Sample records for haiged mandlid minema

  1. Douglas Haig and the Battle of the Somme

    DTIC Science & Technology


    remarkable pictures says one of his biographies. His mother died when he was eighteen. He spent four years at Clifton College, visited America with an...for us. From all I could dis - cover even then, he seemed to be the most highly equipped thinker in the British Army. 1 2 10 At the time, this was the...that Haig’s plan was a strategic success. If we evaluate the Battle of the Sommae against the written objectives that Haig established then it should

  2. Assessment of physical approximations on simulating past and future dynamics of Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rockies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S.; Marshall, S. J.


    Over the past several decades, a number of numerical models with various degrees of complexity have been developed and applied to simulate the dynamics of valley glaciers. The Stokes model, which solves a complete set of elliptical diagnostic and hyperbolic prognostic equations, describes the most sophisticated treatment of glacier dynamics. In a three-dimensional Euclidean space, this full-system model simulates the ice flow according to a balance between the gravitational driving stress, τd, the basal drag, τb, the resistance due to longitudinal stress gradients, τlon, and the lateral drag, τlat. Other models deal with reduced physics; such as the plane-strain Stokes approximation (where τd is balanced by τb and τlon) and shear-deformational flow (where τd is solely balanced by τb). Considering each of the Stokes and reduced models, we reconstruct the past and project the future dynamics of Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rockies in order to analyze whether low-order models are good enough for such simulations. Furthermore, we assess how effectively the Stokes solutions can be achieved via low-order models with available ad-hoc parameterizations, e.g. the L-factor (Adhikari and Marshall, in press) and the cross-sectional valley shape factor (Nye, 1965).

  3. Surface energy balance sensitivity to meteorological variability on Haig Glacier, Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Samaneh; Marshall, Shawn J.


    Energy exchanges between the atmosphere and the glacier surface control the net energy available for snow and ice melt. This paper explores the response of a midlatitude glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains to daily and interannual variations in the meteorological parameters that govern the surface energy balance. We use an energy balance model to run sensitivity tests to perturbations in temperature, specific humidity, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation, glacier surface albedo, and winter snowpack depth. Variables are perturbed (i) in isolation, (ii) including internal feedbacks, and (iii) with co-evolution of meteorological perturbations, derived from the North American regional climate reanalysis (NARR) over the period 1979-2014. Summer melt at this site has the strongest sensitivity to interannual variations in temperature, albedo, and specific humidity, while fluctuations in cloud cover, wind speed, and winter snowpack depth have less influence. Feedbacks to temperature forcing, in particular summer albedo evolution, double the melt sensitivity to a temperature change. When meteorological perturbations covary through the NARR forcing, summer temperature anomalies remain important in driving interannual summer energy balance and melt variability, but they are reduced in importance relative to an isolated temperature forcing. Covariation of other variables (e.g., clear skies, giving reduced incoming longwave radiation) may be partially compensating for the increase in temperature. The methods introduced in this paper provide a framework that can be extended to compare the sensitivity of glaciers in different climate regimes, e.g., polar, maritime, or tropical environments, and to assess the importance of different meteorological parameters in different regions.

  4. Apostles of Attrition: Sir Douglas Haig, Sir Authur Harris, and Generalship in the Strategy That Dare Not Speak Its Name

    DTIC Science & Technology


    about attrition from a theoretical perspective, but difficulties in translation and interpretation pose multiple challenges for English speakers. For...Hoffmann: Ludendorff: “The English soldiers fight like lions.” Hoffmann: “True. But don’t we know that they are lions led by donkeys...motion serves as a simple, but powerful, metaphor for the paradox between uncertainty and command.40 In contrast to Clausewitz, who sought the

  5. General Haig’s Dental Surgeon from Paris : Sir Auguste Charles Valadier, a Pioneer in Maxillo-Facial Surgery.

    DTIC Science & Technology


    vaccines for the treatment of periodontal disease . Valadier mentions Brown in a paper he published in 1918. 13 When Valadier applied for a commission in the...a course in orthodontics at the Royal Medical College (under the auspices of the Royal ". I .. ,’ . ’. . . Army Dental Corps) in the spring of 1981, I...closure of facial lacerations and serial orthodontic movement In cases involving severe fractures. In 1918, Bainbridge described Valadier’s treatment after

  6. Efficient neutralizing activity of cocktailed recombinant human antibodies against hepatitis A virus infection in vitro and in vivo.


    Cao, Jingyuan; Meng, Shufang; Li, Chuan; Ji, Yan; Meng, Qingling; Zhang, Quanfu; Liu, Feng; Li, Jiandong; Bi, Shengli; Li, Dexin; Liang, Mifang


    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the major pathogen responsible for acute infectious hepatitis A, a disease that is prevalent worldwide. Although HAV immunization effectively prevents infection, primary immunizations must be administered at least 2 weeks prior to HAV exposure. In contrast, passive immunization with pooled human immunoglobulin (Ig) can provide immediate and rapid protection from HAV infection. Because the use of human sera-derived Igs carries the risk of contamination, we sought to develop recombinant HAV-neutralizing human antibodies. We prepared a combinatorial phage display library of recombinant human anti-HAV antibodies from RNA extracted from the blood lymphocytes of a convalescent hepatitis A patient. Two recombinant human IgG antibodies, HAIgG16 and HAIgG78, were screened from the antibody library by their ability to bind with high affinity to purified, inactivated HAV virions. These antibodies recognized different epitopes of the HAV virion capsid, and competed with both patient sera and well-characterized neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibodies. A cocktailed mixture of HAIgG16 and HAIgG78 at a 3:1 ratio was prepared to compare its combined biological activity with that conferred by each antibody individually. The cocktailed antibodies displayed a stronger neutralizing activity in vitro than that observed with either HAIgG16 and HAIgG78 alone. To determine the in vivo neutralizing abilities of these antibodies, rhesus monkeys were inoculated with cocktailed antibodies and challenged with HAV. Whereas control animals developed hepatitis A and seroconverted to the HAV antibody, animals receiving cocktailed antibodies were protected either from viral infection or from developing clinical hepatitis. These results demonstrate that recombinant human antibody preparations could be used to prevent or treat early-stage HAV infection.

