogen Cross Talk

    PubMed Central

    Baddal, Buket; Muzzi, Alessandro; Censini, Stefano; Calogero, Raffaele A.; Torricelli, Giulia; Guidotti, Silvia; Taddei, Anna R.; Covacci, Antonello; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Pezzicoli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to adhere and adapt to the human respiratory tract mucosa plays a pivotal role in the pathogenic lifestyle of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). However, the temporal events associated with a successful colonization have not been fully characterized. In this study, by reconstituting the ciliated human bronchial epithelium in vitro, we monitored the global transcriptional changes in NTHi and infected mucosal epithelium simultaneously for up to 72 h by dual RNA sequencing. The initial stage of colonization was characterized by the binding of NTHi to ciliated cells. Temporal profiling of host mRNA signatures revealed significant dysregulation of the target cell cytoskeleton elicited by bacterial infection, with a profound effect on the intermediate filament network and junctional complexes. In response to environmental stimuli of the host epithelium, NTHi downregulated its central metabolism and increased the expression of transporters, indicating a change in the metabolic regime due to the availability of host substrates. Concurrently, the oxidative environment generated by infected cells instigated bacterial expression of stress-induced defense mechanisms, including the transport of exogenous glutathione and activation of the toxin-antitoxin system. The results of this analysis were validated by those of confocal microscopy, Western blotting, Bio-plex, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Notably, as part of our screening for novel signatures of infection, we identified a global profile of noncoding transcripts that are candidate small RNAs (sRNAs) regulated during human host infection in Haemophilus species. Our data, by providing a robust and comprehensive representation of the cross talk between the host and invading pathogen, provides important insights into NTHi pathogenesis and the development of efficacious preventive strategies. PMID:26578681

  18. First report of neonatal bacteremia caused by "Haemophilus quentini" diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, Italy.

    PubMed

    Giufrè, Maria; Cardines, Rita; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Cerquetti, Marina

    2015-10-01

    We report the first case of neonatal bacteremia caused by a "Haemophilus quentini" isolate in Italy. The isolate was differentiated from H. influenzae by 16S rRNA sequencing and was characterized by comparison with the wild-type "H. quentini" CCUG 36167. Both isolates carried substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 but were susceptible to aminopenicillins.

  19. Modification in penicillin-binding proteins during in vivo development of genetic competence of Haemophilus influenzae is associated with a rapid change in the physiological state of cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dargis, M; Gourde, P; Beauchamp, D; Foiry, B; Jacques, M; Malouin, F

    1992-01-01

    By using whole-cell labeling assay with 125I-penicillin V, we observed a reduction in the binding of the radiolabeled beta-lactam to four or five penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in Haemophilus influenzae cells cultivated under specific conditions. PBPs 3A, 3B, 4, and 6 were altered after the growth of bacteria in diffusion chambers implanted in the peritoneal cavity of rats. PBP 2 was also modified when cells were cultivated in human cerebrospinal fluids. Because this observation may have important consequences on the efficacy of beta-lactams during antibiotic therapy, we characterized the physiological state of bacteria cultivated in animals in the hope of explaining how such important changes in cell properties develop in vivo. Since the development of natural genetic competence occurs at the stationary phase of growth in H. influenzae, we used a DNA transformation assay to evaluate the physiological state of bacteria grown in diffusion chambers implanted in rats. Chromosomal DNA isolated from an antibiotic-resistant donor strain was mixed with bacteria in diffusion chambers. At different times during a 5-h incubation period, recipient bacteria were collected from the chambers, CFU were determined by plate counting, and antibiotic-resistant transformants were isolated on selective plates. Genetic competence rapidly developed in cells grown in rats, and the frequency of transformation by test DNA was elevated. Electron microscopy revealed an irregular cell shape and blebs at the surface of bacteria cultivated in animals and in cerebrospinal fluids. In an attempt to induce a similar physiological state in vitro, we supplemented broth cultures with cyclic AMP or synchronized cultures by a nutritional upshift. No changes in PBPs were observed with supplemental cyclic AMP or during a single cell cycle. Finally, a reduction in the affinity of PBPs for 125I-penicillin V identical to that observed in bacteria grown in rats was observed in cells isolated from the

  20. Rapid Discrimination of Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, and H. haemolyticus by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Two Matrix-Assisted Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Frickmann, Hagen; Christner, Martin; Donat, Martina; Berger, Anja; Essig, Andreas; Podbielski, Andreas; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Poppert, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to considerable differences in pathogenicity, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus have to be reliably discriminated in routine diagnostics. Retrospective analyses suggest frequent misidentifications of commensal H. haemolyticus as H. influenzae. In a multi-center approach, we assessed the suitability of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and H. haemolyticus to species level. Methodology A strain collection of 84 Haemophilus spp. comprising 50 H. influenzae, 25 H. parainfluenzae, 7 H. haemolyticus, and 2 H. parahaemolyticus including 77 clinical isolates was analyzed by FISH with newly designed DNA probes, and two different MALDI-TOF-MS systems (Bruker, Shimadzu) with and without prior formic acid extraction. Principal Findings Among the 84 Haemophilus strains analyzed, FISH led to 71 correct results (85%), 13 uninterpretable results (15%), and no misidentifications. Shimadzu MALDI-TOF-MS resulted in 59 correct identifications (70%), 19 uninterpretable results (23%), and 6 misidentifications (7%), using colony material applied directly. Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS with prior formic acid extraction led to 74 correct results (88%), 4 uninterpretable results (5%) and 6 misidentifications (7%). The Bruker MALDI-TOF-MS misidentifications could be resolved by the addition of a suitable H. haemolyticus reference spectrum to the system's database. In conclusion, no analyzed diagnostic procedure was free of errors. Diagnostic results have to be interpreted carefully and alternative tests should be applied in case of ambiguous test results on isolates from seriously ill patients. PMID:23646201

  1. Ampicillin-resistant non-beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae in Spain: recent emergence of clonal isolates with increased resistance to cefotaxime and cefixime.

    PubMed

    García-Cobos, Silvia; Campos, José; Lázaro, Edurne; Román, Federico; Cercenado, Emilia; García-Rey, César; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Oteo, Jesús; de Abajo, Francisco

    2007-07-01

    The sequence of the ftsI gene encoding the transpeptidase domain of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3) was determined for 354 nonconsecutive Haemophilus influenzae isolates from Spain; 17.8% of them were ampicillin susceptible, 56% were beta-lactamase nonproducing ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), 15.8% were beta-lactamase producers and ampicillin resistant, and 10.4% displayed both resistance mechanisms. The ftsI gene sequences had 28 different mutation patterns and amino acid substitutions at 23 positions. Some 93.2% of the BLNAR strains had amino acid substitutions at the Lys-Thr-Gly (KTG) motif, the two most common being Asn526 to Lys (83.9%) and Arg517 to His (9.3%). Amino acid substitutions at positions 377, 385, and 389, which conferred cefotaxime and cefixime MICs 10 to 60 times higher than those of susceptible strains, were found for the first time in Europe. In 72 isolates for which the repressor acrR gene of the AcrAB efflux pump was sequenced, numerous amino acid substitutions were found. Eight isolates with ampicillin MICs of 0.25 to 2 microg/ml showed changes that predicted the early termination of the acrR reading frame. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that most BLNAR strains were genetically diverse, although clonal dissemination was detected in a group of isolates presenting with increased resistance to cefotaxime and cefixime. Background antibiotic use at the community level revealed a marked trend toward increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid consumption. BLNAR H. influenzae strains have arisen by vertical and horizontal spread and have evolved to adapt rapidly to the increased selective pressures posed by the use of oral penicillins and cephalosporins.

  2. Children with chronic suppurative lung disease have a reduced capacity to synthesize interferon-gamma in vitro in response to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Pizzutto, Susan J; Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Upham, John W; Hales, Belinda J; Thomas, Wayne R; Chang, Anne B

    2014-01-01

    Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) is characterized by the presence of a chronic wet or productive cough and recurrent lower respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to identify features of innate, cell-mediated and humoral immunity that may increase susceptibility to respiratory infections in children with CSLD. Because non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is commonly isolated from the airways in CSLD, we examined immune responses to this organism in 80 age-stratified children with CSLD and compared their responses with 51 healthy control children. Cytokines involved in the generation and control of inflammation (IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-5, IL-10 at 72 hours and TNFα, IL-6, IL-10 at 24 hours) were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells challenged in vitro with live NTHi. We also measured circulating IgG subclass antibodies (IgG1 and IgG4) to two H. influenzae outer membrane proteins, P4 and P6. The most notable finding was that PBMC from children with CSLD produced significantly less IFN-γ in response to NTHi than healthy control children whereas mitogen-induced IFN-γ production was similar in both groups. Overall there were minor differences in innate and humoral immune responses between CSLD and control children. This study demonstrates that children with chronic suppurative lung disease have an altered systemic cell-mediated immune response to NTHi in vitro. This deficient IFN-γ response may contribute to increased susceptibility to NTHi infections and the pathogenesis of CSLD in children.

  3. The roles of epithelial cell contact, respiratory bacterial interactions and phosphorylcholine in promoting biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Ajay; Kyd, Jennelle

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) often share a common niche within the nasopharynx, both associated with infections such as bronchitis and otitis media. This study investigated how the association between NTHi and S. pneumoniae and the host affects their propensity to form biofilms. We investigated a selection of bacterial strain and serotype combinations on biofilm formation, and the effect of contact with respiratory epithelial cells. Measurement of biofilm showed that co-infection with NTHi and S. pneumoniae increased biofilm formation following contact with epithelial cells compared to no contact demonstrating the role of epithelial cells in biofilm formation. Additionally, the influence of phosphorylcholine (ChoP) on biofilm production was investigated using the licD mutant strain of NTHi 2019 and found that ChoP had a role in mixed biofilm formation but was not the only requirement. The study highlights the complex interactions between microbes and the host epithelium during biofilm production, suggesting the importance of understanding why certain strains and serotypes differentially influence biofilm formation. A key contributor to increased biofilm formation was the upregulation of biofilm formation by epithelial cell factors.

