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Sample records for hair dye chemicals

  1. Cross-reactions among hair dye allergens.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; English, John

    2009-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an important hair dye allergen, but there remains a reasonable suspicion that other hair dye chemicals may also be responsible for a proportion of the clinical burden of hair dye allergy. To assess to what extent presently assessed additional patch test agents contribute to the diagnosis of non-PPD hair dye allergy. A retrospective analysis was conducted of patch test results with hair dye allergens, focusing on the extent to which patients who were positive for allergic reactions to other hair dye allergens also had a concomitant positive reaction to PPD. For the hair dye allergens other than p-toluenediamine (PTD), reactions in the absence of a concomitant positive reaction to PPD were very rare. Positive reactors to PTD were also positive for reactions to PPD in 5 of every 6 cases. Pyrogallol positives often occurred in the absence of a PPD positive, but were never judged to be of clinical relevance. Hair dye chemicals other than PPD may be of importance, but the presently tested materials, with the possible exception of PTD, are normally positive only when a PPD-positive reaction is also present, suggesting that their use in patch testing in hair dye allergy is likely to be of limited value.

  2. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects.

  3. Hair dye use and risk of human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yawei; Kim, Christopher; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of the adult population will use hair dyes at some point in their lifetimes. Hair dyes consist of various chemicals and the composition of these chemicals vary by hair dye types. Chemicals p-phenylenediamine and aminophenyl have been suggested as possible carcinogens or mutagens in experimental studies. The scientific community has been interested in this potential public health impact and the results of published epidemiological studies are summarized here. The current evidence provides limited evidences on the association between personal hair dye use and human cancer risk, except for the possibility of hematopoietic cancers and to a lesser extent, bladder cancer. Risk appears to be affected by time period of use and by specific genetic polymorphisms. Future studies should investigate potential gene and environment interaction to assess possible genetic susceptibility. Several methodological issues should also be considered in future studies including completed hair dye use information such as on timing, duration, frequency and type of hair dye product use. PMID:22201892

  4. Hair dye use and risk of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Kim, Christopher; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2012-01-01

    Over 50% of the adult population will use hair dyes at some point in their lifetimes. Hair dyes consist of various chemicals and the composition of these chemicals vary by hair dye types. Chemicals p-phenylenediamine and aminophenyl have been suggested as possible carcinogens or mutagens in experimental studies. The scientific community has been interested in this potential public health impact and the results of published epidemiological studies are summarized here. The current evidence provides limited evidences on the association between personal hair dye use and human cancer risk, except for the possibility of hematopoietic cancers and to a lesser extent, bladder cancer. Risk appears to be affected by time period of use and by specific genetic polymorphisms. Future studies should investigate potential gene and environment interaction to assess possible genetic susceptibility. Several methodological issues should also be considered in future studies including completed hair dye use information such as on timing, duration, frequency and type of hair dye product use.

  5. Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  7. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  9. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Goossens, An; Giménez-Arnau, Ana M; Le Coz, Christophe J; White, Ian R; Diepgen, Thomas L; Andersen, Klaus E; Agner, Tove; Maibach, Howard; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2013-07-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed. To examine whether PPD is an optimal screening agent for diagnosing hair dye allergy or whether other clinically important sensitizers exist. Two thousand nine hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients in 12 dermatology clinics were patch tested with five hair dyes available from patch test suppliers. Furthermore, 22 frequently used hair dye ingredients not available from patch test suppliers were tested in subgroups of ~500 patients each. A positive reaction to PPD was found in 4.5% of patients, and 2.8% reacted to toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD), 1.8% to p-aminophenol, 1% to m-aminophenol, and 0.1% to resorcinol; all together, 5.3% (n = 156). Dying hair was the most frequently reported cause of the allergy (55.4%); so-called 'temporary henna' tattoos were the cause in 8.5% of the cases. p-Methylaminophenol gave a reaction in 20 patients (2.2%), 3 of them with clinical relevance, and no co-reaction with the above five well-known hair dyes. Hair dyes are the prime cause of PPD allergy. PPD identifies the majority of positive reactions to PTD, p-aminophenol and m-aminophenol, but not all, which justifies additional testing with hair dye ingredients from the used product. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial decolorization and detoxification of emerging environmental pollutant: Cosmetic hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2017-09-15

    Since the usage of hair dyes has increased in recent time, the removal of residual dye from environment is also an emerging issue. Hair dye contains mixture of chemicals including genotoxic chemical, p-phenylenediamine (p-PD or PPD). The present study reports bioremediation of hair dye using bacteria isolated from saloon effluent. Sugarcane bagasse powder (SBP) was used as a source of nutrient and surface for bacterial growth. The 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed the isolate as Enterobacter cloacae which was designated as DDB I. The decolourization of dye was studied using UV-vis spectrophotometer. The detoxification study was conducted on microbes isolated from fresh ponds using well diffusion assay. The 1mg/ml of dye was effectively decolourised within 18h of DDB I treatment in the minimal medium containing 30mg/ml of SBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical coherence tomography to evaluate the effects of oxidative hair dye on the fiber.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; de Abreu, Simone Rachid Pfannemüller; de Freitas, Anderson Zanardi; Bedin, Valcinir; Baby, André Rolim; da Gama, Robson Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative hair dyes can damage the hair, since these chemical procedures are involved to change the fiber structure and therefore changes in their mechanical and surface properties. Evaluate and compare the effect of the two colors of oxidative hair dye emulsions on Caucasian hair. This research analyzed the Dark brown hair untreated (I); Dark brown hair treated with light brown dye (II); Dark brown hair treated with light blond dye (III); Light blond hair untreated (IV); Light blond hair treated with light brown dye (V); Light blond hair treated with light blond dye (VI) on Caucasian hair. The hair samples were submitted to breaking strength, color, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis. For the breaking strength assay no presented statistically significant differences between treatments. The parameters of color and brightness can differ in some hair dye formulations, but also the hair type can respond differently. The OCT images of the sample I and IV was possible observed, clearly Medulla and Cortex, which was not observed clearly after treatment with both oxidative hair dye colors. Based on the results, the oxidative hair dyes increased alteration in color and ultrastructure of hair. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of concordance between labelling and content of 52 hair dye products: overview of the market of oxidative hair dye.

    PubMed

    Antelmi, Annarita; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Engfeldt, Malin; Young, Ewa; Persson, Lena; Foti, Caterina; Sörensen, Östen; Svedman, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    Hair dyes contain strong allergens and are widely available. Correct labelling is a necessity in order to provide information about the contents. To compare the labelling and content of hair dyes. In total, 52 hair dyes, from 11 different countries, were bought over the counter. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used for the analysis of p-phenylenediamine (PPD), toluene-2,5-diamine (2,5-TDA), and three oxidation products of PPD. There was good agreement between labelling and content, although seven of the 52 products (13.5%) studied were incorrectly labelled. There were differences in the geographical use of PPD and 2,5-TDA; 2,5-TDA was more common in European products, while PPD was more common in products purchased outside Europe and was present in higher concentrations. All dyes purchased in Europe contained PPD and 2,5-TDA at levels within the limits defined by European legislation, however, levels were higher in some products purchased outside Europe. Only a small group of hair dyes sold in Europe were mislabelled. Further improvement in labelling, by providing the concentration of chemicals, may facilitate products to be purchased both locally and within the global market, when travelling or on the internet.

  14. Multicenter clinical trial on a permanent hair dye containing paratoluenediamine.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Balato, Nicola; Cristaudo, Antonio; Patruno, Cataldo; Pigatto, Paolo; Ambrifi, Marina; Bufano, Tamara; Damiani, Giovanni; De Rocco, Mariagrazia; Diani, Marco; Napolitano, Maddalena; Romita, Paolo

    2018-08-01

    Adverse reactions to hair dyes are frequent and usually caused by sensitization to paraphenylenediamine (PPD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the tolerability of a PPD-free permanent hair dye (Shine On, BioNike, Milan, Italy) containing paratoluenediamine (PTD) in a group of subjects sensitized to PPD. The trial, which carried out at four dermatology centers, included subjects sensitized to PPD that turned out negative to patch testing to PTD. The subjects underwent to an open test consisting in the application of two hair dye colors of the product under examination. Finally, subjects who were negative upon the open test were offered to undergo the usage test with the dye, with dermatological evaluations carried out 48 and 96 hours after product application. Sixty subjects were enrolled. They underwent the open test with two shades of dyes: "color 1 - black," the dye color with the highest concentration of color intermediates, and "color 7.3 - golden blonde," the dye color with the highest number of chemically different color intermediates. No reactions occurred with "color 7.3 - golden blonde," while 3 cases (3 out of 60) showed erythema and edema reactions to color 1. The hair dye usage test was negative for all the 21 subjects that were enrolled. The hair dye evaluated in this study (Shine On, BioNike) can be a valid alternative for subjects sensitized to PPD.

  15. [Application of natural plant pigment in hair dyes].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Li; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Zheng; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-09-01

    With the development of living condition, more and more people tend to show unique personality, thus hair dyes as hair cosmetics are highly favored. By the year 2012, the global sales of hair dye had exceeded $15 billion, with a sustained growth at a rate of 8%-10% annually. However, the harm caused by long-term use of hair dyes has aroused widespread public concern, so people begin to seek non-toxic or low toxic natural plant hair dyes. The types of commonly used hair dyes and the corresponding dyeing mechanisms were summarized in this manuscript, and the representative natural botanic dyes were listed. Thereafter, their effective fractions, constituents and application status were described. In addition, the values of botanic hair dyes and their broad market prospect were discussed. Finally, the problems that exist in the research and development of plant hair dyes were issued. This review may help to provide thought for developing novel, green and ecological natural plant hair dyes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Sheila K; Larsen, Sofus C; Olsen, Nanna J; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1-2cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. No statistically significant difference (p=0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean: 137pg/mg [95% CI: 122,153]) and women with natural hair color (adjusted mean: 139pg/mg [95% CI: 123,155]). Frequency of hair washing was not associated with HCC (β: -3.7 [95% CI: -9.0, 1.5; P=0.20]). This study of 266 Danish women provides no evidence in support of an association between HCC and hair dyeing status or hair washing frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye products now represent one of the most rapidly growing beauty and personal care industries as both men and women commonly change hair color to enhance youth and beauty and to follow fashion trends. Irrespective of economic and education status, people dye their hair to emphasize the importance given to appearance. Despite adverse reactions, many people continue dyeing mainly for cosmetic purposes. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various aspects of hair dying products, especially with respect to the hair-coloring process, classification, chemical ingredients, possible human health impacts, and regulations. Permanent hair dye, which is the most commonly used product type, is formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines to bring about concerns with long-term exposure. Hence, significant efforts have been put to understand the possible side effects of such exposure including cancer risk. However, hair dyes and their ingredients are mainly identified to have moderate to low acute toxicity such as the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Although some hair dye components are reported to be carcinogenic in animals, such evidence is not consistent enough in the case of human studies. Consequently, further research is desirable to critically address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to the safety of hair dye ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-03-31

    A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks' gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day.

  19. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  20. Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients.

    PubMed Central

    Ames, B N; Kammen, H O; Yamasaki, E

    1975-01-01

    We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for dectecting carcinogens as mutagens. We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. We show here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test. Of the 18 components of these hair dyes, nine show various degrees of mutagenicity:2,4-diaminoanisole, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, and 2,5-diaminotoluene. Three hair dye components (p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminotuluene, and 2,5-diaminoanisole) become strongly mutagenic after oxidation by H2O2: the mutagenic product of p-phenylenediamine is identified as the known trimer, Bandrowski's base. 2,4-Diaminotoluene, a hair dye component until recently, is also shown to be mutagenic: this compound has been shown to be a carcinogen in rats and is used in large amounts in the polyurethane foam industry. About 20,000,000 people (mostly women) dye their hair in the U.S. and the hazard could be considerable if these chemicals are actually mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. Images PMID:1094469

  1. Association of hair dye use with circulating levels of sex hormones in premenopausal Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Tsuji, Michiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2015-10-01

    Substances identified as animal carcinogens are no longer used as ingredients of hair dyes. However, hair dyes are diverse groups of chemicals, and certain compounds may affect endogenous sex hormone levels. We examined the association between hair dye use and sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. Study subjects were 431 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long. Information on the use of hair dyes or hair bleach, the type of hair coloring used, the duration of use and the frequency of application was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Fasting plasma samples were obtained to measure estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. After controlling for covariates, the mean plasma total testosterone level was about 14% higher in women who had used hair dyes for 10 or more years than that among women who had never used them (P for trend = 0.02). A similar association was observed when the type of hair dye was restricted to permanent hair dyes. A higher frequency of applying non-permanent hair dyes was marginally significantly associated with higher total and free estradiol levels. Data suggest that long-term use of hair dyes may be associated with an increase in circulating testosterone levels. As this is, to our knowledge, the first study examining the association between hair dye use and sex hormone levels, replication of the results is required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical coherence tomography using images of hair structure and dyes penetrating into the hair.

    PubMed

    Tsugita, Tetsuya; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Hair dyes are commonly evaluated by the appearance of the hair after dyeing. However, this approach cannot simultaneously assess how deep the dye has penetrated into hair. For simultaneous assessment of the appearance and the interior of hair, we developed a visible-range red, green, and blue (RGB) (three primary colors)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) using an RGB LED light source. We then evaluated a phantom model based on the assumption that the sample's absorbability in the vertical direction affects the tomographic imaging. Consistent with theory, our device showed higher resolution than conventional OCT with far-red light. In the experiment on the phantom model, we confirmed that the tomographic imaging is affected by absorbability unique to the sample. Furthermore, we verified that permeability can be estimated from this tomographic image. We also identified for the first time the relationship between penetration of the dye into hair and characteristics of wavelength by tomographic imaging of dyed hair. We successfully simultaneously assessed the appearance of dyed hair and inward penetration of the dye without preparing hair sections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Contact sensitizers in commercial hair dye products sold in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonchai, Waranya; Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Winayanuwattikun, Waranaree; Kasemsarn, Pranee

    2016-04-01

    Hair dyes are known to contain potent contact allergens for which sensitization rates have increased over the last decade. To examine the type and frequency of potent contact sensitizers labelled on hair dyes sold in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. During the 2013-2014 study period, labelled ingredient information from home use and professional hair dye products was collected. Two hundred and fifty-two hair dye products were evaluated. One hundred and forty-nine products from 48 brands were domestically produced in Thailand, and 103 products were from 23 multinational brands produced in countries other than Thailand. Two hundred and fourteen of 252 (84.9%) hair dye products were found to contain strong skin sensitizers, with 118 (46.8%) being found in domestically produced products, and 96 (38.1%) being found in multinational brand products. Thirty-eight hair dye products (15.1%) were free of potent skin sensitizers. The number of domestically produced products (31, 20.8%) that were free of potent skin sensitizers was significantly higher (p = 0.002) than the number of multinational brand products (7, 6.8%). p-Phenylenediamine was the most prevalent potent sensitizer found among domestically produced hair dyes available on the market. Our findings indicate regional differences in hair dye allergen exposure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A survey of the awareness, knowledge and behavior of hair dye use in a korean population with gray hair.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-08-01

    Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. We conducted a questionnaire survey for adult males and females aged over 20 who had gray hair. A total of 500 subjects were included in this study and statistical analysis was performed. Large numbers of the people who had experience with hair dye (233 out of 319 people, 73.0%) did not know about the exact brand name of the hair dye product that they were using. Of 319 hair dye users, 23.8% (76 out of 319) people stated that they experienced side effects. Despite the occurrence of side effects from hair dyeing products, it seems they did not realize the seriousness of the side effects or the need for treatment. It is advisable to introduce a system that enables users to become aware of the ingredients and side effects of hair coloring products and give opportunities for users to become aware of the side effects of hair coloring through education, publicity and publication of an informational booklet.

  5. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate - a coupler causing contact allergy from use in hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from the use of permanent hair dyes is common. Approximately 100 hair dye chemicals are permitted in Europe. Hair dye ingredients may change over time, and hence new hair dye allergens should be looked for continuously. To review positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of hair shaft damage after chemical treatment in Asian, White European, and African hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Lee, Sung Yul; Hong, Hannah; Lee, Won-Soo

    2014-09-01

    Diverse causes of extrinsic damage to the hair shaft have been documented and can be roughly divided into physical and chemical causes. Chemical causes of hair damage include bleaching, hair dyeing, and perming. The goal of this study was to investigate differences in patterns of serial damage in Asian, White European (WE), and African hair after chemical stress imposed by straightening and coloring treatments. Hairs were divided into control and treatment groups (straightening, coloring, and a combination of straightening and coloring). At 24 hours after the final treatment, patterns of hair damage were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM. Grades of hair cuticle and cortex damage were evaluated by three dermatologists. In the TEM examination, the cuticle of Asian hair proved to be resistant to damage caused by straightening treatments, whereas the WE hair cuticle and cortex were relatively susceptible to stress imposed by coloring treatments. In the combination treatment of straightening and coloring, African hair emerged as the most resistant to stress. In the lipid TEM examination, no notable differences in cell membrane complex damage were observed among the three groups of hairs. The present study suggests that WE hair is relatively susceptible and African hair is more resistant to chemical stresses, such as those imposed by straightening and coloring. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Tolerance to a Hair Dye Product Containing 2-Methoxymethyl-P-Phenylenediamine in an Ethnically Diverse Population of P-Phenylenediamine-Allergic Individuals.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Amir; Kindred, Chesahna; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Goebel, Carsten; Gaspari, Anthony A

    Allergic contact dermatitis after exposure to p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dye products is a common and important clinical problem. Because there is a high rate of cross-elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to other important hair dye products (such as p-toluene diamine and other aminophenol hair dyes) in PPD-allergic patients, safer alternative dyes with excellent hair coloring options are needed. This study aimed to study tolerance to Me-PPD in a PPD-allergic cohort. Twenty ethnically diverse volunteers with a history of contact dermatitis to hair dyes or other PPD-containing chemicals and positive patch test results to 1% PPD in petrolatum were recruited to study their immediate and delayed skin reactivity to PPD, vehicle control, and 2-methoxy-methyl-PPD (Me-PPD) using the allergy alert test (simulating hair dyeing conditions) on volar forearm skin. This test is a short-contact open patch test. The Me-PPD may offer a safer alternative for PPD-allergic patients with an absent or reduced elicitation response in the allergy alert test simulating hair dye use conditions. The absent or reduced response to Me-PPD diagnosed using the allergy alert test has been shown to help reduce the possibility of moderate to severe cross-elicitation reactions among consumers during hair dyeing.

  8. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common chemicals in hair dyes include hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and alcohols. Hair curling or permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners ( ...

  9. Prevalence of potent skin sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Kisok

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the prevalence of potent skin sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products manufactured by Korean domestic companies. A database on hair dye products made by domestic companies and selling in the Korean market in 2013 was used to obtain information on company name, brand name, quantity of production, and ingredients. The prevalence of substances categorized as potent skin sensitizers was calculated using the hair dye ingredient database, and the pattern of concomitant presence of hair dye ingredients was analyzed using network analysis software. A total of 19 potent skin sensitizers were identified from a database that included 99 hair dye products manufactured by Korean domestic companies. Among 19 potent skin sensitizers, the four most frequent were resorcinol, m-aminophenol, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and p-aminophenol; these four skin-sensitizing ingredients were found in more than 50% of the products studied. Network analysis showed that resorcinol, m-aminophenol, and PPD existed together in many hair dye products. In 99 products examined, the average product contained 4.4 potent sensitizers, and 82% of the products contained four or more skin sensitizers. The present results demonstrate that oxidative hair dye products made by Korean domestic manufacturers contain various numbers and types of potent skin sensitizers. Furthermore, these results suggest that some hair dye products should be used with caution to prevent adverse effects on the skin, including allergic contact dermatitis.

  10. Personal hair dyes use and risk of glioma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chuan; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Hui, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Use of hair dyes for glioma risk has been investigated in numerous epidemiological studies, but the evidence is inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between hair dyes use and glioma risk. Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases without any limitations, covering all papers published by the end of March 8, 2013. Cohort and case-control studies reporting relative risk estimates (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (or data to calculate them) on this issue were included. Random effects models were used to calculate the pooled RRs and corresponding 95% CIs. Results: Four case-control and two cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. The summary RRs and 95 % CIs for ever users of any hair dyes were 1.132 (0.887-1.446) for all studies, 1.291 (0.938-1.777) for case-control studies, and 0.903 (0.774-1.054) for cohort studies. In the subgroup analysis by geographic regions and sex, the similar results were detected. No significant associations were also observed among the studies which reported data involving permanent hair dye use and duration of any hair dye use. Conclusion: In summary, the results of our study demonstrated that hair dyes use is not associated with risk of glioma. PMID:24179568

  11. Attempted suicide by ingestion of hair dye containing p-phenylenediamine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Beshir, Lamis; Kaballo, Babiker; Young, Donald

    2017-07-01

    Para-phenylenediamine is widely used as a chemical in hair dyes and in combination with henna. This dye is used to paint the body for decorative reasons, to speed the processing time of henna and to intensify the results. Para-phenylenediamine is widely used in the Middle East, North Africa and India. Several reports have been published of the fatal ingestion of hair dye containing para-phenylenediamine. Here, we describe the case of a 14-year-old girl who ingested the compound but whose prompt treatment prevented her death. Ingestion of para-phenylenediamine produces a typical triad of angioneurotic oedema, rhabdomyolysis and acute tubular necrosis. Awareness of signs of these associated conditions in our patient, together with a comprehensive history, facilitated appropriate treatment to be instituted. We document the steps we took to enable her complete physical recovery.

  12. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear, in...

  13. Mutagenicity of commercial hair dyes and detection of 2,7-diaminophenazine.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Hirayama, T; Fukui, S

    1990-08-01

    Four commercial oxidative-type hair dye formulations, A, B, C, and D, were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to simulate normal conditions of use, and the oxidized hair dyes were tested for their mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the presence of a mammalian metabolic activation system (S9 mix). Most of them did not show obvious mutagenicity in the range of 1-25 microliters/plate and all exhibited bactericidal activity at 10 microliters/plate. In order to evaluate the mutagenicity of hair dyes both before and after H2O2 oxidation, rayon linked to a copper-phthalocyanine derivative (blue rayon) was used as an adsorbent for the elimination of interfering bactericidal compounds. Adsorbed compounds on blue rayon were eluted with ammoniacal methanol and eluents were subjected to the Ames test. The mutagenicity of the blue-rayon extracts in TA98 with S9 mix was increased by H2O2 oxidation. The blue-rayon extracts obtained from oxidized A and B were potent mutagens and reverted 334 and 999 colonies/10 microliters of original substance, respectively. In addition, 88 and 249 ng of 2,7-diaminophenazine, which was extremely mutagenic in TA98 with S9 mix, were detected in the extracts of 40 ml of the hair dye formulations A and B, respectively. The mutagenicity in oxidized hair dye formulations was successfully detected by use of blue-rayon extraction. 2,7-Diaminophenazine was only formed in the hair dye formulations containing m-phenylenediamine by H2O2 oxidation. Therefore, attention needs to be paid to the use of m-phenylenediamine as a hair dye component, not only for its own toxicity but also for that of its oxidation products.

  14. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). Results: 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use. PMID:26225326

  15. Survey of sensitizing components of oxidative hair dyes (retail and professional products) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kirchlechner, Stephan; Hübner, Anja; Uter, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Components of oxidative hair dyes, such as p-toluylenediamine, are very potent contact sensitizers to which many consumers as well as hairdressers and their clients are commonly exposed. Based on the qualitative composition of both retail and professional haircare products as determined by package labeling (according to INCI), we conducted a survey on the exposure to active components of oxidative hair dyes in Germany. The joint occurrence of components is also discussed. Nearly all of the 20 most commonly used substances are potent or very potent contact sensitizers. Contained in 88 % of all products, p-toluylenediamine is the most common component. There are only minor differences between retail and professional products. A frequent combination of substances includes p-toluylenediamine (sulfate), resorcinol as well as m-aminophenol. However, their actual concentrations (which were not investigated in this study) may vastly differ depending on the shade of the individual hair dye. Descriptive univariate analysis reveals that the currently used patch test series "Hairdressing Chemicals", as recommended by the German Contact Allergy Research Group (DKG), does not adequately cover the spectrum of allergens consumers and professionals are exposed to. Other studies have also suggested that a number of other allergens should be tested as well. Taking into account the dynamic kinetics of oxidative hair dyes with respect to allergy development, the effects of combined simultaneous exposure to multiple allergens on the risk of sensitization requires further research. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparative sensitizing potencies of fragrances, preservatives, and hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Lidén, Carola; Yazar, Kerem; Johansen, Jeanne D; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Uter, Wolfgang; White, Ian R

    2016-11-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used for assessing sensitizing potential in hazard identification and risk assessment for regulatory purposes. Sensitizing potency on the basis of the LLNA is categorized into extreme (EC3 value of ≤0.2%), strong (>0.2% to ≤2%), and moderate (>2%). To compare the sensitizing potencies of fragrance substances, preservatives, and hair dye substances, which are skin sensitizers that frequently come into contact with the skin of consumers and workers, LLNA results and EC3 values for 72 fragrance substances, 25 preservatives and 107 hair dye substances were obtained from two published compilations of LLNA data and opinions by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety and its predecessors. The median EC3 values of fragrances (n = 61), preservatives (n = 19) and hair dyes (n = 59) were 5.9%, 0.9%, and 1.3%, respectively. The majority of sensitizing preservatives and hair dyes are thus strong or extreme sensitizers (EC3 value of ≤2%), and fragrances are mostly moderate sensitizers. Although fragrances are typically moderate sensitizers, they are among the most frequent causes of contact allergy. This indicates that factors other than potency need to be addressed more rigorously in risk assessment and risk management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Characteristics of HgS nanoparticles formed in hair by a chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarche, G.; Walter, P.; Van Elslande, E.; Ayache, J.; Castaing, J.

    2013-01-01

    A chemical reaction, derived from an ancient recipe for hair dyeing, is used to precipitate nanoparticles of mercury sulphide in hair by the simple process of immersion in a water solution of Ca(OH)2 and HgO. After several days, HgS nanoparticles appear throughout the hair and are particularly numerous in the various interfaces. The formation of these nanoparticles has been studied by analytical and atomic resolution electron microscopy. High resolution quantitative analysis allowed the determination of two varieties of HgS precipitate crystal structures formed: a hexagonal cinnabar and a cubic metacinnabar structure. This very simple process of a chemical reaction in hair is a particularly inexpensive way to fabricate semiconductor sulphide nanoparticles with specific properties.

  18. P2X antagonists inhibit styryl dye entry into hair cells.

    PubMed

    Crumling, M A; Tong, M; Aschenbach, K L; Liu, L Qian; Pipitone, C M; Duncan, R K

    2009-07-21

    The styryl pyridinium dyes, FM1-43 and AM1-43, are fluorescent molecules that can permeate the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. When these dyes are applied to hair cells, they enter the cytoplasm rapidly, resulting in a readily detectable intracellular fluorescence that is often used as a molecular indication of mechanotransduction channel activity. However, such dyes can also permeate the ATP receptor, P2X(2). Therefore, we explored the contribution of P2X receptors to the loading of hair cells with AM1-43. The chick inner ear was found to express P2X receptors and to release ATP, similar to the inner ear of mammals, allowing for the endogenous stimulation of P2X receptors. The involvement of these receptors was evaluated pharmacologically, by exposing the sensory epithelium of the chick inner ear to 5 microM AM1-43 under different experimental conditions and measuring the fluorescence in hair cells after fixation of the tissue. Pre-exposure of the tissue to 5 mM EGTA for 15 min, which should eliminate most of the gating "tip links" of the mechanotransduction channels, deceased fluorescence by only 44%. In contrast, P2X receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid [PPADS], suramin, 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) ATP [TNP-ATP], and d-tubocurarine) had greater effects on dye loading. PPADS, suramin, and TNP-ATP all decreased intracellular AM1-43 fluorescence in hair cells by at least 69% when applied at a concentration of 100 microM. The difference between d-tubocurarine-treated and control fluorescence was statistically insignificant when d-tubocurarine was applied at a concentration that blocks the mechanotransduction channel (200 microM). At a concentration that also blocks P2X(2) receptors (2 mM), d-tubocurarine decreased dye loading by 72%. From these experiments, it appears that AM1-43 can enter hair cells through endogenously activated P2X receptors. Thus, the contribution of P2X

  19. Hair ignition by dye laser for port-wine stain: risk factors evaluated.

    PubMed

    Molin, L; Hallgren, S

    1999-04-01

    Flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser is the preferred treatment for port-wine stain. Vascular hemoglobin and epidermal melanin are competing sites for dye laser absorption and damage. The case presented illustrates the potential hazard of ignition induced by dye laser treatment on the face of a patient receiving inhalation anesthesia. A 6-year-old girl with almost black hair was treated for a port-wine stain covering most of the right half of her face. She was treated with dye laser under general anesthesia administered by mask. A laser pulse close to the upper part of the eyebrow induced a blaze and the eyebrow was instantly destroyed by the fire. Regrowth of the eyebrow was complete after a few months. Hair specimens of various colors were exposed experimentally to dye laser irradiation in room and oxygen-saturated atmospheres. Risk factors of ignition are high laser dosage, a high oxygen level, repeated pulses and dark colored hair.

  20. Dyeing behaviours of amino heterocyclic compounds as blue oxidative hair dye precursors applied to keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Huang, Y; Su, J

    2011-04-01

    Several novel heterocyclic compounds based on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 2,3-dihydroindole have been investigated for their application of colour keratin fibres as blue oxidative dye precursors, especially to human hair. The colourants we studied contained anyone of these dyes (concentration range from 0.005% to 6%), and some common oxidative hair dyes, such as p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulphate. Experiments were carried out on the method of mixing hair colourants with H(2)O(2) gel at the ratio of 1 : 1, accompanied by pH = 8∼11. It is demonstrated that 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives could be considered as an excellent candidate for blue dyes, and N-methyl-7-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is the most outstanding one among this kind of compounds. They own significant advantages of colour purity, stability and fastness. On the other hand, 2,3-dihydroindoles show the similar colours but not stable and brilliant enough. © 2010 The Authors. ICS © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?

    PubMed Central

    Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E.; Messina, Jane L.; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C.; Grekin, Steven K.; Holland, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

  2. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which prevent...

  3. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall be...

  4. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which prevent...

  5. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which prevent...

  6. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall be...

  7. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall be...

  8. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which prevent...

  9. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes)....

  10. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing any...

  11. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing any...

  12. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing any...

  13. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing any...

  14. Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

    2014-05-01

    Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

  15. Application of Anthocyanins from Blackcurrant ( Ribes nigrum L.) Fruit Waste as Renewable Hair Dyes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul M; Cantrill, Victoria; Benohoud, Meryem; Tidder, Alenka; Rayner, Christopher M; Blackburn, Richard S

    2018-05-29

    There is much concern about the toxicological effects of synthetic hair dyes. As an alternative approach, renewable waste blackcurrant ( Ribes nigrum L.) fruit skins from the fruit pressing industry were extracted using acidified water with a solid-phase purification stage. Anthocyanin colorants were isolated in good yields (2-3% w/ w) and characterized by HPLC. Sorption of anthocyanins onto hair followed a Freundlich isotherm; anthocyanin-anthocyanin aggregation interactions enabled high buildup on the substrate. Sorption energy of cyanidin-3- O-glucoside (monosaccharide) > cyanidin-3- O-rutinoside (disaccharide), but sorption properties of different anthocyanin glucosides were very similar. Intense blue-colored dyeing on hair could be achieved with λ max-vis at 580 nm, typical of the anionic quinonoid base; it is suggested that hair provides an environment that enables the stabilization of the anionic quinonoid base on adsorption through association with cations in the hair and copigmentation effects. Dyeings were stable to multiple washes.

  16. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Huncharek, Michael; Kupelnick, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the methodology of observational studies that explored an association between personal use of hair dye products and the risk of bladder cancer. METHODS: Data were pooled from epidemiological studies using a general variance-based meta-analytic method that employed confidence intervals. The outcome of interest was a summary relative risk (RRs) reflecting the risk of bladder cancer development associated with use of hair dye products vs. non-use. Sensitivity analyses were performed to explain any observed statistical heterogeneity and to explore the influence of specific study characteristics of the summary estimate of effect. RESULTS: Initially combining homogenous data from six case-control and one cohort study yielded a non-significant RR of 1.01 (0.92, 1.11), suggesting no association between hair dye use and bladder cancer development. Sensitivity analyses examining the influence of hair dye type, color, and study design on this suspected association showed that uncontrolled confounding and design limitations contributed to a spurious non-significant summary RR. The sensitivity analyses yielded statistically significant RRs ranging from 1.22 (1.11, 1.51) to 1.50 (1.30, 1.98), indicating that personal use of hair dye products increases bladder cancer risk by 22% to 50% vs. non-use. CONCLUSION: The available epidemiological data suggest an association between personal use of hair dye products and increased risk of bladder cancer. PMID:15736329

  17. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  18. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Sanna; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Sarkeala, Tytti; Malila, Nea; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants. We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22-60 years and diagnosed in 2000-2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.36) among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10-1.48). We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005). Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50. Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be concluded however that safety of hair dyes in relation to breast

  19. Skin sensitization quantitative risk assessment for occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dye ingredients.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Carsten; Diepgen, Thomas L; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Gaspari, Anthony A; Schnuch, Axel; Fuchs, Anne; Schlotmann, Kordula; Krasteva, Maya; Kimber, Ian

    2018-06-01

    Occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dyes has been associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) involving the hands. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) have been implicated as important occupational contact allergens. To conduct a quantitative risk assessment for the induction of contact sensitization to hair dyes in hairdressers, available data from hand rinsing studies following typical occupational exposure conditions to PPD, PTD and resorcinol were assessed. By accounting for wet work, uneven exposure and inter-individual variability for professionals, daily hand exposure concentrations were derived. Secondly, daily hand exposure was compared with the sensitization induction potency of the individual hair dye defined as the No Expected Sensitization Induction Levels (NESIL). For PPD and PTD hairdresser hand exposure levels were 2.7 and 5.9 fold below the individual NESIL. In contrast, hand exposure to resorcinol was 50 fold below the NESIL. Correspondingly, the risk assessment for PPD and PTD indicates that contact sensitization may occur, when skin protection and skin care are not rigorously applied. We conclude that awareness of health risks associated with occupational exposure to hair dyes, and of the importance of adequate protective measures, should be emphasized more fully during hairdresser education and training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Final report on the safety assessment of amino nitrophenols as used in hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2009-01-01

    2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 4-amino-2-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are substituted aromatic compounds used as semipermanent (nonoxidative) hair colorants and as toners in permanent (oxidative) hair dye products. All ingredients in this group except 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-amino-2-nitrophenol have reported uses in cosmetics at use concentrations from 2% to 9%. The available toxicity studies for these amino nitrophenol hair dyes did not suggest safety concerns except for the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of 4-amino-2-nitrophenol. 2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are safe as hair dye ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment, but the data are insufficient to make a safety determination for 4-amino-2-nitrophenol.

  1. The effect of pre-pregnancy hair dye exposure on infant birth weight: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Hou, Qingzhi; Huang, Yaling; Ye, Juan; Qin, Xiaolian; Zhang, Yu; Meng, Wen; Wang, Qiuyan; Jiang, Yonghua; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Mujun; Mo, Zengnan; Yang, Xiaobo

    2018-05-09

    Limited evidences were reported about the risk of pre-pregnancy hair dye use or irregular menstruation with abnormal birth weight during pregnancy, and their joint effects were also unknown. The aim of our study was to explore whether the pre-pregnancy exposure of hair dye and irregular menstruation were associated with the risk of abnormal birth weight. We conducted a nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of 6203 pregnant women. Low birth weight study included 315 mother-infant pairs (105 LBW cases and 210 matched controls), and macrosomia study included 381 mother-infant pairs (127 macrosomia cases and 254 matched controls). Meanwhile, lifestyle information including hair dying custom and menstrual history were collected by face-to-face questionnaires and birth outcomes were extracted from the medical records. The logistic regressions models were used to analyze the join effect of irregular menstruation and hair dye use. Pre-pregnancy hair dye use was associated with increased risk of LBW (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.01-2.92, P = 0.048). Irregular menstruation had high risk of LBW (adjusted OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.53-5.09, P = 0.001) and macrosomia (adjusted OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.09-3.44, P = 0.023). Additionally, in the LBW study, women who used hair dye with pre-pregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m 2 had higher OR than those with only one risk factor (3.07 vs 2.53, P trend  = 0.015), and women with both hair dye use and irregular menstruation also had higher risk than those with only one factor (4.53 vs 2.07, P trend  = 0.05). Moreover, in macrosomia study, women with irregular menstruation and pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 24 kg/m 2 had higher risk than those with one factor (13.31 vs 2.09, P trend  = 0.001). Our study showed that either pre-pregnancy hair dye use or irregular menstruation was associated with abnormal birth weight, especially, their joint effects could furthermore increase the risk of low birth weight

  2. Protein loss in human hair from combination straightening and coloring treatments.

    PubMed

    França-Stefoni, Simone Aparecida; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sá-Dias, Tânia Cristina; Bedin, Valcinir; de Almeida, Adriano José; Baby, André Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-09-01

    Hair chemical treatments, such as dyeing and straightening products, are known to cause damage that can be assessed by protein loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hair protein loss caused by combined chemical treatments (dye and relaxer) using the validated bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. Three kinds of straighteners, based on ammonium thioglycolate, guanidine hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, were evaluated and the least harmful combination indicated. Caucasian virgin dark brown hair tresses were treated with developed natural brown color oxidative hair dyeing and/or straightening commercial products based on ammonium thioglycolate, sodium hydroxide, or guanidine hydroxide. Protein loss quantification was assessed by the validated BCA method which has several advantages for quantifying protein loss in chemically treated hair. When both treatments (straightening and dyeing) were combined, a higher negative effect was observed, particularly for dyed hair treated with sodium hydroxide. In this case, a 356% increase in protein loss relative to virgin hair was observed and 208% in relation to only dyed hair. The combination of dying and relaxers based on ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide caused a small increase in protein loss, suggesting that these straightening products could be the best alternatives for individuals wishing to combine both treatments. These results indicated that when application of both types of products is desired, ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide should be chosen for the straightening process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system.