  7. Physiological responses in potato plants under continuous irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.


    The physiological responses of four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars to continuous irradiation were determined in a controlled environment. Under a constant 18C and a constant photoperiod of 470 micromoles s-1 m-2 of photosynthetic photon flux, 'Denali' and 'Haig' grew well and produced large plant and tuber dry weights when harvested 56 days after transplanting. 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' were severely stunted, producing only 10% of the plant dry matter produced by 'Denali' and 'Haig'. The differences in leaf chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance were not consistent between these two groups of cultivars. The leaf net CO2 assimilation rates in 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' were lower, and intercellular CO2 partial pressures were higher than in 'Denali' and 'Haig'. These results indicate that inhibition of net CO2 assimilation in 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' was not due to a limiting amount of chlorophyll or to CO2 in the leaf tissues. Concentrations of starch in leaflets of 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' plants were only 10% of those in 'Denali' and 'Haig' plants, although soluble sugar concentrations were similar in the four cultivars. Therefore, the lower net CO2 assimilation rates in stunted 'Kennebec' and 'Superior' plants were not associated with an excess carbohydrate accumulation in the leaves.

  8. Scientific Symbiosis Represents the Mutual Benefit of Iteratively Adopting the Perspective of Realism and Instrumentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacioppo, John T.; Berntson, Gary G.; Semin, Gu R.


    This article presents comments on "Psychology Needs Realism not Instrumentalism" by B. Haig, "Ontological and Epistemic Claims of Realism and Instrumentalism" by Lau and "The Scientific Denial of the Real and the Dialectic of Scientism and Humanism" by Ramey and Chrysikou which were all comments on the original article "Realism, Instrumentalism,…

  9. Utilization of potatoes for life support in space. V. Evaluation of cultivars in response to continuous light and high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Cao, W.; Bennett, S. M.


    Twenty-four potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars from different regions of the world were evaluated in terms of their responses to continuous light (24 h photoperiod) and to high temperature (30 C) in two separate experiments under controlled environments. In each experiment, a first evaluation of the cultivars was made at day 35 after transplanting, at which time 12 cultivars exhibiting best growth and tuber initiation were selected. A final evaluation of the 12 cultivars was made after an additional 21 days of growth, at which time plant height, total dry weight, tuber dry weight, and tuber number were determined. In the continuous light evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alaska 114, Atlantic, Bintje, Denali, Desiree, Haig, New York 81, Ottar, Rutt, Snogg, Snowchip, and Troll. In the high temperature evaluation, the 12 selected cultivars were Alpha, Atlantic, Bake King, Denali, Desiree, Haig, Kennebec, Norland, Russet Burbank, Rutt, Superior, and Troll. Among the cultivars selected under continuous irradiation, Desiree, Ottar, Haig, Rutt, Denali and Alaska showed the best potential for high productivity whereas New York 81 and Bintje showed the least production capability. Among the cultivars selected under high temperature, Rutt, Haig, Troll and Bake King had best performance whereas Atlantic, Alpha, Kennebec and Russet Burbank exhibited the least production potential. Thus, Haig and Rutt were the two cultivars that performed well under continuous irradiation and high temperature conditions, and could have maximum potential for adaptation to varying stress environments. These two cultivars may have the best potential for use in future space farming in which continuous light and/or high temperature conditions may exist. However, cultivar responses under combined conditions of continuous light and high temperature remains for further validation.

  10. Atmospheric deposition of sulfur and inorganic nitrogen in the Southern Canadian Rocky Mountains from seasonal snowpacks and bulk summer precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuta, Vivian; Lafrenière, Melissa J.; Norman, Ann-Lise


    This study quantified atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) in the alpine of the Southern Canadian Rocky Mountains and evaluated loads relative to critical limits for ecologic effects on alpine ecosystems from N saturation and acidification. Deposition was evaluated by collecting seasonal snowpack and summer bulk precipitation samples along elevational transects in the alpine Haig Valley and given regional context using snowpack samples from six additional glacier sites. S and N deposition were evaluated in terms of two conceptual models. Model 1 representing deposition from emissions that are mainly distant and Model 2 representing deposition from a mixture of distant and local to regional emissions. Annual S and N (including ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-)) deposition in the alpine Haig Valley was 0.74 ± 0.18 kg S ha-1 and 1.10 ± 0.18 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which is sufficiently high for the occurrence of detrimental ecologic effects related to N saturation in the most sensitive alpine ecosystems, but lower than the critical limit for acidification. Snowpack S and N deposition was consistent with well mixed air mainly from distant sources (Model 1), therefore indicating S and N were largely transported within the precipitating air mass and or picked up by the air mass in transit to the alpine Haig Valley. Relatively consistent deposition of S and N in seasonal glacier snowpacks at sites extending 210 km along the Continental Divide and 100 km west of the divide supports the interpretation that Model 1 describes deposition in alpine glacier snowpack. Similar deposition values for the highest site in the Haig Valley and the mean from the regional snowpack study indicate the highest site in the Haig Valley represents regional conditions of S and N deposition. Summer deposition of sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+) was also consistent with dominantly distant emission sources (Model 1). In contrast there was enhanced transport and

  11. Thermomagnetic analysis of meterorites. 4: Ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, M. W.; Herndon, J. M.; Larson, E. E.; Watson, D. E.