  4. The HMW1 and HMW2 Adhesins Enhance the Ability of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae To Colonize the Upper Respiratory Tract of Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Katherine A; Porsch, Eric A; Wilson, Jolaine M; St Geme, Joseph W

    2016-10-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) initiates infection by colonizing the upper respiratory tract and is a common cause of localized respiratory tract disease. Previous work has established that the NTHi HMW1 and HMW2 proteins are potent adhesins that mediate efficient in vitro adherence to cultured human respiratory epithelial cells. In this study, we used a rhesus macaque model to assess the contributions of HMW1 and HMW2 to in vivo colonization. In experiments involving inoculation of individual isogenic derivatives of NTHi strain 12, the parent strain expressing both HMW1 and HMW2 and the mutant strains expressing either HMW1 or HMW2 were able to colonize more frequently than the double mutant strain lacking HMW1 and HMW2. In competition experiments, the parent strain efficiently outcompeted the double mutant lacking HMW1 and HMW2. Colonization with strains expressing HMW2 resulted in development of antibody against HMW2 in a number of the animals, demonstrating that colonization can stimulate an antibody response. In conclusion, we have established that the HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins play a major role in facilitating colonization of the upper respiratory tract of rhesus macaques, in some cases associated with stimulation of an immune response.

  5. Selection and Counterselection of Hia Expression Reveals a Key Role for Phase-Variable Expression of Hia in Infection Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Atack, John M.; Winter, Linda E.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Jennings, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Hia is a major adhesin of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and has long been investigated as a vaccine candidate. Here we show that Hia phase variation is controlled by changes in the length of a polythymidine tract located in the hia promoter. Studies of an invasive clinical isolate (strain R2866) show that strains expressing high Hia levels are more efficiently killed by opsonophagocytosis. An opsonophagocytic assay was used to select for a subpopulation of variants that expressed a low level of Hia, which facilitated their escape from killing by anti-Hia antisera. Conversely, a subpopulation of variants expressing a high level of Hia was selected for during passaging through Chang cells. In both cases, phase variation of Hia expression corresponded directly with discrete modal changes in polythymidine tract length. In the chinchilla model of NTHi infection, we observed consistent selection for high Hia expression upon nasopharyngeal colonization, confirming the key role of phase-variable expression of Hia within a specific niche in vivo. PMID:25712964

  6. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced MyD88 Short Expression Is Regulated by Positive IKKβ and CREB Pathways and Negative ERK1/2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Carla S.; Miyata, Masanori; Susuki-Miyata, Seiko; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Komatsu, Kensei; Li, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by excessive inflammation and are exacerbated by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Airway epithelial cells mount the initial innate immune responses to invading pathogens and thus modulate inflammation. While inflammation is necessary to eliminate a pathogen, excessive inflammation can cause damage to the host tissue. Therefore, the inflammatory response must be tightly regulated and deciphering the signaling pathways involved in this response will enhance our understanding of the regulation of the host inflammatory response. NTHi binds to TLR2 and signal propagation requires the adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). An alternative spliced form of MyD88 is called MyD88 short (MyD88s) and has been identified in macrophages and embryonic cell lines as a negative regulator of inflammation. However, the role of MyD88s in NTHi-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells remains unknown. Here we show that NTHi induces MyD88s expression and MyD88s is a negative regulator of inflammation in airway epithelial cells. We further demonstrate that MyD88s is positively regulated by IKKβ and CREB and negatively regulated by ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Taken together these data indicate that airway inflammation is controlled in a negative feedback manner involving MyD88s and suggest that airway epithelial cells are essential to maintain immune homeostasis. PMID:26669856

  7. Crystal Structure of a Complex of Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) and Haemophilus influenzae Lipopolysaccharide Reveals Shielding of Core Structures in SP-D-Resistant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Howard W.; Mackay, Rose-Marie; Deadman, Mary E.; Hood, Derek W.; Madsen, Jens; Moxon, E. Richard; Townsend, J. Paul; Reid, Kenneth B. M.; Ahmed, Abdul; Shaw, Amy J.; Greenhough, Trevor J.

    2016-01-01

    The carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of lung collectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) recognize sugar patterns on the surface of lung pathogens and promote phagocytosis. Using Haemophilus influenzae Eagan strains expressing well-characterized lipopolysaccharide (LPS) surface structures of various levels of complexity, we show that bacterial recognition and binding by SP-D is inversely related to LPS chain extent and complexity. The crystal structure of a biologically active recombinant trimeric SP-D CRD complexed with a delipidated Eagan 4A LPS suggests that efficient LPS recognition by SP-D requires multiple binding interactions utilizing the three major ligand-binding determinants in the SP-D binding pocket, with Ca-dependent binding of inner-core heptose accompanied by interaction of anhydro-Kdo (4,7-anhydro-3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) with Arg343 and Asp325. Combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) binding analyses, our results show that extended LPS structures previously thought to be targets for collectins are important in shielding the more vulnerable sites in the LPS core, revealing a mechanism by which pathogens with complex LPS extensions efficiently evade a first-line mucosal innate immune defense. The structure also reveals for the first time the dominant form of anhydro-Kdo. PMID:26953329

  8. Crystal Structure of a Complex of Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) and Haemophilus influenzae Lipopolysaccharide Reveals Shielding of Core Structures in SP-D-Resistant Strains.

    PubMed

    Clark, Howard W; Mackay, Rose-Marie; Deadman, Mary E; Hood, Derek W; Madsen, Jens; Moxon, E Richard; Townsend, J Paul; Reid, Kenneth B M; Ahmed, Abdul; Shaw, Amy J; Greenhough, Trevor J; Shrive, Annette K

    2016-05-01

    The carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of lung collectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) recognize sugar patterns on the surface of lung pathogens and promote phagocytosis. Using Haemophilus influenzae Eagan strains expressing well-characterized lipopolysaccharide (LPS) surface structures of various levels of complexity, we show that bacterial recognition and binding by SP-D is inversely related to LPS chain extent and complexity. The crystal structure of a biologically active recombinant trimeric SP-D CRD complexed with a delipidated Eagan 4A LPS suggests that efficient LPS recognition by SP-D requires multiple binding interactions utilizing the three major ligand-binding determinants in the SP-D binding pocket, with Ca-dependent binding of inner-core heptose accompanied by interaction of anhydro-Kdo (4,7-anhydro-3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) with Arg343 and Asp325. Combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) binding analyses, our results show that extended LPS structures previously thought to be targets for collectins are important in shielding the more vulnerable sites in the LPS core, revealing a mechanism by which pathogens with complex LPS extensions efficiently evade a first-line mucosal innate immune defense. The structure also reveals for the first time the dominant form of anhydro-Kdo.

  9. Bactericidal antibody response against P6, protein D, and OMP26 of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae after acute otitis media in otitis-prone children.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Nadeem; Kaur, Ravinder; Pichichero, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    The bactericidal antibody response to three nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) outer membrane proteins (D, P6, and OMP26) was studied in 24 otitis-prone children (aged 7-28 months) after an acute otitis media (AOM) caused by NTHi. The study was carried out to understand the contribution of antigen-specific bactericidal antibody responses in the class of children who are most vulnerable to recurrent otitis media infections. Levels of protein D (P = 0.005) and P6 (P = 0.026) but not OMP26 antibodies were higher in bactericidal sera compared with nonbactericidal sera. For five (24%) and 16 (76%) of 21 bactericidal sera tested, removal of anti-protein D and P6 antibody, respectively, resulted in a two- to fourfold drop in bactericidal antibody. Antibodies to OMP26 did not make any contribution to the overall bactericidal activity in any serum samples. Eleven of 21 sera (52%) had bactericidal activity against a heterologous NTHi (86-028 NP) strain but the titers were significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared to the homologous strains. Future studies of protein D, P6, OMP26, and other potential NTHi vaccine antigens should include studies of bactericidal antibody in children who are otitis prone as a possible correlate of protection.

  10. Selective adherence of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) to mucus or epithelial cells in the chinchilla eustachian tube and middle ear.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, N; Bakaletz, L O

    1996-11-01

    Frozen sections of chinchilla Eustachian tube (ET) and middle ear mucosa were incubated with either FITC-labeled non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) or Bordetella pertussis. The number of bacteria adherent to "roof" vs "floor" regions was compared for each of three anatomic portions of the ET and for middle ear epithelium noting whether bacteria adhered to mucus or to epithelial cells. NTHi strains adhered significantly greater to mucus in the ET lumen whereas B. pertussis preferentially adhered to epithelial cells lining the ET (P < or = 0.05). A non-fimbriated isogenic mutant of NTHi adhered significantly less to mucus than the parental isolate at all sites of the ET floor (P < or = 0.05). Isolated fimbrin protein adhered to ET mucus and blocked adherence of whole organisms. Treatment with the mucolytic agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine resulted in significantly reduced adherence of NTHi to mucus (P < or = 0.001) and eliminated the ability to detect binding of isolated fimbrin protein. N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment did not affect adherence of either B. pertussis or NTHi to epithelial cells. These data indicated that NTHi may mediate ascension of the ET from the nasopharynx primarily via adherence to and growth in mucus overlying the floor region of the tubal lumen. The OMP P5-homologous fimbriae were shown to contribute to this binding.