  4. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d’Ischia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system. PMID:26246999

  5. Proposal of an in silico profiler for categorisation of repeat dose toxicity data of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Nelms, M D; Ates, G; Madden, J C; Vinken, M; Cronin, M T D; Rogiers, V; Enoch, S J

    2015-05-01

    This study outlines the analysis of 94 chemicals with repeat dose toxicity data taken from Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety opinions for commonly used hair dyes in the European Union. Structural similarity was applied to group these chemicals into categories. Subsequent mechanistic analysis suggested that toxicity to mitochondria is potentially a key driver of repeat dose toxicity for chemicals within each of the categories. The mechanistic hypothesis allowed for an in silico profiler consisting of four mechanism-based structural alerts to be proposed. These structural alerts related to a number of important chemical classes such as quinones, anthraquinones, substituted nitrobenzenes and aromatic azos. This in silico profiler is intended for grouping chemicals into mechanism-based categories within the adverse outcome pathway paradigm.

  6. A Review of Aspects of Oxidative Hair Dye Chemistry with Special Reference to N-Nitrosamine Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, David; Mama, John; Hawkes, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses a new aspect to the safety profile of oxidative hair dyes using data already in the public domain. These dyes contain secondary amines that are capable of forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamine derivatives when exposed to atmospheric pollution. Numerous scientific articles confirm the existence of secondary amines in hair dyes (and their intermediates), the possibility of nitrosation by atmospheric NOx of secondary amines to give the N-nitrosamines, and the significant safety risks on N-nitrosamines. It is believed that such nitrosamine derivatives should be investigated more fully in the interests of consumer safety. PMID:28809322

  7. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2009-04-01

    Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not

  9. Hair dye-incorporated poly-γ-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Young; Jeong, Young-Il; Choi, Ki-Choon

    2011-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PDA) or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair dyes such as PDA are known to have potent contact allergy reactions in humans, and severe allergic reactions are problematic. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared based on ion-complex formation between the cationic groups of PDA and the anionic groups of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA). To reinforce PDA/PGA ion complexes, glycol chitosan (GC) was added. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier- transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between the amine groups of PDA and the carboxyl groups of PGA. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles are small in size (<100 nm), and morphological observations showed spherical shapes. FT-IR spectra results showed that the carboxylic acid peak of PGA decreased with increasing PDA content, indicating that the ion complexes were formed between the carboxyl groups of PGA and the amine groups of PDA. Furthermore, the intrinsic peak of the carboxyl groups of PGA was also decreased by the addition of GC. Intrinsic crystalline peaks of PDA were observed by XRD. This crystalline peak of PDA was completely nonexistent when nanoparticles were formed by ion complex between PDA, PGA, and GC, indicating that PDA was complexed with PGA and no free drug existed in the formulation. During the drug-release experiment, an initial burst release of PDA was observed, and then PDA was continuously released over 1 week. Cytotoxicity testing against HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cells showed PDA-incorporated nanoparticles had lower toxicity than PDA itself. Furthermore, PDA-incorporated nanoparticles showed reduced apoptosis and necrosis reaction at HaCaT cells. The authors suggest that these microparticles are ideal candidates for a vehicle for

  10. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  11. The challenge of testing chemicals for potential carcinogenicity using multiple short-term assays: an analysis of a proposed test battery for hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Herbert S; Cunningham, Suzanne L; Mermelstein, Robert; Cunningham, Albert R

    2007-09-01

    Recent reports of the association of hair dyes usage with increased bladder cancer risk in women with the slow NAT-2 acetylator phenotype have resulted both in attempts to identify the putative carcinogen as well as in devising batteries of tests that could be used to screen for such putative carcinogens in hair dye formulations, their intermediates and final products. Analytical studies have reported the presence of traces ( approximately 0.5 ppm) of the carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl in some hair dye preparations. In parallel, SCCNFP (Scientific Committee on Cosmetic and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers) has suggested the deployment of a battery of six in vitro assays followed by an in vivo assay. The practicality of deploying and interpreting such a battery is analyzed herein as it is expected to result in 64 and 128 possible test results and SCCNFP does not provide detailed guidance of how the test results are to be interpreted. In this study we have applied a previously described Bayesian approach which takes advantage of the known predictive performances of individual assays, to analyze the possible outcomes of the 6-7 test batteries. While the SCCNFP battery is clearly risk-averse, it is shown that performing all of the assays is not always necessary and moreover it does not necessarily improve predictive performance. Finally, based upon the reported mutagenicity of 4-aminobiphenyl, it is doubtful that this "impurity" would be detected by the test battery.

  12. The hair dyes PPD and PTD fail to induce a T(H)2 immune response following repeated topical application in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Helga; Sarlo, Katherine; Scheffler, Heike; Goebel, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    1,4-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and the structurally-related 1,4-toluenediamine (PTD) are frequently used oxidative hair dye precursors that can induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction known as contact allergy. Very rare cases of Type 1 (IgE-mediated) allergic responses associated with PPD or PTD have been reported among hair dye users. As part of an effort to determine if repeated dermal exposure to the dyes could induce a T-helper-2 (T(H)2) response, we used a dermal exposure regimen in mice reported to identify a T(H)2 response. Ear swelling was evident at post-final exposure to PPD and PTD, indicating that an immune response was observed. However, cytokine mRNA after repeated topical exposure to these two chemicals showed no shift in the expression toward the typical T(H)2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 compared to the T(H)1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ. Consistent with these cytokine profiles, no concomitant increase in total serum IgE antibody titer or in B220+IgE+ lymphocytes in lymph nodes and skin application site skin was detected. In contrast, using an identical exposure regimen, animals topically exposed to the known respiratory (Type 1) allergen toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) showed significant expression of IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA compared to IFN? as well as an increase in total serum IgE and in B220+IgE+ cells in lymph nodes and skin application site. The data generated are consistent with the pattern of adverse reactions to hair dyes seen clinically, which overwhelmingly is of delayed rather than immediate-type hypersensitivity. Although current animal models have a limited ability to detect rare T(H)2 responses to contact allergens, the present study results support the view that exposure to hair dyes is not associated with relevant T(H)2 induction.

  13. Phototoxicity of phenylenediamine hair dye chemicals in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and human skin keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Mosley-Foreman, Charity; Choi, Jaehwa; Wang, Shuguang; Yu, Hongtao

    2008-12-01

    Phenylenediamines (PD) are dye precursors used to manufacture hair dyes. The three PDs, 1,2-,1,3-, and 1,4-PD and three chlorinated PDs, 4-chloro-1,2-PD, 4-chloro-1,3-PD, and 4,5-dichloro-1,2-PD were studied for their mutagenic effect in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102, cytotoxicity in human skin keratinocyte cells, and for DNA cleavage. The results show that all six compounds are not toxic/mutagenic in TA 102 bacteria or skin cells, and do not cause DNA cleavage in PhiX 174 phage DNA. If the same tests are carried out by exposing them to light irradiation concurrently, all three chlorinated PDs cause mutation in TA 102 bacteria and single strand cleavage in PhiX174 phage DNA. This indicates that chlorination of the PDs makes these compounds more photochemically active and produces reactive species that cause DNA damage and mutation. For the photocytotoxicity test in skin cells, it appears there is no such structure-activity relationship. Two chlorinated PDs and two non-chlorinated PDs are cytotoxic at a fairly high concentration (1000microM) upon exposure to light irradiation.

  14. A rapid nuclear staining test using cationic dyes contributes to efficient STR analysis of telogen hair roots.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ha, Eun-Ju; Woo, Seung-Kyun; Lee, So-Min; Lim, Kyung-Hee; Eom, Yong-Bin

    2017-07-01

    Telogen hairs presented in the crime scene are commonly encountered as trace evidence. However, short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of the hairs currently have low and limited use due to poor success rate. To increase the success rate of STR profiling of telogen hairs, we developed a rapid and cost-effective method to estimate the number of nuclei in the hair roots. Five cationic dyes, Methyl green (MG), Harris hematoxylin (HH), Methylene blue (MB), Toluidine blue (TB), and Safranin O (SO) were evaluated in this study. We conducted a screening test based on microscopy and the percentage of loss with nuclear DNA, in order to select the best dye. MG was selected based on its specific nuclei staining and low adverse effect on the hair-associated nuclear DNA. We examined 330 scalp and 100 pubic telogen hairs with MG. Stained hairs were classified into five groups and analyzed by STR. The fast staining method revealed 70% (head hair) and 33.4% (pubic hair) of full (30 alleles) and high partial (18-29 alleles) STR profiling proportion from the lowest nuclei count group (one to ten nuclei). The results of this study demonstrated a rapid, specific, nondestructive, and high yield DNA profiling method applicable for screening telogen hairs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M Camille; Karban, Laura V; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-08-01

    The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies.

  16. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M. Camille; Karban, Laura V.; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Methods Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Conclusion Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies. PMID:25090265

  17. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

    2005-12-30

    The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by

  18. Metabolite screening of aromatic amine hair dyes using in vitro hepatic models.

    PubMed

    Skare, J A; Hewitt, N J; Doyle, E; Powrie, R; Elcombe, C

    2009-11-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic amines are widely used ingredients in permanent hair dyes. However, little has been published on their potential for oxidation via hepatic cytochrome P450s. Therefore, the authors screened nine such compounds for their potential to undergo oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes. Toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA), p-aminophenol, m-aminophenol, p-methylaminophenol, N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine, and 1-hydroxyethyl-4,5-diaminopyrazole showed no evidence of oxidative metabolism. Oxidized metabolites of 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT), 2-methyl-5- hydroxyethylaminophenol (MHEAP), and phenyl methyl pyrazolone (PMP) were detected, but there was no evidence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent covalent binding to microsomal protein, suggesting that these are not reactive metabolites. Metabolism of AHT, MHEAP, PMP, and TDA was further studied in human hepatocytes. All these compounds underwent conjugation, but no oxidative metabolites were found. The results suggest that none of the hair dye ingredients tested showed evidence of hepatic metabolism to potentially biologically reactive oxidized metabolites.

  19. An alkaline bacterial laccase for polymerization of natural precursors for hair dye synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Aditya; Sondhi, Sonica; Sharma, Prince; Gupta, Naveen

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, an extracellular alkali stable laccase (Lac DS) from Bacillus subtilis DS which has pH optima at 8.5 using p -phenylenediamine (PPD) as substrate has been reported. Lac DS retained 70% activity for 4 h at pH 8.5 and 90% activity for 24 h at 55 °C. The enzyme yield was enhanced by optimization of fermentation conditions. A 746-fold increase in yield was observed under optimized conditions using 150 µM MgSO 4 , 1.2% yeast extract, 0.35% tryptone, and 150 µM vanillic acid. Lac DS was used to polymerize natural dye precursor catechol, pyrogallol, syringaldehyde, syringic acid, ferulic acid and gallic acid to develop a range of natural hair colors such as black, golden yellow, and reddish brown. The results indicate that alkaline Lac DS is a suitable candidate to develop a user-friendly and commercially applicable hair dyeing process in the area of cosmetic industry.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    PubMed

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

    2009-01-01

    The fading of oxidative color in hair as a result of daily shampoo washing activities has become a common problem and a source of frequent complaints by consumers. The fading occurs primarily through hair dye solubility in water. One aspect of the current study investigates the physical and chemical factors that influence hair color fading during the washing process. This is accomplished by testing hair dye dissolution in water from dyed hair samples with variation of surfactant type, pH, and hair type. Furthermore, a new approach to preventing color fading is developed aiming to provide an effective barrier function for hair dye from dissolving into water. The preliminary investigation of a series of polymers with various functional groups indicates that polymers with hydrophobically modified and cationic functionalities are most effective in preventing hair dye dissolution in water. It is also evident that a synergistic effect of the polymer's hydrophobic moieties and cationic charges are important on hair color protection during shampoo washing processes. A primary example of a polymer within this category is a cationic terpolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyl lauryldimonium chloride (INCI: Polyquaternium-55). The color protection benefit of this polymer is evaluated using newly developed methodologies for evaluating hair color changes, such as hair color fading tests through multiple shampoo washes with mannequin heads and hair tresses, both derived from human hair, colorimetry, and quantitative digital image analysis. In addition, new infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques are used to detect the hair dye deposition behavior inside hair fibers both with and without the color protection treatment. Both visual and instrumental measurement results indicate that Polyquaternium-55 provides a high level of color protection when formulated in a hair color protection regimen with up to 50% color protection. This

  2. A Measurement and Modeling Study of Hair Partition of Neutral, Cationic, and Anionic Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingyi; Yang, Senpei; Chen, Tao; Han, Lujia; Lian, Guoping

    2018-04-01

    Various neutral, cationic, and anionic chemicals contained in hair care products can be absorbed into hair fiber to modulate physicochemical properties such as color, strength, style, and volume. For environmental safety, there is also an interest in understanding hair absorption to wide chemical pollutants. There have been very limited studies on the absorption properties of chemicals into hair. Here, an experimental and modeling study has been carried out for the hair-water partition of a range of neutral, cationic, and anionic chemicals at different pH. The data showed that hair-water partition not only depends on the hydrophobicity of the chemical but also the pH. The partition of cationic chemicals to hair increased with pH, and this is due to their electrostatic interaction with hair increased from repulsion to attraction. For anionic chemicals, their hair-water partition coefficients decreased with increasing pH due to their electrostatic interaction with hair decreased from attraction to repulsion. Increase in pH did not change the partition of neutral chemicals significantly. Based on the new physicochemical insight of the pH effect on hair-water partition, a new quantitative structure property relationship model has been proposed, taking into account of both the hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic interaction of chemical with hair fiber. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of...

  4. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of...

  5. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of...

  6. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of...

  7. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of...

  8. Hemolytic anemia after ingestion of the natural hair dye Lawsonia inermis (henna) in a dog.

    PubMed

    Jardes, Daniel J; Ross, Linda A; Markovich, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and case management of a dog that developed hemolytic anemia and evidence of renal tubular dysfunction after ingestion of a natural hair dye containing Lawsonia inermis (henna). To review cases of henna toxicity reported in the human literature. An 8-year-old female spayed Border Collie was presented 5 days after ingestion of a box of natural hair dye. The dog was showing signs of lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. A serum biochemistry profile, complete blood count, and urinalysis demonstrated evidence of renal tubular dysfunction and a regenerative anemia without spherocytosis. The dog was treated with a transfusion of packed RBCs and IV fluids, resulting in significant clinical improvement. Repeat diagnostics showed resolution of the anemia and no lasting evidence of tubular dysfunction. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the veterinary literature of toxicity following ingestion of Lawsonia inermis (henna). Henna ingestion was associated with the development of hemolytic anemia and acute kidney injury. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  9. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation <4% for thickness and <2.3% for densities. Images from 6 body sites with 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  11. An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

    2014-02-01

    Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  13. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-10-15

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print en español ¿Por qué se ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  15. Screening for chemicals that affect hair cell death and survival in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Ou, Henry; Simon, Julian A; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2012-06-01

    The zebrafish lateral line is an efficient model system for the evaluation of chemicals that protect and damage hair cells. Located on the surface of the body, lateral line hair cells are accessible for manipulation and visualization. The zebrafish lateral line system allows rapid screens of large chemical libraries, as well as subsequent thorough evaluation of interesting compounds. In this review, we focus on the results of our previous screens and the evolving methodology of our screens for chemicals that protect hair cells, and chemicals that damage hair cells using the zebrafish lateral line. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemicals in hair products used by Black women.

    PubMed

    Helm, Jessica S; Nishioka, Marcia; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A; Dodson, Robin E

    2018-08-01

    Personal care products are a source of exposure to endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemicals. Because use of hair products differs by race/ethnicity, these products may contribute to exposure and disease disparities. This preliminary study investigates the endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemical content of hair products used by U.S. Black women. We used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to test 18 hair products in 6 categories used by Black women: hot oil treatment, anti-frizz/polish, leave-in conditioner, root stimulator, hair lotion, and relaxer. We tested for 66 chemicals belonging to 10 chemical classes: ultraviolet (UV) filters, cyclosiloxanes, glycol ethers, fragrances, alkylphenols, ethanolamines, antimicrobials, bisphenol A, phthalates, and parabens. The hair products tested contained 45 endocrine disrupting or asthma-associated chemicals, including every targeted chemical class. We found cyclosiloxanes, parabens, and the fragrance marker diethyl phthalate (DEP) at the highest levels, and DEP most frequently. Root stimulators, hair lotions, and relaxers frequently contained nonylphenols, parabens, and fragrances; anti-frizz products contained cyclosiloxanes. Hair relaxers for children contained five chemicals regulated by California's Proposition 65 or prohibited by EU cosmetics regulation. Targeted chemicals were generally not listed on the product label. Hair products used by Black women and children contained multiple chemicals associated with endocrine disruption and asthma. The prevalence of parabens and DEP is consistent with higher levels of these compounds in biomonitoring samples from Black women compared with White women. These results indicate the need for more information about the contribution of consumer products to exposure disparities. A precautionary approach would reduce the use of endocrine disrupting chemicals in personal care products and improve labeling so women can select products consistent with

  17. [Adverse effects of hair care in users].

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, D; Herman, A; Lachapelle, J-M

    2018-06-26

    The panoply of products used by hair care professionals to wash, dye, shape and beautify hair is not entirely free from adverse events. Such effects consist mainly of irritation dermatitis and allergic contact eczema affecting the scalp, as well as the back and front of the neck, the forehead and periorbital areas, and the cheeks. The most frequently cited allergens include paraphenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes, glycerol monothioglycolate (GMTG) in acid perm lotions, and ammonium persulphate in hair lighteners (the latter substance being responsible primarily for contact urticaria). However, care should also be paid to other allergens such as cocamidopropyl betaine among surfactants, as well as certain components in hair formulations such as preservatives and fragrances (as well as minoxidil, frequently used by patients). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. FM Dye Photo-Oxidation as a Tool for Monitoring Membrane Recycling in Inner Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2014-01-01

    Styryl (FM) dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs), as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the unambiguous identification of labeled organelles, despite the presence of FM dye in the cytosol. This enabled us to describe the morphologies of several organelles that take up membrane in IHCs, both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, endosome-like organelles were detected in the region of the cuticular plate. Larger tubulo-cisternal organelles dominated the top and nuclear regions. Finally, the basal region, where the IHC active zones are located, contained few labeled organelles. Stimulation increased significantly membrane trafficking in the basal region, inducing the appearance of labeled vesicles and cistern-like organelles. The latter were replaced by small, synaptic-like vesicles during recovery after stimulation. In contrast, no changes in membrane trafficking were induced by stimulation in the cuticular plate region or in the top and nuclear regions. We conclude that synaptic vesicle recycling takes place mostly in the basal region of the IHCs. Other organelles participate in abundant constitutive membrane trafficking throughout the rest of the IHC volume. PMID:24505482

  19. Influence of chemical straightening on the stability of drugs of abuse in hair.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Jeanita S; Phinney, Karen W

    2015-01-01

    Chemical straightening, also known as a relaxer, is ubiquitously used among African American women to obtain straighter hair compared with their natural tresses. This study focused on the stability of drugs of abuse in hair after a single application of the relaxer. Commercially available 'Lye' or 'No-Lye' chemical straightening products (Silk Elements™) were applied in vitro to drug-fortified hair (standard reference materials (SRM) 2379 and 2380) and hairs clipped from established drug users. Target analytes (cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE), cocaethylene (CE), phencyclidine and tetrahydrocannabinol) were isolated using solid-phase extraction and then analyzed with isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. After either treatment, drug concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in both the SRM sample and the hair from authentic abusers. In the SRM groups, 6-67% of the original concentration remained after a single chemical treatment. Similarly, only 5-30% of the original concentration remained in authentic drug hairs that had formerly tested positive for COC, BZE and CE. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Determination of phenylenediamine isomers in hair dyes by coal cinders micro-column extraction and MEKC.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiwei; Jiang, Feng; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Jing; Deng, Zhenli; Tao, Qing; Zhang, Jing; Han, Lijuan; Wei, Xiaoshu; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Haili

    2011-06-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrins (β-CDs) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphates (ionic liquids) as additives was successfully developed for determination of para-, meta-, and ortho-phenylenediamines isomers (p-P, m-P, and o-P) in hair dyes. To improve the sensitivity of the MEKC-UV, a simple and cheap flow injection (FI) technique using a micro-column packed with coal cinders (the by-products from combustion in a boiler) as solid-phase extractant was also investigated. In the presence of 20 mmol L(-1) phosphates at pH 5.5, addition of 12 mmol L(-1) ionic liquids and 8 mmol L(-1) β-CDs greatly improved the separation efficiency. The three analytes could be quantitatively adsorbed by coal cinders, and desorbed readily with 0.15 mL of 0.01 mol L(-1) NaOH. Under the optimum conditions, an enrichment factor (EF) of 33.3 was obtained, and determination limits of p-P, m-P, and o-P were 1.97 × 10(-7), 0.99 × 10(-7), and 0.61 × 10(-7) mol L(-1), respectively. The adsorption capacities of the coal cinders micro-column for p-P, m-P, and o-P were all 1.20 mg g(-1). The presented procedure was successfully applied to the determination of p-P, m-P, and o-P in hair dyes with satisfactory results.

  1. Contribution of the Hair Follicular Pathway to Total Skin Permeation of Topically Applied and Exposed Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Fadli; Todo, Hiroaki; Yoshimoto, Masato; Yusuf, Eddy; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-11-15

    Generally, the blood and skin concentration profiles and steady-state skin concentration of topically applied or exposed chemicals can be calculated from the in vitro skin permeation profile. However, these calculation methods are particularly applicable to chemicals for which the main pathway is via the stratum corneum. If the contribution of hair follicles to the total skin permeation of chemicals can be obtained in detail, their blood and skin concentrations can be more precisely predicted. In the present study, the contribution of the hair follicle pathway to the skin permeation of topically applied or exposed chemicals was calculated from the difference between their permeability coefficients through skin with and without hair follicle plugging, using an in vitro skin permeation experiment. The obtained results reveal that the contribution of the hair follicle pathway can be predicted by using the chemicals' lipophilicity. For hydrophilic chemicals (logarithm of n -octanol/water partition coefficient (log K o/w ) < 0), a greater reduction of permeation due to hair follicle plugging was observed than for lipophilic chemicals (log K o/w ≥ 0). In addition, the ratio of this reduction was decreased with an increase in log K o/w . This consideration of the hair follicle pathway would be helpful to investigate the efficacy and safety of chemicals after topical application or exposure to them because skin permeation and disposition should vary among skins in different body sites due to differences in the density of hair follicles.

  2. Contribution of the Hair Follicular Pathway to Total Skin Permeation of Topically Applied and Exposed Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Mohd, Fadli; Todo, Hiroaki; Yoshimoto, Masato; Yusuf, Eddy; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Generally, the blood and skin concentration profiles and steady-state skin concentration of topically applied or exposed chemicals can be calculated from the in vitro skin permeation profile. However, these calculation methods are particularly applicable to chemicals for which the main pathway is via the stratum corneum. If the contribution of hair follicles to the total skin permeation of chemicals can be obtained in detail, their blood and skin concentrations can be more precisely predicted. In the present study, the contribution of the hair follicle pathway to the skin permeation of topically applied or exposed chemicals was calculated from the difference between their permeability coefficients through skin with and without hair follicle plugging, using an in vitro skin permeation experiment. The obtained results reveal that the contribution of the hair follicle pathway can be predicted by using the chemicals’ lipophilicity. For hydrophilic chemicals (logarithm of n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Ko/w) < 0), a greater reduction of permeation due to hair follicle plugging was observed than for lipophilic chemicals (log Ko/w ≥ 0). In addition, the ratio of this reduction was decreased with an increase in log Ko/w. This consideration of the hair follicle pathway would be helpful to investigate the efficacy and safety of chemicals after topical application or exposure to them because skin permeation and disposition should vary among skins in different body sites due to differences in the density of hair follicles. PMID:27854289

  3. Can long-term alopecia occur after appropriate pulsed-dye laser therapy in hair-bearing sites? Pediatric dermatologists weigh in.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Totri, Christine R; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2015-03-01

    The risk of long-term alopecia after pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy is unknown. To identify how many practitioners treat hair-bearing sites with PDL and how commonly long-term alopecia occurs, the authors queried pediatric dermatologists about their experiences using this modality. A survey was designed to evaluate the frequency of and factors contributing to long-term alopecia after PDL treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). "Long-term" was defined as no sign of hair regrowth after several years of nontreatment. The survey was administered to attendees at the 2014 Society for Pediatric Dermatology biannual meeting. Sixty-four pediatric dermatologists completed the survey, 50 of whom had experience using PDL. Of these physicians, 86% have used PDL to treat PWS of the eyebrow and 80% have treated PWS of the scalp. Over one-quarter of respondents (25.5%) using PDL on hair-bearing areas had at least 1 of their patients develop long-term alopecia after PDL treatment. The incidence of long-term alopecia after PDL treatment in the surveyed population was 1.5% to 2.6%. The occurrence of long-term alopecia at hair-bearing sites after treatment with PDL may be greater than previously thought. Because the majority of physicians using PDL treat hair-bearing areas, prospective studies are needed to more accurately determine the risk of long-term alopecia and the factors that contribute to it.

  4. The chemical bonds effect of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes on TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahliha, A. H.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Kusumaningsih, T.

    2017-11-01

    Anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes have been blended as the photosensitizer of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The results study showed the effect of chemical bond dyes on TiO2 and the efficiency of DSSC. Ratio blend of the anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes are 1:1. The absorbance of dyes and TiO2 were characterized using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The chemical bonds contained in TiO2-dyes were characterized using FT-IR spectrophotometer. The efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V meter. The absorption spectra of chlorophyll: anthocyanin blend dye solutions and TiO2 films can increase after the dye adsorption. Absorbance characterization of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dye blend solutions showed three peaks at the wavelength of 412 nm; 535.5 nm; and 656.5 nm. Absorbance characterization of spinach before being blend with anthocyanin dyes solutions showed two peaks at the wavelength of 431 nm and 665.5 nm. The absorption spectra of TiO2 films can increase after the dyes adsorption at the wavelength of 400 nm. FT-IR spectra of TiO2 founded the functional groups C-Br, C=C, and O-H. The functional groups founded in anthocyanin: chlorophyll dye blended on the surface of TiO2 are C-Br, C-O, O-H, C-H, C=C, C=O, and O-H. The result showed that the greatest efficiency of 0.0544% at dye red cabbage-spinach. Adsorption blends of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes on the surface of TiO2 can be used as the photosensitizer for DSSC.

  5. A flexible and miniaturized hair dye based photodetector via chemiluminescence pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Chang; Sun, Da-Shiuan; Lin, Ya-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Tso; Cheng, Chieh; Sun, Wen-Hsien; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2017-04-15

    A flexible and miniaturized metal semiconductor metal (MSM) biomolecular photodetector was developed as the core photocurrent system through chemiluminescence for hydrogen peroxide sensing. The flexible photocurrent sensing system was manufactured on a 30-µm-thick crystalline silicon chip by chemical etching process, which produced a flexible silicon chip. A surface texturization design on the flexible device enhanced the light-trapping effect and minimized reflectivity losses from the incident light. The model protein streptavidin bound to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was successfully immobilized onto the sensor surface through high-affinity conjugation with biotin. The luminescence reaction occurred with luminol, hydrogen peroxide and HRP enzyme, and the emission of light from the catalytic reaction was detected by underlying flexible photodetector. The chemiluminescence in the miniaturized photocurrent sensing system was successfully used to determine the hydrogen peroxide concentration in real-time analyses. The hydrogen peroxide detection limit of the flexible MSM photodetector was 2.47mM. The performance of the flexible MSM photodetector maintained high stability under bending at various bending radii. Moreover, for concave bending, a significant improvement in detection signal intensity (14.5% enhancement compared with a flat configuration) was observed because of the increased photocurrent, which was attributed to enhancement of light trapping. Additionally, this detector was used to detect hydrogen peroxide concentrations in commercial hair dye products, which is a significant issue in the healthcare field. The development of this novel, flexible and miniaturized MSM biomolecular photodetector with excellent mechanical flexibility and high sensitivity demonstrates the applicability of this approach to future wearable sensor development efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical Analysis of the Dyes Used in Navy Green and Yellow Colored Smokes .

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-31

    RD-RI69 478 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DYES USED IN NAVY OREEN AND 11 YELLOW COLORED SNOKES(U) NAVAL WEAPONS SUP POR T CENTER CRANE IN APPLIED SCIENCES...NWSC/CR/RDTR-271 00 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DYES USED IN NAVY GREEN AND YELLOW COLORED SMOKES Anton Chin Naval Weapons Support Center Applied Sciences...62765 SF65-559 559-691 20392 TITLE (Iint/ude Sec uritE C/assitication) CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DYES USED IN NAVY GREEN AND YELLOW COLORED SMOKES 1.1

  7. Screening of Chemical Dyes in Traditional Chinese Medicine by HPTLC-MS.

    PubMed

    He, Fengyan; He, Yi; Zheng, Xiaowei; Wang, Ruizhong; Lu, Jing; Dai, Zhong; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2018-05-01

    It has been uncovered that chemical dyes are illegally used in traditional Chinese medicines to brighten color and cover up inferiority, which threaten the safety of patients. In the present study, an HPTLC-MS method was developed for the effective screening of 11 chemical dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV; 808 Scarlet; Sudan Red 7B; malachite green; Basic Orange 2; auramine; Orange II; and erythrosine) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) raw materials and Chinese patent medicines. Firstly, unwashed HPTLC plates were chosen by comparing the background signals of the TLC plates used directly and prewashed with analytical grade and HPLC grade solvents. Twice developments were conducted to isolate chemical dyes of different polarity. Possible adulterants were preliminarily identified by comparing Rf values and in situ UV-Vis spectra with those of the references. Further confirmation was conducted by tandem MS analysis via an elution head-based TLC-MS interface. Sudan I and IV, 808 Scarlet, and Orange II were successfully detected in eight batches of TCM. The proposed method could be applied as a reliable technology for the screening of chemical dyes in TCM.

  8. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Manwaring, John, E-mail: manwaring.jd@pg.com; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passagemore » through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis–Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and C{sub max} was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. - Highlights: • An entirely in silico/in vitro approach to predict in vivo exposure to dermally applied hair dyes • Skin penetration and epidermal conversion assessed in

  9. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  10. Hair highlights and severe acute irritant dermatitis ("burn") of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-12-01

    These days, most celebrities--young and old--have their hair highlighted. That is why it is not surprising that even the youth have their hair highlighted as they emulate their favorite actors, unaware of the harmful consequences of this unsafe procedure. Hair highlighting involves decolorizing melanin pigments of select hair strands through an oxidation reaction under alkaline conditions by the active ingredients of the highlighting mixture--hydrogen peroxide, persulfates, and metasilicate. Hydrogen peroxide and the persulfates are flammable, necessitating that regulatory bodies (namely, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration [FDA] and the Cosmetic Ingredient Review [CIR] Expert Panel, the European Union's (EU), European Economic Community [EEC] directives, the Australian government's National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme [NICNAS], and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations [ASEAN]) to regulate the permissible amounts of these chemicals in hair highlighting products. To review published case reports of resulting in severe acute irritant dermatitis ("burns") of the scalp caused by hair highlighting, to explain why these scalp burns happen, to identify preventive measures to avoid such occurrences, and to discuss the implications for society. We searched medical and scientific search engines and used keywords such as hair highlights, scalp burn, and other related terms.. Six articles were obtained, yielding 8 reported cases (2 of the 6 articles had 2 cases each) of hair highlighting resulting in scalp burns; these 8 cases were reviewed and analyzed. Five of the 8 patients belonged to the pediatric age group. The causes of scalp burn were classified into 2 categories: chemical (caustic nature of the highlighting mixture, spillage of the hot mixture, toxic reaction to the dyes) and thermal (by contact of the scalp with overheated aluminum foil and by the blow dryer). The 5 pediatric patients in the group unnecessarily suffered pain and

  11. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet.

  12. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  13. Defective calmodulin-dependent rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish sensory hair cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Seiler, C; Nicolson, T

    1999-11-15

    Vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells contain a narrow "pericuticular" zone which is densely populated with small vesicles between the cuticular plate and cellular junctions near the apical surface. The presence of many cytoplasmic vesicles suggests that the apical surface of hair cells has a high turnover rate. The significance of intense membrane trafficking at the apical surface is not known. Using a marker of endocytosis, the styryl dye FM1-43, this report shows that rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells is calcium and calmodulin dependent and is partially blocked by the presence of amiloride and dihydrostreptomycin, known inhibitors of mechanotransduction channels. As seen in lateral line hair cells, sensory hair cells within the larval otic capsule also exhibit rapid apical endocytosis. Defects in internalization of the dye in both lateral line and inner ear hair cells were found in five zebrafish auditory/vestibular mutants: sputnik, mariner, orbiter, mercury, and skylab. In addition, lateral line hair cells in these mutants were not sensitive to prolonged exposure to streptomycin, which is toxic to hair cells. The presence of endocytic defects in the majority of zebrafish mechanosensory mutants points to a important role of apical endocytosis in hair cell function. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  15. A Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Dyed Hair by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces a complex mixture of chemicals into the hair matrix, which interfere with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion™ mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS3 scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrices and showed good linearity (40 to 1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value r2 > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semi-controlled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in non-dyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  16. CHEMICAL LEUCODERMA: INDIAN SCENARIO, PROGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, A K; Saraswat, Abir; Srivastav, P K

    2010-01-01

    Chemical leucoderma is an industrial disorder in developed countries and the common causative chemicals are phenols and catechols. Due to stringent controls and preventive measures the incidence has come down. In the recent past various chemicals in consumer products have also been documented to produce depigmentation. In India due to lax quality control measures chemical leucoderma due to consumer items is not uncommon.The various consumer items documented to cause contact depigmentation are sticker bindis, rain shoes, plastic chappals, hair dye/ black henna(kali mehndi), alta, wallets and even mobile plastic covers. PMID:21063517

  17. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  18. Chemically Modified Polyvinyl Chloride for Removal of Thionine Dye (Lauth’s Violet)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cleuzilene V.; Royer, Betina; Rodrigues Filho, Guimes; Cerqueira, Daniel A.; Assunção, Rosana M. N.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical modification of hydrophobic polymer matrices is an alternative way to elchange their surface properties. The introduction of sulfonic groups in the polymer changes the surface properties such as adhesion, wettability, catalytic ability, and adsorption capacity. This work describes the production and application of chemically modified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as adsorbent for dyes removal. Chemical modification of PVC was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, which indicated the presence of sulfonic groups on PVC. The chemically modified PVC (PVCDS) showed an ion exchange capacity of 1.03 mmol−1, and efficiently removed the thionine dye (Lauth’s violet) from aqueous solutions, reaching equilibrium in 30 min. The adsorption kinetics was better adjusted for a pseudo second order model. This result indicates that the adsorption of thionine onto PVCDS occurs by chemisorption. Among the models for the state of equilibrium, SIPS and Langmuir exhibited the best fit to the experimental results and PVCDS showed high adsorption capacities (370 mg−1). Thus, it is assumed that the system presents homogeneous characteristics to the distribution of active sites. The modification promoted the formation of surface characteristics favorable to the dye adsorption by the polymer. PMID:29137158

  19. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  20. A multi-institutional joint study of contact dermatitis related to hair colouring and perming agents in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Nishioka, Kazue; Kanto, Hiromi; Yagami, Akiko; Yamada, Shigeki; Sugiura, Mariko; Yasunaga, Chihiro; Yoshii, Keiko; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Adachi, Atsuko; Ikezawa, Yuko; Washizaki, Kumiko; Inui, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Hitoshi; Oiso, Naoki; Nakata, Tokio; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2017-07-01

    In Japan, allergic contact dermatitis caused by hair colouring agents is a considerable problem for those occupationally exposed and also for consumers. Over the last 20 years, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) has been a common allergen, with ∼7% positive patch test reactions. To investigate which ingredients caused allergic contact dermatitis related to hair dye and perming solutions in Japan, to assess whether PPD is suitable for screening for hair dye allergy, and to propose allergens for a Japanese hairdresser series. We selected 19 hair cosmetic allergens, including PPD, Bandrowski's base, cysteamine HCl, and ammonium thioglycolate. Altogether 203 patients (26 males and 177 females) with suspected contact allergy to hair colouring or perming solutions at 14 hospitals in Japan were included. The highest prevalence of positive reactions (35.1%) was for PPD. p-Methylaminophenol and o-aminophenol were often positive, both in the PPD-positive and in the PPD-negative patients. Moreover, cysteamine HCl often yielded positive test reactions. PPD is insufficient to diagnose contact allergy caused by to hair dyes. We recommend 13 allergens to be included in a Japanese hairdresser series. © 2017 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Hair product use, age at menarche and mammographic breast density in multiethnic urban women.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Tehranifar, Parisa; Flom, Julie D; Terry, Mary Beth; James-Todd, Tamarra

    2018-01-04

    Select hair products contain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that may affect breast cancer risk. We hypothesize that, if EDCs are related to breast cancer risk, then they may also affect two important breast cancer risk factors: age at menarche and mammographic breast density. In two urban female cohorts (N = 248): 1) the New York site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project and 2) the New York City Multiethnic Breast Cancer Project, we measured childhood and adult use of hair oils, lotions, leave-in conditioners, root stimulators, perms/relaxers, and hair dyes using the same validated questionnaire. We used multivariable relative risk regression models to examine the association between childhood hair product use and early age at menarche (defined as <11 years of age) and multivariable linear regression models to examine the association between childhood and adult hair product use and adult mammographic breast density. Early menarche was associated with ever use of childhood hair products (RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1, 4.8) and hair oil use (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2, 5.2); however, additional adjustment for race/ethnicity, attenuated associations (hair products RR 1.8, 95% CI 0.8, 4.1; hair oil use RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0, 5.5). Breast density was not associated with adult or childhood hair product or hair oil use. If confirmed in larger prospective studies, these data suggest that exposure to EDCs through hair products in early life may affect breast cancer risk by altering timing of menarche, and may operate through a mechanism distinct from breast density.