    Samples of all available ureilites have been analyzed thermomagnetically. For three of the six (Dyalpur, Goalpara and Havero) evidence was found for only low-nickel metallic-iron as the magnetic component and the (saturation magnetization vs, temperature) curves were reversible. In the Novo Urei ureilite, magnetite in addition to low-nickel metallic-iron was indicated and again the Js-T curve was reversible. For the two badly weathered ureilites, Dingo Pup Donga and North Haig, indication was also found that both initial magnetite and low-nickel metallic-iron were present. However, the Js-T curves were somewhat irreversible and the final saturation magnetization was 20% and 50% greater than initially for North Haig and Dingo Pup Donga, respectively. This behavior is interpreted to be the result of magnetite production from a secondary iron oxide during the experiment.

  12. National Security Reform 2010: A Mid-Term Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Administration’s Ballistic Mis- sile Defense Program: Treading Water in Shark -Infested Seas,” Heritage Foundation Backgrounder No. 2396, April 8, 2010, from Obama-Administrations-Ballistic-Missile-Defense-Program-Treading- Water-in- Shark ...and the White House provided happy hunt - ing grounds for the media. This dysfunctional system claimed Haig 18 months later amid the storms of the

  13. Officer Professional Development for Service in Multinational Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Desert I and the invasion of Grenada stimulated an ever-increasing demand for greater jointness in U.S. service operations and education. He also...Jonathan M. Soffer, General Matthew B. Ridgway: From Progressivism to Reaganism , 1895–1993 (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998), 14. 18 process. Ridgway...State, George C. Marshall and Colin Powell were the others.108 Haig, who repeatedly had difficulty with various members of the Reagan administration

  14. Cannon Fodder or Corps D’Elite? The American Expeditionary Force in the Great War

    DTIC Science & Technology


    professional opinions of several other senior officers including the Director of Military Operations, Sir Henry Wilson.5 The commitment of the BEF to France. This is the view alike of our Commander-in-Chief in France and the Chief of the Imperial General Staff ( Sir Douglas Haig and Sir W...Prior and Trevor Wilson, Command on the Western Front: The Military Career of Sir Henry Rawlinson 1914-1918 (London: Pen and Sword Military Classics

  15. Advances in Modelling of Valley Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Surendra

    For glaciological conditions typical of valley glaciers, the central idea of this research lies in understanding the effects of high-order mechanics and parameterizing these for simpler dynamical and statistical methods in glaciology. As an effective tool for this, I formulate a new brand of dynamical models that describes distinct physical processes of deformational flow. Through numerical simulations of idealized glacier domains, I calculate empirical correction factors to capture the effects of longitudinal stress gradients and lateral drag for simplified dynamical models in the plane-strain regime. To get some insights into real glacier dynamics, I simulate Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. As geometric effects overshadow dynamical effects in glacier retreat scenarios, it appears that high-order physics are not very important for Haig Glacier, particularly for evaluating its fate. Indeed, high-order and reduced models all predict that Haig Glacier ceases to exist by about AD2080 under ongoing climate warming. This finding regarding the minimal role of high-order physics may not be broadly valid, as it is not true in advance scenarios at Haig Glacier and it may not be representative of other glaciological settings. Through a 'bulk' parameterization of high-order physics, geometric and climatic settings, sliding conditions, and transient effects, I also provide new insights into the volume-area relation, a widely used statistical method for estimating glacier volume. I find a steady-state power-law exponent of 1:46, which declines systematically to 1:38 after 100 years of sustained retreat, in good accord with the observations. I recommend more accurate scaling relations through characterization of individual glacier morphology and degree of climatic disequilibrium. This motivates a revision of global glacier volume estimates, of some urgency in sea level rise assessments.

  16. The Effect of Simulated Altitude on the Visual Fields of Glaucoma Patients and the Elderly

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Christopher Fry, O.D., Michael J. Hampton, O.D., Donald Ledbetter, O.D., Max D. Venard, O.D., and Sterling S . Baker, M.D., who provided test...certification policy does not appear to put pilots or passengers with glaucoma at risk for disease progression. Under short-term exposure to mild hypoxia, we...1971; 10:323-28. 7. Hecht S , Hendley CD, Frank SR, Haig C. Anoxia and brightness discrimination. J Gen Physiol 1946; 29:335-51. 8. Kohfeld DL. An

  17. Fluorescent accessory phases in the carbonaceous matrix of ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkley, J. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Healey, J. T.


    The carbonaceous matrix of ureilite meteorites (C-bearing olivine-pigeonite achondrites) contain abundant minute phases that emit a multicolored fluorescence under electron bombardment. These include NaCl and KCl, found in all seven ureilites studied, high-Si glass with pyroxene and chlorapatite quench crystals in North Haig, an unidentified high-Ca-Al-Cl phase in Novo Urei, and possibly free SiO2 in Novo Urei and Dingo Pup Donga. The origin of these phases is uncertain but some, especially chlorides and glass, may represent residual postcumulus materials precipitated from a late-stage interstitial liquid during the igneous phase of ureilite history.

  18. Two Historians in Technology and War

    DTIC Science & Technology


    0; THIS PAC- 0 ABSTRACT ST-jiI Unclassified Unclassified UL (~I TWO HISTOR!ANS IN TECHNOLOGY AND WAR Accesion For Sir Michael Howard NTIS CRA& M D1IC...victory was attrition and whose commanders were military 3 Am m m .Omm u m m m m m nm n .i managers like Ulysses S. Grant and Douglas Haig rather than the...awny the rliosOt irmpoitnot wasn- iritri,•ii , tf- m r 1 P preeminent structural material for high performance aircraft from the mid-1930s. 10 Rubber, the

  19. U.S. Army Training in the Tactical Employment of Chemical Weapons: A flaw in Our Chemical Deterrence?

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Ibid., p. 236. 9 Haig, p. 6. 10 Ibid., p. 15. 11 Ibid., pp. 22-23. 12 Jill Smolove , "Return Of The Silent Killer", Tjj=, 22 August 1988, p. 46. 13...11-17. 5. Smolove , 11M ’p. 47. 6. William H. Webster, "Libya Building Chemical weapons Plant", The Kansas City Times, 26 October, 1988, p. A-3. 7...December 1986, pp. 41-42. Siebert, Major. ’"Chemical Weapons-Dull Swords In US Armory". Military Review March 1985. pp. 23-29. Smolove , Jill. "Return

  20. History of the AFRL/USC DARPA Program on Polynitrogen Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Ed. 2003, 42, 5847) and highlighted in Chem. & Eng. News. • As(N3)3 and Sb(N3)3 were published in Chemistry – A European Journal ” (Chem. Eur. J. 2004... Chemistry – A European Journal , 9, 2840 (2003), W. W. Wilson, A. Vij, V. Vij, E. Bernhardt, and K. O. Christe. • “Synthesis and Characterization of...First Structural Characterization of Binary As(III) and Sb(III) Azides,” Chemistry – A European Journal , 10, 508 (2004), R. Haiges, A. Vij, J. A

  1. Identification of a Common R-Chondrite Impactor on the Ureilite Parent Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downes, H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.