  11. Simulating Immune Interference on the Effect of a Bivalent Glycoconjugate Vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Serotypes “a” and “b”

    PubMed Central

    Konini, Angjelina; Kang, Mingsong; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We sought to evaluate the immune responses to a bivalent Haemophilus influenzae glycoconjugate vaccine against serotypes “a” (Hia) and “b” (Hib) in the presence of the preexisting immunity to Hib. Methods. We developed a stochastic simulation model of humoral immune response to investigate the antigenic challenge of a bivalent combined glycoconjugate vaccine and a bivalent unimolecular glycoconjugate vaccine. We compared simulation outcomes in the absence of any preexisting immunity with an already primed immune response having specific memory B cells and/or anti-Hib antibodies. Results. The simulation results show that the preexisting immune responses to Hib or carrier protein (CP) may significantly impede the production of anti-Hia antibodies by a unimolecular vaccine. In contrast, the production of anti-Hia antibodies using a combined vaccine is inhibited only in the presence of CP immune responses. Conclusions. Preexisting immunity to Hib and CP may play a critical role in the development of immune responses against Hia or Hib using bivalent combined and unimolecular vaccine formulations. Our results suggest that a bivalent combined glycoconjugate vaccine with a carrier protein not previously used in Hib conjugate vaccines may be an effective formulation for generating immune responses to protect against both Hib and Hia infections. PMID:27366171

  12. Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus in Rodent Models of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Straub, Robert J.; Novick, Steven J.; DeMarsh, Peter; Aubart, Kelly; Rittenhouse, Stephen; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    GSK1322322 is a novel inhibitor of peptide deformylase (PDF) with good in vitro activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired pneumonia and skin infections. We have characterized the in vivo pharmacodynamics (PD) of GSK1322322 in immunocompetent animal models of infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (mouse lung model) and with Staphylococcus aureus (rat abscess model) and determined the pharmacokinetic (PK)/PD index that best correlates with efficacy and its magnitude. Oral PK studies with both models showed slightly higher-than-dose-proportional exposure, with 3-fold increases in area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) with doubling doses. GSK1322322 exhibited dose-dependent in vivo efficacy against multiple isolates of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. aureus. Dose fractionation studies with two S. pneumoniae and S. aureus isolates showed that therapeutic outcome correlated best with the free AUC/MIC (fAUC/MIC) index in S. pneumoniae (R2, 0.83), whereas fAUC/MIC and free maximum drug concentration (fCmax)/MIC were the best efficacy predictors for S. aureus (R2, 0.9 and 0.91, respectively). Median daily fAUC/MIC values required for stasis and for a 1-log10 reduction in bacterial burden were 8.1 and 14.4 for 11 S. pneumoniae isolates (R2, 0.62) and 7.2 and 13.0 for five H. influenzae isolates (R2, 0.93). The data showed that for eight S. aureus isolates, fAUC correlated better with efficacy than fAUC/MIC (R2, 0.91 and 0.76, respectively), as efficacious AUCs were similar for all isolates, independent of their GSK1322322 MIC (range, 0.5 to 4 μg/ml). Median fAUCs of 2.1 and 6.3 μg · h/ml were associated with stasis and 1-log10 reductions, respectively, for S. aureus. PMID:26482300

  13. Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus in Rodent Models of Infection.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Jennifer; Lewandowski, Thomas; Straub, Robert J; Novick, Steven J; DeMarsh, Peter; Aubart, Kelly; Rittenhouse, Stephen; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2015-10-19

    GSK1322322 is a novel inhibitor of peptide deformylase (PDF) with good in vitro activity against bacteria associated with community-acquired pneumonia and skin infections. We have characterized the in vivo pharmacodynamics (PD) of GSK1322322 in immunocompetent animal models of infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae (mouse lung model) and with Staphylococcus aureus (rat abscess model) and determined the pharmacokinetic (PK)/PD index that best correlates with efficacy and its magnitude. Oral PK studies with both models showed slightly higher-than-dose-proportional exposure, with 3-fold increases in area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) with doubling doses. GSK1322322 exhibited dose-dependent in vivo efficacy against multiple isolates of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. aureus. Dose fractionation studies with two S. pneumoniae and S. aureus isolates showed that therapeutic outcome correlated best with the free AUC/MIC (fAUC/MIC) index in S. pneumoniae (R(2), 0.83), whereas fAUC/MIC and free maximum drug concentration (fCmax)/MIC were the best efficacy predictors for S. aureus (R(2), 0.9 and 0.91, respectively). Median daily fAUC/MIC values required for stasis and for a 1-log10 reduction in bacterial burden were 8.1 and 14.4 for 11 S. pneumoniae isolates (R(2), 0.62) and 7.2 and 13.0 for five H. influenzae isolates (R(2), 0.93). The data showed that for eight S. aureus isolates, fAUC correlated better with efficacy than fAUC/MIC (R(2), 0.91 and 0.76, respectively), as efficacious AUCs were similar for all isolates, independent of their GSK1322322 MIC (range, 0.5 to 4 μg/ml). Median fAUCs of 2.1 and 6.3 μg · h/ml were associated with stasis and 1-log10 reductions, respectively, for S. aureus.

  14. [Influenza].

    PubMed

    Drescher, H J

    1983-01-01

    Influenza is the last great uncontrolled plague of mankind. Pandemics and epidemics occur at regular time intervals. The influenza viruses are divided into the types A, B and C and show unique variability of their surface antigens (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase). Influenza viruses of type A show the largest degree of antigenic variation which, in turn, resulted in the definition of a number of subtypes, each comprising many strains. By comparison, influenza viruses of types B and C exhibit much less variation of their surface antigens. As a consequence, no subtypes but many different strains have been recognized. The degree of antigenic variation correlates with the epidemiologic significance of the virus types, type A being the most and type C the least important. Two different kinds of antigenic variation have been recognized: In the case of minor variation of one or both surface antigens, the term "antigenic drift" is employed. Antigenic drift occurs with all three types of virus, it is caused by point mutations which increase the chance of survival of mutants in the diseased host. In addition, influenza A viruses show sudden and complete changes of their surface antigens in regular time intervals, resulting in the appearance of new subtypes. This event is called "antigenic shift". The mechanisms responsible for antigenic shift are poorly understood, only. In addition to the recycling of preceding subtypes, reassortment resulting from double infection of cells with strains of human and animal origin are considered possible explanations. By use of modern DNA recombinant technology, the base sequences of a series of virus genes and, as a consequence, the amino acid sequence of the corresponding antigens have been determined. By means of monoclonal antibodies, the antigenic structure of many influenza antigens has been further elucidated. It can be expected that further research on the molecular basis of antigenic variation could finally result in an

  15. Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus infection of humans, such as with Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East have been reported in 16 countries, often resulting in severe pneumonia with approximately 60% ...

  16. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung-Kyun; Lee, Haa-Yung; Pan, Huiqi; Takeshita, Tamotsu; Park, Raekil; Cha, Kiweon; Andalibi, Ali; Lim, David J

    2006-01-01

    Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization) in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM). Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:16433908

  17. 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) induces memory B cell responses in healthy Kenyan toddlers.

    PubMed

    Muema, D M; Nduati, E W; Uyoga, M; Bashraheil, M; Scott, J A G; Hammitt, L L; Urban, B C

    2015-08-01

    Memory B cells are long-lived and could contribute to persistence of humoral immunity by maintaining the plasma-cell pool or making recall responses upon re-exposure to an antigen. We determined the ability of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to induce anti-pneumococcal memory B cells. Frequencies of memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were determined by cultured B cell enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in 35 children aged 12-23 months who received pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). The relationships between plasma antibodies and memory B cell frequencies were also assessed. After two doses of PHiD-CV, the proportion of subjects with detectable memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides increased significantly for serotypes 1 (3-45%; P < 0·01), 19F (21-66%; P < 0·01) and 23F (13-36%; P = 0·02), but not serotypes 6B (24-42%; P = 0·24) and 14 (21-40%; P = 0·06). Correlations between antibodies and memory B cells were weak. Carriage of serotype 19F at enrolment was associated with poor memory B cell responses against this serotype at subsequent time-points (day 30: non-carriers, 82% versus carriers, 0%, P < 0·01; day 210: non-carriers, 72% versus carriers, 33%, P = 0·07). PHiD-CV is capable of inducing memory B cells against some of the component pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

  18. Genome Expression Profiling-Based Identification and Administration Efficacy of Host-Directed Antimicrobial Drugs against Respiratory Infection by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Euba, Begoña; Moleres, Javier; Segura, Víctor; Viadas, Cristina; Morey, Pau; Moranta, David; Leiva, José; de-Torres, Juan Pablo; Bengoechea, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Therapies that are safe, effective, and not vulnerable to developing resistance are highly desirable to counteract bacterial infections. Host-directed therapeutics is an antimicrobial approach alternative to conventional antibiotics based on perturbing host pathways subverted by pathogens during their life cycle by using host-directed drugs. In this study, we identified and evaluated the efficacy of a panel of host-directed drugs against respiratory infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). NTHi is an opportunistic pathogen that is an important cause of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We screened for host genes differentially expressed upon infection by the clinical isolate NTHi375 by analyzing cell whole-genome expression profiling and identified a repertoire of host target candidates that were pharmacologically modulated. Based on the proposed relationship between NTHi intracellular location and persistence, we hypothesized that drugs perturbing host pathways used by NTHi to enter epithelial cells could have antimicrobial potential against NTHi infection. Interfering drugs were tested for their effects on bacterial and cellular viability, on NTHi-epithelial cell interplay, and on mouse pulmonary infection. Glucocorticoids and statins lacked in vitro and/or in vivo efficacy. Conversely, the sirtuin-1 activator resveratrol showed a bactericidal effect against NTHi, and the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram showed therapeutic efficacy by lowering NTHi375 counts intracellularly and in the lungs of infected mice. PDE4 inhibition is currently prescribed in COPD, and resveratrol is an attractive geroprotector for COPD treatment. Together, these results expand our knowledge of NTHi-triggered host subversion and frame the antimicrobial potential of rolipram and resveratrol against NTHi respiratory infection. PMID:26416856