  3. Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Worm, M.; Richter, H.; Sterry, W.; Meinke, M.

    2009-10-01

    Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies.

  4. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in human hair follicles after in vitro exposure to 11 chemicals: comparison with unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    van Erp, Y H; Koopmans, M J; Heirbaut, P R; van der Hoeven, J C; Weterings, P J

    1992-06-01

    A new method is described to investigate unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in human tissue after exposure in vitro: the human hair follicle. A histological technique was applied to assess cytotoxicity and UDS in the same hair follicle cells. UDS induction was examined for 11 chemicals and the results were compared with literature findings for UDS in rat hepatocytes. Most chemicals inducing UDS in rat hepatocytes raised DNA repair at comparable concentrations in the hair follicle. However, 1 of 9 chemicals that gave a positive response in the rat hepatocyte UDS test, 2-acetylaminofluorene, failed to induce DNA repair in the hair follicle. Metabolizing potential of hair follicle cells was shown in experiments with indirectly acting compounds, i.e., benzo[a]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and dimethylnitrosamine. The results support the conclusion that the test in its present state is valuable as a screening assay for the detection of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, the use of human tissues may result in a better extrapolation to man.

  6. Hair product artifact in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chenji, Sneha; Wilman, Alan H; Mah, Dennell; Seres, Peter; Genge, Angela; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    The presence of metallic compounds in facial cosmetics and permanent tattoos may affect the quality of magnetic resonance imaging. We report a case study describing a signal artifact due to the use of a leave-on powdered hair dye. On reviewing the ingredients of the product, it was found to contain several metallic compounds. In lieu of this observation, we suggest that MRI centers include the use of metal- or mineral-based facial cosmetics or hair products in their screening protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contact allergy to ingredients of hair cosmetics - a comparison of female hairdressers and clients based on IVDK 2007-2012 data.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf; John, Swen Malte; Schnuch, Axel; Geier, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    Cosmetics for bleaching, waving/relaxing and dyeing hair contain well-known allergens, leading to a substantial number of cases of allergic contact dermatitis. To compare the frequency of important contact allergens (i) between two distinct groups of exposed patients, and (ii) with previous surveillance data. On the basis of data collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK; www.ivkd.org) between 2007 and 2012 in 824 female hairdressers and 2067 female clients, the current spectrum of contact sensitization to ingredients of hair cosmetics, as contained in different pertinent series, is described. A similar burden of sensitization as in previous analyses was observed, but with some increase in sensitization to oxidative hair dye components in clients. Some allergens mainly affected hairdressers, such as ammonium persulfate (18.7% positive) and glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG; still 4.7% positive, with a few cases also in young hairdressers, despite removal from the German market). Hair dyes remain important contact allergens, despite various attempts by the cosmetic industry to introduce hair dyes with lower allergenic potential. The re-emergence of GMTG as an occupational allergen should be considered as a warning signal ('sentinel event') prompting close monitoring. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Xanthotrichia (yellow hair) due to selenium sulfide and dihydroxyacetone.

    PubMed

    Prevost, Noel; English, Joseph C

    2008-07-01

    Hair shaft discoloration has been documented to be caused by disease states, medications, and exogenous chemicals. After researching the literature, xanthotrichia or yellow hair has been determined to be caused predominately by exogenous chemicals. Two cases of new chemicals causing yellow hair shaft discoloration are reported. The chemicals include selenium sulfide 2.5% shampoo and dihydroxyacetone.

  9. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.

  10. Nanotribological effects of hair care products and environment on human hair using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2005-07-01

    Tribological properties are useful in the study of human hair and other biological materials. Major sources of investigation for conditioner treated hair includes localization of conditioner, mechanisms related to changes in surface roughness, friction, and adhesion on the nanoscale due to conditioner agents, and how the products change the microstructure of the cuticle. The paper presents nanotribological studies investigating surface roughness, friction, and adhesion using atomic force/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). Test samples include virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without commercial conditioner treatment, as well as chemically damaged hair with experimental conditioner treatments. Friction force mapping provides insight into the localized change in friction caused by the application of hair care materials. Adhesive force maps to study adhesion on the cuticle surface provide information about localization and distribution of conditioner as well. A discussion is presented on these properties of hair as a function of relative humidity, temperature, durability, and conditioning treatments.

  11. Raman Enhancement and Photo-Bleaching of Organic Dyes in the Presence of Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Graphene.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jiaxin; Zhao, Shichao; Li, Zhiting; Ricardo, Karen B; Zhou, Feng; Kim, Hyojeong; Liu, Haitao

    2017-10-19

    Fluorescent organic dyes photobleach under intense light. Graphene has been shown to improve the photo-stability of organic dyes. In this paper, we investigated the Raman spectroscopy and photo-bleaching kinetics of dyes in the absence/presence of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene. We show that graphene enhances the Raman signal of a wide range of dyes. The photo-bleaching of the dyes was reduced when the dyes were in contact with graphene. In contrast, monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) was much less effective in reducing the photo-bleaching rate of the dyes. We attribute the suppression of photo-bleaching to the energy or electron transfer from dye to graphene. The results highlight the potential of CVD graphene as a substrate for protecting and enhancing Raman response of organic dyes.

  12. Detection of oxidative hair treatment using fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Witt, Silvana; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2016-08-01

    In assessing abstinence from drug or alcohol abuse, hair analysis plays an important role. Cosmetic hair treatment influences the content of deposited drugs which is not always detectable during analysis. Since oxidation of melanin leads to an increase in fluorescence, a microscopic method was developed to distinguish natural from cosmetically treated hair. For validation, natural hair samples were treated with different types of cosmetics and inspected by fluorescence microscopy. Hair samples from 20 volunteers with documented cosmetic treatment and as a proof of concept 100 hair samples from forensic cases were analyzed by this method. Apart from autofluorescence with excitation at 365 nm, no obvious fluorescence was observed in untreated hair samples. Tinting and a natural plant product had no influence on fluorescence, but dyeing procedures including oxidation led to a marked increase in fluorescence. Proof of cosmetic treatment was achieved in hair samples from the 20 volunteers. In 100 forensic cases, 13 samples were characterized as oxidatively treated, which was in accordance with the respective disclosure except for one case where treatment was not admitted. This fluorescence microscopic procedure proved to be fast, easy, and reliable to identify oxidatively treated hair samples, which must be considered especially in evaluating cases of negative drug results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Human hair pigmentation--biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Tobin, D J

    2008-08-01

    Skin and hair colour contribute significantly to our overall visual appearance and to social/sexual communication. Despite their shared origins in the embryologic neural crest, the hair follicle and epidermal pigmentary units occupy distinct, although open, cutaneous compartments. They can be distinguished principally on the basis of the former's stringent coupling to the hair growth cycle compared with the latter's continuous melanogenesis. The biosynthesis of melanin and its subsequent transfer from melanocyte to hair bulb keratinocytes depend on the availability of melanin precursors and on a raft of signal transduction pathways that are both highly complex and commonly redundant. These signalling pathways can be both dependent and independent of receptors, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. Despite many shared features, follicular melanocytes appear to be more sensitive than epidermal melanocytes to ageing influences. This can be seen most dramatically in hair greying/canities and this is likely to reflect significant differences in the epidermal and follicular microenvironments. The hair follicle pigmentary unit may also serve as an important environmental sensor, whereby hair pigment contributes to the rapid excretion of heavy metals, chemicals and toxins from the body by their selective binding to melanin; rendering the hair fibre a useful barometer of exposures. The recent availability of advanced cell culture methodologies for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture should provide the research tools necessary to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. In the longer term, it may be feasible to develop hair colour modifiers of a biological nature to accompany those based on chemicals.

  14. Chemical or electrochemical techniques, followed by ion exchange, for recycle of textile dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Raghu, S; Ahmed Basha, C

    2007-10-22

    This paper examines the use of chemical or electrocoagulation treatment process followed by ion-exchange process of the textile dye effluent. The dye effluent was treated using polymeric coagulant (cationic dye-fixing agent) or electrocoagulation (iron and aluminum electrode) process under various conditions such as various current densities and effect of pH. Efficiencies of COD reduction, colour removal and power consumption were studied for each process. The chemical or electrochemical treatment are indented primarily to remove colour and COD of wastewater while ion exchange is used to further improve the removal efficiency of the colour, COD, Fe concentration, conductivity, alkalinity and total dissolved solids (TDS). From the results chemical coagulation, maximum COD reduction of about 81.3% was obtained at 300 mg/l of coagulant whereas in electrocoagulation process, maximum COD removal of about 92.31% (0.25 A/dm2) was achieved with energy consumption of about 19.29 k Wh/kg of COD and 80% (1A/dm(2)) COD removal was obtained with energy consumption of about 130.095 k Wh/kg of COD at iron and aluminum electrodes, respectively. All the experimental results, throughout the present study, have indicated that chemical or electrocoagulation treatment followed by ion-exchange methods were very effective and were capable of elevating quality of the treated wastewater effluent to the reuse standard of the textile industry.

  15. Enhancing and inhibiting effects of aromatic compounds on luminol-dimethylsulfoxide-OH(-) chemiluminescence and determination of intermediates in oxidative hair dyes by HPLC with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Xu, Hong; Wan, Guo-Hui; Duan, Chun-Feng; Cui, Hua

    2004-10-08

    The effect of 36 aromatic compounds on the luminol-dimethylsulfoxide-OH(-) chemiluminescence (CL) was systematically studied. It was found that dihydroxybenzenes, and ortho- and para-substituted aminophenols and phenylenediamines inhibited the CL and phenols with three or more than three hydroxyls except phloroglucin tended to enhance the CL. The CL inhibition and enhancement was proposed to be dependent on whether superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) was competitively consumed by compounds in the CL system. Trihydroxybenzenes were capable of generating superoxide anion radical, leading to the CL enhancement, whereas dihydroxybenzenes were superoxide anion radical scavenger, causing the CL inhibition. Based on the inhibited CL, a novel method for the simultaneous determination of p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, p-aminophenol, o-aminophenol, resorcinol and hydroquinone by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with chemiluminescence detection was developed. The method has been successfully applied to determine intermediates in oxidative hair dyes and wastewater of shampooing after hair dyed.

  16. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  17. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  18. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.9 Samples of products, water, dyes...

  19. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.9 Samples of products, water, dyes...

  20. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.9 Samples of products, water, dyes...

  1. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.9 Samples of products, water, dyes...

  2. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.9 Samples of products, water, dyes...

  3. Physical-chemical characterization of the textile dye Azo Ab52 degradation by corona plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, A.; Torres-Arenas, A. J.; Vergara-Sánchez, J.; Torres, C.; Reyes, P. G.; Martínez, H.; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo

    2017-10-01

    This work characterizes the degradation of the textile dye azo Acid Black 52 by measuring several physical and chemical parameters. A corona plasma was created at atmospheric pressure and applied on the liquid-air interface of water samples containing the dye. 1.0 mM of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) was added to 1.0 mM dye solution, for a total volume of 250 mL. For each treatment, a number of parameters were quantified. These were voltage, current, temperature, loss of volume, pH, electrical conductivity, concentration, optical mission spectra, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and the removal ratio. Because of the increase in the sample temperature, the volume lost by evaporation was explored. The results show that the efficiency of the dye degradation by plasma is a function of treatment time. Moreover, the reactive concentration of FeSO4 and the exposition time of the plasma were varied at a constant volume, leading to the determination of the concentrations and optimal times. Considering the degradation and removal parameters, at the maximum treated time of 80 min, it found that COD was of 96.36%, TOC of 93.93%, and the removal ratio of 97.47%.

  4. Evaluation of chemical fluorescent dyes as a protein conjugation partner for live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Stasevich, Timothy J; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab) fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph) and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac). These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye:protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green), Cy3 (red), and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red).

  5. A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A; Adams, Christopher M; Cheng, Alan G; Heller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses.

  6. Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Lenk, Robert; Dellinger, Anthony; MacFarland, Darren; Kumar, Krishan; Wilson, Stephen R; Kepley, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 "bald" mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle numbers. In shaved mice, fullerenes increase the rate of hair growth as compared with mice receiving vehicle only. In SKH-1 hairless mice fullerene derivatives given topically or subdermally markedly increased hair growth. This was paralleled by a significant increase in the number of hair follicles in fullerene-treated mice as compared with those mice treated with vehicle only. The fullerenes also increased hair growth in human skin sections maintained in culture. These studies have wide-ranging implications for those conditions leading to hair loss, including alopecia, chemotherapy, and reactions to various chemicals.

  7. Chemical-induced Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Chemical-induced depigmentation of the skin has been recognized for over 75 years, first as an occupational hazard but then extending to those using household commercial products as common as hair dyes. Since their discovery, these chemicals have been used therapeutically in patients with severe vitiligo to depigment their remaining skin and improve their appearance. The importance of recognizing this phenomenon was highlighted during an outbreak of vitiligo in Japan during the summer of 2013, when over 16,000 users of a new skin lightening cosmetic cream developed skin depigmentation at the site of contact with the cream and many in remote areas as well. Depigmenting chemicals appear to be analogs of the amino acid tyrosine that disrupt melanogenesis and result in autoimmunity and melanocyte destruction. Because chemical-induced depigmentation is clinically and histologically indistinguishable from non-chemically induced vitiligo, and because these chemicals appear to induce melanocyte autoimmunity, this phenomenon should be known as “chemical-induced vitiligo”, rather than less accurate terms that have been previously used. PMID:28317525

  8. MRI of human hair.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Eveline; Weiger, Markus; Schmidig, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter; Fey, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added by demonstrating the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human hair. Established dedicated nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy hardware (solenoidal radiofrequency microcoils and planar field gradients) and methods (constant time imaging) were adapted to the specific needs of hair MRI. Images were produced at a spatial resolution high enough to resolve the inner structure of the hair, showing contrast between cortex and medulla. Quantitative evaluation of a scan series with different echo times provided a T*(2) value of 2.6 ms for the cortex and a water content of about 90% for hairs saturated with water. The demonstration of the feasibility of hair MRI potentially adds a new tool to the large variety of analytical methods used nowadays in the development of hair care products.

  9. Characterisation of chemical components for identifying historical Chinese textile dyes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography - photodiode array - electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wanrooij, Jantien; van Bommel, Maarten; Quye, Anita

    2017-01-06

    This research makes the first attempt to apply Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to both Photodiode Array detection (PDA) and Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (ESI-MS) to the chemical characterisation of common textile dyes in ancient China. Three different extraction methods, respectively involving dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-oxalic acid, DMSO and hydrochloric acid, are unprecedentedly applied together to achieve an in-depth understanding of the chemical composition of these dyes. The first LC-PDA-MS database of the chemical composition of common dyes in ancient China has been established. The phenomena of esterification and isomerisation of the dye constituents of gallnut, gardenia and saffron, and the dye composition of acorn cup dyed silk are clarified for the first time. 6-Hydroxyrubiadin and its glycosides are first reported on a dyed sample with Rubia cordifolia from China. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS with a C18 BEH shield column shows significant advantages in the separation and identification of similar dye constituents, particularly in the cases of analysing pagoda bud and turmeric dyed sample extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hair chemical element contents and influence factors of reproductive-age women in the West Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shanshan; Yuan, Haodong; Ma, Xiaoling; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Women have an increased risk for chemical element deficiencies during reproductive age, particularly due to higher chemical element requirements and poor diets. Twenty-one chemical elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) in hair samples, which were collected from 71 non-pregnant and 236 pregnant women living in the West Ujimqin Banner, central Inner Mongolia, China, were measured, and the environment, dietary habits and ethnic group influence factors associated with the biomarker were analyzed. The results indicated that the average values of the chemical element contents from hair were greatly different compared to those from other areas, especially the Al, Cd, Pb, Ca and Sr contents. There was no significant difference among the three ethnicities for any element except Mn and Ti in non-pregnant women. Compared to non-pregnant women, in the first trimester group, the levels of nine chemical elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, Si, Sn and Ti) decreased, while the others increased, and the contents of all of the chemical elements decreased in the second trimester group, while in the third trimester, there was a slight increase. Three chemical elements (Cu, Mn and Zn) displayed a synergistic correlation between each other in the third trimester group, which may protect the placenta from some oxidant damage. The high levels of Cd and Pb in hair likely originate from house renovations and traffic pollution. This study provided basic and useful information on the levels of chemical elements in reproductive-age women, and the results of this study are helpful to control the contents and improve the health of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  13. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  14. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The impact of demographic factors, behaviors and environmental exposure to mercury content in the hair of the population living in the region of Lodz (central Poland).

    PubMed

    Marcinek-Jacel, Marta; Albińska, Jadwiga; Pawlaczyk, Aleksandra; Szynkowska, Małgorzata Iwona

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to access the influence of different factors such as sex, age, fish consumption, hair dyeing or smoking habit on the content of mercury in human hair samples. The research was carried on 444 samples (102 males and 342 females) collected from the population of people living in the region of Lodz (central Poland). The content of mercury in human hair samples was determined using the Mercury Analyzer MA 3000 (Nippon Instruments, Japan). The obtained results were elaborated using Statistica ver. 10.0 software. The mean value of mercury in investigated human hair samples was found to be 0.174±0.137mg/kg. We observed the statistically significant correlations (p<0.05) between the content of Hg in hair of the studied population and factors such as gender, age, and fish consumption. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relation to cosmetic treatment such as hair dyeing or smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The nail and hair in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Daniel, C Ralph; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2004-02-01

    Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the hair or nail symptoms. Drugs and toxins that can be detected in hair and nails are reviewed and the application of hair/nail analysis in general and in forensic medicine is discussed.

  17. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibres with loss of pigmentation in a photoprotected population.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, P D; Polefka, T; Grove, G; Daly, S; Jumbelic, L; Harper, D; Nori, M; Evans, T; Ramaprasad, R; Bianchini, R

    2011-04-01

    Loss of pigmentation in hair fibres is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes with ageing and has been a topic of increasing interest in the study of follicle biology. The onset of greying brings cosmetic complaints that grey fibres are wild or difficult to manage. Of course, these perceptions may be the consequence of visual obviousness rather than underlying physical or chemical differences. Although several studies have compared pigmented and unpigmented fibres, few have tried to control genetic and ethnic difference as well as extrinsic factors such as photoexposure and chemical treatment. We have recruited subjects with salt-and-pepper hair from a population of Old Order Mennonites who, for cultural reasons, are not only prohibited from chemically treating their hair but also limit their exposure to sunlight. Hair samples were examined for elemental composition, surface energy, Young's modulus, break stress, bending modulus, shear modulus and water sorption/desorption isotherm. The parameters were evaluated statistically for global differences, individual differences and typical individual differences. Consistent with previous published literature, few global differences were found between pigmented and unpigmented hair across the population. We do find that many individual subjects had differences between pigmented and unpigmented fibres. These differences tend to be more pronounced in bulk than in surface properties. The small differences in mechanical properties and moisture uptake and loss lend support to the perception by consumers that grey hair is wilder, drier and less manageable. © 2011 TRI/Princeton. Journal compilation. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-07-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice-carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), was present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice-producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity, and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth on the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and preventing them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S) compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as being the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  20. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-04-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide, respectively, suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), has been present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth at the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and to prevent them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S)-compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  1. Influence of functionalized silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and on the relationship with the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly.

    PubMed

    Dussaud, Anne; Fieschi-Corso, Lara

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that silicones alter hair surface properties and that silicones have a significant impact on the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, such as visual appearance, combing performance and manageability of the hair. In order to fine-tune the chemistry of functionlized silicones for specific consumer benefits and hair types, we investigated the influence of silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and their correlation to hair volume. The incline plane fiber loop method, implemented with a high-precision motorized rotary stage, was used to quantify the fiber-fiber interactions. Low load static friction was studied as a function of polymer molecular weight, dose and chemical architecture. This information was related to the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, using virgin curly hair in high humidity.

  2. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  3. Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

  4. New keratin isolates: actives for natural hair protection.

    PubMed

    Roddick-Lanzilotta, Alisa; Kelly, Rob; Scott, Sonya; Chahal, Surinder

    2007-01-01

    Hair is primarily composed of keratin proteins and it is well established that peptides and proteins bestow desirable effects on the hair, for example improving moisturization and softness. In the present work we describe how keratin actives with unique properties convey a range of beneficial properties to a variety of hair types. It has been observed that these functional keratins protect hair from damage associated with chemical treatments such as perming and relaxation, help to restore the mechanical strength of damaged fibers and decrease fading of colored hair.

  5. Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

    2015-03-01

    Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    PubMed

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts.

  7. Hair-Cell Mechanotransduction Persists in TRP Channel Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Niksch, Paul D.; Webber, Roxanna M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel; Watnick, Terry; Zhou, Jing; Vollrath, Melissa A.; Corey, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the TRP superfamily of ion channels mediate mechanosensation in some organisms, and have been suggested as candidates for the mechanotransduction channel in vertebrate hair cells. Some TRP channels can be ruled out based on lack of an inner ear phenotype in knockout animals or pore properties not similar to the hair-cell channel. Such studies have excluded Trpv4, Trpa1, Trpml3, Trpm1, Trpm3, Trpc1, Trpc3, Trpc5, and Trpc6. However, others remain reasonable candidates. We used data from an RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in hair cells as well as data on TRP channel conductance to narrow the candidate group. We then characterized mice lacking functional Trpm2, Pkd2, Pkd2l1, Pkd2l2 and Pkd1l3, using scanning electron microscopy, auditory brainstem response, permeant dye accumulation, and single-cell electrophysiology. In all of these TRP-deficient mice, and in double and triple knockouts, mechanotransduction persisted. Together with published studies, these results argue against the participation of any of the 33 mouse TRP channels in hair cell transduction. PMID:27196058

  8. Application of a combined process of moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and chemical coagulation for dyeing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Shin, W S; Kim, Y H; Han, Myung Ho; Choi, S J

    2006-01-01

    A combined process consisted of a Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) and chemical coagulation was investigated for textile wastewater treatment. The pilot scale MBBR system is composed of three MBBRs (anaerobic, aerobic-1 and aerobic-2 in series), each reactor was filled with 20% (v/v) of polyurethane-activated carbon (PU-AC) carrier for biological treatment followed by chemical coagulation with FeCl2. ln the MBBR process, 85% of COD and 70% of color (influent COD = 807.5 mg/L and color = 3,400 PtCo unit) were removed using relatively low MLSS concentration and short hydraulic retention time (HRT = 44 hr). The biologically treated dyeing wastewater was subjected to chemical coagulation. After coagulation with FeCl2, 95% of COD and 97% of color were removed overall. The combined process of MBBR and chemical coagulation has promising potential for dyeing wastewater treatment.

  9. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair tonic, give them water or milk right away, ...

  10. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair bleach, give them water or milk right away, ...

  11. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields

  12. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  13. Molecular engineering of fluorescein dyes as complementary absorbers in dye co-sensitized solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Pepe, Giulio; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.; ...

    2016-09-22

    Fluorescein dye derivatives exhibit extended optical absorption up to 500 nm, rendering these compounds suitable as co-absorbers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A molecular engineering approach is presented, which embraces this intrinsic optical attribute of fluoresceins, while modifying the dye chemistry to enhance their light harvesting efficiency, in order to effectively tailor them for DSC applications. This approach first realizes relationships between the molecular structure and the optoelectronic properties for a series of five a priori known (parent) fluorescein dyes: 5-carboxyfluorescein (1), a mixture of m-carboxyfluorescein where m = 5 or 6 (2), 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (3), 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (4), amore » mixture of n-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate where n = 5 or 6 (5). The first step in this approach combines, where available, experimental and computational methods so that electronic structure calculations can also be validated for representative fluorescein dyes. Such calculations can then be used reliably to predict the structure and properties of fluorescein dyes for cases where experimental data are lacking. Structure-function relationships established from this initial step inform the selection of parent dye 1 that is taken forward to the second step in molecular engineering: in silico chemical derivation to re-functionalize 1 for DSC applications. For this purpose, computational calculations are used to extend the charge conjugation in 1 between its donor and acceptor moieties. These structural modifications result in a bathochromic shift of the lowest excitation by ~1.3-1.9 eV (100-170 nm), making the dye optically absorb in the visible region. Further calculations on dye molecules adsorbed onto the surface of a TiO 2 cluster are used to investigate the dye sensitization behavior via dye adsorption energies and anchoring modes. The results of this theoretical investigation lead to two molecularly engineered

  14. Molecular engineering of fluorescein dyes as complementary absorbers in dye co-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pepe, Giulio; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.

    Fluorescein dye derivatives exhibit extended optical absorption up to 500 nm, rendering these compounds suitable as co-absorbers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A molecular engineering approach is presented, which embraces this intrinsic optical attribute of fluoresceins, while modifying the dye chemistry to enhance their light harvesting efficiency, in order to effectively tailor them for DSC applications. This approach first realizes relationships between the molecular structure and the optoelectronic properties for a series of five a priori known (parent) fluorescein dyes: 5-carboxyfluorescein (1), a mixture of m-carboxyfluorescein where m = 5 or 6 (2), 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (3), 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (4), amore » mixture of n-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate where n = 5 or 6 (5). The first step in this approach combines, where available, experimental and computational methods so that electronic structure calculations can also be validated for representative fluorescein dyes. Such calculations can then be used reliably to predict the structure and properties of fluorescein dyes for cases where experimental data are lacking. Structure-function relationships established from this initial step inform the selection of parent dye 1 that is taken forward to the second step in molecular engineering: in silico chemical derivation to re-functionalize 1 for DSC applications. For this purpose, computational calculations are used to extend the charge conjugation in 1 between its donor and acceptor moieties. These structural modifications result in a bathochromic shift of the lowest excitation by ~1.3-1.9 eV (100-170 nm), making the dye optically absorb in the visible region. Further calculations on dye molecules adsorbed onto the surface of a TiO 2 cluster are used to investigate the dye sensitization behavior via dye adsorption energies and anchoring modes. The results of this theoretical investigation lead to two molecularly engineered

  15. Hair analyses: worthless for vitamins, limited for minerals.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K M

    1982-11-01

    Despite many major and minor problems with interpretation of analytical data, chemical analyses of human hair have some potential value. Extensive research will be necessary to define this value, including correlation of hair concentrations of specific elements with those in other tissues and metabolic pools and definition of normal physiological concentration ranges. Many factors that may compromise the correct interpretation of analytical data require detailed evaluation for each specific element. Meanwhile, hair analyses are of some value in the comparison of different populations and, for example, in public health community surveys of environmental exposure to heavy metals. On an individual basis, their established usefulness is much more restricted and the limitations are especially notable for evaluation of mineral nutritional status. There is a wide gulf between the limited and mainly tentative scientific justification for their use on an individual basis and the current exploitation of multielement chemical analyses of human hair.

  16. Discovery of black dye crystal structure polymorphs: Implications for dye conformational variation in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Cole, Jacqueline M.; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-11-24

    Here, we present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world’s leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO 2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiplemore » conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO 2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO 2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes.« less

  17. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N.; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.

    2015-02-03

    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue Amore » (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.« less

  18. A closer look at the complex hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions forces at the human hair surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadli, N.; Luengo, G. S.; Recherche, L.

    2008-03-01

    The complex chemical structure of the hair surface is far from being completely understood. Current understanding is based on Rivett's model1 that was proposed to explain the macroscopic hydrophobic nature of the surface of natural hair. In this model covalently-linked fatty acids are chemically grafted to the amorphous protein (keratin) through a thio-ester linkage2,3. Nevertheless, experience like wetting and electrical properties of human hair surface4 shows that the complexity of the hair surface is not fully understand based on this model in literature. Recent studies in our laboratory show for the first time microscopic evidence of the heterogeneous physico-chemical character of the hair surface. By using Chemical Force Microscopy, the presence of hydrophobic and ionic species are detected and localized, before and after a cosmetic treatment (bleaching). Based on force curve analysis the mapping of the local distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups of hair surface is obtained. A discussion on a more plausible hair model and its implications will be presented based on these new results.

  19. Kinetics and equilibrium of solute diffusion into human hair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Longjian; Han, Lujia; Lian, Guoping

    2012-12-01

    The uptake kinetics of five molecules by hair has been measured and the effects of pH and physical chemical properties of molecules were investigated. A theoretical model is proposed to analyze the experimental data. The results indicate that the binding affinity of solute to hair, as characterized by hair-water partition coefficient, scales to the hydrophobicity of the solute and decreases dramatically as the pH increases to the dissociation constant. The effective diffusion coefficient of solute depended not only on the molecular size as most previous studies suggested, but also on the binding affinity as well as solute dissociation. It appears that the uptake of molecules by hair is due to both hydrophobic interaction and ionic charge interaction. Based on theoretical considerations of the cellular structure, composition and physical chemical properties of hair, quantitative-structure-property-relationships (QSPR) have been proposed to predict the hair-water partition coefficient (PC) and the effective diffusion coefficient (D (e)) of solute. The proposed QSPR models fit well with the experimental data. This paper could be taken as a reference for investigating the adsorption properties for polymeric materials, fibres, and biomaterials.

  20. Influence of pesticide physicochemical properties on the association between plasma and hair concentration.

    PubMed

    Chata, Caroline; M Hardy, Emilie; Grova, Nathalie; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2016-05-01

    Although the relationship between chemical intake and resulting concentration in hair remains incompletely elucidated, the transfer from blood to hair bulb living cells is generally considered the main route of incorporation. The present work investigated the correlation between blood and hair concentration of 23 pesticides/metabolites from different chemical classes in rats submitted to chronic controlled exposure. Long-Evans rats were administered pesticides by gavage three times per week over a 90-day period. After hair sample decontamination, pulverization, and extraction, compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Blood was collected at sacrifice, immediately turned into plasma, and analyzed after extraction for the same compounds by GC-MS/MS. The data obtained for all the investigated compounds demonstrated significant association between plasma and hair concentrations (P value of 2.97E-45 and R(Pearson) of 0.875), with the exception of three outliers. For all the target compounds, water solubility, lipophilicity, molecular weight, and charge were therefore investigated in order to understand the role of these parameters in outliers' specific behavior. Although a possible change in the charge through the transfer from blood to hair might be suspected for two outliers, on the whole the physicochemical parameters investigated here did not seem to influence incorporation of chemicals into hair. Our results support that the concentration of chemicals in hair mainly depends on the respective concentration in plasma and suggest that for most compounds, the transfer from blood to hair would not represent a limiting step in the incorporation.

  1. The chemical bonds effect of Amaranthus hybridus L. and Dracaena Angustifolia on TiO2 as photo-sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar Cells (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahliha, A. H.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-08-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) consists of a working electrode, dye, electrolyte, and a counter electrode. The paper showed the effect of chemical bonds Dracaena Angustifolia (suji leaves) and Amaranthus Hybridus L. (spinach leaves) on TiO2 for application in DSSC. Dracaena Angustifolia (suji leaves) and Amaranthus Hybridus L. (spinach leaves) were extracted using acetone solvent as a dye containing chlorophyll, the absorbance spectrum of the dye and TiO2 were characterized using Uv-visible spectrophotometer 1601 PC, the chemical bonds contained in TiO2-dye was characterized using FT-IR spectrophotometer Shimadzu Prestige 21. The efficiency of DSSC was calculated using I-V Keithley 2602A. Absorbance characterization of dye Dracaena Angustifolia showed two peaks at the wavelength of 665,5 nm and 412 nm. The absorbance peaks of dye Amaranthus Hybridus L. at the wavelength of 664 nm and 412,5 nm. FT-IR characterization of TiO2 founded the functional groups C=C-C, C=C-H, C-O, C-H, C=C, C-H aliphatic, and O-H. Dye Amaranthus Hybridus L. obtained functional groups C=C-C, C=C-H, C-O, C-H, C=C, C=O, C-H aliphatic, and O-H. Dye Dracaena Angustifolia obtained functional groups were identified as C=C-C, C=C-H, C-O, C-H, C=C, C-H aliphatic, and O-H. DSSC efficiency with Amaranthus Hybridus L. and Dracaena Angustifolia dyes of 0,063% and 0,058% respectively

  2. Dyes for displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  3. Hair Breakage in Patients of African Descent: Role of Dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Quaresma, Maria Victória; Martinez Velasco, María Abril; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy represents a useful technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. To date, little has been published regarding dermoscopy findings of hair disorders in patients of African descent. This article illustrates how dermoscopy allows fast diagnosis of hair breakage due to intrinsic factors and chemical damage in African descent patients. PMID:27170942

  4. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  5. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation and characterization of novel super-artificial hair fiber based on biomass materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Sen; Gong, Yumei

    2017-06-01

    A novel super-artificial hair fiber basing on sodium alginate (SA) and Antarctic Krill protein (AKP) was prepared by wet spinning successfully. Such SA/AKP fiber did not only have similar crystalline structure with human hair, but also had super flame resistance and mechanical performance. It should be noted that the whole preparation process was green without any incorporation of non-toxic solution. Moreover, comparing with human hair, the SA/AKP fiber had a lot of unique groove upon the fiber surface, which contributed a lot to excellent hygroscopicity. Meanwhile, the dyeing performance could be improved notably due to incorporation of protein into the matrix. Herein, the SA/AKP fiber with superior mechanical and functional performance had practical value for application in the field of synthetic wig. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Forensic aspects of thermal changes in human head hair].

    PubMed

    Kijewski, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Under experimental conditions, head hairs of individuals of different age were exposed to defined increases of temperature up to 450 degrees C and examined by transmitted- and reflected-light microscopy with and without polarization. Preliminary tests had shown that the hair changes alone do not allow conclusions as to the temperature acting on the hair. Especially in the range of 200 to 300 degrees C, the temperature gradient during the heating process and the exposure time were additional influencing factors. Thick hair and hair with a high water content showed more pronounced thermal changes than thin hair. Elasticity and permeability of the cuticle and the cementing substance (cell membrane complex CMC) are also relevant factors. When heating head hairs lacking a medulla, a multiform pseudo-medulla formed under certain conditions. In the presence of thermally induced structural disturbances (e.g. by using hair straighteners), foreign substances can penetrate more easily into the hair shaft from outside. The possibility of such exogenous contamination has to be taken into consideration when performing chemical and toxicological analyses of hair.

  8. Understanding breakage in curly hair.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Bragado, G A; Balooch, G; Dixon-Parks, F; Porter, C; Bryant, H

    2015-07-01

    In 2005, the L'Oréal Institute for hair and skin research carried out a multiethnic study to investigate hair breakage in women residing in the U.S.A. In this study it was reported that a large percentage (96%) of the African-American respondents experience breakage. A combination of structural differences and grooming-induced stresses seem to contribute to the higher breakage incidence in the African-American group as the chemical composition of African-American hair is not significantly different from other ethnic groups. Some authors have proposed that the repeated elongation, torsion and flexion actions may affect the components of the hair fibre. However, considering the different properties of cuticle and cortex, one would expect a different wearing mechanism of each, leading to the ultimate failure of hair. Knowing in detail how each part of the structure fails can potentially lead to better ways to protect the hair from physical insults. To investigate crack propagation and fracture mechanisms in African-American hair. Virgin hair of excellent quality was collected, with informed consent, from a female African-American volunteer. A series of controlled mechanical stresses was applied to 10-mm hair sections using a high-resolution mechanical stage (20 mN) up to the fracture of the fibre. The surface was monitored using scanning electron microscopy imaging during the stress application. X-ray tomographic microscopy images were acquired and quantified to detect changes in energy absorption as a function of applied stress that could be linked to increase in crack density. Analysis of the mechanical response of hair combined with the two imaging techniques led us to propose the following mechanism of hair breakage: cuticle sliding; failure of the cuticle-cortex interface; nucleation of intercellular cracks and growth of cracks at the cuticle-cortex junction; and propagation of intercellular cracks towards the surface of the hair and final breakage when these

  9. Discovery and structural elucidation of the illegal azo dye Basic Red 46 in sumac spice.

    PubMed

    Ruf, J; Walter, P; Kandler, H; Kaufmann, A

    2012-01-01

    An unknown red dye was discovered in a sumac spice sample during routine analysis for Sudan dyes. LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS did not reveal the identity of the red substance. Nevertheless, using LC-high-resolution MS and isotope ratio comparisons the structure was identified as Basic Red 46. The identity of the dye was further confirmed by comparison with a commercial hair-staining product and two textile dye formulations containing Basic Red 46. Analogous to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is an azo dye. However, some of the sample clean-up methodology utilised for the analysis of Sudan dyes in food prevents its successful detection. In contrast to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is a cation. Its cationic properties make it bind strongly to gel permeation columns and silica solid-phase extraction cartridges and prevent elution with standard eluents. This is the first report of Basic Red 46 in food. The structure elucidation of this compound as well as the disadvantages of analytical methods focusing on a narrow group of targeted analytes are discussed.