    Polymict ureilites are brecciated ultramafic meteorites that contain a variety of single mineral and lithic clasts. They represent the surface debris from a small, differentiated asteroid. We are continuing a detailed petrological study of several polymict ureilites including EET 87720, EET 83309 and FRO93008 (from Antarctica), North Haig, Nilpena (Australia), DaG 976, DaG 999, DaG 1000 and DaG 1023 (Libya). The latter four stones are probably paired. Clast sizes can be 10 mm in diameter, so a thin-section can consist of a single lithic clast.

  2. Genetic Applications in Avian Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian


    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  3. Co/Ni ratios at taenite/kamacite interfaces and relative cooling rates in iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Hoppe, Peter


    We report a pilot study of a new technique to use the distribution of Co between kamacite and taenite to infer relative cooling rates of iron meteorites; data of Widge and Goldstein (1977) showed that the distribution is temperature dependent. A plot of the logarithm of the double ratio [(Co/Ni)kamacite/(Co/Ni)taenite] (abbreviated Rαγ) against inverse temperature yields a linear equation showing that the ratio ranges from ˜2.5 at 1080 K to ˜30 at 710 K. Thus, a measurement of Rαγ in the kamacite and taenite near the interface offers information about relative cooling rates; the higher Rαγ, the lower the cooling rate. A major advantage of this technique is that it is mainly affected by the final (low-temperature) cooling rate, just before the sample cooled to the blocking temperature where diffusion became insignificant. To test this method we used the NanoSIMS ion probe to measure Rαγ in two IVA and two IIIAB irons; members of each pair differ by large factors in elemental composition and in published metallographic cooling rates (Yang and Goldstein, 2006; Yang et al., 2008). Despite differing by a factor of 25 in estimated metallographic cooling rate, the two IVA irons showed similar Rαγ values of ˜22. If experimental uncertainties are considered this implies that, at low temperatures, their cooling rates differ by less than a factor of 5 with 95% confidence, i.e., significantly less than the range in metallographic cooling rates. In contrast, the IIIAB irons have different ratios; Rαγ in Haig is 29 whereas that in Cumpas, with a reported cooling rate 4.5 times lower, is 22, the opposite of that expected from the published cooling rates. A reevaluation of the Yang-Goldstein IIIAB data set shows that Haig has anomalous metallographic properties. We suggest that both the high Rαγ in Haig and the systematically low taenite central Ni contents are the result of impact-produced fractures in the taenite that allowed equilibration with kamacite down to

  4. Precision of a needle localization technic in the lumbosacral multifidus muscles for segmental specific needle electromyographic study: a cadaveric study.


    Chinsethagij, Kosum; Wongphaet, Parit; Su-archawaratana, Siripim; Dangprasert, Tanyarat


    The authors studied 14 cadavers to evaluate the claimed precision of needle placement into segment specific multifidus fascicles when using the "paraspinal mapping" electromyographic technic. Injection of acrylic dye was made according to landmarks proposed by Haig. The dissection showed 86.6 per cent of the injected dye in the correct fascicles. Only 1.4 per cent of the dye was lost. Spinous process level misidentification was the cause of the other 11.8 per cent incorrect injection. The authors expected that in living humans, in which the spinous processes are move identificable than embalmed cadavers, the precisions may be as high as 98.5 per cent. This remains to be studied in a further "in vivo" study.

  5. Nature of the carbon and sulfur phases and inorganic gases in the Kenna ureilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.


    Abundances of carbon and sulfur in the Kenna ureilite are 2.219 plus or minus 0.060 wt. % C and 0.179 plus or minus 0.008 wt. % S. Secondary carbonates resulting from terrestrial weathering account for 0.25 plus or minus 0.02 wt. % C. No hydrocarbons were detected during gas release measurements. Most of the carbon is in graphite, diamond, or lonsdaleite. The sample of Kenna contained 0.95 plus or minus 0.05 wt.% H2O. Total carbon and sulfur measurements were made on three additional ureilites: Havero, Dingo Pup Donga, and North Haig. Ureilite carbon abundances are similar to those of C-2 chondrites, whereas sulfur abundances are a factor of 10 less than C-2 chondrites and ordinary chondrites. The elemental abundances, ratios, and phases present in the ureilites rule out a direct genetic relationship between the ureilites and the carbonaceous chondrites.

  6. Aluminum-26 in meteorites. VII - Ureilites, their unique radiation history.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkening, L. L.; Herman, G. F.; Anders, E.


    Cosmogenic Al-26 activities have been measured by gamma-gamma coincidence counting in the three ureilites which had not previously been studied. The values in dpm/kg are: Dingo Pup Donga, 38.4 plus or minus 2.4; North Haig, 39.3 plus or minus 4.8; Dyalpur, 55.8 plus or minus 4.8. Five of the six known ureilites thus have lower Al-26 contents, 63 per cent to 77 per cent, than the calculated saturation values, in marked contrast to most other stony meteorites. This cannot be attributed to short cosmic ray exposure ages. The most likely explanation is that the ureilites had much smaller or much larger orbits than all other stony meteorites.