  19. Incorporation of phosphorylcholine into the lipooligosaccharide of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae does not correlate with the level of biofilm formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Puig, Carmen; Marti, Sara; Hermans, Peter W M; de Jonge, Marien I; Ardanuy, Carmen; Liñares, Josefina; Langereis, Jeroen D

    2014-04-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes otitis media in children and community-acquired pneumonia or exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. A large variety of studies suggest that biofilm formation by NTHi may be an important step in the pathogenesis of this bacterium. The objective of this report was to determine the relationship between the presence of phosphorylcholine in the lipooligosaccharide of NTHi and the level of biofilm formation. The study was performed on 111 NTHi clinical isolates collected from oropharyngeal samples of healthy children, middle ear fluid of children with otitis media, and sputum samples of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or community-acquired pneumonia. NTHi clinical isolates presented a large variation in the level of biofilm formation in a static assay and phosphorylcholine content. Isolates collected from the oropharynx and middle ear fluid of children tended to have more phosphorylcholine and made denser biofilms than isolates collected from sputum samples of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or community-acquired pneumonia. No correlation was observed between biofilm formation and the presence of phosphorylcholine in the lipooligosaccharide for either planktonic or biofilm growth. This lack of correlation was confirmed by abrogating phosphorylcholine incorporation into lipooligosaccharide through licA gene deletion, which had strain-specific effects on biofilm formation. Altogether, we present strong evidence to conclude that there is no correlation between biofilm formation in a static assay and the presence of phosphorylcholine in lipooligosaccharide in a large collection of clinical NTHi isolates collected from different groups of patients. PMID:24452688

  20. Molecular evolution of beta-lactam-resistant Haemophilus influenzae: 9-year surveillance of penicillin-binding protein 3 mutations in isolates from Japan.

    PubMed

    Sanbongi, Yumiko; Suzuki, Takahisa; Osaki, Yumi; Senju, Nami; Ida, Takashi; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2006-07-01

    A total of 621 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae collected in Japan between 1995 and 2003 were studied for their susceptibilities to several antimicrobial agents, beta-lactamase production, and amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP 3). Over the four study periods (first period, 1995 to 1996; second period, 1997 to 1998; third period, 2000 to 2001; fourth period, 2002 to 2003), the susceptibilities to beta-lactam agents decreased and the incidence of isolates with substitutions at positions 377, 385, 389, 517, and/or 526 in PBP 3 increased from 28.8% to 52.0%. Five hundred seventy-one beta-lactamase-nonproducing isolates were grouped into 18 classes, based on the pattern of the five mutations in PBP 3. The Asp526Lys substitution led to 6.0-, 4.3-, 2.4-, and 5.4-fold increases in amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefdinir, cefditoren, and faropenem resistance, respectively. PBP 3 with multiple substitutions (Met377Ile, Ser385Thr, and/or Leu389Phe) together with Asp526Lys resulted in increased resistance compared to that for PBP 3 with the Asp526Lys substitution alone. These results indicate that mutations at these five positions increased resistance to most beta-lactams. Although a significant change in the prevalence of beta-lactamase-producing strains was not observed, the proportions of those possessing both PBP 3 alterations and beta-lactamase production have slightly increased (from 1.4% to 5.0%). The ROB-1 beta-lactamase was rare, but this is the first report of this beta-lactamase in Japan. PMID:16801430

  1. 10‐valent pneumococcal non‐typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein‐D conjugate vaccine (PHiD‐CV) induces memory B cell responses in healthy Kenyan toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Nduati, E. W.; Uyoga, M.; Bashraheil, M.; Scott, J. A. G.; Hammitt, L. L.; Urban, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Memory B cells are long‐lived and could contribute to persistence of humoral immunity by maintaining the plasma‐cell pool or making recall responses upon re‐exposure to an antigen. We determined the ability of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to induce anti‐pneumococcal memory B cells. Frequencies of memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were determined by cultured B cell enzyme‐linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in 35 children aged 12–23 months who received pneumococcal non‐typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein‐D conjugate vaccine (PHiD‐CV). The relationships between plasma antibodies and memory B cell frequencies were also assessed. After two doses of PHiD‐CV, the proportion of subjects with detectable memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides increased significantly for serotypes 1 (3–45%; P < 0·01), 19F (21–66%; P < 0·01) and 23F (13–36%; P = 0·02), but not serotypes 6B (24–42%; P = 0·24) and 14 (21–40%; P = 0·06). Correlations between antibodies and memory B cells were weak. Carriage of serotype 19F at enrolment was associated with poor memory B cell responses against this serotype at subsequent time‐points (day 30: non‐carriers, 82% versus carriers, 0%, P < 0·01; day 210: non‐carriers, 72% versus carriers, 33%, P = 0·07). PHiD‐CV is capable of inducing memory B cells against some of the component pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. PMID:25845628

  2. Phase variation and host immunity against high molecular weight (HMW) adhesins shape population dynamics of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae within human hosts.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gregg S; Marino, Simeone; Marrs, Carl F; Gilsdorf, Janet R; Dawid, Suzanne; Kirschner, Denise E

    2014-08-21

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a bacterium that resides within the human pharynx. Because NTHi is human-restricted, its long-term survival is dependent upon its ability to successfully colonize new hosts. Adherence to host epithelium, mediated by bacterial adhesins, is one of the first steps in NTHi colonization. NTHi express several adhesins, including the high molecular weight (HMW) adhesins that mediate attachment to the respiratory epithelium where they interact with the host immune system to elicit a strong humoral response. hmwA, which encodes the HMW adhesin, undergoes phase variation mediated by 7-base pair tandem repeats located within its promoter region. Repeat number affects both hmwA transcription and HMW-adhesin production such that as the number of repeats increases, adhesin production decreases. Cells expressing large amounts of HMW adhesins may be critical for the establishment and maintenance of NTHi colonization, but they might also incur greater fitness costs when faced with an adhesin-specific antibody-mediated immune response. We hypothesized that the occurrence of large deletion events within the hmwA repeat region allows NTHi cells to maintain adherence in the presence of antibody-mediated immunity. To study this, we developed a mathematical model, incorporating hmwA phase variation and antibody-mediated immunity, to explore the trade-off between bacterial adherence and immune evasion. The model predicts that antibody levels and avidity, catastrophic loss rates, and population carrying capacity all significantly affected numbers of adherent NTHi cells within a host. These results suggest that the occurrence of large, yet rare, deletion events allows for stable maintenance of a small population of adherent cells in spite of HMW adhesin specific antibody-mediated immunity. These adherent subpopulations may be important for sustaining colonization and/or maintaining transmission. PMID:24747580

  3. Characterization of Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Isolates Recovered from Adult Patients with Underlying Chronic Lung Disease Reveals Genotypic and Phenotypic Traits Associated with Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, Junkal; Viadas, Cristina; Calatayud, Laura; Mell, Joshua Chang; Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Euba, Begoña; Llobet, Enrique; Gil, Carmen; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Redfield, Rosemary J.; Liñares, Josefina

    2014-01-01

    Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen causing infection in adults suffering obstructive lung diseases. Existing evidence associates chronic infection by NTHi to the progression of the chronic respiratory disease, but specific features of NTHi associated with persistence have not been comprehensively addressed. To provide clues about adaptive strategies adopted by NTHi during persistent infection, we compared sequential persistent isolates with newly acquired isolates in sputa from six patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified three patients with consecutive persistent strains and three with new strains. Phenotypic characterisation included infection of respiratory epithelial cells, bacterial self-aggregation, biofilm formation and resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Persistent isolates differed from new strains in showing low epithelial adhesion and inability to form biofilms when grown under continuous-flow culture conditions in microfermenters. Self-aggregation clustered the strains by patient, not by persistence. Increasing resistance to AMPs was observed for each series of persistent isolates; this was not associated with lipooligosaccharide decoration with phosphorylcholine or with lipid A acylation. Variation was further analyzed for the series of three persistent isolates recovered from patient 1. These isolates displayed comparable growth rate, natural transformation frequency and murine pulmonary infection. Genome sequencing of these three isolates revealed sequential acquisition of single-nucleotide variants in the AMP permease sapC, the heme acquisition systems hgpB, hgpC, hup and hxuC, the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid kinase kdkA, the long-chain fatty acid transporter ompP1, and the phosphoribosylamine glycine ligase purD. Collectively, we frame a range of pathogenic traits and a repertoire of genetic variants in the context of

  4. Tracing phylogenomic events leading to diversity of Haemophilus influenzae and the emergence of Brazilian Purpuric Fever (BPF)-associated clones

    PubMed Central

    Papazisi, Leka; Ratnayake, Shashikala; Remortel, Brian G.; Bock, Geoffrey R.; Liang, Wei; Saeed, Alexander I.; Liu, Jia; Fleischmann, Robert D.; Kilian, Mogens; Peterson, Scott N.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the use of a multi-genome DNA microarray to elucidate the genomic events associated with the emergence of the clonal variants of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius causing Brazilian Purpuric Fever (BPF), an important pediatric disease with a high mortality rate. We performed directed genome sequencing of strain HK1212 unique loci to construct a species DNA microarray. Comparative genome hybridization using this microarray enabled us to determine and compare gene complements, and infer reliable phylogenomic relationships among members of the species. The higher genomic variability observed in the genomes of BPF-related strains (clones) and their close relatives may be characterized by significant gene flux related to a subset of functional role categories. We found that the acquisition of a large number of virulence determinants featuring numerous cell membrane proteins coupled to the loss of genes involved in transport, central biosynthetic pathways and in particular, energy production pathways to be characteristics of the BPF genomic variants. PMID:20654709

  5. Naturally Acquired HMW1- and HMW2-Specific Serum Antibodies in Adults and Children Mediate Opsonophagocytic Killing of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Linda E.