  10. Coloring, bleaching, and perming: influence on EtG content in hair.

    PubMed

    Kerekes, Isabelle; Yegles, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become, beside fatty acid ethyl ester, a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic excessive alcohol consumption. So far, only few studies exist about the influence of cosmetic treatment on EtG content in hair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of coloring, bleaching, and perming on the concentration of this alcohol marker in hair. Studies were also performed to evaluate the chemical stability of EtG in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and ammonium thioglycolate. Six air samples were treated in vitro by the different commercial cosmetics following the suppliers' instructions. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, and solid phase extraction, EtG was determined by GC/MS-NICI after solid phase extraction and heptafluorobutyric anhydride derivatization. The results showed that samples (n = 10) treated with the coloring product did not show any important change in the EtG results. In the bleaching study (n = 23), a mean decrease of 73.5% was observed. After incubation of a solution of EtG with hydrogen peroxide (15%), a decrease of 45% was shown supporting the hypothesis of a chemical degradation of EtG and a leaching out effect from the hair matrix. In the perm treatment study (n = 23), a mean decrease of 95.7% of EtG was found. Incubation of a solution of EtG with ammonium thioglycolate (5%) showed a total decrease of EtG supporting the hypothesis of a chemical degradation. Coloring treatment did not importantly influence EtG content in hair. However, an important decrease of EtG in hair could be found after bleaching and permanent wave treatment. This decrease seems to be because of a chemical degradation of EtG, after bleaching, and a leaching out effect from the matrix. After perming, it seems to be more of a chemical degradation of EtG. These data have to be considered for the correct interpretation of EtG amounts in hair.

  11. Partial Least Squares Regression Calibration of an Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer for Measurements of Chemical Oxygen Demand in Dye Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, W.; Zhang, J.-F.; Zhao, X.-M.; Li, Z.; Xu, Z.-W.

    2017-11-01

    Wastewater from the dye industry is typically analyzed using a standard method for measurement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) or by a single-wavelength spectroscopic method. To overcome the disadvantages of these methods, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was combined with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) in this study. Unlike the standard method, this method does not require digestion of the samples for preparation. Experiments showed that the PLSR model offered high prediction performance for COD, with a mean relative error of about 5% for two dyes. This error is similar to that obtained with the standard method. In this study, the precision of the PLSR model decreased with the number of dye compounds present. It is likely that multiple models will be required in reality, and the complexity of a COD monitoring system would be greatly reduced if the PLSR model is used because it can include several dyes. UV-Vis spectroscopy with PLSR successfully enhanced the performance of COD prediction for dye wastewater and showed good potential for application in on-line water quality monitoring.

  12. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  13. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

    2013-03-06

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line.

  14. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew J.; Hailey, Dale W.; Stawicki, Tamara M.; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.; Simon, Julian A.; Ou, Henry C.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analogue of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  15. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-05

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  17. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions.

    PubMed

    Peme, Thabo; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Bahadur, Indra; Adekunle, Abolanle S; Kabanda, Mwadham M; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-09-02

    The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS), Amaranth (AM), Allura Red (AR), Tartrazine (TZ) and Fast Green (FG), for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase in concentration, and decreases with increase in temperature. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the dyes increases in the presence of KI due to synergistic interactions of the dye molecules with iodide (I(-)) ions. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied dyes are mixed-type inhibitors both in the absence and presence of KI. The adsorption of the studied dyes on mild steel surface, with and without KI, obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves physical adsorption mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the most likely sites in the dye molecules for interactions with mild steel are the S, O, and N heteroatoms.

  18. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR. PMID:26640791

  19. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  20. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  1. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  2. Electrophysiological property and chemical sensitivity of primary afferent neurons that innervate rat whisker hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ryo; Gu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Whisker hair follicles are sensory organs that sense touch and perform tactile discrimination in animals, and they are sites where sensory impulses are initiated when whisker hairs touch an object. The sensory signals are then conveyed by whisker afferent fibers to the brain for sensory perception. Electrophysiological property and chemical sensitivity of whisker afferent fibers, important factors affecting whisker sensory processing, are largely not known. In the present study, we performed patch-clamp recordings from pre-identified whisker afferent neurons in whole-mount trigeminal ganglion preparations and characterized their electrophysiological property and sensitivity to ATP, serotonin and glutamate. Of 97 whisker afferent neurons examined, 67% of them are found to be large-sized (diameter ≥45 µm) cells and 33% of them are medium- to small-sized (diameter <45 µm) cells. Almost every large-sized whisker afferent neuron fires a single action potential but many (40%) small/medium-sized whisker afferent neurons fire multiple action potentials in response to prolonged stepwise depolarization. Other electrophysiological properties including resting membrane potential, action potential threshold, and membrane input resistance are also significantly different between large-sized and small/medium-sized whisker afferent neurons. Most large-sized and many small/medium-sized whisker afferent neurons are sensitive to ATP and/or serotonin, and ATP and/or serotonin could evoke strong inward currents in these cells. In contrast, few whisker afferent neurons are sensitive to glutamate. Our results raise a possibility that ATP and/or serotonin may be chemical messengers involving sensory signaling for different types of rat whisker afferent fibers.

  3. Hair Follicle Miniaturization in a Woolly Hair Nevus: A Novel "Root" Perspective for a Mosaic Hair Disorder.

    PubMed

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Perez, Alfonso; Hoque, Shamali R; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fleck, Roland A; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a mosaic disorder characterized by unruly, tightly curled hair in a circumscribed area of the scalp. This condition may be associated with epidermal nevi. We describe an 11-year-old boy who initially presented with multiple patches of woolly hair and with epidermal nevi on his left cheek and back. He had no nail, teeth, eye, or cardiac abnormalities. Analysis of plucked hairs from patches of woolly hair showed twisting of the hair shaft and an abnormal hair cuticle. Histopathology of a woolly hair patch showed diffuse hair follicle miniaturization with increased vellus hairs.

  4. Direct grafting of long-lived luminescent indicator dyes to GaN light-emitting diodes for chemical microsensor development.

    PubMed

    López-Gejo, Juan; Navarro-Tobar, Álvaro; Arranz, Antonio; Palacio, Carlos; Muñoz, Elías; Orellana, Guillermo

    2011-10-01

    Two new methods for covalent functionalization of GaN based on plasma activation of its surface are presented. Both of them allow attachment of sulfonated luminescent ruthenium(II) indicator dyes to the p- and n-type semiconductor as well as to the surface of nonencapsulated chips of GaN light-emitting diodes (blue LEDs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the functionalized semiconductor confirms the formation of covalent bonds between the GaN surface and the dye. Confocal fluorescence microscopy with single-photon-timing (SPT) detection has been used for characterization of the functionalized surfaces and LED chips. While the ruthenium complex attached to p-GaN under an oxygen-free atmosphere gives significantly long mean emission lifetimes for the indicator dye (ca. 2000 ns), the n-GaN-functionalized surfaces display surprisingly low values (600 ns), suggesting the occurrence of a quenching process. A photoinduced electron injection from the dye to the semiconductor conduction band, followed by a fast back electron transfer, is proposed to be responsible for the excited ruthenium dye deactivation. This process invalidates the use of the n-GaN/dye system for sensing applications. However, for p-GaN/dye materials, the luminescence decay accelerates in the presence of O(2). The moderate sensitivity is attributed to the fact that only a monolayer of indicator dye is anchored to the semiconductor surface but serves as a demonstrator device. Moreover, the luminescence decays of the functionalized LED chip measured with excitation of either an external (laser) source or the underlying LED emission (from p-GaN/InGaN quantum wells) yield the same mean luminescence lifetime. These results pave the way for using advanced LEDs to develop integrateable optochemical microsensors for gas analysis. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Ethanol affects the development of sensory hair cells in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Phillip M; Asuncion, James D; Matsui, Jonathan I

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%-1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS.

  6. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation.

  7. Development and characterization of an IPMC hair-like transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Challita, Elio; Khairalah, Nady

    2015-04-01

    Hair-like sensors are very common in natural and biological systems. Such sensors are used to measure acoustic pressures, fluid flows, and chemical concentrations among others. Hair-like actuators are also used to control fluid flows and perform temperature management. This study presents a manufacturing technique for a hair-like IPMC transducer. A thorough study is presented on the building process of the sensor. The method used to control the diameter and the electrodes thickness of the transducer is developed. The sensing behavior of the manufactured transducers is experimentally characterized.

  8. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal complex...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal complex...

  10. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

    2001-04-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits.

  11. Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Hair Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in hair cortisol concentrations as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of metabolic diseases and chronic psychological stress. Fifty-three volunteers were recruited, and hair segments proximal to the scalp were collected from each individual. A cost-effective ball mill was used for the preparation of hair samples, and ELISA was performed to analyze cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that the frequency of hair washing affects the hair cortisol concentration. The group that washed their hair every day had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than the group that washed it less often. However, no significant differences were detected between cosmetic-treated and nontreated hair samples. The study also shows that hair cortisol concentrations in the first 3 cm of hair segments proximal to the scalp corresponded to average hair growth rate based on 1 cm/month. Thus, hair cortisol concentrations of segments 3 cm proximal to the scalp may represent cumulative stress exposure over the previous 3 months. These findings will allow more widespread research to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a potential biomarker to assess chronic stress. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  13. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  14. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  15. Synthesis and investigation of antimicrobial activity and spectrophotometric and dyeing properties of some novel azo disperse dyes based on naphthalimides.

    PubMed

    Shaki, Hanieh; Gharanjig, Kamaladin; Khosravi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel disperse dyes containing azo group were synthesized through a diazotization and coupling process. The 4-amino-N-2-aminomethylpyridine-1,8-naphthalimide was diazotized by nitrosylsulphuric acid and coupled with various aromatic amines such as N,N-diethylaniline, N,N-dihydroxyethylaniline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and 2-methylindole. Chemical structures of the synthesized dyes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance ((13) C NMR), elemental analysis, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric data of all dyes were evaluated in various solvents with different polarity. Eventually, the dyes were applied on polyamide fabrics in order to investigate their dyeing properties. The fastness properties of the dyed fabrics such as wash, light, and rubbing fastness degrees were measured by standard methods. Moreover, the color gamut of the synthesized dyes was measured on polyamide fabrics. Results indicated that some of the synthesized dyes were able to dye polyamide fabrics with deep shades. They had very good wash and rubbing fastness degrees and moderate-to-good light fastness on polyamide fabrics. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized dyes were evaluated in soluble state and on the dyed fabrics. The results indicated that dye 2 containing N,N-dihydroxyethylaniline as coupler had the highest activity against all the bacteria and fungi used. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. A highly resistant structure between cuticle and cortex of human hair.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Yoshida, S

    2017-06-01

    To clarify the presence and properties of a unique structure which is located between the cuticle and cortex of human hair. Whole hair fibre and longitudinally split hair were used. Treated with a mixture of urea, reductant and alkaline, hair was split at the interface between cuticle and cortex. The residues in the solution were observed by microscope, and the distribution of lipids and protein was determined. From the treated longitudinally split hair, a membrane-like structure which was located at the interface between cuticle and cortex was obtained. This structure showed especially high resistance against chemical treatment and was thought to be the region into which the proximal roots of the cuticle cells are embedded. It was supposed that some steryl glucoside-like lipid, of which the presence in the cuticle and cortex interface was previously reported, is located in this structure. This study proposed the presence of a membrane-like structure, which is highly resistant against chemical treatment, at the region between cuticle and cortex of human hair. This may protect cortex from external stimuli more firmly than the surface part of cuticle. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Contaminant characterization on hair and fiber surfaces using imaging TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; Gresham, Garold L.; Gianotto, Anita K.; Avci, Recep

    1999-02-01

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to evaluate the detection of contaminant chemicals on the surfaces of single synthetic textile and canine hair fibers. The results of the study showed that a variety of chemical classes can be detected. Both cocaine and heroin could be easily observed as intact protonated molecules ([M + H]+) in the cation spectra acquired from textile fibers. Two organophosphates were evaluated: malathion, which is a common pesticide, and pinacolyl methyl phosphonic acid (PMPA), which is the principal degradation product of the nerve agent soman (a close relative of sarin). Malathion could be observed as (CH3O)2P(equalsS)S-, which is formed by thiophosphate cleavage of the intact malathion. PMPA is observed as the conjugate base ([PMPA - H]-). Surfactant chemicals found in hair care products were successfully detected on single hair fibers. Specifically, alkyl sulfates, ethoxylated alkyl sulfates, silicones, and alkylammonium compounds could be readily identified in spectra acquired from single hair fiber samples exposed to shampoo and/or conditioner. Generally, the results of the study show that imaging SIMS is applicable to single fiber analysis, for a range of adsorbed compound types. The forensic application of this instrumental approach has not been widely recognized. However, the ability of the technique to acquire specific chemical information from trace samples clearly points to applications where the need for chemical analysis is great, but the amount of sample is limited.

  18. Study of chemical reactivity in relation to experimental parameters of efficiency in coumarin derivatives for dye sensitized solar cells using DFT.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rojo, Rody; Baldenebro-López, Jesús; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2015-06-07

    A group of dyes derived from coumarin was studied, which consisted of nine molecules using a very similar manufacturing process of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Optimized geometries, energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and ultraviolet-visible spectra were obtained using theoretical calculations, and they were also compared with experimental conversion efficiencies of the DSSC. The representation of an excited state in terms of natural transition orbitals (NTOs) was studied. Chemical reactivity parameters were calculated and correlated with the experimental data linked to the efficiency of the DSSC. A new proposal was obtained to design new molecular systems and to predict their potential use as a dye in DSSCs.

  19. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  20. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  1. From Hair in India to Hair India

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  2. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  3. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Loss What's in ... after the problem that causes it is corrected. Hair Basics Hair is made of a kind of ...

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. Results The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm2 in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm2 in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, the investigator assessment and subject self-assessment did not show any significant change in the gross appearance of hair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. Conclusion This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair. PMID:23717015

  5. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  6. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  7. Biomonitoring of 21 endocrine disrupting chemicals in human hair samples using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Martín, J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Alonso, E; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A

    2017-02-01

    Rapid industrial growth has increased human exposure to a large variety of chemicals with adverse health effects. These industrial chemicals are usually present in the environment, foods, beverages, clothes and personal care products. Among these compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have raised concern over the last years. In the present work, the determination of 21 EDCs in human hair samples is proposed. An analytical method based on the digestion of the samples with a mixture of acetic acid/methanol (20:80, v/v) followed by a solid-liquid microextraction and analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The most influential parameters affecting the extraction method were optimized. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays. Limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 4 ng g -1 , limits of quantification from 0.5 to 12 ng g -1 , and inter- and intra-day variability was under 15% in all cases. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 92.1 to 113.8%. The method was applied for the determination of the selected compounds in human hair. Samples were collected weekly from six randomly selected volunteers (three men and three women) over a three-month period. All the analyzed samples tested positive for at least one of the analyzed compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Racial/ethnic differences in hormonally-active hair product use: a plausible risk factor for health disparities.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Senie, Ruby; Terry, Mary Beth

    2012-06-01

    Estrogen and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are associated with several health outcomes have been found in hair products. We evaluated the proportion, frequency, duration, and content of hair products in a racially/ethnically diverse population. We recruited n = 301 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York metropolitan area. We collected data on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, root stimulator, perm, and other product use. Estrogen and EDC information was collected from commonly used hair products' labels (used by >3% of population). African-American and African-Caribbean women were more likely to use all types of hair products compared to white women (P < 0.0001). Among hair product users, frequency varied significantly by race/ethnicity, but not duration. More African-Americans (49.4%) and African-Caribbeans (26.4%) used products containing placenta or EDCs compared to whites (7.7%). African-American and African-Caribbean women were more likely to be exposed to hormonally-active chemicals in hair products.

  9. New aspects of the structure of human hair on the basis of optical microscopic observations of disassembled hair parts.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Asao; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Infant' and adult' scalp hair fibers were disassembled to various cellular components and blocks by chemical and enzymatic treatments, followed by random scission with rapidly rotating cutters. The hair fibers were also fractured by the use of a vise. The optical microscopic inspection of these specimens led to the discovery of many previously unknown structures in the hair shaft. In particular, a cuticular cell (Cu) was found to take a trowel-like shape consisting of a part with a blade-like shape (CuB) and a part with a handle-like shape (CuH), where CuB overlapped one another and fused partially to build the honeycomb-like structure on a large cuticular thin plate (CuP). Whereas CuH was closely similar to the cortical cell in dimensions and richness of macrofibrils (Mf). It was considered that human hair is stabilized structurally and physicochemically by the presence of the honeycomb-like structure, the CuP and the Mf.

  10. Relationship Between Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to intense sound or ototoxic chemicals can damage the auditory hair cells of vertebrates, resulting in hearing loss. Although the relationship between such hair cell damage and auditory function is fairly established for terrestrial vertebrates, there are limited data available to understand this relationship in fishes. Although investigators have measured either the morphological damage of the inner ear or the functional deficits in the hearing of fishes, very few have directly measured both in an attempt to find a relationship between the two. Those studies that have examined both auditory hair cell damage in the inner ear and the resulting hearing loss in fishes are reviewed here. In general, there is a significant linear relationship between the number of hair cells lost and the severity of hearing threshold shifts, although this varies between species and different hair cell-damaging stimuli. After trauma to the fish ear, auditory hair cells are able to regenerate to control level densities. With this regeneration also comes a restoration of hearing. Thus there is also a significant relationship between hair cell recovery and hearing recovery in fishes.

  11. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

  13. Transfer characteristics of the hair cell's afferent synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Erica C.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2006-04-01

    The sense of hearing depends on fast, finely graded neurotransmission at the ribbon synapses connecting hair cells to afferent nerve fibers. The processing that occurs at this first chemical synapse in the auditory pathway determines the quality and extent of the information conveyed to the central nervous system. Knowledge of the synapse's input-output function is therefore essential for understanding how auditory stimuli are encoded. To investigate the transfer function at the hair cell's synapse, we developed a preparation of the bullfrog's amphibian papilla. In the portion of this receptor organ representing stimuli of 400-800 Hz, each afferent nerve fiber forms several synaptic terminals onto one to three hair cells. By performing simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings from presynaptic hair cells and postsynaptic afferent fibers, we established that the rate of evoked vesicle release, as determined from the average postsynaptic current, depends linearly on the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ current. This result implies that, for receptor potentials in the physiological range, the hair cell's synapse transmits information with high fidelity. auditory system | exocytosis | glutamate | ribbon synapse | synaptic vesicle

  14. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-01

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs.

  15. Sequence analysis of the canine mitochondrial DNA control region from shed hair samples in criminal investigations.

    PubMed

    Berger, C; Berger, B; Parson, W

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, evidence from domestic dogs has increasingly been analyzed by forensic DNA testing. Especially, canine hairs have proved most suitable and practical due to the high rate of hair transfer occurring between dogs and humans. Starting with the description of a contamination-free sample handling procedure, we give a detailed workflow for sequencing hypervariable segments (HVS) of the mtDNA control region from canine evidence. After the hair material is lysed and the DNA extracted by Phenol/Chloroform, the amplification and sequencing strategy comprises the HVS I and II of the canine control region and is optimized for DNA of medium-to-low quality and quantity. The sequencing procedure is based on the Sanger Big-dye deoxy-terminator method and the separation of the sequencing reaction products is performed on a conventional multicolor fluorescence detection capillary electrophoresis platform. Finally, software-aided base calling and sequence interpretation are addressed exemplarily.

  16. Desorption of sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide from contaminated scalp hair after vapour exposure.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Souilah-Edib, Mélanie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents have been used to incapacitate, injure or kill people, in a context of war or terrorist attack. It has previously been shown that hair could trap the sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. In order to investigate simulants persistency in hair after intense vapour exposure, their desorption kinetics were studied by using two complementary methods: hair residual content measurement and desorbed vapour monitoring. Results showed that both simulants were detected in air and could be recovered from hair 2 h after the end of exposure. Longer experiments with methyl salicylate showed that it could still be recovered from hair after 24 h. Our data were fitted with several kinetic models and best correlation was obtained with a bimodal first-order equation, suggesting a 2-step desorption kinetics model: initial fast regime followed by a slower desorption. 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide was also detected in the immediate environment after hair exposure for 2 h, and hair simulant content decreased by more than 80%. Our results showed that hair ability to release formerly trapped chemical toxics could lead to health hazard. Their persistency however confirmed the potentiality of hair analysis as a tool for chemical exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair Transplantation Controversies.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R; Finney, Robert; Rogers, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing transplanted hair for men. It is increasingly popular procedure to restore natural growing hair for men with hair loss. To review some current controversies in hair transplant surgery. Review of the English PubMed literature and specialty literature in hair transplant surgery. Some of the controversies in hair transplant surgery include appropriate donor harvesting technique including elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction whether manual versus robotic, the role of platelet-rich plasma and low-level light surgery in hair transplant surgery. Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing hair. As with all techniques, there are controversies regarding the optimal method for performing the procedure. Some of the current controversies in hair transplant surgery include optimal donor harvesting techniques, elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction, the role of low-level light therapy and the platelet-rich plasma therapy in the procedure. Future studies will further clarify their role in the procedure.

  18. Effect of chemical treatment on the acute toxicity of two commercial textile dye carriers.

    PubMed

    Arsian-Alaton, I; Iskender, G; Ozerkan, B; Germirli Babuna, F; Okay, O

    2007-01-01

    In the present experimental study, the effect of chemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) on the acute toxicity exerted by two commercial dye carriers (called Carrier A and B herein) often used in the textile industry was investigated. Two different test organisms were selected to elucidate the situations in activated sludge treatment systems (activated sludge microorganisms) as well as in receiving water bodies (ultimate marine discharge). According to the results of a comprehensive analysis covering COD removal efficiencies, sludge settling characteristics and operating costs involved in coagulation-flocculation, the optimum treatment conditions were defined as follows; application of 750 mg/L ferrous sulphate at a pH of 9.0 for Carrier A; and application of 550 mg/L ferrous sulphate at a pH of 9.0 for Carrier B. The acute toxicities of both dye carriers towards marine microalgea Phaeodactylum tricornutum could be reduced significantly after being subjected to coagulation-flocculation. Fair toxicity removals (towards heterotrophic mixed bacterial culture accommodated in activated sludge treatment) were obtained with coagulation-flocculation for both of the carriers under investigation.

  19. Portable IR dye laser optofluidic microresonator as a temperature and chemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Lahoz, F; Martín, I R; Gil-Rostra, J; Oliva-Ramirez, M; Yubero, F; Gonzalez-Elipe, A R

    2016-06-27

    A compact and portable optofluidic microresonator has been fabricated and characterized. It is based on a Fabry-Perot microcavity consisting essentially of two tailored dichroic Bragg mirrors prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering deposition. The microresonator has been filled with an ethanol solution of Nile-Blue dye. Infrared laser emission has been measured with a pump threshold as low as 0.12 MW/cm2 and an external energy conversion efficiency of 41%. The application of the device as a temperature and a chemical sensor is demonstrated. Small temperature variations as well as small amount of water concentrations in the liquid laser medium are detected as a shift of the resonant laser modes.

  20. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  1. Natural Compounds as Occult Ototoxins? Ginkgo biloba Flavonoids Moderately Damage Lateral Line Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Neveux, Sarah; Smith, Nicole K; Roche, Anna; Blough, Bruce E; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Coffin, Allison B

    2017-04-01

    Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine. Using the zebrafish lateral line, we screened a natural products library to identify potential ototoxins. We found that the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, both from the Gingko biloba plant, demonstrated significant ototoxicity, killing up to 30 % of lateral line hair cells. We then examined a third Ginkgo flavonoid, isorhamnetin, and found similar levels of ototoxicity. After flavonoid treatment, surviving hair cells demonstrated reduced uptake of the vital dye FM 1-43FX, suggesting that the health of the remaining hair cells was compromised. We then asked if these flavonoids enter hair cells through the mechanotransduction channel, which is the site of entry for many known ototoxins. High extracellular calcium or the quinoline derivative E6 berbamine significantly protected hair cells from flavonoid damage, implicating the transduction channel as a site of flavonoid uptake. Since known ototoxins activate cellular stress responses, we asked if reactive oxygen species were necessary for flavonoid ototoxicity. Co-treatment with the antioxidant D-methionine significantly protected hair cells from each flavonoid, suggesting that antioxidant therapy could prevent hair cell loss. How these products affect mammalian hair cells is still an open question and will be the target of future experiments. However, this research demonstrates the potential for ototoxic damage caused by unregulated

  2. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Gradient-dependent release of the model drug TRITC-dextran from FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngo Bich Nga Nathalie; Knorr, Fanny; Mak, Wing Cheung; Cheung, Kwan Yee; Richter, Heike; Meinke, Martina; Lademann, Jürgen; Patzelt, Alexa

    2017-07-01

    Hair follicle research is currently focused on the development of drug-loaded nanocarriers for the targeting of follicular structures in the treatment of skin and hair follicle-related disorders. In the present study, a dual-label nanocarrier system was implemented in which FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers loaded with the model drug and dye TRITC-dextran were applied topically to porcine ear skin. Follicular penetration and the distribution of both dyes corresponding to the nanocarriers and the model drug in the follicular ducts subsequent to administration to the skin were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The release of TRITC-dextran from the particles was induced by washing of the nanocarriers, which were kept in a buffer containing TRITC-labeled dextran to balance out the diffusion of the dextran during storage, thereby changing the concentration gradient. The results showed a slightly but statistically significantly deeper follicular penetration of fluorescent signals corresponding to TRITC-dextran as opposed to fluorescence corresponding to the FITC-labeled particles. The different localizations of the dyes in the cross-sections of the skin samples evidenced the release of the model drug from the labeled nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The hair grooming practices of women of African descent in London, United Kingdom: findings of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dadzie, O E; Salam, A

    2016-06-01

    There is a lack of published data pertaining to the hair grooming practices of women of African descent in Europe. However, these data are important in facilitating culturally appropriate discussions on hair loss prevention. We sought to describe the hair grooming practices of adult women of African descent in London, UK. Analysis of pooled data collected from a questionnaire-based study exploring correlates of hair loss in women of African descent in London. A maximum of 242 subjects were included in the final data analysis. Subjects had a mean age of 41.1 years (CI: 39.3-42.9) and exhibited a diverse range of scalp hair phenotypes, although the majority (76.3%) had type 6, 7 or 8 hair. A percentage of 64.9 had more than five different hairstyles since childhood, with natural hairstyles being the most frequent current hairstyle (52.6%). The mean frequency of hair washing was 17.9 days (CI: 15.8-20.0), increasing to 32.8 days (28.6-37.0) when hair was braided or in a weave. The mean frequency of hair braiding/weaving was 63 days (CI: 56.3-69.7), whereas that for application of chemical relaxers was 88.6 days (CI: 75.6-101.6). While 59.2% of subjects avoided concurrent use of hair colours and chemical relaxers, only 46.3% avoided braiding chemically relaxed hair. The hair-care practices of women of African descent should be borne in mind when treating hair and scalp disorders in this group. Although the current trend is towards natural hairstyles, some adverse hair-care practices still persist which should be addressed through culturally appropriate public health messages on hair loss prevention. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Molecular engineering of cyanine dyes to design a panchromatic response in Co-sensitized dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Pepe, Giulio; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.; ...

    2016-04-05

    Cyanines are optically tunable dyes with high molar extinction coefficients, suitable for applications in co-sensitized dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs); yet, barely thus applied. This might be due to the lack of a rational molecular design strategy that efficiently exploits cyanine properties. This study computationally re-designs these dyes, to broaden their optical absorption spectrum and create dye···TiO 2 binding and co-sensitization functionality. This is achieved via a stepwise molecular engineering approach. Firstly, the structural and optical properties of four parent dyes are experimentally and computationally investigated: 3,3’-diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide, 3,3’-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide, 3,3’-diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide and 3,3’-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide. Secondly, the molecules are theoretically modifiedmore » and their energetics are analyzed and compared to the parent dyes. A dye···TiO 2 anchoring group (carboxylic or cyanoacrylic acid), absent from the parent dyes, is chemically substituted at different molecular positions to investigate changes in optical absorption. We find that cyanoacrylic acid substitution at the para-quinoidal position affects the absorption wavelength of all parent dyes, with an optimal bathochromic shift of ca. 40 nm. The theoretical lengthening of the polymethine chain is also shown to effect dye absorption. Two molecularly engineered dyes are proposed as promising co-sensitizers. Finally, corresponding dye···TiO 2 adsorption energy calculations corroborate their applicability, demonstrating the potential of cyanine dyes in DSC research.« less

  6. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethyl glucuronide: unusual distribution between head hair and pubic hair.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Vallet, Emilie; Etter, Mathieu; Salquebre, Guillaume; Cirimele, Vincent

    2008-03-21

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in hair. In some specific situations, head hair can be missing, and therefore, alternative anatomical locations of hair are of interest. In this study, paired hair specimens (head hair and pubic hair) from eight social drinkers were analyzed for EtG. Each sample was decontaminated by two dichloromethane bathes (5 ml) for 2 min. After cutting into small pieces, about 50 mg of hair was incubated in 2 ml water in the presence of 10 ng of EtG-d5, used as internal standard and submitted to ultra-sonication for 2 h. The aqueous phase was extracted by SPE using Oasis MAX columns. The hair extract was separated on an ACQUITY BEH HILIC column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 221-85 and 75 and m/z 226-75 for EtG and the IS, respectively. This laboratory is using a positive cut-off at 50 pg/mg. All eight head hair specimens were negative for EtG at a limit of quantitation fixed at 10 pg/mg. Surprisingly, EtG was identified at high concentrations in pubic hair, in the range 12-1370 pg/mg. It appears, therefore, that it is not possible to document the drinking status of a subject by simply switching from head hair to pubic hair.

  8. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  9. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with natural dyes extracted from Jatropha leaves and purple Chrysanthemum flowers as sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Satriani, Wilda; Gareso, P. L.; Abdullah, B.

    2018-03-01

    DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell) prototype has been investigated using Jatropha leaves and purple Chrysanthemum flowers as natural dyes. DSSC consists of working electrode and counter electrode. A working electrode composed of semiconductor nanoparticles TiO2 that has been coated with dye molecules. Dye molecules serve as light photon catchers, while semiconductor nanoparticles TiO2 function to absorb and forward photons into electrons. In the electrode counter given catalyst carbon, serves to accelerate the reaction kinetics of triiodide reduction process on transparent conductive oxide (TCO). DSSC using TiO2 as a semiconductor material and natural dyes as sensitizer from Jatropha leaves and purple Chrysanthemum flowers are successful produced. The physical properties of the working electrode have been determined by using XRD and the chemical properties of the TiO2 powder and dye powder using FTIR and dye solution using UV-Vis. The resulted fabrications are also examined its I-V characteristics. The best performance is generated by mixed dye 1.91 x 10-3 % compared than those DSSC for dye extracted from Jatropha leaves or purple Chrysanthemum. The characterization results show that the higher of the absorption wavelength of the DSSC efficiency is high.

  11. 76 FR 28785 - Meeting of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Workshop: Role of Environmental Chemicals in the Development of Diabetes and Obesity Collaborative... Concept: Workshop on Permanent Hair Dyes Systematic Reviews in NTP Analysis Activities The updated agenda...

  12. Optical properties of anthocyanin dyes on TiO2 as photosensitizers for application of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahliha, A. H.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Kusumaningsih, T.

    2018-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is one of the alternative energy that can convert light energy into electrical energy. The component of DSSC consists of FTO substrates, TiO2, electrolyte, dye sensitizer, and counter electrode. This study aim was to determine the effect of optical properties of anthocyanin dyes on efficiency of DSSC. The dye sensitizer used can be extracted from anthocyanin pigments such as dragon fruit, black rice, and red cabbage. The red cabbage sensitizer shows lower absorbance value in the visible range (450-580 nm), than dragon fruit and black rice. The chemical structure of each dye molecules has an R group (carbonyl and hydroxyl) that forms a bond with the oxide layer. Red cabbage dye cell has the highest efficiency, 0.06% then dragon fruit and black rice, 0.02% and 0.03%.

  13. Ingrowing Hair

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Di-Qing; Liang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xi-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fang; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous pili migrans and creeping eruption caused by parasitic diseases may present as a moving linear lesion in skin. The former, caused by a hair shaft or fragment embedded in the superficial skin or middle dermis, is a rare condition characterized by creeping eruption with a black line observed at the advancing end. In exceptionally rare instance, the hair grows inside the skin and burrows in the uppermost dermis, such a condition has been called “ingrown hair.” We report a 30-year-old Chinese man, who was accustomed to pull or extrude the beard hairs, with 1-year history of slowly extending black linear eruption on his right chin. Cutaneous examination revealed a 4-cm long black linear lesion beneath the skin associated with edematous erythema around and folliculitis on both ends of the lesion. After treatment with topical mupirocin ointment, the erythema and folliculitis improved and 2 hairs of the beard with hair follicles were pulled out from the skin. Two weeks later, another similar black line about 1 cm in length in the skin presented on the prior lesional area, which was pulled out by a shallow incision of the skin and was also demonstrated as a beard hair with hair follicle. The patient was diagnosed as “ingrowing hair” with multiple recurrences. The lesions recovered after the beard hairs were pulled out. No recurrence occurred in a year of follow-up. We suggest that “ingrowing hair” is better than “ingrown hair” to describe such a condition. Pulling out the involved hair and correcting the bad practice are its optimal management strategies. PMID:27175694

  14. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  15. Gaseous and Particulate Content of Laser Hair Removal Plume.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gary S; Farinelli, William; Christiani, David C; Herrick, Robert F; Lee, Norman C Y; Avram, Mathew M

    2016-12-01

    Potentially harmful chemicals are released when tissues are vaporized. Laser hair removal (LHR) causes heating and often vaporization of hairs, producing both a signature malodorous plume and visible particulates. To characterize the chemical composition and quantify the ultrafine particle content of the plume generated during LHR. In the laser center of a large academic hospital, discarded terminal hairs from the trunk and extremities were collected from 2 adult volunteers. The hair samples were sealed in glass gas chromatography chambers and treated with a laser. The laser plume was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). During LHR treatment, two 6-L negative pressure canisters were used to capture 30 seconds of laser plume, and a portable condensation particle counter was used to measure ultrafine particulates (<1 µm). Ultrafine particle concentrations were measured within the treatment room, within the waiting room, and outside the building. The chemical content of the laser plume was analyzed with GC-MS and screened for aerosolized toxins using Environmental Protection Agency-certified methods. The ambient concentration of ultrafine particles during LHR was measured by condensation particle counters. Analysis with GC-MS identified 377 chemical compounds. Sixty-two of these compounds, of which 13 are known or suspected carcinogens and more than 20 are known environmental toxins, exhibited strong absorption peaks. During LHR, the portable condensation particle counters documented an 8-fold increase compared with the ambient room baseline level of ultrafine particle concentrations (ambient room baseline, 15 300 particles per cubic centimeter [ppc]; LHR with smoke evacuator, 129 376 ppc), even when a smoke evacuator was in close proximity (5.0 cm) to the procedure site. When the smoke evacuator was turned off for 30 seconds, there was a more than 26-fold increase in particulate count compared with ambient baseline levels (ambient baseline

  16. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  17. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  18. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    Hair loss Overview Hair loss can affect just your scalp or your entire body. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or medications. Anyone can experience hair loss, but it's more common in men. Baldness ...

  19. Comparative Studies on Dyeability with Direct, Acid and Reactive Dyes after Chemical Modification of Jute with Mixed Amino Acids Obtained from Extract of Waste Soya Bean Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Nilendu Sekhar; Konar, Adwaita; Roy, Alok Nath; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Jute fabric was treated with mixed natural amino acids obtained from waste soya bean seed extract for chemical modification of jute for its cataionization and to enhance its dyeability with anionic dyes (like direct, reactive and acid dye) as well enabling soya modified jute for salt free dyeing with anionic reactive dyes maintaining its eco-friendliness. Colour interaction parameters including surface colour strength were assessed and compared for both bleached and soya-modified jute fabric for reactive dyeing and compared with direct and acid dye. Improvement in K/S value (surface colour strength) was observed for soya-modified jute even in absence of salt applied in dye bath for reactive dyes as well as for direct and acid dyes. In addition, reactive dye also shows good dyeability even in acid bath in salt free conditions. Colour fastness to wash was evaluated for bleached and soya-modified jute fabric after dyeing with direct, acid and reactive dyes are reported. Treatment of jute with soya-extracted mixed natural amino acids showed anchoring of some amino/aldemine groups on jute cellulosic polymer evidenced from Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. This amino or aldemine group incorporation in bleached jute causes its cationization and hence when dyed in acid bath for reactive dye (instead of conventional alkali bath) showed dye uptake for reactive dyes. Study of surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of said soya-modified jute as compared to bleached jute was studied and reported.