  7. Background continental atmospheric deposition from a remote alpine site in the Canadian Southern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuta, V. L.; Norman, A. L.; Lafreniere, M. J.; Hastings, M. G.


    Precipitation from the remote alpine Haig Valley in the Canadian Southern Rocky Mountains provides a useful baseline for background atmospheric sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition. Major controls on deposition were evaluated using seasonal glacier snowpack, reflecting atmospheric deposition from Sept. 2008 to April 2009, and Sept. 2009 to May 2010, along with June 28-August 22 2010, bulk summer precipitation. A narrow range in δ34S-SO42- values in bulk summer precipitation (6.1-8.7‰, n=12) with uniform S loads, at varied elevations, across the Haig Valley indicate atmospheric sulphate (SO42-) was well-mixed prior to deposition and dominantly from long range transport. Uniform ammonium (NH4+) loads also indicated well mixed dominantly distant sources for this N aerosol. Snowpack loads varied closely with snow water equivalent, which was orographically controlled. Deposition patterns for nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) along with δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- from summer bulk precipitation (with elevation in the SE facing Haig Valley and opposing NNW facing Robertson Valley), showed δ18O-NO3- values and [NO2-] to be effective tracers of regional (within 24 hours of atmospheric transport) NOx combustion emissions. Distant emissions (> 1 day transport), with high δ18O-NO3 values consistent with NOx oxidation dominantly by ozone, were associated with relatively high δ15N-NO3- values. In contrast, lower δ18O-NO3- values that reflect a higher proportion of NOx oxidation by atmospheric H2O and O2 and are consistent with an increased proportion of regional combustion emissions, were accompanied by lower δ15N-NO3- values. Combined analytical results from snowpack and summer precipitation showed a negative covariance of δ18O-NO3- values with [NO3-]. Summer precipitation formed the high [NO3-], low δ18O-NO3- segment of a trend with snowpack at the other end with low concentrations and high δ18O-NO3-values. [NO2-] and δ18O-NO3-values also negatively covaried

  8. Deposition of Sulphate and Nitrogen in Alpine Precipitation of the Southern Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuta, V. L.; Lafreniere, M. J.


    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) are the main contributors to acid precipitation which causes regionally persistent ecological problems. Enhanced deposition of reactive N, mainly as nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+), also contributes to major ecological problems associated with ecosystem N saturation. Alpine ecosystems, which are generally nutrient poor and exist under extreme climatic conditions, are sensitive to environmental and climatic stressors. Studies in the USA Rocky Mountains and European Alps have shown alpine ecosystems have a particularly sensitivity to enhanced deposition of reactive N and can show ecologically destructive responses at relatively low levels of N deposition. However, evaluation of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen deposition in mid latitude alpine Western Canada has been initiated only very recently and at only a few locations. There is little comprehension of current atmospheric flux to high altitudes or the importance of contributions from major emission sources This work quantifies the atmospheric deposition of SO42- NH4+ and NO3- to a remote alpine site in the Southern Canadian Rocky Mountains by characterizing alpine precipitation. The effect of elevation and aspect on deposition are assessed using sampling sites along elevational transects in the adjacent Haig and Robertson Valleys. Seasonal variations in deposition of SO42- NH4+ and NO3- are evaluated using the autumn, winter, and spring precipitation accumulated in the seasonal snowpack at glacial and fore glacial locations, along with collected bulk summer precipitation. Preliminary results show lower precipitation volumes, which are associated with higher SO42- and NH4+ loads, in the north west facing Robertson Valley than the south east facing Haig Glacier. However trends in deposition of SO42- NH4+ and NO3- with elevation and aspect are inconsistent over the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 snow accumulation seasons, and 2010 bulk summer precipitation seasons that were

  9. Temperature cycling periods affect growth and tuberization in potatoes under continuous irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.


    Plants of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Denali, Norland, Haig and Kennebec were grown for 42 days under three temperature cycling periods (thermoperiods) with continuous irradiation in two repeated experiments to help determine if temperature cycling might be varied to optimize tuber development of potatoes in controlled environments. Thermoperiods of 6/6 hours, 12/12 hours and 24/24 hours were established with the same temperature change of 22/14C and same controlled vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa. The thermoperiod of 24/24 hours significantly promoted tuber initiation but slowed tuber enlargement in all four cultivars, compared to the thermoperiods of 6/6 hours and 12/12 hours. Denali' produced the highest tuber and total dry weights under the 6/6 hours thermoperiod. Kennebec' produced the highest tuber dry weight under the 12/12 hours thermoperiod. Thermoperiods had no significant effect on shoot and root dry weights of any cultivars. The major effect of thermoperiods was on initiation and enlargement of tubers.

  10. Summer deposition of sulfate and reactive nitrogen to two alpine valleys in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuta, Vivian; Lafrenière, Melissa J.; Norman, Ann-Lise; Hastings, Meredith G.


    Summer deposition of sulfate and reactive nitrogen (mainly nitrate, and ammonium) to two alpine valleys in the Southern Canadian Rocky Mountains was investigated to constrain their major sources and evaluate physiographic influences on deposition. The effects of elevation, aspect, and air mass trajectory were evaluated using stable isotope composition (δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-, and δ34S-SO42-) and major ion concentrations for bulk precipitation. Deposition in the two valleys was related to synoptic scale weather conditions and the route the air mass followed, the location of major emission sources relative to the study site, and atmospheric residence time. Distinct differences in deposition at a relatively small scale between two opposing alpine valleys was mainly related to the orientation of the two valleys relative to the physiography of the Western Canadian Cordillera and the dominant pathways of air mass transport. Sulfate was found to be dominantly from distant sources, while NO3- was strongly enhanced by emissions from local to regional combustion. Local to regional pollutants were preferentially transported to the NNW facing Robertson Valley during NW-upslope synoptic conditions while precipitation in the SE facing Haig Valley was from relatively clean air with minimal influence from local and regional pollutants particularly at the highest elevation site.