    2015-01-01

    The HMW1 and HMW2 proteins are highly immunogenic adhesins expressed by approximately 75% of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strains, and HMW1- and HMW2-specific antibodies can mediate opsonophagocytic killing of NTHi. In this study, we assessed the ability of HMW1- and HMW2-specific antibodies in sera from healthy adults and convalescent-phase sera from children with NTHi otitis media to mediate killing of homologous and heterologous NTHi. The serum samples were examined pre- and postadsorption on HMW1 and HMW2 affinity columns, and affinity-purified antibodies were assessed for ability to mediate killing of homologous and heterologous strains. Adult serum samples mediated the killing of six prototype NTHi strains at titers of <1:10 to 1:1,280. HMW1- and HMW2-adsorbed sera demonstrated unchanged to 8-fold decreased opsonophagocytic titers against the homologous strains. Each affinity-purified antibody preparation mediated the killing of the respective homologous strain at titers of <1:10 to 1:320 and of the five heterologous strains at titers of <1:10 to 1:320, with most preparations killing most heterologous strains to some degree. None of the acute-phase serum samples from children mediated killing, but each convalescent-phase serum sample mediated killing of the infecting strain at titers of 1:40 to 1:640. HMW1- and HMW2-adsorbed convalescent-phase serum samples demonstrated ≥4-fold decreases in titer. Three of four affinity-purified antibody preparations mediated killing of the infecting strain at titers of 1:20 to 1:320, but no killing of representative heterologous strains was observed. HMW1- and HMW2-specific antibodies capable of mediating opsonophagocytic killing are present in the serum from normal adults and develop in convalescent-phase sera of children with NTHi otitis media. Continued investigation of the HMW1 and HMW2 proteins as potential vaccine candidates for the prevention of NTHi disease is warranted. PMID:26512048

  6. Structural Determinants of the Interaction between the TpsA and TpsB Proteins in the Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 Two-Partner Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Grass, Susan; Rempe, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The two-partner secretion (TPS) pathway in Gram-negative bacteria consists of a TpsA exoprotein and a cognate TpsB outer membrane pore-forming translocator protein. Previous work has demonstrated that the TpsA protein contains an N-terminal TPS domain that plays an important role in targeting the TpsB protein and is required for secretion. The nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins are homologous proteins that are prototype TpsA proteins and are secreted by the HMW1B and HMW2B TpsB proteins. In the present study, we sought to define the structural determinants of HMW1 interaction with HMW1B during the transport process and while anchored to the bacterial surface. Modeling of HMW1B revealed an N-terminal periplasmic region that contains two polypeptide transport-associated (POTRA) domains and a C-terminal membrane-localized region that forms a pore. Biochemical studies demonstrated that HMW1 engages HMW1B via interaction between the HMW1 TPS domain and the HMW1B periplasmic region, specifically, the predicted POTRA1 and POTRA2 domains. Subsequently, HMW1 is shuttled to the HMW1B pore, facilitated by the N-terminal region, the middle region, and the NPNG motif in the HMW1 TPS domain. Additional analysis revealed that the interaction between HMW1 and HMW1B is highly specific and is dependent upon the POTRA domains and the pore-forming domain of HMW1B. Further studies established that tethering of HMW1 to the surface-exposed region of HMW1B is dependent upon the external loops of HMW1B formed by residues 267 to 283 and residues 324 to 330. These observations may have broad relevance to proteins secreted by the TPS pathway. IMPORTANCE Secretion of HMW1 involves a recognition event between the extended form of the HMW1 propiece and the HMW1B POTRA domains. Our results identify specific interactions between the HMW1 propiece and the periplasmic HMW1B POTRA domains. The results also suggest that the process of HMW1 translocation involves at

  7. Defining the Binding Region in Factor H to Develop a Therapeutic Factor H-Fc Fusion Protein against Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sandy M; Shaughnessy, Jutamas; Ram, Sanjay; Akerley, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) cause a range of illnesses including otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infections that contribute to the problem of antibiotic resistance and are themselves often intractable to standard antibiotic treatment regimens. We investigated a strategy to exploit binding of the complement inhibitor Factor H (FH) to NTHi as a functional target for an immunotherapeutic containing the NTHi binding domain of FH fused to the Fc domain of IgG1. Chimeric proteins containing the regions that most FH-binding bacteria use to engage human FH, domains 6 and 7 (FH6,7/Fc) and/or 18 through 20 (FH18-20/Fc), were evaluated for binding to NTHi. FH6,7/Fc bound strongly to each of seven NTHi clinical isolates tested and efficiently promoted complement-mediated killing by normal human serum. FH18-20/Fc bound weakly to three of the strains but did not promote complement dependent killing. Outer-membrane protein P5 has been implicated in FH binding by NTHi, and FH6,7/Fc binding was greatly diminished in five of seven P5 deficient isogenic mutant strains tested, implicating an alternative FH binding protein in some strains. Binding of FH18-20/Fc was decreased in the P5 mutant of one strain. A murine model was used to evaluate potential therapeutic application of FH6,7/Fc. FH6,7/Fc efficiently promoted binding of C3 to NTHi exposed to mouse serum, and intranasal delivery of FH6,7/Fc resulted in significantly enhanced clearance of NTHi from the lung. Moreover, a P5 deficient mutant was attenuated for survival in the lung model, suggesting that escape mutants lacking P5 would be less likely to replace strains susceptible to FH6,7/Fc. These results provide evidence for the potential utility of FH6,7/Fc as a therapeutic against NTHi lung infection. FH binding is a common property of many respiratory tract pathogens and FH/Fc chimeras may represent promising alternative or adjunctive therapeutics against such

  8. Virulence phenotypes of low-passage clinical isolates of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae assessed using the chinchilla laniger model of otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Buchinsky, Farrel J; Forbes, Michael L; Hayes, Jay D; Shen, Kai; Ezzo, Suzanne; Compliment, James; Hogg, Justin; Hiller, N Luisa; Hu, Fen Ze; Post, J Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth D

    2007-01-01

    Background The nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are associated with a spectrum of respiratory mucosal infections including: acute otitis media (AOM); chronic otitis media with effusion (COME); otorrhea; locally invasive diseases such as mastoiditis; as well as a range of systemic disease states, suggesting a wide range of virulence phenotypes. Genomic studies have demonstrated that each clinical strain contains a unique genic distribution from a population-based supragenome, the distributed genome hypothesis. These diverse clinical and genotypic findings suggest that each NTHi strain possesses a unique set of virulence factors that contributes to the course of the disease. Results The local and systemic virulence patterns of ten genomically characterized low-passage clinical NTHi strains (PittAA – PittJJ) obtained from children with COME or otorrhea were stratified using the chinchilla model of otitis media (OM). Each isolate was used to bilaterally inoculate six animals and thereafter clinical assessments were carried out daily for 8 days by blinded observers. There was no statistical difference in the time it took for any of the 10 NTHi strains to induce otologic (local) disease with respect to any or all of the other strains, however the differences in time to maximal local disease and the severity of local disease were both significant between the strains. Parameters of systemic disease indicated that the strains were not all equivalent: time to development of the systemic disease, maximal systemic scores and mortality were all statistically different among the strains. PittGG induced 100% mortality while PittBB, PittCC, and PittEE produced no mortality. Overall Pitt GG, PittII, and Pitt FF produced the most rapid and most severe local and systemic disease. A post hoc determination of the clinical origins of the 10 NTHi strains revealed that these three strains were of otorrheic origin, whereas the other 7 were from patients with COME. Conclusion

  9. Defining the Binding Region in Factor H to Develop a Therapeutic Factor H-Fc Fusion Protein against Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sandy M.; Shaughnessy, Jutamas; Ram, Sanjay; Akerley, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) cause a range of illnesses including otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infections that contribute to the problem of antibiotic resistance and are themselves often intractable to standard antibiotic treatment regimens. We investigated a strategy to exploit binding of the complement inhibitor Factor H (FH) to NTHi as a functional target for an immunotherapeutic containing the NTHi binding domain of FH fused to the Fc domain of IgG1. Chimeric proteins containing the regions that most FH-binding bacteria use to engage human FH, domains 6 and 7 (FH6,7/Fc) and/or 18 through 20 (FH18–20/Fc), were evaluated for binding to NTHi. FH6,7/Fc bound strongly to each of seven NTHi clinical isolates tested and efficiently promoted complement-mediated killing by normal human serum. FH18–20/Fc bound weakly to three of the strains but did not promote complement dependent killing. Outer-membrane protein P5 has been implicated in FH binding by NTHi, and FH6,7/Fc binding was greatly diminished in five of seven P5 deficient isogenic mutant strains tested, implicating an alternative FH binding protein in some strains. Binding of FH18–20/Fc was decreased in the P5 mutant of one strain. A murine model was used to evaluate potential therapeutic application of FH6,7/Fc. FH6,7/Fc efficiently promoted binding of C3 to NTHi exposed to mouse serum, and intranasal delivery of FH6,7/Fc resulted in significantly enhanced clearance of NTHi from the lung. Moreover, a P5 deficient mutant was attenuated for survival in the lung model, suggesting that escape mutants lacking P5 would be less likely to replace strains susceptible to FH6,7/Fc. These results provide evidence for the potential utility of FH6,7/Fc as a therapeutic against NTHi lung infection. FH binding is a common property of many respiratory tract pathogens and FH/Fc chimeras may represent promising alternative or adjunctive therapeutics against