  20. Microspectral investigation of hair of one girl during six years by laser emission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmenko, Elena L.; Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    Multiple chemical elements of clinical and nutritional interest were measured in the hair of a girl - cerebral palsy patient. Sixteen samples of hair were cut and investigated to determine time and nutrition trends by using laser and arc emission spectroscopy.

  1. Mechanism study of biopolymer hair as a coupled thermo-water responsive smart material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Zhou, Hongtao; Qian, Kun

    2017-03-01

    Animal hairs existing broadly in nature are found to be effectively responsive to stimuli of heat and water in sequence for shape deformation and recovery, namely, coupled shape memory function (CSMF). In the paper, the ability of thermo-water sensitive CSMF was first time investigated for animal hairs, the structural and molecular networks for net-points and switches were therefrom identified. Experimentally, animal hair manifested a high ability of shape fixation in thermal processing and good shape recovery by water stimulus. Characterizations of two stimuli (heating and hydration) were performed systematically on hair’s deformation, recovery, viscoelasticity and chemical components (crystalline phase, key bonds inamorphous area). The variations of related chemical components in molecular networks were also explored. A hybrid structural network model was thereafter proposed to interpret the thermo-water sensitive CSMF of hair. This study of two-sequential-stimuli CSMF is original and inspired to explore more complex functions of other smart natural materials and expected to make much smarter synthetic polymers.

  2. Aromatic Diimides - Potential Dyes for Use in Smart Films and Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.; Tyson, Daniel S.; Ilhan, Faysal; Carbaugh, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    New aromatic diimide fluorescent dyes have been prepared with potential for use as chemical sensors and in chromogenic polymers. These dyes have been designed to utilize excited state electron transfer reactions as the means for sensing chemical species. For example, an aniline en-dcapped anthryl diimides functions effectively as an "on-off" sensor for pH and the detection of phosphoryl halide based chemical warfare agents, such as Sarin. In the absence of analytes, fluorescence from this dye is completely quenched by excited state electron transfer from the terminal amines. Reaction of these amines inhibits electron transfer and activates the fluorescence of the dye. Another substituted anthryl diimide is presented with the capability to detect pH and nitroaromatic compounds, such as TNT. Films prepared by doping small amounts (less than 0.1 weight percent) of several of these dyes in polymers such as linear low density polyethylene exhibit thermochromism. At room temperature, these films fluoresce reddish-orange. Upon heating, the fluorescence turns green. This process is reversible cooling the films to room temperature restores the orange emission.

  3. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation.

  4. Hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E A

    2000-06-01

    Disorders of the hair are commonplace in the primary care practice. Among these disorders are male pattern baldness, Telogen effluvium, alopecia areata, Trichotillomania, and fungal infections involving the hair shaft. A review of the normal anatomy and life cycle of hair also is presented.

  5. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; El-Zawahry, Manal M.; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. PMID:25258720

  6. Wooly hair nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus.

  7. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    PubMed

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  8. African hair length in a school population: a clue to disease pathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Khumalo, N P; Gumedze, F

    2007-09-01

    Anecdotal data suggest that combed natural African hair reaches a length steady state. Easier grooming and anticipated long hair have made relaxers popular. These hypotheses were tested in a cross-sectional survey of 1042 school children using a piloted questionnaire and hair length measurements done on four scalp regions. Participants included 45% boys and 55% girls. Girls consider length important for hairstyle choice (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in mean length at 2 to 5 vs. > 5 years (P = 0.3) and at 1 to < 2 vs. 2 to 5 years (P = 0.99), suggesting that a steady state is reached within 1 year after a hair cut for combed natural hair [mean, 5.1 cm (4.3)]. Relaxed hair reached length steady state > 2 years after a haircut [mean, 10.9 cm (3.6)], was longer than natural hair (P < 0.0001), shorter than expected, and significantly shorter on the occiput than the rest of the scalp (P < 0.0001). Persistently short combed natural hair years after a hair cut suggests that breakage eventually equals new growth (i.e., steady state), which is likely to be variable. Relaxed hair, irrespective of last haircut, is also short; chemical damage as a limit to potential lengths needs confirmation. Relatively short occipital relaxed hair could be a clue to disease pathogenesis.

  9. Hair cortisol reflects socio-economic factors and hair zinc in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Vaghri, Ziba; Guhn, Martin; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.; Yu, Wayne; Hertzman, Clyde

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study examined the relationship between children’s hair cortisol and socioeconomic status of the family, as measured by parental education and income. Low family socioeconomic status has traditionally been considered a long-term environmental stressor. Measurement of hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cumulative stress exposure across an extended period of time. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between hair cortisol and parental education as well as parental income in a representative sample of preschoolers. Data on hair cortisol, family income, and parental education were collected for a representative sample of 339 children (Mean age = 4.6 years; SD = .5 years) from across 23 neighbourhoods of the city of Vancouver, Canada. As maternal education was shown previously to be associated with hair zinc level, hair zinc measurements were included as well in order to explore potential relationships between hair zinc and hair cortisol. The relationship between hair cortisol and parental education was examined using hierarchical regression, with hair zinc, gender, age, and single parenthood included as covariates. Maternal and paternal education both were correlated significantly with hair cortisol (r = −0.18; p = .001). The relationship remained statistically significant even after controlling for all demographic covariates as well as for hair zinc and after taking the neighbourhood-level clustering of the data into account. Parental income, on the other hand, was not related significantly to children’s hair cortisol. This study provides evidence that lower maternal and paternal education are associated with higher hair cortisol levels. As hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cortisol exposure over an extended time period, these findings suggest a possibly stable influence of SES on the function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Cumulative exposure to cortisol during early childhood may

  10. Wooly hair nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus. PMID:29267480

  11. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018991 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Novitskiy used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  12. Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    The expression of two Arabidopsis expansin genes (AtEXP7 and AtEXP18) is tightly linked to root hair initiation; thus, the regulation of these genes was studied to elucidate how developmental, hormonal, and environmental factors orchestrate root hair formation. Exogenous ethylene and auxin, as well as separation of the root from the medium, stimulated root hair formation and the expression of these expansin genes. The effects of exogenous auxin and root separation on root hair formation required the ethylene signaling pathway. By contrast, blocking the endogenous ethylene pathway, either by genetic mutations or by a chemical inhibitor, did not affect normal root hair formation and expansin gene expression. These results indicate that the normal developmental pathway for root hair formation (i.e., not induced by external stimuli) is independent of the ethylene pathway. Promoter analyses of the expansin genes show that the same promoter elements that determine cell specificity also determine inducibility by ethylene, auxin, and root separation. Our study suggests that two distinctive signaling pathways, one developmental and the other environmental/hormonal, converge to modulate the initiation of the root hair and the expression of its specific expansin gene set.

  13. Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Prevost, Philippe; Maloni, Pascal; Torre, Franck; Asia, Laurence; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested on hair, combining showering and emergency decontamination (use of Fuller's earth or Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion RSDL ® ). Both simulants were recovered from hair after treatment, but contents were significantly reduced (42-85% content allowance). Showering alone was the least efficient protocol. Concerning 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide, protocols did not display significant differences in decontamination efficacy. For MeS, use of emergency decontaminants significantly increased showering efficacy (10-20% rise), underlining their usefulness before thorough decontamination. Our results highlighted the need to extensively decontaminate hair after chemical exposure. Residual amounts after decontamination are challenging, as their release from hair could lead to health issues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1987-07-01

    Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image.

  15. Choline-based ionic liquids-enhanced biodegradation of azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Sudharshan; Surianarayanan, Mahadevan; Ranganathan, Vijayaraghavan; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-05-01

    Industrial wastewaters such as tannery and textile processing effluents are often characterized by a high content of dissolved organic dyes, resulting in large values of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD) in the aquatic systems into which they are discharged. Such wastewater streams are of rapidly growing concern as a major environmental issue in developing countries. Hence there is a need to mitigate this challenge by effective approaches to degrade dye-contaminated wastewater. In this study, several choline-based salts originally developed for use as biocompatible hydrated ionic liquids (i.e., choline sacchrinate (CS), choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDP), choline lactate (CL), and choline tartarate (CT)) have been successfully employed as the cosubstrate with S. lentus in the biodegradation of an azo dye in aqueous solution. We also demonstrate that the azo dye has been degraded to less toxic components coupled with low biomass formation. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  17. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 721.5917 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...

  18. Performance of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using Syngonium Podophyllum Schott as natural dye and counter electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktariza, Lingga Ghufira; Yuliarto, Brian; Suyatman

    2018-05-01

    The extraction of chlorophyll pigment of Syngonium podophyllum Schott leaves which is used as natural dyes in this DSSC devices. The use of dye from nature with its simple production process is very effective to reduce DSSC production cost. Besides being used as a natural dye, chlorophyll can also be used as an alternative counter electrode. Chlorophyll that is used as a counter electrode has been through chemical activation and carbonization processes. The characterization were done using Uv-Vis, Cyclic Voltametry and DSSC device under solar simulator. Characterization of chlorophyll absorbance using UV-Vis has resulted in typical absorbance peak at visible light wavelength of 447 nm and 666 nm. The Tauc equation analysis of the Uv-Vis characterization showed 1.91 eV energy gap of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll carbonized dye is used as an alternative to Pt counter electrode. Carbonized chlorophyll dye resulted in lower conversion efficiency of 0.308% with HSE electrolyte.

  19. Studies on the use of power ultrasound in leather dyeing.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2003-03-01

    Uses of power ultrasound for acceleration/performing the chemical as well as physical processes are gaining importance. In conventional leather processing, the diffusion of chemicals through the pores of the skin/hide is achieved by the mechanical agitation caused by the paddle or drumming action. In this work, the use of power ultrasound in the dyeing of leather has been studied with the aim to improve the exhaustion of dye for a given processing time, to reduce the dyeing time and to improve the quality of dyed leather. The effect of power ultrasound in the dyeing of full chrome cow crust leather in a stationary condition is compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound as a control experiment both in a stationary as well as conventional drumming condition. An ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz) was used for the experiments. Actual power dissipated into the system was calculated from the calorimetric measurement. Experiments were carried out with variation in type of dye, amount of dye offer, temperature and time. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the percentage exhaustion of dye due to the presence of ultrasound, when compared to dyeing in absence of ultrasound. Experiments on equilibrium dye uptake carried out with or without ultrasound suggest that ultrasound help to improve the kinetics of leather dyeing. The results indicate that leathers dyed in presence of ultrasound have higher colour values, better dye penetration and fastness properties compared to control leathers. The physical testing results show that strength properties of the dyed leathers are not affected due to the application of ultrasound under the given process conditions. Apparent diffusion coefficient during the initial stage of dyeing process, both in presence and in absence of ultrasound was calculated. The values show that ultrasound helps in improving the apparent diffusion coefficient more for the difficult dyeing conditions such as in the case of metal

  20. The color(s) of human hair--forensic hair analysis with SpectraCube.

    PubMed

    Birngruber, Christoph; Ramsthaler, Frank; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2009-03-10

    Human hair is among the most common kind of evidence secured at crime scenes. Although DNA analysis through STR-typing is possible in principle, it is not very promising for telogenic hair or single hairs. For the mixed traces frequently found in practice, composed of different hair from an unknown number of individuals, mtDNA sequencing of each individual hair seems to be the only possible, even if technically elaborate, solution. If it were possible to pool all hair belonging to an individual prior to DNA analysis, then this effort could not only be reduced, but the number of hair for an STR-approach could also be increased. Although it is possible to examine hair microscopically, this method must be considered unsuitable for pooling, since the results depend strongly on examiner experience, and the hair cannot always be correctly attributed to an individual. The goal of this study was to develop an objective non-DNA-contaminative pooling method for hair. To this end, the efficacy of spectral imaging as a method of obtaining information--beyond that obtained from a purely microscopic and morphological approach--for the identification of individuals was investigated. Three hairs each from 25 test persons (female: 18; male: 7) were examined with a SpectraCube-System and a light microscope. Six spectra were calculated for each hair, and the hairs from each individual were not only compared to each other, but also to those of the other individuals. From a forensic vantage, the examination showed, in particular, that individuals, whose hair could not be distinguished on the basis of morphology, could also not be accurately distinguished with the SpectraCube. The intra-individual differences were, in part, greater than the inter-individual differences. Altogether, the study shows that a person's hair color, as perceived, is composed of many naturally different, individual colors.

  1. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a...

  2. Detection of azo dyes and aromatic amines in women under garment

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, THAO; SALEH, MAHMOUD A.

    2016-01-01

    Women are exposed to several chemical additives including azo dyes that exist in textile materials that are a potential health hazard for consumers. Our objective was to analyze suspected carcinogenic azo dyes and their degradation aromatic amines in women's panties underwear using a fast and simple method for quantification. Here, we evaluated 120 different samples of women underwear for their potential release of aromatic amines to the skin. Seventy four samples yielded low level mixtures of aromatic amines; however eighteen samples were found to produce greater than 200 mg/kg (ppm) of aromatic amines. Azo dyes in these 18 samples were extracted from the fabrics and analyzed by reverse phase thin layer chromatography in tandem with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven azo dyes were identified based on their mass spectral data and the chemical structure of the aromatic amine produced from these samples. We demonstrate that planar chromatography and mass spectrometry can be really helpful in confirming the identity of the azo dyes, offering highly relevant molecular information of the responsible compounds in the fabrics. With the growing concern about the consumer goods, analysis of aromatic amines in garments has become a highly important issue. PMID:27149414

  3. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  4. ELMOD1 Stimulates ARF6-GTP Hydrolysis to Stabilize Apical Structures in Developing Vestibular Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Krey, Jocelyn F; Dumont, Rachel A; Wilmarth, Philip A; David, Larry L; Johnson, Kenneth R; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G

    2018-01-24

    Sensory hair cells require control of physical properties of their apical plasma membranes for normal development and function. Members of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) small GTPase family regulate membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal assembly in many cells. We identified ELMO domain-containing protein 1 (ELMOD1), a guanine nucleoside triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) for ARF6, as the most highly enriched ARF regulator in hair cells. To characterize ELMOD1 control of trafficking, we analyzed mice of both sexes from a strain lacking functional ELMOD1 [roundabout ( rda )]. In rda/rda mice, cuticular plates of utricle hair cells initially formed normally, then degenerated after postnatal day 5; large numbers of vesicles invaded the compromised cuticular plate. Hair bundles initially developed normally, but the cell's apical membrane lifted away from the cuticular plate, and stereocilia elongated and fused. Membrane trafficking in type I hair cells, measured by FM1-43 dye labeling, was altered in rda/rda mice. Consistent with the proposed GAP role for ELMOD1, the ARF6 GTP/GDP ratio was significantly elevated in rda/rda utricles compared with controls, and the level of ARF6-GTP was correlated with the severity of the rda/rda phenotype. These results suggest that conversion of ARF6 to its GDP-bound form is necessary for final stabilization of the hair bundle. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Assembly of the mechanically sensitive hair bundle of sensory hair cells requires growth and reorganization of apical actin and membrane structures. Hair bundles and apical membranes in mice with mutations in the Elmod1 gene degenerate after formation, suggesting that the ELMOD1 protein stabilizes these structures. We show that ELMOD1 is a GTPase-activating protein in hair cells for the small GTP-binding protein ARF6, known to participate in actin assembly and membrane trafficking. We propose that conversion of ARF6 into the GDP-bound form in the apical domain of hair cells is

  5. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C.; Morrison, Sean J.; Le, Lu Q.

    2017-01-01

    Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20+ cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix progenitors that regulate hair growth and pigmentation, partly by creating an SCF-dependent niche for follicular melanocytes. PMID:28465357

  6. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018986 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Tarelkin used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, flight engineer, is visible in the background.

  7. Utilization of magnetically responsive cereal by-product for organic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Baldikova, Eva; Politi, Dorothea; Maderova, Zdenka; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Sidiras, Dimitrios; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-04-01

    Barley straw, an agricultural by-product, can also serve as a low-cost and relatively efficient adsorbent of various harmful compounds. In this case, adsorption of four water-soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes (specifically Bismarck brown Y, representing the azo group; methylene blue, quinone-imine group; safranin O, safranin group; and crystal violet, triphenylmethane group) on native and citric acid-NaOH-modified barley straw, both in magnetic and non-magnetic versions, was studied. The adsorption was characterized using three adsorption models, namely Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips. To compare the maximum adsorption capacities (qmax), the Langmuir model was employed. The qmax values reached 86.5-124.3 mg of dye per g of native non-magnetic straw and 410.8-520.3 mg of dye per g of magnetic chemically modified straw. Performed characterization studies suggested that the substantial increase in qmax values after chemical modification could be caused by rougher surface of adsorbent (observed by scanning electron microscopy) and by the presence of higher amounts of carboxyl groups (detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The adsorption processes followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and thermodynamic studies indicated spontaneous and endothermic adsorption. The chemical modification of barley straw led to a significant increase in maximum adsorption capacities for all tested dyes, while magnetic modification substantially facilitated the manipulation with adsorbent. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  9. Does the recipient site influence the hair growth characteristics in hair transplantation?

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungjoo; Kim, Jung Chul; Ryu, Hyo Sub; Cha, Young Chang; Lee, Seok Jong; Na, Gun Yoen; Kim, Do Won

    2002-09-01

    Recently hair transplantation has been widely applied not only to correct androgenetic alopecia, but also to correct hair loss on other parts of the body such as the eyebrows and pubic area. It is believed that the transplanted hairs will maintain their integrity and characteristics after transplantation to new nonscalp sites. To evaluate whether the transplanted hairs maintain their hair growth characteristics after transplantation to a new anatomic site other than the scalp. Three study designs were used. Study I: Hair transplantation from the author's occipital scalp to his lower leg was performed and clinical evaluations were made at both 6 months and at 3 years after the transplantation. Study II: After finding changes in hair growth characteristics, transplanted hairs were harvested from the leg and retransplanted to the left side of the nape of the neck (group A). As a control study, occipital hairs were transplanted to the opposite side (group B). Observations were made at 6 months after the operation. Study III: An observational study was done in 12 patients with androgenetic alopecia about 1 year after transplantation of occipital hair to frontal scalp. At each step, survival rates were documented and the rate of growth and the diameter of the shafts were measured for both recipient and donor sites. Study I: Surviving hairs on the lower leg showed a lower growth rate (8.2 +/- 0.9 mm/month), but the same diameter (0.086 +/- 0.018 mm) compared with occipital hairs (16.0 +/- 1.1 mm/month, 0.088 +/- 0.016 mm). The survival rate 3 years after transplantation was 60.2%. Study II: There was no significant difference in the growth rate, shaft diameter, and survival rate between retransplanted hairs (group A) and controls (group B). Groups A and B showed a lower growth rate, but the same diameter, compared with occipital hairs. Study III: There was no significant difference in the growth rate and shaft diameter between the transplanted hairs on the frontal scalp

  10. Oxidation of Levafix CA reactive azo-dyes in industrial wastewater of textile dyeing by electro-generated Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, Hanaa S; Ghoneim, Mohamed M; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; Zidan, Naglaa M

    2010-03-15

    The indirect electrochemical removal of pollutants from effluents has become an attractive method in recent years. Removal (decolorization and mineralization) of Levafix Blue CA and Levafix Red CA reactive azo-dyes from aqueous media by electro-generated Fenton's reagent (Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2)) using a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode and a platinum gauze anode was optimized. Progress of oxidation (decolorization and mineralization) of the investigated azo-dyes with time of electro-Fenton's reaction was monitored by UV-visible absorbance measurements, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the electro-Fenton's oxidation system is efficient for treatment of such types of reactive dyes. Oxidation of each of the investigated azo-dyes by electro-generated Fenton's reagent up to complete decolorization and approximately 90-95% mineralization was achieved. Moreover, the optimized electro-Fenton's oxidation was successfully applied for complete decolorization and approximately 85-90% mineralization of both azo-dyes in real industrial wastewater samples collected from textile dyeing house at El-Mahalla El-Kobra, Egypt. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hair and bare skin discrimination for laser-assisted hair removal systems.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Sercan; Yetik, Imam Samil

    2017-07-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal devices aim to remove body hair permanently. In most cases, these devices irradiate the whole area of the skin with a homogenous power density. Thus, a significant portion of the skin, where hair is not present, is burnt unnecessarily causing health risks. Therefore, methods that can distinguish hair regions automatically would be very helpful avoiding these unnecessary applications of laser. This study proposes a new system of algorithms to detect hair regions with the help of a digital camera. Unlike previous limited number of studies, our methods are very fast allowing for real-time application. Proposed methods are based on certain features derived from histograms of hair and skin regions. We compare our algorithm with competing methods in terms of localization performance and computation time and show that a much faster real-time accurate localization of hair regions is possible with the proposed method. Our results show that the algorithm we have developed is extremely fast (around 45 milliseconds) allowing for real-time application with high accuracy hair localization ( 96.48 %).

  12. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  13. The impact of oxidative stress on hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. They are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges, while the body possesses endogenous defense mechanisms. With age, production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defense mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the aging phenotype. While the role of oxidative stress has been widely discussed in skin aging, little focus has been placed on its impact on hair condition. Moreover, most literature on age-related hair changes focuses on alopecia, but it is equally important that the hair fibers that emerge from the scalp exhibit significant age-related changes that have equal impact on the overall cosmetic properties of hair. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the pre-emerging fiber include: oxidative metabolism, smoking, UVR, and inflammation from microbial, pollutant, or irritant origins. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the post-emerging fiber include: UVR (enhanced by copper), chemical insults, and oxidized scalp lipids. The role of the dermatologist is recognition and treatment of pre- and post-emerging factors for lifetime scalp and hair health. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Teaching Old Dyes New Tricks: Biological Probes Built from Fluoresceins and Rhodamines.

    PubMed

    Lavis, Luke D

    2017-06-20

    Small-molecule fluorophores, such as fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives, are critical tools in modern biochemical and biological research. The field of chemical dyes is old; colored molecules were first discovered in the 1800s, and the fluorescein and rhodamine scaffolds have been known for over a century. Nevertheless, there has been a renaissance in using these dyes to create tools for biochemistry and biology. The application of modern chemistry, biochemistry, molecular genetics, and optical physics to these old structures enables and drives the development of novel, sophisticated fluorescent dyes. This critical review focuses on an important example of chemical biology-the melding of old and new chemical knowledge-leading to useful molecules for advanced biochemical and biological experiments.

  15. Organic components in hair-ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T

  16. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijender; Ali, Mohammed; Upadhyay, Sukirti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica) and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair PMID:26130937

  17. Hair Loss Myths.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective.

    METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth.

    RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments.

    DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694.

    .

  18. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C; Morrison, Sean J; Le, Lu Q

    2017-04-15

    Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20 + cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix progenitors that regulate hair growth and pigmentation, partly by creating an SCF-dependent niche for follicular melanocytes. © 2017 Liao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  20. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cryopreservation of Hair-Follicle Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells Maintains Differentiation and Hair-Growth Potential.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Kajiura, Satoshi; Cao, Wenluo; Liu, Fang; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C. After thawing and culture of the cryopreserved whisker follicles, growing HAP stem cells formed hair spheres. The hair spheres contained cells that differentiated to neurons, glial cells, and other cell types. The hair spheres derived from slow-cooling cryopreserved hair follicles were as pluripotent as hair spheres from fresh hair follicles. We have also previously demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair-growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the HAP stem cells, evidenced by P75 ntr expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair-shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. HAP stem cells can be used for nerve and spinal-cord repair. This biobanking of hair follicles can allow each patient the potential for their own stem cell use for regenerative medicine or hair transplantation.

  2. Modulating hair follicle size with Wnt10b-DKK1 pair during hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Mingxing; Guo, Haiying; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Yang, Tian; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles have characteristic sizes corresponding to their cycle specific stage. However, how the anagen hair follicle specifies its size remains elusive. Here, we show that in response to prolonged ectopic Wnt10b-mediated β-catenin activation, regenerating anagen hair follicles grow larger in size. In particular, the hair bulb, dermal papilla and hair shaft become enlarged. While the formation of different hair types (Guard, Awl, Auchene, and Zigzag) is unaffected. Interestingly, we found the effect of exogenous WNT10b was mainly on Zigzag and less on the other kinds of hairs. We observed dramatically enhanced proliferation within the matrix, DP and hair shaft of the enlarged AdWnt10b-treated hair follicles compared with those of normal hair follicles at P98. Furthermore, expression of CD34, a specific hair stem cell marker, was increased in its number to the bulge region after AdWnt10b treatment. Ectopic expression of CD34 throughout the ORS region was also observed. Many CD34 positive hair stem cells were actively proliferating in AdWnt10b-induced hair follicles. Importantly, subsequent co-treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, DKK1, reduced hair follicle enlargement, decreased proliferation and maintained proper hair stem cell localization. Moreover, injection of DKK1 during early anagen significantly reduced the width of prospective hairs. Together, these findings strongly suggest that a balance of Wnt10b/DKK1 governs reciprocal signaling between cutaneous epithelium and mesenchyme to regulate proper hair follicle size. PMID:24750467

  3. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  4. DSC of human hair: a tool for claim support or incorrect data analysis?

    PubMed

    Popescu, C; Gummer, C

    2016-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data are increasingly used to substantiate product claims of hair repair. Decreasing peak temperatures may indicate structural changes and chemical damage. Increasing the DSC, wet peak temperature is, therefore, often considered as proof of hair repair. A detailed understanding of the technique and hair structure indicates that this may not be a sound approach. Surveying the rich literature on the use of dynamic thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the analyses of human hair and the effect of cosmetic treatments, we underline some of the problems of hair structure and data interpretation. To overcome some of the difficulties of data interpretation, we advise that DSC acquired data should be supported by other techniques when used for claim substantiation. In this way, one can provide meaningful interpretation of the hair science and robust data for product claims support. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. A Study on Scalp Hair Health and Hair Care Practices among Malaysian Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B Satheesha; Ann, Chua Yuet; Azhar, Azeldeen Bin; Ling, Emily Chan Su; Yen, Wong Hui; Aithal, P Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. It was a cross-sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination-related stress. Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.

  6. Dye bias correction in dual-labeled cDNA microarray gene expression measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Barry A; Pine, P Scott; Domon, Olen E; Morris, Suzanne M; Chen, James J; Sistare, Frank D

    2004-01-01

    A significant limitation to the analytical accuracy and precision of dual-labeled spotted cDNA microarrays is the signal error due to dye bias. Transcript-dependent dye bias may be due to gene-specific differences of incorporation of two distinctly different chemical dyes and the resultant differential hybridization efficiencies of these two chemically different targets for the same probe. Several approaches were used to assess and minimize the effects of dye bias on fluorescent hybridization signals and maximize the experimental design efficiency of a cell culture experiment. Dye bias was measured at the individual transcript level within each batch of simultaneously processed arrays by replicate dual-labeled split-control sample hybridizations and accounted for a significant component of fluorescent signal differences. This transcript-dependent dye bias alone could introduce unacceptably high numbers of both false-positive and false-negative signals. We found that within a given set of concurrently processed hybridizations, the bias is remarkably consistent and therefore measurable and correctable. The additional microarrays and reagents required for paired technical replicate dye-swap corrections commonly performed to control for dye bias could be costly to end users. Incorporating split-control microarrays within a set of concurrently processed hybridizations to specifically measure dye bias can eliminate the need for technical dye swap replicates and reduce microarray and reagent costs while maintaining experimental accuracy and technical precision. These data support a practical and more efficient experimental design to measure and mathematically correct for dye bias. PMID:15033598

  7. Familial Uncombable Hair Syndrome: Ultrastructural Hair Study and Response to Biotin.

    PubMed

    Boccaletti, V; Zendri, E; Giordano, G; Gnetti, L; De Panfilis, G

    2007-01-01

    We report a family affected to the fourth generation by uncombable hair syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by unruly, dry, blond hair with a tangled appearance. The family pedigree strongly supports the hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance; some members of the family had, apart from uncombable hair, minor signs of atopy and ectodermal dysplasia, such as abnormalities of the nails. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of extensive scanning electron microscopy. A trial with oral biotin 5 mg/day was started on two young patients with excellent results as regards the hair appearance, although scanning electron microscopy did not show structural changes in the hair. After a 2-year-period of follow-up, hair normality was maintained without biotin, while nail fragility still required biotin supplementation for control.

  8. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  9. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Determination of farm workers' exposure to pesticides by hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Claude; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Briand, Olivier; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2012-04-25

    In the present work, a highly sensitive method based on solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography tandem (triple quadrupole) mass spectrometry was used to test hair samples for 50 pesticides including 39 molecules from different chemical families currently used in agriculture and 11 organochlorines. The population investigated was composed of 18 farm workers who provided hair samples repeatedly collected during the entire treatment period (from March to November 2009). Among the 62 hair samples that were collected, 33 different target molecules were detected. The most frequently detected agricultural pesticides were Diflufenican and Pyrimethanil, two herbicides which were detected in 13 subjects. The concentration in volunteers' hair matched with agricultural activity and the highest concentration was observed for Cyprodinil (1161pg/mg), an anilinopyrimidine used as a fungicide. For organochlorines, p,p'-DDE and γ-HCH were the most frequently detected molecules as they were present in at least one of the hair samples provided by each of the 18 volunteers. The highest concentrations detected for these chemicals reached 21.0pg/mg for p,p'-DDE and 23.5pg/mg for γ-HCH, but the highest concentration of organochlorine was observed for β-endosulfan (105pg/mg). The results suggest that farm workers have a weak, though constant exposure to organochlorine pesticides, especially to p,p'-DDE and γ-HCH, while exposure to currently used pesticides is strongly associated with occupation. Observations also suggest that spraying work would not necessarily be the only source of exposure to agricultural pesticides and that worker not directly involved in spraying can also be submitted to significant level of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. FLUX OF IONIC DYES ACROSS MICRONEEDLE-TREATED SKIN: EFFECT OF DYE MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Yasmine A.; Garland, Martin J.; McInnes, Fiona; Donnelly, Ryan F.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.; Wilson, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Drug flux across microneedle (MN)-treated skin is influenced by the characteristics of the MN array, microconduits and drug molecules in addition to the overall diffusional resistance of microconduits and viable tissue. Relative implication of these factors has not been fully explored. In the present study, the in vitro permeation of a series of six structurally related ionic xanthene dyes with different molecular weights (MW) and chemical substituents, across polymer MN-pretreated full thickness porcine skin was investigated in relation of their molecular characteristics. Phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4, the medium used in skin permeation experiments, was used to determine the equilibrium solubility of the dyes and their partition coefficient both in the isotropic n-octanol/ aqueous system and porcine skin/ aqueous system. Additionally, dissociation constants were determined potentiometrically. Results indicated that for rhodamine dyes, skin permeation of the zwitterionic form which predominates at physiological pH, was significantly reduced by an increase in MW, the presence of the chemically reactive isothiocyanate substituent reported to interact with stratum corneum proteins and the skin thickness. These factors were generally shown to override aqueous solubility, an important determinant of drug diffusion in an aqueous milieu. Findings provided more insight into the mechanism of drug permeation across MN-treated skin, of importance to both the design of MN-based transdermal drug delivery systems and in vitro skin permeation research. PMID:22960319

  12. Hair as a biomarker of polybrominated diethyl ethers' exposure in infants, children and adults.

    PubMed

    Aleksa, Katarina; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Koren, Gideon

    2012-04-25

    Over the last 20 years hair has moved from being a highly questionable biological matrix to mainstream and acceptable biomarker in forensic sciences where it is primarily used to determine past and present exposure to illicit drugs. In contrast, the use of hair to assess exposure to pesticides and persistent environmental pollutants is still not common. The applicability of this matrix to assess an individual's body burden of chemicals such as polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) can provide critical insight into current, but also to past exposure levels, which is not possible with more conventional matrices such as blood and urine. Furthermore, as PBDEs cross the placenta and since the hair the fetus is born with begins to grow during the third trimester, this matrix can be used to assess in utero exposure. These features of hair may therefore be used to determine the potential roles of chemicals such as PBDEs in mediating physiological or anatomical abnormalities in infants, children or adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  14. Detection of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pediatric hair as a tool for determining in utero exposure.

    PubMed

    Aleksa, Katarina; Carnevale, Amanda; Goodyer, Cynthia; Koren, Gideon

    2012-05-10

    Cryptorchidism, or undescended/maldescended testis, is the most common birth defect of male genitalia. Its prevalence has been increasing over the past few decades. This may be due to an increase in the prevalence of anti-androgenic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls, organochloride pesticides, plasticizers and fungicides. A newer group of chemicals, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are being implicated as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. These chemicals are used worldwide in polymers that are incorporated into a variety of consumer products (e.g., textile, computers and televisions, insulating foam, electrical equipment and kitchen appliances). In order to quantify BFRs we introduce the use of hair levels of polybrominated diphenyl esters (PBDEs) as biomarkers of systemic exposure. This approach will allow for the estimation of in utero BFR exposure, in the process of evaluating the potential link between the incidence of cryptorchidism in newborn males and level of exposure of the pregnant mother to environmentally relevant BFRs. For that end we have developed a GC/MS assay in which children's hair is analyzed for the presence of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this pilot, 10-40mg of hair from 24 children (12 newborn and 12 from children 1 to 15 years) was extracted overnight at 40°C with 4N HCl and hexane (4:1). The samples were eluted from 2g NaSO(4):2g Florisil SPE columns with 8mL hexane. Dried samples are reconstituted with anhydrous isooctane and injected onto a GC/MS and analyzed for BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183 and BDE-209. PBDEs were detected in all of the newborn and child hair. The ΣPBDE ranged from 0.038 to 1.01pg/mg newborn hair and from 0.208 to 2.695ng/mg child hair. The most abundant PBDE in newborn hair was BDE-153 while in child hair the variable PBDEs were BDE-47 and BDE-99. The highest molecular weight congener BDE-209 was detected in 10/24 pediatric hair samples. The LOQ is 0.0625pg

  15. Optical Properties of Nano-Spherical Gold Doped Dye Solution Hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, D. Q.; Lien, N. T. H.; Ha, C. V.; Nhung, T. H.; Long, P.

    2011-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles with average diameter of 16 nm which are coated with Cetrimonium Bromide (CTAB) by chemical method are dissolved in dye solution at different concentrations. The absorption spectra of the dye mixture appeared almost unchanged at low concentrations of gold nanoparticles (around 1×1014 cm-3) despite its fluorescence intensity increased many-fold. Energy transfer from gold nanoparticles to dye molecules occurs through surface plasmon resonance(SPR). The fluorescence of rhodamine 610 (Rh610) dye molecules co-adsorbed within 16 nm gold nanoparticles assemblies can be useful for enhancing gain in lasing emission. An increase in laser efficiency by a factor of one and half times stronger compared to the single Rh610 dye suggest the potential of using the mixture of rhodamine dye with gold nanoparticles as laser medium in the configuration of quenching distributed feedback dye laser.

  16. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  17. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry.

  18. Hair-based sensors for micro-autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi M.; Peterson, Rebecca L.; Najafi, Khalil

    2012-06-01

    We seek to harness microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies to build biomimetic devices for low-power, high-performance, robust sensors and actuators on micro-autonomous robot platforms. Hair is used abundantly in nature for a variety of functions including balance and inertial sensing, flow sensing and aerodynamic (air foil) control, tactile and touch sensing, insulation and temperature control, particle filtering, and gas/chemical sensing. Biological hairs, which are typically characterized by large surface/volume ratios and mechanical amplification of movement, can be distributed in large numbers over large areas providing unprecedented sensitivity, redundancy, and stability (robustness). Local neural transduction allows for space- and power-efficient signal processing. Moreover by varying the hair structure and transduction mechanism, the basic hair form can be used for a wide diversity of functions. In this paper, by exploiting a novel wafer-level, bubble-free liquid encapsulation technology, we make arrays of micro-hydraulic cells capable of electrostatic actuation and hydraulic amplification, which enables high force/high deflection actuation and extremely sensitive detection (sensing) at low power. By attachment of cilia (hair) to the micro-hydraulic cell, air flow sensors with excellent sensitivity (< few cm/s) and dynamic range (> 10 m/s) have been built. A second-generation design has significantly reduced the sensor response time while maintaining sensitivity of about 2 cm/s and dynamic range of more than 15 m/s. These sensors can be used for dynamic flight control of flying robots or for situational awareness in surveillance applications. The core biomimetic technologies developed are applicable to a broad range of sensors and actuators.