  11. Electroluminescent TCC, C3dg and fB/Bb epitope assays for profiling complement cascade activation in vitro using an activated complement serum calibration standard.


    van Vuuren, B Jansen; Bergseth, G; Mollnes, T E; Shaw, A M


    Electroluminescent assays for epitopes on the complement components C3dg, terminal complement complex (TCC) and factor B/Bb (fB/Bb) have been developed with capture and detection antibodies to produce detection limits C3dg=91±9ng/mL, TCC=3±0.1ng/mL and fB=55.7±0.1ng/mL. The assay performance was assessed against a series of zymosan and heat aggregated IgG (HAIgG) in vitro activations of complement using a calibrated activated complement serum (ACS) as calibration standard. The ACS standard was stable within 20% accuracy over a 6-month period with freeze-thaw cycles as required. Differential activation of the complement cascade was observed for TCC showing a pseudo-first order formation half-life of 3.5h after activation with zymosan. The C3dg activation fragment indicates a 10% total activation for both activation agents. The kinetic-epitope analysis for fB indicates that the capture epitope is on the fB/Bb protein fragment which can then become covered by the formation of C3bBb or C3bBbP complexes during the time course of the cascade.

  12. An experiment to fly on mission STS-93 is prepared at Life Sciences Building, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)


    In the KSC Life Sciences Building, Hangar L, Cape Canaveral Air Station, Dr. Haig Keshishian checks fruit fly larvae in a petri dish. The larvae are part of an experiment that is a secondary payload on mission STS-93. The experiment will examine the effects of microgravity and space flight on the development of neural connections between specific motor neurons and their targets in muscle fibers. Dr. Keshishian, from Yale University, is the principle investigator for the experiment. The larvae will be contained in incubators that are part of a Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), which can start bioprocessing reactions by mixing or heating a sample and can also initiate multiple-step, sequential reactions in a technique called phased processing. The primary payload of mission STS-93 is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to see previously invisible black holes and high- temperature gas clouds, giving the observatory the potential to rewrite the books on the structure and evolution of our universe. The target launch date for STS-93 is July 9, aboard Space Shuttle Columbia, from Launch Pad 39B.

  13. Comparisons of likelihood and machine learning methods of individual classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guinand, B.; Topchy, A.; Page, K.S.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.; Punch, W.F.; Scribner, K.T.


    “Assignment tests” are designed to determine population membership for individuals. One particular application based on a likelihood estimate (LE) was introduced by Paetkau et al. (1995; see also Vásquez-Domínguez et al. 2001) to assign an individual to the population of origin on the basis of multilocus genotype and expectations of observing this genotype in each potential source population. The LE approach can be implemented statistically in a Bayesian framework as a convenient way to evaluate hypotheses of plausible genealogical relationships (e.g., that an individual possesses an ancestor in another population) (Dawson and Belkhir 2001;Pritchard et al. 2000; Rannala and Mountain 1997). Other studies have evaluated the confidence of the assignment (Almudevar 2000) and characteristics of genotypic data (e.g., degree of population divergence, number of loci, number of individuals, number of alleles) that lead to greater population assignment (Bernatchez and Duchesne 2000; Cornuet et al. 1999; Haig et al. 1997; Shriver et al. 1997; Smouse and Chevillon 1998). Main statistical and conceptual differences between methods leading to the use of an assignment test are given in, for example,Cornuet et al. (1999) and Rosenberg et al. (2001). Howeve

  14. Multiscale retinocortical model of contrast processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Ian R.; Haig, Nigel D.


    Visual performance models have in the past, typically been empirical, relying on the user to supply numerical values such as target contrast and background luminance to describe the performance of the visual system, when undertaking a specified task. However, it is becoming increasingly easy to obtain computer images using for example digital cameras, scanners, imaging photometers and radiometers. We have therefore been examining the possibility of producing a quantitative model of human vision that is capable of directly processing images in order to provide predictions of performance. We are particularly interested in being able to process images of 'real' scenes. The model is inspired by human vision and the components have analogies with parts of the human visual system but their properties are governed primarily by existing psychophysical data. The first stage of the model generates a multiscale, difference of Gaussian (DoG) representation of the image (Burton, Haig and Moorhead), with a central foveal region of high resolution, and with a resolution that declines with eccentricity as the scale of the filter increases. Incorporated into this stage is a gain control process which ensures that the contrast sensitivity is consistent with the psychophysical data of van Nes and Bouman. The second stage incorporates a model of perceived contrast proposed by Cannon and Fullenkamp. Their model assumes the image is analyzed by oriented (Gabor) filters and produces a representation of the image in terms of perceived contrast.

  15. The role of reactive oxygen intermediates in nonspecific monocyte cytotoxicity induced by immune complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Geffner, J R; Giordano, M; Serebrinsky, G; Isturiz, M


    Normal human monocytes were induced to lyse nonsensitized target cells when triggered by precipitating immune complexes (IC) or soluble heat-aggregated IgG (HAIgG). Catalase, azide, cyanide and three aminoacids employed as quenchers of ClO, significantly inhibited this nonspecific cytotoxicity (NSC), suggesting an important role for the myeloperoxidase (MPO) system. However, HO and/or 1O2 may also be involved in the lysis, since certain scavengers of these species such as mannitol, benzoate, ethanol and histidine, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), partially inhibited NSC. Moreover, cyanide and azide were unable to completely abrogate this lytic activity. When NSC was compared to antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), it was found that neither catalase nor oxygen-species scavengers affected ADCC while azide and cyanide significantly enhanced it. Antibody-coated target cells were also destroyed by IC-triggered monocytes. However, kinetic analysis and studies on the capacity of catalase to inhibit the lysis demonstrated that it was mediated through a NSC-like mechanism. The cytotoxic system described in this report offers a suitable model to study in vitro alternative lytic mechanisms triggered through monocyte receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (Fc gamma R). PMID:3038442