  10. Crystal structure of YbaK protein from Haemophilus influenzae (HI1434) at 1.8 A resolution: functional implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Huang, K; Li, Z; Banerjei, L; Fisher, K E; Grishin, N V; Eisenstein, E; Herzberg, O

    2000-07-01

    Structural genomics of proteins of unknown function most straightforwardly assists with assignment of biochemical activity when the new structure resembles that of proteins whose functions are known. When a new fold is revealed, the universe of known folds is enriched, and once the function is determined by other means, novel structure-function relationships are established. The previously unannotated protein HI1434 from H. influenzae provides a hybrid example of these two paradigms. It is a member of a microbial protein family, labeled in SwissProt as YbaK and ebsC. The crystal structure at 1.8 A resolution reported here reveals a fold that is only remotely related to the C-lectin fold, in particular to endostatin, and thus is not sufficiently similar to imply that YbaK proteins are saccharide binding proteins. However, a crevice that may accommodate a small ligand is evident. The putative binding site contains only one invariant residue, Lys46, which carries a functional group that could play a role in catalysis, indicating that YbaK is probably not an enzyme. Detailed sequence analysis, including a number of newly sequenced microbial organisms, highlights sequence homology to an insertion domain in prolyl-tRNA synthetases (proRS) from prokaryote, a domain whose function is unknown. A HI1434-based model of the insertion domain shows that it should also contain the putative binding site. Being part of a tRNA synthetases, the insertion domain is likely to be involved in oligonucleotide binding, with possible roles in recognition/discrimination or editing of prolyl-tRNA. By analogy, YbaK may also play a role in nucleotide or oligonucleotide binding, the nature of which is yet to be determined.

  11. [Investigation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients nationwide with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation (2002-2003)--proportion of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2005-11-01

    The propotions of resistant strains and sensitivity to oral antibacterial agents were determined for 468 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 557 strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from pediatric outpatients with a respiratory tract infection at the first consultation at 20 medical institutions nationwide in the predefined 4-week period during November 2002 and June 2003. PRSP of the S. pneumoniae strains, accounted for 27%, and BLNAR accounted for 35% of the H. influenzae strains. Against the S. pneumoniae strains, faropenem showed the best MIC90 value, 0.5 microg/mL, of the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, followed by cefditoren-pivoxil, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, telithromycin showed the best MIC90 value, 0.12 microg/mL. Against the H. influenzae strains, cefditoren-pivoxil showed the best MIC90 value, 0.25 microg/mL, among the beta-lactam antibacterial agents, and among the macrolide and ketolide antibacterial agents, azithromycin showed the best activity, followed by telithromycin. It seems necessary to take these results into consideration when choosing drugs for treatment. It will be necessary to survey the trends in resistant strains and the clinical efficacy of various oral antibacterial agents in the future. PMID:16366360

  12. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  13. Roles of histidines 154 and 189 and aspartate 139 in the active site of serine acetyltransferase from Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rong; Roderick, Steven L; Huang, Bin; Cook, Paul F

    2008-06-17

    A crystal structure of serine acetyltransferase (SAT) with cysteine bound in the serine subsite of the active site shows that both H154 and H189 are within hydrogen-bonding distance to the cysteine thiol [Olsen, L. R., Huang, B., Vetting, M. W., and Roderick, S. L. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 6013 -6019]. In addition, H154 is in an apparent dyad linkage with D139. The structure suggests that H154 is the most likely catalytic general base and that H189 and D139 may also play important roles during the catalytic reaction. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to mutate each of these three residues to Asn, one at a time. The V1/Et value of all of the single mutant enzymes decreased, with the largest decrease (approximately 1240-fold) exhibited by the H154N mutant enzyme. Mutation of both histidines, H154N/H189N, gave a V1/Et approximately 23700-fold lower than that of the wild-type enzyme. An increase in K Ser was observed for the H189N, D139N, and H154N/H189N mutant enzymes, while the H154N mutant enzyme gave an 8-fold decrease in K Ser. For all three single mutant enzymes, V1/Et and V1/K Ser Et decrease at low pH and give a pKa of about 7, while the V1/Et of the double mutant enzyme was pH independent. The solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects on V 1 and V1/K Ser decreased compared to wild type for the H154N mutant enzyme and increased for the H189N mutant enzyme but was about the same as that of wild type for D139N and H154N/H189N. Data suggest that H154, H189, and D139 play different catalytic roles for SAT. H154 likely serves as a general base, accepting a proton from the beta-hydroxyl of serine as the tetrahedral intermediate is formed upon nucleophilic attack on the thioester carbonyl of acetyl-CoA. However, activity is not completely lost upon elimination of H154, and thus, H189 may be able to serve as a backup general base at a lower efficiency compared to H154; it also aids in binding and orienting the serine substrate. Aspartate 139, in dyad linkage with

  14. Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ≥ 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ≥2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n = 10,295; control, n = 10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p = 0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n = 10,211; control, n = 10,140) and AOM (n = 3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: −1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p = 0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM

  15. Influenza virus sequence feature variant type analysis: evidence of a role for NS1 in influenza virus host range restriction.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Jyothi M; Liu, Mengya; Squires, R Burke; Pickett, Brett E; Hale, Benjamin G; Air, Gillian M; Galloway, Summer E; Takimoto, Toru; Schmolke, Mirco; Hunt, Victoria; Klem, Edward; García-Sastre, Adolfo; McGee, Monnie; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2012-05-01

    Genetic drift of influenza virus genomic sequences occurs through the combined effects of sequence alterations introduced by a low-fidelity polymerase and the varying selective pressures experienced as the virus migrates through different host environments. While traditional phylogenetic analysis is useful in tracking the evolutionary heritage of these viruses, the specific genetic determinants that dictate important phenotypic characteristics are often difficult to discern within the complex genetic background arising through evolution. Here we describe a novel influenza virus sequence feature variant type (Flu-SFVT) approach, made available through the public Influenza Research Database resource (www.fludb.org), in which variant types (VTs) identified in defined influenza virus protein sequence features (SFs) are used for genotype-phenotype association studies. Since SFs have been defined for all influenza virus proteins based on known structural, functional, and immune epitope recognition properties, the Flu-SFVT approach allows the rapid identification of the molecular genetic determinants of important influenza virus characteristics and their connection to underlying biological functions. We demonstrate the use of the SFVT approach to obtain statistical evidence for effects of NS1 protein sequence variations in dictating influenza virus host range restriction.

  16. Glycolytic control of vacuolar-type ATPase activity: A mechanism to regulate influenza viral infection

    SciTech Connect

    Kohio, Hinissan P.; Adamson, Amy L.

    2013-09-15

    As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells.

  17. Chancroid and Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, S A

    1989-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is the causative agent of chancroid, one of the genital ulcerative diseases. H. ducreyi is the major cause of genital ulcer disease in Africa and Southeast Asia and is of increasing concern in the United States. Definitive diagnosis of chancroid requires the isolation and identification of H. ducreyi, but isolation of this organism is difficult and the available medium is not optimal for all strains. Fluorescent antibody and serologic tests are of limited value. In general, our knowledge of this organism is rather limited, and indeed, recent studies have questioned the placement of H. ducreyi in the genus Haemophilus. H. ducreyi has relatively few biochemical activities, and epidemiologic studies are limited because there are limited phenotypic markers available for strain typing. Specific virulence factors of H. ducreyi have yet to be identified. Antimicrobial resistance in H. ducreyi is of special concern, as this organism has acquired both gram-negative and gram-positive resistance determinants. In addition, some of these determinants can be mobilized and transferred to other Haemophilus species or to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Images PMID:2650859

  18. Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Orle, K A; Gates, C A; Martin, D H; Body, B A; Weiss, J B

    1996-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR assay were compared with the results of dark-field microscopy and H. ducreyi culture on two different culture media. HSV culture results were available for 99 specimens collected during the third interval. Confirmatory PCR assays targeting different gene sequences for each of the three organisms were used to validate the M-PCR results. Specimens were resolved as positive for the determination of sensitivity if the reference diagnostic test was positive or if the results of both the M-PCR and the confirmatory PCR were positive. The resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum were 100, 98.4, and 91%, respectively. The resolved sensitivities of HSV culture, H. ducreyi culture, and dark-field microscopy were 71.8, 74.2, and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the M-PCR assay is more sensitive than standard diagnostic tests for the detection of HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum from genital ulcers.

  19. Characterization of a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid from Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed Central

    Willson, P J; Albritton, W L; Slaney, L; Setlow, J K

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid pLS88 from a clinical isolate of Haemophilus ducreyi encoded resistance determinants for sulfonamides and streptomycin related to those of RSF1010 and for kanamycin related to Tn903 but lacked the inverted repeats of the transposon. Its host range included Haemophilus influenzae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and Escherichia coli; and it was compatible with pDM2 and RSF1010. Images PMID:2684012

  20. Studies on type C influenza virus in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Jennings, R; Freeman, M J

    1972-03-01

    The effect of varying conditions of inoculation and incubation on the growth of type C influenza virus in the allantoic cavity of the developing chick embryo were investigated. It was found that the highest yields of both virus haemagglutinin and infectious virus were obtained following the inoculation of chick embryos at 8 days with subsequent incubation at 32 degrees C. Using the chick embryo allantoic cavity for titration of infectious virus, growth curves of allantoically propagated virus under varying inoculation and incubation conditions were determined.