  19. Topical Products for Human Hair Regeneration: A Comparative Study on an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Orasan, Meda Sandra; Coneac, Andrei; Muresan, Adriana; Mihu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background Hair loss and hair growth is the subject of tremendous amount of research. Objective This study investigated the efficacy of three chemical treatments used in humans for hair loss, using a rat model of hair regrowth. The products tested were 2% minoxidil, Hairgrow (Dar-Al-Dawa Pharma), Aminexil, Dercos (Vichy Laboratoires), and Kerium, Anti-chute (La Roche-Posay). Methods Thirty-two adult female Wistar-Bratislava rats were assigned to 4 groups. Two rectangular areas (2×4 cm) were shaved on either sides of the mid dorsal line (left side - control; right side - test area). Group I was treated topically with 2% minoxidil, group II with Aminexil, and group III with Kerium. Each rat received 0.3 ml of substance applied topically to the shaved dorsal skin every day for 28 days. Rats in group IV served as sham controls receiving no treatment. Hair regrowth was evaluated by trichoscopy (with a dermatoscope), grown hair weight (from a surface area of 1 cm2), and histopathological examination for skin thickness, follicle count, and percentage of anagen induction (morphometric assessment). Results Treatment with 2% minoxidil significantly induced hair regrowth as assessed by trichoscopy, hair weight examination, and morphometric evaluation. Hair weight examination and morphometric assessment demonstrated the lowest hair growth effect with Aminexil among the tested products. Treatment with Kerium was found to significantly induce hair regrowth (p<0.05 as compared to the control group). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that hair regrowth efficacy of products recommended for human use is not similar when tested on an animal model. PMID:26848220

  20. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  1. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  2. Hair and Salivary Testosterone, Hair Cortisol, and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grotzinger, Andrew D; Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2018-05-01

    Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations. Salivary testosterone was not associated with aggression. Hair testosterone significantly predicted increased aggression, particularly at low levels of hair cortisol (i.e., Testosterone × Cortisol interaction). This study is the first to examine the relationship between hair hormones and externalizing behaviors and adds to the growing literature that indicates that androgenic effects on human behavior are contingent on aspects of the broader endocrine environment-in particular, levels of cortisol.

  3. [KINETICS OF PHOTO-INDUCED FREE RADICALS IN THE HUMAN HAIR CHESTNUT COLOR AFTER SHORT PERIODS OF RED, GREEN, BLUE AND WHITE LIGHT EXPOSURE].

    PubMed

    Tskhvediani, N; Chikvaidze, E; Tsibadze, A; Kvachadze, I; Gogoladze, T; Katsitadze, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals in the human hair chestnut color with short-term exposure to visible light in different frequency ranges. Studies carried out on human volunteers aged 17-21 years (n=37). Hairs of volunteers of the study were not treated with dyes and other active cosmetic preparations. Hairs bundled in a bun had a length - 1.5 cm, weight - 40 mg. At the beginning background EPR-spectrum of a sample was measured and then hairs were irradiated with visible light (blue, green, red and white) of different wavelength subsequently; exposure duration - 60 minutes; after the exposure the kinetics of photo-induced free radicals was measured within 60 minutes. The radiation source was selected LED array of the four crystals that provides a nearly monochromatic radiation spectrum having no parasitic infrared and ultraviolet radiations. The studies give a reason to assume that the impact on hairs by visible electromagnetic rays a leading factor is their frequency characteristics: on the one hand - the proximity of the blue light to ultraviolet radiation, and on the other - the red light to the infrared range.

  4. Implementation of a biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad.

    PubMed

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Baldini, Gessica; Silvestri, Gloria; Butta, Alessandro; Clementi, Francesca

    2012-09-01

    The traditional process for vat dyeing with woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) basically relies on microbial reduction of indigo to its soluble form, leucoindigo, through a complex fermentative process. In the 19th century, cultivation of woad went into decline and use of synthetic indigo dye and chemical reduction agents was established, with a consequent negative impact on the environment due to the release of polluting wastewaters by the synthetic dyeing industry. Recently, the ever-growing demand for environmentally friendly dyeing technologies has led to renewed interest in ecological textile traditions. In this context, this study aims at developing an environmentally friendly biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad to replace use of polluting chemical reduction agents. Two simple broth media, containing yeast extract or corn steep liquor (CSL), were comparatively evaluated for their capacity to sustain the growth and reducing activity of the strain Clostridium isatidis DSM 15098(T). Subsequently, the dyeing capacity of the CSL medium added with 140 g L⁻¹ of woad powder, providing 2.4 g L⁻¹ of indigo dye, was evaluated after fermentation in laboratory bioreactors under anaerobic or microaerophilic conditions. In all fermentations, a sufficiently negative oxidation/reduction potential for reduction of indigo was reached as early as 24 h and maintained up to the end of the monitoring period. However, clearly faster indigo dye reduction was seen in the broth cultures fermented under strict anaerobiosis, thus suggesting the suitability of the N₂ flushing strategy for enhancement of bacterial-driven indigo reduction.

  5. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

  6. [Hair and their environment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  7. Hair cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Albert SB; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear largely lacks the capacity to regenerate hair cells, the sensory cells required for hearing and balance. Recent studies in both lower vertebrates and mammals have uncovered genes and pathways important in hair cell development and have suggested ways that the sensory epithelia could be manipulated to achieve hair cell regeneration. These approaches include the use of inner ear stem cells, transdifferentiation of nonsensory cells, and induction of a proliferative response in the cells that can become hair cells. PMID:18929656

  8. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth.

  9. Facial hair restoration: hair transplantation to eyebrows, beard, sideburns, and eyelashes.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey

    2013-08-01

    Refinements in hair transplantation techniques allow the experienced surgeon to create natural-appearing facial hair transplants. Restoring eyebrows, beards/goatees, and sideburns have all become popular procedures, and the results can be outstanding. This article provides a comprehensive review of hair grafting techniques to achieve the best results in restoring various hair-bearing areas of the face, including the eyebrows, beard/goatee, and sideburns, and repairing the alopecic scarring from prior facial plastic surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  12. Ingrown Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed to determine whether a single- or multiple-blade razor is best for preventing ingrown hair. See ... in the direction of hair growth. Rinse the blade after each stroke. Rinse your skin and apply ...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes with various electron-accepting substituents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Weidelener, Martin; Powar, Satvasheel; Kast, Hannelore; Yu, Ze; Boix, Pablo P; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Geiger, Thomas; Kuster, Simon; Nüesch, Frank; Bach, Udo; Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Four new donor-π-acceptor dyes differing in their acceptor group have been synthesized and employed as model systems to study the influence of the acceptor groups on the photophysical properties and in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. UV/Vis absorption spectra showed a broad range of absorption coverage with maxima between 331 and 653 nm. Redox potentials as well as HOMO and LUMO energies of the dyes were determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements and evaluated concerning their potential use as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). Quantum-chemical density functional theory calculations gave further insight into the frontier orbital distributions, which are relevant for the electronic processes in p-DSCs. In p-DSCs using an iodide/triiodide-based electrolyte, the polycyclic 9,10-dicyano-acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DCANQ) acceptor-containing dye gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 0.08%, which is comparable to that obtained with the perylenemonoimide (PMI)-containing dye. Interestingly, devices containing the DCANQ-based dye achieve a higher V(OC) of 163 mV compared to 158 mV for the PMI-containing dye. The result was further confirmed by impedance spectroscopic analysis showing higher recombination resistance and thus a lower recombination rate for devices containing the DCANQ dye than for PMI dye-based devices. However, the use of the strong electron-accepting tricyanofurane (TCF) group played a negative role in the device performance, yielding an efficiency of only 0.01% due to a low-lying LUMO energy level, thus resulting in an insufficient driving force for efficient dye regeneration. The results demonstrate that a careful molecular design with a proper choice of the acceptor unit is essential for development of sensitizers for p-DSCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Hair-care practices in African American women: potential for allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Alicia; Sood, Apra

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when the skin is re-exposed to a substance to which it was previously sensitized. One significant source of exposure to sensitizing chemicals is through personal grooming and beauty products. While the role of cosmetics and hair-care products in the development of ACD is well-documented, there has been very little literature that specifically addresses the role of hair-care practices of patients with tightly curled hair, such as in patients of African descent, in the development of ACD in this population. This review provides an integrated summary of the hair-care practices of female African American patients and the potential for exposure to sensitizing agents at each stage. This review will also discuss the challenges faced in recognizing and assessing ACD in these patients. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  15. Activating Hair Follicle Stem Cells via R-spondin2 to Stimulate Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew A; Li, Jingtao; Liu, Bo; Hunter, Daniel; Pyles, Malcolm; Gillette, Martin; Dhamdhere, Girija R; Abo, Arie; Oro, Anthony; Helms, Jill A

    2016-08-01

    Wnt signaling is required for the development of the hair follicle, and for inciting the growth (anagen) phase of the hair cycle. Most strategies to enhance Wnt signaling for hair growth create a state of constitutive Wnt activation, which leads to neoplastic transformation of the epithelial hair matrix. Using Axin2(LacZ/+) and Axin2(Cre/+)R26R(mTmG/+) reporter mice and RNA analyses, we show that Wnt signaling is elevated during anagen, is reduced at the onset of catagen, and can be reamplified in the skin and surrounding hair follicles via intradermal injection of recombinant R-spondin2 protein. Using Lgr5(LacZ/+) reporter mice, we demonstrate that this amplified Wnt environment leads to activation of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive stem cells in the hair follicle. The onset of catagen is repressed by R-spondin2 injection, and the anagen phase persists. As a consequence, hair shafts grow longer. We conclude that R-spondin2 treatment activates hair follicle stem cells and therefore may have therapeutic potential to promote hair growth. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hair bundles of cochlear outer hair cells are shaped to minimize their fluid-dynamic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ciganović, Nikola; Wolde-Kidan, Amanuel; Reichenbach, Tobias

    2017-06-15

    The mammalian sense of hearing relies on two types of sensory cells: inner hair cells transmit the auditory stimulus to the brain, while outer hair cells mechanically modulate the stimulus through active feedback. Stimulation of a hair cell is mediated by displacements of its mechanosensitive hair bundle which protrudes from the apical surface of the cell into a narrow fluid-filled space between reticular lamina and tectorial membrane. While hair bundles of inner hair cells are of linear shape, those of outer hair cells exhibit a distinctive V-shape. The biophysical rationale behind this morphology, however, remains unknown. Here we use analytical and computational methods to study the fluid flow across rows of differently shaped hair bundles. We find that rows of V-shaped hair bundles have a considerably reduced resistance to crossflow, and that the biologically observed shapes of hair bundles of outer hair cells are near-optimal in this regard. This observation accords with the function of outer hair cells and lends support to the recent hypothesis that inner hair cells are stimulated by a net flow, in addition to the well-established shear flow that arises from shearing between the reticular lamina and the tectorial membrane.

  17. Decolorization of a reactive copper-phthalocyanine dye under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Beydili, M I; Matthews, R D; Pavlostathis, S G

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the biological decolorization of the copper-phthalocyanine dye Reactive Blue 7 (RB7) under methanogenic conditions using a mixed, methanogenic culture in a repetitive dye addition batch assay. The initial rate of decolorization was 13.2 mg/L-d and 5.7 mg/L-d for the first and second dye addition, respectively. For an initial RB7 concentration of ca. 300 mg/L, the extent of decolorization remained constant (about 62%) for each repetitive RB7 addition and resulted in a residual color build up. Declining absorbance ratio values (A664/A620) with increasing incubation time confirmed that the observed color removal was due to transformation as opposed to adsorption on the biomass. Chemical decolorization assays using sodium dithionite as the reducing agent resulted in similar absorbance spectra to that obtained after biological decolorization. In addition, in both the chemical and biological decolorization assays, partial oxidation of the reduced dye solution upon exposure to air resulted in higher residual color, indicating that the reduction and decolorization of RB7 are partially reversible. These results also suggest that RB7 reduction and decolorization both chemically and biologically most likely followed a similar reduction mechanism.

  18. Compositional changes of human hair melanin resulting from bleach treatment investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Isobe, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Aoki, Dan; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    It is important to understand the influence of bleach treatment on human hair because it is one of the most important chemical treatments in hair cosmetic processes. A comparison of the elemental composition of melanin between virgin hair and bleached hair would provide important information about the structural changes of melanin. To investigate the elemental composition of melanin granules in virgin black hair and bleached hair, these hair cross-sections are analyzed by using a nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The virgin black hair and bleached hair samples were embedded in resin and smooth hair cross-sections were obtained using an ultramicrotome. NanoSIMS measurements were performed using a Cs(+) primary ion beam to detect negative secondary ions. More intensive (16) O(-) ions were detected from the melanin granules of bleached hair than from those of virgin black hair in NanoSIMS (16) O(-) ion image. In addition, it was indicated that (16) O(-) ion intensity and (16) O(-) /(12) C(14) N(-) ion intensity ratio of melanin granules in bleached hair were higher than those in virgin black hair. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the cross-sections of virgin black hair and bleached hair indicated that the oxygen content in melanin granules was increased by bleach treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. "I think gorilla-like back effusions of hair are rather a turn-off": 'Excessive hair' and male body hair (removal) discourse.

    PubMed

    Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Men's hair removal practices are becoming mainstream, seen as a consequence of changing masculine norms and men's relationships to their bodies. This is often presented as a straightforward 'shift' from men's ideal bodies as naturally hairy, to increased hairlessness, and the consequence on men's body concerns as inevitable. This paper analyses qualitative survey data from Aotearoa/New Zealand using critical thematic analysis, and describes three themes. Two themes capture contradictory ideas: that men's body hair is natural, and that men's body hair is unpleasant. A third theme introduces the concept of 'excess' hair, which allowed sense-making of this contradiction, mandating men's grooming of 'excessive' hair. However its vagueness as a concept may provoke anxiety for men resulting in hair removal. This paper adds to a body of research demonstrating a cultural transition: the ways changing masculinities, increased commodification of male bodies, and shifting gender roles impact on men's hair removal practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Processing and characterization of epoxy composites reinforced with short human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Nanda, Bishnu; Satapathy, Alok

    2017-02-01

    Human hair is a biological fiber with well characterized microstructure. It has many unique properties like high tensile strength, thermal insulation, unique chemical composition, elastic recovery, scaly surface etc. But due to its slow decomposition, it creates many environmental problems. Although a number of utilization avenues are already in place, hair is still considered as a biological waste. In view of this, the present work makes an attempt to explore the possibility of fabricating a class of polymer composites reinforced with short human hair fibers. Epoxy composites with different proportions of hair fiber (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt.%) are prepared by simple hand lay-up technique. Mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and compressive strengths were evaluated by conducting tests as per ASTM standards. It was found out that with the increase in fiber content, the tensile and flexural strength of the composite were increasing significantly while the compressive strength improved marginally. Scanning electron microscopy was done on these samples to observe the microstructural features.

  1. Adenosine increases anagen hair growth and thick hairs in Japanese women with female pattern hair loss: a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oura, Hajimu; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Tajima, Masahiro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Nakaya, Yutaka; Arase, Seiji; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2008-12-01

    Adenosine upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-7 in cultured dermal papilla cells. It has been shown that, in Japanese men, adenosine improves androgenetic alopecia due to the thickening of thin hair due to hair follicle miniaturization. To investigate the efficacy and safety of adenosine treatment to improve hair loss in women, 30 Japanese women with female pattern hair loss were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Volunteers used either 0.75% adenosine lotion or a placebo lotion topically twice daily for 12 months. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists and by investigators and in phototrichograms. As a result, adenosine was significantly superior to the placebo according to assessments by dermatologists and investigators and by self-assessments. Adenosine significantly increased the anagen hair growth rate and the thick hair rate. No side-effects were encountered during the trial. Adenosine improved hair loss in Japanese women by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts. Adenosine is useful for treating female pattern hair loss in women as well as androgenetic alopecia in men.

  2. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  3. Removal of Acid Black 194 dye from water by electrocoagulation with aluminum anode.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jorge; Villegas, Loreto; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Salazar González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Application of an electrocoagulation process (EC) for the elimination of AB194 textile dye from synthetic and textile wastewater (effluent) contaminated with AB194 dye, was carried out using aluminum anodes at two different initial pH values. Tafel studies in the presence and absence of the dye were performed. The aluminum species formed during the electrolysis were quantified by atomic absorption, and the flocs formed in the process were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Complete removal of AB194 from 1.0 L of solution was achieved applying low densities current at initial pH values of 4.0 and 8.0. The removal of AB194 by EC was possible with a short electrolysis time, removing practically 100% of the total organic carbon content and chemical oxygen demand. The final result was completely discolored water lacking dye and organic matter. An effluent contaminated with 126 mg L(-1) AB194 dye from a Chilean textile industry was also treated by EC under optimized experimental conditions, yielding discolored water and considerably decreasing the presence of organic compounds (dye + dyeing additives), with very low concentrations of dissolved Al(3+). Analysis of flocs showed the presence of the original dye without changes in its chemical structure.

  4. The influence of hair bleach on the ultrastructure of human hair with special reference to hair damage.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takehito

    2011-05-01

    The influence of human hair bleaching agents with different bleaching strength on the ultrastructure of human hair was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with TEM (EDS-TEM). Two kinds of bleaching agents were used: a lightener agent with a weak bleaching effect and a powder-bleach with a stronger bleaching effect. From the comparison of the bleaching properties obtained by the electronic staining of black and white hair samples, it was suggested that the permeability of hair was increased by bleaching, and there was an increase of the stainability of hair subjected to electronic staining. The bleaching action provoked the decomposition of melanin granules and the flow out of granular contents into the intermacrofibrillar matrix. Some metal elements were detected in the melanin granular matrix by EDS-TEM. As a result, the diffusion of metal elements into the intermacrofibrillar matrix promoted further damage to the hair by catalytic action with the hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching agents outside the melanin granules. Further study will lead us to the edge of the development of a new bleaching agent, which reacts only with melanin granules and causes the minimum of damage to outside the melanin granules.

  5. Primary Teeth and Hair as Indicators of Environmental Pollution.

    PubMed

    Shishniashvili, T E; Suladze, N N; Margvelashvili, V V

    2016-01-01

    To study the influence of environmental pollution on the mineralization of dental hard tissues by using biosubstrates: teeth and hair. : At the first stage epidemiological survey was conducted in polluted and less polluted areas of Tbilisi (Georgia). We studied 525 children aged 3 and 4 years. Caries prevalence and intensity was defined by the methodology of World Health Organization. At the second stage the chemical elements content was studied in hair and teeth hard tissues of 24 children by X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy method. The prevalence of dental caries in the polluted region was 46%, caries intensity--1.92 (± 2.842). In the less polluted region prevalence was 37%, caries intensity--1.47 (± 2.571). These data are statistically reliable (p < 0.05). The study of hair and tooth tissues showed that the toxic elements (Pb, Hg, Sn, Ti) content in these tissues was higher in environmentally unfavorable than in favorable conditions. Hair and dental tissues can be used as indicators of environmental pollution. Our survey showed that toxic elements content in dental hard tissues was higher and the level of essential elements was less in polluted than in less polluted areas of Tbilisi.

  6. The hair follicle enigma.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2017-06-01

    The hair follicle is a mini-organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behaviour. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome-mediated cell-cell interactions. Even though bricks of knowledge are solidly being acquired, an integrative picture remains to emerge. One can predict that computer science, algorithms and bioinformatics will assist in fostering our understanding hair biology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hair cell regeneration: Look to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Edwin W.

    2005-04-01

    Less than 2 decades ago it was discovered that birds can regenerate hair cells in the auditory and vestibular parts of the inner ear after the native hair cells are destroyed by exposure to excessive noise or by mechanical trauma of aminoglycoside antibiotics. This discovery issued in a new era of hearing research-it suggested that some day it may be possible to actually restore hearing in people with congenital or acquired hearing loss due to the degeneration of sensory cells or supporting cells in the inner ear. Fifteen years is a very short time in the history of science. Consider the fact that we have actively sought chemical treatments to prevent or cure cancers for well over a half century and the ``war on Cancer,'' resulted in enormous public and private support. Progress has been great, and some forms of cancer can be treated with great success, but the overall 5-year survival rates have only risen from about 50% to 63%. Progress will continue and many more forms of cancer will be cured and prevented during the next half century. Similarly, during the first 15 years of hair cell regeneration research enormous progress has been made, and we now know that postnatal mammalian ears have the capacity to produce new hair cells. We are indeed a long way from restoring hearing through hair cell regeneration, but the future is pretty clear. I will review the progress of this field with an eye toward the future and what it means for treatments of today. In particular, I will address the potential cost versus benefits of bilateral implantation when applied to babies and young children.

  8. Causes and Consequences of Sensory Hair Cell Damage and Recovery in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E; Monroe, J David

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are the mechanotransductive receptors that detect gravity, sound, and vibration in all vertebrates. Damage to these sensitive receptors often results in deficits in vestibular function and hearing. There are currently two main reasons for studying the process of hair cell loss in fishes. First, fishes, like other non-mammalian vertebrates, have the ability to regenerate hair cells that have been damaged or lost via exposure to ototoxic chemicals or acoustic overstimulation. Thus, they are used as a biomedical model to understand the process of hair cell death and regeneration and find therapeutics that treat or prevent human hearing loss. Secondly, scientists and governmental natural resource managers are concerned about the potential effects of intense anthropogenic sounds on aquatic organisms, including fishes. Dr. Arthur N. Popper and his students, postdocs and research associates have performed pioneering experiments in both of these lines of fish hearing research. This review will discuss the current knowledge regarding the causes and consequences of both lateral line and inner ear hair cell damage in teleost fishes.

  9. Optical hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  10. Effects of ultrasonic energy on dyeing of polyamide (microfibre)/Lycra blends.

    PubMed

    Merdan, Nigar; Akalin, Mehmet; Kocak, Dilara; Usta, Ismail

    2004-04-01

    Although ultrasonic energy is widely used cleaning and degreasing of parts and assemblies in automotive and other industries, the use of ultrasonic energy in an industrial scale for textile washing is very new. This is due to the complexity of controlling the combination of chemical and mechanical effects, whereas with degreasing of machine parts only the mechanical effects is applied. The use of ultrasonic energy in dyeing PA/Lycra fabrics with reactive dyes has been studied spectrophotometrically in this work. PA/Lycra (85/15) blends have been dyed using conventional and ultrasonic dyeing techniques with three reactive dyes containing different chromophore and reactive groups. The dyeing carried out conventionally and by the use of ultrasonic techniques. The results were compared in terms of percentage exhaustion; total dye transferred to the washing bath after dyeing and the fastness properties.

  11. Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection analysis of human hair: comparison of hair from breast cancer patients with hair from healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Donald J; Murray-Wijelath, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectra of 32 scalp and pubic hair samples from individuals diagnosed with breast cancer and those who were negative for breast cancer showed increases in the beta-sheet/disorder structures (relative to alpha-helix structures) and C-H lipid content of hair from breast cancer patients. Thus, the presence of breast cancer appears to alter the hair growth process, resulting in changes in the composition and conformation of cell membrane and matrix materials of hair fiber. These appear to be consistent with the changes observed in X-ray diffraction patterns for hair from breast cancer patients. A blind study of 12 additional hair samples using these FTIR-ATR spectral differences as markers correctly identified all four hair samples from cancer patients (100%). Two of these samples were from breast cancer patients. Of the remaining two samples analyzing positive for cancer, one was from a prostate cancer patient and one from a lung cancer patient. Thus, it appears that the mechanism that alters hair fiber synthesis in the three types of cancer may be similar. The blind study incorrectly identified as positive for cancer three hair samples from two apparently healthy individuals and one patient considered cured from prostate cancer.

  12. [Residue of organic fluorine pollutants in hair and nails collected from Tianjin].

    PubMed

    Yao, Dan; Zhang, Hong; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shen, Jin-Can; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Guo-Qing

    2013-02-01

    In order to explore the residue and distributions of organic fluorine pollutants in hair and nails, the residue levels of total fluorine (TF), extractable organic fluorine (EOF) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in hair and nails collected from Tianjin adults were measured by the cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) combined with the high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that inorganic fluorine (mean: 2.0 mg.kg-1, 4.5 mg.kg-1) was the primary fluorine in TF while EOF(mean: 0.7 mg.kg-1, 1.8 mg.kg-1) was minor. The average amount of identified fluorine (IF) was 0.038 mg.kg-1 in hair and 0.047 mg.kg-1 in nails, accounting or 7.1% (2.6%-16%) and 3.5% (1.1%-11%) of EOF, respectively, which indicated that more than 84% of EOF was unknown. The major residue in hair and nails were medium-and short-chain PFCs,in which perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorononanoic acid were the main species. TF, EOF and IF levels in dyed and permed hair were significantly higher than untreated hair (P <0.05), and the concentrations of Sigma PFCs in hair and nails showed no difference between genders. With significantly higher levels of sigma PFCs and PFOS residues than hair (P <0.01), nails could potentially become a more sensitive bioindicator for the exposure level of PFCs in human.

  13. A Novel Preparation Method of Two Polymer Dyes with Low Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Dongjun; Zhang, Mingjie; Cui, Jin; Li, Weixue; Zhu, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    A new preparation method of polymer dyes was developed to improve both the grafting degree of the azo dyes onto O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OMCS) and the water solubility of prepared polymer dyes. Firstly, the coupling compound of two azo edible colorants, sunset yellow (SY) and allura red (AR), was grafted onto OMCS, and then coupled with their diazonium salt. The chemical structure of prepared polymer dyes was determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR, and the results showed that the two azo dyes were successfully grafted onto OMCS. The grafting degree onto OMCS and the water solubility of polymer dyes were tested, and the results showed that they were both improved as expected. The UV-vis spectra analysis results showed that the prepared polymer dyes showed similar color performance with the original azo dyes. Eventually, the cytotoxicity of prepared polymer dyes was tested and compared with the original azo dyes by a cytotoxicity test on human liver cell lines LO2, and the results showed that their grafting onto OMCS significantly reduced the cytotoxicity. PMID:28772583

  14. Effects of gamma rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Kimihiko

    2017-09-01

    This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1st telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2nd and 3rd anagen phases. An increased frequency of hypopigmented hair bulbs was still observed in the later hair cycle at postnatal day 200. There was no significant difference in the number of stem cells in the hair bulge region between control and irradiated skin. These results show that the effects of γ-rays on the pigmentation of murine hair follicles are persistently carried over to later hair cycles, although those on the number and structure of hair follicles appear to be hidden by the effects of aging. Our findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of the actions of stem cells on hair regeneration in connection with age-related phenotypes.

  15. Fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair.

    PubMed

    Sewram, Vikash; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Shephard, Gordon S; Marasas, Walter F O

    2003-01-01

    This study shows for the first time the accumulation of fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair of population clusters exposed to contaminated maize, and thus the feasibility of human hair analysis for the assessment of past fumonisin exposure. Composite hair samples were obtained from the Bizana, Butterworth and Centane districts within the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Following methanol extraction and strong anion exchange clean up, the fumonisins FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) were detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Hair from Centane and Butterworth showed mean levels of FB(1) of 26.7 and 23.5 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. FB(2) was only detected in hair from Centane and in one sampling point in Butterworth, with mean levels of 6.5 and 5.7 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. Hair samples from Bizana, on the other hand, were found to contain higher levels of FB(1) (mean 33.0 microg kg(-1) hair) and FB(2) (mean 11.1 microg kg(-1) hair). No samples contained more than trace levels of FB(3). Recoveries from spiked hair samples using this method ranged from 81% to 101%, demonstrating the applicability of hair analysis in assessing human exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins.

  16. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 721.980 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...

  17. Analytical requirements, perspectives and limits of immunological methods for drugs in hair.

    PubMed

    Cassani, M; Spiehler, V

    1993-12-01

    The analytical requirements for analysis of drugs in hair are sensitivity in the range of picograms per milligram of hair, specificity for lipophilic drugs and absence of matrix effects with hair digests. These requirements are met by immunoassays which are also inexpensive, rapid and easy to use. However, in applying immunoassays to hair testing, certain limitations of the assay and of interpretation of assay results should be kept in perspective. These limitations are illustrated in this review with examples of the analysis of opiates in hair from patients and opiate addicts. The first requirement for immunological analysis of hair digests is that the digest must not denature the antibody proteins of the immunoassay reagents. For this reason enzymatic digests are better for immunological assay than chemical digests. Strongly acidic or alkaline digests must be brought to a neutral pH before immunoassay. Immunoassays used for analysis of hair should be calibrated with spiked hair digest standards to correct for possible matrix effects. The second requirement is that the immunoassay have the sensitivity and specificity to detect the drug in hair. Drugs of abuse are found in hair in the range of 10 pg-10 ng/mg hair. Radioimmunoassays are capable of detection and quantitation in this concentration range. Although the mechanism of drug incorporation into hair is not known, it is now apparent that primarily the parent drug and lipophilic metabolites are found in hair. For example, the ratio of cocaine/benzoylecgonine averages 10 (range 2-50) in published reports of analysis of hair from cocaine users. Therefore, immunoassays which are highly sensitive for the parent drug are required and results of immunoassays should be expressed as equivalents. When spiking standards for calibration of hair digest immunoassays, parent drug known to be present in hair should be used, e.g. cocaine not benzoylecgonine. With immunoassays which are specific for the lipophilic metabolite

  18. Novel preparation and characterization of human hair-based nanofibers using electrospinning process.

    PubMed

    Park, Mira; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Panthi, Gopal; Rabbani, Mohammad Mahbub; Alam, Al-Mahmnur; Choi, Jawun; Chung, Hea-Jong; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Human hair-based biocomposite nanofibers (NFs) have been fabricated by an electrospinning technique. Aqueous keratin extracted from human hair was successfully blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The focus here is on transforming into keratin/PVA nanofibrous membranes and insoluble property of electrospun NFs. The resulting hair-based NFs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Toward the potential use of these NFs after cross-linking with various weight fractions of glyoxal, its physicochemical properties, such as morphology, mechanical strength, crystallinity, and chemical structure were investigated. Keratin/PVA ratio of 2/1 NFs with 6 wt%-glyoxal showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and excellent antibacterial activity providing a potential application of hair-based NFs in biomedical field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2016-12-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

  2. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... pillow. This is the result of the normal hair growth cycle. Hairs will grow for a few years, ... the name for the resting stage of the hair growth cycle. A telogen effluvium is when some stress ...

  3. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  4. Ecabet sodium alleviates neomycin-induced hair cell damage.

    PubMed

    Rah, Yoon Chan; Choi, June; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Yum, Gunhwee; Park, Saemi; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Suhyun; Park, Hae-Chul

    2015-12-01

    Ecabet sodium (ES) is currently applied to some clinical gastrointestinal disease primarily by the inhibition of the ROS production. In this study, the protective role of ES was evaluated against the neomycin-induced hair cell loss using zebrafish experimental animal model. Zebrafish larvae (5-7 dpf), were treated with each of the following concentrations of ES: 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL for 1 h, followed by 125 μM neomycin for 1h. The positive control group was established by 125 μM neomycin-only treatment (1h) and the negative control group with no additional chemicals was also established. Hair cells inside four neuromasts ( SO1, SO2, O1, OC1) were assessed using fluorescence microscopy (n = 10). Hair cell survival was calculated as the mean number of viable hair cells for each group. Apoptosis and mitochondrial damage were investigated using special staining (TUNEL and DASPEI assay, respectively), and compared among groups. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Pre-treatment group with ES increased the mean number of viable hair cells as a dose-dependent manner achieving almost same number of viable hair cells with 40 μM/ml ES treatment (12.98 ± 2.59 cells) comparing to that of the negative control group (14.15 ± 1.39 cells, p = 0.72) and significantly more number of viable hair cells than that of the positive control group (7.45 ± 0.91 cells, p < 0.01). The production of reactive oxygen species significantly increased by 183% with 125 μM neomycin treatment than the negative control group and significantly decreased down to 105% with the pre-treatment with 40 μM/ml ES (n = 40, p = 0.04). A significantly less number of TUNEL-positive cells (reflecting apoptosis, p < 0.01) and a significantly increased DASPEI reactivity (reflecting viable mitochondria, p < 0.01) were observed in 40 μM/ml ES pre-treatment group. Our data suggest that ES could protect against neomycin-induced hair cell loss possibly by reducing

  5. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  6. Para-phenylenediamine allergy: current perspectives on diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Mukkanna, Krishna Sumanth; Stone, Natalie M; Ingram, John R

    2017-01-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the commonest and most well-known component of hair dyes. Oxidative hair dyes and dark henna temporary tattoos contain PPD. Individuals may be sensitized to PPD by temporary henna tattooing in addition to dyeing their hair. PPD allergy can cause severe reactions and may result in complications. In recent years, frequency of positive patch test reactions to PPD has been increasing. Cross-sensitization to other contact allergens may occur, in particular to other hair dye components. Hairdressers are at a high risk for PPD allergy and require counseling regarding techniques to minimize exposure and protective measures while handling hair dye. We focus this review on the current perspectives of diagnosis and management of PPD allergy. PMID:28176912

  7. Improved Poly (D,L-lactide) nanoparticles-based formulation for hair follicle targeting.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, B; Silva, R; Ribeiro, A; Matamá, T; Gomes, A C; Cavaco-Paulo, A M

    2015-06-01

    Hair follicles are widely recognized as the preferential target and site of accumulation for nanoparticles after topical application. This feature is of particular importance for hair cosmetics, having the potential to refine the treatment of several hair follicle-related disorders. The aim of this work was to improve the preparation of Poly (D,L-lactide) (PLA) nanoparticles for in vivo follicular target and drug delivery. Envisaging a future industrial scale-up of the process, nanoprecipitation method was used to prepare PLA nanoparticles: the effect of several processing parameters on their properties was examined and the yield of nanoparticles formation determined. Encapsulation efficiencies and in vitro release profiles of lipophilic and hydrophilic model compounds were also assessed. In vitro cytotoxicity and ex vivo penetration studies were performed on a reference skin cell line (NCTC2455, human skin keratinocytes) and porcine skin, respectively. Using acetone : ethanol (50 : 50, v/v) as the solvent phase, 0.6% (w/w) of Pluronic(®) F68 as a surfactant agent and agitation to mix the solvent and non-solvent phases, a monodispersed population of non-cytotoxic spherical nanoparticles of approximately 150 nm was obtained. The yield of nanoparticles for this formulation was roughly 90%. After encapsulation of model compounds, no significant changes were found in the properties of particles and the entrapment efficiencies were above 80%. The release kinetics of dyes from PLA nanoparticles indicate an anomalous transport mechanism (diffusion and polymer degradation) for Nile Red (lipophilic) and a Fickian diffusion of first order for fluorescein 5(6)-isothiocyanate (hydrophilic). Ex vivo skin penetration studies confirmed the presence of nanoparticles along the entire follicular ducts. The optimized method allows the preparation of ideal PLA nanoparticles-based formulations for hair follicle targeting. PLA nanoparticles can effectively transport and release

  8. Synthesis of highly stable cyanine-dye-doped silica nanoparticle for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Ying; Ding, Long-Jiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-ai; Zhang, Ying-Lu; Lin, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Xu-dong

    2018-07-01

    Cyanine dyes are widely used in biological labeling and imaging because of their narrow near infrared emission, good brightness and high flexibility in functionalization, which not only enables multiplex analysis and multi-color imaging, but also greatly reduces autofluorescence from biological matter and increases signal-to-noise ratio. Unfortunately, their poor chemical- and photo-stability strongly limits their applications. The incorporation of cyanine dyes in silica nanoparticles provides a solution to the problem. On one hand, the incorporation of cyanine dyes in silica matrix can enhance their chemical- and photo-stability and increase brightness of the nanomaterials. On the other hand, silica matrix provides an optimized condition to host the dye, which helps to maintain their fluorescent properties during application. In addition, the well-established silane technique provides numerous functionalities for diverse applications. However, commercially available cyanine dyes are not very stable at high alkaline conditions, which will gradually lose their fluorescence over time. Our results showed that cyanine dyes are very vulnerable in the reverse micelle system, in which they will lose their fluorescence in less than half an hour. The existence of surfactant could greatly promote degradation of cyanine dyes. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles cannot be obtained at the high alkaline condition with the existence of surfactant. In contrast, the cyanine dyes are relatively stable in Stöber media. Owing to the fast formation of silica particles in Stöber media, the exposure time of cyanine dye in alkaline solution was greatly reduced, and highly fluorescent particles with good morphology and size distribution could be obtained via Stöber approach. However, the increasing water content in the Stöber could reduce the stability of cyanine dyes, which should be avoided. This research here provides a clear guidance on how to successfully synthesize cyanine dye

  9. Dye-doped silica-based nanoparticles for bioapplications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhung Tran, Hong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Thuy Duong Vu, Thi; Tan Pham, Minh; Van Nguyen, Thi; Trang Tran, Thu; Chu, Viet Ha; Thuan Tong, Kim; Thuy Tran, Thanh; Le, Thi Thanh Xuan; Brochon, Jean-Claude; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Nhung Hoang, My; Nguyen Duong, Cao; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Anh Tuan; Hoa Nguyen, Phuong

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents our recent research results on synthesis and bioapplications of dye-doped silica-based nanoparticles. The dye-doped water soluble organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles (NPs) with the size of 15-100 nm were synthesized by modified Stöber method from methyltriethoxysilane CH3Si(OCH3)3 precursor (MTEOS). Because thousands of fluorescent dye molecules are encapsulated in the silica-based matrix, the dye-doped nanoparticles are extremely bright and photostable. Their surfaces were modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and biocompatible chemical reagents. The highly intensive luminescent nanoparticles were combined with specific bacterial and breast cancer antigen antibodies. The antibody-conjugated nanoparticles can identify a variety of bacterium, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, through antibody-antigen interaction and recognition. A highly sensitive breast cancer cell detection has been achieved with the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody-nanoparticles complex. These results demonstrate the potential to apply these fluorescent nanoparticles in various biodetection systems.

  10. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) Overview Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of ...