  16. Neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity triggered by immune complexes: the role of reactive oxygen metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Geffner, J R; Giordano, M; Palermo, M S; Prat, A; Serebrinsky, G P; Isturiz, M A


    Normal human neutrophils triggered by precipitating immune complexes (IC), soluble IC (sIC) or heat-aggregated IgG (HAIgG) displayed low levels of cytotoxicity towards nonsensitized target cells. Catalase, but not heated catalase, completely impaired this nonspecific cytotoxicity (NSC), suggesting a key role for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the lysis of target cells. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and certain HO. and 1O2 scavengers were unable to exert significant effects. Three haem-enzyme inhibitors, sodium azide, sodium cyanide and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole did not decrease neutrophil NSC, but markedly enhanced it. This data suggest that the mechanism involved was not dependent upon myeloperoxidase (MPO). The analysis of neutrophil-mediated ADCC indicates that oxygen-dependent but MPO-independent mechanisms appeared to be operative in this system. It was also found that the microfilament disrupting agents, cytochalasin B (CB) and dihydrocytochalasin B (dhCB), as well as the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), significantly enhanced NSC. In contrast, these compounds partially inhibited ADCC. This cytotoxic system provides a suitable model to study events that may occur during the course of immune complex diseases and also permits the evaluation of alternative lytic mechanisms triggered through neutrophil Fc gamma receptors. PMID:2822303

  17. Estimating Longwave Atmospheric Emissivity in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, S.; Marshall, S. J.


    Incoming longwave radiation is an important source of energy contributing to snow and glacier melt. However, estimating the incoming longwave radiation from the atmosphere is challenging due to the highly varying conditions of the atmosphere, especially cloudiness. We analyze the performance of some existing models included a physically-based clear-sky model by Brutsaert (1987) and two different empirical models for all-sky conditions (Lhomme and others, 2007; Herrero and Polo, 2012) at Haig Glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Models are based on relations between readily observed near-surface meteorological data, including temperature, vapor pressure, relative humidity, and estimates of shortwave radiation transmissivity (i.e., clear-sky or cloud-cover indices). This class of models generally requires solar radiation data in order to obtain a proxy for cloud conditions. This is not always available for distributed models of glacier melt, and can have high spatial variations in regions of complex topography, which likely do not reflect the more homogeneous atmospheric longwave emissions. We therefore test longwave radiation parameterizations as a function of near-surface humidity and temperature variables, based on automatic weather station data (half-hourly and mean daily values) from 2004 to 2012. Results from comparative analysis of different incoming longwave radiation parameterizations showed that the locally-calibrated model based on relative humidity and vapour pressure performs better than other published models. Performance is degraded but still better than standard cloud-index based models when we transfer the model to another site, roughly 900 km away, Kwadacha Glacier in the northern Canadian Rockies.

  18. Migration stopovers and the conservation of arctic-breeding Calidris sandpipers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skagen, S.K.


    Long-distance migration, one of the most physically demanding events in the animal kingdom, is well developed in many species of Charadriidae and Scolopacidae. Some shorebirds renowned for their extraordinary long-distance migrations, notably American Golden-Plover (Pluvialis dominica), Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa), and White-rumped Sandpiper (C. fuscicollis), travel as many as 15,000 km between southern South American wintering grounds and Canadian Arctic breeding areas. Migration strategies of shorebirds vary in many aspects. There are remarkable accounts of shorebirds, such as northbound Red Knots, that stage a few key sites for 2-3 weeks and lay on extensive body stores, then fly nonstop for distances of [greater than or equal to] 2,500 km (Harrington 2001, Piersma et al. 2005). Less well known are the examples of populations that refuel only briefly at stopover sites, disperse broadly on the landscape, and fly shorter distances between sites (Skagen 1997, Haig et al. 1998, Warnock et al. 1998). This latter pattern applies to many long-distance migrant shorebirds that cross the interior plains of North America during spring and fall migrations. For them, interior wetland complexes provide critical refueling resources along the direct routes between summering and wintering grounds (Skagen et al. 1999). In this issue of The Auk, Krapu et al. (2006) describe patterns and implications of fat deposition by Semipalmated Sandpipers (C. pusilla), White-rumped Sandpipers, and Bairda??s Sandpipers (C. bairdii) refueling during northward migration across the prairies of mid-continental North Americaa?|

  19. New taxonomic and distributional information on hermit crabs (Crustacea: Anomura: Paguroidea) from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Atlantic coast of South America.


    Lemaitre, Rafael; Tavares, Marcos


    A collection of Paguroidea recently obtained during deep-water expeditions along the coast of Brazil, forms the basis of this report. Of the 14 species reported from Brazil, 11 represent range extensions to the south, and one, Michelopagurus atlanticus (Bouvier, 1922), is a first record for the western Atlantic. The specimens were compared with types and western Atlantic materials deposited in various major museums. A diagnosis and illustrations are presented for each of seven species found to be poorly or insufficiently known. New material and information is reported for two additional species that occur in Brazil but not found in the recent deep-water collections: Clibanarius symmetricus (Randall, 1840) and Mixtopagurus paradoxus A. Milne-Edwards, 1880. Remarkable and unique color photographs of live or fresh specimens of Allodardanus bredini Haig & Provenzano, 1965, Bathynarius anomalus (A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier, 1893), Pylopagurus discoidalis (A. Milne-Edwards, 1880), Paguristes spinipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, Parapagurus pilosimanus Smith, 1876, and P. alaminos Lemaitre, 1986, are presented. A review of published records and museum collections of the terrestrial Coenobita clypeatus (Fabricius, 1787), has shown that the southern range limit of this species does not extend beyond the southern Caribbean and Trinidad and Tobago, and thus does not occur on the Brazilian coast as previously believed. A distribution map of C. clypeatus is provided based on specimens in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. New distribution records in the Gulf of Mexico and southern Caribbean, and morphological information, are included for Pagurus rotundimanus Wass, 1963, a species originally described from the Florida Keys but rarely reported since. Relevant remarks on the taxonomy, morphology, and distribution of all these species are included. The revised list of Paguroidea known from Brazil is updated, and now includes a total of

  20. Mineralogy of Meteorite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.


    phases were formed by shock metamorphism. Martensite (a2-fe,Ni) has a distorted body-centered-cubic structure and formed by a shear transformation from taenite during shock reheating and rapid cooling. The C polymorphs diamond, lonsdaleite and chaoite formed by shock from graphite. Suessite formed in the North Haig ureilite by reduction of Fe and Si (possibly from olivine) via reaction with carbonaceous matrix material. Ringwoodite, the spinel form of (Mg,Fe)2Si04, and majorite, a polymorph of (Mg,Fe)Si03 with the garnet structure, formed inside shock veins in highly shocked ordinary chondrites. Secondary minerals in meteorite finds that formed during terrestrial weathering include oxides and hy-. droxides formed directly from metallic Fe-Ni by oxidation, phosphates formed by the alteration of schreibersite, and sulfates formed by alteration of troilite.

  1. Morning sickness: a mechanism for protecting mother and embryo.


    Flaxman, S M; Sherman, P W


    Approximately two-thirds of women experience nausea or vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms are commonly known as morning sickness. Hook (1976) and Profet (1988) hypothesized that morning sickness protects the embryo by causing pregnant women to physically expel and subsequently avoid foods that contain teratogenic and abortifacient chemicals, especially toxic chemicals in strong-tasting vegetables, caffeinated beverages and alcohol. We examined this hypothesis by comprehensively reviewing the relevant medical, psychological and anthropological literature. In its support, (i) symptoms peak when embryonic organogenesis is most susceptible to chemical disruption (weeks 6-18), (ii) women who experience morning sickness are significantly less likely to miscarry than women who do not (9 of 9 studies), (iii) women who vomit suffer fewer miscarriages than those who experience nausea alone, and (iv) many pregnant women have aversions to alcoholic and nonalcoholic (mostly caffeinated) beverages and strong-tasting vegetables, especially during the first trimester. Surprisingly, however, the greatest aversions are to meats, fish, poultry, and eggs. A cross-cultural analysis using the Human Relations Area Files revealed 20 traditional societies in which morning sickness has been observed and seven in which it has never been observed. The latter were significantly less likely to have animal products as dietary staples and significantly more likely to have only plants (primarily corn) as staples than the 20 societies in which morning sickness occurred. Animal products may be dangerous to pregnant women and their embryos because they often contain parasites and pathogens, especially when stored at room temperatures in warm climates. Avoiding foodborne microorganisms is particularly important to pregnant women because they are immunosuppressed, presumably to reduce the chances of rejecting tissues of their own offspring (Haig 1993). As a result

  2. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.


    It may be useful to know if a meteorite was found at the site where it fell. For instance, the polymict ureilites North Haig and Nilpena were found 1100 km apart, yet are petrologically identical [1]. Could this distance represent transport from a single strewn field, or does it represent distinct fall sites? A meteorite may contain sufficient clues to suggest some characteristics of its fall site. If these inferences are inconsistent with the find site, one may infer that the meteorite has been transported. It will likely be impossible to determine the exact fall site of a transported meteorite. Data relevant to a meteorite's fall site may be intrinsic to the meteorite, or acquired at the site. For instance, an intrinsic property is terrestrial residence age (from abundances of cosmogenic radioisotopes and their decay products); a meteorite's terrestrial residence age must be the same or less than that of the surface on which it fell. After falling, a meteorite may acquire characteristic telltales of terrestrial geological, geochemical, and biological processes. These telltale clues may include products of chemical weathering, adhering geological materials, biological organisms living (or once living) on the meteorite, and biological materials adhering to (but never living on) the meteorite. The effects of chemical weathering, present in all but the freshest finds, range from slight rusting to extensive decomposition and veining The ages of weathering materials and veins, as with terrestrial residence ages above, must be less than the age of the fall surface. The mineralogy and chemistry, elemental and isotopic, of weathering materials will differ according to the mineralogy and composition of the meteorite, and the mineralogy, geochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the fall site. Weathering materials may also vary as climate changes and may vary among the microenvironments associated with a meteorite on the Earth's surface. Geological materials (rock, sediment


    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A; Cherry, Nigel J; Allen, Richard Lowell; Childs, Phillip W; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Ronnen, Levinson; Akbari, Hashem; Berhahl, Paul


    Aesthetically pleasing dark roofs can be formulated to reflect like a highly reflective white roof in the near infrared portion of the solar spectrum. New paint pigments increase the near infrared reflectance of exterior finishes by minimizing the absorption of near-infrared radiation (NIR). The boost in the NIR reflectance drops the surface temperatures of roofs and walls, which in turn reduces cooling-energy use and provides savings for the homeowner and relief for the utilities. In moderate and hot climates, a roof surface with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance was shown by Akbari et al. (2004) and by Parker and Sherwin (1998) to reduce the exterior temperature and produce savings in comfort cooling. The new cool color pigments can potentially reduce emissions of carbon dioxide, which in turn reduces metropolitan heat buildup and urban smog. The pigments can also help conserve water resources otherwise used to clean and process fuel consumed by fossil-fuel driven power plants. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning, retards smog formation, and improves thermal comfort. Parker, Sonne and Sherwin (2002) demonstrated that white barrel and white flat tiles reduced cooling energy consumption by 22% of the base load used by an adjacent and identical home having direct nailed dark shingles. Part of the savings was due to the reflectance of the white tiles; however, another part was due to the mass of the tile and to the venting occurring within the double batten installation. With, Cherry and Haig (2009) have studied the influence of the thermal mass and batten space ventilation and have found that, referenced to an asphalt shingle system, it can be equivalent to an additional 28 points of solar reflectivity. The double batten arrangement has wooden counter battens laid vertically (soffit-to-ridge) against the roof deck, and then the conventional battens are laid horizontally across the