  1. Genetic diversity of the ftsI gene in β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant nasopharyngeal Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulmin; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Shin, Na-Young; Byun, Ji-Hyun; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jae-Wook; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Choi, Eu Yoon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Sohn, Woo Yun; Kang, Jin Han

    2013-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae frequently colonizes the nasopharynx of children and adults, which can lead to a variety of infections. We investigated H. influenzae carriage in the nasopharynx of 360 children, in terms of (1) the prevalence of strains with decreased susceptibility, and (2) the presence of amino acid substitutions in PBP3. One hundred twenty-three strains were isolated (34.2%, 123/360), 122 of which were classified as nontypable H. influenzae (NTHi). Of these, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible strains accounted for 26.2%, β-lactamase-producing-ampicillin-resistant strains for 9.0%, β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains for 40.2%, and β-lactamase-producing amoxicillin-/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) for 24.6%, respectively. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were so diverse that they were clustered into 41 groups. The amino acid substitutions in the transpeptidase domain (292 amino acids) of ftsI in BLNAR isolates showed that group IIb accounted for 30.6%, IIc for 8.2%, IId for 16.3%, III for 32.7%, and the others for 12.2%. Moreover, groups IIb (56.7%; 17/30) and III (23.3%; 7/30) were prevalent among BLPACR strains. They were subclassified into more diverse sequence subtypes by analysis of the entire PBP3 (610 amino acids). Groups IIb, IIc, IId, and III exhibited 13, four, six, and four sequence subtypes, respectively. Such a genetic diversity is likely indicative of significant potential for decreased antimicrobial susceptibility in nasopharyngeal-colonizing NTHi strains.

  2. Fnr-, NarP- and NarL-dependent regulation of transcription initiation from the Haemophilus influenzae Rd napF (periplasmic nitrate reductase) promoter in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Valley; Bledsoe, Peggy J

    2005-10-01

    Periplasmic nitrate reductase (napFDAGHBC operon product) functions in anaerobic respiration. Transcription initiation from the Escherichia coli napF operon control region is activated by the Fnr protein in response to anaerobiosis and by the NarQ-NarP two-component regulatory system in response to nitrate or nitrite. The binding sites for the Fnr and phospho-NarP proteins are centered at positions -64.5 and -44.5, respectively, with respect to the major transcription initiation point. The E. coli napF operon is a rare example of a class I Fnr-activated transcriptional control region, in which the Fnr protein binding site is located upstream of position -60. To broaden our understanding of napF operon transcriptional control, we studied the Haemophilus influenzae Rd napF operon control region, expressed as a napF-lacZ operon fusion in the surrogate host E. coli. Mutational analysis demonstrated that expression required binding sites for the Fnr and phospho-NarP proteins centered at positions -81.5 and -42.5, respectively. Transcription from the E. coli napF operon control region is activated by phospho-NarP but antagonized by the orthologous protein, phospho-NarL. By contrast, expression from the H. influenzae napF-lacZ operon fusion in E. coli was stimulated equally well by nitrate in both narP and narL null mutants, indicating that phospho-NarL and -NarP are equally effective regulators of this promoter. Overall, the H. influenzae napF operon control region provides a relatively simple model for studying synergistic transcription by the Fnr and phospho-NarP proteins acting from class I and class II locations, respectively.

  3. Impact of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnancy with Azithromycin-Containing Regimens on Maternal Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus: a Cross-Sectional Survey at Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Holger W.; Aho, Celestine; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Wangnapi, Regina A.; Umbers, Alexandra J.; Jack, Wanda; Lafana, Alice; Michael, Audrey; Hanieh, Sarah; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Greenhill, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus azithromycin (AZ) (SPAZ) has the potential for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp), but its use could increase circulation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with severe pediatric infections. We evaluated the effect of monthly SPAZ-IPTp compared to a single course of SP plus chloroquine (SPCQ) on maternal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus at delivery among 854 women participating in a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea. Serotyping was performed, and antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by disk diffusion and Etest. Potential risk factors for carriage were examined. Nasopharyngeal carriage at delivery of S. pneumoniae (SPAZ, 7.2% [30/418], versus SPCQ, 19.3% [84/436]; P < 0.001) and H. influenzae (2.9% [12/418] versus 6.0% [26/436], P = 0.028), but not S. aureus, was significantly reduced among women who had received SPAZ-IPTp. The number of macrolide-resistant pneumococcal isolates was small but increased in the SPAZ group (13.3% [4/30], versus SPCQ, 2.2% [2/91]; P = 0.033). The proportions of isolates with serotypes covered by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were similar (SPAZ, 10.3% [3/29], versus SPCQ, 17.6% [16/91]; P = 0.352). Although macrolide-resistant isolates were rare, they were more commonly detected in women who had received SPAZ-IPTp, despite the significant reduction of maternal carriage of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae observed in this group. Future studies on SPAZ-IPTp should evaluate carriage and persistence of macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae and other pathogenic bacteria in both mothers and infants and assess the clinical significance of their circulation. PMID:25673788

  4. Impact of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with azithromycin-containing regimens on maternal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus: a cross-sectional survey at delivery.

    PubMed

    Unger, Holger W; Aho, Celestine; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Wangnapi, Regina A; Umbers, Alexandra J; Jack, Wanda; Lafana, Alice; Michael, Audrey; Hanieh, Sarah; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Greenhill, Andrew R; Rogerson, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus azithromycin (AZ) (SPAZ) has the potential for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp), but its use could increase circulation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with severe pediatric infections. We evaluated the effect of monthly SPAZ-IPTp compared to a single course of SP plus chloroquine (SPCQ) on maternal nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus at delivery among 854 women participating in a randomized controlled trial in Papua New Guinea. Serotyping was performed, and antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated by disk diffusion and Etest. Potential risk factors for carriage were examined. Nasopharyngeal carriage at delivery of S. pneumoniae (SPAZ, 7.2% [30/418], versus SPCQ, 19.3% [84/436]; P<0.001) and H. influenzae (2.9% [12/418] versus 6.0% [26/436], P=0.028), but not S. aureus, was significantly reduced among women who had received SPAZ-IPTp. The number of macrolide-resistant pneumococcal isolates was small but increased in the SPAZ group (13.3% [4/30], versus SPCQ, 2.2% [2/91]; P=0.033). The proportions of isolates with serotypes covered by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine were similar (SPAZ, 10.3% [3/29], versus SPCQ, 17.6% [16/91]; P=0.352). Although macrolide-resistant isolates were rare, they were more commonly detected in women who had received SPAZ-IPTp, despite the significant reduction of maternal carriage of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae observed in this group. Future studies on SPAZ-IPTp should evaluate carriage and persistence of macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae and other pathogenic bacteria in both mothers and infants and assess the clinical significance of their circulation. PMID:25673788

  5. Influenza.

    PubMed

    Labella, Angelena M; Merel, Susan E

    2013-07-01

    Influenza is a common virus whose ability to change its genetic makeup allows for disease of pandemic proportion. This article summarizes the different strains of influenza circulating in the United States for the past century, the diagnosis and treatment of influenza, as well as the different ways to prevent disease. This information will be of value to clinicians caring for patients both in the hospital and in the community. PMID:23809717

  6. Integrated microfluidic device using a single universal aptamer to detect multiple types of influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hung; Chang, Chih-Peng; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-12-15

    DNA aptamers that can bind specific molecular targets have great potential as probes for microbial diagnostic applications. However, aptamers may change their conformation under different operating conditions, thus affecting their affinity and specificity towards the target molecules. In this study, a new integrated microfluidic system was developed that exploited the predictable change in conformation of a single universal influenza aptamer exposed to differing ion concentrations in order to detect multiple types of the influenza virus. Furthermore, the fluorescent-labeled universal aptamer used in this system could distinguish and detect three different influenza viruses (influenza A H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B) at the same time in 20min and therefore has great potential for point-of-care applications requiring rapid diagnosis of influenza viruses.

  7. Sickness Absenteeism Rate in Iranian Schools during the 2009 Epidemic of Type a Influenza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Shirvani, Mahbubeh Ebrahimnegad; Khashayar, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Influenza pandemic was a global event in 2009 and intraschool transmission was its main spread method. The present study was designed to evaluate the absenteeism rate during the type A influenza epidemic. Four hundred and eight students from both a guidance school and high school in the Iranian capital were recruited in this retrospective study.…

  8. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi

    2015-11-09

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (10(7) CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear.

  9. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (107 CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear. PMID:26553466

  10. [Postvaccinal immunity and immunological aspects of Haemophilus influenzae carrier state in children of different age groups after the administration of "Act-HIB" vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, S G; Bondarenko, V M; Demina, A A; Spirikhina, L V; Iastrebova, N E; Vaneeva, N P; Orlova, E V; Tamazian, G V; Zakharova, N I

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with H. influenzae (different serotypes) carrier state and immune response before and after the administration of the vaccine "Act-HIB" to children of different age groups. Children aged up to 1 year and over 1 year have been found to differ in the dynamics of carrier state and in the concentration of antibodies of different classes to the antigens of this infective agent, which makes it necessary to carry out their early immunization with a view to ensure their protection from H. influenzae infection.

  11. The international reference preparation of influenza virus haemagglutinin (type A).

    PubMed

    Krag, P; Bentzon, M W

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes the international collaborative assay that led to the establishment in 1967 of the International Reference Preparation of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (Type A) and the studies completed during the following years on the use of the preparation for evaluating the haemagglutinin content of 46 influenza virus vaccines in terms of international units. The WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (1967) defined the International Unit as 0,09361 mg of the International Reference Preparation.Altogether 14 laboratories in 12 countries took part in one or both studies, using a total of 24 methods (HA titrations and, in a few cases CCA titrations). Major differences in the HA titres were found between laboratories, while the potencies (the haemagglutinin content values) relative to the International Reference Preparation were free from most of these differences. Haemagglutination titres varied over a range factor up to 50, while the corresponding relative "potencies" varied with a factor of only 2. The CCA method used in a few laboratories gave results close to the lowest haemagglutination titres and showed relatively small variations between laboratories. The analyses of variance disclosed differences in the variation within laboratories, but for the majority of the laboratories the variation allowed an overall estimate of a standard error.The calculation of haemagglutinin content (in IU) from relative potencies is described. Advice is given on the selection, preparation, and titration of a local reference vaccine with a view to expressing its haemagglutinin content in international units.The test results with 46 local vaccines are also given. The deviations of the relative potencies from the average per vaccine showed a distribution with eight major discrepancies instead of the expected one. The background for these cases is discussed.