  11. Investigating the use of hair to assess polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure retrospectively.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Amanda; Aleksa, Katarina; Goodyer, Cynthia G; Koren, Gideon

    2014-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals that are added to a variety of consumer products as flame-retardants and have been classified as emerging endocrine disruptors. They are persistent and have been detected in humans. Previous studies have suggested that hair is a suitable matrix for examining human exposure to organic pollutants such as PBDEs. It is believed that the majority of exposure is from our indoor environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in PBDE patterns and levels along the hair shaft, by using segmental analysis to retrospectively assess long-term exposure over a 1-year period. Questionnaires and hair samples from 65 women were collected at the Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, as part of a larger study. To assess long-term stability, hair samples were separated into 4- and 3-cm segments representing a 1-year period. Hair segments were analyzed for levels of 8 PBDE congeners, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, and BDE-209 on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS). A Friedman test was used to detect the differences in exposure among segments, and factors such as dietary habits, hair care routine, and site of residence were investigated to determine if they might affect hair levels. A significant increase (P < 0.0001) in total PBDEs was seen among segments moving from proximal (root end) to distal along the hair shaft (median in pg/mg): first (33.3), second (43.0), third (61.6), and fourth (75.5) segments. Significantly lower levels of PBDEs were observed in artificially colored hair samples (P = 0.032), and a significant increase in PBDE levels was observed in women who consumed meat on a daily basis as opposed to weekly consumption (P = 0.040). The increase in PBDEs along the hair shaft suggests that hair PBDEs may be influenced by diet and artificial coloring. More work is needed to validate the use of PBDEs in hair as a biomarker of long-term exposure.

  12. The potential use of diisononyl phthalate metabolites hair as biomarkers to assess long-term exposure demonstrated by a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Yi; Ho, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a widely used industrial plasticizer. People come into contact with this chemical by using plastic products made with it. Human health can be adversely affected by long-term DINP exposure. However, because the body rapidly excretes DINP metabolites, the use of single-point urine analysis to assess long-term exposure may produce inconsistent results in epidemiologic studies. Hair analysis has a useful place in biomonitoring, particularly in estimating long-term or historical exposure for some chemicals. Several studies have reported using hair analysis to assess the concentrations of heavy metals, drugs and organic pollutants in humans. As a biomarker, DINP metabolites were measured in rat hair in animal experiments to evaluated long-term exposure to DINP. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of DINP metabolites in hair and in urine. The levels of DINP metabolites in rat hair were significantly higher in the exposure group, relative to the control group (p<0.05). DINP metabolites had a positive correlation with increasing administered dose. Significant positive correlations for MINP, MOINP and MHINP were found between hair and urine (r=0.86, r=0.79 and r=0.74, respectively, p<0.05). Several metabolites in urine showed earlier saturation than in hair. In this report, we detected eight metabolites in hair and demonstrate that hair analysis has potential applications in the assessment of long-term exposure to DINP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  14. EXAFS, ab Initio Molecular Dynamics, and NICIS Spectroscopy Studies on an Organic Dye Model at the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photoelectrode Interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Johansson, Viktor; Trilaksana, Herri; Rosdahl, Jan; Andersson, Gunther G; Kloo, Lars

    2017-06-14

    The organization of dye molecules in the dye layer adsorbed on the semiconductor substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells has been studied using a combination of theoretical methods and experimental techniques. The model system is based on the simple D-π-A dye L0, which has been chemically modified by substituting the acceptor group CN with Br (L0Br) to offer better X-ray contrast. Experimental EXAFS data based on the Br K-edge backscattering show no obvious difference between dye-sensitized titania powder and titania film samples, thus allowing model systems to be based on powder slurries. Ab initio molecular dynamic (aiMD) calculations have been performed to extract less biased information from the experimental EXASF data. Using the aiMD calculation as input, the EXAFS structural models can be generated a priori that match the experimental data. Our study shows that the L0Br dye adsorbs in the trans-L0Br configuration and that adsorption involves both a proximity to other L0Br dye molecules and the titanium atoms in the TiO 2 substrate. These results indicate direct coordination of the dye molecules to the TiO 2 surface in contrast to previous results on metal-organic dyes. The molecular coverage of L0Br on mesoporous TiO 2 was also estimated using NICIS spectroscopy. The NICISS results emphasized that the L0Br dye on nanoporous titania mainly forms monolayers with a small contribution of multilayer coverage.

  15. An ultrastructural study on corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mao; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lei, Song; Zhang, Chaoliang; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Hu, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to explain the formation mechanisms of corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis. In the present work, the ultrastructure of the involved hairs collected from a girl with tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM observation of the corkscrew hair revealed bent hair shaft and asymmetrically disrupted cuticle layer. TEM findings demonstrated the hair shaft became weak. The corkscrew hairs closely covered by scales on the scalp were observed under dermoscopy. We speculate that the formation of corkscrew hairs is a result of a combination of internal damage due to hair degradation by T. violaceum and external resistance due to scales covering the hair. SEM observation of the cigarette-ash-shaped hair revealed irregularly disrupted and incompact end, which might represent the stump of the broken corkscrew hair after treatment. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Solar light induced and TiO2 assisted degradation of textile dye reactive blue 4.

    PubMed

    Neppolian, B; Choi, H C; Sakthivel, S; Arabindoo, B; Murugesan, V

    2002-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of reactive blue 4 textile dye are totally mineralised when irradiated with TiO2 photocatalyst. A solution containing 4 x 10(-4) M dye was completely degraded in 24 h irradiation time. The intensity of the solar light was measured using Lux meter. The results showed that the dye molecules were completely degraded to CO2, SO4(2-), NO3-, NH4+ and H2O under solar irradiation. The addition of hydrogen peroxide and potassium persulphate influenced the photodegradation efficiency. The rapidity of photodegradation of dye intermediates were observed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide than in its absence. The auxiliary chemicals such as sodium carbonate and sodium chloride substantially affected the photodegradation efficiency. High performance liquid chromatography and chemical oxygen demand were used to study the mineralisation and degradation of the dye respectively. It is concluded that solar light induced degradation of textile dye in wastewater is a viable technique for wastewater treatment.

  17. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  18. Splitting hairs: differentiating between entomological activity, taphonomy, and sharp force trauma on hair.

    PubMed

    Mazzarelli, Debora; Vanin, Stefano; Gibelli, Daniele; Maistrello, Lara; Porta, Davide; Rizzi, Agostino; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of hair can provide useful information for the correct evaluation of forensic cases, but studies of trauma on hair are extremely rare. Hair may present lesions caused by traumatic events or by animals: in fact, signs of sharp force weapons on hair may provide important information for the reconstruction of the manner of death, and, for example, may suggest fetishist practice. This study stemmed from a judicial case where it was fundamental to distinguish between sharp force lesions and insect activity on hair. In order to highlight differences between sharp force lesions and insect feeding activity, different experiments were performed with high power microscopy: hair samples were subjected to several lesions by blunt and sharp force trauma; then samples were used as pabulum for two taxa of insects: the common clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella Lepidoptera, Tineidae) and the carpet beetle (Anthrenus sp., Coleoptera, Dermestidae). Hairs were examined from a macroscopic and microscopic point of view by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM): the morphological characteristics of the lesions obtained from the different experimental samples were compared. Results show that sharp force trauma produces lesions with regular edges, whereas insects leave concave lesions caused by their "gnawing" activity. These two types of lesions are easily distinguishable from breaking and tearing using SEM. This study demonstrates that insect activity leaves very specific indications on hair and sheds some light on different hair lesions that may be found in forensic cases.

  19. Talking Back in Cyberspace: Self-Love, Hair Care, and Counter Narratives in Black Adolescent Girls' Youtube vlogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps-Ward, Robin J.; Laura, Crystal T.

    2016-01-01

    While the "natural hair movement" has grown in popularity and criticism, educational researchers have not attended to how Black adolescent girls with all textures of natural hair are navigating the implications of foregoing chemical alterations to their curl patterns. This article reports on an investigation of self-talk in 56 internet…

  20. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair.

  1. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  2. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible women, but is most commonly seen after menopause. In female pattern hair loss some excess loss of hair is noted, but ... all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially whose hair loss starts before menopause but takes many months. Hormone replacement pills, such ...

  3. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P < 0.006) and global thinning is associated with slower growth rates. Compared with hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine) and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking), and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) are well known risk

  5. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Letašiová, Silvia; Medve'ová, Alžbeta; Šovčíková, Andrea; Dušinská, Mária; Volkovová, Katarína; Mosoiu, Claudia; Bartonová, Alena

    2012-06-28

    Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine) and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking), and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) are well known risk factors for various diseases including

  6. Traditional Dyeing--An Educational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, H.; Manhita, A.; Dias, C. Barrocas; Ferreira, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a mini-project developed with 10th grade Portuguese students where, by using an experimental activity involving the use of natural dyes to colour wool, students acquired a better understanding of the concepts and relationship between the colour, the electromagnetic spectrum, and chemical bonding. As demonstrated by the results…

  7. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  8. Determination of Tebuconazole and Penconazole Fungicides in Rat and Human Hair By Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Polledri, Elisa; Mercadante, Rosa; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2018-05-04

    Tebuconazole (TEB) and penconazole (PEN) are widely applied fungicides and environmental contaminants; their toxicological properties include possible effects to the unborn child, therefore the evaluation of human exposure is relevant to risk assessment. Hair is a non-invasive specimen that incorporates pollutants allowing an extended exposure window to be surveyed. Aim of this work was to develop and validate an assay for the determination of TEB and PEN in human hair. Under optimised conditions, analytes were extracted soaking hair in acetonitrile, in the presence of deuterated analogues, under heating and agitation. Chemical separation was achieved using a C18 reversed-phase chromatographic column and detection and quantification were performed, after a positive electrospray ionization, by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry operating in selected reaction monitoring mode. The assay validation showed a linear dynamic range up to 5 μg/L or 200 pg/mg hair, inter- and intra-run precisions <6%, and accuracies within 5% of spiked concentrations. Limits of quantification were 0.001 μg/L or 1 pg/mg hair for both TEB and PEN. Matrix effect experiments showed that the isotope dilution approach allowed for the control of bias sources. TEB and PEN were determined in hair of rats exposed to a low dose of TEB and in hair of agricultural workers exposed to TEB and/or PEN during the application season, indicating that both chemicals are incorporated into the hair upon exposure. The results of this study indicate that the developed assay is useful to evaluate the exposure to TEB and PEN in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25). Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid) into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other commercially important

  10. Ozonation of exhausted dark shade reactive dye bath for reuse.

    PubMed

    Sundrarajan, M; Vishnu, G; Joseph, Kurian

    2006-10-01

    Exhausted reactive dye bath of dark shades were collected from cotton knit wear dyeing units in Tirupur. Ozonation was conducted in a column reactor system fed with ozone at the rate of 0.16 g/min to assess its efficiency in reducing the color, chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. The potential of the decolorized dye bath for its repeated reuse was also analyzed. The results from the reusability studies indicate that the dyeing quality was not affected by the reuse of decolorized dye bath for two successive cycles. Complete decolorization of the effluent was achieved in 60 minutes contact time at an ozone consumption of 183 mg/L for Red, 175 for Navy Blue and 192 for Green shades respectively. The corresponding COD removal was 60%, 54% and 63% for the three shades while TOC removal efficiency was 59%, 55% and 62% respectively. It is concluded that ozonation is efficient in decolorization of exhausted dye bath effluents containing conventional reactive dyes. However, the corresponding removal of COD from the textile effluent was not significant.

  11. Novel cyanine dyes with vinylsulfone group for labeling biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Woo; Kim, YoungSoo; Lee, Kee-Jung; Kim, Dong Jin

    2012-03-21

    Novel vinylsulfone cyanine dyes (em. 550-850 nm) were designed and synthesized for fluorescent labeling of biomolecules via 1,2-addition reaction in aqueous conditions. Due to the virtue of chemical structures of both fluorophore and reactive group, these dyes could be significantly stable and reactive in various aqueous/organic conditions. A wide variety of pH, temperature, buffer concentration, and protein were tested for the optimal labeling condition.

  12. Basic dye decomposition kinetics in a photocatalytic slurry reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Hsing; Chang, Hung-Wei; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-09-01

    Wastewater effluent from textile plants using various dyes is one of the major water pollutants to the environment. Traditional chemical, physical and biological processes for treating textile dye wastewaters have disadvantages such as high cost, energy waste and generating secondary pollution during the treatment process. The photocatalytic process using TiO2 semiconductor particles under UV light illumination has been shown to be potentially advantageous and applicable in the treatment of wastewater pollutants. In this study, the dye decomposition kinetics by nano-size TiO2 suspension at natural solution pH was experimentally studied by varying the agitation speed (50-200 rpm), TiO2 suspension concentration (0.25-1.71 g/L), initial dye concentration (10-50 ppm), temperature (10-50 degrees C), and UV power intensity (0-96 W). The experimental results show the agitation speed, varying from 50 to 200 rpm, has a slight influence on the dye decomposition rate and the pH history; the dye decomposition rate increases with the TiO2 suspension concentration up to 0.98 g/L, then decrease with increasing TiO2 suspension concentration; the initial dye decomposition rate increases with the initial dye concentration up to a certain value depending upon the temperature, then decreases with increasing initial dye concentration; the dye decomposition rate increases with the UV power intensity up to 64 W to reach a plateau. Kinetic models have been developed to fit the experimental kinetic data well.

  13. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Module Based Complexity Formation: Periodic Patterning in Feathers and Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism's lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specified number, size, and spacing. We explore how a field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical-chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators / inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (micro-environment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macro-environment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by Cellular Automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to “organ metamorphosis”, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential evolutionary novel steps using this module based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. PMID:23539312

  15. Module-based complexity formation: periodic patterning in feathers and hairs.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism’s lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specific number, size, and spacing.We explorehowa field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical–chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators/inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (microenvironment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macroenvironment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by cellular automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to ‘organ metamorphosis’, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential novel evolutionary steps using this module-based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications. PMID:25246878

  17. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Photostability effect of silica nanoparticles encapsulated fluorescence dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Atiqah; Zakaria, Nor Dyana; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence dyes are based on small organic molecules have become of interest in chemical biology and widely used for cell and intracellular imaging. However, fluorescence dyes have limitations such as photo bleaching, poor photochemical stability and has a short Stokes shift. It is less valuable for long-term cell tracking strategies and has very short lifetime. In order to overcome the problems, dye-incorporated nanomaterials become of interest. Nanomaterials encapsulation provides a protection layer around the fluorescence dye which improves the stability of fluorescence dye. In this study, silica nanoparticles encapsulated with 1,1%-dioctadecyl-3,3,3%,3%-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) was successfully synthesised by using micelle entrapment method to investigate the effect of encapsulation of nanoparticles towards the properties of fluorescent dye. The synthesised nanoparticles (SiDil) was characterised by particle size analyser, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis spectrometer and Fluorescent spectrometer. Observation using TEM showed spherical shape of nanoparticles with 53 nm diameter. Monodispersed and well nanoparticles distribution was confirmed by low polydispersity index of 0.063 obtained by particle size analyser. Furthermore, the photoluminescence properties of the SiDil were evaluated and compared with bare Dil dye. Both SiDil and bare Dil was radiated under 200 W of Halogen lamp for 60 minutes and the absorbance intensity was measured using UV-Vis spectrometer. The result showed more stable absorbance intensity for SiDil compared to bare Dil dye, which indicated that Si nanoparticles encapsulation improved the photostability property.

  19. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  20. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  1. Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Victoria M.; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

  2. Three-dimensional architecture of macrofibrils in the human scalp hair cortex.

    PubMed

    Harland, Duane P; Walls, Richard J; Vernon, James A; Dyer, Jolon M; Woods, Joy L; Bell, Fraser

    2014-03-01

    Human scalp hairs are comprised of a central cortex enveloped by plate-like cuticle cells. The elongate cortex cells of mature fibres are composed primarily of macrofibrils-bundles of hard-keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) chemically cross-linked within a globular protein matrix. In wool, three cell types (ortho-, meso- and paracortex) contain macrofibrils with distinctly different filament arrangements and matrix fractions, but in human hair macrofibril-cell type relationships are less clear. Here we show that hair macrofibrils all have a similar matrix fraction (∼0.4) and are typically composed of a double-twist architecture in which a central IF is surrounded by concentric rings of tangentially-angled IFs. The defining parameter is the incremental angle increase (IF-increment) between IFs of successive rings. Unlike the wool orthocortex, hair double-twist macrofibrils have considerable inter-macrofibril variation in IF increment (0.05-0.35°/nm), and macrofibril size and IF increment are negatively correlated. Correspondingly, angular difference between central and outer-most IFs is up to 40° in small macrofibrils, but only 5-10° in large macrofibrils. Single cells were observed containing mixtures of macrofibrils with different diameters. These new observations advance our understanding of the nano-level and cell-level organisation of human hair, with implications for interpretation of structure with respect the potential roles of cortex cell types in defining the mechanical properties of hair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    PubMed

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Size-dependent penetration of nanoemulsions into epidermis and hair follicles: implications for transdermal delivery and immunization

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rui; Fan, Wufa; Yu, Qin; Dong, Xiaochun; Qi, Jianping; Zhu, Quangang; Zhao, Weili; Wu, Wei; Chen, Zhongjian; Li, Ye; Lu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Nanoemulsions have been widely applied to dermal and transdermal drug delivery. However, whether and to what depth the integral nanoemulsions can permeate into the skin is not fully understood. In this study, an environment-responsive dye, P4, was loaded into nanoemulsions to track the transdermal translocation of the nanocarriers, while coumarin-6 was embedded to represent the cargoes. Particle size has great effects on the transdermal transportation of nanoemulsions. Integral nanoemulsions with particle size of 80 nm can diffuse into but not penetrate the viable epidermis. Instead, these nanoemulsions can efficiently fill the whole hair follicle canals and reach as deep as 588 μm underneath the dermal surfaces. The cargos are released from the nanoemulsions and diffuse into the surrounding dermal tissues. On the contrary, big nanoemulsions, with mean particle size of 500 nm, cannot penetrate the stratum corneum and can only migrate along the hair follicle canals. Nanoemulsions with median size, e.g. 200 nm, show moderate transdermal permeation effects among the three-size nanoemulsions. In addition, colocalization between nanoemulsions and immunofluorescence labeled antigen-presenting cells was observed in the epidermis and the hair follicles, implying possible capture of nanoemulsions by these cells. In conclusion, nanoemulsions are advantageous for transdermal delivery and potential in transcutaneous immunization. PMID:28465469

  5. Improved radiocarbon analyses of modern human hair to determine the year-of-death by cross-flow nanofiltered amino acids: common contaminants, implications for isotopic analysis, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Guaciara M; De La Torre, Hector A Martinez; Boudin, Mathieu; Bonafini, Marco; Saverwyns, Steven

    2015-10-15

    In forensic investigation, radiocarbon ((14)C) measurements of human tissues (i.e., nails and hair) can help determine the year-of-death. However, the frequent use of cosmetics can bias hair (14)C results as well as stable isotope values. Evidence shows that hair exogenous impurities percolate beyond the cuticle layer, and therefore conventional pretreatments are ineffective in removing them. We conducted isotopic analysis ((14)C, δ(13)C, δ(15)N and C/N) of conventionally treated and cross-flow nanofiltered amino acid (CFNAA)-treated samples (scalp- and body-hair) from a single female subject using fingernails as a reference. The subject studied frequently applies a permanent dark-brown dye kit to her scalp-hair and uses other care products for daily cleansing. We also performed pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) analyses of CFNAA-treated scalp-hair to identify contaminant remnants that could possibly interfere with isotopic analyses. The conventionally treated scalp- and body-hair showed (14)C offsets of ~21‰ and ~9‰, respectively. These offsets confirm the contamination by petrochemicals in modern human hair. A single CFNAA extraction reduced those offsets by ~34%. No significant improvement was observed when sequential extractions were performed, as it appears that the procedure introduced some foreign contaminants. A chromatogram of the CFNAA scalp-hair pyrolysis products showed the presence of petroleum and plant/animal compound residues, which can bias isotopic analyses. We have demonstrated that CFNAA extractions can partially remove cosmetic contaminants embedded in human hair. We conclude that fingernails are still the best source of keratin protein for year-of-death determinations and isotopic analysis, with body-hair and/or scalp-hair coupled with CFNAA extraction a close second. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Solid-state fermentation and composting as alternatives to treat hair waste: A life-cycle assessment comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Catalán, Eva; Komilis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    One of the wastes associated with leather production in tannery industries is the hair residue generated during the dehairing process. Hair wastes are mainly dumped or managed through composting but recent studies propose the treatment of hair wastes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases and compost. These enzymes are suitable for its use in an enzymatic dehairing process, as an alternative to the current chemical dehairing process. In the present work, two different scenarios for the valorization of the hair waste are proposed and assessed by means of life-cycle assessment: composting and SSF for protease production. Detailed data on hair waste composting and on SSF protease production are gathered from previous studies performed by our research group and from a literature survey. Background inventory data are mainly based on Ecoinvent version 3 from software SimaPro® 8. The main aim of this study was to identify which process results in the highest environmental impact. The SSF process was found to have lower environmental impacts than composting, due to the fact that the enzyme use in the dehairing process prevents the use of chemicals traditionally used in the dehairing process. This permits to reformulate an industrial process from the classical approach of waste management to a novel alternative based on circular economy.

  7. Uncovering the structure of human red hair pheomelanin: benzothiazolylthiazinodihydroisoquinolines as key building blocks.

    PubMed

    Greco, Giorgia; Panzella, Lucia; Verotta, Luisella; d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra

    2011-04-25

    Biomimetic oxidation of the pheomelanin precursor 5-S-cysteinyldopa in the presence of Zn(2+) ions led to the isolation of two isomeric products, one of which could be identified as the benzothiazolylthiazinodihydroisoquinoline 5, while the other proved too unstable for a complete characterization. Both these products were converted into more stable oxidized forms, which after ethylchloroformate derivatization were characterized as the ethyl ester/ethoxycarbonyl isoquinolines 8 and 9. Compound 5 exhibited absorption characteristics similar to those of red hair pheomelanin, including a main band around 400 nm in acids. Similarly to red hair pheomelanin and synthetic pigments, 5 afforded on chemical degradation a thiazolylpyridinecarboxylic acid fragment. Model chemical studies allowed the proposal of a formation mechanism for the benzothiazole and dihydroisoquinoline systems in compound 5.

  8. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer treatment - alopecia; Chemotherapy - hair loss; Radiation - hair loss ... Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. This is because cancer cells divide rapidly. Since the cells in hair ...

  9. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Viscoelastic properties of α-keratin fibers in hair.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; André Meyers, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Considerable viscoelasticity and strain-rate sensitivity are a characteristic of α-keratin fibers, which can be considered a biopolymer. The understanding of viscoelasticity is an important part of the knowledge of the overall mechanical properties of these biological materials. Here, horse and human hairs are examined to analyze the sources of this response. The dynamic mechanical response of α-keratin fibers over a range of frequencies and temperatures is analyzed using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. The α-keratin fibers behave more elastically at higher frequencies while they become more viscous at higher temperatures. A glass transition temperature of ∼55°C is identified. The stress relaxation behavior of α-keratin fibers at two strains, 0.02 and 0.25, is established and fit to a constitutive equation based on the Maxwell-Wiechert model. The constitutive equation is further compared to the experimental results within the elastic region and a good agreement is obtained. The two relaxation constants, 14s and 359s for horse hair and 11s and 207s for human hair, are related to two hierarchical levels of relaxation: the amorphous matrix-intermediate filament interfaces, for the short term, and the cellular components for the long term. Results of the creep test also provide important knowledge on the uncoiling and phase transformation of the α-helical structure as hair is uniaxially stretched. SEM results show that horse hair has a rougher surface morphology and damaged cuticles. It also exhibits a lower strain-rate sensitivity of 0.05 compared to that of 0.11 for human hair. After the horse and human hairs are chemically treated and the disulfide bonds are cleaved, they exhibit a similar strain-rate sensitivity of ∼0.05. FTIR results confirms that the human hair is more sensitive to the -S-S- cleavage, resulting in an increase of cysteic acid content. Therefore, the disulfide bonds in the matrix are experimentally identified as one source of the strain

  11. Strontium-90 in hair.

    PubMed

    HOPKINS, B J; TUTTLE, L W; PORIES, W J; STRAIN, W H

    1963-03-15

    The hair of rats injected with strontium-90 retains a significant amount of the radionuclide. Although the strontium-90 content of hair is variable in these rats and appears to be subject to a variety of influences, determination of the radionuclide content of hair may offer a nondestructive method of estimating strontium-90 in bone.

  12. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  13. Duration of detection of methamphetamine in hair after abstinence.

    PubMed

    Suwannachom, Natiprada; Thananchai, Thiwaphorn; Junkuy, Anongphan; O'Brien, Timothy E; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk

    2015-09-01

    Researchers in the field of hair analysis have known for at least two decades that test results for many chemical compounds remain positive for a considerable period of time after subjects have reported cessation of use. These findings were generally based on small sample populations or individual case studies. Within the last decade, hair analyses of larger populations have investigated the phenomenon of residual positives in abstinent individuals in order to determine the period of time required for various compounds to present negative hair test results at internationally accepted cutoff levels. Such data has primarily been used to establish guidelines for retesting former abusers of illicit drugs in order to evaluate claims of abstinence. To date, research has focused on cocaine and opiates. The present study is the first to examine the duration of detection of methamphetamine (MA) and its metabolite amphetamine (AP) in the hair of chronic MA users who recently ceased their consumption of the drug. The study population (n=63) consisted of inpatients at a hospital drug rehabilitation program in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Drug taking behavior was collected by personal interview at the time of enrollment. Subjects provided hair samples at approximately monthly intervals for MA and AP analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at 0.2ng/mg cutoff levels. The correlation of baseline MA and AP concentrations in hair at the beginning of abstinence with corresponding duration of detection indicated great individual variability for the rate of clearance of MA and AP from hair. In regard to duration of detection, the majority of chronic MA users remained MA positive for up to about 90 days of reported abstinence, but by 120 days, the detection rate had fallen to about 16%. All subjects tested negative for MA after 153 days of abstinence. For AP, the limit of the duration of detection was reached at 106 days. With the adoption of a margin of safety to compensate for

  14. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  15. Targeting of CXXC5 by a Competing Peptide Stimulates Hair Regrowth and Wound-Induced Hair Neogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Seo, Seol Hwa; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Pi, Long-Quan; Lee, Won-Soo; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2017-11-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in hair follicle development and hair regeneration in adults. We discovered that CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) is a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway involved in hair regrowth and wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis via an interaction with Dishevelled. CXXC5 was upregulated in miniaturized hair follicles and arrector pili muscles in human balding scalps. The inhibitory effects of CXXC5 on alkaline phosphatase activity and cell proliferation were demonstrated using human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Moreover, CXXC5 -/- mice displayed accelerated hair regrowth, and treatment with valproic acid, a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, further induced hair regrowth in the CXXC5 -/- mice. Disrupting the CXXC5-Dishevelled interaction with a competitor peptide activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and accelerated hair regrowth and wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that the CXXC5-Dishevelled interaction is a potential target for the treatment of hair loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004005.htm Aging changes in hair and nails To use the sharing ... you age, your hair and nails begin to change. HAIR CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS Hair color change . ...

  17. Effect of SDS on human hair: Study on the molecular structure and morphology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhawana; Umapathy, Siva

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a model study to understand the effect of surfactants on the physicochemical properties of human hair. FT-IR ATR spectroscopy has been employed to understand the chemical changes induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human scalp hair. In particular, the SDS induced changes in the secondary structure of protein present in the outer protective layer of hair, i.e. cuticle, have been investigated. Conformational changes in the secondary structure of protein were studied by curve fitting of the amide I band after every phase of SDS treatment. It has been found that SDS brings rearrangements in the protein backbone conformations by transforming β -sheet structure to random coil and β -turn. Additionally, AFM and SEM studies were carried out to understand the morphological changes induced on the hair surface. SEM and AFM images demonstrated the rupture and partial erosion of cuticle sublayers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Health status by gender, hair color, and eye color: Red-haired women are the most divergent

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Peter; Kleisner, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer. Red-haired men showed a balanced pattern, doing better than other men in three health categories and worse in three. Number of children was the only category where both male and female redheads did better than other respondents. We also confirmed earlier findings that red hair is naturally more frequent in women than in men. Of the ‘new’ hair and eye colors, red hair diverges the most from the ancestral state of black hair and brown eyes, being the most sexually dimorphic variant not only in population frequency but also in health status. This divergent health status may have one or more causes: direct effects of red hair pigments (pheomelanins) or their by-products; effects of other genes that show linkage with genes involved in pheomelanin production; excessive prenatal exposure to estrogen (which facilitates expression of red hair during fetal development and which, at high levels, may cause health problems later in life); evolutionary recentness of red hair and corresponding lack of time to correct negative side effects; or genetic incompatibilities associated with the allele Val92Met, which seems to be of Neanderthal origin and is one of the alleles that can cause red hair. PMID:29284020

  19. Health status by gender, hair color, and eye color: Red-haired women are the most divergent.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter; Kleisner, Karel; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer. Red-haired men showed a balanced pattern, doing better than other men in three health categories and worse in three. Number of children was the only category where both male and female redheads did better than other respondents. We also confirmed earlier findings that red hair is naturally more frequent in women than in men. Of the 'new' hair and eye colors, red hair diverges the most from the ancestral state of black hair and brown eyes, being the most sexually dimorphic variant not only in population frequency but also in health status. This divergent health status may have one or more causes: direct effects of red hair pigments (pheomelanins) or their by-products; effects of other genes that show linkage with genes involved in pheomelanin production; excessive prenatal exposure to estrogen (which facilitates expression of red hair during fetal development and which, at high levels, may cause health problems later in life); evolutionary recentness of red hair and corresponding lack of time to correct negative side effects; or genetic incompatibilities associated with the allele Val92Met, which seems to be of Neanderthal origin and is one of the alleles that can cause red hair.

  20. [Tufted hair folliculitis].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; Pericin, M; Hafner, J; Burg, G

    1997-04-01

    A case of tufted hair folliculutis presenting as circumscribed, tender and inflamed areas in the occiput with residual tufted follicles in a 28-year old man is reported. Tufted hair folliculitis is a characteristic localized scarring bacterial folliculitis of the scalp due to Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathological studies reveal perifollicular inflammation around the upper portions of the follicles sparing the hair root level. Within areas of inflammation, several follicles converge toward a common follicular duct with a widely dilated opening. Currently, tufted hair folliculitis is considered a variant of folliculitis decalvans of Quinquaud. Staphylococcal infection is believed to be an initial causative factor, and underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be important in determining which reaction pattern occurs in an affected individual. The development of atrophy with loss of adnexal structures (in folliculitis decalvans) or of hair tufts (in tufting folliculitis) may depend upon the depth and destructive potential of the inflammatory process. The therapeutic approach is problematic; prolonged treatment with oral antibiotics may stabilize the disease, but good and at times more definitive results (as in the presented case) have been reported after radical surgical excision of the involved areas.

  1. Feather keratin hydrolysates obtained from microbial keratinases: effect on hair fiber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hair is composed mainly of keratin protein and a small amount of lipid. Protein hydrolysates, in particular those with low molecular weight distribution have been known to protect hair against chemical and environmental damage. Many types of protein hydrolysates from plants and animals have been used in hair and personal care such as keratin hydrolysates obtained from nails, horns and wool. Most of these hydrolysates are obtained by chemical hydrolysis and hydrothermal methods, but recently hydrolyzed hair keratin, feather keratin peptides, and feather meal peptides have been obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using Bacillus spp in submerged fermentation. Results Keratin peptides were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of keratinases using Bacillus subtilis AMR. The microorganism was grown on a feather medium, pH 8.0 (1% feathers) and supplemented with 0.01% of yeast extract, for 5 days, at 28°C with agitation. The supernatant containing the hydrolysates was colleted by centrifugation and ultra filtered in an AMICON system using nano–membranes (Millipore – YC05). The Proteins and peptides were analyzed using HPTLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Commercial preparations of keratin hydrolysates were used as a comparative standard. After five days the feather had been degraded (90-95%) by the peptidases and keratinases of the microorganism. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry showed multiple peaks that correspond to peptides in the range of 800 to 1079 Daltons and the commercial hydrolysate was in the range of 900 to 1400 Da. HPTLC showed lower molecular mass peptides and amino acids in the enzymatic hydrolysate when compared with the commercial hydrolysate . A mild shampoo and a rinse off conditioner were formulated with the enzymatic hydrolysate and applied to hair fibers to evaluate the hydration, with and without heat, using a Corneometer® CM 825. The hydration was more efficient with heat, suggesting a more complete incorporation of hydrolysates into the fibers

  2. The structure of people's hair.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  3. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  4. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  5. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  6. Recent Trends in Analytical Methods to Determine New Psychoactive Substances in Hair

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pellegrini, Manuela; García-Algar, Oscar; Marinelli, Enrico; Zaami, Simona

    2017-01-01

    New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) belong to several chemical classes, including phenethylamines, piperazines, synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids. Development and validation of analytical methods for the determination of NPS both in traditional and alternative matrices is of crucial importance to study drug metabolism and to associate consumption to clinical outcomes and eventual intoxication symptoms. Among different biological matrices, hair is the one with the widest time window to investigate drug-related history and demonstrate past intake. The aim of this paper was to overview the trends of the rapidly evolving analytical methods for the determination of NPS in hair and the usefulness of these methods when applied to real cases. A number of rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of NPS in hair matrix has been recently published, most of them using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Hair digestion and subsequent solid phase extraction or liquid-liquid extraction were described as well as extraction in organic solvents. For most of the methods limits of quantification at picogram per milligram hair were obtained. The measured concentrations for most of the NPS in real samples were in the range of picograms of drug per milligram of hair. Interpretation of the results and lack of cut-off values for the discrimination between chronic consumption and occasional use or external contamination are still challenging. Methods for the determination of NPS in hair are continually emerging to include as many NPS as possible due to the great demand for their detection. PMID:27834146

  7. Recent Trends in Analytical Methods to Determine New Psychoactive Substances in Hair.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pellegrini, Manuela; García-Algar, Oscar; Marinelli, Enrico; Zaami, Simona

    2017-01-01

    New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) belong to several chemical classes, including phenethylamines, piperazines, synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids. Development and validation of analytical methods for the determination of NPS both in traditional and alternative matrices is of crucial importance to study drug metabolism and to associate consumption to clinical outcomes and eventual intoxication symptoms. Among different biological matrices, hair is the one with the widest time window to investigate drug-related history and demonstrate past intake. The aim of this paper was to overview the trends of the rapidly evolving analytical methods for the determination of NPS in hair and the usefulness of these methods when applied to real cases. A number of rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of NPS in hair matrix has been recently published, most of them using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Hair digestion and subsequent solid phase extraction or liquid-liquid extraction were described as well as extraction in organic solvents. For most of the methods limits of quantification at picogram per milligram hair were obtained. The measured concentrations for most of the NPS in real samples were in the range of picograms of drug per milligram of hair. Interpretation of the results and lack of cut-off values for the discrimination between chronic consumption and occasional use or external contamination are still challenging. Methods for the determination of NPS in hair are continually emerging to include as many NPS as possible due to the great demand for their detection. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Hair transplantation in patients with inadequate head donor supply using nonhead hair: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sanusi

    2011-10-01

    Follicular unit extraction is becoming an increasingly popular technique for hair transplantation, as it obviates the linear scarring associated with strip harvesting, and can provide highly presentable results. Using this technique, a few reports have described the small scale use of nonhead hair for head hair transplantation in men with inadequate head hair donor supply. In this report, 3 patients who were severely bald had hair transplanted from the chest, abdomen, legs, shoulders, or beard, as well as the head to achieve full coverage and excellent hairlines. Of the 3 cases, 2 had undergone previously unsuccessful hair transplant surgeries. Approximately 80% to 85% of the transplanted grafts survived. Although hair length and quality, surgery time, and the requirement for improved surgical skills remain challenges when using this technique, the sufficiently good outcomes from these selected candidates suggest that this technique may offer the possibility of restoring even severely bald states to normality in patients who would otherwise not be candidates for traditional hair transplantation surgery.

  9. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  10. Does D matter? The role of vitamin D in hair disorders and hair follicle cycling.

    PubMed

    Amor, Karrie T; Rashid, Rashid M; Mirmirani, Paradi

    2010-02-15

    The role of vitamin D in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes is well known within the field of dermatology. We sought to evaluate the role that vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor play in the hair cycle and assess how this can be clinically applied to the treatment of hair disorders. A MEDLINE search (1955-July 2009) was preformed to find relevant articles pertaining to vitamin D, the vitamin D receptor, and hair loss. The vitamin D receptor, independent of vitamin D, plays an important role in hair cycling, specifically anagen initiation. The role of vitamin D in hair follicle cycling is not as well understood. The review is broad and there are limited human studies available to date. Additional studies to evaluate the role of vitamin D in the hair cycle should be done. Treatments that up regulate the vitamin D receptor may be successful in treating hair disorders and are a potential area of further study.

  11. Rapid Dye Regeneration Mechanism of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jiwon; Park, Young Choon; Han, Sang Soo; Goddard, William A; Lee, Yoon Sup; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-12-18

    During the light-harvesting process of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), the hole localized on the dye after the charge separation yields an oxidized dye, D(+). The fast regeneration of D(+) using the redox pair (typically the I(-)/I3(-) couple) is critical for the efficient DSSCs. However, the kinetic processes of dye regeneration remain uncertain, still promoting vigorous debates. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine that the inner-sphere electron-transfer pathway provides a rapid dye regeneration route of ∼4 ps, where penetration of I(-) next to D(+) enables an immediate electron transfer, forming a kinetic barrier. This explains the recently reported ultrafast dye regeneration rate of a few picoseconds determined experimentally. We expect that our MD based comprehensive understanding of the dye regeneration mechanism will provide a helpful guideline in designing TiO2-dye-electrolyte interfacial systems for better performing DSSCs.