  12. Type- and subtype-specific detection of influenza viruses in clinical specimens by rapid culture assay.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, T; Hall, H; Sánchez-Fauquier, A; Gamble, W C; Cox, N J

    1995-02-01

    A rapid culture assay which allows for the simultaneous typing and subtyping of currently circulating influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and B viruses in clinical specimens was developed. Pools of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against influenza A and B viruses and MAbs HA1-71 and HA2-76, obtained by immunizing mice with the denatured hemagglutinin subfragments HA1 and HA2 of influenza virus A/Victoria/3/75, were used for immunoperoxidase staining of antigens in infected MDCK cells. MAb HA1-71 reacted exclusively with influenza A viruses of the H3 subtype, while MAb HA2-76 reacted with subtypes H1, H3, H4, H6, H8, H9, H10, H11, and H12, as determined with 78 human, 4 swine, and 10 avian influenza virus reference strains subtyped by the hemagglutination inhibition test. To determine if the technique can be used as a rapid diagnostic test, 263 known influenza virus-positive frozen nasal or throat swabs were inoculated into MDCK cells. After an overnight incubation, the cells were fixed and viral antigens were detected by immunoperoxidase staining. Influenza A viruses of the H1 and H3 subtypes were detected in 31 and 113 specimens, respectively. The subtypes of 10 influenza A virus-positive specimens could not be determined because they contained too little virus. Influenza B viruses were detected in 84 specimens, and 25 specimens were negative. We conclude that this assay is a rapid, convenient, non-labor-intensive, and relatively inexpensive test for detecting, typing, and subtyping influenza viruses in clinical specimens. PMID:7714186

  13. [Resistance of Haemophilus sp. to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Janicka, G; Gospodarek, E; Mikucka, A; Białek, M; Wojak, I; Krawiecka, D

    1998-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the in vitro drug resistance of Haemophilus influenzae (68 isolates) and H. parainfluenzae (17 isolates). The tests susceptibility to Ampicillin, Amoxicilin/Clavulanic Acid, Cefaclor, Cefuroxime, Cotrimoxazole, Aztreonam, Ceftriaxone, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Rifampicin and Chloramphenicol were performed with a standard disk-diffusion method. The NCCLS methodology and susceptibility interpretative criteria were applied as described by the disk manufacturer. Beta-lactamase production was detected with nitrocefin impregnated disk (Cefinase, BBL Microbiology System). Resistance in nosocomially acquired Haemophilus isolates to several antibiotics was observed. Of the Haemophilus isolates 28.2% were Ampicillin in resistant, all were susceptible to the combination of Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid. The Ampicillin-resistant strains were beta-lactamase producers. We observed the high resistance (70.1%) to Tetracycline and (28.2%) to SXT (Cotrimoxazole). All isolates of Haemophilus were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin. The low resistance percentages to Rifampin (1.2%), Aztreonam (3.5%) and Chloramphenicol (3.5%) was observed.

  14. Classification of a Haemophilus influenzae ABC Transporter HI1470/71 through Its Cognate Molybdate Periplasmic Binding Protein, MolA

    SciTech Connect

    Tirado-Lee, Leidamarie; Lee, Allen; Rees, Douglas C.; Pinkett, Heather W.

    2014-10-02

    molA (HI1472) from H. influenzae encodes a periplasmic binding protein (PBP) that delivers substrate to the ABC transporter MolB{sub 2}C{sub 2} (formerly HI1470/71). The structures of MolA with molybdate and tungstate in the binding pocket were solved to 1.6 and 1.7 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. The MolA-binding protein binds molybdate and tungstate, but not other oxyanions such as sulfate and phosphate, making it the first class III molybdate-binding protein structurally solved. The {approx}100 {mu}M binding affinity for tungstate and molybdate is significantly lower than observed for the class II ModA molybdate-binding proteins that have nanomolar to low micromolar affinity for molybdate. The presence of two molybdate loci in H. influenzae suggests multiple transport systems for one substrate, with molABC constituting a low-affinity molybdate locus.

  15. Identification and Comparative Analysis of Genes Encoding Outer Membrane Proteins P2 and P5 in Haemophilus parsuis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Haemophilus parasuis is a serious swine pathogen but little is known about how it causes disease. A related human pathogen, Haemophilus influenzae, has been better studied and many of its virulence factors have been identified. Two of these, outer membrane proteins P2 and P5, have been shown to ha...

  16. Fluorescent immunochromatography for rapid and sensitive typing of seasonal influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akira; Takayama, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Namiko; Kajiwara, Naoki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tamura, Tsuruki; Yamada, Jitsuho; Hashimoto, Masako; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Suda, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Yukuharu; Kida, Hiroshi; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow tests also known as Immunochromatography (IC) is an antigen-detection method conducted on a nitrocellulose membrane that can be completed in less than 20 min. IC has been used as an important rapid test for clinical diagnosis and surveillance of influenza viruses, but the IC sensitivity is relatively low (approximately 60%) and the limit of detection (LOD) is as low as 10³ pfu per reaction. Recently, we reported an improved IC assay using antibodies conjugated with fluorescent beads (fluorescent immunochromatography; FLIC) for subtyping H5 influenza viruses (FLIC-H5). Although the FLIC strip must be scanned using a fluorescent reader, the sensitivity (LOD) is significantly improved over that of conventional IC methods. In addition, the antibodies which are specific against the subtypes of influenza viruses cannot be available for the detection of other subtypes when the major antigenicity will be changed. In this study, we established the use of FLIC to type seasonal influenza A and B viruses (FLIC-AB). This method has improved sensitivity to 100-fold higher than that of conventional IC methods when we used several strains of influenza viruses. In addition, FLIC-AB demonstrated the ability to detect influenza type A and influenza type B viruses from clinical samples with high sensitivity and specificity (Type A: sensitivity 98.7% (74/75), specificity 100% (54/54), Type B: sensitivity 100% (90/90), specificity 98.2% (54/55) in nasal swab samples) in comparison to the results of qRT-PCR. And furthermore, FLIC-AB performs better in the detection of early stage infection (under 13 h) than other conventional IC methods. Our results provide new strategies to prevent the early-stage transmission of influenza viruses in humans during both seasonal outbreaks and pandemics.

  17. Fluorescent Immunochromatography for Rapid and Sensitive Typing of Seasonal Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Akira; Takayama, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Namiko; Kajiwara, Naoki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tamura, Tsuruki; Yamada, Jitsuho; Hashimoto, Masako; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Suda, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Yukuharu; Kida, Hiroshi; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow tests also known as Immunochromatography (IC) is an antigen-detection method conducted on a nitrocellulose membrane that can be completed in less than 20 min. IC has been used as an important rapid test for clinical diagnosis and surveillance of influenza viruses, but the IC sensitivity is relatively low (approximately 60%) and the limit of detection (LOD) is as low as 10³ pfu per reaction. Recently, we reported an improved IC assay using antibodies conjugated with fluorescent beads (fluorescent immunochromatography; FLIC) for subtyping H5 influenza viruses (FLIC-H5). Although the FLIC strip must be scanned using a fluorescent reader, the sensitivity (LOD) is significantly improved over that of conventional IC methods. In addition, the antibodies which are specific against the subtypes of influenza viruses cannot be available for the detection of other subtypes when the major antigenicity will be changed. In this study, we established the use of FLIC to type seasonal influenza A and B viruses (FLIC-AB). This method has improved sensitivity to 100-fold higher than that of conventional IC methods when we used several strains of influenza viruses. In addition, FLIC-AB demonstrated the ability to detect influenza type A and influenza type B viruses from clinical samples with high sensitivity and specificity (Type A: sensitivity 98.7% (74/75), specificity 100% (54/54), Type B: sensitivity 100% (90/90), specificity 98.2% (54/55) in nasal swab samples) in comparison to the results of qRT-PCR. And furthermore, FLIC-AB performs better in the detection of early stage infection (under 13h) than other conventional IC methods. Our results provide new strategies to prevent the early-stage transmission of influenza viruses in humans during both seasonal outbreaks and pandemics. PMID:25650570

  18. High Pulmonary Levels of IL-6 and IL-1β in Children with Chronic Suppurative Lung Disease Are Associated with Low Systemic IFN-γ Production in Response to Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Pizzutto, Susan J.; Upham, John W.; Yerkovich, Stephanie T.; Chang, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is commonly associated with chronic suppurative lung disease in children. We have previously shown that children with chronic suppurative lung disease have a reduced capacity to produce IFN-γ in response to NTHi compared with healthy control children. The aim of this study was to determine if deficient NTHi-specific IFN-γ production is associated with heightened systemic or airway inflammation. We measured a panel of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 p70), antimicrobial proteins (LL-37, IP-10) as well as cellular and clinical factors associated with airway and systemic inflammation in 70 children with chronic suppurative lung disease. IFN-γ was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells challenged in vitro with live NTHi. Regression analysis was used to assess the association between the systemic and airway inflammation and the capacity to produce IFN-γ. On multivariate regression, NTHi-specific IFN-γ production was significantly negatively associated with the BAL concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (β=-0.316; 95%CI -0.49, -0.14; p=0.001) and IL-1β (β=-0.023; 95%CI -0.04, -0.01; p=0.001). This association was independent of bacterial or viral infection, BAL cellularity and the severity of bronchiectasis (using modified Bhalla score on chest CT scans). We found limited evidence of systemic inflammation in children with chronic supp