  12. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  13. Co-composting of hair waste from the tanning industry with de-inking and municipal wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Barrena, Raquel; Pagans, Estel la; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    Production of waste hair in the leather manufacturing industry is increasing every year due to the adoption of hair-save unhairing techniques, leaving the tanners with the problem of coping with yet another solid by-product. Numerous potential strategies for hair utilisation have been proposed. However, the use of hair waste as agricultural fertiliser is one of its most promising applications due to the high nitrogen content of hair. Agricultural value of hair can be increased by composting. This paper deals with the composting of hair from the unhairing of bovine hide. Results indicated that hair cannot be either composted on its own or co-composted with de-inking sludge, a chemical complementary co-substrate. However, good results were obtained when co-composted with raw sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant at hair:raw sludge weight ratios 1:1, 1:2 and, 1:4 in lab scale and pilot plant scale composters. In all cases, a more stable product was achieved at the end of the process. Composting in the pilot plant composter was effectively monitored using Static Respiration Indices determined at process temperature at sampling (SRI(T)) and at 37 degrees C (SRI(37)). Notably, SRI(T) values were more sensitive to changes in the biological activity. In contrast, Respiratory Quotient (RQ) values were not adequate to follow the development of the process.

  14. Hair to document drug-facilitated crimes: four cases involving bromazepam.

    PubMed

    Villain, Marion; Chèze, Marjorie; Dumestre, Véronique; Ludes, Bertrand; Kintz, Pascal

    2004-09-01

    The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, so-called DFSA, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. Drugs used can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties, and can be quickly cleared from body fluids. In case of long delay between the alleged crime and clinical examination, collection of blood or even urine can be of little value. This is the reason why this laboratory developed an original approach based on hair testing by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To explore the detectability of a single absorption of bromazepam in hair, two volunteers (male and female) received a 6-mg dose. A strand of hair was sampled about one month after exposure and was cut into three segments of 2-cm long. After pulverization, 20 mg of hair was incubated overnight in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.4). The aqueous phase was extracted with 5 mL of a mixture of diethyl ether/methylene chloride (80:20) in the presence of diazepam-d5, which was used as internal standard (IS). Hair extract was separated on a XTerra MS C18 column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 316.0 to 182.2 and 209.3 and m/z 290.1 to 154.1 and 198.2 for bromazepam and the IS, respectively. In the hair of the two subjects, bromazepam was detected in the proximal segment at 0.8 and 4.7 pg/mg, respectively. Hair analysis was applied to four authentic criminal cases. In the two first cases, bromazepam tested positive in the corresponding hair segment at 5.7, and 10.3 pg/mg. In another case, head hair was sampled 19 weeks after the alleged offense, and its length (< 4 cm) did not allow analysis of the corresponding period. However, 4.1 pg/mg of bromazepam was quantified in the victim's pubic hair. In these three cases, concentrations

  15. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles containing covalently bound dyes for reporter, marker, and sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patonay, Gabor; Henary, Maged; Chapman, Gala; Emer, Kyle; Crow, Sidney

    2016-03-01

    Silica nanoparticles have proven to be useful in many bioanalytical and medical applications and have been used in numerous applications during the last decade. Combining the properties of silica nanoparticles and fluorescent dyes that may be used as chemical probes or labels can be relatively easy by simply soaking porous silica nanoparticles in a solution of the dye of interest. Under proper conditions the entrapped dye can stay inside the silica nanoparticle for several hours resulting in a useful probe. In spite of the relative durability of these probes, leaching can still occur. A much better approach is to synthesize silica nanoparticles that have the fluorescent dye covalently attached to the backbone structure of the silica nanoparticle. This can be achieved by using appropriately modified tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) analogues during the silica nanoparticle synthesis. The molar ratio of TEOS and modified TEOS will determine the fluorescent dye load in the silica nanoparticle. Dependent on the chemical stability of the reporting dye either reverse micellar (RM) or Stöber method can be used for silica nanoparticle synthesis. If dye stability allows RM procedure is preferred as it results in a much easier control of the silica nanoparticle reaction itself. Also controlling the size and uniformity of the silica nanoparticles are much easier using RM method. Dependent on the functional groups present in the reporting dye used in preparation of the modified TEOS, the silica nanoparticles can be utilized in many applications such as pH sensor, metal ion sensors, labels, etc. In addition surface activated silica nanoparticles with reactive moieties are also excellent reporters or they can be used as bright fluorescent labels. Many different fluorescent dyes can be used to synthesize silica nanoparticles including visible and NIR dyes. Several bioanalytical applications are discussed including studying amoeba phagocytosis.

  16. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the

  17. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of hair index on Karachi's population for social and professional appearance enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Zohra, R R; Qader, S A U; Mumtaz, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair texture, appearance and pigment play an important role in social and professional communication and maintaining an overall appearance. This study was especially designed for morphological assessment of hair damage caused to Karachi's population due to natural factors and cosmetic treatments using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. Hair samples under the study of synthetic factor's effect were given several cosmetic treatments (hot straightened, bleached, synthetic dyed and henna dyed) whereas samples under natural factor's effect (variation in gender, age and pigmentation) were left untreated. Morphological assessment was performed using SEM technique. Results obtained were statistically analysed using minitab 16 and spss 18 softwares. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed less number of cuticular scales in males than females of same age although size of cuticular scales was found to be larger in males than in females. Mean hair index of white hair was greater than black hair of the same head as it is comparatively newly originated. Tukey's method revealed that among cosmetic treatments, bleaching and synthetic henna caused most of the damage to the hair. Statistical evaluation of results obtained from SEM analysis revealed that human scalp hair index show morphological variation with respect to age, gender, hair pigmentation, chemical and physical treatments. Individuals opting for cosmetic treatments could clearly visualize the extent of hair damage these may cause in long run. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Glutamatergic modulation of synaptic-like vesicle recycling in mechanosensory lanceolate nerve terminals of mammalian hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Robert W; Cahusac, Peter M B; Graca, Anna; Kain, Nakul; Shenton, Fiona; Singh, Paramjeet; Njå, Arild; Simon, Anna; Watson, Sonia; Slater, Clarke R; Bewick, Guy S

    2013-01-01

    Our aim in the present study was to determine whether a glutamatergic modulatory system involving synaptic-like vesicles (SLVs) is present in the lanceolate ending of the mouse and rat hair follicle and, if so, to assess its similarity to that of the rat muscle spindle annulospiral ending we have described previously. Both types of endings are formed by the peripheral sensory terminals of primary mechanosensory dorsal root ganglion cells, so the presence of such a system in the lanceolate ending would provide support for our hypothesis that it is a general property of fundamental importance to the regulation of the responsiveness of the broad class of primary mechanosensory endings. We show not only that an SLV-based system is present in lanceolate endings, but also that there are clear parallels between its operation in the two types of mechanosensory endings. In particular, we demonstrate that, as in the muscle spindle: (i) FM1-43 labels the sensory terminals of the lanceolate ending, rather than the closely associated accessory (glial) cells; (ii) the dye enters and leaves the terminals primarily by SLV recycling; (iii) the dye does not block the electrical response to mechanical stimulation, in contrast to its effect on the hair cell and dorsal root ganglion cells in culture; (iv) SLV recycling is Ca2+ sensitive; and (v) the sensory terminals are enriched in glutamate. Thus, in the lanceolate sensory ending SLV recycling is itself regulated, at least in part, by glutamate acting through a phospholipase D-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor. PMID:23440964

  19. Pubic hair and sexuality: a review.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Sara; Sweeney, Clare; Fraser, Michael; Oades, Gren

    2009-08-01

    Hair is a distinguishing feature of mammals, though the persistence of visible head, axillary, and pubic hair remains anthropologically unclear. Humans throughout the ages have modified their head and body hair, but aesthetic removal of pubic hair has become the "the ultimate barometer of how fashionable you really are" in the 21st century. The aim of the article is to examine the trends in pubic hair removal and its impact on health and sexuality. A literature search was performed, with a further search performed using an Internet-based search engine. For discussion, the results have been classified into the topics of "Development and anthropology","Cultural and artistic significance", "Medical implications", "Psychological and sexual significance and popular culture", "Impact of body hair loss on sexuality" and "Style and terminology." Pubic hair removal has been common since the ancient times. Pubic hair was rarely depicted in artistic representations of the nude until the late 19th century. It is postulated that the current trend of pubic hair removal may be related to the increased accessibility of Internet-based pornography. Anecdotally, pubic hair removal may carry benefits regarding increased sexual sensation and satisfaction though there is no quantative research in this field. There is a recognized morbidity to pubic hair removal, and also a lack of standardization of terms for styles adopted. We propose a definitive grading system for male and female body hair based on the widely used Tumor Node Metastasis staging system. Pubic hair removal appears to be an important aspect of expressing one's sexuality and participation in sexual activity. This practice has an interesting psychosexual basis which, to date, has not yet been fully explored in sexual medicine.

  20. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  1. The Actions of Calcium on Hair Bundle Mechanics in Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beurg, Maryline; Nam, Jong-Hoon; Crawford, Andrew; Fettiplace, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Sound stimuli excite cochlear hair cells by vibration of each hair bundle, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels. We have measured hair-bundle mechanics in isolated rat cochleas by stimulation with flexible glass fibers and simultaneous recording of the MT current. Both inner and outer hair-cell bundles exhibited force-displacement relationships with a nonlinearity that reflects a time-dependent reduction in stiffness. The nonlinearity was abolished, and hair-bundle stiffness increased, by maneuvers that diminished calcium influx through the MT channels: lowering extracellular calcium, blocking the MT current with dihydrostreptomycin, or depolarizing to positive potentials. To simulate the effects of Ca2+, we constructed a finite-element model of the outer hair cell bundle that incorporates the gating-spring hypothesis for MT channel activation. Four calcium ions were assumed to bind to the MT channel, making it harder to open, and, in addition, Ca2+ was posited to cause either a channel release or a decrease in the gating-spring stiffness. Both mechanisms produced Ca2+ effects on adaptation and bundle mechanics comparable to those measured experimentally. We suggest that fast adaptation and force generation by the hair bundle may stem from the action of Ca2+ on the channel complex and do not necessarily require the direct involvement of a myosin motor. The significance of these results for cochlear transduction and amplification are discussed. PMID:18178649

  2. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dark Matter Hairs Around Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average. The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20176

  4. Identifying Rhodamine Dye Plume Sources in Near-Shore Oceanic Environments by Integration of Chemical and Visual Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  5. Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wei, Ming-Chi; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Li, Heng-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hua; Fang, Yung-Tai; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe(0) dose used were 100 mg L(-1) and 30 g L(-1), respectively. Under anoxic condition, the order for dye decolorization was AO7>RR120>AB9. An increase in the dissolved oxygen concentrations enhanced decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the three dyes. An increase in gas flow rates also improved dye and COD removals by Fe(0). At dissolved oxygen of 6 mg L(-1), more than 99% of each dye was decolorized within 12 min and high COD removals were obtained (97% for AO7, 87% for RR120, and 93% for AB9). The toxicity of decolorized dye solutions was low (I(5)<40%). An increase in DO concentrations obviously reduced the toxicity. When DO above 2 mg L(-1) was applied, low iron ion concentration (13.6 mg L(-1)) was obtained in the decolorized AO7 solution. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE Class I Genes Promote Root Hair Development in the Grass Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Min

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL) class I basic helix loop helix proteins are expressed in future root hair cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem where they positively regulate root hair cell development. Here we show that there are three RSL class I protein coding genes in the Brachypodium distachyon genome, BdRSL1, BdRSL2 and BdRSL3, and each is expressed in developing root hair cells after the asymmetric cell division that forms root hair cells and hairless epidermal cells. Expression of BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair cell development: ectopic overexpression of any of the three RSL class I genes induces the development of root hairs in every cell of the root epidermis. Expression of BdRSL class I genes in root hairless Arabidopsis thaliana root hair defective 6 (Atrhd6) Atrsl1 double mutants, devoid of RSL class I function, restores root hair development indicating that the function of these proteins has been conserved. However, neither AtRSL nor BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair development in A. thaliana. These data demonstrate that the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity can account for the pattern of root hair cell differentiation in B. distachyon. However, the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity cannot account for the spatial pattern of root hair cells in A. thaliana. Taken together these data indicate that that the functions of RSL class I proteins have been conserved among most angiosperms—monocots and eudicots—despite the dramatically different patterns of root hair cell development. PMID:27494519

  7. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship

  9. Hair cortisol and self-reported stress in healthy, working adults.

    PubMed

    Gidlow, Christopher J; Randall, Jason; Gillman, Jamie; Silk, Steven; Jones, Marc V

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress can be important in the pathology of chronic disease. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are proposed to reflect long term cortisol secretion from exposure to stress. To date, inconsistencies in the relationship between HCC and self-reported stress have been attributed to variation and limitations of perceived stress measurement. We report data from employees of two large public sector worksites (n=132). Socio-demographic, health, lifestyle, perceived stress scale (PSS), and work-related effort reward imbalance (ERI) were collected at baseline. Participants were asked to respond to mobile text messages every two days, asking them to report current stress levels (Ecological momentary assessment, EMA), and mean stress was determined overall, during work hours, and out of work hours. At 12 weeks, the appraisal of stressful life events scale (ALES) was completed and 3 cm scalp hair samples were taken, from which HCC was determined (to reflect cortisol secretion over the past 12 weeks). Mean response rate to EMA was 81.9 ± 14.9%. Associations between HCC and the various self-reported stress measures (adjusted for use of hair dye) were weak (all<.3). We observed significant associations with HCC for EMA measured stress responses received out of work hours (ρ=.196, p=.013) and ALES Loss subscale (ρ=.241, p=.003), and two individual items from ERI (relating to future work situation). In regression analysis adjusting for other possible confounders, only the HCC-ALES Loss association remained significant (p=.011). Overall, our study confirms that EMA provides a useful measurement tool that can gather perceived stress measures in real-time. But, there was no relationship between self-reported stress collected in this way, and HCC. The modest association between HCC and stress appraisal does however, provide some evidence for the role of cognitive processes in chronic stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Demonstration of protein-based human identification using the hair shaft proteome [Protein-based human identification: A proof of concept using the hair shaft proteome

    DOE PAGES

    Parker, Glendon J.; Leppert, Tami; Anex, Deon S.; ...

    2016-09-07

    Human identification from biological material is largely dependent on the ability to characterize genetic polymorphisms in DNA. Unfortunately, DNA can degrade in the environment, sometimes below the level at which it can be amplified by PCR. Protein however is chemically more robust than DNA and can persist for longer periods. Protein also contains genetic variation in the form of single amino acid polymorphisms. These can be used to infer the status of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism alleles. To demonstrate this, we used mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics to characterize hair shaft proteins in 66 European-American subjects. A total of 596 singlemore » nucleotide polymorphism alleles were correctly imputed in 32 loci from 22 genes of subjects’ DNA and directly validated using Sanger sequencing. Estimates of the probability of resulting individual non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism allelic profiles in the European population, using the product rule, resulted in a maximum power of discrimination of 1 in 12,500. Imputed non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism profiles from European–American subjects were considerably less frequent in the African population (maximum likelihood ratio = 11,000). The converse was true for hair shafts collected from an additional 10 subjects with African ancestry, where some profiles were more frequent in the African population. Genetically variant peptides were also identified in hair shaft datasets from six archaeological skeletal remains (up to 260 years old). Furthermore, this study demonstrates that quantifiable measures of identity discrimination and biogeographic background can be obtained from detecting genetically variant peptides in hair shaft protein, including hair from bioarchaeological contexts.« less

  11. Demonstration of protein-based human identification using the hair shaft proteome [Protein-based human identification: A proof of concept using the hair shaft proteome

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Glendon J.; Leppert, Tami; Anex, Deon S.

    Human identification from biological material is largely dependent on the ability to characterize genetic polymorphisms in DNA. Unfortunately, DNA can degrade in the environment, sometimes below the level at which it can be amplified by PCR. Protein however is chemically more robust than DNA and can persist for longer periods. Protein also contains genetic variation in the form of single amino acid polymorphisms. These can be used to infer the status of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism alleles. To demonstrate this, we used mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics to characterize hair shaft proteins in 66 European-American subjects. A total of 596 singlemore » nucleotide polymorphism alleles were correctly imputed in 32 loci from 22 genes of subjects’ DNA and directly validated using Sanger sequencing. Estimates of the probability of resulting individual non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism allelic profiles in the European population, using the product rule, resulted in a maximum power of discrimination of 1 in 12,500. Imputed non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism profiles from European–American subjects were considerably less frequent in the African population (maximum likelihood ratio = 11,000). The converse was true for hair shafts collected from an additional 10 subjects with African ancestry, where some profiles were more frequent in the African population. Genetically variant peptides were also identified in hair shaft datasets from six archaeological skeletal remains (up to 260 years old). Furthermore, this study demonstrates that quantifiable measures of identity discrimination and biogeographic background can be obtained from detecting genetically variant peptides in hair shaft protein, including hair from bioarchaeological contexts.« less

  12. Characteristics of a Broadband Dye Laser Using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Wheeler, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full-width half-maximum (FWHM) from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband CARS system called WIDECARS. The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes were used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640, Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650 as well as mixture of these dyes.

  13. Ecklonia cava promotes hair growth.

    PubMed

    Bak, S S; Ahn, B N; Kim, J A; Shin, S H; Kim, J C; Kim, M K; Sung, Y K; Kim, S K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the protective effects on skin elasticity of the edible marine seaweed Ecklonia cava, which acts through regulation of both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effect of E. cava and one of its components, dioxinodehydroeckol, on hair-shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and on hair growth in mice. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to check cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells after treatment with E. cava and its metabolite, dioxinodehydroeckol. Hair-shaft growth was measured using the in vitro hair-follicle organ-culture system, in the presence or absence of E. cava and dioxinodehydroeckol. Anagen induction activity was examined by topical application of E. cava to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. The proliferation activity was found to be highest for the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of E. cava (EAFE) in DPCs and in ORS cells. Treatment with EAFE resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles, and promoted transition of the hair cycle from the telogen to the anagen phase in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, EAFE induced an increase in IGF-1 expression in DPCs. Dioxinodehydroeckol, a component of E. cava, induced elongation of the hair shaft, an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells, and an increase in expression of IGF-1 in DPCs. These results suggest that E. cava containing dioxinodehydroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Dark Matter Hairs Around Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Jupiter surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Jupiter, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a trillion times greater than average. The size of Jupiter relative to the distance between Jupiter and the hair roots is to scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20178

  15. Enhanced Aqueous Solubility of Long Wavelength Voltage-Sensitive Dyes by Covalent Attachment of Polyethylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Michael J.; Ernst, Lauren A.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Thai, Dung; Salama, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Long wavelength voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) called Pittsburgh (PGH) dyes were recently synthesized by coupling various heterocyclic groups to a styryl-thiophene intermediate forming extended, partially rigidized chromophores. Unlike most styryl VSDs, dyes with a sulfonic acid anchor directly attached to the chromophore showed no solvatochromic absorption shifts. The limited water solubility of many long wavelength VSDs requires the use of surfactants to transport the dye through aqueous media and effectively label biological membranes. Here, we tested the chemical substitution of the sulfonic acid moiety with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) chains ranging from MW 750 to 5000, to overcome the poor solubility of VSDs while retaining their properties as VSDs. The chemical synthesis of PGH dyes and their PEG derivatives are described. The PEG-derivatives were soluble in aqueous solutions (> 1 mM) and still reported membrane potential changes. In frog and mouse hearts, the voltage sensitivity (ΔF/F per action potential) and spectral properties of PEG dyes were the same as the sulfonated analogs. Thus, the solubility of VSDs can be considerably improved with small polyethyleneglycol chains and can provide an effective approach to improve staining of excitable tissues and optical recordings of membrane potential. PMID:17912389

  16. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  18. Post-mortem quetiapine concentrations in hair segments of psychiatric patients - Correlation between hair concentration, dose and concentration in blood.

    PubMed

    Günther, Kamilla Nyborg; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Wicktor, Petra; Banner, Jytte; Linnet, Kristian

    2018-04-01

    Drug analysis in hair is useful when seeking to establish drug intake over a period of months to years. Segmental hair analysis can also document whether psychiatric patients are receiving a stable intake of antipsychotics. This study describes segmental analysis of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in post-mortem hair samples from long-term quetiapine users by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The aim was to obtain more knowledge on quetiapine concentrations in hair and to relate the concentration in hair to the administered dose and the post-mortem concentration in femoral blood. We analyzed hair samples from 22 deceased quetiapine-treated individuals, who were divided into two groups: natural hair colour and dyed/bleached hair. Two to six 1cm long segments were analyzed per individual, depending on the length of the hair, with 6cm corresponding to the last six months before death. The average daily quetiapine dose and average concentration in hair for the last six months prior to death were examined for potential correlation. Estimated doses ranged from 45 to 1040mg quetiapine daily over the period, and the average concentration in hair ranged from 0.18 to 13ng/mg. A significant positive correlation was observed between estimated daily dosage of quetiapine and average concentration in hair for individuals with natural hair colour (p=0.00005), but statistical significance was not reached for individuals with dyed/bleached hair (p=0.31). The individual coefficient of variation (CV) of the quetiapine concentrations between segments ranged from 3 to 34% for individuals with natural hair colour and 22-62% for individuals with dyed/bleached hair. Dose-adjusted concentrations in hair were significantly lower in females with dyed/bleached hair than in individuals with natural hair colour. The quetiapine concentrations in post-mortem femoral blood and in the proximal hair segment, segment 1 (S1), representing

  19. Characteristics of a broadband dye laser using Pyrromethene and Rhodamine dyes.

    PubMed

    Tedder, Sarah A; Wheeler, Jeffrey L; Danehy, Paul M

    2011-02-20

    A broadband dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a full width at half-maximum from 592 to 610 nm was created for the use in a dual-pump broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system called width increased dual-pump enhanced CARS (WIDECARS). The desired broadband dye laser was generated with a mixture of Pyrromethene dyes as an oscillator gain medium and a spectral selective optic in the oscillator cavity. A mixture of Rhodamine dyes was used in the amplifier dye cell. To create this laser, a study was performed to characterize the spectral behavior of broadband dye lasers created with Rhodamine dyes 590, 610, and 640 and Pyrromethene dyes 597 and 650, as well as mixtures of these dyes.

  20. African american women, hair care, and health barriers.

    PubMed

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population.

  1. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

  2. Adsorption of a reactive dye on chemically modified activated carbons--influence of pH.

    PubMed

    Orfão, J J M; Silva, A I M; Pereira, J C V; Barata, S A; Fonseca, I M; Faria, P C C; Pereira, M F R

    2006-04-15

    The surface chemistry of a commercial activated carbon with a slightly basic nature was modified by appropriate treatments in order to obtain two additional samples, respectively with acidic and basic properties, without changing its textural parameters significantly. Different techniques (N2 adsorption at 77 K, temperature programmed desorption, and determination of acidity, basicity, and pH at the point of zero charge) were used to characterize the adsorbents. Kinetic and equilibrium adsorption data of a selected textile reactive dye (Rifafix Red 3BN, C.I. reactive red 241) on the mentioned materials were obtained at the pH values of 2, 7, and 12. The kinetic curves are fitted using the second-order model. The respective rate constants seem to diminish progressively with the initial concentration for the more diluted solutions tested, reaching a constant value at higher concentrations, which depends on the experimental system under consideration (adsorbent and pH). In general, the Langmuir model provides the best fit for the equilibrium data. The different uptakes obtained are discussed in relation to the surface chemical properties of the adsorbents. It is shown that the adsorption of the reactive (anionic) dye on the basic sample (prepared by thermal treatment under H2 flow at 700 degrees C) is favored. This conclusion is explained on the basis of the dispersive and electrostatic interactions involved. Moreover, it is also shown that the optimal adsorption condition for all the activated carbons tested corresponds to solution pH values not higher than the pH(pzc) of the adsorbents, which may be interpreted by taking into account the electrostatic forces present.

  3. Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wakeford, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair breakage is a common unrecognized form of hair loss in women most often the result of hair weathering and traumatic grooming practices. Lipids are major determinants of the physical properties of the hair. Synsepalum dulcificum seed oil (MFSO®; Miracle Fruit Oil Co., Miami Beach, Florida), is an exotic fruit oil with physicochemical properties suited to providing a superior ability to reduce hair breakage. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of a hair oil containing MFSO and its effects on hair breakage rates. Methods: Healthy, long-haired women (age range: 19–63 years, mean age: 36.7 years, standard deviation: 10.77 years) with excessive hair breakage were randomized in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive MFSO (n=24), vehicle (n=17), or argan oil (n=16). Measurements of hair length, hair diameter, and Hair Mass Index were performed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 8. Hair Breakage Index and the Healthy Hair Index values were calculated from the trichometer measurements, and subject self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent change in Healthy Hair Index 75 and Healthy Hair Index 50 measurements from baseline to the eighth month. Results: The Healthy Hair Index calculations, expressed as percent change from baseline to Month 4 and from baseline to Month 8, revealed that the MFSO® treatment group improved by 103.6 percent and 215.7 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 133.7 and 188.3 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively. When compared with the vehicle and the argan oil brand groups, the Healthy Hair Index levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the MFSO® treatment group, indicating a much greater ability to increase the levels of unbroken hairs by reducing hair breakage. With respect to the mean percent improvements from baseline to Month 4 and Month 8, the MFSO® hair oil treatment group was better than each of the other two

  4. Pigments for natural dye-sensitized solar cells from in vitro grown shoot cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bari, Chiara; Forni, Cinzia; Di Carlo, Aldo; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Micol, Vicente; Teoli, Federico; Nota, Paolo; Matteocci, Fabio; Frattarelli, Andrea; Caboni, Emilia; Lucioli, Simona

    2017-04-01

    In vitro grown shoots cultures (Prunus salicina × Prunus persica), elicited by methyl jasmonate (MJ), are reported here for the first time to prepare a natural dye for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Redox properties of the dye, its photostability, and light absorption properties suggested it as a candidate as natural photosensitizers for TiO2 photoelectrodes. Redox properties of the dye influence the DSSC production of photocurrent, thus three antioxidant assays were performed in order to characterize the antioxidant potential of this dye. The dye exhibited a high antioxidant activity in all the assays performed. Photostability assay revealed that the dye was quite stable to light. The power conversion efficiency that we obtained (0.53%) was comparable to the data by other authors with anthocyanins-based dyes from in vivo grown plants. Finally, we compared the dye with the partially purified one as photosensitizer in DSSC. The results indicated that the raw pigment from in vitro shoot cultures of P. salicina × P. persica elicited with MJ can be proposed without the needing of any other chemicals, thermal or purification process, or pH adjustments, as a dye for natural sensitized solar cells.

  5. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead.

  6. Hair growth induction by substance P.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Heinzelmann, T; Schultz, K D; Furkert, J; Fechner, K; Czarnetzki, B M

    1994-07-01

    In vitro, some neuropeptides, including the tachykinin, substance P (SP), act as growth factors. The cyclic growth of the richly innervated hair follicle offers a model for probing such functions in a complex, developmentally regulated tissue interaction system under physiologic conditions. Dissecting the role of neuropeptides in this system may also reveal as yet obscure neural mechanisms of hair growth control. The neuropeptide-releasing neurotoxin, capsaicin was injected intradermally, or SP slow-release formulations were implanted subcutaneously in the back skin of C57BL/6 mice with all follicles in the resting stage of the hair cycle (telogen) in order to see whether this induced hair growth (anagen). In addition, the endogenous SP skin concentration and the activity of the main SP-degrading enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, were determined during the induced murine hair cycle by high performance liquid chromatography-controlled radioimmuno-assay (SP) or by fluorometry (neutral endopeptidase). Both capsaicin and SP induced significant hair growth (anagen) in the back skin of telogen mice. This was associated with substantial mast cell degranulation. The endogenous SP skin concentration showed significant, hair cycle-dependent fluctuations during the induced murine hair cycle, which were largely independent of the activity of neutral endopeptidase. SP may play a role in the neural control of hair growth. Whereas this pilot study does not address the underlying mechanisms of action, it demonstrates that SP has potential as a hair growth-stimulatory agent in vivo, and serves as a basis for exploring the role of tachykinins in epithelial-mesenchymal-neuroectodermal interaction systems like the hair follicle.

  7. Characteristics of dye Rhoeo spathacea in dye sensitizer solar cell (DSSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumardiasih, Sri; Obina, Wilfrida M.; Cari; Supriyanto, Agus; Septiawan, Trio Y.; Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a device that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The magnitude of the efficiency of DSSC is mainly based on the amount of dye absorbed by the surface of TiO2. In this work, used natural dye extracted from leaves Rhoeo spathacea. The dye partially used to immerse of TiO2 as working electrodes, and the rest are directly mixed TiO2 paste to obtain dye titanium dioxide.The paste TiO2 and dye titanium dioxide coated onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass plate by spin coating method. The absorbance spectra of the dye, dye titanium dioxide and TiO2 were obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The conductivity of the dye, dye titanium dioxide, and TiO2 was measured by two point probe El-Kahfi 100. The DSSC based on dye titanium dioxide that stirring for 5 hours the highest efficiency of 0,0520 % whereas those based on TiO2 immersed for 36 hours showed achieved 0,0501 % obtained from I-V characterization.

  8. Characterization of hair-follicle side population cells in mouse epidermis and skin tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Hye; Sistrunk, Christopher; Miliani de Marval, Paula L.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.

    2017-01-01

    A subset of cells, termed side-population (SP), which have the ability to efflux Hoeschst 33342, have previously been demonstrated to act as a potential method to isolate stem cells. Numerous stem/progenitor cells have been localized in different regions of the mouse hair follicle (HF). The present study identified a SP in the mouse HF expressing the ABCG2 transporter and MTS24 surface marker. These cells are restricted to the upper isthmus of the HF and have previously been described as progenitor cells. Consistent with their SP characteristic, they demonstrated elevated expression of ABCG2 transporter, which participates in the dye efflux. Analysis of tumor epidermal cell lines revealed a correlation between the number of SP keratinocytes and the grade of malignancy, suggesting that the SP may play a role in malignant progression. Consistent with this idea, the present study observed an increased number of cells expressing ABCG2 and MTS24 in chemically induced skin tumors and skin tumor cell lines. This SP does not express the CD34 surface marker detected in the multipotent stem cells of the bulge region of the HF, which have been defined as tumor initiation cells. The present study concluded that a SP with properties of progenitor cells is localized in the upper isthmus of the HF and is important in mouse skin tumor progression. PMID:29181098

  9. Dyes removal from textile wastewater using graphene based nanofiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Rizki, Z.; Zunita, M.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-05-01

    Wastewater produced from textile industry is having more strict regulation. The major pollutant of wastewater from textile industry is Dyes. Dyes have several harsh properties i.e toxic, volatile, complexing easily with mineral ions that are dissolved in water (decreasing the amount of important mineral ions in water), and hard to disintegrate, therefore it must be removed from the waste stream. There are several methods and mechanisms to remove dyes such as chemical and physical sorption, evaporation, biological degradation, and photocatalytic system that can be applied to the waste stream. Membrane-based separation technology has been introduced in dyes removal treatment and is well known for its advantages (flexibility, mild operating condition, insensitive to toxic pollutant). Graphene and its derivatives are novel materials which have special properties due to its ultrathin layer and nanometer-size pores. Thus, the materials are very light yet strong. Moreover, it has low cost and easy to fabricate. Recently, the application of graphene and its derivatives in nanofiltration membrane processes is being widely explored. This review investigates the potentials of graphene based membrane in dyes removal processes. The operating conditions, dyes removal effectiveness, and the drawbacks of the process are the main focus in this paper.

  10. Hair Follicle Bulb as a Biodosimeter for Low-Level VX Vapor Exposure: Initial Studies Validating the Presence of Potential Protein Biomarkers of Exposure in the Sprague-Dawley Rat Whisker Follicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    lead to false positive segmental hair analysis results.13 Due to the increased risk of false positives associated with segmental hair analysis ...to 200 mg of hair (to allow confirmation testing). 7 The segments are typically washed to remove external contaminants and the chemicals in the hair ...further confirmation. The method overcomes the false positives associated with traditional segmental hair analysis such. By measuring the

  11. Integral lipids of mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been demonstrated that hair contains lipids which cannot be removed by extensive extraction with chloroform-methanol mixtures. These integral lipids can be extracted only after the hair has been subjected to alkaline hydrolysis. 2. Integral hair lipids include cholesterol sulfate (0.7-2.9 mg/g hair), ceramides (0.6-1.4 mg/g), cholesterol (0.3-1.4 mg/g), fatty alcohols (trace-0.2 mg/g) and fatty acids (2.3-4.0 mg/g). 3. One of the major integral hair lipids, representing 38.4-47.6% of the total fatty acids, is the anteisobranched 18-methyleicosanoic acid. 4. The species examined included human (Homo sapiens), pig (Sus scrofa), dog (Canis familiaris), sheep (Ovis ammon aries) and cow (Bos taurus).

  12. The biology, structure, and function of eyebrow hair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer V

    2014-01-01

    Eyebrow hair serves many important biologic and aesthetic functions. This article reviews the structure and function of the hair follicle, as well as hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Eyebrow hair follicles share the same basic structure as hair follicles elsewhere on the body, but are distinguished by their shorter anagen (growing) phase. Knowledge of the hair follicle structure and cycle is important for understanding the pathophysiology of alopecia, as diseases affecting the stem cell portion of the hair follicle in the bulge region may cause permanent hair loss. Furthermore, therapeutic agents that target distinct phases and hormones involved in the hair cycle may be useful for promoting hair growth.

  13. Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expanded our understanding of the development, organization, and regeneration of hair follicle stem cells. At a basic level, this review is intended to help construct a reference point to integrate the surge of studies on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. PMID:22293183

  14. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

  15. Activating β-catenin signaling in CD133-positive dermal papilla cells increases hair inductivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linli; Yang, Kun; Xu, Mingang; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah; Boyce, Steven; Zhang, Yuhang

    2016-01-01

    Bioengineering hair follicles using cells isolated from human tissue remains as a difficult task. Dermal papilla (DP) cells are known to guide the growth and cycling activities of hair follicles by interacting with keratinocytes. However, DP cells quickly lose their inductivity during in vitro passaging. Rodent DP cell cultures need external addition of chemical factors, including WNT and BMP molecules, to maintain the hair inductive property. CD133 is expressed by a small subpopulation of DP cells that are capable of inducing hair follicle formation in vivo. We report here that expression of a stabilized form of β-catenin promoted clonal growth of CD133-positive (CD133+) DP cells in in vitro three-dimensional hydrogel culture while maintaining expression of DP markers, including alkaline phosphatase (AP), CD133, and Integrin α8. After a two-week in vitro culture, cultured CD133+ DP cells with up-regulated β-catenin activity led to an accelerated in vivo hair growth in reconstituted skin than control cells. Further analysis showed that matrix cell proliferation and differentiation were significantly promoted in hair follicles when β-catenin signaling was upregulated in CD133+ DP cells. Our data highlight an important role for β-catenin signaling in promoting the inductive capability of CD133+ DP cells for in vitro expansion and in vivo hair follicle regeneration, which could potentially be applied to cultured human DP cells. PMID:27312243

  16. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  17. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of off-the-shelf hair and skin care products.

    PubMed

    Myers, Sharon L; Yang, Chun Z; Bittner, George D; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R; Baird, Donna D

    2015-05-01

    Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products.

  18. On the versatility of electronic structures in polymethine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Simon; Haefele, Alexandre; Monnereau, Cyrille; Charaf-Eddin, Azzam; Jacquemin, Denis; Le Guennic, Boris; Maury, Olivier; Andraud, Chantal

    2014-10-01

    This article provides an overview of the photophysical behavior diversity of polymethine chromophores which are ubiquitous in biological imaging and material sciences. One major challenge in this class of chromophore is to correlate the chemical structure to the observed optical properties, especially when symmetry-breaking phenomena occur. With the constant concern for rationalization of their spectroscopy, we propose an extended classification of polymethine dyes based on their ground state electronic configuration using three limit forms namely: cyanine, dipole and bis-dipole. The chemical modifications of the dye and the influence of exogenous parameters can promote dramatic spectroscopic changes that can be correlated to significant electronic reorganization between the three-abovementioned forms. The deep understanding of such phenomena should allow to identify, predict and take advantage of the versatile electronic structure of polymethines.

  19. Solubility of structurally complicated materials: 3. Hair.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Ari L

    2009-04-27

    Hair is composed of proteins, lipids, water, and small amounts of trace elements. All proteins in animal and human bodies are built from permutations of amino acid molecules in a polypeptide string. The polypeptide chains of protein keratin are organized into filaments in hair cells. Hair is one of the most difficult proteins to digest or solubilize. Among the most common dissolving procedures for hair are acidic, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolysis. For the analysis of hair, the solid samples are transferred by solubilization via digestion into a liquid phase. Small molecular solvents and molecules with hydrophobic groups appear to have higher affinity for hair. A good solvent attacks the disulfide bonds between cystine molecules and hydrates the hair shaft. Consequently, the hair becomes a jelly-like mass.

  20. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  1. Childhood hair product use and earlier age at menarche in a racially diverse study population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18-77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used before age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariabl