Science.gov

Sample records for hair loss alopecia

  1. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  2. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... with certain abnormalities of the nails and the teeth. Later in childhood, hair loss may be due ...

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  4. Hair loss at injection sites of mesotherapy for alopecia.

    PubMed

    El-Komy, Mohamed; Hassan, Akmal; Tawdy, Amira; Solimon, Mohamed; Hady, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-12-01

    The side effects of mesotherapy for treatment of various forms of alopecia are often underreported, while scientific data for its efficacy are severely lacking. To demonstrate the late onset side effects of mesotherapy for alopecia. Three patients with androgenetic alopecia showed hair loss after previously uneventful mesotherapy sessions up to 1 year. Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological findings suggested an inflammatory scaring process at sites of mesotherapy injections. Mesotherapy for androgenetic alopecia may paradoxically induce hair loss and scarring. Proper regulation and monitoring of the use of mesotherapy products for treating hair loss in women, needs to be addressed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Male frontal fibrosing alopecia with generalised hair loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenchieh; Kigitsidou, Evanthia; Prucha, Hanna; Ring, Johannes; Andres, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia predominantly affects postmenopausal women and is regarded as a variant of lichen planopilaris. Male cases have rarely been reported. Here we describe a 66-year-old man with a typical receding fronto-temporal hair line in a form of scarring alopecia, which shows features of lichen planopilaris in histology. An extensive loss of body hair involving bilateral axillae, limbs and pubic area was also observed. © 2012 The Authors Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  6. Frontal fibrosing alopecia associated with generalized hair loss.

    PubMed

    Armenores, Paul; Shirato, Kyoko; Reid, Catherine; Sidhu, Shireen

    2010-08-01

    We present six cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia, in which generalized hair loss is a feature. Although this variant of lichen planopilaris has been reported clinically in a number of patients, there is very little histological evidence that the condition exists in peripheral sites. We believe this pattern of involvement may be more common than is reported, and have provided histological evidence of lichen planopilaris being present at sites beyond the scalp and eyebrows.

  7. Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Hair Loss Disease Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is considered to be a cell-mediated autoimmune disease, in which autoreactive cytotoxic T cells recognize melanocyte-associated proteins such as tyrosinase. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of alopecia areata, focusing on immunobiology and hormonal aspects of hair follicles (HFs). The HF is a unique “miniorgan” with its own immune and hormonal microenvironment. The immunosuppressive milieu of the anagen hair bulb modulated by immunosuppressive factors is known as “hair follicle immune privilege.” The collapse of the hair follicle immune privilege leads to autoimmune reactions against hair follicle autoantigens. Alopecia areata is sometimes triggered by viral infections such as influenza that causes excess production of interferons (IFN). IFN-γ is one of the key factors that lead to the collapse of immune privilege. This paper reviews the interactions between the endocrine and immune systems and hair follicles in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. PMID:24151515

  8. Substance P as an immunomodulatory neuropeptide in a mouse model for autoimmune hair loss (alopecia areata).

    PubMed

    Siebenhaar, Frank; Sharov, Andrey A; Peters, Eva M J; Sharova, Tatyana Y; Syska, Wolfgang; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Freyschmidt-Paul, Pia; Sundberg, John P; Maurer, Marcus; Botchkarev, Vladimir A

    2007-06-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disorder of the hair follicle characterized by inflammatory cell infiltrates around actively growing (anagen) hair follicles. Substance P (SP) plays a critical role in the cutaneous neuroimmune network and influences immune cell functions through the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). To better understand the role of SP as an immunomodulatory neuropeptide in AA, we studied its expression and effects on immune cells in a C3H/HeJ mouse model for AA. During early stages of AA development, the number of SP-immunoreactive nerve fibers in skin is increased, compared to non-affected mice. However, during advanced stages of AA, the number of SP-immunoreactive nerves and SP protein levels in skin are decreased, whereas the expression of the SP-degrading enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is increased, compared to control skin. In AA, NK-1R is expressed on CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages accumulating around affected hair follicles. Additional SP supply to the skin of AA-affected mice leads to a significant increase of mast cell degranulation and to accelerated hair follicle regression (catagen), accompanied by an increase of CD8+ cells-expressing granzyme B. These data suggest that SP, NEP, and NK-1R serve as important regulators in the molecular signaling network modulating inflammatory response in autoimmune hair loss.

  9. Coexistence of giant blue nevus of the scalp with hair loss and alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Sachiko; Kubo, Yoshiaki; Murao, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Natsuko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Arase, Seiji

    2011-04-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with a 13-year history of a grayish macule measuring 7 cm in diameter with sparse hairs on the vertex. Histopathological examination demonstrated two types of melanocytes, spindle-shaped and ovoid cells, with abundant melanin aggregated around the upper part of the pilosebaceous apparatus. Fibrous, thick collagen bundles were also seen surrounding the upper part of the small hair follicles. There was no infiltration of melanocytes or lymphocytes in the lower dermis or adipose tissue. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of blue nevus, cellular type, was made. Giant cellular blue nevi on the scalp are rare, and 11 cases reported in the published work have shown characteristic features such as hair loss and cranial invasion of nevus cells. It should be noted that melanocytes of giant blue nevi have a high potential to damage other organs such as underlying bone and hair follicles. The patient also showed a typical lesion of alopecia areata on the left temporal which was successfully treated with topical corticosteroid. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  11. Successful treatment of alopecia areata-like hair loss with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE) in C3H/HeJ mice.

    PubMed

    Freyschmidt-Paul, P; Sundberg, J P; Happle, R; McElwee, K J; Metz, S; Boggess, D; Hoffmann, R

    1999-07-01

    A type of hair loss closely resembling human alopecia areata has been described in C3H/HeJ mice. In order to test the assumed analogy with human alopecia areata, we investigated the efficacy of treatment with the contact allergen squaric acid dibutylester. In 12 C3H/HeJ mice with alopecia areata an allergic contact dermatitis was induced and elicited weekly on one side of the back by topical applications of squaric acid dibutylester. Overt hair regrowth was observed only on the treated side of the back in nine of 12 mice. Histopathologic examination revealed a change in the distribution of the inflammatory infiltrate from a dense perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate around the mid and lower regions of hair follicles in untreated skin to a uniform presence in the upper dermis in treated skin. Immunohistomorphometric studies revealed that treatment with squaric acid dibutylester increased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio from approximately 1:2 in untreated alopecia areata to 1:1 in treated alopecia areata. Additional immunohistochemical investigations showed an aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I, major histocompatibility complex class II and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on keratinocytes of the mid and lower parts of hair follicles in untreated alopecia areata. In successfully treated skin ectopic major histocompatibility complex class I and II expression was clearly reduced, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression showed only minor changes. In conclusion, alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice responded to treatment with the contact sensitizer squaric acid dibutylester analogous to human alopecia areata. Moreover, successful treatment changes the aberrant expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II in a way similar to that observed in human alopecia areata. These observations support the concept that alopecia areata-like hair loss in C3H/HeJ mice can be utilized as an appropriate model for the study of

  12. The use of low-level light therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Daigle, Deanne

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. Despite its common occurrence, our understanding of the etiology of AGA and FPHL remains incomplete. As such, traditional therapies demonstrate modest efficacies and new therapies continue to be sought. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is a relatively new technique used to promote hair growth in both men and women with AGA and FPHL. Currently, there exist several LLLT devices marketed for the treatment of alopecia, which claim to stimulate hair growth; yet marketing these devices only requires that safety, not efficacy, be established. A handful of studies have since investigated the efficacy of LLLT for alopecia with mixed results. These studies suffered from power, confounding and analysis issues which resulted in a high risk of bias in LLLT studies. Due to the paucity of well-conducted randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of LLLT devices remains unclear. Randomized controlled trials of LLLT conducted and reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement would greatly increase the credibility of the evidence and clarify the ambiguity of the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of AGA and FPHL.

  13. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  14. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer treatment - alopecia; Chemotherapy - hair loss; Radiation - hair loss ... Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. This is because cancer cells divide rapidly. Since the cells in hair ...

  15. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Loss What's in ... after the problem that causes it is corrected. Hair Basics Hair is made of a kind of ...

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 2% Solution in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss/Androgenic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Amy; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), also known as female androgenic alopecia, affects over 21 million women in the United States with devastating effects on self-esteem and psychosocial functioning. Topical minoxidil 2% and 5% formulations are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for FPHL. The length of time it typically takes to observe the benefits is a challenge for many patients, and may affect adherence to treatment. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 2% minoxidil solution used in combination with the botanical hair solution for 12 weeks in 54 subjects was evaluated in a multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. Assessments included investigator and subject ratings of improvement and subject satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in hair growth and overall treatment benefits in as early as 6 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings indicated significant satisfaction with hair volume and quality improvement at week 6 (P<.001). Subjects also indicated an increase in self-confidence and attractiveness at week 12 (P<.001). The investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this regimen provides clinicians with an effective treatment option for FPHL that also provides a high level of patient acceptance, which ultimately may help promote minoxidil treatment adherence.

  17. Hair transplantation in burn scar alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Farjo, Bessam; Farjo, Nilofer; Williams, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Treating patients with burn alopecia or hair loss can often be a challenge to both the surgeon and the patient. As with other reconstructive procedures that are required in the post-burn phase, this is usually a multiple stage process often requiring surgery over several years. This is because graft take is not as reliable as in healthy non-scarred skin and may need repeating to achieve adequate density. Also, different areas of hair loss may need to be addressed in separate procedures. There are several limiting factors that will determine whether or not a patient is a candidate for hair restoration which includes but is not limited to the amount of hair loss and the availability of suitable donor hair. Here we discuss how the current surgical technique of hair transplant surgery by follicular unit extraction (FUE) or strip follicular unit transplant (FUT) has become the treatment of choice for alopecic areas that require a more refined aesthetic result. Eyebrow, eyelash, beard and scalp hair loss can all have a negative impact on a burn survivor’s self-esteem and even if surgery is not a possibility, there are non-surgical options available for hair restoration and these are also discussed. PMID:29799573

  18. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    Hair loss Overview Hair loss can affect just your scalp or your entire body. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or medications. Anyone can experience hair loss, but it's more common in men. Baldness ...

  19. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Morphological changes of the hair roots in alopecia areata: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Karashima, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hamada, Takahiro; Ishii, Norito; Ono, Fumitake; Ueda, Akihiro; Abe, Toshifumi; Nakama, Takekuni; Dainichi, Teruki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory condition causing non-scarring patchy hair loss. Diagnosis of alopecia areata is made by clinical observations, hair pluck test and dermoscopic signs. However, because differentiation from other alopecia diseases is occasionally difficult, an invasive diagnostic method using a punch biopsy is performed. In this study, to develop a reliable, less invasive diagnostic method for alopecia areata, we performed scanning electron microscopy of the hair roots of alopecia areata patients. This study identified four patterns of hair morphology specific to alopecia areata: (I) long tapering structure with no accumulation of scales; (II) club-shaped hair root with fine scales; (III) proximal accumulation of scales; and (IV) sharp tapering of the proximal end of hair. On the basis of these results, we can distinguish alopecia areata by scanning electron microscopic observation of the proximal end of the hair shafts. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  2. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection.

  3. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  4. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  5. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  6. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  7. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  8. Naked Hair Shafts as a Marker of Cicatricial Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Doytcheva, Kristina; Tan, Timothy; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram; Yazdan, Pedram

    2018-07-01

    Naked hair shafts (NHS) are free-floating hair shafts devoid of surrounding epithelium, supporting structures, and/or embedded in inflammation that may result from destruction of hair follicles by scarring processes such as inflammation and fibroplasia. Extensive examination of NHS has not been performed in scalp biopsies of alopecia. We retrospectively evaluated 622 scalp biopsies of alopecia [345 cicatricial alopecias (central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, lichen planopilaris, discoid lupus erythematosus, acne keloidalis nuchae, and folliculitis decalvans] and 277 non-cicatricial alopecias [alopecia areata, androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and psoriatic alopecia)] for the presence of NHS. NHS occurred in 0.72% (2/277) of non-cicatricial alopecias (1/102 of alopecia areata, 1/150 of androgenic alopecia, 0/17 of telogen effluvium, and 0/8 of psoriatic alopecia) and 20% (72/345) of cicatricial alopecias (27/118 of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, 29/109 of lichen planopilaris, 2/75 of discoid lupus erythematosus, 11/16 of acne keloidalis nuchae, and 3/27 of folliculitis decalvans). The presence of NHS was significantly increased in cicatricial alopecias in comparison with non-cicatricial alopecias; P value <0.0001. Among the cicatricial alopecias, 26% (92/345) had mild inflammation and/or fibrosis, of which 9% (9/92) had NHS. There were 73% (253/345) that had moderate to severe inflammation and/or fibrosis, of which 24% (63/253) had NHS, indicating that as the severity of inflammation and fibrosis increases, so does the presence of NHS. NHS rarely occurs in non-cicatricial alopecias. This variation may result from destruction of hair follicles by the inflammatory and scarring processes. The presence of NHS may be a useful adjunctive histopathologic feature in the diagnosis of cicatricial alopecia.

  9. Drug discovery for alopecia: gone today, hair tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Santos, Zenildo; Avci, Pinar; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss or alopecia affects the majority of the population at some time in their life, and increasingly, sufferers are demanding treatment. Three main types of alopecia (androgenic [AGA], areata [AA] and chemotherapy-induced [CIA]) are very different, and have their own laboratory models and separate drug-discovery efforts. In this article, the authors review the biology of hair, hair follicle (HF) cycling, stem cells and signaling pathways. AGA, due to dihydrotesterone, is treated by 5-α reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor blockers and ATP-sensitive potassium channel-openers. AA, which involves attack by CD8(+)NK group 2D-positive (NKG2D(+)) T cells, is treated with immunosuppressives, biologics and JAK inhibitors. Meanwhile, CIA is treated by apoptosis inhibitors, cytokines and topical immunotherapy. The desire to treat alopecia with an easy topical preparation is expected to grow with time, particularly with an increasing aging population. The discovery of epidermal stem cells in the HF has given new life to the search for a cure for baldness. Drug discovery efforts are being increasingly centered on these stem cells, boosting the hair cycle and reversing miniaturization of HF. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune attack in AA will yield new drugs. New discoveries in HF neogenesis and low-level light therapy will undoubtedly have a role to play.

  10. Drug discovery for alopecia: gone today, hair tomorrow

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Zenildo; Avci, Pinar; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hair loss or alopecia affects the majority of the population at some time in their life, and increasingly, sufferers are demanding treatment. Three main types of alopecia (androgenic [AGA], areata [AA] and chemotherapy-induced [CIA]) are very different, and have their own laboratory models and separate drug-discovery efforts. Areas covered In this article, the authors review the biology of hair, hair follicle (HF) cycling, stem cells and signaling pathways. AGA, due to dihydrotesterone, is treated by 5-α reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor blockers and ATP-sensitive potassium channel-openers. AA, which involves attack by CD8+NK group 2D-positive (NKG2D+) T cells, is treated with immunosuppressives, biologics and JAK inhibitors. Meanwhile, CIA is treated by apoptosis inhibitors, cytokines and topical immunotherapy. Expert opinion The desire to treat alopecia with an easy topical preparation is expected to grow with time, particularly with an increasing aging population. The discovery of epidermal stem cells in the HF has given new life to the search for a cure for baldness. Drug discovery efforts are being increasingly centered on these stem cells, boosting the hair cycle and reversing miniaturization of HF. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the immune attack in AA will yield new drugs. New discoveries in HF neogenesis and low-level light therapy will undoubtedly have a role to play. PMID:25662177

  11. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Case reports: alopecia universalis: hair growth following initiation of simvastatin and ezetimibe therapy.

    PubMed

    Robins, Douglas N

    2007-09-01

    Alopecia areata is an organ specific autoimmune disease in which hair is lost in various patterns. Its most extreme form, alopecia universalis, is the total loss of all scalp and body hair. This form of the condition is very resistant to treatment and spontaneous remission is quite rare. The following is a case of a 54-year-old male with longstanding alopecia universalis who began to grow dense hair on his scalp as well as patchy hair growth on his face, pubic and axillary areas one month after starting a course of simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg daily prescribed for his hyperlipidemia. For 2 years prior to starting the combination drug, he had taken simvastatin 40 mg alone without evidence of any hair growth. The combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe has previously demonstrated synergistic immunomodulatory effects, which most likely accounts for the clinical response in this case.

  13. [Effect of minoxidil on hair growth in androgenic alopecia in women].

    PubMed

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out clinical and trichological examination (trichogram and assessment of hair loss) before and after treatment in 17 women aged 41-50 years with androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil (Loxon) was topically applied twice a day massaging the solution into the scalp over 6-12 months. It was revealed on the ground of clinical and trichological examination that the medication containing 2% solution of minoxidil externally applied on the scalp with androgenic alopecia over a few months caused normalization of hair root condition and decrease of hair loss in some patients of the observed group. The drug has a stimulating influence on hair growth and should be administered as an adjuvant therapy in androgenic alopecia in women.

  14. [Status of scalp hair and therapy of alopecia in men in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; de Viragh, P A

    2001-02-15

    A community-based interview and a questionnaire of men visiting the dermatologist for treatment of hair loss were conducted in Switzerland, to characterize the significance of scalp hair and self-perception of hair loss in Swiss men, and to evaluate current treatment of hair loss. 508 men, aged 15-74 years, regardless of the degree of hair loss, were interviewed by telephone, and 308 patient questionnaires were completed by 19 dermatologists. The questions addressed by the interview were: degree of self-rated hair loss, time invested for hair care, use or reasons for rejecting hair growing agents, relevant criteria for scalp hair, self-assessment with respect to different "hair communication types". The questionnaire analysed the causes of hair loss, prior and current treatment modalities, and follow-up at the dermatologist. Respondents rated their hair loss on a 5-point, textual scale that ranged from 'no hair loss' to 'bald areas'. 43% reported hair loss to some extent. For 42% a full head of hair was very important, especially for men under 29 years, who invested more time for hair care and had not lost hair. Of men with hair loss, 26% previously applied hair growing agents. Of men consulting the dermatologist for hair loss, 90% had androgenetic alopecia. 37% were previously treated: prior treatment was in 59% minoxidil, in 4% finasteride (Propecia), in 7% Aminexil, in 7% dietary supplements, and in 6% conducted by the hair dresser. In 79% treatment was switched to Propecia: of these, 73% adhered to the follow-up consultations at the dermatologist.

  15. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth.

  16. Alopecia areata

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, C. Herbert; King, Lloyd E.; Messenger, Andrew G.; Christiano, Angela M.; Sundberg, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by transient, non-scarring hair loss and preservation of the hair follicle. Hair loss can take many forms ranging from loss in well-defined patches to diffuse or total hair loss, which can affect all hair bearing sites. Patchy alopecia affecting the scalp is the most common type. Alopecia areata affects nearly 2% of the general population at some point during their lifetime. Skin biopsies of alopecia areata affected skin show a lymphocytic infiltrate in and around the bulb or the lower part of the hair follicle in anagen (hair growth) phase. A breakdown of immune privilege of the hair follicle is thought to be an important driver of alopecia areata. Genetic studies in patients and mouse models showed that alopecia areata is a complex, polygenic disease. Several genetic susceptibility loci were identified associated with signaling pathways that are important to hair follicle cycling and development. Alopecia areata is usually diagnosed based on clinical manifestations, but dermoscopy and histopathology can be helpful. Alopecia areata is difficult to manage medically, but recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms have revealed new treatments and the possibility of remission in the near future. PMID:28300084

  17. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible women, but is most commonly seen after menopause. In female pattern hair loss some excess loss of hair is noted, but ... all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially whose hair loss starts before menopause but takes many months. Hormone replacement pills, such ...

  18. Hair breakage as a presenting sign of early or occult central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: clinicopathologic findings in 9 patients.

    PubMed

    Callender, Valerie D; Wright, Dakara Rucker; Davis, Erica C; Sperling, Leonard C

    2012-09-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia is the most common form of cicatricial alopecia in African American women. Treatment options are limited and mostly aimed at halting further hair loss but rarely result in hair regrowth. Therefore, it is important to recognize early clinical signs, perform a confirmatory biopsy, and begin treatment promptly. We have observed that hair breakage may be a key sign of early central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, and this association is not clearly described in the literature. Nine patients with hair breakage on the vertex with or without scalp symptoms underwent scalp biopsies as part of their evaluation. Of these, 8 had histologic samples adequate for complete interpretation: 5 specimens (63%) showed histologic changes typical of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, with 1 of these showing advanced end-stage changes of cicatricial alopecia. Two (25%) revealed premature desquamation of the inner root sheath as the sole finding suggestive of early central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia and 1 (13%) was normal. Although hair breakage can have multiple causes, early central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia must be considered in the differential diagnosis, particularly in women of African ancestry. Histologic evaluation may reveal early or late findings that can help establish the diagnosis.

  19. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

  20. Contribution of hair density and hair diameter to the appearance and progression of androgenetic alopecia in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Ishino, A; Takahashi, T; Suzuki, J; Nakazawa, Y; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2014-11-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of baldness in men. The balding process is associated with the gradual miniaturization of hair follicles and successive hair loss. However, the relative contributions of hair density and diameter to AGA are still unclear. Hair density and hair diameter were investigated in Japanese men with or without AGA to elucidate the importance of these factors in the balding process. Male Japanese subjects with or without AGA (n = 369) were included in this study. Hair appearance at the vertex was evaluated by comparison with a series of standard photographs. Hair density was measured using a phototrichogram-based videomicroscopy technique, and hair diameter was assessed by comparison with a series of calibrated threads on the phototrichogram image. All subjects with AGA were ≥ 25 years of age. The mean percentage of thick hairs (> 80 μm) in all subjects with AGA was significantly lower than that in subjects without AGA aged ≥ 25 years (P < 0·01), but the mean percentage of vellus hairs (< 40 μm) in subjects with AGA was significantly higher (P < 0·001). By contrast, the mean density of the hair in all patients with AGA did not significantly differ from the density of those without AGA aged ≥ 25 years. However, the mean density of the hair in subjects without AGA aged < 25 years was significantly higher than that of both subjects without AGA aged ≥ 25 years (P < 0·001) and all subjects with AGA. Hair loss in men with AGA results mainly from the miniaturization of hair follicles rather than the loss of hair (shedding), at least for individuals who are ≥ 25 years of age and present with AGA. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hair Loss Myths.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective.

    METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth.

    RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments.

    DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694.

    .

  3. A Practical Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Hair Loss in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liwen; Liu, Kevin X.; Senna, Maryanne M.

    2017-01-01

    Hair loss or alopecia is a common and distressing clinical complaint in the primary care setting and can arise from heterogeneous etiologies. In the pediatric population, hair loss often presents with patterns that are different from that of their adult counterparts. Given the psychosocial complications that may arise from pediatric alopecia, prompt diagnosis and management is particularly important. Common causes of alopecia in children and adolescents include alopecia areata, tinea capitis, androgenetic alopecia, traction alopecia, trichotillomania, hair cycle disturbances, and congenital alopecia conditions. Diagnostic tools for hair loss in children include a detailed history, physical examination with a focused evaluation of the child’s hair and scalp, fungal screens, hair pull and tug test, and if possible, light microscopy and/or trichoscopy. Management of alopecia requires a holistic approach including psychosocial support because treatments are only available for some hair loss conditions, and even the available treatments are not always effective. This review outlines the clinical presentations, presents a diagnostic algorithm, and discusses management of these various hair loss disorders. PMID:28791288

  4. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

  6. Female Pattern Hair Loss: a clinical and pathophysiological review*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Paulo Müller; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Female Pattern Hair Loss or female androgenetic alopecia is the main cause of hair loss in adult women and has a major impact on patients' quality of life. It evolves from the progressive miniaturization of follicles that lead to a subsequent decrease of the hair density, leading to a non-scarring diffuse alopecia, with characteristic clinical, dermoscopic and histological patterns. In spite of the high frequency of the disease and the relevance of its psychological impact, its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, being influenced by genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. In addition, response to treatment is variable. In this article, authors discuss the main clinical, epidemiological and pathophysiological aspects of female pattern hair loss. PMID:26375223

  7. A new technique for quantitative analysis of hair loss in mice using grayscale analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Gulati, Rohan; Gensure, Robert

    2015-03-09

    Alopecia is a common form of hair loss which can occur in many different conditions, including male-pattern hair loss, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and alopecia areata. Alopecia can also occur as a side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients. In this study, our goal was to develop a consistent and reliable method to quantify hair loss in mice, which will allow investigators to accurately assess and compare new therapeutic approaches for these various forms of alopecia. The method utilizes a standard gel imager to obtain and process images of mice, measuring the light absorption, which occurs in rough proportion to the amount of black (or gray) hair on the mouse. Data that has been quantified in this fashion can then be analyzed using standard statistical techniques (i.e., ANOVA, T-test). This methodology was tested in mouse models of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, alopecia areata and alopecia from waxing. In this report, the detailed protocol is presented for performing these measurements, including validation data from C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ strains of mice. This new technique offers a number of advantages, including relative simplicity of application, reliance on equipment which is readily available in most research laboratories, and applying an objective, quantitative assessment which is more robust than subjective evaluations. Improvements in quantification of hair growth in mice will improve study of alopecia models and facilitate evaluation of promising new therapies in preclinical studies.

  8. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... pillow. This is the result of the normal hair growth cycle. Hairs will grow for a few years, ... the name for the resting stage of the hair growth cycle. A telogen effluvium is when some stress ...

  9. "Cold" X5 Hairlaser™ used to treat male androgenic alopecia and hair growth: an uncontrolled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Han, David; Madigan, Margaret A; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R

    2014-02-24

    Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources. For this feasibility study, the population was composed of males between the ages of 20 and 60 years who have been experiencing active hair loss within the last 12 months and the diagnosis of AGA. They also had a Norwood-Hamilton classification of 3, 3A, 3 V, 4, 4A, or 5 for the hair thinning patterns and skin type I, II, III, or IV on the Fitzpatrick skin type scale. This two-arm randomized, parallel group study design employed stratifying randomization to balance treatment assignment within three investigational centers with at least 2 subjects enrolled in each Fitzpatrick skin type. A statistically significant positive trend in hair growth was observed from this pilot study, to evaluate the efficacy of the novel cold X5 hairlaser device for treating male androgenic alopecia. From the repeated measures analysis of variance, difference in mean hair counts over time was statistically significant (F = 7.70; p-value < 0.0001). Subsequent, linear regression of mean hair counts at each time point was performed, and post-hoc analysis found an increasing trend of hair growth over time that was statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001) with the estimated slope of 1.406. Increased hair counts from the baseline to the end of the 26-week period were found to be strongly significant (p-value = 0.0003). Albeit, sham device failure and resultant missing data from the control group, the positive trend hair growth, was observed due to the chronic use of X5hairlaser device. This positive benefit while in full agreement with other low laser hair devices requires intensive further investigation. NCT02067260.

  10. “Cold” X5 Hairlaser™ used to treat male androgenic alopecia and hair growth: an uncontrolled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Various trials have been conducted on the management and treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern hair loss using a variety of laser and light sources. Methods For this feasibility study, the population was composed of males between the ages of 20 and 60 years who have been experiencing active hair loss within the last 12 months and the diagnosis of AGA. They also had a Norwood-Hamilton classification of 3, 3A, 3 V, 4, 4A, or 5 for the hair thinning patterns and skin type I, II, III, or IV on the Fitzpatrick skin type scale. This two-arm randomized, parallel group study design employed stratifying randomization to balance treatment assignment within three investigational centers with at least 2 subjects enrolled in each Fitzpatrick skin type. Results A statistically significant positive trend in hair growth was observed from this pilot study, to evaluate the efficacy of the novel cold X5 hairlaser device for treating male androgenic alopecia. From the repeated measures analysis of variance, difference in mean hair counts over time was statistically significant (F = 7.70; p-value < 0.0001). Subsequent, linear regression of mean hair counts at each time point was performed, and post-hoc analysis found an increasing trend of hair growth over time that was statistically significant (p-value < 0.0001) with the estimated slope of 1.406. Increased hair counts from the baseline to the end of the 26-week period were found to be strongly significant (p-value = 0.0003). Conclusion Albeit, sham device failure and resultant missing data from the control group, the positive trend hair growth, was observed due to the chronic use of X5hairlaser device. This positive benefit while in full agreement with other low laser hair devices requires intensive further investigation. Trial registration NCT02067260 PMID:24559020

  11. Clinical Evidence of Increase in Hair Growth and Decrease in Hair Loss without Adverse Reactions Promoted by the Commercial Lotion ECOHAIR®.

    PubMed

    Alonso, María Rosario; Anesini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hair exerts protection, sensory functions, thermoregulation, and sexual attractiveness. Hair loss (alopecia) is caused by several diseases, drug intake, hormone imbalance, stress, and infections (Malassesia furfur). Drugs usually used in alopecia produce irreversible systemic and local side effects. An association of extracts of Coffea arabica and Larrea divaricata (ECOHAIR®) is successfully being commercialized in Argentina for hair growth. The aim of this study was to provide scientific support for the efficacy and innocuousness of ECOHAIR® in patients with noncicatricial alopecia during a 3-month treatment. The efficacy was determined through the assessment of an increase in hair volume, improvement in hair looks, growth of new hair, and a decrease in hair loss by the test of hair count and hair traction. The capacity to decrease the amount of dandruff was also evaluated as well as the adverse local effects caused by the treatment. ECOHAIR® spray improved the overall hair volume and appearance; it increased its thickness, induced hair growth, and decreased hair loss. Besides, no adverse local reactions were observed upon treatment with the product. This study provides scientific support for the clinical use of ECOHAIR® as a treatment to be used in noncicatricial alopecia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Deslorelin Implant Treatment for Hair Cycle Arrest (Alopecia X) in Two Intact Male Keeshonden.

    PubMed

    Layne, Elizabeth A; Richmond, Renee V

    Alopecia in dogs occurs secondary to a variety of underlying inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions. Hair cycle arrest (alopecia X) is a noninflammatory alopecia that is frustrating to diagnose and treat due to lack of understanding of disease pathogenesis. A variety of therapies for hair cycle arrest have been described with inconsistent efficacy in different dog breeds and sexes; no definitive treatment is available. This report describes the use of a deslorelin acetate implant in two sexually intact adult male keeshonden, both diagnosed with hair cycle arrest. The dogs had progressive alopecia of the trunk that spared the head and distal limbs present for at least 2 yr. Diagnosis of hair cycle arrest was made based on clinical features, dermatohistopathology, and lack of systemic abnormalities. Treatment with a single subcutaneous 4.7 mg deslorelin acetate implant resulted in profuse hair regrowth within 3.5 mo that endured for at least 14 mo. Deslorelin implantation is a management option that is safe, affordable, and appears effective for sexually intact male keeshonden with hair cycle arrest.

  13. Novel insights into the pathways regulating the canine hair cycle and their deregulation in alopecia X.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Magdalena A T; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Waluk, Dominik P; Roosje, Petra; Linek, Monika; Panakova, Lucia; Leeb, Tosso; Wiener, Dominique J; Welle, Monika M

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia X is a hair cycle arrest disorder in Pomeranians. Histologically, kenogen and telogen hair follicles predominate, whereas anagen follicles are sparse. The induction of anagen relies on the activation of hair follicle stem cells and their subsequent proliferation and differentiation. Stem cell function depends on finely tuned interactions of signaling molecules and transcription factors, which are not well defined in dogs. We performed transcriptome profiling on skin biopsies to analyze altered molecular pathways in alopecia X. Biopsies from five affected and four non-affected Pomeranians were investigated. Differential gene expression revealed a downregulation of key regulator genes of the Wnt (CTNNB1, LEF1, TCF3, WNT10B) and Shh (SHH, GLI1, SMO, PTCH2) pathways. In mice it has been shown that Wnt and Shh signaling results in stem cell activation and differentiation Thus our findings are in line with the lack of anagen hair follicles in dogs with Alopecia X. We also observed a significant downregulation of the stem cell markers SOX9, LHX2, LGR5, TCF7L1 and GLI1 whereas NFATc1, a quiescence marker, was upregulated in alopecia X. Moreover, genes coding for enzymes directly involved in the sex hormone metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, HSD17B14) were differentially regulated in alopecia X. These findings are in agreement with the so far proposed but not yet proven deregulation of the sex hormone metabolism in this disease.

  14. Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) for Treatment of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Methods and Materials Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Results Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. Conclusion LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. PMID:23970445

  15. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) for treatment of hair loss.

    PubMed

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil 5% Foam in Combination With a Botanical Hair Solution in Men With Androgenic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Keaney, Terrence C; Pham, Hanh; von Grote, Erika; Meckfessel, Matthew H

    2016-04-01

    Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in men, characterized by hair miniaturization, hairline recession, and vertex balding. It affects approximately 50% of men, negatively affecting self-esteem and sociability. Topical minoxidil formulations are approved up to a 5% concentration for men, but patient adherence to treatment is challenged by gradual results that may be perceived as a lack of initial benefit. Herbal extracts, which are also believed to promote healthier-looking hair, have a long history of use in hair care formulations. The safety and efficacy of a twice-daily regimen of 5% minoxidil foam used in combination with a novel botanical hair solution was evaluated in a 12-week, multicenter, single-arm, open label study in 56 subjects with mild to moderate AGA. Assessments included investigator ratings of improvement and subject self-ratings of satisfaction. Investigator ratings indicated significant improvement in scalp hair coverage and perception of overall treatment benefit in as early as 4 weeks (P<.001). Subject self-ratings were significant for improved hair growth and hair appearance in as few as 4 weeks (P<.05). The regimen was well tolerated, and subjects indicated a high degree of satisfaction. Investigator and subject-assessed efficacy and subject satisfaction with this novel regimen provide clinicians with an effective treatment option for AGA that also provides a high level of patient satisfaction, which may help promote patient adherence to long-term treatment.

  17. Alopecia secondary to mesotherapy.

    PubMed

    Duque-Estrada, Bruna; Vincenzi, Colombina; Misciali, Cosimo; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-10-01

    Mesotherapy has recently become an advertised method for the treatment of different types of alopecia despite the lack of any data regarding its efficacy and possible side effects. The substances injected into the scalp include "cocktails" of natural plant extracts, homoeopathic agents, vitamins, vasodilators, and drugs that may stimulate hair growth, such as finasteride and minoxidil. We report two cases of patchy alopecia that developed after mesotherapy for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. In the first patient, alopecia developed after injections of the heparinoid vasodilator mesoglycan; the 3-month follow-up examination revealed a small residual area of cicatricial alopecia. The second patient developed reversible alopecia after multiple scalp injections of homeopathic agents. These cases underline the possible risks of mesotherapy as a therapeutic technique for hair loss.

  18. Adenosine increases anagen hair growth and thick hairs in Japanese women with female pattern hair loss: a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oura, Hajimu; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Tajima, Masahiro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Nakaya, Yutaka; Arase, Seiji; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2008-12-01

    Adenosine upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-7 in cultured dermal papilla cells. It has been shown that, in Japanese men, adenosine improves androgenetic alopecia due to the thickening of thin hair due to hair follicle miniaturization. To investigate the efficacy and safety of adenosine treatment to improve hair loss in women, 30 Japanese women with female pattern hair loss were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Volunteers used either 0.75% adenosine lotion or a placebo lotion topically twice daily for 12 months. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists and by investigators and in phototrichograms. As a result, adenosine was significantly superior to the placebo according to assessments by dermatologists and investigators and by self-assessments. Adenosine significantly increased the anagen hair growth rate and the thick hair rate. No side-effects were encountered during the trial. Adenosine improved hair loss in Japanese women by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts. Adenosine is useful for treating female pattern hair loss in women as well as androgenetic alopecia in men.

  19. Phototherapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Oliverio

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is a useful therapeutic method for various skin diseases due to its modulatory effect on the cutaneous immune system. Alopecia areata is a dermatosis characterized by partial or complete hair loss. Collapse of the immune privilege of the hair follicle, which induces noncicatricial alopecia, is an important factor in its etiology. Several forms of phototherapy are used in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sterol intermediates of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibit hair growth and trigger an innate immune response in cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Sreejith P; Ganguly, Taneeta; Consolo, Mary; Price, Vera; Mirmirani, Paradi; Honda, Kord; Karnik, Pratima

    2012-01-01

    Primary cicatricial alopecia (PCA) is a group of inflammatory hair disorders that cause scarring and permanent hair loss. Previous studies have implicated PPARγ, a transcription factor that integrates lipogenic and inflammatory signals, in the pathogenesis of PCA. However, it is unknown what triggers the inflammatory response in these disorders, whether the inflammation is a primary or secondary event in disease pathogenesis, and whether the inflammatory reaction reflects an autoimmune process. In this paper, we show that the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is impaired in the skin and hair follicles of PCA patients. Treatment of hair follicle cells with BM15766, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, or 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), a sterol precursor, stimulates the expression of pro-inflammatory chemokine genes. Painting of mouse skin with 7-DHC or BM15766 inhibits hair growth, causes follicular plugging and induces the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the interfollicular dermis. Our results demonstrate that cholesterologenic changes within hair follicle cells trigger an innate immune response that is associated with the induction of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interferon (IFN) gene expression, and the recruitment of macrophages that surround the hair follicles and initiate their destruction. These findings reveal a previously unsuspected role for cholesterol precursors in PCA pathogenesis and identify a novel link between sterols and inflammation that may prove transformative in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  1. Reported Experiences of Persons with Alopecia Areata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N = 62) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…

  2. Reported Experiences of Persons with Alopecia Areata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Nigel; McHale, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Alopecia is a chronic disease of hair loss. The study focuses on psychological issues relating to the experience of alopecia. Previous research has considered psychological problems as secondary to the medical disorder. The first part consisted of spontaneous written accounts (N=162) of the experience of alopecia. The second part was an…

  3. Hair regrowth in alopecia areata patients following Stem Cell Educator therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjia; Yan, Baoyong; Wang, Hepeng; Li, Heng; Li, Quanhai; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Ye; Li, Wenxia; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Shanfeng; Shen, Jie; Li, Yunxiang; Guindi, Edward; Zhao, Yong

    2015-04-20

    Alopecia areata (AA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases and targets the hair follicles, with high impact on the quality of life and self-esteem of patients due to hair loss. Clinical management and outcomes are challenged by current limited immunosuppressive and immunomodulating regimens. We have developed a Stem Cell Educator therapy in which a patient's blood is circulated through a closed-loop system that separates mononuclear cells from the whole blood, allows the cells to briefly interact with adherent human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SC), and returns the "educated" autologous cells to the patient's circulation. In an open-label, phase 1/phase 2 study, patients (N = 9) with severe AA received one treatment with the Stem Cell Educator therapy. The median age was 20 years (median alopecic duration, 5 years). Clinical data demonstrated that patients with severe AA achieved improved hair regrowth and quality of life after receiving Stem Cell Educator therapy. Flow cytometry revealed the up-regulation of Th2 cytokines and restoration of balancing Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine production in the peripheral blood of AA subjects. Immunohistochemistry indicated the formation of a "ring of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)" around the hair follicles, leading to the restoration of immune privilege of hair follicles and the protection of newly generated hair follicles against autoimmune destruction. Mechanistic studies revealed that co-culture with CB-SC may up-regulate the expression of coinhibitory molecules B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1) on CD8β(+)NKG2D(+) effector T cells and suppress their proliferation via herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) ligands and programmed death-1 ligand (PD-L1) on CB-SCs. Current clinical data demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the Stem Cell Educator therapy for the treatment of AA. This innovative approach produced lasting improvement in hair regrowth in

  4. Topical Treatment of Hair Loss with Formononetin by Modulating Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Kyuseok; Yang, Woong Mo

    2016-01-01

    Formononetin is one of the main components of red clover plants and its role on hair regrowth against hair loss has not been established yet. In the present study, we assessed the potential effects of formononetin on alopecia, along with impaired hair cycles by induction of apoptosis-regression.Depilated C57BL/6 mice were used for monitoring the hair cycles. Formononetin (1 and 100 µM) was topically treated to the dorsal skin for 14 days. Topical formononetin treatment induced miniaturized hair follicles to recover to normal sizes. Tapering hair shaft began to grow newly, emerging from the hair follicles by formononetin. In addition, formononetin inhibited the activation of caspase-8 and decreased the procaspase-9 expression. As a result of formononetin treatment, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was up-regulated, whereas pro-apoptotic Bax and p53 were down-regulated, resulting in a decrease of caspase-3 activation. Formononetin showed the obvious inhibition of apoptosis under terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining thereafter.Taken together, our findings demonstrate that formononetin exerted the hair regrowth effect on hair loss, in which the underlying mechanisms were associated with Fas/Fas L-induced caspase activation, thus inhibiting apoptosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. An Overview of Alopecias

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ji; Garza, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Hair loss is a topic of enormous public interest and understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of various alopecias will likely make a large impact on patients’ lives. The investigation of alopecias also provides important insight in the basic sciences; for instance, the abundance of stem cell populations and regenerative cycles that characterize a hair follicle render it an excellent model for the study of stem cell biology. This review seeks to provide a concise summary of the major alopecias with regard to presentation and management, and correlate these to recent advances in relevant research on pathogenesis. PMID:24591533

  6. Finasteride treatment of patterned hair loss in normoandrogenic postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2004-01-01

    Finasteride, an inhibitor of type 2 5alpha-reductase, inhibits conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, resulting in a decrease in serum and scalp dihydrotestosterone levels believed to be pathogenic in androgenetic alopecia. Oral finasteride has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hair loss in men, while its efficacy in women has remained controversial. 5 postmenopausal women without clinical or laboratory signs of hyperandrogenism were given 2.5 or 5 mg/day oral finasteride for the treatment of pattern hair loss. Efficacy was evaluated by patient and investigator assessments, and review of photographs taken at baseline and at months 6, 12 and 18 by an expert panel. Finasteride treatment improved scalp hair by all evaluation techniques. The patients' self-assessment demonstrated that finasteride treatment decreased hair loss, increased hair growth and improved appearance of hair. These improvements were confirmed by investigator assessment and assessments of photographs. No adverse effects were noted. Oral finasteride in a dosage of 2.5 mg/day or more may be effective for the treatment of pattern hair loss in postmenopausal women in the absence of clinical or laboratory signs of hyperandrogenism.

  7. Er:YAG laser-assisted hair transplantation in cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Podda, M; Spieth, K; Kaufmann, R

    2000-11-01

    Autologous hair transplantation and its combination with flap or reduction procedures is a common surgical approach to cover defects in cicatricial alopecias. Due to the poor recipient conditions present in scar tissue, it is crucial to minimize the trauma exerted on implantation holes in order to achieve good transplantation results. We sought to evaluate the "cold"-ablative properties of the Er:YAG laser for the generation of recipient holes in cicatricial alopecia. Patients with cicatricial alopecia of diverse etiology were treated with Er:YAG laser-assisted hair transplantation. Mini- or micrografts were inserted into recipient holes ablated with a pulse energy of 900-1200 mJ and a spot size of 1.0-1.6 mm. A fluence of 80-120 J/cm2 and 8-12 pulses gave an almost ideal combination of minimal thermal damage and tissue ablation down to the subcutis. With an apparent mini- and micrograft survival of 95% we achieved good cosmetic results after two to five transplant sessions in all patients. The Er:YAG laser is a novel effective tool to ablate recipient holes for autologous hair transplantation in cicatricial alopecia.

  8. Non-scarring patchy alopecia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus differs from that of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Ye, Y; Zhao, Y; Gong, Y; Zhang, X; Caulloo, S; Zhang, B; Cai, Z; Yang, J; McElwee, K J; Zhang, X

    2013-12-01

    Non-scaring patchy alopecia associated with systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is sometimes mis-diagnosed as alopecia areata (AA). Our aim was to differentiate non-scarring patchy SLE alopecia features from patchy AA. Clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological data from 21 SLE patients with patchy alopecia were compared with data from 21 patients with patchy AA. Incomplete alopecia was common in SLE alopecia patches, while AA patches exhibited complete alopecia. Exclamation-mark hairs, black dots, broken hair and yellow dots were common to AA, while hair shaft thinning and hypopigmentation, angiotelectasis, peripilar sign, perifollicular red dots, white dots and honeycomb pigment patterns were more common in SLE. Interfollicular polymorphous vessels were the most common angiotelectasis presentation in the SLE alopecia patches, but interfollicular arborizing vessels were significantly more common in non-hair-loss-affected SLE regions and in AA hair-loss regions. During follow-up, increased vellus hair was the earliest feature that emerged after treatment both in SLE and AA, while the earliest feature that disappeared was hair shaft hypopigmentation in SLE and broken hair in AA. After treatment, no SLE patients had relapse of alopecia, while 41.7% of AA patients did. Distinct clinical, dermatoscopic and histopathological features were found in SLE-associated alopecia regions, which were different from those of AA. Serological autoantibody tests are of value to confirm the differential diagnosis. Local angiotelectasis and vasculitis close to hair follicles may be involved in the pathogenesis of alopecia in SLE.

  9. Cyclic Alopecia and Abnormal Epidermal Cornification in Zdhhc13-Deficient Mice Reveal the Importance of Palmitoylation in Hair and Skin Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shen, Li-Fen; Haddad, Amir N S; Song, I-Wen; Chen, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yen, Jeffrey J Y; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2015-11-01

    Many biochemical pathways involved in hair and skin development have not been investigated. Here, we reported on the lesions and investigated the mechanism underlying hair and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice with a deficiency in DHHC13, a palmitoyl-acyl transferase encoded by Zdhhc13. Homozygous affected mice showed ragged and dilapidated cuticle of the hair shaft (CUH, a hair anchoring structure), poor hair anchoring ability, and premature hair loss at early telogen phase of the hair cycle, resulting in cyclic alopecia. Furthermore, the homozygous affected mice exhibited hyperproliferation of the epidermis, disturbed cornification, fragile cornified envelope (CE, a skin barrier structure), and impaired skin barrier function. Biochemical investigations revealed that cornifelin, which contains five palmitoylation sites at cysteine residues (C58, C59, C60, C95, and C101), was a specific substrate of DHHC13 and that it was absent in the CUH and CE structures of the affected mice. Furthermore, cornifelin levels were markedly reduced when two palmitoylated cysteines were replaced with serine (C95S and C101S). Taken together, our results suggest that DHHC13 is important for hair anchoring and skin barrier function and that cornifelin deficiency contributes to cyclic alopecia and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice.

  10. Hair mass index obtained by cross-section trichometry: an objective and clinically useful parameter to quantify hair in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Vleut, Rowena E; van Poppel, Joyce E A M; Dercksen, Marcus W; Peerbooms, Mijke; Houterman, Saskia; Breed, Wim P M

    2013-07-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy of scalp cooling for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA), it is essential to precisely quantify the amount of hair mass that is present. We wanted to determine if the hair mass index (HMI), obtained by cross-section trichometry (CST), was a suitable parameter for hair mass measurement, and whether or not marking the measurement site on the scalp was necessary. Ten patients receiving chemotherapy were sequentially measured using CST during their treatment. At the same time, they were asked to report severity of hair loss via three subjective parameters: World Health Organization (WHO) grade, visual analog scale (VAS) score, and patients' need to wear wig or head cover. To investigate the need of marking of the measurement area, differences in HMI between a random 2 × 2-cm site (HMI-C) and four surrounding areas (HMI-S4) on the scalp of eight volunteers and eight chemotherapy patients were calculated and compared. Using CTS, hair loss due to CIA was quite measurable and ranged from 13 to 82 %. Reported VAS scores and WHO grades showed an increase in patients in time; 50 % of patients reported the need to wear a wig or head cover. The difference between HMI-S4 and the HMI-C values in all subjects of the marking group was homogeneously distributed between -11 and +10 and was not statistically different between the volunteer and the patient groups (p = 0.465). CST for HMI measurement is a useful mechanical modality for assessing hair loss in CIA patients. It is quantitatively more precise than existing non-mechanical measuring methods. It is recommended when detection of minor changes in hair quantity is required. Marking a fixed sampling area to ensure return to the exact same site is only required when a minor change in pre- and posttreatment HMI values is anticipated and the mid-line locating device is not/cannot be used.

  11. Further Clinical Evidence for the Effect of IGF-1 on Hair Growth and Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2018-04-01

    Observations on the Laron syndrome originally offered the opportunity to explore the effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) deficiency on human hair growth and differentiation. According to its expression in the dermal hair papilla, IGF-1 is likely involved in reciprocal signaling. It has been shown to affect follicular proliferation, tissue remodeling, and the hair growth cycle, as well as follicular differentiation, identifying IGF-1 signaling as an important mitogenic and morphogenetic regulator in hair follicle biology. Of all the cytokines or growth factors that have been postulated to play a role in hair follicles, ultimately IGF-1 is known to be regulated by androgens. Accordingly, dermal papillary cells from balding scalp follicles were found to secrete significantly less IGF-1 than their counterparts from nonbalding scalp follicles. Herein, hypotrichosis in primary growth hormone deficiency, and a lack of response of female and male androgenetic-type alopecia to treatment with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride in patients who had undergone surgical resection of the pituitary gland, provide further evidence for an effect of IGF-1 on hair growth and alopecia.

  12. Platelet rich plasma for the management of hair loss: Better alone or in combination?

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pino, Ander; Jaén, Pedro; Navarro, Mª Rogelia

    2018-06-14

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autologous protein-based treatments have recently emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for hair loss-related disorders including androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. The safety and efficacy of repeated intradermal injections of PRP has proved to promote hair growth in a number of randomized clinical trials. Biologically active proteins and cytokines released upon platelet activation have shown to induce folliculogenesis and activate the anagen growing phase of dormant bulbs. Interestingly, further studies have revealed that combining PRP with other hair loss-related products may enhance the final performance of the treatment. These synergistic approaches include Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs such as finasteride or minoxidil, bioactive macromolecules and cell-based therapies. Here, recent research involving alone or combined therapy with platelet-rich plasma for the management of hair loss-related disorders are outlined and future prospects are discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-Lun E; Leung, Alexander K C

    2011-05-01

    Alopecia aerata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that presents as well defined patches of nonscarring hair loss with no overt epidermal changes. The life-time risk of AA in the general population is approximately 1.7%. As many as 60% of patients with AA have disease onset before 20 years of age. AA most commonly manifests as sudden loss of hair in well demarcated, localized area in the scalp. The hair loss is usually limited to a single patch. The lesion is usually round or oval. "Exclamation point hairs" are frequently seen at the periphery of the lesion. Because of the high rate of spontaneous recovery especially in those with small areas of hair loss or with a recent onset, not all patients require pharmacological treatment. A "watch-and-wait" approach is often recommended. Psychological support may be offered if necessary. For patients who actively desire treatment, topical corticosteroids and/or minoxidil are the treatment of choice. Interleukin (IL)-31 antibodies and 308-nm Excimer laser as novel treatment modalities appear promising in the armamentarium against this distressing disease. The review also outlined recent patents on the treatment of alopecia.

  14. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study to assess the efficacy of a 24-week topical treatment by latanoprost 0.1% on hair growth and pigmentation in healthy volunteers with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Lönnfors, Sanna; Hillmann, Kathrin; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2012-05-01

    Latanoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used to treat glaucoma. It can cause adverse effects, such as iridial and periocular hyperpigmentation, and eyelash changes including pigmentation and increased thickness, length, and number. Latanoprost has been used to treat eyelash alopecia, but knowledge on its effects on human scalp hair growth is not available. The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy of latanoprost on hair growth and pigmentation. The secondary objectives were to assess the effect on scalp pigmentation; investigate the treatment duration needed to affect hair growth, hair pigmentation, and scalp pigmentation; and assess safety of latanoprost. Sixteen men with mild androgenetic alopecia (Hamilton II-III) were included. Latanoprost 0.1% and placebo were applied daily for 24 weeks on two minizones on the scalp. Measurements on hair growth, density, diameter, pigmentation, and anagen/telogen ratio were performed throughout the study. At 24 weeks, an increased hair density on the latanoprost-treated site was observed compared with baseline (n = 16, P < .001) and placebo-treated site (P = .0004). Only young men with mild androgenetic alopecia were included. The results may not be applicable to other patient groups. Choice of investigational site may have affected the results. Latanoprost significantly increased hair density (terminal and vellus hairs) at 24 weeks compared with baseline and the placebo-treated area. Latanoprost could be useful in stimulating hair follicle activity and treating hair loss. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Can stress cause hair loss? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Yes, stress and hair loss ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/expert-answers/stress-and-hair-loss/faq-20057820 . ...

  16. Trichostasis spinulosa of the scalp mimicking Alopecia Areata black dots*

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Flavianne Sobral Cardoso; Donati, Aline; Soares, Isabella Ibrahim Doche; Valente, Neusa Sakai; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common autoimmune disorder that leads to nonscarring hair loss. Black dots, also called comedo-like cadaver hairs, can be found in almost 50% of alopecia areata patients and indicate disease activity. Trichostasis spinulosa is a follicular disorder resulting from the retention of numerous hairs surrounded by a keratinous sheath in dilated follicles. Trichostasis spinulosa is a relatively common but underdiagnosed disorder of hair follicles. Here, we describe a man with alopecia areata of the eyebrows, androgenetic alopecia and trichostasis spinulosa at the vertex and show how dermoscopy can be useful in distinguishing black dots from Trichostasis spinulosa lesions. PMID:25054768

  17. Alopecia areata incognita in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ong, S; Rodriguez-Garcia, C; Grabczynska, S; Carton, J; Osborn, M; Walters, J; Kubba, F; Stefanato, C M

    2017-08-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is an acquired inflammatory polyposis syndrome in which alopecia, onychomadesis and hyperpigmentation occur concurrently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The pathophysiology of alopecia in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome has not been definitively elucidated. We present evidence for alopecia areata incognita as a possible mechanism of hair loss. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Fractional photothermolysis laser treatment of male pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Serk; Lee, Hye In; Lee, Jin Woong; Lim, Yun Young; Lee, Seung Jae; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Won Serk

    2011-01-01

    Various trials have been conducted on the management of male pattern hair loss (MPHL). A variety of laser and light sources have been used for the treatment of MPHL. To understand the effects of a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser on the hair cycle in an alopecia mouse model and to study the clinical effects of the same laser used as treatment for MPHL. Irradiation was applied to the shaved skin of C3H/HeN mice using various energy and density settings and varied irradiation intervals. In a clinical pilot study involving human subjects, 20 participants were treated over five sessions at 2-week intervals. A fractional photothermolysis laser was used at the energy of 5 mJ and a total density of 300 spots/cm(2). In the animal study, the hair stimulation effects were dependent upon the energy level, density, and irradiation interval. The anagen conversion of hair and the increase in Wnt 5a, β-catenin signals were observed. In the human pilot study, incremental improvements in hair density and growth rate were observed. This pilot study showed that a 1,550-nm fractional erbium-glass laser might induce hair growth, but more intensive studies are required to clarify the clinical applications of this treatment. © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  19. Enhancing hair growth in male androgenetic alopecia by a combination of fractional CO2 laser therapy and hair growth factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Zhuo, Fenglin; Li, Linfeng

    2017-11-01

    Laser therapy and growth factors have been used as alternative treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of hair growth factors alone or combined with ablative carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) fractional laser therapy in MAA. Twenty-eight men were enrolled in this randomized half-split study based on a left-head to right-head pattern. Fractional CO 2 laser treatment was unilaterally performed; hair growth factors were bilaterally applied. Six sessions with 2-week intervals were performed. Global photographs and dermoscopy assessments were performed at the baseline and 4 months after first treatment. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in hair-follicle phase and hair-shaft diameter. Twenty-seven participants completed the 4-month treatment schedule. One patient was lost. Mean hair density increased from 114 ± 27 to 143 ± 25/cm 2 (P < 0.001) in the combined group and from 113 ± 24 to 134 ± 19/cm 2 in the growth factor group (P < 0.001). The mean change from baseline between two groups was also compared (P = 0.003). Global photographs showed improvement in 93% (25/27) patients in the combined group and 67% (18/27) patients in the growth factor group. Under scanning electron microscopy, hair follicles appeared to transition from telogen to anagen, and hair-shaft diameter increased in five randomly selected patients. Ablative fractional CO 2 laser combined with hair growth factors may serve as an alternative treatment for MAA in individuals unwilling/unable to undergo medical or surgical treatment.

  20. Improvement of androgenetic alopecia with topical Sophora flavescens Aiton extract, and identification of the two active compounds in the extract that stimulate proliferation of human hair keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Ishino, A; Arai, T; Hamada, C; Nakazawa, Y; Iwabuchi, T; Tajima, M

    2016-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a hair loss disorder that commonly affects middle-aged men. To date, the properties of a number of natural or synthetic substances have been investigated for their ability to improve the condition. To evaluate the hair growth-promoting activities of an extract from the root of Sophora flavescens Aiton. We used a human hair keratinocyte proliferation assay and ex vivo organ cultures of human hair follicle to examine the potential of the extract to stimulate hair growth via anagen elongation. We isolated the compounds promoting the growth of epithelial cells, and determined their chemical structures. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical study for S. flavescens extract was carried out for 6 months with patients with AGA. The extract stimulated the proliferation of hair keratinocytes at a concentration of 0.1 ng/mL, while 100 ng/mL of the extract had a marked effect on hair shaft elongation in an organ culture of human hair follicle. Cell proliferation assay-directed fractionation led to the identification of two pterocarpan derivatives, L-maackiain and medicarpin, as active compounds that promote the proliferation of human hair keratinocytes. Studies in human subjects showed that improvement in the inspected alopecia scores in the lotion plus extract group were significant over a period of 6 months (P < 0.01). S. flavescens root extract is effective for the treatment of AGA. The isolated two pterocarpans might have important role in this effect. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Interventions for female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Schoones, Jan

    2016-05-26

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL), or androgenic alopecia, is the most common type of hair loss affecting women. It is characterised by progressive shortening of the duration of the growth phase of the hair with successive hair cycles, and progressive follicular miniaturisation with conversion of terminal to vellus hair follicles (terminal hairs are thicker and longer, while vellus hairs are soft, fine, and short). The frontal hair line may or may not be preserved. Hair loss can have a serious psychological impact on women. To determine the efficacy and safety of the available options for the treatment of female pattern hair loss in women. We updated our searches of the following databases to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1872), AMED (from 1985), LILACS (from 1982), PubMed (from 1947), and Web of Science (from 1945). We also searched five trial registries and checked the reference lists of included and excluded studies. We included randomised controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of interventions for FPHL in women. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality, extracted data and carried out analyses. We included 47 trials, with 5290 participants, of which 25 trials were new to this update. Only five trials were at 'low risk of bias', 26 were at 'unclear risk', and 16 were at 'high risk of bias'.The included trials evaluated a wide range of interventions, and 17 studies evaluated minoxidil. Pooled data from six studies indicated that a greater proportion of participants (157/593) treated with minoxidil (2% and one study with 1%) reported a moderate to marked increase in their hair regrowth when compared with placebo (77/555) (risk ratio (RR) = 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51 to 2.47; moderate quality evidence). These results were confirmed by the investigator-rated assessments in seven studies with 1181

  2. Hair loss and regeneration performed on animal models

    PubMed Central

    ORASAN, MEDA SANDRA; ROMAN, IULIA IOANA; CONEAC, ANDREI; MURESAN, ADRIANA; ORASAN, REMUS IOAN

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of reversal hair loss remains a challenging subject. As Minoxidil 2% or 5% and Finasteride are so far the only FDA approved topical treatments for inducing hair regrowth, research is necessary in order to improve therapeutical approach in alopecia. In vitro studies have focused on cultures of a cell type - dermal papilla or organ culture of isolated cell follicles. In vivo research on this topic was performed on mice, rats, hamsters, rabbits, sheep and monkeys, taking into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of each animal model and the depilation options. Further studies are required not only to compare the efficiency of different therapies but more importantly to establish their long term safety. PMID:27547051

  3. Female androgenetic alopecia: a review.

    PubMed

    Spindler, J R; Data, J L

    1992-04-01

    This review of androgenetic alopecia (AA) in women provides a summary of hair physiology and biochemistry, a general discussion of AA, and a brief description of other types of hair loss in women. AA associated with signs of virilization is distinguished from AA alone.

  4. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). The change in vellus hair proportion (<40 μm) was significantly lower in the adenosine group than that in the placebo group (P = 0.0154). The change in hair density compared with baseline of the adenosine group was also significantly higher compared with that of the placebo group (P = 0.0470). No adverse effects due to treatment were noted during this study by dermatological evaluation. Adenosine is effective in increasing the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Topical calcitriol enhances normal hair regrowth but does not prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Schilli, M B; Handjiski, B; Menrad, A; Henz, B M; Plonka, P

    1996-10-01

    Using a murine model that mimics chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) in humans particularly well, we show here that in contrast to previously reported CIA-protective effects in neonatal rats, topical calcitriol does not prevent CIA in adolescent mice but enhances the regrowth of normally pigmented hair shafts. When, prior to injecting 1 X 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide i.p., 0.2 microg calcitriol or vehicle alone were administered topically to the back skin of C57BL/6 mice with all hair follicles in anagen, no significant macroscopic differences in the onset and severity of CIA were seen. However, hair shaft regrowth after CIA, which is often retarded and patchy, thus displaying severe and sometimes persistent pigmentation disorders, was significantly accelerated, enhanced, and qualitatively improved in test compared with control mice. Histomorphometric analysis suggests that this is related to the fact that calcitriol-pretreated follicles favor the "dystrophic catagen pathway" of response to chemical injury, ie., a follicular repair strategy allowing for the unusually fast reconstruction of a new, undamaged anagen hair bulb. Thus, it may be unrealistic to expect that topical calcitriol can prevent human CIA, but topical calcitriols may well enhance the regrowth of a normal hair coat.

  6. Low-level laser treatment accelerated hair regrowth in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA).

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Villasante, Alexandra C; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Perez, Carmen I; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2013-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy for which there is no effective interventional approach. A low-level laser (LLL) device, the HairMax LaserComb®, has been cleared by the FDA to treat androgenetic alopecia. Its effects may be extended to other settings; we have demonstrated that LaserComb treatment induced hair regrowth in a mouse model for alopecia areata. In the current study, we tested whether LLL treatment could promote hair regrowth in a rat model for CIA. Chemotherapy agents cyclophosphamide, etoposide, or a combination of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin were administered in young rats to induce alopecia, with or without LLL treatment. As expected, 7-10 days later, all the rats developed full body alopecia. However, rats receiving laser treatment regrew hair 5 days earlier than rats receiving chemotherapy alone or sham laser treatment (with the laser turned off). The accelerated hair regrowth in laser-treated rats was confirmed by histology. In addition, LLL treatment did not provide local protection to subcutaneously injected Shay chloroleukemic cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that LLL treatment significantly accelerated hair regrowth after CIA without compromising the efficacy of chemotherapy in our rat model. Our results suggest that LLL should be explored for the treatment of CIA in clinical trials because LLL devices for home use (such as the HairMax LaserComb®) provide a user-friendly and noninvasive approach that could be translated to increased patient compliance and improved efficacy.

  7. Prevalence of male and female pattern hair loss in Maryborough.

    PubMed

    Gan, Desmond C C; Sinclair, Rodney D

    2005-12-01

    Maryborough, in central Victoria has an approximate population of 8000 and census data is well matched for Australia overall. Australia has compulsory voting and registration on the electoral roll. To determine the age-related prevalence of balding among men and women in Maryborough we conducted a postal survey of 5000 men and women aged 20 or older, and 427 were invited to attend for examination. Additional data was collected on dandruff, presence of gray hair. Supplementary questionnaires were sent to 340 children aged 5-9, attending a coeducational primary school. 1456 adults (34.1%) responded to the questionnaire. 396 attended for examination. The prevalence of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) increased with advancing age. 98.6% of men had bitemporal recession and severity was significantly associated with vertex and mid-frontal hair loss (p <0.01) but not age (p = 0.06). In all, 64.4% of women had bitemporal hair loss, and similar to men there was a significant association with mid-frontal hair loss (p =0.042) but not age (p =0.467). One hundred and forty children with completed questionnaires were examined. All 72 females and 68 males were assessed as stage 1 on the mid-line part and with no bitemporal recession (frequency stage 1 = 100%, 95% CI (confidence interval) 97.4%-100%). A significant but weak positive association existed between presence of gray hair and history of dandruff (p<0.01). The prevalence of mid-frontal hair loss increases with age and affects 57% of women and 73.5% of men aged 80 and over.

  8. Androgens and alopecia.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Keith D

    2002-12-30

    Androgens have profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans. Scalp hair grows constitutively in the absence of androgens, while body hair growth is dependent on the action of androgens. Androgenetic alopecia, referred to as male pattern hair loss (MPHL) in men and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in women, is due to the progressive miniaturization of scalp hair. Observations in both eunuchs, who have low levels of testicular androgens, and males with genetic 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) deficiency, who have low levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), implicate DHT as a key androgen in the pathogenesis of MPHL in men. The development of finasteride, a type 2-selective 5alphaR inhibitor, further advanced our understanding of the role of DHT in the pathophysiology of scalp alopecia. Controlled clinical trials with finasteride demonstrated improvements in scalp hair growth in treated men associated with reductions in scalp DHT content, and a trend towards reversal of scalp hair miniaturization was evident by histopathologic evaluation of scalp biopsies. In contrast to its beneficial effects in men, finasteride did not improve hair growth in postmenopausal women with FPHL. Histopathological evaluation of scalp biopsies confirmed that finasteride treatment produced no benefit on scalp hair in these women. These findings suggest that MPHL and FPHL are distinct clinical entities, with disparate pathophysiologies. Studies that elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which androgens regulate hair growth would provide greater understanding of these differences. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  9. Nourkrin: objective and subjective effects and tolerability in persons with hair loss.

    PubMed

    Thom, E

    2006-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of Nourkrin, a new natural agent for the treatment of hair loss based on marine proteins, and minerals and vitamins. Fifty-five subjects with hair loss of different aetiologies participated in the 6-month blinded phase of the study. Objective assessments showed a significant positive effect of treatment on hair growth. Intake of the active preparation for a further 6 months in an open phase indicated a subjective further improvement in hair growth. Exposure of the patients previously treated with placebo to the active preparation for 12 months gave similar results. Tolerability was good and no side-effects were reported. Nourkrin may provide an alternative to pharmacotherapy for the treatment of hair-loss problems in individuals with androgenetic alopecia.

  10. Frontal fibrosing alopecia in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Lee, W S; Hwang, S M; Ahn, S K

    1997-12-01

    A case is presented of a 52-year-old woman in whom clinical and histopathologic findings suggested cicatricial alopecia. Our patient had an uncommon, but distinctive, clinical presentation. It was characterized by bandlike frontal hair loss. This was recently described as patterned cicatricial alopecia, presented in a recent study as postmenopausal frontal hairline recession with scarring. Our patient's case should be differentiated from recognized forms of scarring alopecia.

  11. Primary cicatricial alopecia: clinical features and management.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elizabeth K

    2007-04-01

    The primary cicatricial alopecias are an uncommon, complex group of disorders that result in permanent destruction of the hair follicle, usually involving scalp hair alone. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed to help thwart continued hair loss and the distress that often accompanies this hair loss. Nurses can facilitate the diagnostic and treatment process and, through educational and emotionally supportive measures, have a meaningful, positive impact on the patient's well being.

  12. Alopecia: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Lynne J; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia is a disorder that affects all patients, young and old. Many diagnoses, particularly the scarring alopecias, are more common in adults; however, others, such as tinea capitis, are more common in children, and some, such as alopecia areata, often affect both age groups. The approach to, and evaluation of, an alopecia patient is thus highly dependent on his or her age. In adults with diffuse, non-scarring hair loss, a part-width examination can help detect pattern hair loss, the most common cause of diffuse loss in this age group. In children this is much less likely, and a careful evaluation for tinea capitis is in order. The same holds true for patchy alopecia in children, as well as scarring alopecia-tinea needs to always be considered. In adults, patchy alopecia is often due to alopecia areata and sometimes to one of the primary scarring alopecias. A laboratory evaluation, and especially a biopsy, would be a more appropriate undertaking for an adult than a child, and an adult would be more likely to tolerate certain therapeutic regimens such as intralesional injections. In a conversational manner, the authors discuss their individual approaches to the alopecia patient, highlighting the differences in diagnosis, workup, and management that depend on whether the affected individual is an adult or a child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a Model for Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia: Profiling of Histological Changes in Human Hair Follicles after Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Seon; Choi, Mira; Shin, Chang Yup; Paik, Seung Hwan; Kim, Kyu Han; Kwon, Ohsang

    2016-03-01

    Optimized research models are required to further understand the pathogenesis and prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Our aim was to develop a mouse model for chemotherapy-induced alopecia by follicular unit transplantation of human hair follicles onto immunodeficient mice. Twenty-two weeks after transplantation, a single dose of cyclophosphamide (Cph) was administered to mice in the Cph100 (100 mg/kg) and Cph150 (150 mg/kg) groups. On day 6, hair follicles showed dystrophic changes, with swollen dermal papilla and ectopic melanin clumping in the hair bulb. In addition, upregulated expression of apoptotic regulators [P53, Fas/Fas-ligand, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL/TRAIL receptor), and Bax], increased apoptotic matrix keratinocytes, downregulated Ki67 expression, and decreased melanogenic protein in the hair bulb were noted in both groups. After 12 treatment days, hair follicles in Cph100 mice appeared to diminish dystrophic changes. In contrast, hair follicles of Cph150 mice prematurely entered a dystrophic catagen phase after 9 treatment days, and immunofluorescence staining for Ki67 and melanogenic protein expressions was barely visible. Two hair follicle damage response pathways were observed in this model, namely dystrophic anagen (Cph100) and catagen (Cph150) pathways. Our model might be useful for further understanding the impact of chemotherapy on human hair follicles. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Topical valproic acid increases the hair count in male patients with androgenetic alopecia: a randomized, comparative, clinical feasibility study using phototrichogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Park, Young Woon; Paik, Seung Hwan; Park, Won Seok; Jeong, Yeon Su; Shin, Hong Ju; Kwon, Ohsang

    2014-04-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a widely used anticonvulsant, inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is associated with hair growth cycle and anagen induction. To assess the efficacy of topical VPA for treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Male patients with moderate AGA underwent treatment with either VPA (sodium valproate, 8.3%) or placebo spray for 24 weeks. The primary end-point for efficacy was the change in hair count during treatment, which was assessed by phototrichogram analysis. Of the 40 patients enrolled in the study, 27 (n = 15, VPA group; n = 12, placebo group) completed the entire protocol with good compliance. No statistical differences in age, hair loss duration and total hair count at baseline were found between the groups. The mean change in total hair count was significantly higher in the VPA group than in the placebo group (P = 0.047). Both groups experienced mostly mild and self-limited adverse events, but their differences in prevalence rates were similar between the two groups (P = 0.72). A subject treated with topical VPA developed ventricular tachycardia, but it did not seem to be related to the VPA spray. Topical VPA increased the total hair counts of our patients; therefore, it is a potential treatment option for AGA. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Prostaglandin D2 Inhibits Hair Growth and Is Elevated in Bald Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Luis A.; Liu, Yaping; Yang, Zaixin; Alagesan, Brinda; Lawson, John A.; Norberg, Scott M.; Loy, Dorothy E.; Zhao, Tailun; Blatt, Hanz B.; Stanton, David C.; Carrasco, Lee; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet; Fischer, Susan M.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Cotsarelis, George

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment. PMID:22440736

  16. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Histologic features of alopecias-part I: nonscarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-04-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the first part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of nonscarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Can long-term alopecia occur after appropriate pulsed-dye laser therapy in hair-bearing sites? Pediatric dermatologists weigh in.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Totri, Christine R; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2015-03-01

    The risk of long-term alopecia after pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy is unknown. To identify how many practitioners treat hair-bearing sites with PDL and how commonly long-term alopecia occurs, the authors queried pediatric dermatologists about their experiences using this modality. A survey was designed to evaluate the frequency of and factors contributing to long-term alopecia after PDL treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). "Long-term" was defined as no sign of hair regrowth after several years of nontreatment. The survey was administered to attendees at the 2014 Society for Pediatric Dermatology biannual meeting. Sixty-four pediatric dermatologists completed the survey, 50 of whom had experience using PDL. Of these physicians, 86% have used PDL to treat PWS of the eyebrow and 80% have treated PWS of the scalp. Over one-quarter of respondents (25.5%) using PDL on hair-bearing areas had at least 1 of their patients develop long-term alopecia after PDL treatment. The incidence of long-term alopecia after PDL treatment in the surveyed population was 1.5% to 2.6%. The occurrence of long-term alopecia at hair-bearing sites after treatment with PDL may be greater than previously thought. Because the majority of physicians using PDL treat hair-bearing areas, prospective studies are needed to more accurately determine the risk of long-term alopecia and the factors that contribute to it.

  19. Mouse models for human hair loss disorders

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Rebecca M

    2003-01-01

    The outer surface of the hand, limb and body is covered by the epidermis, which is elaborated into a number of specialized appendages, evolved not only to protect and reinforce the skin but also for social signalling. The most prominent of these appendages is the hair follicle. Hair follicles are remarkable because of their prolific growth characteristics and their complexity of differentiation. After initial embryonic morphogenesis, the hair follicle undergoes repeated cycles of regression and regeneration throughout the lifetime of the organism. Studies of mouse mutants with hair loss phenotypes have suggested that the mechanisms controlling the hair cycle probably involve many of the major signalling molecules used elsewhere in development, although the complete pathway of hair follicle growth control is not yet understood. Mouse studies have also led to the discovery of genes underlying several human disorders. Future studies of mouse hair-loss mutants are likely to benefit the understanding of human hair loss as well as increasing our knowledge of mechanisms controlling morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:12587927

  20. Hair-Loss Preventing Effect of Grateloupia elliptica

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Han, Sang-Chul; Hong, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Kim, Bora; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Grateloupia elliptica, a seaweed native to Jeju Island, Korea, on the prevention of hair loss. When immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells were treated with extract of G. elliptica, the proliferation of dermal papilla cells significantly increased. In addition, the G. elliptica extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a main cause of androgenetic alopecia. On the other hand, the G. elliptica extract promoted PGE2 production in HaCaT cells in a dose-dependent manner. The G. elliptica extract exhibited particularly high inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-α production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The G. elliptica extract also showed inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale, a main cause of dandruff. These results suggest that G. elliptica extract has the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of dermal papilla, 5α-reductase inhibition, increase of PGE2 production, decrease of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibitory activity against Pityrosporum ovale. PMID:24116284

  1. Finasteride treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Vincenzi, Colombina; Voudouris, Stylianos; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral finasteride therapy associated with an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol in premenopausal women with female pattern hair loss. Outpatient consultation for hair disorders at the Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna. Thirty-seven women with female pattern hair loss were treated with oral finasteride, 2.5 mg/d, while taking an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. Treatment efficacy was evaluated using global photography and the hair density score from videodermoscopy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess patient evaluation of treatment effectiveness. At 12-month follow-up, 23 of the 37 patients were rated as improved using global photography (12 were slightly improved, 8 were moderately improved, and 3 were greatly improved). No improvement was recorded in 13 patients. One patient experienced worsening of the condition. There was a statistically significant (P = .002) increase in the hair density score in 12 patients. No adverse reactions to the drug were reported. Sixty-two percent of the patients demonstrated some improvement of their hair loss with the use of finasteride, 2.5 mg/d, while taking the oral contraceptive. It is unclear whether the success was due to a higher dosage of finasteride (2.5 mg instead of 1 mg) or to its association with the oral contraceptive containing drospirenone, which has an antiandrogenic effect. Further studies are necessary to understand which patterns of female pattern hair loss respond better to this treatment.

  2. HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: A randomized, double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Matt; Charles, Glenn; Heyman, Eugene; Michaels, David

    2009-01-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light for reducing pain, inflammation and oedema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissue and nerves, and preventing tissue damage has been known for almost 40 years since the invention of lasers. The HairMax LaserComb is a hand-held Class 3R lower level laser therapy device that contains a single laser module that emulates 9 beams at a wavelength of 655 nm (+/-5%). The device uses a technique of parting the user's hair by combs that are attached to the device. This improves delivery of distributed laser light to the scalp. The combs are designed so that each of the teeth on the combs aligns with a laser beam. By aligning the teeth with the laser beams, the hair can be parted and the laser energy delivered to the scalp of the user without obstruction by the individual hairs on the scalp. The primary aim of the study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of the HairMax LaserComb laser phototherapy device in the promotion of hair growth and in the cessation of hair loss in males diagnosed with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). This double-blind, sham device-controlled, multicentre, 26-week trial randomized male patients with Norwood-Hamilton classes IIa-V AGA to treatment with the HairMax LaserComb or the sham device (2 : 1). The sham device used in the study was identical to the active device except that the laser light was replaced by a non-active incandescent light source. Of the 110 patients who completed the study, subjects in the HairMax LaserComb treatment group exhibited a significantly greater increase in mean terminal hair density than subjects in the sham device group (p < 0.0001). Consistent with this evidence for primary effectiveness, significant improvements in overall hair regrowth were demonstrated in terms of patients' subjective assessment (p < 0.015) at 26 weeks over baseline. The HairMax LaserComb was well tolerated with no serious adverse events reported and no statistical difference in

  3. Hair growth promoting effect of white wax and policosanol from white wax on the mouse model of testosterone-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-di; Feng, Ying; Ma, Li-Yi; Li, Xian; Ding, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-05-01

    White wax (WW) has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China. However there has been no reporter WW and its extract responsible for hair growth-promoting effect on androgenetic alopecia. In this paper, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of WW and policosanol of white wax (WWP) on model animal of androgenetic alopecia and the potential target cell of WW and WWP. WW (1, 10 and 20%) and WWP (0.5, 1 and 2%) were applied topically to the backs of mice. Finasteride (2%) was applied topically as a positive control. MTS assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation in culture human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). The inhibition of WW and WWP for 5α- reductase were tested in Vitro. Results showed more lost hairs were clearly seen in mice treated with TP only and TP plus vehicle. Mice which received TP plus WW and WWP showed less hair loss. WW and WWP showed an outstanding hair growth-promoting activity as reflected by the follicular length, follicular density, A/T ratio, and hair bulb diameter. The optimal treatment effect was observed at 10% WW and 1% WWP, which were better than 2% finasteride treatment. MTS assay results suggested that WW and WWP remarkably increased the proliferation of HFDPCs. Inhibitor assay of 5α- reductase showed that WW and WWP inhibited significantly the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotesterone, and the IC 50 values of WW and WWP were higher than that of finasteride. In Conclusion, WW and WWP could act against testosterone-induced alopecia in mice, and they promoted hair growth by inhibiting 5α-reductase activity and HFDPCs proliferation. DPCs is the target cell of WW and WWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Color-dilution alopecia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Kang, Kyung Il; Sohn, Hyun Joo; Woo, Gye Hyeong; Jean, Young Hwa; Hwang, Eui Kyung

    2005-09-01

    Color-dilution alopecia is a relatively uncommon hereditary skin disease seen in "Blue" and other color-diluted dogs. This syndrome is associated with a color-dilution gene. The initial clinical signs are the gradual onset of a dry, dull and poor hair coat quality. Hair shafts and hair regrowth are poor, and follicular papules may develop and progress to frank comedones. Hair loss and comedo formation are usually most severe on the trunk, especially color-diluted area on the skin. Six cases of color-dilution alopecia are reported in 3 months to 10 years old dogs. The breeds of dogs are blue Doberman Pinscher, Miniature Pinscher, Dachshund, and Schnauzer. Grossly, extensive partial hair loss was seen on the skin. Histopathologically, the epidermis is relatively normal but may be hyperplastic. Hair follicles are characterized by atrophy and distortion. Heavily clumped melanin is present in the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles.

  5. Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia.

    PubMed

    Naz, E; Vidaurrázaga, C; Hernández-Cano, N; Herranz, P; Mayor, M; Hervella, M; Casado, M

    2003-01-01

    Recently a new entity, postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia, was added to the established subtypes of scarring alopecias affecting postmenopausal women. This condition is characterized by a progressive frontal hairline recession associated with scarring. We studied the clinical and histopathologic features in four women with this disorder. Of note, a history of bilateral oophorectomy in two of them appears to be a new association. All four cases had frontoparietal recession of the hairline and two of them also had loss of their eyebrows. None of our four patients had any mucous membrane or other skin lesions. Histological examination showed perifollicular fibrosis and lymphocytic inflammation around the isthmus and infundibular areas of the follicles. No effective treatments have emerged for this type of postmenopausal alopecia, but progression of the hair loss and scarring appears to be self-limiting. We believe that this condition is a distinct clinicopathological variant of lichen planopilaris.

  6. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses.

  7. Alopecia areata universalis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ginel, Pedro J; Blanco, Beatriz; Pérez-Aranda, María; Zafra, Rafael; Mozos, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Alopecia areata is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that occurs in humans and various other mammalian species. When the disease progresses to total alopecia it is defined as alopecia areata universalis (AAU), although this outcome has only been described in humans. To describe a case of canine alopecia areata universalis and its clinical outcome after 22 months of follow-up. A 9-year-old intact male cross-breed hunting dog was presented with generalized and complete noninflammatory alopecia of 12-14 months duration. Clinical examination; histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies. There was loss of all body hair including eyelashes and vibrissae. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings supported a diagnosis of long-standing alopecia areata. Treatment with oral ciclosporin was associated with hair regrowth but muzzle hair, most eyelashes and whiskers were still lacking after 17 months of therapy. To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first documented case of canine AAU. The clinical and histopathological features were consistent with a diagnosis of AAU as defined in humans. Treatment with oral ciclosporin resulted in near complete resolution of the alopecia, but after 5 months without treatment the alopecia did not relapse and spontaneous resolution cannot be ruled out. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    PubMed

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss. © 2011 DERMAPRO Co Ltd. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on hair regrowth in dogs with noninflammatory alopecia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Lara; Cavina, Damiano; Radicchi, Giada; Miragliotta, Vincenzo; Abramo, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    Canine noninflammatory alopecia (CNA) is a heterogeneous group of skin diseases with different underlying pathogenesis. The therapeutic approach is challenging, and new options for treatment are desirable. To test the clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on hair regrowth in CNA. Seven dogs of different ages, breeds and genders with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of noninflammatory alopecia. Each dog was treated twice weekly for a maximum of 2 months with a therapeutic laser producing the following three different wavelengths emerging simultaneously from 21 foci: 13 × 16 mW, 470 nm; 4 × 50 mW, 685 nm; and 4 × 200 mW, 830 nm. The fluence given was 3 J/cm(2) , frequency 5 Hz, amplitude of the irradiated area was 25 cm(2) and application time was 1.34 min. A predetermined alopecic area was left untreated and served as a control area. From one dog, post-treatment biopsies of treated and untreated sites were obtained for histological evaluation of hair density and the percentage of haired and nonhaired follicles. At the end of the study, coat regrowth was greatly improved in six of seven animals and improved in one of seven. By morphometry, the area occupied by hair follicles was 18% in the treated sample and 11% in the untreated one (11%); haired follicles were (per area) 93% in the treated sample and only 9% in the control sample. Our clinical and histological data document promising effects of LLLT on hair regrowth in CNA. Further studies investigating the biological mechanism underlying the effect of LLLT on hair follicle cycling are warranted. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Preventing chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Smith, F P; McCabe, M S

    1983-07-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is now potentially preventable. Although scalp tourniquets and hypothermia are neither universally applicable nor always successful, they represent simple and relatively inexpensive methods for reducing hair loss. When successful, these techniques help maintain the patient's self-image and thereby diminish the devastating psychologic effects that accompany a diagnosis of cancer.

  11. [The treatment of cicatricial alopecia after burn with the technique of synchronously perforating and transplanting hair follicular-units].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-ping; Fan, Jin-cai; Chai, Jia-ke

    2009-12-01

    To study the effect of the technique of synchronously perforating and transplanting hair follicular-units in the treatment of cicatricial alopecia after burn. One hundred and sixty-six patients with 217 bald scar areas after burn were treated with above-mentioned technique from January 2002 to April 2008. Scalp strips, with conforming the necessity for grafting, were harvested from the occipital or temporal region. A series of follicular-units, each composing 1 - 3 hairs, were dissected from the strips under microscope or magnifying glass. Size-matching micro-slots were made in the scarred recipient area with 16 - 20 G needles to accept the grafts. The prepared follicular-unit was synchronously implanted into the bottom of the micro-slot as the needle being withdrawn. Patients who were not satisfactory with the density of hairs after I stage surgery underwent II stage surgery a half year later. Ten recipient areas with clear boundary in 10 patients were optionally chosen to observe the density of follicular-units and hair amount with naked eyes after I stage surgery. Survived transplanted hairs in above-mentioned 10 areas were counted to calculate hair survival rate at follow-up. Patients' postoperative satisfaction ratings were surveyed with questionnaire. In one half of the patients, treatment was finished after I stage surgery, the other one half received 2 stages of surgery. The follicular-unit density reached 15 - 25 grafts/cm(2) with 40 - 70 hairs/cm(2) after I stage surgery. All patients were followed up for over 8 months. Grafted hairs grew well in a natural way. 96.5% mean hair survival rate was observed in the 10 recipient areas. From patients who received only I stage surgery, 61 patients (73.5%) were very satisfactory and 22 patients (26.5%) satisfactory with the results. From the other half of patients, 76 patients (91.6%) were very satisfactory and 7 patients (8.4%) satisfactory with the results. The technique of perforating and transplanting

  12. Frontal fibrosing alopecia.

    PubMed

    Clark-Loeser, Lesley; Latkowski, Jo-Ann

    2005-12-30

    A 75-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of progressive loss of her eyebrow hair and with frontal-parietal hairline recession. Multiple biopsy specimens supported a histopathologic diagnosis of lichen planopilaris. With these histolopathologic findings, and the patient's clinical presentation, a diagnosis of frontal fibrosing alopecia was made. Treatment to date with topical glucocorticoid preparations, intralesional triamcinolone injections, and tacrolimus ointment have been unsuccessful.

  13. Traction alopecia: the root of the problem

    PubMed Central

    Billero, Victoria; Miteva, Mariya

    2018-01-01

    Traction alopecia (TA) affects one-third of women of African descent who wear various forms of traumatic hairstyling for a prolonged period of time. The risk of TA is increased by the extent of pulling and duration of traction, as well as the use of chemical relaxation. The frequent use of tight buns or ponytails, the attachment of weaves or hair extensions, and tight braids (such as cornrows and dreadlocks) are believed to be the highest risk hairstyles. TA can also occur in the setting of religious and occupational traumatic hairstyling. In its later stages, the disease may progress into an irreversible scarring alopecia if traumatic hairstyling continues without appropriate intervention. The most common clinical presentation includes marginal alopecia and non-marginal patchy alopecia. A clue to the clinical diagnosis is the preservation of the fringe sign as opposed to its loss in frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA). Dermoscopy can be helpful in the diagnosis and can detect the ongoing traction by the presence of hair casts. Histopathology can distinguish TA from alopecia areata, FFA, and patchy central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Currently, there is no cure. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians educate high-risk populations about TA and those practices that may convey the risk of hair loss. PMID:29670386

  14. Traction alopecia: the root of the problem.

    PubMed

    Billero, Victoria; Miteva, Mariya

    2018-01-01

    Traction alopecia (TA) affects one-third of women of African descent who wear various forms of traumatic hairstyling for a prolonged period of time. The risk of TA is increased by the extent of pulling and duration of traction, as well as the use of chemical relaxation. The frequent use of tight buns or ponytails, the attachment of weaves or hair extensions, and tight braids (such as cornrows and dreadlocks) are believed to be the highest risk hairstyles. TA can also occur in the setting of religious and occupational traumatic hairstyling. In its later stages, the disease may progress into an irreversible scarring alopecia if traumatic hairstyling continues without appropriate intervention. The most common clinical presentation includes marginal alopecia and non-marginal patchy alopecia. A clue to the clinical diagnosis is the preservation of the fringe sign as opposed to its loss in frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA). Dermoscopy can be helpful in the diagnosis and can detect the ongoing traction by the presence of hair casts. Histopathology can distinguish TA from alopecia areata, FFA, and patchy central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. Currently, there is no cure. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians educate high-risk populations about TA and those practices that may convey the risk of hair loss.

  15. Relationship Between Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to intense sound or ototoxic chemicals can damage the auditory hair cells of vertebrates, resulting in hearing loss. Although the relationship between such hair cell damage and auditory function is fairly established for terrestrial vertebrates, there are limited data available to understand this relationship in fishes. Although investigators have measured either the morphological damage of the inner ear or the functional deficits in the hearing of fishes, very few have directly measured both in an attempt to find a relationship between the two. Those studies that have examined both auditory hair cell damage in the inner ear and the resulting hearing loss in fishes are reviewed here. In general, there is a significant linear relationship between the number of hair cells lost and the severity of hearing threshold shifts, although this varies between species and different hair cell-damaging stimuli. After trauma to the fish ear, auditory hair cells are able to regenerate to control level densities. With this regeneration also comes a restoration of hearing. Thus there is also a significant relationship between hair cell recovery and hearing recovery in fishes.

  16. Genetics and other factors in the aetiology of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Redler, Silke; Messenger, Andrew G; Betz, Regina C

    2017-06-01

    Pattern hair loss is the most common form of hair loss in both women and men. Male pattern hair loss, also termed male androgenetic alopecia (M-AGA), is an androgen-dependent trait that is predominantly genetically determined. Androgen-mediated mechanisms are probably involved in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in some women but the evidence is less strong than in M-AGA; other non-androgenic pathways, including environmental influences, may contribute to the aetiology. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic loci for M-AGA and have provided better insight into the underlying biology. However, the role of heritable factors in Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL) is largely unknown. Recently published studies have been restricted to candidate gene approaches and could not clearly identify any susceptibility locus/gene for FPHL but suggest that the aetiology differs substantially from that of M-AGA. Hypotheses about possible pathomechanisms of FPHL as well as the results of the genetic studies performed to date are summarized. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Hair and cancer chemotherapy: consequences and nursing care--a literature study.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, D

    2001-09-01

    Hair is a body appendage that throughout history has been a symbol of the social, cultural and political climate, in addition to connoting religious affiliation. Hair loss on the other hand has been associated with a loss of attractiveness, individuality, a state of disgrace and illness, in addition to the ageing process, death and a loss of sexuality. One of the most common side-effects of chemotherapy is hair loss (alopecia). Alopecia can range from sporadic thinning of the hair to complete baldness. Several factors may contribute to the severity of hair loss including drug, dose and schedule as well as hair care practices. Prevention of alopecia has been a focus in the medical and nursing literature since the late 1960s. Mechanical, physical and biological measures have been used with varying success. The goal of prevention is primarily the reduction of patient distress caused by chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Patient reactions to alopecia vary and may be dependent on the individual importance of hair, prognosis, degree of expected hair loss, the amount of information and preparation given, and physical and psychological coping mechanisms. Nurses play an important role in assisting the patient to cope with alopecia by giving the needed information and teaching self-care strategies to minimize alopecia, cope with alopecia, and protect the skin and eyes following alopecia. These interventions are aimed at helping the patient move through a potentially devastating experience to a renewed sense of well-being.

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of Hairgain in individuals with hair loss: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Thom, E

    2001-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a new agent for the treatment of hair loss, based on a marine protein, minerals and vitamins. Sixty subjects with hair loss of different aetiologies participated in the 6-month blinded phase of the study. Objective assessments indicated that the treatment was effective and subjective assessments showed a statistically significant positive effect of treatment. Exposure to the active preparation for a further 6 months in an open phase indicated a further improvement in hair growth. Exposure of the patients previously treated with placebo to the active preparation for 12 months gave similar results. Tolerability was good and no side-effects were reported. The product investigated may provide an alternative to pharmacotherapy for the treatment of hair-loss problems in individuals with androgenic alopecia.

  19. Efficacy of topical tofacitinib in promoting hair growth in non-scarring alopecia: possible mechanism via VEGF induction.

    PubMed

    Meephansan, Jitlada; Thummakriengkrai, J; Ponnikorn, S; Yingmema, W; Deenonpoe, R; Suchonwanit, P

    2017-11-01

    Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor that promotes hair growth; however, the efficacy and mechanism of this effect are not yet understood. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of topical tofacitinib on hair growth in mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided equally into four groups and treated topically with tofacitinib, minoxidil, or vehicle once daily for 21 days. Weekly photographs were taken to determine the area and rate of hair growth, and tissue samples were collected for histopathological evaluation. mRNA and protein expression of anagen-maintaining growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), were determined via RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Tofacitinib-treated mice exhibited more hair regrowth than either minoxidil-treated or control mice did between day 7 and 21 (P < 0.05). Topical tofacitinib also promoted more rapid hair growth rate than topical minoxidil or control did (P < 0.001). Histopathology showed a distinct increase in the number of hair follicles, mostly in the anagen phase, in the tofacitinib-treated group. Hair follicles in the minoxidil- and vehicle-treated groups were more often classified as catagen and anagen. VEGF mRNA and protein expression in the tofacitinib-treated group was significantly greater than those in the other groups (P < 0.05). IGF-1 mRNA expression was not upregulated in tofacitinib-treated mice. Topical tofacitinib is effective in promoting hair growth, and the possible mechanism involves increased VEGF levels and lowered inflammation. This study will help develop a new therapeutic option for non-scarring alopecia.

  20. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1). She had originally been examined by a pediatrician with the diagnosis of alopecia areata. The patient`s personal history included hay fever and shortsightedness, and she suffered from varicella and mononucleosis. Nobody in the family history suffered from alopecia areata, but her father has male androgenetic alopecia (Norwood/Hamilton MAGA C3F3). The mother noticed that the child had had changeable mood for about 2 months and did not want to communicate with other persons in the family. The family did not have any pet at home. At school, her favorite subjects were Math and Computer Studies. She did not like Physical Education and did not participate in any sport activities during her free time. This was very strange because she was obese (body-mass index (BMI) 24.69). She was sometimes angry with her 13-year-old sister who had better results at school. The girl had suddenly started to wear a blue scarf. The parents did not notice that she pulled out her hair at home. Dermatological examination of the capillitium found a zone of incomplete alopecia in the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area, without inflammation, desquamation, and scaring. Hairs were of variable length (Figure 1). There was a patch of incomplete alopecia above the forehead between two stripes of hair of variable length (Figure 2). The hair pull test was

  1. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  2. A Case Report of Cushing's Disease Presenting as Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lefkowitz, Emily G.; Cossman, Jack P.; Fournier, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that comprises a large group of signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess corticosteroids. Most cases of Cushing's syndrome are due to increased adrenocorticotropic hormone production from a pituitary adenoma, which is referred to as Cushing's disease. Most of the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and common in the general population, making a diagnosis often challenging. However, several dermatological manifestations, such as fragile skin, easy bruising, and reddish purple striae, are more discriminatory. Because uncontrolled Cushing's syndrome of any etiology is associated with substantial morbidity, including increased cardiovascular disease and mortality, it is important to make an early diagnosis. Unfortunately, median delays of 2 years to diagnosis have been reported. We report a case of a woman who had multiple dermatological findings, including facial plethora, easy bruising, violaceous striae, hirsutism, and acne, the latter 2 signs reflecting androgen excess. Of interest, our patient presented with a chief complaint of hair loss, a common complaint in the general population that occurs with a greater frequency in patients with Cushing's disease and is attributed to androgenetic alopecia, but it is rarely the presenting symptom. PMID:28413388

  3. A Case Report of Cushing's Disease Presenting as Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Emily G; Cossman, Jack P; Fournier, John B

    2017-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that comprises a large group of signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess corticosteroids. Most cases of Cushing's syndrome are due to increased adrenocorticotropic hormone production from a pituitary adenoma, which is referred to as Cushing's disease. Most of the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and common in the general population, making a diagnosis often challenging. However, several dermatological manifestations, such as fragile skin, easy bruising, and reddish purple striae, are more discriminatory. Because uncontrolled Cushing's syndrome of any etiology is associated with substantial morbidity, including increased cardiovascular disease and mortality, it is important to make an early diagnosis. Unfortunately, median delays of 2 years to diagnosis have been reported. We report a case of a woman who had multiple dermatological findings, including facial plethora, easy bruising, violaceous striae, hirsutism, and acne, the latter 2 signs reflecting androgen excess. Of interest, our patient presented with a chief complaint of hair loss, a common complaint in the general population that occurs with a greater frequency in patients with Cushing's disease and is attributed to androgenetic alopecia, but it is rarely the presenting symptom.

  4. A hypothetical pathogenesis model for androgenic alopecia: clarifying the dihydrotestosterone paradox and rate-limiting recovery factors.

    PubMed

    English, Robert S

    2018-02-01

    Androgenic alopecia, also known as pattern hair loss, is a chronic progressive condition that affects 80% of men and 50% of women throughout a lifetime. But despite its prevalence and extensive study, a coherent pathology model describing androgenic alopecia's precursors, biological step-processes, and physiological responses does not yet exist. While consensus is that androgenic alopecia is genetic and androgen-mediated by dihydrotestosterone, questions remain regarding dihydrotestosterone's exact role in androgenic alopecia onset. What causes dihydrotestosterone to increase in androgenic alopecia-prone tissues? By which mechanisms does dihydrotestosterone miniaturize androgenic alopecia-prone hair follicles? Why is dihydrotestosterone also associated with hair growth in secondary body and facial hair? Why does castration (which decreases androgen production by 95%) stop pattern hair loss, but not fully reverse it? Is there a relationship between dihydrotestosterone and tissue remodeling observed alongside androgenic alopecia onset? We review evidence supporting and challenging dihydrotestosterone's causal relationship with androgenic alopecia, then propose an evidence-based pathogenesis model that attempts to answer the above questions, account for additionally-suspected androgenic alopecia mediators, identify rate-limiting recovery factors, and elucidate better treatment targets. The hypothesis argues that: (1) chronic scalp tension transmitted from the galea aponeurotica induces an inflammatory response in androgenic alopecia-prone tissues; (2) dihydrotestosterone increases in androgenic alopecia-prone tissues as part of this inflammatory response; and (3) dihydrotestosterone does not directly miniaturize hair follicles. Rather, dihydrotestosterone is a co-mediator of tissue dermal sheath thickening, perifollicular fibrosis, and calcification - three chronic, progressive conditions concomitant with androgenic alopecia progression. These conditions remodel

  5. The effect of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, G-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, W-S

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of hair loss in women, and its prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and social withdrawal. A variety of laser and light sources have been tried for treatment of hair loss, and some success has been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of a 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser in treatment of female pattern hair loss. Twenty eight ethnic South Korean patients with varying degrees of FPHL were enrolled in the study. Patients received ten treatments with a 1550 nm fractional Er:Glass Laser (Mosaic, Lutronic Co., Ltd, Seoul, South Korea) at 2-weeks intervals using the same parameters (5-10 mm tip, 6 mJ pulse energy, 800 spot/cm(2) density, static mode). Phototrichogram and global photographs were taken at baseline and at the end of laser treatment, and analysed for changes in hair density and hair shaft diameter. Global photographs underwent blinded review by three independent dermatologists using a 7-point scale. Patients also answered questionnaires assessing hair growth throughout the study. All adverse effects were reported during the study. Twenty seven patients completed a 5-month schedule of laser treatment. One patient was excluded during treatment due to occurrence of alopecia areata. At the initial visit, mean hair density was 100 ± 14/cm(2) , and mean hair thickness was 58 ± 12 μm. After 5 months of laser treatment, hair density showed a marked increase to 157 ± 28/cm(2) (P < 0.001), and hair thickness also increased to 75 ± 13 μm (P < 0.001). Global photographs showed improvement in 24 (87.5%) of the 27 patients. Two patients (7.4%) reported mild pruritus after laser treatment; however, these resolved within 2 h. A 1550 nm fractional erbium-glass laser irradiation may be an effective and safe treatment option for women with female pattern hair loss. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European

  6. Fractional non-ablative laser-assisted drug delivery leads to improvement in male and female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Ana Carina Junqueira; Vilarinho, Adriana; Junqueira, Ana Lúcia Ariano

    2018-02-16

    Androgenetic alopecia, also known as male and female pattern hair loss, is a very prevalent condition; however, approved therapeutic options are limited. Fractionated laser has been proposed to assist in penetration of topical medications to the cutaneous tissue. We present four cases of androgenetic alopecia that underwent treatment with a non-ablative erbium glass fractional laser followed by the application of topical finasteride 0,05% and growth factors including basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and copper peptide 1%. During all laser treatment sessions, eight passes were performed, at 7 mJ, 3-9% of coverage and density of 120 mzt/cm 2 . A positive response was observed in all of the four patients. Photographs taken 2 weeks after the last session showed improvement in hair regrowth and density. No significant side effects were observed.

  7. Alopecia of IFN-gamma knockout mouse as a model for disturbance of the hair cycle: a unique arrest of the hair cycle at the anagen phase accompanied by mitosis.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Ryuichiro; Tajima, Sadao; Yoneda, Yukio; Tamayama, Takumi; Watanabe, Masahito; Ueda, Kouichi; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2002-09-01

    Interferon-gamma(-/-) (IFN-gamma(-/-)) and IFN-gamma(+/+) C57BL/6 mice (3 weeks of age) completed the production of morphogenesis-derived hair. Around 6 weeks of age, however, most of the IFN-gamma(-/-) but none of the IFN-gamma(+/+) mice began to lose hairs in the dorsal and occipital areas in the absence of inflammatory reactions, and the alopecia was sustained for at least several 10-week periods of observation. A single subcutaneous injection of IFN-gamma to IFN-gamma(-/-) mice at 3, but not 4, 5, or 8 weeks of age could protect all the mice from alopecia, revealing that the lack of IFN-gamma around 3 weeks of age is directly responsible for the alopecia. Histologic features showed that the hair follicles of the IFN-gamma(+/+) mice passed through the anagen (4-5 weeks of age) and catagen/telogen ( approximately 6 weeks of age) phases, whereas those of IFN-gamma(-/-) mice (5 weeks of age or older) stayed in the anagen phase. TUNEL and bromodeoxyuridine experiments suggested that an arrest with unlimited DNA synthesis of the hair cycle in the anagen phase by the lack of IFN-gamma-dependent apoptosis in the midfollicle region and diffuse shedding of previously formed hair induced alopecia in IFN-gamma(-/-) mice.

  8. Current Treatment Strategies in Pediatric Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Etienne; Lee, Joyce SS; Tang, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a non-scarring autoimmune disease of the hair follicle that can present at any age. Pediatric cases are commonly seen in a dermatology clinic, and management can potentially be challenging, with a small proportion of cases experiencing a chronic relapsing course marked by distressing hair loss that can bring about significant psychosocial morbidity. We review the established treatments for pediatric alopecia areata, alongside second and third line therapies that have shown to be efficacious. We also offer a treatment algorithm as a guide to the treatment of pediatric AA. PMID:23248364

  9. Emerging treatments in alopecia.

    PubMed

    Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  10. Efficacy of fractional lasers in treating alopecia: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Perper, Marina; Aldahan, Adam S; Fayne, Rachel A; Emerson, Christopher P; Nouri, Keyvan

    2017-11-01

    Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss. While less is known about the effectiveness of fractional lasers for combating hair loss, research suggests that by creating microscopic thermal injury zones, fractional lasers may cause an increase in hair growth from a wound healing process, making them potential therapeutic options for alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of fractional lasers on hair regrowth. The specific fractional laser therapies include the 1550-nm nonablative fractional erbium-glass laser, the ablative fractional 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser, and the ablative fractional CO 2 fractional laser. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of the lasers, as well as to establish appropriate parameters and treatment intervals.

  11. Hair diseases: a big problem on a small surface

    PubMed Central

    Wcisło-Dziadecka, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    Civilizational progress initially contributes to the problem of hair loss and then to alopecia as regards both frequency and therapeutic dilemmas. The work presents trichological problems which occur more rarely, i.e. drug-induced, anagen and telogen alopecia, congenital and acquired structural hair disorders, psychic disturbances concerning the hair as well as the hair during menopause. Then, the article briefly describes contagious (infectious) diseases as well as diseases with inflammatory etiology which are accompanied by exfoliation and (frequently) pruritus. Finally, alopecia cicatricans is discussed. Alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia are omitted herein because they occur more often and will be described in another work. Any disproportions and upset balance concerning correct functioning of mechanisms within the scalp hair system are the evidence of pathologies. PMID:27881935

  12. Hair diseases: a big problem on a small surface.

    PubMed

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia A; Wcisło-Dziadecka, Dominika

    2016-10-01

    Civilizational progress initially contributes to the problem of hair loss and then to alopecia as regards both frequency and therapeutic dilemmas. The work presents trichological problems which occur more rarely, i.e. drug-induced, anagen and telogen alopecia, congenital and acquired structural hair disorders, psychic disturbances concerning the hair as well as the hair during menopause. Then, the article briefly describes contagious (infectious) diseases as well as diseases with inflammatory etiology which are accompanied by exfoliation and (frequently) pruritus. Finally, alopecia cicatricans is discussed. Alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia are omitted herein because they occur more often and will be described in another work. Any disproportions and upset balance concerning correct functioning of mechanisms within the scalp hair system are the evidence of pathologies.

  13. Female-patterned alopecia in teenage brothers with unusual histologic features.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J Andrew; Malysz, Jozef; Schwartz, Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Patterned hair loss, follicular miniaturization, and increased telogen hair counts characterize androgenic alopecia (AGA). Follicular inflammation in AGA has been associated with treatment resistance and progressive hair loss. Brothers, 15 and 18 years old, presented with frontal and mid-scalp hair loss with an intact frontal hairline noted over a 1-year period. The elder reported past use of androgenic steroids. Laboratory assessment for metabolic and hormonal abnormalities was unrevealing, and hair pull test was negative. Scalp biopsies revealed decreased terminal hairs, marked diameter variation of anagen hairs, decreased terminal to vellus hair ratios (3.7:1/3.4:1, older/younger), and increased telogen counts (23%/21%). Infrabulbar and peri-isthmic (follicular bulge region) lymphocytic infiltrates were present. Hair loss has progressed, unabated by daily topical 0.5% clobetasol (for 6 months), daily 5% minoxidil (1 year), and latter, daily oral finasteride (2 years - older brother only). Based on patterned hair loss and miniaturized hairs, these brothers have AGA. The female pattern of hair loss (diffuse hair loss affecting the central scalp with preservation of frontal hair line) coupled with follicular isthmic lymphocytic inflammation represents an unusual presentation, possibly a treatment resistant, inflammatory variant of AGA. The differential diagnosis includes exogenous androgen-mediated hair loss, cicatricial pattern hair loss, or the superimposition of alopecia areata.

  14. Sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Janet; Desai, Nisha; McCoy, John; Goren, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Two percent topical minoxidil is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Its success has been limited by the low percentage of responders. Meta-analysis of several studies reporting the number of responders to 2% minoxidil monotherapy indicates moderate hair regrowth in only 13-20% of female patients. Five percent minoxidil solution, when used off-label, may increase the percentage of responders to as much as 40%. As such, a biomarker for predicting treatment response would have significant clinical utility. In a previous study, Goren et al. reported an association between sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles and minoxidil response in a mixed cohort of male and female patients. The aim of this study was to replicate these findings in a well-defined cohort of female patients with AGA treated with 5% minoxidil daily for a period of 6 months. Consistent with the prior study, we found that sulfotransferase activity in plucked hair follicles predicts treatment response with 93% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Our study further supports the importance of minoxidil sulfation in eliciting a therapeutic response and provides further insight into novel targets for increasing minoxidil efficacy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Alopecia: Possible Causes and Treatments, Particularly in Captive Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) occurs in some nonhuman primates housed in captivity and is of concern to colony managers and veterinarians. Here we review the characteristics, potential causes, and treatments for this condition. Although we focus on nonhuman primates, relevant research on other mammalian species is discussed also, due to the relative paucity of studies on alopecia in the primate literature. We first discuss the cycle of hair growth and explain how this cycle can be disrupted to produce alopecia. Numerous factors may be related to hair loss and range from naturally occurring processes (for example, seasonality, aging) to various biologic dysfunctions, including vitamin and mineral imbalances, endocrine disorders, immunologic diseases, and genetic mutations. We also address bacterial and fungal infections, infestation by parasites, and atopic dermatitis as possible causes of alopecia. Finally, we examine the role of psychogenic factors, such as stress. Depending on the presumed cause of the hair loss, various treatment strategies can be pursued. Alopecia in nonhuman primates is a multifaceted disorder with many potential sources. For this reason, appropriate testing for various disease conditions should be completed before alopecia is considered to be related to stress. PMID:19295051

  16. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Assessment of the usefulness of dihydrotestosterone in the diagnostics of patients with androgenetic alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Urysiak-Czubatka, Izabela; Broniarczyk-Dyła, Grażyna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss. Clinically observed hair loss is due to the continuous miniaturization of affected hair follicles. Genetic factors and androgenic factors especially dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is a testosterone tissue metabolite, play major roles in the pathogenesis of AGA. However, expert opinions about the usefulness of DHT in the diagnosis of this type of alopecia are divided. Aim To evaluate the usefulness of DHT level in patients with androgenetic alopecia compared with the control group. Material and methods The study comprised 49 subjects: 19 women and 9 men with androgenetic alopecia. The control group consisted of 17 healthy women and 4 men without hair loss. Results Increased serum concentrations of DHT were observed in patients with androgenetic alopecia (17 women, 5 men), but also in the control group. The differences in mean values of DHT were not significant according to the types of alopecia and the control group. Increased serum concentrations of DHT were not correlated with the advance of alopecia. Conclusions Dihydrotestosterone is the most influential androgen and seems to play a very important role in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia. Based on the results of our study and others, the most important factors would appear to be the genetically-determined sensitivity of the follicles to DHT and their different reactions to androgen concentration. PMID:25254005

  18. Immunological profiles in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, G M; Thiers, B H; Vasily, D B; Fudenberg, H H

    1984-02-01

    Cell-mediated immunity and auto-immune phenomena were investigated in sixty patients with active alopecia areata of various degrees of severity. Serum auto-antibodies to thyroid antigens were detected in twenty-three patients. Examination of T-lymphocyte populations, lymphocyte DNA synthesis, and lymphokine production in response to mitogen stimulation revealed no differences between the sixty patients and matched healthy control subjects. However, patients with thyroid auto-immunity and/or the presence of alopecia totalis or universalis showed significant reductions in interactive T lymphocytes (recognized by rosette formation with human B lymphoblastoid cells) and diminished production of leukocyte migration inhibition factor in response to stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin. This suggests that immune mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata which is associated with thyroid auto-immunity or which progresses to total hair loss.

  19. The biology, structure, and function of eyebrow hair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer V

    2014-01-01

    Eyebrow hair serves many important biologic and aesthetic functions. This article reviews the structure and function of the hair follicle, as well as hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Eyebrow hair follicles share the same basic structure as hair follicles elsewhere on the body, but are distinguished by their shorter anagen (growing) phase. Knowledge of the hair follicle structure and cycle is important for understanding the pathophysiology of alopecia, as diseases affecting the stem cell portion of the hair follicle in the bulge region may cause permanent hair loss. Furthermore, therapeutic agents that target distinct phases and hormones involved in the hair cycle may be useful for promoting hair growth.

  20. Alopecia areata treated with hydroxychloroquine: A retrospective study of nine pediatric cases.

    PubMed

    Yun, Duri; Silverberg, Nanette B; Stein, Sarah L

    2018-05-01

    Alopecia areata is a common hair loss condition that is often emotionally devastating for patients. There is a paucity of effective treatments available. Hydroxychloroquine has been reported as variably effective in inducing significant hair regrowth in adults with alopecia areata. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the benefit and tolerability of hydroxychloroquine in pediatric alopecia areata. We conducted a retrospective review of nine children with a history of alopecia areata treated with hydroxychloroquine. Clinical data were obtained from patients treated at two tertiary care centers in the United States between July 1, 2013, and July 1, 2015. Alopecia scores of five patients improved by 6 months of treatment. Four patients experienced no improvement from baseline evaluation. The most common side effect associated with treatment was gastrointestinal intolerance and headache. This retrospective series suggests that hydroxychloroquine can be considered as a treatment option for alopecia areata in children. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Topical application of the Wnt/β-catenin activator methyl vanillate increases hair count and hair mass index in women with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Antonella; Zaiac, Martin N; Canazza, Agnese; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Alis, Rafael; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-12-01

    Activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Methyl vanillate (MV) - a safe plant-derived ingredient - has been recently shown to activate the WNT/β-catenin signaling. Objectives Two distinct substudies were conducted. First, we designed a 6-month, uncontrolled, open-label clinical study to investigate whether topically applied MV may increase hair count and hair mass index (HMI) in female AGA. Second, we conducted a molecular study on the effect of MV on WNT10B mRNA expression in scalp biopsies of women with AGA. A total of 20 Caucasian women (age range: 25-57 years) with AGA (Sinclair grade 1-2) were included. The research product was an alcohol-free formulation supplied in the form of a spray containing 0.2% MV as the active ingredient. In the clinical study, hair count and HMI were found to increase at 6 months by 6% (P < 0.01) and 12% (P < 0.001), respectively, compared with baseline. No participant discontinued treatment due to adverse effects, and the overall patient satisfaction was good. At the molecular level, the topical application of the research product resulted in a 32% increase in WNT10B mRNA expression levels in the temporal scalp area (P < 0.001). Our pilot data suggest that topical MV can increase hair count and HMI by inducing WNT10B expression in the scalp, potentially serving as a novel treatment strategy for female AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hair regrowth with topical triiodothyronine ointment in patients with alopecia areata: a double-blind, randomized pilot clinical trial of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, S; Haghpanah, V; Taheri, E; Heshmat, R; Larijani, B; Saeedi, M

    2012-05-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors are expressed in hair follicles and it is known that thyroid hormones can have a positive effect on hair growth, i.e. process which is disrupted in alopecia areata. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of topical triiodothyronine in patients with patchy alopecia areata. Ten patients with patchy alopecia areata were treated with triiodothyronine and placebo applied twice daily to either of two bilaterally symmetrical patches for 12 weeks. The two sides were randomly assigned following simple randomization procedure to one of the two treatment groups. The patients and the investigator were blinded to the content of the tubes. Hair regrowth was evaluated every 4 weeks. Blood samples for measurements of complete blood count along with thyroid function (T3, T4 and TSH) and liver function tests were taken at the baseline and at the end of study. After 12 weeks of treatment, there was no statistically significant difference between the outcome in terms of reduction of the patch size and hair regrowth. No adverse effects were noted. Triiodothyronine in the studied dosage and formulation was safe but not more effective than placebo. However, newer thyroid hormone analogues might be more effective and evaluating their effects probably warrants further consideration. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  3. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Rice Bran Supercritical CO2 Extract for Hair Growth in Androgenic Alopecia: A 16-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Jae Beom; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled single-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dermal rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Fifty alopecia patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received a dermal application of 0.5% RB-SCE (8 mL/d) to the head skin for 16 weeks while the control group received a dermal application of placebo. Changes in hair count, diameter, and density were evaluated with a Folliscope(®). Patient satisfaction was evaluated via questionnaire and clinical photographs were rated by dermatologists. The results showed that RB-SCE significantly increased hair density and hair diameter in male subjects. Patient satisfaction and the evaluation of photographs by dermatologists also confirmed the effectiveness of RB-SCE in the treatment of alopecia. No adverse reactions related to RB-SCE were reported. Therefore, RB-SCE shows promise for use in functional cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  5. The topical penta-peptide Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser increases the proportion of thick hair in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Takeda, Shunsuke; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Tsuruda, Akinori; Shibata, Hideaki; Ito, Tomoko; Komatsu, Nobuyuki; Terai, Keiko; Oka, Syuichi

    2016-06-01

    A penta-peptide, Gly-Pro-Ile-Gly-Ser (GPIGS), promotes proliferation of mouse hair keratinocytes and accelerates hair growth in mice. This study focused on the ability of the peptide to promote human hair growth. We used a human hair keratinocyte proliferation assay and organ cultures of human hair follicle as in vitro systems. The lotions with and without the penta-peptide were administered to 22 Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) for 4 months in a double-blind and randomized clinical study. The penta-peptide significantly stimulated the proliferation of human hair keratinocytes at a concentration of 2.3 μm (P < 0.01), and 5.0 μm of this peptide had a marked effect on hair shaft elongation in the organ culture (P < 0.05). The change in the proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared to baseline in patients that received the peptide was significantly higher than in the placebo (P = 0.006). The change in the proportion of vellus hair (<40 μm) was also significantly lower in the peptide group than in the placebo (P = 0.029). The penta-peptide also significantly improved the appearance of baldness (P = 0.020) when blinded reviewers graded photographs of the participants according to a standardized baldness scale. No adverse dermatological effects due to treatment were noted during this clinical study. This penta-peptide promotes proliferation of human hair keratinocytes and hair shaft elongation of human hair follicles, in vitro. This peptide increases thick hair ratio in vivo, and this compound is useful for the improvement of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Review of Surgical Methods (Excluding Hair Transplantation) and Their Role in Hair Loss Management Today

    PubMed Central

    Sattur, Sandeep S

    2011-01-01

    There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today. PMID:21976899

  7. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2007-12-01

    Alopecia areata is loss of hair from localized or diffuse areas of hair-bearing area of the skin. Recently there are reports of efficacy of the 308-nm excimer radiation for this condition. To study the effect of the 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata. Eighteen patients with 42 recalcitrant patches (including 1 adult with alopecia totalis) were enrolled in this study. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks; one lesion on each patient was left as a control for comparison. There were 7 males and 11 females in this study. Regrowth of hair was observed in 17 (41.5%) patches. Thirteen of the 18 lesions in scalp showed a complete regrowth of hair. The extremity regions failed to show a response. Atopic diatheses had an unfavorable effect on the outcome in our patients. The 308-nm excimer laser is an effective therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata of the scalp and for some cases with patchy alopecia areata of the beard area. It does not work for patchy alopecia areata of the extremities.

  8. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P < 0.006) and global thinning is associated with slower growth rates. Compared with hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identification of a new plant extract for androgenic alopecia treatment using a non-radioactive human hair dermal papilla cell-based assay.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ruchy; Monthakantirat, Orawan; Tengamnuay, Parkpoom; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2016-01-21

    Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is a major type of human scalp hair loss, which is caused by two androgens: testosterone (T) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). Both androgens bind to the androgen receptor (AR) and induce androgen-sensitive genes within the human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs), but 5α-DHT exhibits much higher binding affinity and potency than T does in inducing the involved androgen-sensitive genes. Changes in the induction of androgen-sensitive genes during AGA are caused by the over-production of 5α-DHT by the 5α-reductase (5α-R) enzyme; therefore, one possible method to treat AGA is to inhibit this enzymatic reaction. RT-PCR was used to identify the presence of the 5α-R and AR within HHDPCs. A newly developed AGA-relevant HHDPC-based assay combined with non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC) detection was used for screening crude plant extracts for the identification of new 5α-R inhibitors. HHDPCs expressed both 5α-R type 1 isoform of the enzyme (5α-R1) and AR in all of the passages used in this study. Among the thirty tested extracts, Avicennia marina (AM) displayed the highest inhibitory activity at the final concentration of 10 μg/ml, as the production of 5α-DHT decreased by 52% (IC50 = 9.21 ± 0.38 μg/ml). Avicennia marina (AM) was identified as a potential candidate for the treatment of AGA based on its 5α-R1-inhibitory activity.

  10. Dose-dependent valproate-induced alopecia in patients with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced hair loss may occur as a side effect in patients treated with valproate. However, few studies have reported a relationship between the blood levels of valproate and the occurrence of hair loss. We report three cases of alopecia that occurred in patients who received sodium valproate for mental disorders. In all three cases, alopecia appeared after long-term valproate exposure with a plasma concentration of 100 µg/ml approximately. However, the alopecia resolved in all cases after dose reduction or treatment discontinuation. Therefore, alopecia may develop in patients with chronic exposure to high plasma concentrations of valproate. Based on these findings, we believe that patients with high plasma concentrations of valproate should be closely monitored for the occurrence of side effects, particularly alopecia.

  11. Frontal fibrosing alopecia treatment options.

    PubMed

    Fertig, Raymond; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-11-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is a rare dermatologic disease that causes scarring and hair loss and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. FFA patients typically present with hair loss in the frontal scalp region and eyebrows which may be associated with sensations of itching or burning. FFA is a clinically distinct variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP) that affects predominantly postmenopausal women, although men and premenopausal women may also be affected. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary to prevent definitive scarring and permanent hair loss. Data from retrospective studies indicate that 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5aRIs) are effective in stabilizing the disease. In our clinical experience, we have seen optimal results treating FFA patients with oral finasteride in conjunction with hydroxychloroquine, topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus) and excimer laser in patients with signs of active inflammation.

  12. Introduction to innovations in the immunology and clinical science of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Kalabokes, Victoria D; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Christiano, Angela M

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune skin disease resulting in the loss of hair on the scalp and elsewhere on the body. The disease most often occurs in childhood and affects males and females of all ages. The National Alopecia Areata Foundation conducts research summits every 2 years to review progress and create new directions in its funded and promoted research. The Foundation brings together scientists from all disciplines to get a broad and varied perspective. These summits are part of the Foundation's main strategic initiative, the Alopecia Areata Treatment Development Program to accelerate progress toward a viable alopecia areata treatment.

  13. The Female Pattern Hair Loss: Review of Etiopathogenesis and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Vujovic, Anja; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common hair loss disorder in women. Initial signs may develop during teenage years leading to a progressive hair loss with a characteristic pattern distribution. The condition is characterized by progressive replacement of terminal hair follicles over the frontal and vertex regions by miniaturized follicles, that leads progressively to a visible reduction in hair density. Women diagnosed with FPHL may undergo significant impairment of quality of life. FPHL diagnosis is mostly clinical. Depending on patient history and clinical evaluation, further diagnostic testing may be useful. The purpose of the paper is to review the current knowledge about epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of FPHL. PMID:24812631

  14. Treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Masoumeh; Gorouhi, Farzam; Babakoohi, Shahab; Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Firooz, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) as a distinctive entity was first described about 30 years ago. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials for treatment of FPHL. A preliminary search was carried out in several databases up to August 2008 to identify all randomized controlled trials on nonsurgical interventions for treatment of FPHL. Studies reporting fewer than 10 patients and non-English articles were excluded. Additionally, references of relevant articles and reviews were checked manually in search for additional sources. Among 238 citations found in the preliminary search, 12 fulfilled all criteria to be included in the systematic review. Topical minoxidil 1% to 5% for 24 to 48 weeks was shown to be effective in FPHL and its effect was not related to age or androgen level of patients. In addition, it may be effective in women with FPHL, both with and without hyperandrogenism, and in young and old premenopausal or postmenopausal. In patients with increased serum androgens, oral flutamide but not finasteride or cyproterone acetate was more effective than no treatment. Topical minoxidil is effective in patients with FPHL, with or without hyperandrogenism, but there is limited evidence for the efficacy of antiandrogens.

  15. Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Lenk, Robert; Dellinger, Anthony; MacFarland, Darren; Kumar, Krishan; Wilson, Stephen R; Kepley, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 "bald" mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle numbers. In shaved mice, fullerenes increase the rate of hair growth as compared with mice receiving vehicle only. In SKH-1 hairless mice fullerene derivatives given topically or subdermally markedly increased hair growth. This was paralleled by a significant increase in the number of hair follicles in fullerene-treated mice as compared with those mice treated with vehicle only. The fullerenes also increased hair growth in human skin sections maintained in culture. These studies have wide-ranging implications for those conditions leading to hair loss, including alopecia, chemotherapy, and reactions to various chemicals.

  16. [Management of androgenetic alopecia in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Rivera, R; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2008-05-01

    Female androgenetic alopecia or female-pattern alopecia is one of the most common causes of hair loss, affecting 50 % of women over their lifetime. The appearance of this condition is the cause of significant stress and psychological problems, making appropriate management important. Cases exist in which it is associated with hyperandrogenism. Here, we review the different clinical forms (diffuse, male-pattern, and Christmas-tree pattern), discuss the most appropriate laboratory tests (complete blood count, thyroid stimulating hormone, ferritin, prolactin, free and/or total testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), and the different treatments, including finasteride.

  17. Mobilizing Transit-Amplifying Cell-Derived Ectopic Progenitors Prevents Hair Loss from Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Lai, Shih-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Chang, Michael; Plikus, Maksim V; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, You-Tzung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Chi, Peter; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2017-11-15

    Genotoxicity-induced hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy is often encountered in cancer treatment, and there is a lack of effective treatment. In growing hair follicles (HF), quiescent stem cells (SC) are maintained in the bulge region, and hair bulbs at the base contain rapidly dividing, yet genotoxicity-sensitive transit-amplifying cells (TAC) that maintain hair growth. How genotoxicity-induced HF injury is repaired remains unclear. We report here that HFs mobilize ectopic progenitors from distinct TAC compartments for regeneration in adaptation to the severity of dystrophy induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Specifically, after low-dose IR, keratin 5 + basal hair bulb progenitors, rather than bulge SCs, were quickly activated to replenish matrix cells and regenerated all concentric layers of HFs, demonstrating their plasticity. After high-dose IR, when both matrix and hair bulb cells were depleted, the surviving outer root sheath cells rapidly acquired an SC-like state and fueled HF regeneration. Their progeny then homed back to SC niche and supported new cycles of HF growth. We also revealed that IR induced HF dystrophy and hair loss and suppressed WNT signaling in a p53- and dose-dependent manner. Augmenting WNT signaling attenuated the suppressive effect of p53 and enhanced ectopic progenitor proliferation after genotoxic injury, thereby preventing both IR- and cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Hence, targeted activation of TAC-derived progenitor cells, rather than quiescent bulge SCs, for anagen HF repair can be a potential approach to prevent hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6083-96. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of male-pattern and female-pattern hair loss, 2017 version.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Motomu; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Itami, Satoshi; Osada, Shin-Ichi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Ito, Taisuke; Inui, Shigeki; Ueki, Rie; Ohyama, Manabu; Kurata, Sotaro; Kono, Takeshi; Saito, Norimitsu; Sato, Akio; Shimomura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Motonobu; Narusawa, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2018-06-04

    Male-pattern hair loss (MPHL, androgenetic alopecia) is a slowly progressive form of alopecia which begins after puberty. In 2010, we published the first Japanese edition of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MPHL. It achieved the original goal of providing physicians and patients in Japan with evidence-based information for choosing efficacious and safe therapy for MPHL. Subsequently, new therapeutic drugs and treatment methods have been developed, and women's perception of MPHL has undergone change and the term "female-pattern hair loss (FPHL)" is becoming more common internationally. Thus, here we report a revised version of the 2010 guidelines aimed at both MPHL and FPHL. In these guidelines, finasteride 1 mg daily, dutasteride 0.5 mg daily and topical 5% minoxidil twice daily for MPHL, and topical 1% minoxidil twice daily for FPHL, are recommended as the first-line treatments. Self-hair transplantation, irradiation by light-emitting diodes and low-level lasers, and topical application of adenosine for MPHL are recommended, whereas prosthetic hair transplantation and oral administration of minoxidil should not be performed. Oral administration of finasteride or dutasteride are contraindicated for FPHL. In addition, we have evaluated the effectiveness of topical application of carpronium chloride, t-flavanone, cytopurine, pentadecane and ketoconazole, and wearing a wig. Unapproved topical application of bimatoprost and latanoprost, and emerging hair regeneration treatments have also been addressed. We believe that the revised guidelines will improve further the diagnostic and treatment standards for MPHL add FPHL in Japan. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Treatments options for alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Hair disorders have a very high social and psychological impact. Treatment is often frustrating and time-consuming both for the patients and the clinicians and requires special skills and expertise. This paper aims to provide an overview of available treatments for the most common forms of alopecia in adults (androgenetic alopecia [AGA], alopecia areata and cicatricial alopecias) after reviewing the literature in PubMed, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrial.gov. Before starting treatment, it is very important to confirm diagnosis and discuss patient's expectations. Treatment of hair disorders requires time and first results are usually visible a few months after beginning of therapy. Treatment of most hair disorders is mostly not evidenced-based as randomized controlled trials are available only for AGA.

  20. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Joaquin J.; Roberts, Stephen M.; Mejia, Jessica; Mauro, Lucia M.; Munson, John W.; Elgart, George W.; Connelly, Elizabeth Alvarez; Chen, Qingbin; Zou, Jiangying; Goldenberg, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) is experienced by thousands of cancer patients every year. Substantial-to-severe alopecia is induced by anthracyclines (e.g., adriamycin), taxanes (e.g., taxol), alkylating compounds (e.g., cyclophosphamide), and the topisomerase inhibitor etoposide, agents that are widely used in the treatment of leukemias and breast, lung, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Currently, no treatment appears to be generally effective in reliably preventing this secondary effect of chemotherapy. We observed in experiments using different rodent models that localized administration of heat or subcutaneous/intradermal injection of geldanamycin or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induced a stress protein response in hair follicles and effectively prevented alopecia from adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, taxol, and etoposide. Model tumor therapy experiments support the presumption that such localized hair-saving treatment does not negatively affect chemotherapy efficacy. PMID:18347939

  1. Frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus: diagnosis and therapeutic challenge*

    PubMed Central

    Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Guilherme, Marina Riedi; Peretti, Murilo Calvo; Werner, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a variant of lichen planopilaris with marginal progressive hair loss on the scalp, eyebrows and axillae. We report a case of frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus in a postmenopausal woman, that started with alopecia on the eyebrows and then on the frontoparietal region, with periocular and cervical hyperpigmentation of difficult management. The condition was controlled with systemic corticosteroid therapy and finasteride. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus frequently associated with frontal fibrosing alopecia in darker phototipes. It should be considered in patients affected by scarring alopecia with a pattern of lichen planopilaris and areas of skin hyperpigmentation revealing perifollicular hyperpigmentation refractory to multiple treatments. This case illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in face of scarring alopecia and perifollicular hyperpigmentation. PMID:29267454

  2. Frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus: diagnosis and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Guilherme, Marina Riedi; Peretti, Murilo Calvo; Werner, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a variant of lichen planopilaris with marginal progressive hair loss on the scalp, eyebrows and axillae. We report a case of frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planus pigmentosus in a postmenopausal woman, that started with alopecia on the eyebrows and then on the frontoparietal region, with periocular and cervical hyperpigmentation of difficult management. The condition was controlled with systemic corticosteroid therapy and finasteride. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus frequently associated with frontal fibrosing alopecia in darker phototipes. It should be considered in patients affected by scarring alopecia with a pattern of lichen planopilaris and areas of skin hyperpigmentation revealing perifollicular hyperpigmentation refractory to multiple treatments. This case illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in face of scarring alopecia and perifollicular hyperpigmentation.

  3. Effect of Pumpkin Seed Oil on Hair Growth in Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Yi, Yu Hyeon; Cha, Hyeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has been shown to block the action of 5-alpha reductase and to have antiandrogenic effects on rats. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of PSO for treatment of hair growth in male patients with mild to moderate androgenetic alopecia (AGA). 76 male patients with AGA received 400 mg of PSO per day or a placebo for 24 weeks. Change over time in scalp hair growth was evaluated by four outcomes: assessment of standardized clinical photographs by a blinded investigator; patient self-assessment scores; scalp hair thickness; and scalp hair counts. Reports of adverse events were collected throughout the study. After 24 weeks of treatment, self-rated improvement score and self-rated satisfaction scores in the PSO-treated group were higher than in the placebo group (P = 0.013, 0.003). The PSO-treated group had more hair after treatment than at baseline, compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). Mean hair count increases of 40% were observed in PSO-treated men at 24 weeks, whereas increases of 10% were observed in placebo-treated men (P < 0.001). Adverse effects were not different in the two groups. PMID:24864154

  4. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  5. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. 5% Minoxidil: treatment for female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2014-01-01

    Minoxidil is a Health Canada and US FDA-approved medication for hair loss in men and women. While 5% minoxidil foam has been approved for men since 2006, Health Canada and the FDA only approved 5% minoxidil foam for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in 2014. Recent Phase III clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of once daily 5% minoxidil foam for treatment of FPHL, where a significant change from baseline in the target area hair count was observed compared to placebo. Similar changes in hair count for 5% foam and twice daily 2% minoxidil solution established noninferiority of the 5% foam formulation. Five percent minoxidil foam provides an additional option for women with FPHL and will soon be available in Canada.

  7. Multiple courses of pulse corticosteroid therapy for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Takashi; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-09-01

    Various systemic corticosteroid therapies are used for alopecia areata (AA). Pulse therapy using methylprednisolone is a treatment approach for AA. The efficacy of multiple courses of pulse therapy for various severities of AA was evaluated. AA patients with less than 50% hair loss, less than or equal to 6 months after AA onset, needed 1.9 courses of pulse therapy for vellus hair to develop. On the other hand, AA patients with more than 50% hair loss, less than 6 months after AA onset, needed more courses of pulse therapy for vellus hair to develop. Regardless of the disease duration, AA patients with less than 50% hair loss showed a good response rate (100%) after both a short period and a long period after therapy. After receiving multiple courses of pulse therapy, the AA patients with more than 50% hair loss also showed improvement with limited adverse reactions. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Effects of the Lexington LaserComb on hair regrowth in the C3H/HeJ mouse model of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Rodriguez, Rosa; Choudhary, Sonal; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2012-03-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disease that presents with non-scarring alopecia. It is characterized by intra- or peri-follicular lymphocytic infiltrates composed of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells on histology. To this day, few treatments are effective for AA. Here we present findings of using a low-level laser comb to alleviate the symptoms of AA in a C3H/HeJ mouse model for AA. Fourteen C3H/HeJ mice with induced AA were used in this study. Two were killed to confirm AA through histology. The remaining 12 mice were randomized into two groups; group I received HairMax LaserComb (wavelength: 655 nm, beam diameter <5 mm; divergence 57 mrad; nine lasers) for 20 s daily, three times per week for a total of 6 weeks; group II was treated similarly, except that the laser was turned off (sham-treated). After 6 weeks of LaserComb treatment, hair regrowth was observed in all the mice in group I (laser-treated) but none in group II (sham-treated). On histology, increased number of anagen hair follicles was observed in laser-treated mice. On the other hand, sham-treated mice demonstrated hair follicles in the telogen phase with no hair shaft. LaserComb seems to be an effective and convenient device for the treatment of AA in the C3H/HeJ mouse model. Human studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of this device for AA therapy.

  9. Androgenetic alopecia. Battling a losing proposition.

    PubMed

    Rubin, M B

    1997-08-01

    Some degree of hair loss with aging is inevitable in both men and women. The exact underlying mechanism is not well understood. Although genetic factors have a role in the development of androgenetic alopecia, the outcome in an individual patient cannot be reliably predicted on the basis of family history. Balding tends to begin earlier in men and to develop in well-recognized patterns. Women have more diffuse hair loss that often occurs after menopause. The available treatment options, such as topical minoxidil therapy, hair transplantation, and other surgical techniques, are not very successful. Lessening patients' anxiety about hair loss by reassuring them that they will not go totally bald immediately may be the most effective management.

  10. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  11. Iron Plays a Certain Role in Patterned Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song Youn; Na, Se Young; Kim, Jun Hwan; Cho, Soyun

    2013-01-01

    Role of iron in hair loss is not clear yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron and hair loss. Retrospective chart review was conducted on patients with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and male pattern hair loss (MPHL). All patients underwent screening including serum ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), CBC, ESR and thyroid function test. For normal healthy controls, age-sex matched subjects who had visited the hospital for a check-up with no serious disease were selected. A total 210 patients with FPHL (n = 113) and MPHL (n = 97) with 210 healthy controls were analyzed. Serum ferritin concentration (FC) was lower in patients with FPHL (49.27 ± 55.8 µg/L), compared with normal healthy women (77.89 ± 48.32 µg/L) (P < 0.001). Premenopausal FPHL patients turned out to show much lower serum ferritin than age/sex-matched controls (P < 0.001). Among MPHL patients, 22.7% of them showed serum FC lower than 70 µg/L, while no one had serum FC lower 70 µg/L in healthy age matched males. These results suggest that iron may play a certain role especially in premenopausal FPHL. The initial screening of iron status could be of help for hair loss patients. PMID:23772161

  12. Iron plays a certain role in patterned hair loss.

    PubMed

    Park, Song Youn; Na, Se Young; Kim, Jun Hwan; Cho, Soyun; Lee, Jong Hee

    2013-06-01

    Role of iron in hair loss is not clear yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron and hair loss. Retrospective chart review was conducted on patients with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and male pattern hair loss (MPHL). All patients underwent screening including serum ferritin, iron, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC), CBC, ESR and thyroid function test. For normal healthy controls, age-sex matched subjects who had visited the hospital for a check-up with no serious disease were selected. A total 210 patients with FPHL (n = 113) and MPHL (n = 97) with 210 healthy controls were analyzed. Serum ferritin concentration (FC) was lower in patients with FPHL (49.27 ± 55.8 µg/L), compared with normal healthy women (77.89 ± 48.32 µg/L) (P < 0.001). Premenopausal FPHL patients turned out to show much lower serum ferritin than age/sex-matched controls (P < 0.001). Among MPHL patients, 22.7% of them showed serum FC lower than 70 µg/L, while no one had serum FC lower 70 µg/L in healthy age matched males. These results suggest that iron may play a certain role especially in premenopausal FPHL. The initial screening of iron status could be of help for hair loss patients.

  13. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: clinical presentations and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Tan, K T; Messenger, A G

    2009-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is an uncommon condition characterized by progressive frontotemporal recession due to inflammatory destruction of hair follicles. Little is known about the natural history of this disease. To determine the clinical features and natural history of frontal fibrosing alopecia. We studied the cases notes of patients diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia from 1993 to 2008 at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield. There were 18 patients aged between 34 and 71 years. Three were premenopausal. All had frontotemporal recession with scarring. This was associated with partial or complete loss of eyebrows in 15 patients while four had hair loss at other sites. One had keratosis pilaris-like papules on the face, and one had follicular erythema on the cheeks. Three patients had oral lichen planus, of whom two also had cutaneous lichen planus affecting other sites of the body. Treatments given included intralesional triamcinolone acetonide, 0.1% tacrolimus ointment and oral hydroxychloroquine. Progression of frontotemporal recession was seen in some patients, but not all. In one patient the hair line receded by 30 mm over 72 months, whereas in another patient there was no positional change in the hair line after 15 years. Frontal fibrosing alopecia is more common in postmenopausal women, but it can occur in younger women. It may be associated with mucocutaneous lichen planus. Recession of the hair line may progress inexorably over many years but this is not inevitable. It is not clear whether or not treatment alters the natural history of the disease - the disease stabilized with time in most of the patients with or without continuing treatment.

  14. Expanding the spectrum of frontal fibrosing alopecia: a unifying concept.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ai-Lean; Bashir, Saqib J; Wain, E Mary; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2010-10-01

    In frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), scalp alopecia dominates the clinical picture. However, eyebrow loss and hair loss in other body sites may also occur; this has been documented clinically, but rarely histopathologically. We describe the clinicopathological findings of 13 cases of FFA, with histopathologic data from the scalp, eyebrow, and body hair. Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of FFA, seen between 2006 and 2008, were included. Scalp biopsies were performed in all patients for histology and direct immunofluorescence (DIF). Biopsy specimens for histology were taken from the eyebrow in 6 patients and from the upper limb in 5 patients. All 13 patients were female, 11 of whom were postmenopausal. The median age at onset of alopecia was 57 years. Clinical examination revealed a band of frontal hairline recession in all patients. Eyebrow loss was present clinically in all patients, with loss of body hair in 10 of 13. Histopathologic examination of the scalp, eyebrow, and upper limb skin biopsy specimens showed similar features, including a marked reduction in the number of hair follicles and a perifollicular lymphoid cell infiltrate with perifollicular fibrosis. Direct immunofluorescence was negative in all cases. Not all patients consented to biopsies of the eyebrows or upper limbs. Eyebrow and peripheral body hair loss is not uncommon in FFA-a finding that is likely underreported. We have demonstrated that alopecia of the upper limbs in FFA is indeed common and, histopathologically, shows features of lichen planopilaris and scarring, similar to findings in the scalp and eyebrows. Consequently, the process of lichen planopilaris with scarring alopecia is generalized rather than localized only to the frontal scalp and eyebrows.

  15. Immunofluorescence findings in rapid whitening of scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Kumar, V; Petersen, B H

    1981-09-01

    Rapid whitening of scalp hair developed during a three-month period along with a diffuse, subtotal alopecia in a patient. Immunofluorescence microscopy of biopsy material showed prominent deposits of IgG and IgM in a granular pattern in the epithelium of the lower portions of hair follicles. Some return of the color and amount of scalp hair occurred within a year, but occasional bouts of hair loss continued to occur. It is theorized that the rapid graying was caused by a selective loss of pigmented hair, which was perhaps caused by an immunologic mechanism. Some of the findings suggest that the cause of this patient's loss of hair color may be different from those of patients who have been previously described as having rapid whitening of scalp hair because of alopecia areata or vitiligo.

  16. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  17. Alopecia Areata: Review of Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Pathogenesis, and New Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Darwin, Evan; Hirt, Penelope A; Fertig, Raymond; Doliner, Brett; Delcanto, Gina; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2018-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a complex autoimmune condition that causes nonscarring hair loss. It typically presents with sharply demarcated round patches of hair loss and may present at any age. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenesis, and new treatment options of AA, with a focus on the immunologic mechanism underlying the treatment. While traditional treatment options such as corticosteroids are moderately effective, a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis may lead to the development of new treatments that are more directed and effective against AA. Sources were gathered from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database using the keywords: alopecia, alopecia areata, hair loss, trichoscopy, treatments, pathogenesis, and epidemiology. PMID:29769777

  18. Frontal fibrosing alopecia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Antonella; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Iorizzo, Matilde; Misciali, Cosimo

    2005-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a variety of cicatricial alopecia characterized by a band of frontal/frontoparietal hair recession and marked decrease or a complete loss of the eyebrows, typically observed in women who are postmenopausal. The purpose of this study was to report clinical and histopathologic findings and results of treatment in a group of women affected by the disease. A total of 14 women with alopecia of the frontal hairline were evaluated from June 2000 through July 2003 in our outpatient consultation for hair disorders. Clinical examination revealed a band of symmetric recession of the frontoparietal hairline extending to the preauricular areas associated with loss of follicular orifices, mild skin atrophy, and perifollicular erythema at the scalp margin. In all, 9 patients also had partial or total loss of the eyebrows. The histologic features of the scalp specimens were similar in all our patients with a reduction of the number of hair follicles, and a high number of intermediate and velluslike follicles. Intemediate and velluslike follicles were more commonly affected than terminal follicles by the lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate and perifollicular fibrosis. Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a cicatricial alopecia that follows destruction of hair follicles by an inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate that is localized around the upper portion of the hair follicle. It differs from lichen planopilaris because the lymphocytic infiltrate and fibrosis affect selectively the intermediate and the velluslike follicles of the frontal margin and eyebrows. The reason for this selective involvement is still unknown. Frontal fibrosing alopecia may represent a variety of lichen planopilaris with selective involvement of certain androgen-dependent areas. The affected follicles may have typical biologic markers that could explain the clinical and histologic features found in the disease. It is interesting to note that some of the patients treated with finasteride

  19. VIEWPOINT – Vitiligo and alopecia areata: Apples and oranges?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments. PMID:24131336

  20. An update on alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Conlon, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Alopecia areata is one of the most frequent organ-restricted autoimmune diseases, yet its pathogenesis is still unclear. In addition, although alopecia areata often results in significant psychological distress, effective treatment is lacking. New potential susceptibility loci have been implicated, but the strongest evidence points to certain class II human leukocyte antigen alleles. There is new evidence for the collapse of hair follicle immune privilege as a key step in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. There is also new basic science evidence for stress as a contributing factor in the development of alopecia areata. Few treatments for alopecia areata have been well evaluated in randomized trials. Although multiple potential susceptibility loci have been implicated, the genetics of alopecia areata is still unclear. The role of any potential environmental contributors is also unclear. Quality evidence for efficacy of currently used treatments for alopecia areata is lacking.

  1. 308-nm excimer laser for the treatment of alopecia areata in children.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf

    2009-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common skin disease which is characterized by nonscarring localized or diffused hair loss. In this study we assessed the efficacy of 308-nm Excimer laser in the treatment of alopecia areata in children. A total of 9 children with 30 recalcitrant patches alopecia areata and two children with alopecia areata totalis were enrolled in this study which included seven male and four female patients, aged between 4 and 14 years and the durations of their disease were between 7 and 25 months. All of these patients had more than one lesion of alopecia areata and at least one of them was left as a control for comparison. The lesions were treated with the 308-nm Excimer laser twice a week for a period of 12 weeks. Regrowth of hair was observed in 18 (60%) alopecia patches in the scalp, while there was no response in the control patches and over the extremities. Only four patients with scalp lesions showed a recurrence of alopecia after 6 months post laser therapy. So, 308-nm Excimer laser is considered an effective safe therapeutic option for patchy alopecia areata in children.

  2. Patient-reported outcome assessment and objective evaluation of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Komen, Manon M C; van den Hurk, Corina J G; Nortier, Johan W R; van der Ploeg, T; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van der Hoeven, Jacobus J M

    2018-04-01

    Alopecia is one of the most distressing side effects of chemotherapy. Evaluating and comparing the efficacy of potential therapies to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) has been complicated by the lack of a standardized measurement for hair loss. In this study we investigated the correlation between patient-reported outcome assessments and quantitative measurement with the hair check to assess CIA in clinical practice. Scalp cooling efficacy was evaluated by patients by World Health Organisation (WHO) of CIA, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and wig use. The Hair Check was used to determine the amount of hair (in mm 2 ) per unit of scalp skin area (in cm 2 ) (Hair Mass Index, HMI). CIA was also evaluated by doctors, nurses and hairdressers. Baseline HMI was not predictive for hair loss. HMI declined throughout all chemotherapy cycles, which was not reflected by patient-reported measures. HMI correlated with patient-reported hair quantity before the start of the therapy, but not with WHO and/or VAS during therapy. Patient's opinion correlated moderately with the opinion of doctors and nurses (ρ = 0.50-0.56 respectively), but strongly with hair dressers (ρ = 0.70). The Hair check is suitable to quantify the amount of hair loss and could complement research on refining outcome of scalp cooling, but the patient's opinion should be considered as the best method to assess hair loss in clinical practice. Trialregister.nl NTR number 3082. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is seborrhoeic dermatitis associated with a diffuse, low-grade folliculitis and progressive cicatricial alopecia?

    PubMed

    Pitney, Lucy; Weedon, David; Pitney, Michael

    2016-08-01

    An association between adult scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis and cicatricial hair loss has not previously been convincingly established. This study seeks to demonstrate a unique relationship between a clinically identifiable chronic scalp dermatitis-folliculitis with the characteristic histological features of low-grade inflammatory fibrosing alopecia, resulting in a distinctive progressive cicatricial alopecia which we believe is prevalent and hitherto unrecognised, and befits the description of seborrhoeic folliculitis. The clinical, epidemiological and histopathological features of seborrhoeic folliculitis are demonstrated to establish its unique status among the disorders of adult diffuse cicatricial alopecia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. Tofacitinib for the treatment of severe alopecia areata and variants: A study of 90 patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lucy Y; Craiglow, Brittany G; Dai, Feng; King, Brett A

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common autoimmune disorder. There are no reliably effective therapies for AA. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Janus kinase 1/3 inhibitor, tofacitinib, in a series of patients over an extended period of time. This is a retrospective study of patients age 18 years or older with AA with at least 40% scalp hair loss treated with tofacitinib. The primary end point was the percent change in Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score during treatment. Ninety patients met inclusion criteria. Of 65 potential responders to therapy, defined as those with alopecia totalis or alopecia universalis with duration of current episode of disease of 10 years or less or alopecia areata, 77% achieved a clinical response, with 58% of patients achieving greater than 50% change in SALT score over 4 to 18 months of treatment. Patients with AA experienced a higher percent change in SALT score than did patients with alopecia totalis or alopecia universalis (81.9% vs 59.0%). Tofacitinib was well tolerated, and there were no serious adverse events. The retrospective nature of the data, the relatively small number of patients, and lack of a control group are limitations. Tofacitinib should be considered for the treatment of severe AA, alopecia totalis, and alopecia universalis; tofacitinib dose response will be better defined by randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Critical Assessment of the Evidence for Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Foley, Kelly A

    2017-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is currently in use to stimulate hair growth and is quickly gaining in popularity due to the ease of use and absence of side effects. In 2015 alone, the number of LLLT devices with the Food and Drug Administration clearance has doubled. To consolidate evidence and establish which data are still required for the widespread acceptance of LLLT for hair loss therapy. A thorough search of the PubMed database was conducted to obtain studies investigating LLLT for androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Nine trials were identified for comb and helmet/cap devices, five of which were randomized controlled trials. Data comparison across LLLT trials and with traditional hair loss therapy (minoxidil, finasteride) was not straight forward because there was a lack of visual evidence, sample sizes were low, and there were large variations in study duration and efficacy measurements. There are a number of unanswered questions about the optimum treatment regimen, including maintenance treatment and the long-term consequences of LLLT use. Moving forward, protocols should be standardized across trials. Moreover, it is recommended that future trials include visual evidence and trial duration be expanded to 12 months.

  6. Hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E A

    2000-06-01

    Disorders of the hair are commonplace in the primary care practice. Among these disorders are male pattern baldness, Telogen effluvium, alopecia areata, Trichotillomania, and fungal infections involving the hair shaft. A review of the normal anatomy and life cycle of hair also is presented.

  7. Molecular genetics of alopecias.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in research methods and techniques, such as whole-exome and -genome sequencing, have substantially improved our understanding of genetic conditions. Special progress has been made in the field of genotrichoses, or hereditary hair diseases, a field that has been obscure for many years. The underlying genes for many of the monogenic hair diseases are now known. Additionally, complex analyses of large cohorts of patients have given us the first clues to the genes associated with polygenic hair disorders, such as androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. Thanks to these major findings, the sophisticated regulation of the morphogenesis, development and growth of hair follicles has begun to be revealed, and new players in this delicate molecular interplay have been exposed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Use of low-level laser therapy in treatment of the androgenic alopecia, the first systematic review.

    PubMed

    Najem, Ibrahim; Chen, Hongxiang

    2017-12-11

    Alopecia is a common disease affecting more than half of the world total number of people. Alopecia exists in different types, but one of the most common of these types is the Androgenic Alopecia which has affected approximately 51% of the total number of males ranging between the age bracket of 40 years and 75 years. This type of alopecia is more common in females who are above the age of 65 years and above. Despite this widespread effect, much has not been done regarding identifying the possible drugs for treating this disease. At present, there exist only two possible medications that have been scientifically approved to cure this disease, include finasteride and minoxidil. Also, another possible form of treatment has been the case of hair transplantation. Despite the new possible treatment options available for treatment of different types of hair loss, there is a need for the invention for more efficient management and treatment options that are less costly, environmentally friendly, and most importantly human consumption friendly. Due to the recent evaluation that low-level laser therapy stimulated hair growth. This systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine whether the use of low-level laser therapy is an effective therapy for treatment of the Androgenic alopecia and also to some degree we reviewed the level of the patient's satisfaction. Some earlier studies had shown that the use of low-level laser therapy stimulated the hair growth when mice were treated with chemotherapy which was induced by the alopecia and also the other type of alopecia called alopecia areata. The researchers hypothesized that the primary mechanism of treating Androgenic alopecia to be the stimulation of the epidermal stem cells which are in the hair follicle making them bulge and shift the follicles into the anagen phase.

  9. A bibliometric study of scientific literature in Scopus on botanicals for treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Peroni, Gabriella; Guido, Davide

    2016-06-01

    In androgenetic alopecia, a number of botanicals are available that can effectively slow or reduce hair loss and inflammation or stimulate partial hair regrowth. The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive overview of the impact and production of literature on botanicals used for androgenetic alopecia and to perform a citation analysis of the related research articles. We searched for "alopecia" OR "androgenetic alopecia" OR "hair loss" AND "Camelia sinensis" OR (and other 15 botanicals) in ARTICLE (Title/Abstract/Keyword) in Scopus database. A total of 29 references, that is, research articles, were retrieved by SCOPUS search, and 93.1% had been published since 2000. The majority (48.3%) describe applications of hair grow stimulants, followed by inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase applications (27.6%), and studies concerning inhibitors of inflammation (24.1%). The citation analysis revealed a growing interest for this topic and the papers on hair grow stimulants are most cited. Citation trend of inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase articles is growing in the last years. This study has highlighted three important aspects: (1) growing interest for this topic; (2) evidences mainly in hair grow stimulants and recently in the inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase, as demonstrated by article and citation counts across years; (3) in addition, all major studies have been focused on green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Serenoa repens, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuscuta reflexa. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Different Trichoscopic Features of Tinea Capitis and Alopecia Areata in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Taweel, Abd-Elaziz; El-Esawy, Fatma; Abdel-Salam, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Background. Diagnosis of patchy hair loss in pediatric patients is often a matter of considerable debate among dermatologists. Trichoscopy is a rapid and noninvasive tool to detect more details of patchy hair loss. Like clinical dermatology, trichoscopy works parallel to the skin surface and perpendicular to the histological plane; like the histopathology, it thus allows the viewing of structures not discovered by the naked eye. Objective. Aiming to compare the different trichoscopic features of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. Patients and Methods. This study included 40 patients, 20 patients with tinea capitis and 20 patients with alopecia areata. They were exposed toclinical examination, laboratory investigations (10% KOH and fungal culture), and trichoscope examination. Results. Our obtained results reported that, in tinea capitis patients, comma shaped hairs, corkscrew hairs, and zigzag shaped hairs are the diagnostic trichoscopic features of tinea capitis. While in alopecia areata patients, the most trichoscopic specific features were yellow dots, exclamation mark, and short vellus hairs. Conclusion. Trichoscopy can be used as a noninvasive tool for rapid diagnosis of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. PMID:25024698

  11. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  12. [Hair and their environment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  13. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

  14. Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  15. Low iron stores: a risk factor for excessive hair loss in non-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Deloche, Claire; Bastien, Philippe; Chadoutaud, Stéphanie; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; de Lacharrière, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency has been suspected to represent one of the possible causes of excessive hair loss in women. The aim of our study was to assess this relationship in a very large population of 5110 women aged between 35 and 60 years. Hair loss was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire sent to all volunteers. The iron status was assessed by a serum ferritin assay carried out in each volunteer. Multivariate analysis allowed us to identify three categories: "absence of hair loss" (43%), "moderate hair loss" (48%) and "excessive hair loss" (9%). Among the women affected by excessive hair loss, a larger proportion of women (59%) had low iron stores (< 40 microg/L) compared to the remainder of the population (48%). Analysis of variance and logistic regression show that a low iron store represents a risk factor for hair loss in non-menopausal women.

  16. The effect of plasma rich in growth factors combined with follicular unit extraction surgery for the treatment of hair loss: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Roge M; Pino, Ander; Martinez-Andres, Asunción; Molina, Consuelo; Martinez, Ana María; Martinez, Nahikari; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo

    2017-10-26

    Hair transplant surgery using follicular unit extraction technique (FUE) is a common surgical procedure for the treatment of severe hair loss. Blood-derived autologous growth factors have also proved to promote hair regeneration in patients with different types of alopecia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) technology as an adjuvant therapy for FUE surgery in hair loss affected patients. The biologic potential of PRGF was firstly in vitro evaluated over follicular germinal matrix and dermal papilla cells. Afterward, fifteen patients were subjected to routine FUE procedure while 15 patients underwent FUE+PRGF therapy. PRGF group included intradermal injections of growth factors and follicular transfer unit (FTU) preservation in an autologous fibrin clot. Postsurgical patient satisfaction and clinical improvement were evaluated, and PRGF or saline-preserved hair grafts were histomorphometrically analyzed. Follicular cell proliferation and migration was induced after autologous growth factors treatment. PRGF-preserved FTUs presented higher bioactivity signals and improved integrity of perifollicular structures and extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and elastic fibers. PRGF not only reduced the postsurgical crust healing and hair fixation period, but also decreased the inflammatory pain and itching sensation. This preliminary data demonstrate that PRGF is able to minimize the postsurgical follicle loss and potentiate the performance of grafted hairs. The fibrin clot not only acts as a protective barrier against environmental factors, but also provides a biologically active scaffold that induces resident cell proliferation and maintains an optimal integrity of the grafted hair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Adult-onset hair loss in Chesapeake Bay retrievers: a clinical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Cerundolo, R; Mauldin, E A; Goldschmidt, M H; Beyerlein, S L; Refsal, K R; Oliver, J W

    2005-02-01

    Ten Chesapeake Bay retriever (CBRS) dogs with hair loss were recruited in collaboration with the American Chesapeake Club. All dogs had nonpruritic, noninflammatory, regionalized hair loss affecting the same areas of the body in male and female dogs. Hormonal investigations showed increased adrenal and sex steroid concentration in seven cases. Histopathology revealed follicular hyperkeratosis and plugging, follicular atrophy, and occasional melanin clumping with malformed hair shafts. This study suggests that hair loss in CBRS is a breed syndrome in which young adult dogs have hair loss characterized by unusual histological features and abnormal steroid production. A familial predisposition seems likely and selective breeding might reduce the occurrence of this condition.

  18. Comparison of the effects of 665 nm low level diode Laser Hat versus and a combination of 665 nm and 808nm low level diode Laser Scanner of hair growth in androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Barikbin, Behrooz; Khodamrdi, Zeinab; Kholoosi, Leila; Akhgri, Mohammad Reza; Haj Abbasi, Majid; Hajabbasi, Mojgan; Razzaghi, Zahra; Akbarpour, Samaneh

    2017-05-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a combined set of low level diode laser scanner (665 nm and 808nm) on hair growth, and assessment of safety and effectiveness of a new laser scanner on hair growth treatment procedure in androgenic alopecia. 90 patients (18 to 70 years) with androgenic alopecia were randomized into three groups. The first group (n=30) received 655 nm red light using laser hat, the second group (n=30) received 655 nm red laser plus 808 nm infrared laser using a laser scanner of hair growth device (with the patent number: 77733) and the third group (n=30) received no laser as the control group. Patients in laser scanner group had better results and showed a higher increase in terminal hair density compared with laser hat group (mean of 9.61 versus 9.16 per cm 2 ). We found significant decrease in terminal hair density from baseline in control group (mean -1.8 per cm 2 , p<0.0001). Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the laser scanner of the hair growth group compared with laser hat and the control group. The study showed that treatment with new laser devise had a promising result without any observable adverse effects.

  19. Treatment of female pattern hair loss with oral antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Wewerinke, M; Jolley, D

    2005-03-01

    It has not been conclusively established that female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is either due to androgens or responsive to oral antiandrogen therapy. To evaluate the efficacy of oral antiandrogen therapy in the management of women with FPHL using standardized photographic techniques (Canfield Scientific), and to identify clinical and histological parameters predictive of clinical response. For this single-centre, before-after, open intervention study, 80 women aged between 12 and 79 years, with FPHL and biopsy-confirmed hair follicle miniaturization [terminal/vellus (T/V) hair ratio < or = 4 : 1] were photographed at baseline and again after receiving a minimum of 12 months of oral antiandrogen therapy. Forty women received spironolactone 200 mg daily and 40 women received cyproterone acetate, either 50 mg daily or 100 mg for 10 days per month if premenopausal. Women using topical minoxidil were excluded. Standardized photographs of the midfrontal and vertex scalp were taken with the head positioned in a stereotactic device. Images were evaluated by a panel of three clinicians experienced in the assessment of FPHL, blinded to patient details and treatment and using a three-point scale. As there was no significant difference in the results or the trend between spironolactone and cyproterone acetate the results were combined. Thirty-five (44%) women had hair regrowth, 35 (44%) had no clear change in hair density before and after treatment, and 10 (12%) experienced continuing hair loss during the treatment period. Ordinal logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of response revealed no influence of patient age, menopause status, serum ferritin, serum hormone levels, clinical stage (Ludwig) or histological parameters such as T/V ratio or fibrosis. The only significant predictor was midscalp clinical grade, with higher-scale values associated with a greater response (P = 0.013). Eighty-eight percent of women receiving oral antiandrogens could expect to see no

  20. Utilizing electromagnetic radiation for hair growth: a critical review of phototrichogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss has a high prevalence in the general population and can have significant medical and psychological sequelae. Pattern hair loss and alopecia areata represent the major reasons patients present to dermatologists in relation to hair loss. Because conventional treatment options are generally incompletely effective, novel methods for hair grown induction are being developed. The role of using electromagnetic radiation, including low-level laser therapy for the management of hair loss through phototrichogenesis, is reviewed in this article. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of the multifunctional cosmetic ingredient sphinganine on hair loss in males and females with diffuse hair reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Nicole; Mentel, Matthias; Köhler, Tim; Tuchscherer, Benjamin; Garbe, Birgit; Ülker, Jasmina; Tronnier, Hagen; Heinrich, Ulrike; Farwick, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are well known to promote keratinocyte differentiation and to induce ceramide production. In addition, they show anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of sphinganine on prolonging the hair anagen rate and improving the overall hair quality and scalp health. The inhibitory potential of sphinganine toward 5-α-reductase was studied using an in vitro assay. The stimulation of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2 by sphinganine was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Sphinganine bioavailability was studied ex vivo using a pig skin model. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sphinganine on hair loss and hair/scalp quality in vivo. In vitro results showed that sphinganine is a potent inhibitor of 5-α-reductase type I that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key factor of androgenetic male baldness. In vivo results demonstrated efficacy in reducing non-illness-related hair loss among males. In terms of expert rating, all hair quality and scalp parameters improved after application of sphinganine. Improved scalp health might be linked to the observed increase of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2. Thus, sphinganine is well suited as a topical alternative for the improvement of scalp health and hair quality and anti-hair loss application. PMID:27660477

  2. [Two cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Anke; Bormann, Gisela; Marsch, Wolfgang Christian; Wohlrab, Johannes

    2004-08-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an uncommon, slowly progressive, cicatricial alopecia which mainly affects postmenopausal women. It is considered to be a variant of lichen planopilaris. We describe two postmenopausal women who developed over 11 and 24 months an asymptomatic atrophic alopecia, restricted to the frontal hairline. The diagnosis of FFA was confirmed by biopsy showing a perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate with fibrosis. Topical corticosteroids, in one case combined with minoxidil, administered for 3 months arrested the hair loss. The treatment of FFA is often difficult. In most cases, the disease resolves spontaneously after several years. Immunomodulators such as corticosteroids and calcineurin antagonists should be tried in the early stage of FFA (frontal effluvium with perifollicular erythema) in order to arrest the disease in its inflammatory phase.

  3. [Frontal fibrosing alopecia: case series and literature review].

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Fragoso, Fátima; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a disease characterized by a symmetric and progressive loss of hair in the fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal lines that generally affects postmenopausal women. It is considered a variant of lichen planus pilaris for its clinical and histopathological features; although, its etiopathology is still unknown. In this report, we analyzed 4 cases of this disease and we discussed its clinical and histopathological characteristics, as well as their course after initiating treatment.

  4. A mouse model of androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, Judy S; Kilbourne, Edward J; Peano, Bryan J; Chippari, Susan; Kenney, Thomas; McNally, Christopher; Wang, Wei; Harris, Heather A; Winneker, Richard C; Nagpal, Sunil; Thompson, Catherine C

    2010-05-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), commonly known as male pattern baldness, is a form of hair loss that occurs in both males and females. Although the exact cause of AGA is not known, it is associated with genetic predisposition through traits related to androgen synthesis/metabolism and androgen signaling mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Current therapies for AGA show limited efficacy and are often associated with undesirable side effects. A major hurdle to developing new therapies for AGA is the lack of small animal models to support drug discovery research. Here, we report the first rodent model of AGA. Previous work demonstrating that the interaction between androgen-bound AR and beta-catenin can inhibit Wnt signaling led us to test the hypothesis that expression of AR in hair follicle cells could interfere with hair growth in an androgen-dependent manner. Transgenic mice overexpressing human AR in the skin under control of the keratin 5 promoter were generated. Keratin 5-human AR transgenic mice exposed to high levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone showed delayed hair regeneration, mimicking the AGA scalp. This effect is AR mediated, because treatment with the AR antagonist hydroxyflutamide inhibited the effect of dihydrotestosterone on hair growth. These results support the hypothesis that androgen-mediated hair loss is AR dependent and suggest that AR and beta-catenin mediate this effect. These mice can now be used to test new therapeutic agents for the treatment of AGA, accelerating the drug discovery process.

  5. Factors associated with female pattern hair loss and its prevalence in Taiwanese women: a community-based survey.

    PubMed

    Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Li-Sheng; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2013-08-01

    Although female pattern hair loss (FPHL) has been considered simply the female counterpart of male pattern hair loss in men, the risk factors may differ. We sought to evaluate factors associated with FPHL and to estimate its prevalence in women. In total, 26,226 subjects aged 30 years and older participated in a cross-sectional survey. Ludwig and Norwood classifications were used to assess the degree of hair loss. Information on possible risk factors for FPHL was collected using a questionnaire interview. The prevalence of FPHL (Ludwig grade >I) for all ages was 11.8% (95% CI 11.5%-12.2%), increasing with advancing age. After controlling for age and family history, statistically significant associations were noted between FPHL and high fasting glucose (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.28), fewer childbirths (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.38), breast-feeding (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.98), oral contraceptive use (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45), and ultraviolet exposure more than 16 hours per week (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.22). The validity and reliability of FPHL classification may be not perfect in this survey and may need to be verified. Information on family history may be still subject to recall bias. Risk factors for FPHL and male androgenic alopecia may differ. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effectiveness of treatments for androgenetic alopecia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adil, Areej; Godwin, Marshall

    2017-07-01

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male pattern hair loss, is a hair loss disorder mediated by dihydrotestosterone, the potent form of testosterone. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and HairMax LaserComb, which is FDA-cleared, are the only treatments recognized by the FDA as treatments of androgenetic alopecia. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the efficacy of nonsurgical treatments of androgenetic alopecia in comparison to placebo for improving hair density, thickness, growth (defined by an increased anagen:telogen ratio), or subjective global assessments done by patients and investigators. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were searched up to December 2016, with no lower limit on the year. We included only randomized controlled trials of good or fair quality based on the US Preventive Services Task Force quality assessment process. A meta-analysis was conducted separately for 5 groups of studies that tested the following hair loss treatments: low-level laser light therapy in men, 5% minoxidil in men, 2% minoxidil in men, 1 mg finasteride in men, and 2% minoxidil in women. All treatments were superior to placebo (P < .00001) in the 5 meta-analyses. Other treatments were not included because the appropriate data were lacking. High heterogeneity in most studies. This meta-analysis strongly suggests that minoxidil, finasteride, and low-level laser light therapy are effective for promoting hair growth in men with androgenetic alopecia and that minoxidil is effective in women with androgenetic alopecia. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Methotrexate for the treatment of pediatric alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Landis, Erin T; Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita O

    2018-03-01

    Alopecia areata is a form of nonscarring hair loss that occurs in pediatric and adult patients, with presentation varying from round or ovoid patches of alopecia to alopecia totalis or universalis. While frustrating for patients, it can also be frustrating for clinicians to treat, as there is no definitive treatment. Dermatologists are very familiar with the use of methotrexate for psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases, and this medication is generally well tolerated in children. This study presents a case series reviewing the efficacy of methotrexate in our pediatric patients with alopecia areata, making use of a retrospective chart review design from 2011 to 2016. In this data set, 8/14 subjects (57%) experienced good regrowth with methotrexate, while 3/14 (21%) had a response that could not be assessed due to loss to follow-up or premature discontinuation of the medication. No cases discontinued the medication due to recognized methotrexate side effects. This review suggests methotrexate is a generally safe and often effective medication in pediatric alopecia areata.

  8. Ginsenoside F2 reduces hair loss by controlling apoptosis through the sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage activating protein and transforming growth factor-β pathways in a dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Park, Sang-Yong; Hwang, Eun-Son; Lee, Don-Gil; Mavlonov, Gafurjon Turdalievich; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to test whether ginsenoside F2 can reduce hair loss by influencing sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway of apoptosis in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated hair cells and in a DHT-induced hair loss model in mice. Results for ginsenoside F2 were compared with finasteride. DHT inhibits proliferation of hair cells and induces androgenetic alopecia and was shown to activate an apoptosis signal pathway both in vitro and in vivo. The cell-based 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the proliferation rates of DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48% in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group. Western blot analysis showed that ginsenoside F2 decreased expression of TGF-β2 related factors involved in hair loss. The present study suggested a hair loss related pathway by changing SCAP related apoptosis pathway, which has been known to control cholesterol metabolism. SCAP, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and caspase-12 expression in the ginsenoside F2-treated group were decreased compared to the DHT and finasteride-treated group. C57BL/6 mice were also prepared by injection with DHT and then treated with ginsenoside F2 or finasteride. Hair growth rate, density, thickness measurements and tissue histotological analysis in these groups suggested that ginsenoside F2 suppressed hair cell apoptosis and premature entry to catagen more effectively than finasteride. Our results indicated that ginsenoside F2 decreased the expression of TGF-β2 and SCAP proteins, which have been suggested to be involved in apoptosis and entry into catagen. This study provides evidence those factors in the SCAP pathway could be targets for hair loss prevention drugs.

  9. Dermoscopic clues to distinguish trichotillomania from patchy alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Leonardo Spagnol; Torres, Fernanda Nogueira; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2010-01-01

    Trichotillomania and patchy alopecia areata have similar clinical and dermoscopic features. In trichotillomania, dermoscopy shows decreased hair density, short vellus hair, broken hairs with different shaft lengths, coiled hairs, short vellus hair, trichoptilosis, sparse yellow dots, which may or may not contain black dots and no exclamation mark hairs. In the case of patchy alopecia and broken hairs, the absence of exclamation mark hairs suggests a diagnosis of trichotillomania. On the other hand, the finding of yellow dots without black dots does not exclude it.

  10. A review on laser and light-based therapies for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Mlacker, Stephanie; Aldahan, Adam Souhail; Simmons, Brian James; Shah, Vidhi; McNamara, Colin Andrew; Samarkandy, Sahal; Nouri, Keyvan

    2017-04-01

    Alopecia areata is a form of non-scarring alopecia that results from a hyperactive immune response of T cells against hair follicles. Many patients with visible hair loss experience psychological and emotional distress, as a result of their cosmetic disfigurement, and frequently seek treatment. However, existing treatment methods, such as corticosteroids, topical irritants, sensitizing agents, immunosuppressants, and psoralen plus ultraviolet light A, may result in various adverse effects and often lack efficacy. Laser and light treatments offer a safe and effective alternative. This review aims to provide clinicians with a comprehensive summary of laser and light-based modalities used for the treatment of alopecia areata. Currently, the excimer laser is the most widely studied device and has shown positive results thus far. However, the development of future randomized controlled clinical trials will help determine the appropriate treatment protocols necessary, in order to achieve superior clinical outcomes.

  11. Chemotherapy and Hair Loss: What to Expect during Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... After treatment Continue gentle hair care. Your new hair growth will be especially fragile and vulnerable to the ... sensitive scalp. Be patient. It's likely that your hair will come back slowly and that it might not look normal right away. But growth takes time, and it also takes time to ...

  12. Multi-therapies in androgenetic alopecia: review and clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Anzalone, Alessia; Fortuna, Maria Caterina; Caro, Gemma; Garelli, Valentina; Pranteda, Giulia; Carlesimo, Marta

    2016-11-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a genetically determined progressive hair-loss condition which represents the most common cause of hair loss in men. The use of the medical term androgenetic alopecia reflects current knowledge about the important role of androgens and genetic factors in its etiology. In addition to androgen-dependent changes in the hair cycle, sustained microscopic follicular inflammation contributes to its onset. Furthermore, Prostaglandins have been demonstrated to have the ability in modulating hair follicle cycle; in particular, PGD2 inhibits hair growth while PGE2/F2a promote growth. Due to the progressive nature of AGA, the treatment should be started early and continued indefinitely, since the benefit will not be maintained upon ceasing therapy. To date, only two therapeutic agents have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AGA: topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Considering the many pathogenetic mechanisms involved in AGA, various treatment options are available: topical and systemic drugs may be used and the choice depends on various factors including grading of AGA, patients' pathological conditions, practicability, costs and risks. So, the treatment for AGA should be based on personalized therapy and targeted at the different pathophysiological aspects of AGA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in rats by CDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Davis, S T; Benson, B G; Bramson, H N; Chapman, D E; Dickerson, S H; Dold, K M; Eberwein, D J; Edelstein, M; Frye, S V; Gampe, R T; Griffin, R J; Harris, P A; Hassell, A M; Holmes, W D; Hunter, R N; Knick, V B; Lackey, K; Lovejoy, B; Luzzio, M J; Murray, D; Parker, P; Rocque, W J; Shewchuk, L; Veal, J M; Walker, D H; Kuyper, L F

    2001-01-05

    Most traditional cytotoxic anticancer agents ablate the rapidly dividing epithelium of the hair follicle and induce alopecia (hair loss). Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), a positive regulator of eukaryotic cell cycle progression, may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) by arresting the cell cycle and reducing the sensitivity of the epithelium to many cell cycle-active antitumor agents. Potent small-molecule inhibitors of CDK2 were developed using structure-based methods. Topical application of these compounds in a neonatal rat model of CIA reduced hair loss at the site of application in 33 to 50% of the animals. Thus, inhibition of CDK2 represents a potentially useful approach for the prevention of CIA in cancer patients.

  14. Amelanocytic anhidrotic alopecia areata-like phenotype after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Edidong Celestine Ntuen; Larson, Richard A; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna

    2012-08-01

    Diffuse alopecia areata or canities subita is a rare variant of alopecia in which hair loss is associated with regrowth of white hairs and possible lightening of the skin. Preferential loss of pigmented hair in this disorder may be related to the melanin pigment system and/or melanocytes. Acquired generalized anhidrosis can be associated with autoimmune disease, cancer, graft-vs-host disease, or medications or can be idiopathic. Extensive anhidrosis may cause hyperpyrexia on exposure to heat, and protection from overheating is essential. A 38-year-old man with idiopathic autoimmune aplastic anemia developed permanent diffuse skin and hair whitening and generalized anhidrosis after a successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Results of a histopathologic examination, which has previously not been reported in this disease, demonstrated a complete lack of epidermal and follicular melanocytes and a dense perifollicular and periadnexal lymphocytic infiltrate. The hair- and skin-lightening phenomena in diffuse alopecia areata may be the result of an overstimulated immune system that targets epidermal and follicular melanocytes. Destruction results in irreversible pigmentary loss of the skin. In a patient with multiple risk factors for anhidrosis, a specific cause may be difficult to determine.

  15. Squalene-containing nanostructured lipid carriers promote percutaneous absorption and hair follicle targeting of diphencyprone for treating alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Ku; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Leu, Yann-Lii; Shen, Feng-Ming; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-02-01

    Diphencyprone (DPCP) is a therapeutic agent for treating alopecia areata. To improve skin absorption and follicular targeting nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were developed. Nanoparticles were characterized by size, zeta potential, molecular environment, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In vitro and in vivo skin absorption experiments were performed. Fluorescence and confocal microscopes for imaging skin distribution were used. NLCs with different designs were 208 ~ 265 nm with  > 77% DPCP encapsulation. NLCs incorporating a cationic surfactant or more soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) showed higher lipophilicity compared to typical NLCs by Nile red emission. All NLCs tested revealed controlled DPCP release; burst release was observed for control. The formulation with more SPC provided 275 μg/g DPCP skin retention, which was greater than control and other NLCs. Intersubject deviation was reduced after DPCP loading into NLCs. Cyanoacrylate skin biopsy demonstrated greater follicular deposition for NLCs with more SPC compared to control. Cationic NLCs but not typical or SPC-containing carriers were largely internalized into keratinocytes. In vivo skin retention of NLCs with more SPC was higher than free control. Confocal imaging confirmed localization of NLCs in follicles and intercellular lipids of stratum corneum. This work encourages further investigation of DPCP absorption using NLCs with a specific formulation design.

  16. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments. PMID:27095961

  17. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause.

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna Sabina

    2016-03-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments.

  18. Treating Alopecia Areata: Current Practices Versus New Directions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Carviel, Jessie; Abramovits, William

    2017-02-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is non-scarring hair loss resulting from an autoimmune disorder. Severity varies from patchy hair loss that often spontaneously resolves to severe and chronic cases that can progress to total loss of scalp and body hair. Many treatments are available; however, the efficacy of these treatments has not been confirmed, especially in severe cases, and relapse rates are high. First-line treatment often includes corticosteroids such as intralesional or topical steroids for mild cases and systemic steroids or topical immunotherapy with diphenylcyclopropenone or squaric acid dibutylester in severe cases. Minoxidil and bimatoprost may also be recommended, usually in combination with another treatment. Ongoing research and new insights into mechanisms have led to proposals of innovative therapies. New directions include biologics targeting immune response as well as lasers and autologous platelet-rich plasma therapy. Preliminary data are encouraging, and it is hoped this research will translate into new options for the treatment of AA in the near future.

  19. A review of monochromatic light devices for the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Darwin, Evan; Arora, Harleen; Hirt, Penelope A; Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2018-02-01

    There are many laser technologies that are being tested that claim to support hair regrowth for patients with alopecia areata (AA). In this paper, we will determine whether the body of evidence supports the use of devices using monochromatic light sources to treat AA. Articles were gathered from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database using these keywords: lasers, excimer laser, low-level laser therapy (LLLT), low-level light therapy, alopecia, alopecia areata, and hair loss with a category modifier of English. Ten clinical trials and seven case reports/abstracts were assessed. Eight clinical trials and two case reports demonstrated hair regrowth with the 308-nm excimer laser/light in men, women, and children. One case report demonstrated hair regrowth with the ALBA 355® laser. One clinical trial and two case reports demonstrated hair regrowth with LLLT. While two case reports demonstrated hair regrowth with fractional laser therapy, one clinical trial showed no improvement. The 308-nm excimer laser is a safe and effective treatment for men, women, and children with refractory AA of the scalp and beard. Larger, double-blinded clinical trials should be conducted to compare excimer laser therapy to standard treatments. More data is needed to determine the efficacy of LLLT and fractional laser therapy in the treatment of AA.

  20. Steven Kossards postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia (PFFA)--a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Tronnier, M

    2010-01-01

    Steven Kossard described a new type of hair loss that he named frontal postmenopausal fibrosing alopecia (PFFA). In some of his patients he observed a symmetric regression of the frontal hair line. The eyebrows of the patients were also often affected. The histology of the lesions showed lichen planopilaris. Several cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia have been described- almost all of them in elderly women. We report a women with postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia of Kossard. In our patient there were no other clinical signs of lichen planus on the rest of the body After systemic and local therapy with corticosteroids we were able to observe a termination in the disease. In the subsequent 6-month control period no regrowth of the hair follicles was found. Even if there is no proof for a hormonal basis of the disease, the effectiveness of finasteride in some patients may indicate that androgens might be partially responsible of the pathogenesis of the disease. The local and systemic medication with corticosteroids are not able to bring to a permanent remission and secondary growth of the hair follicles in the affected areas and this brings to the necessity of more invasive or innovative therapeutic methods, like skin transplantation and additional application of medicaments like blockers of the 5/alpha reductase, which have proven their capacity in the androgenetic male alopecia.

  1. Alopecia: a review of laser and light therapies.

    PubMed

    Rangwala, Sophia; Rashid, Rashid M

    2012-02-15

    Since the 1980s, laser technology has become increasingly popular to treat a variety of cutaneous conditions. Its successful use as an epilator comes with the rare but interesting side effect of paradoxical hypertrichosis. In this review, we summarize cases describing hair growth after photoepilation, as well as studies testing laser and light sources as treatment for alopecia, particularly androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. We also discuss the possible biologic mechanisms by which phototherapy induces hair regeneration.

  2. Protein loss in human hair from combination straightening and coloring treatments.

    PubMed

    França-Stefoni, Simone Aparecida; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sá-Dias, Tânia Cristina; Bedin, Valcinir; de Almeida, Adriano José; Baby, André Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-09-01

    Hair chemical treatments, such as dyeing and straightening products, are known to cause damage that can be assessed by protein loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hair protein loss caused by combined chemical treatments (dye and relaxer) using the validated bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. Three kinds of straighteners, based on ammonium thioglycolate, guanidine hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, were evaluated and the least harmful combination indicated. Caucasian virgin dark brown hair tresses were treated with developed natural brown color oxidative hair dyeing and/or straightening commercial products based on ammonium thioglycolate, sodium hydroxide, or guanidine hydroxide. Protein loss quantification was assessed by the validated BCA method which has several advantages for quantifying protein loss in chemically treated hair. When both treatments (straightening and dyeing) were combined, a higher negative effect was observed, particularly for dyed hair treated with sodium hydroxide. In this case, a 356% increase in protein loss relative to virgin hair was observed and 208% in relation to only dyed hair. The combination of dying and relaxers based on ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide caused a small increase in protein loss, suggesting that these straightening products could be the best alternatives for individuals wishing to combine both treatments. These results indicated that when application of both types of products is desired, ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide should be chosen for the straightening process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of sinapic acid on hair growth promoting in human hair follicle dermal papilla cells via Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyunju; Lee, Seungjun; Kim, Seungbeom; Park, Deokhoon; Jung, Eunsun

    2017-07-01

    Hair loss known as alopecia is caused by abnormal hair follicle cycling including shortening of the anagen (growth) phase and changing of hair follicle morphology with miniaturization. In accordance with the life extension, the quality of life is considered to be a most important thing. The yearning for healthy and beautiful hair and low self esteem due to hair loss had negative influence on the quality of life with psychosocial maladjustment. The objective of this research was to identify new compound that can be used as a drug to promote hair growth. We investigated whether the function of sinapic acid (SA) is able to promote hair growth in human hair follicle dermal papilla cells (hHFDPC). We showed that treatment of SA in hHFDPC could induce proliferation and the activation of Akt signaling in HFDPC. In addition, SA could stimulate the expressions of the several growth factors, insulin-like growth factor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor for hair growth. We showed that SA led to an increased level of phospho-GSK-3β and β-catenin accumulation in HFDPC. Finally, the promoting effect of SA in hHFDPC cell growth occurred by the induction of cell cycle progression. These results suggest that SA could be one of the potential candidate compounds for the treatment of alopecia by inducing hair growth through triggering the expressions of growth factors via activation of Akt and subsequent inactivation of GSK-3β /β-catenin pathway.

  4. Topical tacrolimus in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Price, Vera H; Willey, Andrea; Chen, Bryan K

    2005-01-01

    Eleven patients with alopecia areata affecting 10% to 75% of the scalp, average duration 6 years, had no terminal hair growth in response to tacrolimus ointment 0.1% applied twice daily for 24 weeks. Treatment failure may reflect insufficient depth of penetration of the ointment formulation and less than optimal patient selection.

  5. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide and the hair cycle - is it the agonists or the antagonists that cause hair growth?

    PubMed

    Gensure, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    While the effects of PTHrP have been studied for almost 20 years, most of these studies have focused on effects on the termination of the anagen phase, giving an incomplete picture of the overall effect of PTHrP on the hair cycle. PTHrP was determined in several experimental models to promote transition of hair follicles from anagen to catagen phase, which by itself would suggest that PTHrP blockade might prolong the anagen phase and promote hair growth. However, clinical trials with topically applied PTHrP antagonists have been disappointing, leading to a reconsideration of this model. Additional studies performed in mouse models where hair follicles are damaged (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia) suggest that PTHrP has effects early in the hair cycle as well, promoting hair follicles' entry into anagen phase and initiates the hair cycle. While the mechanism of this has yet to be elucidated, it may involve activation of the Wnt pathway. Thus, the overall effect of PTHrP is to stimulate and accelerate the hair cycle, and in the more clinically relevant models of hair loss where hair follicles have been damaged or become quiescent, it is the agonists, not the antagonists, which would be expected to promote hair growth. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Platelet-rich plasma-an 'Elixir' for treatment of alopecia: personal experience on 117 patients with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Garg, Suruchi; Manchanda, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a new treatment modality in regenerative plastic surgery and dermatology. PRP is a simple, cost-effective and feasible treatment option with high patient satisfaction for hair loss and can be regarded as a valuable adjuvant treatment modality for androgenic alopecia and other types of non-scarring alopecias. Authors have proposed a hair model termed "Golden anchorage with 'molecular locking' of ectodermal and mesenchymal components for survival and integrity of hair follicle (HF)" in this article. Golden anchorage comprises of bulge stem cells, ectodermal basement membrane and bulge portion of APM. PRP with its autologous supply of millions of growth factors works on 'Golden anchorage' along with keratinocytes (PDGF), dermal papilla (IGF and fibroblast growth factor), vasculature (VEGF and PDGF) and neural cells (Nerve Growth Factor) in a multipronged manner serving as an 'elixir' for hair growth and improving overall environment.

  7. Scalp cooling successfully prevents alopecia in breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Ines; Wiesske, Alexandra; Schoenegg, Winfried

    2018-04-13

    Chemotherapy for breast cancer induces alopecia, representing a major source of patient distress. This study assesses whether a scalp-cooling device is effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia, and assesses adverse treatment effects. A prospective observational study including women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and scalp cooling using a Paxman device. The primary efficacy end points were: successful hair preservation (no hair loss; <30% hair loss not requiring a wig; or <50% hair loss not requiring a wig) at the completion of chemotherapy. Secondary end points included adverse effects such as headache, pain, nausea or dizziness. The study enrolled 131 participants. Mean patient age was 49.8 years; 74% received anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy and 26% received taxane-monotherapy based chemotherapy. Hair preservation was successful in 102 women who underwent scalp cooling (71.0%; 95% CI = 63-79%). Only adverse events related to device use were collected, representing 7% (95% CI = 3-11%) of cases. Scalp cooling is effective in preventing hair loss among breast cancer patients undergoing standard chemotherapy treatment, and has minimal adverse effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The treatment of female pattern hair loss and other applications of surgical hair restoration in women.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2004-05-01

    In the specialty of surgical hair restoration, men comprise more than 90% of the patients treated; however, in the last few years the number of women undergoing the procedure has increased significantly. The reasons for this growth are many and include the increase in public awareness of the efficacy of hair transplantation from such sources as the media,the Internet, advertising and word of mouth. More importantly, advances in technique have significantly improved results, increasing the confidence level in women to undergo the procedure and in hair transplant specialists to offer it.

  9. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

  10. Efficacy of a cosmetic phyto-caffeine shampoo in female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bussoletti, Carolina; Tolaini, Maria V; Celleno, Leonardo

    2018-03-06

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in both males as well as females, occurring in up to 57% of women by the age of 80 years. Androgenetic alopecia is associated with a high psychological burden and often results in substantially reduced quality of life, poor body image and low self-esteem, particularly in women. Caffeine-based products have shown promise, both in vitro and in vivo, as potential treatments for AGA. This study was performed to determine the efficacy of a phyto-caffeine- containing shampoo used over a 6-month period in female subjects with AGA. This was a single-centre, double-blind parallel trial in which female subjects with AGA were randomized to either a phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo or a control shampoo. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in the number of hairs pulled in a hair pull test at 6 months. Hair loss intensity, hair strength, subject satisfaction and tolerability were also assessed. Subjects using the phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo had significantly fewer hairs pulled in a hair pull test at 6 months, compared with subjects using the control shampoo (-3.1 vs -0.5 hairs; p<0.001). The majority of pre-specified secondary endpoints were also significantly improved for subjects using the phyto-caffeine- containing shampoo, compared with controls. Both products were very well tolerated. Compared with a control shampoo, a phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo was more efficacious, with respect to the number of hairs being pulled out at 6 months, hair loss intensity and hair strength in subjects with AGA.

  11. Permanent alopecia in patients with breast cancer after taxane chemotherapy and adjuvant hormonal therapy: Clinicopathologic findings in a cohort of 10 patients.

    PubMed

    Fonia, Athina; Cota, Carlo; Setterfield, Jane F; Goldberg, Lynne J; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2017-05-01

    Anagen effluvium with reversible scalp alopecia is a known side effect of chemotherapy. However, there are an increasing number of reports in the literature documenting permanent alopecia in patients treated with taxanes. We sought to describe the clinicopathologic features in breast cancer patients who underwent treatment with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy. We reviewed the clinical and histopathologic information of a cohort of 10 patients treated with taxanes and adjuvant hormonal chemotherapy. We have observed 3 types of clinical patterns of alopecia (types A, B, and C), and have validated the histopathologic features showing alopecia areata-like and female pattern hair loss. The study was based on a small sample size and retrospective retrieval of clinical information and histopathologic review of posttreatment slides. We hypothesize a clinicopathologic model of hair follicle cycle disruption in response to the chemoinflammatory and hormonal insults to the hair follicles resulting in permanent alopecia. Clinicopathologic correlation is paramount to the understanding of the morphobiologic pathways in chemotherapy-induced alopecia caused by taxanes and adjuvant hormonal treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Can you pull it off? Appearance modifying behaviours adopted by wig users with alopecia in social interactions.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Sally; Moore-Millar, Karena; Thomson, Avril

    2014-03-01

    In the academic and medical literature on alopecia, wigs (hair prostheses) are typically recommended as a coping strategy: a device to camouflage, conceal, or cover hair loss, and cope with the psychological impact of a dramatic change in body image. This paper used Goffman's (1959) theory of impression management to demonstrate (a) the social significance of self-presentation, and (b) how adults with alopecia managed their wig use in their daily lives. Data from 14 interviews, two focus groups and six video diaries with 22 Caucasian adults (19 females, 3 males; 29-74 years, SD=13.75) with alopecia in Scotland were analysed using discursive psychology. The analysis detailed how participants managed their wig use and behaviours in relation to social interaction with different categories of people. The paper raises concerns about health and medical discourse about wigs as a coping mechanism, and provides practical suggestions for wig users in social settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex. CCCA presents clinically as a central area of progressive irreversible hair loss that expands to the periphery. A patchy form has also been described. Dermoscopy is helpful to identify the optimal site for the biopsy, which establishes the diagnosis. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to discover the optimal management. At this point, patients are advised to avoid traction and chemical treatments; topical and intralesional steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and minoxidil can be helpful in halting the progression. PMID:27574457

  14. Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibres with loss of pigmentation in a photoprotected population.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, P D; Polefka, T; Grove, G; Daly, S; Jumbelic, L; Harper, D; Nori, M; Evans, T; Ramaprasad, R; Bianchini, R

    2011-04-01

    Loss of pigmentation in hair fibres is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes with ageing and has been a topic of increasing interest in the study of follicle biology. The onset of greying brings cosmetic complaints that grey fibres are wild or difficult to manage. Of course, these perceptions may be the consequence of visual obviousness rather than underlying physical or chemical differences. Although several studies have compared pigmented and unpigmented fibres, few have tried to control genetic and ethnic difference as well as extrinsic factors such as photoexposure and chemical treatment. We have recruited subjects with salt-and-pepper hair from a population of Old Order Mennonites who, for cultural reasons, are not only prohibited from chemically treating their hair but also limit their exposure to sunlight. Hair samples were examined for elemental composition, surface energy, Young's modulus, break stress, bending modulus, shear modulus and water sorption/desorption isotherm. The parameters were evaluated statistically for global differences, individual differences and typical individual differences. Consistent with previous published literature, few global differences were found between pigmented and unpigmented hair across the population. We do find that many individual subjects had differences between pigmented and unpigmented fibres. These differences tend to be more pronounced in bulk than in surface properties. The small differences in mechanical properties and moisture uptake and loss lend support to the perception by consumers that grey hair is wilder, drier and less manageable. © 2011 TRI/Princeton. Journal compilation. © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Changes in Chinese hair growth along a full year.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Yang, J; Qu, L; Gu, M; Liu, Y; Gao, J; Collaudin, C; Loussouarn, G

    2014-12-01

    To confirm the existence of seasonal hair growth cycle among Chinese subjects and objectivize the seasonal effect of hair loss; the hair growth parameters of Chinese volunteers were followed monthly for an entire year on the same area of vertex. The hair growth parameters of 41 Chinese volunteers (women and men), free from alopecia, were recorded monthly along an entire year using the phototrichogram technique. Results show an increased rate of telogen hairs (growing arrest) around August-September in the study group, as previously reported in European subjects albeit of a lower extent and remaining within the normal range of healthy head hair parameters. The possible effects of latitude and daylight duration are discussed. Data confirm that Chinese hairs present characteristics of the most developed and fast growing terminal fibres, as compared to other non-Asian ethnics. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Use of the pulsed infrared diode laser (904 nm) in the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Waiz, Makram; Saleh, Anmar Z; Hayani, Raafa; Jubory, Samar O

    2006-04-01

    Alopecia areata is a rapid and complete loss of hair in one or several patches, usually on the scalp, affecting both males and females equally. It is thought to be an autoimmune disease which is treated with different modalities with variable success. Laser treatment of different wavelengths has been used in the management of this problem. To study the effect of the pulsed infrared diode laser (904 nm) in the treatment of alopecia areata.Methods. Sixteen patients with 34 resistant patches that had not responded to different treatment modalities for alopecia areata were enrolled in this study. In patients with multiple patches, one patch was left as a control for comparison. Patients were treated on a four-session basis, once a week, with a pulsed diode laser (904 nm) at a pulse rate of 40/s. A photograph was taken of each patient before and after treatment. The treated patients were 11 males (68.75%) and five females (31.25%). Their ages ranged between 4 and 50 years with a mean of 26.6+/-SD of +/-13.8, and the durations of their disease were between 12 months and 6 years with a mean of 13.43+/-SD of +/-18.34. Regrowth of hair was observed in 32 patches (94%), while only two patches (6%) failed to show any response. No regrowth of hair was observed in the control patches. The regrowth of hair appeared as terminal hair with its original color in 29 patches (90.6%), while three patches (9.4%) appeared as a white villous hair. In patients who showed response, the response was detected as early as 1 week after the first session in 24 patches (75%), while eight patients (25%) started to show response from the second session. The pulsed infrared diode laser is an effective mode of therapy with a high success rate for resistant patches of alopecia areata.

  17. Three Cases of Hair Loss Analyzed by the Point of View of the Analytical Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Leite Júnior, Ademir Carvalho; Katzer, Tatiele; Ramos, Denise Gimenez

    2017-01-01

    Psychotrichology is the science, which covers the psychosomatics applied to hair problems, i.e., body-psyche phenomena involving scalp and hair disorders. The approaches involving psychotricology are varied and may include psychiatric,[1] psychoanalytical,[23] and those involving knowledge related to analytical psychology.[4] An analysis from the analytical psychology point of view, a theory developed by the physician Carl Gustav Jung, favors a symbolic view to the disease, providing it attributions and meanings that go beyond those related to physical body signs and symptoms only. This paper aims to describe and analyze, under the analytical psychology view, three cases the psychic and clinical demonstrations of which relate to symbolic and historic aspects concerning life of patients as possibilities of cause and maintenance of hair problems. The first of them is related to an 8-year-old girl who witnessed a scene of physical aggression by her father against her mother and developed a case of total alopecia. The second case is related to a 43-year-old woman who developed self-inflicted scalp dermatitis due to severe anxiety; and at last, the case of a telogen effluvium in a 23-year-old woman who developed hyperprolactinemia after the death of her mother, having to substitute her in the care about her husband and brothers. Looking at the clinical history and symbolic matters of scalp and hair diseases enabled, in the aforementioned cases, a better understanding of patients' psychoemotional disorders that may be related to the beginning and maintenance of clinical cases presented by them. PMID:29118523

  18. Three Cases of Hair Loss Analyzed by the Point of View of the Analytical Psychology.

    PubMed

    Leite Júnior, Ademir Carvalho; Katzer, Tatiele; Ramos, Denise Gimenez

    2017-01-01

    Psychotrichology is the science, which covers the psychosomatics applied to hair problems, i.e., body-psyche phenomena involving scalp and hair disorders. The approaches involving psychotricology are varied and may include psychiatric,[1] psychoanalytical,[23] and those involving knowledge related to analytical psychology.[4] An analysis from the analytical psychology point of view, a theory developed by the physician Carl Gustav Jung, favors a symbolic view to the disease, providing it attributions and meanings that go beyond those related to physical body signs and symptoms only. This paper aims to describe and analyze, under the analytical psychology view, three cases the psychic and clinical demonstrations of which relate to symbolic and historic aspects concerning life of patients as possibilities of cause and maintenance of hair problems. The first of them is related to an 8-year-old girl who witnessed a scene of physical aggression by her father against her mother and developed a case of total alopecia. The second case is related to a 43-year-old woman who developed self-inflicted scalp dermatitis due to severe anxiety; and at last, the case of a telogen effluvium in a 23-year-old woman who developed hyperprolactinemia after the death of her mother, having to substitute her in the care about her husband and brothers. Looking at the clinical history and symbolic matters of scalp and hair diseases enabled, in the aforementioned cases, a better understanding of patients' psychoemotional disorders that may be related to the beginning and maintenance of clinical cases presented by them.

  19. Reversal of the hair loss phenotype by modulating the estradiol-ANGPT2 axis in the mouse model of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yujiro; Obayashi, Yuko; Ono, Tomoji; Serizawa, Tetsushi; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2018-07-01

    Despite high demand for a remedy, the treatment options for female pattern hair loss (FPHL) are limited. FPHL is frequent in postmenopausal women. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which lack β-estradiol (E2) and manifest hair loss mimicking FPHL, E2 supplementation has been shown to increase hair density. However, the mechanism by which E2 exhibits its biological activity remains elusive. To identify the downstream targets of E2 in the context of FPHL pathophysiology and discover a potential therapeutic agent for the E2-dependent subtype of FPHL. Human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were cultured with E2, and a microarray analysis was performed to identify the genes regulated by E2. Using OVX mice, the identified gene product was intradermally administered and then quantitative image analysis of hair density was conducted. In silico analysis to link E2 and the identified gene was performed. Global gene expression and bioinformatics analyses revealed that the genes associated with the angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) pathway were upregulated by E2 in hDPCs. ANGPT2 was significantly downregulated in OVX mice than in sham-operated mice (P < 0.01). Importantly, hair density was higher in OVX mice treated with ANGPT2 than in control mice (P < 0.05). In silico analysis showed DNA sequences with high possibility of estrogen receptor binding in the promoter region of ANGPT2. The E2-ANGPT2 axis is present in hair follicles. ANGPT2 provides a strategy for the management of E2-dependent and postmenopausal subsets of FPHL. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment of alopecia areata with 308-nm excimer lamp.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Akiko; Hasegawa, Toshio; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2010-12-01

    Alopecia areata is considered to be a T-cell mediated autoimmune disorder. The 308-nm excimer lamp is thought to be capable of inducing T-cell apoptosis in vitro, suggesting that the lamp might be effective for the treatment of alopecia areata. We examined the effectiveness of the 308-nm excimer lamp for the treatment of alopecia areata. We recruited three patients with single alopecia areata lesions that were resistant to conventional treatment. The lesions were exposed to a 308-nm excimer lamp at 2-weekly intervals. Hair regrowth was observed in all three patients after approximately 10 treatment sessions. Our study showed that exposure to the 308-nm excimer lamp effectively induced hair regrowth in solitary alopecia areata lesions. Apart from erythema, there were no significant adverse effects. Therefore, we suggest that it may be considered as a treatment modality for recalcitrant alopecia areata. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Alopecia in four kittens caused by abnormal maternal licking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fanton, N; Michelazzi, M; Cornegliani, L

    2015-11-01

    Abnormal maternal behaviour has been reported in cats, but is generally not included among the causes of alopecia in kittens. A litter of four kittens, 2 months old, was referred for evaluation of facial alopecia of differing severity. The 2-year-old queen was unaffected. Dermatological examination of the kittens did not find any infectious cause. Trichograms showed broken hair shafts with longitudinal splitting. Congenital alopecia was unlikely based on the clinical presentation. A behavioural consultation revealed abnormal grooming behaviour by the mother, who chewed and removed the hair from the kittens. The kittens were separated from the queen and alopecia resolved within a few weeks. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of alopecia caused by abnormal maternal licking behaviour. Abnormal maternal behaviour should be considered in cases of alopecia affecting a litter of kittens, when infectious and congenital causes have been ruled out. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma—an ‘Elixir’ for treatment of alopecia: personal experience on 117 patients with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a new treatment modality in regenerative plastic surgery and dermatology. PRP is a simple, cost-effective and feasible treatment option with high patient satisfaction for hair loss and can be regarded as a valuable adjuvant treatment modality for androgenic alopecia and other types of non-scarring alopecias. Authors have proposed a hair model termed “Golden anchorage with ‘molecular locking’ of ectodermal and mesenchymal components for survival and integrity of hair follicle (HF)” in this article. Golden anchorage comprises of bulge stem cells, ectodermal basement membrane and bulge portion of APM. PRP with its autologous supply of millions of growth factors works on ‘Golden anchorage’ along with keratinocytes (PDGF), dermal papilla (IGF and fibroblast growth factor), vasculature (VEGF and PDGF) and neural cells (Nerve Growth Factor) in a multipronged manner serving as an ‘elixir’ for hair growth and improving overall environment. PMID:28815175

  3. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  4. The Influence of Various Parameters on the Success of Sensor-Controlled Scalp Cooling in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Schaffrin-Nabe, Dörthe; Schmitz, Inge; Josten-Nabe, Anke; von Hehn, Ulrike; Voigtmann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The influence of systemic comorbidities on the success of scalp cooling during chemotherapy (CT) is widely unexplored. Comorbidities often require additional medication which itself can occasionally cause alopecia. This study investigates the influence of selected parameters on the efficacy of scalp cooling for the prevention of CT-induced alopecia. 226 cancer patients were treated with various CT regimens in combination with sensor-controlled scalp cooling. 136 breast cancer patients received (neo)adjuvant therapy, and 76 of these patients received epirubicine and cyclophosphamide (4× EC 3w) followed by paclitaxel (12× T w). The following parameters were prospectively investigated: chemotherapy-induced alopecia, systemic comorbidities and co-medication, nicotine abuse, hair treatment, menopausal status, and trichologic status. Scalp cooling was successful (no or not visible hair loss; common toxicity criteria 0-1) in 65% of all patients, in 65% of the 136 breast cancer patients, and in 68% of the 76 patients receiving EC/T. In this subgroup, premenopausal patients (p = 0.009) and those without systemic comorbidities (p = 0.003), without co-medication (p < 0.001) and with high hair density (p = 0.038) showed less hair loss during CT; an effect was also seen for nicotine abuse (p = 0.023). Hair length and hair treatment had no significant influence. Sensor-controlled scalp cooling represents an effective addition to supportive cancer therapy. The success of scalp cooling depends on the applied CT regimen. Parameters like menopausal status, systemic comorbidities, medication, nicotine abuse, and original hair density also influence the outcome of hair loss prevention. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. Alopecia with foreign body granulomas induced by Radiesse injection: A case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Feng; Kuo, Tseng-Tong; Chao, Yen-Yu; Huang, Yu-Huei

    2018-02-26

    Radiesse is a soft tissue filler which has been widely used for cosmetic enhancement. The safety of Radiesse has been thoroughly investigated via numerous studies. A late-onset complication of Radiesse injection consists of foreign body granulomas, with only three case reports in over 10 years of clinical use. Herein, we describe the case of a patient who experienced alopecia with foreign body granulomas at the injection region one month after receiving a Radiesse injection. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature of alopecia as an adverse event associated with Radiesse injection. The present case reminded physicians to evaluate more cautiously the necessity of injecting filler into hair-bearing area for lifting purpose. This procedure may cause foreign body granulomatous reaction, which may result in hair loss at the injection region.

  6. Alopecia areata

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis and Therapy . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 24. Vivehanantha S, Berth-Jones J. Alopecia areata. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Updated by: David L. Swanson, MD, Vice Chair ...

  7. Biotechnology in the Treatment of Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Foundations and Future of Hair Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview of the methodologies involved in the field of hair cell regeneration. First, a tutorial on the biotechnological foundations of this field will be provided in order to assist the reader in the comprehension and interpretation of the research involved in hair cell regeneration. Next, a review of stem cell and gene therapy will be presented and a critical appraisal of their application to hair cell regeneration will be provided. The methodologies used in these approaches will be highlighted. Method Narrative review of the fields of cellular, molecular, and developmental biology, tissue engineering, and stem cell and gene therapy using the PubMed database. Results The use of biotechnological approaches to the treatment of hearing loss, such as stem cell and gene therapy, has led to new methods of regenerating cochlear hair cells in mammals. Conclusions There have been incredible strides made in assembling important pieces of the puzzle that comprise hair cell regeneration. However, mammalian hair cell regeneration using stem cell and gene therapy are years if not decades away from being clinically feasible. If the goals of the biological approaches are met, these therapies may represent the future treatments for hearing loss. PMID:21386039

  8. Progressive hearing loss and degeneration of hair cell stereocilia in taperin gene knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mo; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Gang-Hua

    The TPRN gene encodes taperin, which is prominently present at the taper region of hair cell stereocilia. Mutations in TPRN have been reported to cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness 79(DFNB 79). To investigate the role of taperin in pathogenesis of hearing loss, we generated TPRN knockout mice using TALEN technique. Sanger sequencing confirmed an 11 bp deletion at nucleotide 177–187 in exon 1 of TPRN, which results in a truncated form of taperin protein. Heterozygous TPRN{sup +/−} mice showed apparently normal auditory phenotypes to their wide-type (WT) littermates. Homozygous TPRN{sup −/−} mice exhibited progressive sensorineural hearing loss as reflected bymore » auditory brainstem response to both click and tone burst stimuli at postnatal days 15 (P15), 30 (P30), and 60 (P60). Alex Fluor-594 phalloidin labeling showed no obvious difference in hair cell numbers in the cochlea between TPRN{sup −/−} mice and WT mice under light microscope. However, scanning electronic microscopy revealed progressive degeneration of inner hair cell stereocilia, from apparently normal at postnatal days 3 (P3) to scattered absence at P15 and further to substantial loss at P30. The outer hair cell stereocilia also showed progressive degeneration, though much less severe, Collectively, we conclude that taperin plays an important role in maintenance of hair cell stereocilia. Establishment of TPRN knockout mice enables further investigation into the function of this gene. - Highlights: • TPRN{sup −/−} mice were generated using TALEN technique. • TPRN{sup −/−} mice presented progressive hearing loss. • WT and TPRN{sup −/−} mice showed no difference in hair cell numbers. • TPRN{sup −/−} mice showed progressive degeneration of hair cell stereocilia.« less

  9. Alopecia Areata. Current situation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rendón, Karina J; Rivera Sánchez, Gildardo; Reyes-López, Miguel Á; García-Ortiz, José E; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Guardiola-Avila, Iliana; Altamirano-García, María L

    2017-12-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a dermatological disease characterized by non-scarring hair loss of the scalp and/or body, with an unpredictable and variable evolution in the patients in which, despite multidisciplinary efforts, its etiology is not entirely known, although some evidence suggests that environmental, immunological and genetic factors could be generating the disease. The aim of this review is to provide an updated panorama of the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of AA, to analyze the mechanisms that could participate in its etiology, as well as to review some of the most important genetic variants that could confer susceptibility to the development of this disease. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  10. Diffuse alopecia in an adolescent female: tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Ellen; English, Joseph C

    2014-02-01

    "Black dot" tinea capitis is a common cause of alopecia in young patients. It is most commonly caused by a dermatophyte infection with Trichophyton tonsurans. This entity can be easily distinguished from alopecia areata with the use of hair/scalp dermoscopy. The use of oral terbinafine is effective in resolving the infection.

  11. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous factors to male alopecia: a study of identical twins.

    PubMed

    Gatherwright, James; Liu, Mengyuan T; Amirlak, Bardia; Gliniak, Christy; Totonchi, Ali; Guyuron, Bahman

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential contribution of environmental factors and testosterone on male alopecia. Ninety-two identical male twins were recruited from 2009 to 2011. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed followed by the acquisition of sputum samples for testosterone analysis and standardized digital photography. Frontal, temporal, and vertex hair loss was assessed from these photographs. Hair loss was then correlated with survey responses and testosterone levels between twin pairs. Two independent, blinded observers also rated the photographs for hair thinning. Increased smoking duration (p < 0.001) and the presence of dandruff (p = 0.028) were significantly associated with increased frontal hair loss. Increased exercise duration (p = 0.002), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.042), and increased money spent on hair loss products (p = 0.050) were all associated with increased temporal hair loss. Daily hat use (p = 0.050), higher body mass index (p = 0.012), and higher testosterone levels (p = 0.040) were associated with decreased temporal hair loss. Factors that were significantly associated with increased vertex hair loss included abstinence from alcohol consumption (p = 0.030), consumption of more than four alcoholic drinks per week (p = 0.004), increased smoking duration (p = 0.047), increased exercise duration (p = 0.050), and increased stress duration (p = 0.010). Lower body mass index, more children, increased caffeine consumption, history of skin disease, and abstinence from alcohol were significantly associated with increased hair thinning scores (p < 0.05). This study offers substantial evidence that exogenous factors may have a clinically significant impact on hair loss. Risk, III.

  12. Serum ferritin and vitamin d in female hair loss: do they play a role?

    PubMed

    Rasheed, H; Mahgoub, D; Hegazy, R; El-Komy, M; Abdel Hay, R; Hamid, M A; Hamdy, E

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of serum ferritin and vitamin D levels in females with chronic telogen effluvium (TE) or female pattern hair loss (FPHL), in order to validate their role in these common hair loss diseases. Eighty females (18 to 45 years old) with hair loss, in the form of TE or FPHL, and 40 age-matched females with no hair loss were included in the study. Diagnosis was based upon clinical examination as well as trichogram and dermoscopy. Serum ferritin and vitamin D2 levels were determined for each participant. Serum ferritin levels in the TE (14.7 ± 22.1 μg/l) and FPHL (23.9 ± 38.5 μg/l) candidates were significantly lower than in controls (43.5 ± 20.4 μg/l). Serum vitamin D2 levels in females with TE (28.8 ± 10.5 nmol/l) and FPHL (29.1 ± 8.5 nmol/l) were significantly lower than in controls (118.2 ± 68.1 nmol/l; p < 0.001). These levels decreased with increased disease severity. Serum ferritin cut-off values for TE and FPHL were 27.5 and 29.4 μg/l, respectively, and those for vitamin D were 40.9 and 67.9 nmol/l. Low serum ferritin and vitamin D2 are associated with hair loss in females with TE and FPHL. Screening to establish these levels in cases of hair loss and supplementing with them when they are deficient may be beneficial in the treatment of disease. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Reversible Alopecia with Localized Scalp Necrosis After Accidental Embolization of the Parietal Artery with Hyaluronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Qiu, Lihong; Yi, Chenggang; Xue, Ping; Yu, Zhou; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Guo, Shuzhong

    2017-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) filler injection is widely used for soft-tissue augmentation. Complications associated with HA filling are not uncommon; however, HA-induced alopecia is a rarely reported complication that could result in severe secondary psychological trauma. The etiology, clinical traits, treatment strategies, outcomes, and possible reversibility of HA-induced alopecia have not been characterized. Here, we report a case in which bilateral temple injections of 6.5 mL of HA led to persistent pain over the left scalp for several days. Although the pain was relieved at day 9 after 600 U of hyaluronidase were injected in the left temple, the patient developed localized alopecia at the left temporoparietal region with central skin necrosis at day 15. After topical applications of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel and 2% minoxidil spay, the necrotic skin wound was healed at day 42. Hair regrowth and normal hair density were restored at day 74. Analyses of Doppler ultrasound examinations and histopathology of the skin biopsy suggested that mild ischemia of the left temporoparietal region led to reversible alopecia, while the permanent hair loss in the left parietal area was associated with severe skin ischemia. Therefore, the key to treatment would be to focus on the effective correction of severe ischemia-induced skin necrosis to prevent permanent hair loss. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  14. Characterization of hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes provides insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hair is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of mammals and it has many important biological functions. Cetaceans originated from terrestrial mammals and they have evolved a series of adaptations to aquatic environments, which are of evolutionary significance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their aquatic adaptations have not been well explored. This study provided insights into the evolution of hair loss during the transition from land to water by investigating and comparing two essential regulators of hair follicle development and hair follicle cycling, i.e., the Hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes, in representative cetaceans and their terrestrial relatives. Results The full open reading frame sequences of the Hr and FGF5 genes were characterized in seven cetaceans. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary analyses suggested the functional loss of the Hr gene in cetaceans, which supports the loss of hair during their full adaptation to aquatic habitats. By contrast, positive selection for the FGF5 gene was found in cetaceans where a series of positively selected amino acid residues were identified. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the molecular basis of the hair loss in cetaceans. Our investigation of Hr and FGF5, two indispensable regulators of the hair cycle, provide some new insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans. The results suggest that positive selection for the FGF5 gene might have promoted the termination of hair growth and early entry into the catagen stage of hair follicle cycling. Consequently, the hair follicle cycle was disrupted and the hair was lost completely due to the loss of the Hr gene function in cetaceans. This suggests that cetaceans have evolved an effective and complex mechanism for hair loss. PMID:23394579

  15. National Alopecia Areata Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... areata. GET THE GUIDE Alopecia Marketplace Homepage Section Shop for products and accessories Find eyelashes, eyebrows, hairpieces, ... by others with alopecia areata here. When you shop the vendors in our Alopecia Areata Marketplace, just ...

  16. Development and pilot-testing of the Alopecia Areata Assessment Tool (ALTO).

    PubMed

    Li, David G; Huang, Kathie P; Xia, Fan Di; Joyce, Cara; Scott, Deborah A; Qureshi, Abrar A; Mostaghimi, Arash

    2018-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring hair loss. The lack of a definitive biomarker or formal diagnostic criteria for AA limits our ability to define the epidemiology of the disease. In this study, we developed and tested the Alopecia Areata Assessment Tool (ALTO) in an academic medical center to validate the ability of this questionnaire in identifying AA cases. The ALTO is a novel, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 8 closed-ended questions derived by the Delphi method. This prospective pilot study was administered during a 1-year period in outpatient dermatology clinics. Eligible patients (18 years or older with chief concern of hair loss) were recruited consecutively. No patients declined to participate. The patient's hair loss diagnosis was determined by a board-certified dermatologist. Nine scoring algorithms were created and used to evaluate the accuracy of the ALTO in identifying AA. 239 patients (59 AA cases and 180 non-AA cases) completed the ALTO and were included for analysis. Algorithm 5 demonstrated the highest sensitivity (89.8%) while algorithm 3 demonstrated the highest specificity (97.8%). Select questions were also effective in clarifying disease phenotype. In this study. we have successfully demonstrated that ALTO is a simple tool capable of discriminating AA from other types of hair loss. The ALTO may be useful to identify individuals with AA within large populations.

  17. A Study of the Accuracy and Reliability of Articles about Alopecia in Newspapers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojin; Park, In Ho; Kim, Do Hyeong; Park, So Hee; Cho, Gyeong Je; Seol, Jung Eun

    2018-06-01

    There is growing interest in alopecia among the general population. Many people obtain information from easily accessible media rather than from doctors; thus, the media can play an important role in shaping public opinion. The goal of this study was to evaluate the content and reliability of newspaper articles on alopecia. Newspapers were categorized into three groups: one group of print newspapers and two groups of online newspapers. Online newspapers were further divided into two groups according to type of publishing company; one publishes both print and online newspapers and the other publishes online newspapers only. The most frequently subscribed or circulated newspaper in each group was selected. Articles containing information on alopecia were selected from 3 years of each newspaper and evaluated for reliability. Most articles in each group used the general term "alopecia" instead of naming a specific hair loss disease. The majority of articles were based on consultation with experts. Assessment of the accuracy of articles with three grade scales showed that the percentage with high accuracy was 38.9%, 47.2%, and 23.3%. Assessment of reliability scores for five selected articles in each group showed that there were statistically significant differences between common readers and dermatologists ( p <0.05). The results of this study suggest that closer monitoring of the media is required to supply easily accessible, balanced, and trustworthy information regarding alopecia.

  18. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice. Induction by cyclophosphamide, inhibition by cyclosporine A, and modulation by dexamethasone.

    PubMed Central

    Paus, R.; Handjiski, B.; Eichmüller, S.; Czarnetzki, B. M.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia (CYP-IA) in C57BL-6 mice as a clinically relevant model for studying the biology of chemotherapy-induced alopecia and for developing anti-alopecia drugs. One injection of CYP to mice with all back skin follicles in anagen VI induces severe alopecia that strikingly reproduces the follicle response, recovery, and histopathology seen in human CYP-IA. CYP dose-dependently induces abnormal follicular melanogenesis and dystrophic anagen or, in more severely damaged follicles, dystrophic catagen. Both dystrophy forms are followed by an extremely shortened telogen phase, but differ in the associated hair loss and in recovery patterns, which determines hair regrowth. This follicular response to CYP can be manipulated pharmacologically: systemic cyclosporine A shifts it toward a mild form of dystrophic anagen, thus retarding CYP-IA and prolonging "primary recovery". Topical dexamethasone, in contrast, forces follicles into dystrophic catagen, which augments CYP-IA, but accelerates the regrowth of normally pigmented hair ("secondary recovery"). Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:8160773

  19. Prevalence and spatio-temporal variation of an alopecia syndrome in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Todd; Peacock, Elizabeth; Burek-Huntington, Kathy; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Bodenstein, Barbara; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Durner, George

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) has been observed in several marine mammal species and has potential energetic consequences for sustaining a normal core body temperature, especially for Arctic marine mammals routinely exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) rely on a thick layer of adipose tissue and a dense pelage to ameliorate convective heat loss while moving between sea ice and open water. From 1998 to 2012, we observed an alopecia syndrome in polar bears from the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska that presented as bilaterally asymmetrical loss of guard hairs and thinning of the undercoat around the head, neck, and shoulders, which, in severe cases, was accompanied by exudation and crusted skin lesions. Alopecia was observed in 49 (3.45%) of the bears sampled during 1,421 captures, and the apparent prevalence varied by years with peaks occurring in 1999 (16%) and 2012 (28%). The probability that a bear had alopecia was greatest for subadults and for bears captured in the Prudhoe Bay region, and alopecic individuals had a lower body condition score than unaffected individuals. The cause of the syndrome remains unknown and future work should focus on identifying the causative agent and potential effects on population vital rates.

  20. Prevalence and spatio-temporal variation of an alopecia syndrome in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwood, Todd C.; Peacock, Elizabeth; Burek, K.A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Durner, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia (hair loss) has been observed in several marine mammal species and has potential energetic consequences for sustaining a normal core body temperature, especially for Arctic marine mammals routinely exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) rely on a thick layer of adipose tissue and a dense pelage to ameliorate convective heat loss while moving between sea ice and open water. From 1998 to 2012, we observed an alopecia syndrome in polar bears from the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska that presented as bilaterally asymmetrical loss of guard hairs and thinning of the undercoat around the head, neck, and shoulders, which, in severe cases, was accompanied by exudation and crusted skin lesions. Alopecia was observed in 49 (3.45%) of the bears sampled during 1,421 captures, and the apparent prevalence varied by years with peaks occurring in 1999 (16%) and 2012 (28%). The probability that a bear had alopecia was greatest for subadults and for bears captured in the Prudhoe Bay region, and alopecic individuals had a lower body condition score than unaffected individuals. The cause of the syndrome remains unknown and future work should focus on identifying the causative agent and potential effects on population vital rates.

  1. Treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia with PTH-CBD, a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog, in a non-depilated mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically devastating complication of chemotherapy for which there is currently no effective therapy. PTH-CBD is a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog that has shown promise as a therapy for alopecia disorders. To compare the efficacy of prophylactic versus therapeutic administration of PTH-CBD in chemotherapy-induced alopecia using a mouse model that mimics the cyclic chemotherapy dosing used clinically. C57BL/6J mice were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of PTH-CBD (320 mcg/kg) or vehicle control before or after hair loss developing from three courses of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (50–150 mg/kg/week). Mice receiving chemotherapy alone developed hair loss and depigmentation over 6–12 months. Mice pretreated with PTH-CBD did not develop these changes and maintained a normal-appearing coat. Mice treated with PTH-CBD after development of hair loss showed a partial recovery. Observations of hair loss were confirmed quantitatively by gray scale analysis. Histological examination showed that in mice receiving chemotherapy alone, there were small, dystrophic hair follicles mostly in the catagen phase. Mice receiving PTH-CBD before chemotherapy showed a mix of normal-appearing telogen and anagen hair follicles with no evidence of dystrophy. Mice receiving PTH-CBD therapy after chemotherapy showed intermediate histological features. PTH-CBD was effective in both the prevention and the treatment of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice, but pretreatment appears to result in a better cosmetic outcome. PTH-CBD shows promise as an agent in the prevention of this complication of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life for cancer patients. PMID:24025564

  2. Treatment and prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia with PTH-CBD, a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog, in a non-depilated mouse model.

    PubMed

    Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua; Gensure, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically devastating complication of chemotherapy for which there is currently no effective therapy. PTH-CBD is a collagen-targeted parathyroid hormone analog that has shown promise as a therapy for alopecia disorders. This study compared the efficacy of prophylactic versus therapeutic administration of PTH-CBD in chemotherapy-induced alopecia using a mouse model that mimics the cyclic chemotherapy dosing used clinically. C57BL/6J mice were treated with a single subcutaneous injection of PTH-CBD (320 mcg/kg) or vehicle control before or after hair loss developing from three courses of cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (50-150 mg/kg/week). Mice receiving chemotherapy alone developed hair loss and depigmentation over 6-12 months. Mice pretreated with PTH-CBD did not develop these changes and maintained a normal-appearing coat. Mice treated with PTH-CBD after development of hair loss showed a partial recovery. Observations of hair loss were confirmed quantitatively by gray scale analysis. Histological examination showed that in mice receiving chemotherapy alone, there were small, dystrophic hair follicles mostly in the catagen phase. Mice receiving PTH-CBD before chemotherapy showed a mix of normal-appearing telogen and anagen hair follicles with no evidence of dystrophy. Mice receiving PTH-CBD therapy after chemotherapy showed intermediate histological features. PTH-CBD was effective in both the prevention and the treatment of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice, but pretreatment appears to result in a better cosmetic outcome. PTH-CBD shows promise as an agent in the prevention of this complication of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life for cancer patients.

  3. An analysis of gene expression data involving examination of signaling pathways activation reveals new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jeff; Pappas, Apostolos; Mirmirani, Paradi; McCormick, Thomas S.; Cooper, Kevin D.; Schastnaya, Jane; Ozerov, Ivan V.; Aliper, Alexander; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. Minoxidil has been approved for the treatment of hair loss, however its mechanism of action is still not fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of 5% minoxidil topical foam on gene expression and activation of signaling pathways in vertex and frontal scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. We identified regional variations in gene expression and perturbed signaling pathways using in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) before and after treatment with minoxidil. Vertex and frontal scalp of patients showed a generally similar response to minoxidil. Both scalp regions showed upregulation of genes that encode keratin associated proteins and downregulation of ILK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways after minoxidil treatment. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28594262

  4. An analysis of gene expression data involving examination of signaling pathways activation reveals new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Wu, Jeff; Pappas, Apostolos; Mirmirani, Paradi; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D; Consolo, Mary; Schastnaya, Jane; Ozerov, Ivan V; Aliper, Alexander; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss. Minoxidil has been approved for the treatment of hair loss, however its mechanism of action is still not fully clarified. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of 5% minoxidil topical foam on gene expression and activation of signaling pathways in vertex and frontal scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. We identified regional variations in gene expression and perturbed signaling pathways using in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA) before and after treatment with minoxidil. Vertex and frontal scalp of patients showed a generally similar response to minoxidil. Both scalp regions showed upregulation of genes that encode keratin associated proteins and downregulation of ILK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways after minoxidil treatment. Our results provide new insights into the mechanism of action of minoxidil topical foam in men with androgenetic alopecia.

  5. Serenoa repens extracts promote hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H-L; Gao, Y-H; Yang, J-Q; Li, J-B; Gao, J

    2018-06-01

    Plenty of plant extracts have been used for treating hair loss. This study aims to investigate the effects of liposterolic extracts of Serenoa repens (LSESr) on hair cell growth and regeneration of hair, and clarify the associated mechanisms. Human keratinocyte cells (HACAT) were cultured, incubated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and treated with LSESr. Cell viability was examined by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hair loss C57BL/6 mouse model was established by inducing with DHT. Hair growth, density, and thickness were evaluated. Back skin samples were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) assay. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax), cleaved caspase 3 and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) were examined using Western blot assay. LSESr treatment significantly increased HACAT cell viabilities compared to DHT-only treated cells (p<0.05). LSESr treatment post injection of DHT significantly converted skin color from pink to gray and increased hair density, weight and thickness compared to DHT-only treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly triggered follicle growth and decreased inflammatory response. LSESr treatment significantly decreased TGF-β2 and cleaved caspase 3 expression of hair loss mouse models compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly enhanced Bcl-2 expression and reduced Bax expression compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). Meanwhile, effects of LSESr were substantial even achieving to the potential of finasteride. LSESr promoted the hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β signaling and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  6. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    PubMed

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations.

  7. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use

    PubMed Central

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  8. Study of gene expression alteration in male androgenetic alopecia: evidence of predominant molecular signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Reygagne, P; Benech, P; Jean-Louis, F; Scalvino, S; Ly Ka So, S; Hamidou, Z; Bianovici, S; Pouch, J; Ducos, B; Bonnet, M; Bensussan, A; Patatian, A; Lati, E; Wdzieczak-Bakala, J; Choulot, J-C; Loing, E; Hocquaux, M

    2017-11-01

    Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men. It is characterized by a distinct pattern of progressive hair loss starting from the frontal area and the vertex of the scalp. Although several genetic risk loci have been identified, relevant genes for AGA remain to be defined. To identify biomarkers associated with AGA. Molecular biomarkers associated with premature AGA were identified through gene expression analysis using cDNA generated from scalp vertex biopsies of hairless or bald men with premature AGA, and healthy volunteers. This monocentric study reveals that genes encoding mast cell granule enzymes, inflammatory mediators and immunoglobulin-associated immune mediators were significantly overexpressed in AGA. In contrast, underexpressed genes appear to be associated with the Wnt/β-catenin and bone morphogenic protein/transforming growth factor-β signalling pathways. Although involvement of these pathways in hair follicle regeneration is well described, functional interpretation of the transcriptomic data highlights different events that account for their inhibition. In particular, one of these events depends on the dysregulated expression of proopiomelanocortin, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In addition, lower expression of CYP27B1 in patients with AGA supports the notion that changes in vitamin D metabolism contributes to hair loss. This study provides compelling evidence for distinct molecular events contributing to alopecia that may pave the way for new therapeutic approaches. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Does the recipient site influence the hair growth characteristics in hair transplantation?

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungjoo; Kim, Jung Chul; Ryu, Hyo Sub; Cha, Young Chang; Lee, Seok Jong; Na, Gun Yoen; Kim, Do Won

    2002-09-01

    Recently hair transplantation has been widely applied not only to correct androgenetic alopecia, but also to correct hair loss on other parts of the body such as the eyebrows and pubic area. It is believed that the transplanted hairs will maintain their integrity and characteristics after transplantation to new nonscalp sites. To evaluate whether the transplanted hairs maintain their hair growth characteristics after transplantation to a new anatomic site other than the scalp. Three study designs were used. Study I: Hair transplantation from the author's occipital scalp to his lower leg was performed and clinical evaluations were made at both 6 months and at 3 years after the transplantation. Study II: After finding changes in hair growth characteristics, transplanted hairs were harvested from the leg and retransplanted to the left side of the nape of the neck (group A). As a control study, occipital hairs were transplanted to the opposite side (group B). Observations were made at 6 months after the operation. Study III: An observational study was done in 12 patients with androgenetic alopecia about 1 year after transplantation of occipital hair to frontal scalp. At each step, survival rates were documented and the rate of growth and the diameter of the shafts were measured for both recipient and donor sites. Study I: Surviving hairs on the lower leg showed a lower growth rate (8.2 +/- 0.9 mm/month), but the same diameter (0.086 +/- 0.018 mm) compared with occipital hairs (16.0 +/- 1.1 mm/month, 0.088 +/- 0.016 mm). The survival rate 3 years after transplantation was 60.2%. Study II: There was no significant difference in the growth rate, shaft diameter, and survival rate between retransplanted hairs (group A) and controls (group B). Groups A and B showed a lower growth rate, but the same diameter, compared with occipital hairs. Study III: There was no significant difference in the growth rate and shaft diameter between the transplanted hairs on the frontal scalp

  10. Amyloidosis presented with whitening and loss of hair which improved after dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) treatment.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S D; Yamamoto, R; Saito, K; Iwamoto, Y; Kuzuya, T; Ohba, S; Kobori, S; Saito, K

    1987-08-01

    A 67-year-old male patient presented with rapid progression of whitening and loss of hair in past 2 months was consulted due to the suspicion of hypothyroidism. He had been told to have cardiomegaly for 3 years. Thyroid function was within normal limit. Prostate biopsy was performed because of prostatic hypertrophy and mild elevation of serum acid phosphatase. Amyloid accumulation was observed in the biopsy specimen. Subsequent skin biopsies revealed the same result. The scalp hair and beard grew and turned to black gradually several months after dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. These findings suggest that some of the manifestation of amyloidosis may respond to DMSO treatment.

  11. Noise-Induced Loss of Hair Cells and Cochlear Synaptopathy Are Mediated by the Activation of AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kayla; Yuan, Hu; Wang, Xianren

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major unresolved public health problem. Here, we investigate pathomechanisms of sensory hair cell death and suggest a novel target for protective intervention. Cellular survival depends upon maintenance of energy homeostasis, largely by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In response to a noise exposure in CBA/J mice, the levels of phosphorylated AMPKα increased in hair cells in a noise intensity-dependent manner. Inhibition of AMPK via siRNA or the pharmacological inhibitor compound C attenuated noise-induced loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) and synaptic ribbons, and preserved auditory function. Additionally, noise exposure increased the activity of the upstream AMPK kinase liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in cochlear tissues. The inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA attenuated the noise-increased phosphorylation of AMPKα in OHCs, reduced the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and OHCs, and protected against NIHL. These results indicate that noise exposure induces hair cell death and synaptopathy by activating AMPK via LKB1-mediated pathways. Targeting these pathways may provide a novel route to prevent NIHL. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results demonstrate for the first time that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α in sensory hair cells is noise intensity dependent and contributes to noise-induced hearing loss by mediating the loss of inner hair cell synaptic ribbons and outer hair cells. Noise induces the phosphorylation of AMPKα1 by liver kinase B1 (LKB1), triggered by changes in intracellular ATP levels. The inhibition of AMPK activation by silencing AMPK or LKB1, or with the pharmacological inhibitor compound C, reduced outer hair cell and synaptic ribbon loss as well as noise-induced hearing loss. This study provides new insights into mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss and suggests novel interventions for the prevention of the loss of sensory hair cells and cochlear synaptopathy. PMID:27413159

  12. Iron deficiency in female pattern hair loss, chronic telogen effluvium, and control groups.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Elise A; Reed, Katherine B; Cacchio, Patrick B; Caudill, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    The literature suggests that iron deficiency (ID) may play a role in female pattern hair loss (FPHL) or in chronic telogen effluvium (CTE). We sought to determine if ID is more common in women with FPHL and/or CTE than in control subjects without hair loss. This was a controlled study of 381 Caucasian women aged 18 years or older with FPHL or CTE seen in the Duke University Hair Disorders Clinic, Durham, NC, and 76 Caucasian women aged 18 years or older from the university environs who had no history or physical findings of hair loss (control subjects). All participants had to have at least a serum ferritin and hemoglobin reading and history of menopausal status. When ferritin less than or equal to 15 μg/L was used as the definition, ID occurred in 12.4%, 12.1%, and 29.8% of premenopausal women with FPHL (n = 170), CTE (n = 58), and control subjects (n = 47), respectively, and in 1.7%, 10.5%, and 6.9% of postmenopausal women with FPHL (n = 115), CTE (n = 38), and control subjects (n = 29), respectively. When ferritin less than or equal to 40 μg/L was used as the definition, ID occurred in 58.8%, 63.8%, and 72.3% of premenopausal women with FPHL, CTE, and control subjects, respectively, and in 26.1%, 36.8%, and 20.7% of postmenopausal women with FPHL, CTE, and control subjects, respectively. There was no statistically significant increase in the incidence of ID in premenopausal or postmenopausal women with FPHL or CTE versus control subjects. The effect of correction of ID on hair loss is unknown. ID is common in women but not increased in patients with FPHL or CTE compared with control subjects. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of temporal alopecia following rhytidectomy: the prophylactic use of minoxidil. A study of 60 patients.

    PubMed

    Eremia, Sorin; Umar, Sanusi H; Li, Cindy Y

    2002-01-01

    Temporal hair loss that results from traumatized hair follicles following rhytidectomy is an unsightly complication that can distress both the patient and the operating surgeon. Topical minoxidil is a proven therapy for androgenic alopecia and female senile alopecia. It has also been found to be useful in preventing the hair loss that commonly follows hair transplantation. To analyze through a retrospective study the effect of topical minoxidil on the incidence of temporal hair loss following facelift procedures. To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the role of minoxidil in preventing post-rhytidectomy temporal alopecia. The charts of 60 women with a mean age of 58 years who underwent primary cervicofacial rhytidectomy were studied. Either a standard SMAS/flap technique or pliation was done in all cases. Each patient received either 2% or 5% topical minoxidil for 2 weeks before surgery and for 4 weeks after surgery, with a 5-day break period beginning on the day of surgery. Patients were monitored for complications immediately postoperatively and in 3-6 months of follow-up. Almost 80% of the patients underwent SMAS/flap procedures. Transient temporal alopecia was noted in only one patient, 6 weeks after discontinuing minoxidil. This resolved within 4 weeks of its reintroduction. The only other complications noted included minor hematomas (3.3%), skin slough/infection (1.7%), minor transient and localized edema (8.3%), minor ecchymosis (1.7%), a unilateral neuropraxia of the buccal nerve lasting 3 months (1.7%), and a minor temporary unilateral skin depression (1.7%). Side effects of minoxidil were not observed. On comparing our findings to results of larger rhytidectomy series in which minoxidil was not used prophylactically, and our experience before using minoxidil, we conclude that minoxidil plays a role in effectively preventing the temporal hair loss that occurs following primary cervicofacial rhytidectomies. We also found that minoxidil did

  14. Relationship between auditory thresholds, central spontaneous activity and hair cell loss after acoustic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Mulders, W.H.A.M.; Ding, D.; Salvi, R.; Robertson, D.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic trauma caused by exposure to a very loud sound increases spontaneous activity in central auditory structures such as the inferior colliculus. This hyperactivity has been suggested as a neural substrate for tinnitus, a phantom hearing sensation. In previous studies we have described a tentative link between the frequency region of hearing impairment and the corresponding tonotopic regions in the inferior colliculus showing hyperactivity. In this study we further investigated the relationship between cochlear compound action potential threshold loss, cochlear outer and inner hair cell loss and central hyperactivity in inferior colliculus of guinea pigs. Two weeks after a 10 kHz pure tone acoustic trauma, a tight relationship was demonstrated between the frequency region of compound action potential threshold loss and frequency regions in the inferior colliculus showing hyperactivity. Extending the duration of the acoustic trauma from 1 to 2 h did not result in significant increases in final cochlear threshold loss, but did result in a further increase of spontaneous firing rates in the inferior colliculus. Interestingly, hair cell loss was not present in the frequency regions where elevated cochlear thresholds and central hyperactivity were measured, suggesting that subtle changes in hair cell or primary afferent neural function are sufficient for central hyperactivity to be triggered and maintained. PMID:21491427

  15. Anti-PDGF receptor β antibody-conjugated squarticles loaded with minoxidil for alopecia treatment by targeting hair follicles and dermal papilla cells.

    PubMed

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Pan, Tai-Long; Sung, Calvin T; Chang, Shu-Hao; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-08-01

    This study developed lipid nanocarriers, called squarticles, conjugated with anti-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-receptor β antibody to determine whether targeted Minoxidil (MXD) delivery to the follicles and dermal papilla cells (DPCs) could be achieved. Squalene and hexadecyl palmitate (HP) were used as the matrix of the squarticles. The PDGF-squarticles showed a mean diameter and zeta potential of 195 nm and -46 mV, respectively. Nanoparticle encapsulation enhanced MXD porcine skin deposition from 0.11 to 0.23 μg/mg. The antibody-conjugated nanoparticles ameliorated follicular uptake of MXD by 3-fold compared to that of the control solution in the in vivo mouse model. Both vertical and horizontal skin sections exhibited a wide distribution of nanoparticles in the follicles, epidermis, and deeper skin strata. The encapsulated MXD moderately elicited proliferation of DPCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. The active targeting of PDGF-squarticles may be advantageous to improving the limited success of alopecia therapy. Topical use of minoxidil is only one of the very few treatment options for alopecia. Nonetheless, the current delivery method is far from ideal. In this article, the authors developed lipid nanocarriers with anti-platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? antibody to target dermal papilla cells, and showed enhanced uptake of minoxidil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of topical minoxidil and topical alfatradiol in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kunte, Christian; Krisp, Andreas; Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Ellwanger, Ulf; Hoffmann, Rolf

    2007-05-01

    Two drugs which are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women in Germany were compared with regard to their influence on hair growth. Patients were randomized to group I (n = 52) who used 2% minoxidil solution twice daily for a period of 12 months or to group II (n = 51) who used 0.025% alfatradiol solution once daily for 6 months and were then switched to 2% minoxidil solution for months 7-12. Changes in hair growth parameters were determined using the TrichoScan. Topical treatment with 2% minoxidil solution for 6 months resulted in a significant increase of cumulative hair thickness (p < 0.0001) and absolute hair density (p < or = 0.0025), whereas these parameters of hair growth remained nearly unchanged after 6 months of treatment with alfatradiol solution. Evaluation of the same parameters from month 7 to month 12 demonstrated that 12 months minoxidil treatment resulted in an increasing stabilization (group I). After the alfatradiol-->minoxidil switch in group II a significant increase in cumulative hair thickness (p < 0.0001) and absolute hair density (p < 0.0001) was achieved. Both study medications were well tolerated. Treatment with minoxidil can induce an increase in hair density and hair thickness,whereas treatment with alfatradiol results in deceleration or stabilization of hair loss.

  17. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation.

  18. Hair cell counts in a rat model of sound damage: Effects of tissue preparation & identification of regions of hair cell loss.

    PubMed

    Neal, Christopher; Kennon-McGill, Stefanie; Freemyer, Andrea; Shum, Axel; Staecker, Hinrich; Durham, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to intense sound can damage or kill cochlear hair cells (HC). This loss of input typically manifests as noise induced hearing loss, but it can also be involved in the initiation of other auditory disorders such as tinnitus or hyperacusis. In this study we quantify changes in HC number following exposure to one of four sound damage paradigms. We exposed adult, anesthetized Long-Evans rats to a unilateral 16 kHz pure tone that varied in intensity (114 dB or 118 dB) and duration (1, 2, or 4 h) and sacrificed animals 2-4 weeks later. We compared two different methods of tissue preparation, plastic embedding/sectioning and whole mount dissection, for quantifying hair cell loss as a function of frequency. We found that the two methods of tissue preparation produced largely comparable cochleograms, with whole mount dissections allowing a more rapid evaluation of hair cell number. Both inner and outer hair cell loss was observed throughout the length of the cochlea irrespective of sound damage paradigm. Inner HC loss was either equal to or greater than outer HC loss. Increasing the duration of sound exposures resulted in more severe HC loss, which included all HC lesions observed in an analogous shorter duration exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Biotin Deprivation Induce Alopecia through Overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Atsushi; Mikami, Yohei; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Sato, Toshiro; Mizuno, Shinta; Naganuma, Makoto; Teratani, Toshiaki; Aoki, Ryo; Fukuda, Shinji; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Amagai, Masayuki; Ohyama, Manabu; Kanai, Takanori

    2017-08-15

    Metabolism by the gut microbiota affects host physiology beyond the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we find that antibiotic-induced dysbiosis, in particular, overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus (L. murinus), impaired gut metabolic function and led to the development of alopecia. While deprivation of dietary biotin per se did not affect skin physiology, its simultaneous treatment with vancomycin resulted in hair loss in specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Vancomycin treatment induced the accumulation of L. murinus in the gut, which consumes residual biotin and depletes available biotin in the gut. Consistently, L. murinus induced alopecia when monocolonized in germ-free mice fed a biotin-deficient diet. Supplementation of biotin can reverse established alopecia symptoms in the SPF condition, indicating that L. murinus plays a central role in the induction of hair loss via a biotin-dependent manner. Collectively, our results indicate that luminal metabolic alterations associated with gut dysbiosis and dietary modifications can compromise skin physiology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The potential use of low-frequency tones to locate regions of outer hair cell loss.

    PubMed

    Kamerer, Aryn M; Diaz, Francisco J; Peppi, Marcello; Chertoff, Mark E

    2016-12-01

    Current methods used to diagnose cochlear hearing loss are limited in their ability to determine the location and extent of anatomical damage to various cochlear structures. In previous experiments, we have used the electrical potential recorded at the round window -the cochlear response (CR) -to predict the location of damage to outer hair cells in the gerbil. In a follow-up experiment, we applied 10 mM ouabain to the round window niche to reduce neural activity in order to quantify the neural contribution to the CR. We concluded that a significant proportion of the CR to a 762 Hz tone originated from phase-locking activity of basal auditory nerve fibers, which could have contaminated our conclusions regarding outer hair cell health. However, at such high concentrations, ouabain may have also affected the responses from outer hair cells, exaggerating the effect we attributed to the auditory nerve. In this study, we lowered the concentration of ouabain to 1 mM and determined the physiologic effects on outer hair cells using distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. As well as quantifying the effects of 1 mM ouabain on the auditory nerve and outer hair cells, we attempted to reduce the neural contribution to the CR by using near-infrasonic stimulus frequencies of 45 and 85 Hz, and hypothesized that these low-frequency stimuli would generate a cumulative amplitude function (CAF) that could reflect damage to hair cells in the apex more accurately than the 762 stimuli. One hour after application of 1 mM ouabain, CR amplitudes significantly increased, but remained unchanged in the presence of high-pass filtered noise conditions, suggesting that basal auditory nerve fibers have a limited contribution to the CR at such low frequencies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Immunization and bacterial pathogens in the oropharynx as risk factors for alopecia areata].

    PubMed

    Morales-Sánchez, M A; Domínguez-Gómez, M A; Jurado-Santa Cruz, F; Peralta-Pedrero, M L

    2010-06-01

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting the hair follicles. Researchers are currently interested in whether the presence of bacterial pathogens and/or a history of immunization can trigger an autoimmune response in patients who are genetically predisposed. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between the development of alopecia areata and throat carriage of bacterial pathogens or a history of immunization. Sixty-five men and women with alopecia areata and 65 control patients with other skin diseases were studied at the Dr Ladislao de la Pascua Dermatology Clinic between September 2008 and February 2009. The patients ranged in age from 18-59 years. Patients with scalp diseases were excluded from the control group. In all cases, the patient was questioned about immunizations received in the previous 6 months, and a throat swab was cultured. A history of immunization (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.7; P=.001), the presence of bacterial pathogens in the oropharynx (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.2; P=.033), and being a carrier of Streptococcus pyogenes (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.7-2.5; P=.042) were risk factors for alopecia areata. Klebsiella pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli were isolated from cultures. This is the first study to show an association between alopecia areata and throat carriage of bacterial pathogens or history of immunization, as risk factors for development of the disease. Given the characteristics of our study population, the association appears valid for patients with less than 25% hair loss and a course of disease under 1 year.

  2. Mechanism of action of minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia is likely mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase-induced stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Goren, A; Naccarato, T; Situm, M; Kovacevic, M; Lotti, T; McCoy, J

    2017-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only topical drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. However, the exact mechanism by which minoxidil stimulates anagen phase and promotes hair growth is not fully understood. In the late telegen phase of the hair follicle growth cycle, stem cells located in the bulge region differentiate and re-enter anagen phase, a period of growth lasting 2-6 years. In androgenetic alopecia, the anagen phase is shortened and a progressive miniaturization of hair follicles occurs, eventually leading to hair loss. Several studies have demonstrated that minoxidil increases the amount of intracellular Ca2+, which has been shown to up-regulate the enzyme adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase. A recent study demonstrated that ATP synthase, independent of its role in ATP synthesis, promotes stem cell differentiation. As such, we propose that minoxidil induced Ca2+ influx can increase stem cell differentiation and may be a key factor in the mechanism by which minoxidil facilitates hair growth. Based on our theory, we provide a roadmap for the development of a new class of drugs for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

  3. Chemoprevention of doxorubicin-induced alopecia in mice by dietary administration of L-cystine and vitamin B6.

    PubMed

    D'Agostini, Francesco; Fiallo, Paolo; Ghio, Massimo; De Flora, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is one of the most serious and feared adverse effects of cancer therapy. Almost all traditional chemotherapeutic agents induce a more or less severe alopecia. At present, there is no effective treatment capable of preventing this damage. Several different experimental approaches, using various animal models, have been investigated over the last years, with promising results. Sulphur-containing amino acids (cystine, cysteine) are essential components for the health of normal hair. L-Cystine is used in the treatment of various forms of alopecia. Vitamin B6 plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the skin and it is useful in reducing hair loss. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combined oral administration at high dosages of L-cystine (1,600 or 800 mg/kg body weight/day) and vitamin B6 (160 or 80 mg/kg body weight/day) is an effective chemopreventive treatment against alopecia induced by doxorubicin treatment (1.1 mg/kg body weight intravenously) in C57BL/6 mice.

  4. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a survey in 16 patients.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ramírez, D; Camacho Martínez, F

    2005-11-01

    Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia (PFFA) was described by Kossard et al. as a progressive recession of the frontal hairline affecting particularly postmenopausal women. Further cases of PFFA have been reported to date, all of them considering it as a variant of lichen planopilaris on the basis of its clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features. To describe clinical features, and response to treatment of 16 cases of frontal fibrosing alopecia diagnosed at our department in the last 6 years. In addition to clinical data, biopsies and laboratory tests (antinuclear antibodies, sex hormones, thyroid hormones) were performed in order to rule out other causes of scarring alopecia. Patients were treated with intralesional corticosteroids, finasteride, and minoxidil, depending on the stage of the disease and association to androgenetic alopecia. All patients presented progressive alopecia localized to the frontal and temporal hairlines. Eight patients (50%) had loss of eyebrows, and six patients (37.5%) had axillar alopecia. Ages ranged from 45 to 79. Three of these women were premenopausal. Androgenetic alopecia was evident in seven patients (43.8%). All patients biopsied showed perifollicular lymphocitic infiltrate with lamelar fibrosis limited to the upper portions of the follicle. The progression of the condition stopped in most patients after a variable period on treatment. When treatment was abandoned the alopecia progressed to 'clown alopecia' appearance. Cases of Kossard's type scarring alopecia affecting premenopausal women made us consider that this condition is not exclusive of postmenopausal women. Differential diagnosis should take into account conditions like female androgenetic alopecia, fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution, alopecia areata, and chronic lupus erythematosus. Except for the pattern of alopecia, lichen planopilaris and frontal fibrosing alopecia are indistinguishable, thus the latter is included as a variant of lichen

  5. Transitory endolymph leakage induced hearing loss and tinnitus: depolarization, biphasic shortening and loss of electromotility of outer hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zenner, H. P.; Reuter, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Gitter, A. H.; Fermin, C.; LePage, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    There are types of deafness and tinnitus in which ruptures or massive changes in the ionic permeability of the membranes lining the endolymphatic space [e.g., of the reticular lamina (RL)] are believed to allow potassium-rich endolymph to deluge the low [K+] perilymphatic fluid (e.g., in the small spaces of Nuel). This would result in a K+ intoxication of sensory and neural structures. Acute attacks of Meniere's disease have been suggested to be an important example for this event. The present study investigated the effects of transiently elevated [K+] due to the addition of artificial endolymph to the basolateral cell surface of outer hair cells (OHC) in replicating endolymph-induced K+ intoxication of the perilymph in the small spaces of Nuel. The influence of K+ intoxication of the basolateral OHC cell surface on the transduction was then examined. Intoxication resulted in an inhibition of the physiological repolarizing K+ efflux from hair cells. This induced unwanted depolarizations of the hair cells, interfering with mechanoelectrical transduction. A pathological longitudinal OHC shortening was also found, with subsequent compression of the organ of Corti possibly influencing the micromechanics of the mechanically active OHC. Both micromechanical and electrophysiological alterations are proposed to contribute to endolymph leakage induced attacks of deafness and possibly also to tinnitus. Moreover, repeated or long-lasting K+ intoxications of OHC resulted in a chronic and complete loss of OHC motility. This is suggested to be a pathophysiological basis in some patients with chronic hearing loss resulting from Meniere's syndrome.

  6. TAUROURSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID PREVENTS HEARING LOSS AND HAIR CELL DEATH IN Cdh23erl/erl MICE

    PubMed Central

    HU, J.; XU, M.; YUAN, J.; LI, B.; Entenman, S.; YU, H.; ZHENG, Q.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss has long been the subject of experimental and clinical research for many years. The recently identified novel mutation of the Cdh23 gene, Cdh23erl/erl, was proven to be a mouse model of human autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB12). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a taurine-conjugated bile acid, has been used in experimental research and clinical applications related to liver disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases associated with apoptosis. Because hair cell apoptosis was implied to be the cellular mechanism leading to hearing loss in Cdh23erl/erl mice (erl mice), this study investigated TUDCA’s otoprotective effects in erl mice: preventing hearing impairment and protecting against hair cell death. Our results showed that systemic treatment with TUDCA significantly alleviated hearing loss and suppressed hair cell death in erl mice. Additionally, TUDCA inhibited apoptotic genes and caspase-3 activation in erl mouse cochleae. The data suggest that TUDCA could be a potential therapeutic agent for human DFNB12. PMID:26748055

  7. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maria João; Martins, Susana; Ferreira, Domingos; Segundo, Marcela A; Reis, Salette

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder, commonly known as hair loss, which affects up to half of the Caucasian male population by middle age, and almost all (95%) Caucasian men by old age. Considering that alopecia affects so many people and that there is currently no scientifically proven treatment with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers) with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil and finasteride) into the dermis and hair follicles. Lipid nanoparticles, prepared by ultrasonication method, showed mean particle sizes around 200 nm, which is sufficient for reaching the dermis and hair follicles, and zeta potential values around −30 mV, which indicates good physical stability. Over 28 days of storage, no significant variations in these parameters were observed, which indicates that all nanoformulations are stable in storage over that period. Cryo-scanning electron microscope measurements showed that all the lipid nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and a smooth surface regardless of their composition. Differential scanning calorimetry studies allowed the determination of phase transition temperatures and confirmed the recrystallization of the lipid nanoparticles (recrystallization index between 11% and 86%). A high loading efficiency was achieved for finasteride (between 70% and 90%), while less than 30% was achieved for minoxidil nanoparticles, over 28 days. Controlled release assays in physiological conditions demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil yielded a prolonged release, as desired. Penetration assays through pig ear skin demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil and finasteride had low levels of penetration. These results suggest that the proposed novel formulation presents several good characteristics

  8. Lipid nanoparticles for topical and transdermal application for alopecia treatment: development, physicochemical characterization, and in vitro release and penetration studies.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Maria João; Martins, Susana; Ferreira, Domingos; Segundo, Marcela A; Reis, Salette

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder, commonly known as hair loss, which affects up to half of the Caucasian male population by middle age, and almost all (95%) Caucasian men by old age. Considering that alopecia affects so many people and that there is currently no scientifically proven treatment with few side effects, new drug-delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. With this purpose in mind, the present study aimed to develop lipid nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers) with the ability to incorporate and deliver anti-alopecia active compounds (minoxidil and finasteride) into the dermis and hair follicles. Lipid nanoparticles, prepared by ultrasonication method, showed mean particle sizes around 200 nm, which is sufficient for reaching the dermis and hair follicles, and zeta potential values around -30 mV, which indicates good physical stability. Over 28 days of storage, no significant variations in these parameters were observed, which indicates that all nanoformulations are stable in storage over that period. Cryo-scanning electron microscope measurements showed that all the lipid nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and a smooth surface regardless of their composition. Differential scanning calorimetry studies allowed the determination of phase transition temperatures and confirmed the recrystallization of the lipid nanoparticles (recrystallization index between 11% and 86%). A high loading efficiency was achieved for finasteride (between 70% and 90%), while less than 30% was achieved for minoxidil nanoparticles, over 28 days. Controlled release assays in physiological conditions demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil yielded a prolonged release, as desired. Penetration assays through pig ear skin demonstrated that nanoparticles loaded with minoxidil and finasteride had low levels of penetration. These results suggest that the proposed novel formulation presents several good characteristics

  9. Alopecia universalis in a dog with testicular neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D; Affolter, Verena K

    2016-12-01

    To describe a case of testicular neoplasia and alopecia universalis in a dog, and successful treatment of the latter with ciclosporin. Twelve-year-old intact male wirehaired fox terrier. Castration, skin biopsy for histopathology, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and clonality analysis of the canine T-cell receptor gamma locus (TCRγ) rearrangement. The dog presented with symmetrical generalized alopecia. Testicular enlargement was noted which on castration was determined to be caused by bilateral interstitial cell tumours, Sertoli cell tumours and a unilateral seminoma. During the four months after castration the alopecia became more severe and widespread. Histopathology of the skin showed moderate, multifocal, mural folliculitis, peribulbar mucinosis and lymphocytic bulbitis, and targeting of anagen hair follicles. Immunophenotyping of the infiltrate showed a population of well-differentiated, small CD3-positive T lymphocytes, some expressing CD4 and others CD8. Molecular analysis revealed a polyclonal lymphocytic infiltrate, substantiating the diagnosis of alopecia areata rather than lymphoma. Treatment with ciclosporin (4.6 mg/kg) and ketoconazole (4.6 mg/kg) resulted in complete hair regrowth. Ciclosporin treatment, in combination with ketoconazole, can be effective for treatment of alopecia universalis in the dog. Alopecia universalis may present with clinically noninflammatory, symmetrical, generalized alopecia, mimicking an endocrine alopecia, and skin biopsies are needed to confirm the diagnosis. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Dosimetric analysis of the alopecia preventing effect of hippocampus sparing whole brain radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Anand; Sampson, Carrie; LaRosa, Salvatore; Floyd, Scott R; Wong, Eric T; Uhlmann, Erik J; Sengupta, Soma; Kasper, Ekkehard M

    2015-11-26

    Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is widely used for the treatment of brain metastases. Cognitive decline and alopecia are recognized adverse effects of WBRT. Recently hippocampus sparing whole brain radiation therapy (HS-WBRT) has been shown to reduce the incidence of memory loss. In this study, we found that multi-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), with strict constraints to the brain parenchyma and to the hippocampus, reduces follicular scalp dose and prevents alopecia. Suitable patients befitting the inclusion criteria of the RTOG 0933 trial received Hippocampus sparing whole brain radiation. On follow up, they were noticed to have full scalp hair preservation. 5 mm thickness of follicle bearing scalp in the radiation field was outlined in the planning CT scans. Conventional opposed lateral WBRT radiation fields were applied to these patient-specific image sets and planned with the same nominal dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. The mean and maximum dose to follicle bearing skin and Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) data were analyzed for conventional and HS-WBRT. Paired t-test was used to compare the means. All six patients had fully preserved scalp hair and remained clinically cognitively intact 1-3 months after HS-WBRT. Compared to conventional WBRT, in addition to the intended sparing of the Hippocampus, HS-WBRT delivered significantly lower mean dose (22.42 cGy vs. 16.33 cGy, p < 0.0001), V24 (9 cc vs. 44 cc, p < 0.0000) and V30 (9 cc vs. 0.096 cc, p = 0.0106) to follicle hair bearing scalp and prevented alopecia. There were no recurrences in the Hippocampus area. HS-WBRT, with an 11-field set up as described, while attempting to conserve hippocampus radiation and maintain radiation dose to brain inadvertently spares follicle-bearing scalp and prevents alopecia.

  11. What causes alopecia areata?

    PubMed Central

    McElwee, K. J.; Gilhar, A.; Tobin, D. J.; Ramot, Y.; Sundberg, J. P.; Nakamura, M.; Bertolini, M.; Inui, S.; Tokura, Y.; Jr, L. E. King; Duque-Estrada, B.; Tosti, A; Keren, A.; Itami, S.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Zlotogorski, A.; Paus, R.

    2014-01-01

    The pathobiology of alopecia areata (AA), one of the most frequent autoimmune diseases and a major unsolved clinical problem, has intrigued dermatologists, hair biologists and immunologists for decades. Simultaneously, both affected patients and the physicians who take care of them are increasingly frustrated that there is still no fully satisfactory treatment. Much of this frustration results from the fact that the pathobiology of AA remains unclear, and no single AA pathogenesis concept can claim to be universally accepted. In fact, some investigators still harbour doubts whether this even is an autoimmune disease, and the relative importance of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells and NKGD2+ NK or NKT cells and the exact role of genetic factors in AA pathogenesis remain bones of contention. Also, is AA one disease, a spectrum of distinct disease entities or only a response pattern of normal hair follicles to immunologically mediated damage? During the past decade, substantial progress has been made in basic AA-related research, in the development of new models for translationally relevant AA research and in the identification of new therapeutic agents and targets for future AA management. This calls for a re-evaluation and public debate of currently prevalent AA pathobiology concepts. The present Controversies feature takes on this challenge, hoping to attract more skin biologists, immunologists and professional autoimmunity experts to this biologically fascinating and clinically important model disease. PMID:23947678

  12. Hormonal changes in menopause: do they contribute to a 'midlife hair crisis' in women?

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, P

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a common problem affecting a large number of women worldwide but beset by a paucity of research. The study of androgens has hitherto dominated the field of hair biology but there is increasing scientific and clinical data to suggest that nonandrogen signals can also affect the folliculosebaceous unit, especially in women. The discovery of oestrogen receptor beta has renewed and redefined prior concepts of oestrogen activity and signalling in hair biology. It is postulated that oestrogens modulate hair growth by their influence on a number of other hormones, growth factors, transcription factors and cytokines. The menopause is a period in which significant changes in oestrogen levels are recorded, and this review discusses studies that help to clarify the link between menopause and the perception of thinning hair. In a study of pre- and postmenopausal women without alopecia, menopausal status significantly influenced hair parameters, specifically hair growth rate, percentage anagen and hair diameter distributions, most notably in the frontal scalp. Hair density decreased with age, but was not correlated with menopausal status. Analyses of hair amount using a model of hair density and hair diameters suggest that the impact of changing hair parameters is most notable in the mid-forties for women. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. A Study of the Accuracy and Reliability of Articles about Alopecia in Newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Ho; Kim, Do Hyeong; Park, So Hee; Cho, Gyeong Je; Seol, Jung Eun

    2018-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in alopecia among the general population. Many people obtain information from easily accessible media rather than from doctors; thus, the media can play an important role in shaping public opinion. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the content and reliability of newspaper articles on alopecia. Methods Newspapers were categorized into three groups: one group of print newspapers and two groups of online newspapers. Online newspapers were further divided into two groups according to type of publishing company; one publishes both print and online newspapers and the other publishes online newspapers only. The most frequently subscribed or circulated newspaper in each group was selected. Articles containing information on alopecia were selected from 3 years of each newspaper and evaluated for reliability. Results Most articles in each group used the general term “alopecia” instead of naming a specific hair loss disease. The majority of articles were based on consultation with experts. Assessment of the accuracy of articles with three grade scales showed that the percentage with high accuracy was 38.9%, 47.2%, and 23.3%. Assessment of reliability scores for five selected articles in each group showed that there were statistically significant differences between common readers and dermatologists (p<0.05). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that closer monitoring of the media is required to supply easily accessible, balanced, and trustworthy information regarding alopecia. PMID:29853745

  14. Long-term hair removal using a 3-millisecond alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Laughlin , S A; Dudley, D K

    2000-04-01

    Laser epilation is now used widely as a clinical alternative to electrolysis for the removal of unwanted hair. All of the laser systems presently being used produce a reliable temporary hair loss by inducing telogen. Most of the published studies use follow-up periods of 6 months or less after the last treatment and cannot address the issue of permanency. Since many patients desire permanent hair loss, there is a need for specific information on the exact benefits and limitations of each particular system. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of hair loss attained by a single treatment with a 3-msec alexandrite laser. A designated period for follow-up was used to address the issue of long-term benefits. A single treatment was carried out on 25 study sites with a 3-msec alexandrite laser at 755 nm using fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2). Hair counts were obtained manually by two independent observers marking terminal hairs under magnification. The counts were repeated using photographic images and the average of the four readings taken. The degree of hair loss was calculated at a time after treatment equal to one complete growth cycle for the particular anatomic site. A second measurement was obtained at a time equal to one growth cycle plus 6 months to determine whether any hair loss had remained stable. The average hair loss at the first follow-up time was 43%, with 60% of sites showing a hair loss of >30%. The hair loss remained stable and the reduction in hair density at both designated times was statistically significant (p <.05). A normal-mode alexandrite laser achieves a long-term alopecia and may result in a permanent loss of terminal hair after one treatment at fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2).

  15. A Marine Protein-based Dietary Supplement for Subclinical Hair Thinning/Loss: Results of a Multisite, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rizer, Ronald L; Stephens, Thomas J; Herndon, James H; Sperber, Brian R; Murphy, James; Ablon, Glynis R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since skin and hair quality are potent vitality signals, and hair growth deficiency can cause significant psychological morbidity. In addition to clearly-defined hair loss disorders, milder forms of hair thinning or hair loss appear to be increasingly common, with a suggestion that sub-optimal diets and stressful lifestyles may be involved. Methods: Here we assess the value of a dietary marine-extract based dietary supplement in premenopausal women with subclinical hair thinning or hair loss conditions. This multi-site, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with impact on hair shedding rate and hair fiber diameter (assessed by phototrichogram) as primary end points upon consumption of the oral supplement compared to a placebo. A total of 96 eligible female subjects were enrolled aged 21–55 years of age from Asian, Caucasian, and Hispanic ethnic backgrounds. Results: This study showed that hair shedding was significantly reduced in the first 3–6 months of daily consumption of the oral supplement. Moreover, phototrichogram image analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in the mean vellus-like hair diameter after 6 months of supplement consumption, when compared to the mean vellus-like hair diameters measured at baseline. Discussion: These results support the view that a nutritional supplement approach may be useful for women in this age group to deal with subclinical hair thinning or hair loss conditions, and those components of this marine extract-based oral supplement may be a useful adjunct. PMID:26903744

  16. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... with covered rubber bands and try not to style it too tightly. Discontinue the use of harsh ... Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care ...

  17. Low level laser therapy and hair regrowth: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Schachner, Lawrence A; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2016-02-01

    Despite the current treatment options for different types of alopecia, there is a need for more effective management options. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was evaluated for stimulating hair growth. Here, we reviewed the current evidence on the LLLT effects with an evidence-based approach, focusing more on randomized controlled studies by critically evaluating them. In order to investigate whether in individuals presenting with hair loss (male pattern hair loss (MPHL), female pattern hair loss (FPHL), alopecia areata (AA), and chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA)) LLLT is effective for hair regrowth, several databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database were searched using the following keywords: Alopecia, Hair loss, Hair growth, Low level laser therapy, Low level light therapy, Low energy laser irradiation, and Photobiomodulation. From the searches, 21 relevant studies were summarized in this review including 2 in vitro, 7 animal, and 12 clinical studies. Among clinical studies, only five were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which evaluated LLLT effect on male and female pattern hair loss. The RCTs were critically appraised using the created checklist according to the Critical Appraisal for Therapy Articles Worksheet created by the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford. The results demonstrated that all the performed RCTs have moderate to high quality of evidence. However, only one out of five studies performed intention-to-treat analysis, and only another study reported the method of randomization and subsequent concealment of allocation clearly; all other studies did not include this very important information in their reports. None of these studies reported the treatment effect of factors such as number needed to treat. Based on this review on all the available evidence about effect of LLLT in alopecia, we found that the FDA-cleared LLLT devices are both safe and effective in patients with MPHL and FPHL

  18. Ethanol extract of Piper longum L. attenuates gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao Fei; Song, Jae-Jun; Hong, Seungug; Kim, Jihye

    2012-06-01

    Piper longum L. (PL), also as known as long pepper, a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, has been reported to exhibit wide spectrum activity including antioxidant activity. However, little information is available on its protective effect on gentamicin (GM) induced ototoxicity which is commonly regarded as being mediated by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of PL ethanol extract on gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures. Cochlea cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice were used for analysis of the protective effects of PL against gentamicin-induced hair cell loss by phalloidin staining. E. coil cultures were used to determine whether PL interferes with the antibiotic activity of GM. Nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activity of PL was also measured in vitro. GM induced significant dose-dependent hair cell loss in cochlea cultures. However, without interfering with the antibiotic activity of GM, PL showed a significant and concentration-dependent protective effect against GM-induced hair cell loss, and hair cells retained their stereocilia well. In addition, PL expressed direct scavenging activity toward NO radical liberated within solution of sodium nitroprusside. These findings demonstrate the protective effect of PL on GM-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures, and suggest that it might be of therapeutic benefit for treatment of GM-induced ototoxicity.

  19. Topical minoxidil in the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, D A; Wilkinson, J D

    1983-01-01

    A modified double blind crossover study was performed to assess the effect of 1% topical minoxidil as compared with placebo in 30 patients with alopecia areata and alopecia totalis. The active preparation produced a highly significant incidence of hair regrowth. A cosmetically acceptable response was noted in 16 patients. No side effects were seen. The study confirmed that topical minoxidil will induce new hair growth in alopecia areata but that it is less likely to do so in more severe and extensive disease. Furthermore, patients with alopecia universalis and totalis may not respond at all. Nevertheless, as compared with other drugs minoxidil applied topically is relatively non-toxic, is easy to use, and has no systemic or local side effects. Images p1016-a PMID:6412929

  20. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hematological and hepatic effects of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) used to stimulate hair growth in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata is the hair loss usually reversible, in sharply defined areas. The treatment of alopecia using growth factors shows interesting activity in promoting hair growth. In this concept, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a marker of angiogenesis, stimulating hair growth by facilitating the supply of nutrients to the hair follicle, increasing follicular diameter. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a topical gel enriched with VEGF liposomes on the hair growth stimulation and its toxicological aspects. Methods Mesocricetus auratus were randomly divided into three groups. Control group was treated with Aristoflex® gel, 1% group with the same gel but added 1% VEGF and 3% group with 3% VEGF. Biochemical, hematological and histological analyses were done. Results At the end of the experiment (15th day of VEGF treatment) efficacy was determined macroscopically by hair density dermatoscopy analysis, and microscopically by hair diameter analysis. They both demonstrated that hair of the VEGF group increased faster and thicker than control. On the other hand, biochemical and hematological results had shown that VEGF was not 100% inert. Conclusions VEGF increased hair follicle area, but more studies are necessary to confirm its toxicity. PMID:24168457

  2. Hematological and hepatic effects of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF) used to stimulate hair growth in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Gnann, Laís Angelo; Castro, Rafael Ferreira; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Feder, David; Perazzo, Fabio Ferreira; Pereira, Edimar Cristiano; Rosa, Paulo César Pires; Junqueira, Virginia Berlanga Campos; Rocha, Katya Cristina; Machado, Carlos D' Aparecida; Paschoal, Francisco Camargo; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2013-10-29

    Alopecia areata is the hair loss usually reversible, in sharply defined areas. The treatment of alopecia using growth factors shows interesting activity in promoting hair growth. In this concept, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) is a marker of angiogenesis, stimulating hair growth by facilitating the supply of nutrients to the hair follicle, increasing follicular diameter. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a topical gel enriched with VEGF liposomes on the hair growth stimulation and its toxicological aspects. Mesocricetus auratus were randomly divided into three groups. Control group was treated with Aristoflex® gel, 1% group with the same gel but added 1% VEGF and 3% group with 3% VEGF. Biochemical, hematological and histological analyses were done. At the end of the experiment (15th day of VEGF treatment) efficacy was determined macroscopically by hair density dermatoscopy analysis, and microscopically by hair diameter analysis. They both demonstrated that hair of the VEGF group increased faster and thicker than control. On the other hand, biochemical and hematological results had shown that VEGF was not 100% inert. VEGF increased hair follicle area, but more studies are necessary to confirm its toxicity.

  3. Valproic Acid Induces Hair Regeneration in Murine Model and Activates Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Yoon, Juyong; Shin, Seung Ho; Zahoor, Muhamad; Kim, Hyoung Jun; Park, Phil June; Park, Won-Seok; Min, Do Sik; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2012-01-01

    Background Alopecia is the common hair loss problem that can affect many people. However, current therapies for treatment of alopecia are limited by low efficacy and potentially undesirable side effects. We have identified a new function for valproic acid (VPA), a GSK3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, to promote hair re-growth in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/ Principal Findings Topical application of VPA to male C3H mice critically stimulated hair re-growth and induced terminally differentiated epidermal markers such as filaggrin and loricrin, and the dermal papilla marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). VPA induced ALP in human dermal papilla cells by up-regulating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, whereas minoxidil (MNX), a drug commonly used to treat alopecia, did not significantly affect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. VPA analogs and other GSK3β inhibitors that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway such as 4-phenyl butyric acid, LiCl, and BeCl2 also exhibited hair growth-promoting activities in vivo. Importantly, VPA, but not MNX, successfully stimulate hair growth in the wounds of C3H mice. Conclusions/ Significance Our findings indicate that small molecules that activate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as VPA, can potentially be developed as drugs to stimulate hair re-growth. PMID:22506014

  4. The Transient Role for Calcium and Vitamin D during the Developmental Hair Follicle Cycle.

    PubMed

    Mady, Leila J; Ajibade, Dare V; Hsaio, Connie; Teichert, Arnaud; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Christakos, Sylvia; Bikle, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    The role for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and/or calcium in hair follicle cycling is not clear despite their impact on keratinocyte differentiation. We found that calbindin-D9k null (knockout) pups generated from calbindin-D9k knockout females fed a vitamin D-deficient, low-calcium (0.47%) diet develop transient alopecia. The pups appear phenotypically normal until 13 days of age, after which the hair progressively sheds in a caudocephalic direction, resulting in truncal alopecia totalis by 20-23 days, with spontaneous recovery by 28 days. Histological studies showed markedly dystrophic hair follicles, loss of hair shafts with increased apoptosis, and hyperplastic epidermis during this time. Ha1 expression is lost during catagen in all mice but recovers more slowly in the knockout pups on the vitamin D-deficient, low-calcium diet. Keratin 1 expression is reduced throughout days 19-28. The expressions of involucrin, loricrin, and cathepsin L is initially increased by day 19 but subsequently falls below those of controls by day 23, as does that of desmoglein 3. Feeding the mothers a high-vitamin D/high-calcium (2%)/lactose (20%) diet lessens the phenotype, and knockout pups fostered to mothers fed a normal diet do not develop alopecia. Our results show that in calbindin-D9k knockout pups, a maternal vitamin D-deficient/low-calcium diet leads to transient noncicatricial alopecia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb on androgen-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Shweta; Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Dixit, V K

    2008-09-01

    Alopecia is a psychologically distressing condition. Androgenetic alopecia, which affects millions of men and women, is an androgen-driven disorder. Here, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb is evaluated for hair growth activity in androgen-induced alopecia. Petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa was studied for its hair growth-promoting activity. Alopecia was induced in albino mice by testosterone administration for 20 days. Its inhibition by simultaneous administration of extract was evaluated using follicular density, anagen/telogen ratio, and microscopic observation of skin sections. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed to study the effect of extract and its major component on activity of 5alpha-reductase enzyme. Petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa exhibited promising hair growth-promoting activity as reflected from follicular density, anagen/telogen ratio, and skin sections. Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase activity by extract and isolate suggest that the extract reversed androgen-induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa and its isolate is useful in treatment of androgen-induced alopecia by inhibiting the enzyme 5alpha-reductase.

  6. Influence of feeding hay on the alopecia of breeding guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gerold, S; Huisinga, E; Iglauer, F; Kurzawa, A; Morankic, A; Reimers, S

    1997-08-01

    Animals with partial alopecia were seen frequently in a breeding colony of guinea pigs. No pathologic aetiology could be determined. An influence of nutrition on the density of the hair coat was considered. Breeding groups were fed one of the commercial guinea pig diets of differing composition, with or without the addition of hay. Observation occurred over a period of months and the quality of the hair coat was evaluated periodically using a semi-quantitative scoring system. More extensive and more frequent fur defects were found is guinea pigs receiving a breeding diet with a high content of crude protein (23%) and a low level of crude fibre (12%), offered hay only restrictively compared with animals receiving a diet with a lower content of crude protein (15.5%) and a higher level of crude fibre (19.5%), offered the same amount of hay. The amount of hay offered is of paramount importance. Animals fed only the diet with the higher level of crude fibre (19.5%), according to the manufacturer's instructions as a complete food, without the addition of hay, showed a less dense hair coat within 4 weeks. In our colony a group of five breeding animals and their young required 200 g of hay daily in order to improve their hair coat quality to normal. Conversely, animals receiving less hay had progressively deteriorating hair coat density. Not only the amount of hay offered, but also the accessibility for all animals plays a role in preventing alopecia in guinea pigs. In larger cages (twice the usual ground surface area) fur defects were seen when the same amount of hay (200 g) was offered in only one central area, rather than spread out evenly throughout the cage. Hair loss was observed to be the result of trichophagia between adult animals kept in the same cage. The need for crude fibre of breeding animals does not appear to be completely met by pellets rich in fibre segments.

  7. Evaluation of hair growth promoting activity of Phyllanthus niruri

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; S. Chauhan, Nagendra; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the potential Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri ) extracts in promotion of hair growth. Materials and Methods: Here, we studied the hair growth promoting activity of petroleum ether extract of P. niruri following its topical administration. Alopecia was induced in albino rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone for 21 days. Evaluation of hair loss inhibition was done by concurrent administration of extract and monitoring parameters like follicular density, anagen/telogen (A/T) ratio and histological observation of animal skin sections. Finasteride solution was applied topically as standard. In vitro experiments were also performed to study the effect of extract on the activity of 5α-reductase enzyme Results: Groups treated with petroleum ether extract of plant showed hair re-growth as reflected by follicular density, A/T ratio and skin sections. Histopathology and morphologic observations of hair re-growth at shaved sites showed active follicular proliferation. In vitro experiments results showed inhibitory activity of petroleum ether extract on type-2 5α-reductase enzyme and an increase in the amount of testosterone with increasing concentrations. Conclusion: It could be concluded that petroleum ether extracts of P. niruri might be useful in the treatment of testosterone-induced alopecia in the experimental animal by inhibiting 5α-reductase enzyme. PMID:26693408

  8. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  9. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P.; Cole, Megan A.; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65 ± 5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1 ± 1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus −73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation. PMID:28216604

  10. The relationship between thyroxine, oestradiol, and postnatal alopecia, with relevance to women's health in general.

    PubMed

    Pringle, T

    2000-11-01

    Post-partum hair loss is possibly due to a reduction in the levels of oestradiol and thyroxine postnatally. Alopecia and/or a persistent loss of hair condition postnatally is associated with a group of symptoms (a syndrome), wherein postnatal depression is significant, as a result of physiologically inadequate levels of thyroxine (T4) and oestradiol (E2), secondary to physiological postnatal anterior pituitary dysfunction. Using this hypothesis, the author began to apply the same hypothesis to other female patients, who were not postpartum, but with similar symptomatology. The author became aware of the necessity for an adequate level of T4 to be present for correct oestrogenization to occur. He then goes on to hypothesize on the synergistic relationship that T4 and oestradiol may have in premenstrual syndrome (PMS), infertility, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, poor placental function, osteoporosis, and anorexia nervosa. He also discusses the role lowering T4 could play in the treatment of terminal cancer breast in premenopausal women.

  11. Female pattern hair loss: a pilot study investigating combination therapy with low-dose oral minoxidil and spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil and spironolactone are oral antihypertensives known to stimulate hair growth. To report on a case series of women with pattern hair loss (PHL) treated with once daily minoxidil 0.25 mg and spironolactone 25 mg. Women newly diagnosed with a Sinclair stage 2-5 PHL were scored for hair shedding and hair density before and after 12 months of treatment with oral minoxidil 0.25 mg and spironolactone 25 mg. A total of 100 women were included in this observational pilot study. Mean age was 48.44 years (range 18-80). Mean hair loss severity at baseline was Sinclair 2.79 (range 2-5). Mean hair shedding score at baseline was 4.82. Mean duration of diagnosis was 6.5 years (range 0.5-30). Mean reduction in hair loss severity score was 0.85 at 6 months and 1.3 at 12 months. Mean reduction in hair shedding score was 2.3 at 6 months and 2.6 at 12 months. Mean change in blood pressure was -4.52 mmHg systolic and -6.48 mmHg diastolic. Side effects were seen in eight women but were generally mild. No patients developed hyperkalemia or any other blood test abnormality. Six of these women continued treatment, and two women who developed urticaria discontinued treatment. Prospective, uncontrolled, open-label observational study. Once daily capsules containing minoxidil 0.25 mg and spironolactone 25 mg appear to be safe and effective in the treatment of FPHL. Placebo-controlled studies to investigate this further are warranted. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kerry; White, Caroline; Thompson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence. Design A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media. Participants Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of alopecia, aged 13 or above and sufficient English to complete the survey. Exclusion criteria included experiencing hair loss as a result of chemotherapy treatment or psychological disorder. Participants (n=338) were predominantly female (97.3%), Caucasian (93.5%) and aged between 35 and 54 years (49.4%) with a diagnosis of alopecia areata (82.6%). Main outcome measures The Social Phobia Inventory measured symptoms of social anxiety, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety and depression. Survey questions were designed to measure the use of wigs. Open-ended questions enabled participants to comment on their experiences of wearing wigs. Results Clinically significant levels of social anxiety (47.5%), anxiety (35.5%) and depression (29%) were reported. Participants who reported worries about not wearing a wig reported significantly higher levels of depression: t(103)=3.40, p≤0.001; anxiety: t(109)=4.80, p≤0.001; and social anxiety: t(294)=3.89, p≤0.001. Wearing wigs was reported as increasing social confidence; however, the concealment it afforded was also reported as both reducing fear of negative evaluation and maintaining anxiety. Discussion Overall, 46% of participants reported that wearing a wig had a positive impact on their everyday life with negative experiences related to fears of the wig being noticed. Psychological interventions alongside wig provision would be beneficial for people living with alopecia. PMID:28473521

  13. Efficacy of topical latanoprost versus minoxidil and betamethasone valerate on the treatment of alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Amal Ahmad; El-Maadawy, Iman Hamed; El-Maghraby, Gamal Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is one of the most common causes of localized hair loss. There is no universally proven therapy that induces and sustains remission of hair growth in AA. To compare the efficacy and safety of topical latanoprost, minoxidil and betamethasone valerate on hair growth in patients with AA. Hundred patients with AA classified into five groups of 20 treated with: Group I, latanoprost 0.1% lotion; Group II, minoxidil 5% lotion; Group III, betamethasone valerate 0.1% solution; Group IV, combination of latanoprost lotion and betamethasone valerate solution and Group V, a vehicle lotion control group. There was a statistically significant improvement in all therapeutic groups when compared with control group and reduction of severity of alopecia tool score of scalp and beard before and after treatment for all therapeutic groups. Latanoprost, minoxidil and betamethasone valerate are effective and safe in the treatment of patchy AA. The use of latanoprost added to the therapeutic efficacy of topical betamethasone valerate in the treatment of AA and could be an effective adjunctive topical therapy for AA.

  14. Trichohyalin is a potential major autoantigen in human alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Leung, Man Ching; Sutton, Chris W; Fenton, David A; Tobin, Desmond J

    2010-10-01

    Several lines of evidence support an autoimmune basis for alopecia areata (AA), a common putative autoimmune hair loss disorder. However, definitive support is lacking largely because the identity of hair follicle (HF) autoantigen(s) involved in its pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we isolated AA-reactive HF-specific antigens from normal human scalp anagen HF extracts by immunoprecipitation using serum antibodies from 10 AA patients. Samples were analyzed by LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, which indicated strong reactivity to the hair growth phase-specific structural protein trichohyalin in all AA sera. Keratin 16 (K16) was also identified as another potential AA-relevant target HF antigen. Double immunofluorescence studies using AA (and control sera) together with a monoclonal antibody to trichohyalin revealed that AA sera contained immunoreactivity that colocalized with trichohyalin in the growth phase-specific inner root sheath of HF. Furthermore, a partial colocalization of AA serum reactivity with anti-K16 antibody was observed in the outer root sheath of the HF. In summary, this study supports the involvement of an immune response to anagen-specific HFs antigens in AA and specifically suggests that an immune response to trichohyalin and K16 may have a role in the pathogenesis of the enigmatic disorder.

  15. Permanent scalp alopecia related to breast cancer chemotherapy by sequential fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) and docetaxel: a prospective study of 20 patients.

    PubMed

    Kluger, N; Jacot, W; Frouin, E; Rigau, V; Poujol, S; Dereure, O; Guillot, B; Romieu, G; Bessis, D

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the clinical and histological features of permanent alopecia following a sequential fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) and docetaxel regimen for adjuvant breast cancer treatment. Women treated for breast cancer by a sequential adjuvant FEC and docetaxel regimen who developed permanent alopecia diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 were identified from the Department of Dermatology (Saint-Eloi Hospital, Montpellier, France) and the Department of Medical Oncology (CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier, France). Data were collected regarding demographics, type of cancer, delay of onset after chemotherapy, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), clinical description of the lesions, scalp biopsies, laboratory explorations investigating steroid hormonal, iron, zinc and thyroid status, therapy and outcome. Twenty white Caucasian females were included. Hair loss presented with a moderate or intense androgenetic-like pattern of scalp alopecia. Biopsy specimen examinations were normal or displayed the androgenetic-like pattern. Laboratory explorations ruled out iron or zinc deficiency and thyroid disorders and confirmed hormonal menopause without hyperandrogenism. The overall mean DLQI score reflected the distressing psychological consequences in the patients' lives. No spontaneous regrowth of the scalp hair was noted. Treatment including vitamins, minoxidil, psoralen and ultraviolet A therapy and spironolactone proved to be ineffective. Permanent and severe alopecia is a newly reported complication of the FEC 100-docetaxel breast cancer regimen.

  16. Understanding and management of female pattern alopecia.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Matt

    2008-11-01

    Female pattern hair loss is devastating to many of the 21 million U.S. women who suffer from it. It is essential to differentiate female pattern hair loss from other types of hair loss to ensure appropriate treatment. Through use of follicular units, follicular families, and follicular pairing between existing hair follicles, natural-looking results can be achieved in women. Hair transplants create the benefit of increasing density and providing options for hair styling and can be combined with medications, devices, and styling aids such as minoxidil, low-level laser therapy, and topical powder makeup, respectively.

  17. The Safety and Efficacy of a Sustainable Marine Extract for the Treatment of Thinning Hair: A Summary of New Clinical Research and Results from a Panel Discussion on the Problem of Thinning Hair and Current Treatments.

    PubMed

    Hornfeldt, Carl S; Holland, Mark; Bucay, Vivian W; Roberts, Wendy E; Waldorf, Heidi A; Dayan, Steven H

    2015-09-01

    Alopecia and thinning hair are highly prevalent conditions affecting a large proportion of men and women. Diffused hair loss is often more difficult to diagnose in women, mostly due to over-reliance on the assumption of hormonal influences, and it is commonly treated with a multi-therapy approach. Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of a nutraceutical supplement to provide essential nutrients that aid in stimulating existing hair growth and reducing hair shedding. The supplement Viviscal® contains a proprietary blend of proteins, lipids, and glycosaminoglycans derived from sustainable marine sources. We present here a summary of studies that have examined the safety and efficacy of this nutraceutical; as well as discussions on hair loss and current therapies from a recently convened expert panel in dermatology and plastic surgery.

  18. Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia in Children: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Eginli, Ariana N; Dlova, Ncoza C; McMichael, Amy

    2017-03-01

    Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is a form of scarring hair loss most commonly seen in middle-aged African and African American women. It is rarely reported in children. The objective of the current study was to document the presence of CCCA in children and to encourage physicians to recognize early signs of CCCA in children of affected adults. Six children presented with biopsy-proven CCCA to the Department of Dermatology at Wake Forest Baptist Health and the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine from 2012 to 2015. Demographic characteristics, hair styling history, and family history of CCCA were noted. Examination included complete history, skin and scalp examination, photographs of the scalp, and scalp biopsies. Patient ages ranged from 14 to 19 years (mean age at onset 14 years). Five patients reported scalp symptoms such as tender papules, pruritus, and scaling. Four patients reported appreciable hair loss on the vertex of the scalp. One patient had used chemical relaxers and hair dyes in the past. Five patients had a known family history of CCCA. Because CCCA is not typically seen or suspected in children, it is likely to be misdiagnosed or underreported. The findings in these cases add weight to the concept that genetic susceptibility rather than hair care practices may play a significant role in causing CCCA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Maternal hair selenium levels as a possible long-term nutritional indicator of recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately 1% of all couples trying to conceive will suffer from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Nutritional deficiencies have been postulated as a possible cause of RPL and in particular, selenium deficiency has been associated with reproductive failure in animal studies and more recently, in some human studies. This study was undertaken to assess the maternal hair selenium levels in women with RPL without an identified cause and to compare these results with those of women with successful reproductive histories. Methods Twenty four patients with RPL and twenty four control subjects with at least one successful pregnancy and no pregnancy failures, who were matched for age and ethnicity, were recruited. A questionnaire was completed, which included demographic and social information and a dietary history. Hair samples were collected and analyzed for selenium content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results The control subjects had a higher mean income and had completed more years of education compared with the RPL patients. There was no significant difference in the intake of selenium rich foods between the 2 groups. The patients, however, consumed significantly more fruit, cheese, potatoes and chocolate than the controls. The median (range) selenium content was 0.80 ppm (0.19-4.15) and 0.68 ppm (0.43-3.76) in patients and controls respectively (Mann Whitney U test 209.5 p = 0.74). Conclusions While there were significant differences in the 2 groups with regard to resources, education and diet our results show that hair selenium concentrations and dietary selenium intake, were similar in the two groups. Both groups had low levels of this important element. PMID:24148900

  20. Frontal fibrosing alopecia: a multicenter review of 355 patients.

    PubMed

    Vañó-Galván, Sergio; Molina-Ruiz, Ana M; Serrano-Falcón, Cristina; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Rodrigues-Barata, Ana R; Garnacho-Saucedo, Gloria; Martorell-Calatayud, Antonio; Fernández-Crehuet, Pablo; Grimalt, Ramón; Aranegui, Beatriz; Grillo, Emiliano; Diaz-Ley, Blanca; Salido, Rafael; Pérez-Gala, Sivia; Serrano, Salvio; Moreno, Jose Carlos; Jaén, Pedro; Camacho, Francisco M

    2014-04-01

    To our knowledge, there are no large multicenter studies concerning frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) that could give clues about its pathogenesis and best treatment. We sought to describe the epidemiology, comorbidities, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and therapeutic choices in a large series of patients with FFA. This retrospective multicenter study included patients given the diagnosis of FFA. Clinical severity was classified based on the recession of the frontotemporal hairline. In all, 355 patients (343 women [49 premenopausal] and 12 men) with a mean age of 61 years (range 23-86) were included. Early menopause was detected in 49 patients (14%), whereas 46 (13%) had undergone hysterectomy. Severe FFA was observed in 131 patients (37%). Independent factors associated with severe FFA after multivariate analysis were: eyelash loss, facial papules, and body hair involvement. Eyebrow loss as the initial clinical presentation was associated with mild forms. Antiandrogens such as finasteride and dutasteride were used in 111 patients (31%), with improvement in 52 (47%) and stabilization in 59 (53%). The retrospective design is a limitation. Eyelash loss, facial papules, and body hair involvement were associated with severe FFA. Antiandrogens were the most useful treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Mays, Rachel R; Dotzert, Michelle S; Versteeg, Sarah G; Shear, Neil H; Piguet, Vincent

    2018-05-24

    Androgenetic alopecia, or male/female pattern baldness, is the most common type of progressive hair loss disorder. The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in non-surgical treatments for androgenetic alopecia and identify the most effective treatments. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted of the available literature of the six most common non-surgical treatment options for treating androgenetic alopecia in both men and women; dutasteride 0.5mg, finasteride 1mg, low level laser therapy (LLLT), minoxidil 2%, minoxidil 5% and platelet rich plasma (PRP). Seventy-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and twenty-two studies had the data necessary for a network meta-analysis. Relative effects show LLLT as the superior treatment. Relative effects show PRP, finasteride 1 mg (male), finasteride 1 mg (female), minoxidil 5%, minoxidil 2% and dutasteride (male) are approximately equivalent in mean change hair count following treatment. Minoxidil 5% and minoxidil 2% reported the most drug-related adverse events (n=45 and n=23, respectively). The quality of evidence of minoxidil 2% vs. minoxidil 5% was high; minoxidil 5% vs. placebo was moderate; dutasteride (male) vs. placebo, finasteride (female) vs placebo, minoxidil 2% vs. placebo, minoxidil 5% vs. LLLT was low and finasteride (male) vs. placebo, LLLT vs. sham, PRP vs. placebo, finasteride vs. minoxidil 2% was very low. Results of this NMA indicate the emergence of novel, non-hormonal therapies as effective treatments for hair loss; however, the quality of evidence is generally low. High quality randomized controlled trials and head to head trials are required to support these findings and aid in the development of more standardized protocols, particularly for PRP. Regardless, this analysis may aid physicians in clinical decision making and highlight the variety of non-surgical hair restoration options for patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by

  2. Alopecia areata associated with abacavir therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Sung; Shin, Hyoung-Shik

    2014-06-01

    Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor that has been approved for use in combination with other retroviral agents in the treatment of HIV infection. Common adverse reactions include headache, fatigue, nausea, and rash. A fatal hypersensitivity reaction may occur in 5% of patients receiving abacavir; therefore, screening for HLA-B5701 should be performed before starting abacavir. Alopecia areata (AA) is infrequently reported in HIV-infected patients. Certain underlying conditions have been associated with AA, including a decreased CD4:CD8 ratio related to the progression of HIV infection, some opportunistic infections, and syphilis. Several antiretroviral drugs, such as zidovudine, indinavir, indinavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and atazanavir/ritonavir have been implicated in the development of AA. At present, the occurrence of AA has not been associated with abacavir use. We cannot exclude that the use of abacavir and the development of AA could be coincidental. Nevertheless, patients given abacavir should be monitored for hair loss and the drug discontinued promptly if such signs appear.

  3. Efficacy of three drugs for protecting against gentamicin-induced hair cell and hearing losses

    PubMed Central

    Bas, E; Van De Water, TR; Gupta, C; Dinh, J; Vu, L; Martínez-Soriano, F; Láinez, JM; Marco, J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Exposure to an ototoxic level of an aminoglycoside can result in hearing loss. In this we study investigated the otoprotective efficacy of dexamethasone (DXM), melatonin (MLT) and tacrolimus (TCR) in gentamicin (GM)-treated animals and cultures. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Wistar rats were divided into controls (treated with saline); exposed to GM only (GM); and three GM-exposed groups treated with either DXM, MLT or TCR. Auditory function and cochlear surface preparations were studied. In vitro studies of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels, the MAPK pathway and caspase-3 activation were performed in organ of Corti explants from 3-day-old rats. KEY RESULTS DXM, MLT and TCR decreased levels of reactive oxygen species in GM-exposed explants. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and TNF-receptor type 1 were significantly reduced in GM + DXM and GM + MLT groups. Phospho-p38 MAPK levels decreased in GM + MLT and GM + TCR groups, while JNK phosphorylation was reduced in GM + DXM and GM + MLT groups. Caspase-3 activation decreased in GM + DXM, GM + MLT and GM + TCR groups. These results were consistent with in vivo results. Local treatment of GM-exposed rat cochleae with either DXM, MLT or TCR preserved auditory function and prevented auditory hair cell loss. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS In organ of Corti explants, GM increased oxidative stress and initiated an inflammatory response that led to the activation of MAPKs and apoptosis of hair cells. The three compounds tested demonstrated otoprotective properties that could be beneficial in the treatment of ototoxicity-induced hearing loss. PMID:22320124

  4. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Finasteride topical delivery systems for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Zia Ullah; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Ubaid, Muhammad; Shah, Aamna; Kousar, Rozina; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2018-01-23

    Androgenetic alopecia, generally recognized as male pattern baldness, is a gradually developing medical and physiological change, which is manifested by continuous hair-loss from scalp. Finasteride (4-aza-3-oxosteroid) is a potent anti-baldness compound that selectively and competitively inhibits the 5α-reductase isoenzymes. Prolonged oral use of finasteride leads to the emergence of sexual disorders including decrease in libido, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorder, orgasm disorders and mood disturbances. Since, hair follicles widely home in 5α-reductase, topical formulations of finasteride in comparison to its oral formulations are expected to potentially reduce its systemic adverse effects. The analysis of literature has revealed some delivery systems developed for the enhanced and localized penetration of finasteride into the skin. These finasteride delivery systems include polymersomes, vesicular nanocarriers, vesicular ethosomal carriers, liposomes and niosomes, liquid crystalline nanoparticles, topical solutions and gels. The aim of this review article is to briefly amass all literature on topical delivery of finasteride to elaborate best dosage form, i.e. formulation having maximum permeation rate. This study will serve as a future perspective regarding topical delivery of finasteride. The literature analysis has exhibited that most of the previous investigators have used propylene glycol in their finasteride-loaded topical formulations, while poloxamer P407, monoolein, transcutol P and choline was used in few formulations. Moreover among all drug delivery systems, finasteride liposomal gel system consisting of 2% methyl cellulose and gel system containing poloxamer P407 exhibited the highest flux with a value of 28.4 ± 1.3 µg/cm2h and 23.1 ± 1.4 µg/cm2h, respectively. Several topical drug delivery techniques such as topical microneedles, aerosol foams, nanoemulsions, microsponges, and emulsifier free formulations, fullerenes

  6. Photobiomodulation therapy for androgenetic alopecia: A clinician's guide to home-use devices cleared by the Federal Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Erin M; Winter, Margo A; Hordinsky, Maria K; Sadick, Neil S; Farah, Ronda S

    2018-06-01

    The market for home-use photobiomodulation devices to treat androgenetic alopecia has rapidly expanded, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently cleared many devices for this purpose. Patients increasingly seek the advice of dermatologists regarding the safety and efficacy of these hair loss treatments. The purpose of this guide was threefold: (1) to identify all home-use photobiomodulation therapy devices with FDA-clearance for treatment of androgenetic alopecia; (2) to review device design, features and existing clinical evidence; and (3) to discuss practical considerations of photobiomodulation therapy, including patient suitability, treatment goals, safety, and device selection. A search of the FDA 510(k) Premarket Notification database was conducted using product code "OAP" to identify all home-use devices that are FDA-cleared to treat androgenetic alopecia. Thirteen commercially available devices were identified and compared. Devices varied in shape, wavelength, light sources, technical features, price, and level of clinical evidence. To date, there are no head-to-head studies comparing the efficacy of these devices. Photobiomodulation therapy devices have an excellent safety profile and mounting evidence supporting their efficacy. However, long-term, high quality studies comparing these devices in diverse populations are lacking. As these devices become increasingly popular, dermatologists should be familiar with this treatment modality to add to their therapeutic armamentarium. AGA, androgenetic alopecia; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; IEC, International Electrotechnical Commission; LED, light-emitting diode; PBMT, photobiomodulation therapy.

  7. Effect of low-level laser treatment on cochlea hair-cell recovery after ototoxic hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; He, Peijie; Jung, Jae Yun; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Lee, Min Young; Suh, Myung-Whan

    2013-12-01

    The primary cause of hearing loss includes damage to cochlear hair cells. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has become a popular treatment for damaged nervous systems. Based on the idea that cochlea hair cells and neural cells are from same developmental origin, the effect of LLLT on hearing loss in animal models is evaluated. Hearing loss animal models were established, and the animals were irradiated by 830-nm diode laser once a day for 10 days. Power density of the laser treatment was 900 mW/cm2, and the fluence was 162 to 194 J. The tympanic membrane was evaluated after LLLT. Thresholds of auditory brainstem responses were evaluated before treatment, after gentamicin, and after 10 days of LLLT. Quantitative scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations were done by counting remaining hair cells. Tympanic membranes were intact at the end of the experiment. No adverse tissue reaction was found. On SEM images, LLLT significantly increased the number of hair cells in middle and basal turns. Hearing was significantly improved by laser irradiation. After LLLT treatment, both the hearing threshold and hair-cell count significantly improved.

  8. Efficacy and safety of 5% minoxidil topical foam in male pattern hair loss treatment and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh, Hournaz; Nasrollahi, Saman Ahmad; Halavati, Nader; Saberi, Maryam; Firooz, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Male pattern hair loss is widespread around the world. Its prevalence indicates the importance of finding the best treatment modalities. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of minoxidil 5% topical foam in male pattern hair loss treatment and patient satisfaction. This study was a before-and-after trial on 17 male patients with male pattern hair loss. Subjects were instructed to apply one capful (1 ml) of minoxidil 5% topical foam on the scalp daily for 6 months. Efficacy was assessed through hair counts, subject assessment, and global photographic review. Seventeen male volunteers were recruited, and three volunteers were withdrawn; 14 participated in the trial for 16 weeks, and 12 continued up to 24 weeks. The average hair count with a camera at week 16 (181.87 ± 52.42) and week 24 (194.58 ± 62.82) and with an eye count at week 16 (62.57 ± 15.28) and week 24 (69.91 ± 15.61) increased significantly compared to the baseline after intervention. This study confirmed that minoxidil 5% topical foam is a safe and effective treatment for MPHL. The effect of it is evident after 24 weeks of use.

  9. Association between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Alopecia Areata: A Study in Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Behrangi, Elham; Mansouri, Parvin; Agah, Shahram; Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser; Mokhtare, Marjan; Azizi, Zahra; Ramezani Ghamsari, Mona; Rohani Nasab, Masoumeh; Azizian, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND Alopecia areata is an immune mediated inflammatory hair loss, which occurs in all ethnic and age groups, and both sexes. However no significant etiology has been known for this disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) , is an organism colonized in gastric mucosa. This bacterium has been associated with certain extra-digestive dermatological conditions. The causal relationship between alopecia areata and H. pylori infection has been discussed in literature. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with alopecia areata and assess the risk of this infection in patients with this disease in order to determine its potential roles in the physiopathology of this disease. METHODS Between 2014 and 2015, we prospectively studied 81 patients with alopecia areata and 81 healthy volunteers with similar age and sex. Patients without any history of H. pylori infection were included in the study and underwent urease breath test. All results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 21.0) and p value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS 81 patients and 81 controls with the mean age of 34.9±11.6 and 38.2±13.4 years were studied (p=0.097). 48 (59.3%) and 45 (55.6%) individuals were male, in cases and control groups respectively (p =0.634). The result of urea breath test (UBT) was positive in 43 (53.1%) patients in cases and 27 (33.3%) individuals in control group, which was significantly different (p =0.011). The risk of H. pylori infection in alopecia areata was 2.263 (95% CI: 1.199-4.273). CONCLUSION The results of our study showed significant difference between H. pylori infection in individuals with and without alopecia areata, which shows that H. pylori contamination may be effective in physiopathology of alopecia areata. Therefore these results should be tested in large multivariable cohorts and controlled trials to reach more accurate evidence in the future and to generalize this idea to

  10. Selective inner hair cell loss in prematurity: a temporal bone study of infants from a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Amatuzzi, Monica; Liberman, M Charles; Northrop, Clarinda

    2011-10-01

    Premature birth is a well-known risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss in general and auditory neuropathy in particular. However, relatively little is known about the underlying causes, in part because there are so few relevant histopathological studies. Here, we report on the analysis of hair cell loss patterns in 54 temporal bones from premature infants and a control group of 46 bones from full-term infants, all of whom spent time in the neonatal intensive care unit at the Hospital de Niños in San Jose, Costa Rica, between 1977 and 1993. The prevalence of significant hair cell loss was higher in the preterm group than the full-term group (41% vs. 28%, respectively). The most striking finding was the frequency of selective inner hair cell loss, an extremely rare histopathological pattern, in the preterm vs. the full-term babies (27% vs. 3%, respectively). The findings suggest that a common cause of non-genetic auditory neuropathy is selective loss of inner hair cells rather than primary damage to the cochlear nerve.

  11. Why care about linear hair growth rates (LHGR)? a study using in vivo imaging and computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) in unaffected male controls and men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL).

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The words "hair growth" frequently encompass many aspects other than just growth. Report on a validation method for precise non-invasive measurement of thickness together with linear hair growth rates of individual hair fibres. To verify the possible correlation between thickness and linear growth rate of scalp hair in male pattern hair loss as compared with healthy male controls. To document the process of validation of hair growth measurement from in vivo image capturing and manual processing, followed by computer assisted image analysis. We analysed 179 paired images obtained with the contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram method with exogen collection (CE-PTG-EC) in 13 healthy male controls and in 87 men with male pattern hair loss (MPHL). There was a global positive correlation between thickness and growth rate (ANOVA; p<0.0001) and a statistically significantly (ANOVA; p<0.0005) slower growth rate in MPHL as compared with equally thick hairs from controls. Finally, the growth rate recorded in the more severe patterns was significantly (ANOVA; P ≤ 0.001) reduced compared with equally thick hair from less severely affected MPHL or controls subjects. Reduced growth rate, together with thinning and shortening of the anagen phase duration in MPHL might contribute together to the global impression of decreased hair volume on the top of the head. Amongst other structural and functional parameters characterizing hair follicle regression, linear hair growth rate warrants further investigation, as it may be relevant in terms of self-perception of hair coverage, quantitative diagnosis and prognostic factor of the therapeutic response.

  12. Alopecia due to an allergic reaction to metal head-pins used in a neurosurgical operation.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hajime; Takasuna, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Allergic reactions to the metal head-pins of a head fixation holder are rare. A 45-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. She underwent successful surgical treatment using four head-pins of the Sugita frame. At her first outpatient visit 3 weeks after discharge, redness, sores, and focal hair loss were noted at all four areas where the pinning had been performed. The pin fixation was considered to be responsible for the alopecia because the condition of the scalp lesions was even in all four parts. Six months later, the scalp regained hair. The head-pins were made of stainless steel, containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other components. A previous history of contact dermatitis to metal jewellery was later proven. The history of metal allergy should have been carefully elicited because head fixation with head-pins is essential for neurosurgical procedures.

  13. Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder surgery: is loss of hair protective for infection?

    PubMed

    Hudek, Robert; Sommer, Frank; Abdelkawi, Ayman F; Kerwat, Martina; Müller, Hans-Helge; Gohlke, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P acnes) has been linked to chronic infections in shoulder surgery. It was recently observed during first-time shoulder surgery in healthy patients at a rate between 36% and 56%. Male gender and the anterolateral approach were reported risk factors. Because the skin biology greatly differs, we aimed to correlate skin complaints with P acnes-positive intraoperative cultures from different tissue layer samples in patients undergoing shoulder surgery for the first time. Intraoperative samples (1 skin, 1 superficial, 1 deep tissue, and 1 control sample) from 112 patients (70 men, 42 women; aged 59.2 years) were cultured. The association between the presence of P acnes in the deep or superficial tissue, or both, and 10 items of a validated preoperative questionnaire for skin pathology was explored. The cultures were positive for P acnes in 38.4% (n = 43) of the cases. Skin samples were positive for P acnes in 8% (n = 9), superficial samples were positive in 23% (n = 26), and deep samples were positive in 30% (n = 34). Self-reported "loss of hair" was significantly negatively associated with the presence of P acnes in the superficial or deep tissue sample (P = .00028). Patients who report having "loss of hair" show fewer P acnes-positive cultures in intraoperative tissue samples taken during open shoulder surgery. Whether this subgroup is at a lesser risk for P acnes infections remains to be substantiated. Basic Science Study; Microbiology. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Promising therapies for treating and/or preventing androgenic alopecia.

    PubMed

    McElwee, K J; Shapiro, J S

    2012-06-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) may affect up to 70% of men and 40% of women at some point in their lifetime. While men typically present with a distinctive alopecia pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding, women normally exhibit a diffuse hair thinning over the top of their scalps. The treatment standard in dermatology clinics continues to be minoxidil and finasteride with hair transplantation as a surgical option. Here we briefly review current therapeutic options and treatments under active investigation. Dutasteride and ketoconazole are also employed for AGA, while prostaglandin analogues latanoprost and bimatoprost are being investigated for their hair growth promoting potential. Laser treatment products available for home use and from cosmetic clinics are becoming popular. In the future, new cell mediated treatment approaches may be available for AGA. While there are a number of potential treatment options, good clinical trial data proving hair growth efficacy is limited.

  15. Patterned androgenic alopecia in women.

    PubMed

    Venning, V A; Dawber, R P

    1988-05-01

    Recession of the frontal and frontoparietal hair line in women has been regarded as a marker for pathologic virilization. In a clinical survey of 564 normal women in the population, frontal and frontoparietal recessions were found in 13% of premenopausal and in 37% of postmenopausal women. Patterned hair loss in women is commoner than hitherto described, particularly after the menopause. In the absence of other signs of virilization, "male-pattern" hair loss would therefore appear to be a poor indicator of gross abnormality of androgen metabolism.

  16. Living with Alopecia Areata

    MedlinePlus

    ... areata, which may impact their self-esteem and social interaction. Learn more about the different experiences that children with alopecia areata may have and resources to help you and your child cope with their disease. WOMEN AND MEN WITH ... Copyright 2018 National Alopecia Areata ...

  17. Use of Vitamins and Minerals in the Treatment of Hair Loss: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Dermatologists in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mubki, Thamer

    2014-11-01

    Several controversies exist regarding the use of vitamin and mineral supplements in treating hair loss. To explore practices, knowledge, and attitudes for using vitamins and minerals in treating hair loss among dermatologists in Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire containing 33 questions was distributed to 177 dermatologists attending a national dermatology conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2012. Of the 177 attending dermatologists, 144 responded to the questionnaire (81% response rate). Vitamins and minerals were recommended for treating at least one type of hair loss by 60%. Vitamins and minerals were most commonly used for acute telogen effluvium (62%). The majority (72%) reported a good knowledge of vitamins and minerals toxicity. Although dermatologists in Saudi Arabia displayed positive believes in the usefulness of vitamins and minerals in treating hair loss, further research is needed to prove their role in the management of different hair loss disorders.

  18. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  19. Anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody accelerates telogen to anagen transition and attenuates apoptosis of the hair follicle in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Wen; Yu, Xiaolan; Li, Jingjing; Deng, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Xia, Peng; Yuan, Yunsheng; Gao, Jin; Zhou, Liang; Han, Wei; Yu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Although hair loss or alopecia is a common disease, its exact mechanisms are not yet well understood. The present study investigated the hypothesis that the homeostatic regulation of genes during hair regeneration may participate in hair loss, based on the cyclicity of hair growth. A cluster of such genes was identified by an expression gene-array from the dorsal skin in a depilated mouse model, and CXCL4 was identified as a significantly regulated gene during the hair regeneration process. To elucidate the function of CXCL4 in hair growth, CXCL4 activity was blocked by the administration of an anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Histomorphometric analysis indicated that anti-CXCL4 mAb induced an earlier anagen phase and delayed hair follicle regression, in contrast with that in the control group. Moreover, CXCL4 mAb upregulated the transcription levels of several hair growth-related genes, including Lef1, Wnt10b, Bmp4 and Bmp2. In addition, CXCL4 mAb increased the levels of the proliferation-related protein PCNA and Bcl-2 during the anagen phase, while it reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and cleaved caspase-3 during the catagen phase. These findings reveal that CXCL4 plays an important role in hair growth, and that blockade of CXCL4 activity promotes hair growth. PMID:28810552

  20. Anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody accelerates telogen to anagen transition and attenuates apoptosis of the hair follicle in mice.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wen; Yu, Xiaolan; Li, Jingjing; Deng, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Jing; Xia, Peng; Yuan, Yunsheng; Gao, Jin; Zhou, Liang; Han, Wei; Yu, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Although hair loss or alopecia is a common disease, its exact mechanisms are not yet well understood. The present study investigated the hypothesis that the homeostatic regulation of genes during hair regeneration may participate in hair loss, based on the cyclicity of hair growth. A cluster of such genes was identified by an expression gene-array from the dorsal skin in a depilated mouse model, and CXCL4 was identified as a significantly regulated gene during the hair regeneration process. To elucidate the function of CXCL4 in hair growth, CXCL4 activity was blocked by the administration of an anti-CXCL4 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Histomorphometric analysis indicated that anti-CXCL4 mAb induced an earlier anagen phase and delayed hair follicle regression, in contrast with that in the control group. Moreover, CXCL4 mAb upregulated the transcription levels of several hair growth-related genes, including Lef1, Wnt10b, Bmp4 and Bmp2. In addition, CXCL4 mAb increased the levels of the proliferation-related protein PCNA and Bcl-2 during the anagen phase, while it reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and cleaved caspase-3 during the catagen phase. These findings reveal that CXCL4 plays an important role in hair growth, and that blockade of CXCL4 activity promotes hair growth.

  1. Systemic treatment for alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Otberg, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Of the world population, 1.7% is suffering from alopecia areata at some point in their lives. The exact etiology of this disease is still unknown, and the course of the disease is unpredictable. Effective treatments, especially for severe multifocal alopecia areata, alopecia areata totalis, and alopecia areata universalis, are lacking. The present article will discuss side effects and relapse rates of different systemic agents for treatment of severe and rapid progressive alopecia areata. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cochlear hair cell regeneration after noise-induced hearing loss: does regeneration follow development?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Zuo, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) affects a large number of military personnel and civilians. Regenerating inner-ear cochlear hair cells (HCs) is a promising strategy to restore hearing after NIHL. In this review, we first summarize recent transcriptome profile analysis of zebrafish lateral lines and chick utricles where spontaneous HC regeneration occurs after HC damage. We then discuss recent studies in other mammalian regenerative systems such as pancreas, heart and central nervous system. Both spontaneous and forced HC regeneration occurs in mammalian cochleae in vivo involving proliferation and direct lineage conversion. However, both processes are inefficient and incomplete, and decline with age. For direct lineage conversion in vivo in cochleae and in other systems, further improvement requires multiple factors, including transcription, epigenetic and trophic factors, with appropriate stoichiometry in appropriate architectural niche. Increasing evidence from other systems indicates that the molecular paths of direct lineage conversion may be different from those of normal developmental lineages. We therefore hypothesize that HC regeneration does not have to follow HC development and that epigenetic memory of supporting cells influences the HC regeneration, which may be a key to successful cochlear HC regeneration. Finally, we discuss recent efforts in viral gene therapy and drug discovery for HC regeneration. We hope that combination therapy targeting multiple factors and epigenetic signaling pathways will provide promising avenues for HC regeneration in humans with NIHL and other types of hearing loss. PMID:28034617

  3. Association Between Use of a Scalp Cooling Device and Alopecia After Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rugo, Hope S; Klein, Paula; Melin, Susan Anitra; Hurvitz, Sara A; Melisko, Michelle E; Moore, Anne; Park, Glen; Mitchel, Jules; Bågeman, Erika; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; Esserman, Laura; Cigler, Tessa

    2017-02-14

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a common and distressing adverse effect. In previous studies of scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia, conclusions have been limited. To evaluate whether use of a scalp cooling system is associated with a lower amount of hair loss among women receiving specific chemotherapy regimens for early-stage breast cancer and to assess related changes in quality of life. A prospective cohort study conducted at 5 US medical centers of women with stage I or II breast cancer receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens excluding sequential or combination anthracycline and taxane (106 patients in the scalp cooling group and 16 in the control group; 14 matched by both age and chemotherapy regimen). The study was conducted between August 2013 and October 2014 with ongoing annual follow-up for 5 years. Use of a scalp cooling system. Scalp cooling was initiated 30 minutes prior to each chemotherapy cycle, with scalp temperature maintained at 3°C (37°F) throughout chemotherapy and for 90 minutes to 120 minutes afterward. Self-estimated hair loss using the Dean scale was assessed 4 weeks after the last dose of chemotherapy by unblinded patient review of 5 photographs. A Dean scale score of 0 to 2 (≤50% hair loss) was defined as treatment success. A positive association between scalp cooling and reduced risk of hair loss would be demonstrated if 50% or more of patients in the scalp cooling group achieved treatment success, with the lower bound of the 95% CI greater than 40% of the success proportion. Quality of life was assessed at baseline, at the start of the last chemotherapy cycle, and 1 month later. Median follow-up was 29.5 months. Among the 122 patients in the study, the mean age was 53 years (range, 28-77 years); 77.0% were white, 9.0% were black, and 10.7% were Asian; and the mean duration of chemotherapy was 2.3 months (median, 2.1 months). No participants in the scalp cooling group received anthracyclines. Hair

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% solutions on male androgenetic alopecia and measuring patient satisfaction rate.

    PubMed

    Faghihi, Gita; Iraji, Fariba; Rajaee Harandi, Manijeh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad-Ali; Askari, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    According to the hypothesis on the stimulating effect of adenosine on increasing fibroblast growth factor 7 in dermal papilla cells and its vasorelaxant effect, we performed this study to compare the effect of topical minoxidil 5% and adenosine 0.75% on male pattern androgenetic alopecia. This prospective-randomized study recruited 110 male patients suffering from grade II-V Hamilton androgenetic alopecia. Fifty-five patients received minoxidil 5% (group 1) and adenosine 0.75% (group 2) each. Later, 16 patients were excluded due to allergic reactions or loss to follow up. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, complete and relative recovery rates alongside patient satisfaction rate (faster prevention of primary hair loss and appearance of newly grown hair) were compared between the groups. After 3 months of treatment, relative recovery was achieved in 2.4% and 1.9% of patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively, which was not significantly different (p=0.17). During 6 months, the relative recovery rate did not change either within or between the groups (p=0.99) and after 6 months none of the patients achieved complete recovery. However, the patient satisfaction rate was significantly higher in group 2 (p=0.003). In the light of the results, adenosine has no statistically superiority to minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia according to recovery rates. However, the patients were significantly more satisfied with adenosine because of faster prevention of hair loss and appearance of the newly grown hairs. It seems further studies with larger sample size or different drug dosages are required to clarify the findings.

  5. Model-based analysis of the torsional loss modulus in human hair and of the effects of cosmetic processing.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, Franz J; Wortmann, Gabriele; Haake, Hans-Martin; Eisfeld, Wolf

    Torsional analysis of single human hairs is especially suited to determine the properties of the cuticle and its changes through cosmetic processing. The two primary parameters, which are obtained by free torsional oscillation using the torsional pendulum method, are storage ( G ') and loss modulus ( G ″). Based on previous work on G ', the current investigation focuses on G ″. The results show an increase of G ″ with a drop of G ' and vice versa , as is expected for a viscoelastic material well below its glass transition. The overall power of G ″ to discriminate between samples is quite low. This is attributed to the systematic decrease of the parameter values with increasing fiber diameter, with a pronounced correlation between G ″ and G '. Analyzing this effect on the basis of a core/shell model for the cortex/cuticle structure of hair by nonlinear regression leads to estimates for the loss moduli of cortex ( G ″ co ) and cuticle ( G ″ cu ). Although the values for G ″ co turn out to be physically not plausible, due to limitations of the applied model, those for G ″ cu are considered as generally realistic against relevant literature values. Significant differences between the loss moduli of the cuticle for the different samples provide insight into changes of the torsional energy loss due to the cosmetic processes and products, contributing toward a consistent view of torsional energy storage and loss, namely, in the cuticle of hair.

  6. Coexistence of congenital giant melanocytic nevus of the scalp with cranial defect, poliosis, and hair loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo J; Lee, Sang M; Won, Chong H; Chang, Sung E; Lee, Mi W; Choi, Jee H; Moon, Kee C

    2013-01-01

    Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are pigmented lesions presenting on the skin in approximately 1% of all newborns at or shortly after birth. CMN have been described as being associated with several anomalies, including cranial bone hypertrophy, scoliosis, and spina bifida. This is the first report to describe a giant congenital melanocytic nevus on the scalp associated with cranial involvement, poliosis, and alopecia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Body to Scalp: Evolving Trends in Body Hair Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Kuldeep; Savant, Sandeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28584752

  8. Efficacy and safety of 3% minoxidil versus combined 3% minoxidil / 0.1% finasteride in male pattern hair loss: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tanglertsampan, Chuchai

    2012-10-01

    Topical minoxidil and oral finasteride have been used to treat men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). There are concerns about side effects of oral finasteride especially erectile dysfunction. To compare the efficacy and safety of the 24 weeks application of 3% minoxidil lotion (MNX) versus combined 3% minoxidil and 0.1% finasteride lotion (MFX) in men with AGA. Forty men with AGA were randomized treated with MNX or MFX. Efficacy was evaluated by hair counts and global photographic assessment. Safety assessment was performed by history and physical examination. At week 24, hair counts were increased from baseline in both groups. However paired t-test revealed statistical difference only in MFX group (p = 0.044). Unpaired t-test revealed no statistical difference between two groups with respect to change of hair counts at 24 weeks from baseline (p = 0.503). MFX showed significantly higher efficacy than MNX by global photographic assessment (p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in side effects between both groups. Although change of hair counts was not statistically different between two groups, global photographic assessment showed significantly greater improvement in the MFX group than the MNX group. There was no sexual side effect. MFX may be a safe and effective treatment option.

  9. [Alopecia areata: a retrospective study of the paediatric dermatology department (2000-2008)].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joana; Ventura, Filipa; Vieira, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana Raquel; Fernandes, Susana; Brito, Celeste

    2011-01-01

    Alopecia areata usually presents as patchy, nonscarring hair loss. It seems to be an immune mediated disease, whereas genetic predisposition, environmental and psychological triggers may be involved in its aetiology. To study the epidemiology, clinical aspects, associations, and treatment of alopecia areata in the paediatric population of Peadiatric Dermatology outpatients over a 9-year period. Some psychologic characteristics were also assessed. Descriptive and retrospective study of all newly diagnosed AA cases seen from January 2000 to December 2008 at the Hospital de São Marcos' Paediatric Dermatology Department. Fifteen patients with AA were interviewed for psycologic evaluation. Forty-eight cases (54% male/46% female) were identified. Mean age at presentation was 7.8 years. Family history of AA was reported in 10% of the cases, and in 25% there was a personal and/or family history of atopy. The majority of patients (82%) had mild disease and topical corticotherapy was the first-line treatment for limited AA. Fifty-four percent of these patients had a complete resolution of the lesions with treatment. Systemic treatment (corticosteroids and/or ciclosporin) was used in 71% of patients with extensive disease (more than 50% hair loss). Only one of these patients had a sustained clinical improvement after treatment. Twelve out of 15 respondents (80%) recalled stressful events preceding hair loss. Our findings are similar to those reported in other studies. Epidemiologic studies of AA are available in adulthood but there is a paucity of literature on children with AA. A holistic approach is important in the management of childhood AA as the disease can have a severe psychologic impact on an individual's well-being.

  10. A PAIR OF TRANSMEMBRANE RECEPTORS ESSENTIAL FOR THE RETENTION AND PIGMENTATION OF HAIR

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Beppu, Hideyuki; Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Georgopoulos, Katia; Larue, Lionel; Li, En; Weiner, Lorin; Brissette, Janice L.

    2012-01-01

    Hair follicles are simple, accessible models for many developmental processes. Here, using mutant mice, we show that Bmpr2, a known receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), and Acvr2a, a known receptor for Bmps and activins, are individually redundant but together essential for multiple follicular traits. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in cutaneous epithelium, hair follicles undergo rapid cycles of hair generation and loss. Alopecia results from a failure to terminate hair development properly, as hair clubs never form, and follicular retraction is slowed. Hair regeneration is rapid due to premature activation of new hair-production programs. Hair shafts differentiate aberrantly due to impaired arrest of medullary-cell proliferation. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in melanocytes, gray hair develops, as melanosomes differentiate but fail to grow, resulting in organelle miniaturization. We conclude that Bmpr2 and Acvr2a normally play cell-type-specific, necessary roles in organelle biogenesis and the shutdown of developmental programs and cell division. PMID:22611050

  11. Biotechnology in the Treatment of Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Foundations and Future of Hair Cell Regeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of the methodologies involved in the field of hair cell regeneration. First, the author provides a tutorial on the biotechnological foundations of this field to assist the reader in the comprehension and interpretation of the research involved in hair cell regeneration. Next, the author presents a review of stem…

  12. Primary Cicatricial Alopecias: A Review of Histopathologic Findings in 38 Patients from a Clinical University Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moure, Emanuella Rosyane Duarte; Romiti, Ricardo; Machado, Maria Cecília da Matta Rivitti; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Scarring alopecias are classified into primary and secondary types according to the initial site of inflammation. In primary scarring alopecias, the hair follicle is the main target of destruction; the term secondary cicatricial alopecia implies that follicular destruction is not the primary pathologic event. AIMS To review the histopathologic diagnoses of cases of cicatricial alopecia in order to classify them according to the North American Hair Research Society. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with biopsy specimens diagnosed as cicatricial alopecia seen from 2000 to 2005 at the Dermatologic Department of Hospital das Clinicas, São Paulo University Medical School had hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stained slides reevaluated and sub-typed into different primary cicatricial alopecias. RESULTS Thirty-eight cases of primary cicatricial alopecias were reclassified as: chronic cutaneous lupus (17), lichen planus pilaris (4), pseudopelade of Brocq (12), folliculitis decalvans (3), dissecting folliculitis (1), and non-specific scarring alopecia (1). In our cases, the methods employed allowed an accurate diagnosis in 12 of 13 cases (92.3%) previously classified as non-specific cicatricial alopecias. CONCLUSIONS Even in the late, pauci or non-inflammatory phases, an approach with systematic evaluation of a constellation of criteria in routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, Periodic acid-Schiff and Weigert stain allowed for a more accurate diagnosis of cicatricial alopecias. PMID:19060995

  13. Prestin Regulation and Function in Residual Outer Hair Cells after Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Anping; Song, Yohan; Wang, Rosalie; Gao, Simon S.; Clifton, Will; Raphael, Patrick; Chao, Sung-il; Pereira, Fred A.; Groves, Andrew K.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The outer hair cell (OHC) motor protein prestin is necessary for electromotility, which drives cochlear amplification and produces exquisitely sharp frequency tuning. TectaC1509G transgenic mice have hearing loss, and surprisingly have increased OHC prestin levels. We hypothesized, therefore, that prestin up-regulation may represent a generalized response to compensate for a state of hearing loss. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on prestin expression. After noise exposure, we performed cytocochleograms and observed OHC loss only in the basal region of the cochlea. Next, we patch clamped OHCs from the apical turn (9–12 kHz region), where no OHCs were lost, in noise-exposed and age-matched control mice. The non-linear capacitance was significantly higher in noise-exposed mice, consistent with higher functional prestin levels. We then measured prestin protein and mRNA levels in whole-cochlea specimens. Both Western blot and qPCR studies demonstrated increased prestin expression after noise exposure. Finally, we examined the effect of the prestin increase in vivo following noise damage. Immediately after noise exposure, ABR and DPOAE thresholds were elevated by 30–40 dB. While most of the temporary threshold shifts recovered within 3 days, there were additional improvements over the next month. However, DPOAE magnitudes, basilar membrane vibration, and CAP tuning curve measurements from the 9–12 kHz cochlear region demonstrated no differences between noise-exposed mice and control mice. Taken together, these data indicate that prestin is up-regulated by 32–58% in residual OHCs after noise exposure and that the prestin is functional. These findings are consistent with the notion that prestin increases in an attempt to partially compensate for reduced force production because of missing OHCs. However, in regions where there is no OHC loss, the cochlea is able to compensate for the excess prestin in order to

  14. Synchrotron nanoscopy imaging study of scalp hair in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals: Difference in medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Mi; Chikawa, Jun-Ichi; Jeon, Jae-Kun; Hwang, Min-Young; Lim, Jun; Jeong, Young-Ju; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Jheon, Sanghoon; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscopic synchrotron X-ray imaging was performed on scalp hair samples of patients with breast cancer and healthy individuals to investigate any structural differences as diagnostic tool. Hair strands were divided into 2-3 segments along the strands from root to tip, followed by imaging either in projection or in CT scanning with a monochromatic 6.78-keV X-ray using zone-plate optics with a resolving power of 60 nm. All the examined cancer hairs exhibited medulla loss with cancer stage-dependent pattern; complete loss, discontinuous or trace along the strands. In contrast, medullas were well retained without complete loss in the healthy hair. In the CT-scanned axial images, the cortical spindle compartments had no contrast in the healthy hair, but appeared hypointense in contrast to the surrounding hyperintense cortical membrane complex in the cancer hair. In conclusion, observation of medulla loss and cortical membrane enhancements in the hair strands of breast cancer patients demonstrated structural variations in the cancer hair, providing a new platform for further synchrotron X-ray imaging study of screening breast cancer patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  16. A novel rat model for chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Wikramanayake, T C; Amini, S; Simon, J; Mauro, L M; Elgart, G; Schachner, L A; Jimenez, J J

    2012-04-01

    More than half of all people diagnosed with cancer receive chemotherapy, and approximately 65% of these develop chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA), a side-effect that can have considerable negative psychological repercussions. Currently, there are very few animal models available to study the mechanism and prevention of CIA. To develop a clinically relevant adult rat model for CIA. We first tested whether neonatal pigmented Long-Evans (LE) rats developed alopecia in response to the chemotherapeutic agents etoposide and cyclophosphamide. We then determined whether the rats developed CIA as adults. In the latter experiment, rat dorsal hair was clipped during the early telogen stage to synchronize the hair cycle, and starting 15 days later, the rats were treated with etoposide for 3 days. Neonatal LE pups developed CIA in response to etoposide and cyclophosphamide, similar to other murine models for CIA. Clipping of the hair shaft during early telogen resulted in synchronized anagen induction and subsequent alopecia after etoposide treatment in the clipped areas only. Hair follicles in the clipped areas had the typical chemotherapy-induced follicular dystrophy (dystrophic catagen). When the hair in the pigmented alopecic areas regrew, it had normal pigmentation. A novel, pigmented adult rat model has been established for CIA. By hair-shaft clipping during early telogen, synchronized anagen entry was induced, which resulted in alopecia in response to chemotherapy. This is the first clinically relevant adult rat model for CIA, and will be a useful tool to test agents for the prevention and treatment of CIA. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients.

    PubMed

    Ors, Safvet

    2017-09-01

    Migraine headache is a primary neurologic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. As a consequence, quality of life is diminished, productivity suffers (through loss of work force), and treatment costs are substantial. The occurrence rate in the general population is quite high, with women accounting for 3 of every 4 cases. Between January 2011 and May 2012, a total of 221 patients received hair transplants. Another 590 patients underwent hair transplantation between June 2012 and December 2016. Initially (first interval), patients were not questioned on migraine headaches in preoperative visits, but questioning was regularly done thereafter. Overall, 150 patients given transplants in the first period were surveyed by phone regarding preoperative migraine headaches. Aside from the 1 incidental discovery, no other instances of migraine emerged. Headache origins were occipital-frontal in 2 patients, occipital-temporal in 2 patients, and occipital-temporal-frontal in the 2 others. Donor/receiver areas in hair transplantation and migraine trigger zones shared locations. Headache frequencies ranged from 4 to 8 days per month (average, 6 days), and pain scores were 5-8 (10 being highest). Duration of pain was 3-5 hours (average, 4 hours). All six patients had used various medications, such as triptans, ergot, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, before hair transplantation. The 1 female patient was a 32-year-old seeking treatment for alopecia, with a 6-year history of migraine headaches. The male patients presenting with androgenetic alopecia (grade 4-5 by Norwood classification) had 6- to 20-year migrainous histories. After hair transplantation, each migraine sufferer was checked once in the first month and then once every 3 months. Those who could not appear in person after the first year were evaluated by phone every 3 months. Migraine headaches had ceased in all 6 patients, none of whom used medical treatments for migraines thereafter. The postoperative

  18. Mechanical and Controlled PRP Injections in Patients Affected by Androgenetic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Pietro; Garcovich, Simone; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Bielli, Alessandra; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2018-01-27

    23 patients (18 male and 5 female) aged 21-70 years who displayed male pattern hair loss (MPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 5 as determined by the Norwood-Hamilton classification scale, and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 2 as determined by the Ludwig classification scale, were treated with non-activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (A-PRP). Autologous blood (55 mL) was harvested using sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. A-PRP (23 mL) was produced for all cases using a closed system according to the transfusion service protocol. Following centrifugation (260 x g for 10 min) the A-PRP was inserted in a laser light selector device, and after the centrifugation, 9 mL of A-PRP was collected. The scalp of the patients affected by androgenetic alopecia (AGA) was divided into four areas (frontal, parietal, vertex, and occipital); local anesthesia was not performed. Interfollicular A-PRP injections (0.2 mL x cm 2 ) were performed by controlled and mechanical injections scheduled at a depth of 5 mm using a medical injector gun. Treatment sessions were performed with a 30-day interval. For each patient, three treatment sessions were performed. PRP was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp affected by hair loss. Placebo (normal saline solution) was loaded in another syringe (10 mL) and injected on the adjacent side in a similar fashion.

  19. Protective effect of hexane and ethanol extract of piper longum L. On gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cultures.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Choi, June; Song, Jae-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic that generates free oxygen radicals within the inner ear, which can cause vestibulo-cochlear toxicity and permanent damage to the sensory hair cells and neurons. Piper longum L. (PL) is a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, which has been reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of activity, including antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hexane:ethanol (2:8) PL extract (subfraction of PL [SPL] extract) on GM-induced hair cell loss in basal, middle and apical regions in a neonatal cochlea cultures. The protective effects of SPL extract were measured by phalloidin staining of cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice with GM-induced hair cell loss. The anti-apoptosis activity of SPL extract was measured using double labeling by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and myosin-7a staining. The radical-scavenging activity of SPL extract was assessed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. SPL extract at a concentration of 1 µg/mL significantly inhibited GM-induced hair cell loss at basal and middle region of cochlea, while 5 µg/mL was effective against apical region hair cell loss. The protective effect of SPL extract was concentration dependent and hair cells retained their stereocilia in explants treated with SPL extract prior to treatment with 0.3 mM GM. SPL extract decreased GM-induced apoptosis of hair cells as assessed by TUNEL staining. The outer hair and inner hair counts were not decreased in SPL extract treated groups in compare to GM treated explants. Additionally, SPL extract showed concentration dependent radical scavenging activity in a DPPH assay. An anti-apoptosis effect and potent radical scavenger activity of SPL extract protects from GM-induced hair cell loss at basal, middle and apical regions in neonatal cochlea cultures.

  20. The Impact of 5α-Reductase Inhibitor Use for Male Pattern Hair Loss on Men's Health.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohammed A; Mehta, Akanksha

    2018-06-16

    Male pattern hair loss, mediated by dihydrotestosterone, is a common hair loss disorder, affecting over 50% of men over the age of 50. The 5-α reductase inhibitors, finasteride and dutasteride, are Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for the treatment of this disorder. Several recent studies have reported adverse sexual and spermatogenic events among young men using 5-α reductase inhibitors, such as erectile dysfunction, decreased ejaculate volume, decreased libido, and infertility. In this review, we summarize and analyze the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of these medications, with an overall focus on men's health. Finasteride for the treatment of male pattern hair loss was considered safe according to many previous clinical trials. However, these trials have been recently criticized for inadequate safety reporting. Comprehensive review of the current literature reveals that there is a disproportionately high number of men with 5-α reductase inhibitor-associated sexual dysfunction and infertility. Although uncommon, the use of 5-α reductase inhibitors is associated with serious and persistent sexual and reproductive side effects, such as erectile dysfunction, decreased ejaculate volume, decreased libido, and infertility.

  1. Minoxidil dose response study in female pattern hair loss patients determined to be non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil.

    PubMed

    McCoy, J; Goren, A; Kovacevic, M; Shapiro, J

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only US FDA approved drug for the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL). 5% minoxidil foam is only effective at re-growing hair in a minority of women (approximately 40%). Thus, the majority of FPHL patients remain untreated. Previously, we demonstrated that nonresponders to 5% minoxidil have low metabolism of minoxidil in hair follicles. As such, we hypothesized that increasing the dosage of topical minoxidil to low metabolizers would increase the number of responders without increasing the incidence of adverse events. In this study, we recruited FPHL subjects that were identified as non-responders to 5% topical minoxidil utilizing the previously validated assay for minoxidil response. Subjects were treated for 12 weeks with a novel 15% topical minoxidil solution. At 12 weeks, 60% of subjects achieved a clinically significant response based on target area hair counts (>13.7% from baseline), as well as significant improvement in global photographic assessment. None of the subjects experienced significant hemodynamic changes or any other adverse events. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the potentially beneficial effect of a higher dosage of minoxidil in FPHL subjects who fail to respond to 5% minoxidil.

  2. Stem cell plasticity enables hair regeneration following Lgr5+ cell loss.

    PubMed

    Hoeck, Joerg D; Biehs, Brian; Kurtova, Antonina V; Kljavin, Noelyn M; de Sousa E Melo, Felipe; Alicke, Bruno; Koeppen, Hartmut; Modrusan, Zora; Piskol, Robert; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2017-06-01

    Under injury conditions, dedicated stem cell populations govern tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce stem cell regeneration and enable plasticity are poorly understood. Here, we investigate stem cell recovery in the context of the hair follicle to understand how two molecularly distinct stem cell populations are integrated. Utilizing diphtheria-toxin-mediated cell ablation of Lgr5 + (leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5) stem cells, we show that killing of Lgr5 + cells in mice abrogates hair regeneration but this is reversible. During recovery, CD34 + (CD34 antigen) stem cells activate inflammatory response programs and start dividing. Pharmacological attenuation of inflammation inhibits CD34 + cell proliferation. Subsequently, the Wnt pathway controls the recovery of Lgr5 + cells and inhibition of Wnt signalling prevents Lgr5 + cell and hair germ recovery. Thus, our study uncovers a compensatory relationship between two stem cell populations and the underlying molecular mechanisms that enable hair follicle regeneration.

  3. Psoriatic alopecia - fact or fiction? A clinicohistopathologic reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudine Yap; Brown, Katherine L; Kurban, Amal K; Mahalingam, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of psoriatic alopecia in psoriatic patients is underwhelming, given the prevalence of psoriasis in the North American population. Recently, a 60-year-old Albanian female, lacking a significant medical history for psoriasis, presented to our clinic with a 1-year history of "dandruff" associated with itch, hair thinning, and histopathologic evidence consistent with prior reports of "psoriatic alopecia." The absence of preceding or concomitant psoriasis suggests that the patient's alopecia is an antecedent manifestation of psoriasis, thus prompting this retrospective study to ascertain better the relationship between alopecia and psoriasis. We performed a retrospective review of 33 scalp biopsies on 31 patients having histopathologic diagnosis of psoriasis belonging to 31 patients seen between 2007 and 2010. Alopecia was a presenting feature in 48% of cases with definitive clinical and/or histopathologic diagnosis of psoriasis (scale crust with neutrophils, psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia, and hypogranulosis). The most common follicular-related changes were infundibular dilatation (87%) followed by perifollicular fibrosis (77%), perifollicular lymphocytic inflammation (68%), thinning of the follicular infundibulum (55%), and fibrous tracts (28%). Of interest, sebaceous glands were absent in 60% and atrophic in 25% of cases. While a major limitation of this study is that it is a retrospective one, given that these changes are common to varying degrees in all lymphocytic scarring alopecias, we posit that psoriatic alopecia likely represents a secondary clinical change to a primary process and is not a unique histopathologic entity. A prospective study with a control group that includes lymphocytic scarring alopecias from non-psoriatic patients is required to support our findings.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of a multimodal minoxidil microemulsion versus minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia of mixed etiology: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Farouk M; Gado, Ali Mi; Mohammed, Haseebur R; Adam, Abdel Nasser Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The variable success of topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenic alopecia has led to the hypothesis that other pathways could mediate this form of hair loss, including infection and/or microinflammation of the hair follicles. In this study, we prepared a multimodal microemulsion comprising minoxidil (a dihydrotestosterone antagonist), diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and tea tree oil (an anti-infective agent). We investigated the stability and physicochemical properties of this formulation, and its therapeutic efficacy compared with a formulation containing minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. We developed a multimodal oil/water (o/w) microemulsion, a formulation containing minoxidil alone, and another containing vehicle. A three-phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimal concentrations of the selected oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Thirty-two men aged 18-30 years were randomized to apply 1 mL of microemulsion containing the multimodal formulation (formulation A, n = 11), minoxidil alone (formulation B, n = 11) or placebo (formulation C, n = 10) twice daily to the affected area for 32 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by mean hair count, thickness, and weight on the targeted area of the scalp. Global photographs were taken, changes in the area of scalp coverage were assessed by patients and external investigators, and the benefits and safety of the study medications were evaluated. The physical stability of formula A was examined after a shelf storage period of 24 months. Formulation A achieved a significantly superior response than formulations B and C in terms of mean hair count (P < 0.001), mean hair weight (P < 0.001), and mean hair thickness (P < 0.05). A patient self-assessment questionnaire demonstrated that the multimodal minoxidil formulation significantly (P < 0.001) slowed hair loss, increased hair growth, and improved appearance, and showed no appreciable side effects, such as itching and

  5. Preparation and evaluation of a multimodal minoxidil microemulsion versus minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia of mixed etiology: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Farouk M; Gado, Ali MI; Mohammed, Haseebur R; Adam, Abdel Nasser Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Background: The variable success of topical minoxidil in the treatment of androgenic alopecia has led to the hypothesis that other pathways could mediate this form of hair loss, including infection and/or microinflammation of the hair follicles. In this study, we prepared a multimodal microemulsion comprising minoxidil (a dihydrotestosterone antagonist), diclofenac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and tea tree oil (an anti-infective agent). We investigated the stability and physicochemical properties of this formulation, and its therapeutic efficacy compared with a formulation containing minoxidil alone in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Methods: We developed a multimodal oil/water (o/w) microemulsion, a formulation containing minoxidil alone, and another containing vehicle. A three-phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimal concentrations of the selected oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. Thirty-two men aged 18–30 years were randomized to apply 1 mL of microemulsion containing the multimodal formulation (formulation A, n = 11), minoxidil alone (formulation B, n = 11) or placebo (formulation C, n = 10) twice daily to the affected area for 32 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by mean hair count, thickness, and weight on the targeted area of the scalp. Global photographs were taken, changes in the area of scalp coverage were assessed by patients and external investigators, and the benefits and safety of the study medications were evaluated. The physical stability of formula A was examined after a shelf storage period of 24 months. Results: Formulation A achieved a significantly superior response than formulations B and C in terms of mean hair count (P < 0.001), mean hair weight (P < 0.001), and mean hair thickness (P < 0.05). A patient self-assessment questionnaire demonstrated that the multimodal minoxidil formulation significantly (P < 0.001) slowed hair loss, increased hair growth, and improved appearance, and showed no appreciable side

  6. Role for the epidermal growth factor receptor in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Gogia, Navdeep; Malouff, Timothy; Pena, Zachary; Forney, Eric; Hammiller, Brianna; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapeutics like cyclophosphamide often causes alopecia as a result of premature and aberrant catagen. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals anagen hair follicles to enter catagen, we hypothesized that EGFR signaling may be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. To test this hypothesis, skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice were generated by crossing floxed Egfr and Keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment of control mice resulted in alopecia while Egfr mutant skin was resistant to cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Egfr mutant skin entered catagen normally, as indicated by dermal papilla condensation and decreased follicular proliferation, but did not progress to telogen as did Egfr wild type follicles. Egfr mutant follicles responded with less proliferation, apoptosis, and fewer p53-positive cells after cyclophosphamide. Treatment of control mice with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib similarly suppressed alopecia and catagen progression by cyclophosphamide. Secondary analysis of clinical trials utilizing EGFR-targeted therapies and alopecia-inducing chemotherapy also revealed evidence for involvement of EGFR in chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Taken together, our results demonstrated the involvement of EGFR signaling in chemotherapy-induced alopecia, which will help in the design of novel therapeutic regimens to minimize chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  7. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF-7

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin-induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF-5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF-7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth. PMID:29693180

  8. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF‑7.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-06-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin‑induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)‑7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF‑5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin‑like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF‑7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth.

  9. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Hair Regrowth: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Pietro; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2015-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a new treatment modality in regenerative plastic surgery, and preliminary evidence suggests that it might have a beneficial role in hair regrowth. Here, we report the results of a randomized, evaluator-blinded, placebo-controlled, half-head group study to compare, with the aid of computerized trichograms, hair regrowth with PRP versus placebo. The safety and clinical efficacy of autologous PRP injections for pattern hair loss were investigated. PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients' scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were administered to each patient at 30-day intervals. The endpoints were hair regrowth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 evaluation. Patients were followed for 2 years. Of the 23 patients enrolled, 3 were excluded. At the end of the 3 treatment cycles, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 33.6 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 45.9 hairs per cm² compared with baseline values. No side effects were noted during treatment. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles 2 weeks after the last PRP treatment compared with baseline value (p < .05). We also observed an increase of Ki67(+) keratinocytes in the epidermis and of hair follicular bulge cells, and a slight increase of small blood vessels around hair follicles in the treated skin compared with baseline (p < .05). Relapse of androgenic alopecia was not evaluated in all patients until 12 months after the last treatment. After 12 months, 4 patients reported progressive hair loss; this was more evident 16 months after the last treatment. Those four patients were re-treated. Our data clearly highlight the positive effects of PRP

  10. Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms After Finasteride Use for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad; Jasuja, Ravi; Huang, Grace; Wharton, Whitney; Pan, Hong; Pencina, Karol; Li, Zhuoying; Travison, Thomas G; Bhawan, Jag; Gonthier, Renaud; Labrie, Fernand; Dury, Alain Y; Serra, Carlo; Papazian, Allen; O'Leary, Michael; Amr, Sami; Storer, Thomas W; Stern, Emily; Bhasin, Shalender

    2016-12-01

    Some men who use finasteride for hair loss report persistent sexual and other symptoms after discontinuing finasteride therapy. To determine whether these persistent symptoms after discontinuation of finasteride use are due to androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent inhibition of steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A) enzymes. Finasteride users, who reported persistent sexual symptoms after discontinuing finasteride (group 1); age-matched finasteride users who did not report sexual symptoms (group 2); and healthy men who had never used finasteride (group 3). Sexual function, mood, affect, cognition, hormone levels, body composition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to sexually and affectively valenced stimuli, nucleotide sequences of androgen receptor (AR), SRD5A1, and SRD5A2; expression levels of androgen-dependent genes in skin. Academic medical center. Symptomatic finasteride users were similar in body composition, strength, and nucleotide sequences of AR, SRD5A1, and SRD5A2 genes to asymptomatic finasteride users and nonusers. Symptomatic finasteride users had impaired sexual function, higher depression scores, a more negative affectivity balance, and more cognitive complaints than men in groups 2 and 3 but had normal objectively assessed cognitive function. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide, testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and androsterone glucuronide to etiocholanolone glucuronide ratios, and markers of peripheral androgen action and expression levels of AR-dependent genes in skin did not differ among groups. fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses to erotic and nonerotic stimuli revealed abnormal function in brain circuitry linked to sexual arousal and major depression. We found no evidence of androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent peripheral inhibition of SRD5A in men with persistent sexual symptoms after finasteride use

  11. Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms After Finasteride Use for Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Basaria, Shehzad; Jasuja, Ravi; Huang, Grace; Wharton, Whitney; Pan, Hong; Pencina, Karol; Li, Zhuoying; Travison, Thomas G.; Bhawan, Jag; Gonthier, Renaud; Labrie, Fernand; Dury, Alain Y.; Serra, Carlo; Papazian, Allen; O'Leary, Michael; Amr, Sami; Storer, Thomas W.; Stern, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Context: Some men who use finasteride for hair loss report persistent sexual and other symptoms after discontinuing finasteride therapy. Objective: To determine whether these persistent symptoms after discontinuation of finasteride use are due to androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent inhibition of steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A) enzymes. Participants: Finasteride users, who reported persistent sexual symptoms after discontinuing finasteride (group 1); age-matched finasteride users who did not report sexual symptoms (group 2); and healthy men who had never used finasteride (group 3). Outcomes: Sexual function, mood, affect, cognition, hormone levels, body composition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to sexually and affectively valenced stimuli, nucleotide sequences of androgen receptor (AR), SRD5A1, and SRD5A2; expression levels of androgen-dependent genes in skin. Setting: Academic medical center. Results: Symptomatic finasteride users were similar in body composition, strength, and nucleotide sequences of AR, SRD5A1, and SRD5A2 genes to asymptomatic finasteride users and nonusers. Symptomatic finasteride users had impaired sexual function, higher depression scores, a more negative affectivity balance, and more cognitive complaints than men in groups 2 and 3 but had normal objectively assessed cognitive function. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide, testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and androsterone glucuronide to etiocholanolone glucuronide ratios, and markers of peripheral androgen action and expression levels of AR-dependent genes in skin did not differ among groups. fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses to erotic and nonerotic stimuli revealed abnormal function in brain circuitry linked to sexual arousal and major depression. Conclusions: We found no evidence of androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent peripheral inhibition of

  12. Dietary vitamin A regulates wingless-related MMTV integration site signaling to alter the hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Suo, Liye; Sundberg, John P; Everts, Helen B

    2015-05-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune hair loss disease caused by a cell-mediated immune attack of the lower portion of the cycling hair follicle. Feeding mice 3-7 times the recommended level of dietary vitamin A accelerated the progression of AA in the graft-induced C3H/HeJ mouse model of AA. In this study, we also found that dietary vitamin A, in a dose dependent manner, activated the hair follicle stem cells (SCs) to induce the development and growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen), which may have made the hair follicle more susceptible to autoimmune attack. Our purpose here is to determine the mechanism by which dietary vitamin A regulates the hair cycle. We found that vitamin A in a dose-dependent manner increased nuclear localized beta-catenin (CTNNB1; a marker of canonical wingless-type Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus integration site family (WNT) signaling) and levels of WNT7A within the hair follicle bulge in these C3H/HeJ mice. These findings suggest that feeding mice high levels of dietary vitamin A increases WNT signaling to activate hair follicle SCs. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  13. Experimental and early investigational drugs for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongwei; Gao, Wendi Victor; Endo, Hiromi; McElwee, Kevin John

    2017-08-01

    Treatments for androgenetic alopecia constitute a multi-billion-dollar industry, however, currently available therapeutic options have variable efficacy. Consequently, in recent years small biotechnology companies and academic research laboratories have begun to investigate new or improved treatment methods. Research and development approaches include improved formulations and modes of application for current drugs, new drug development, development of cell-based treatments, and medical devices for modulation of hair growth. Areas covered: Here we review the essential pathways of androgenetic alopecia pathogenesis and collate the current and emerging therapeutic strategies using journal publications databases and clinical trials databases to gather information about active research on new treatments. Expert opinion: We propose that topically applied medications, or intra-dermal injected or implanted materials, are preferable treatment modalities, minimizing side effect risks as compared to systemically applied treatments. Evidence in support of new treatments is limited. However, we suggest therapeutics which reverse the androgen-driven inhibition of hair follicle signaling pathways, such as prostaglandin analogs and antagonists, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), promotion of skin angiogenesis and perfusion, introduction of progenitor cells for hair regeneration, and more effective ways of transplanting hair, are the likely near future direction of androgenetic alopecia treatment development.

  14. Simulation of scalp cooling by external devices for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Pliskow, Bradley; Mitra, Kunal; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hypothermia of the scalp tissue during chemotherapy treatment (scalp cooling) has been shown to reduce or prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss. In this study, numerical models are developed to investigate the interaction between different types of external scalp cooling devices and the human scalp tissue. This work focuses on improving methods of modeling scalp cooling devices as it relates specifically to the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. First, the cooling power needed for any type of device to achieve therapeutic levels of scalp hypothermia is investigated. Subsequently, two types of scalp cooling devices are simulated: a pre-cooled/frozen cap design and a liquid-cooled cap design. For an average patient, simulations show that 38.5W of heat must be extracted from the scalp tissue for this therapy in order to cool the hair follicle to 22°C. In practice, the cooling power must be greater than this amount to account for thermal losses of the device. Simulations show that pre-cooled and liquid-cooled cap designs result in different tissue temperatures over the course of the procedure. However, it is the temperature of the coolant that largely determines the resulting tissue temperature. Simulations confirm that the thermal resistance of the hair/air layer has a large impact on the resulting tissue temperatures. The results should be correlated with experimental data as an effort to determine the optimal parameter choices for this model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-level laser therapy as a treatment for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ladan; Maranda, Eric L; Zarei, Mina; Delcanto, Gina M; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Kluijfhout, Wouter P; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) affects 50% of males by age 50 and 50% of females by age 80. Recently, the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been proposed as a treatment for hair loss and to stimulate hair regrowth in AGA. This paper aims to review the existing research studies to determine whether LLLT is an effective therapy for AGA based on objective measurements and patient satisfaction. A systematic literature review was done to identify articles on Medline, Google Scholar, and Embase that were published between January 1960 and November 2015. All search hits were screened by two reviewers and examined for relevant abstracts and titles. Articles were divided based on study design and assessed for risk of bias. Eleven studies were evaluated, which investigated a total of 680 patients, consisting of 444 males and 236 females. Nine out of 11 studies assessing hair count/hair density found statistically significant improvements in both males and females following LLLT treatment. Additionally, hair thickness and tensile strength significantly improved in two out of four studies. Patient satisfaction was investigated in five studies, and was overall positive, though not as profound as the objective outcomes. The majority of studies covered in this review found an overall improvement in hair regrowth, thickness, and patient satisfaction following LLLT therapy. Although we should be cautious when interpreting these findings, LLLT therapy seems to be a promising monotherapy for AGA and may serve as an effective alternative for individuals unwilling to use medical therapy or undergo surgical options. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:27-39, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Minoxidil (Mx) as a prophylaxis of doxorubicin--induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, R; Machiavelli, M; Leone, B; Romero, A; Cuevas, M A; Langhi, M; Romero Acuña, L; Romero Acuña, J; Amato, S; Barbieri, M

    1994-10-01

    Minoxidil (Mx) is known to induce hair growth in men with male-pattern baldness. Based on this potential, the effectiveness of Mx 2% topical solution was evaluated in cancer patients (pts) to prevent doxorubicin-induced alopecia. 48 female pts with different types of solid tumors treated with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in a dose range of 50-60 mg/m2/cycle were randomly assigned to receive Mx 2% topical solution or placebo. 88% and 92% of pts in both arms showed severe alopecia (p = ns). No adverse effects were observed. In this study Mx 2% topical solution was non-toxic but was not effective in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

  17. Hair Cell Loss, Spiral Ganglion Degeneration, and Progressive Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Mice with Targeted Deletion of Slc44a2/Ctl2.

    PubMed

    Kommareddi, Pavan; Nair, Thankam; Kakaraparthi, Bala Naveen; Galano, Maria M; Miller, Danielle; Laczkovich, Irina; Thomas, Trey; Lu, Lillian; Rule, Kelli; Kabara, Lisa; Kanicki, Ariane; Hughes, Elizabeth D; Jones, Julie M; Hoenerhoff, Mark; Fisher, Susan G; Altschuler, Richard A; Dolan, David; Kohrman, David C; Saunders, Thomas L; Carey, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    SLC44A2 (solute carrier 44a2), also known as CTL2 (choline transporter-like protein 2), is expressed in many supporting cell types in the cochlea and is implicated in hair cell survival and antibody-induced hearing loss. In mice with the mixed C57BL/6-129 background, homozygous deletion of Slc44a2 exons 3–10 (Slc44a2(Δ/Δ)resulted in high-frequency hearing loss and hair cell death. To reduce effects associated with age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in these strains, mice carrying the Slc44a2Δ allele were backcrossed to the ARHL-resistant FVB/NJ strain and evaluated after backcross seven(N7) (99 % FVB). Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice produced abnormally spliced Slc44a2 transcripts that contain a frame shift and premature stop codons. Neither full-length SLC44A2 nor a putative truncated protein could be detected in Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice, suggesting a likely null allele. Auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) of mice carrying the Slc44a2Δ allele on an FVB/NJ genetic background were tested longitudinally between the ages of 2 and 10 months. By 6 months of age,Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice exhibited hearing loss at 32 kHz,but at 12 and 24 kHz had sound thresholds similar to those of wild-type Slc44a2(+/+) and heterozygous +/Slc44a2Δ mice. After 6 months of age, Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mutants exhibited progressive hearing loss at all frequencies and +/Slc44a2(Δ) mice exhibited moderate threshold elevations at high frequency. Histologic evaluation of Slc44a2(Δ/Δ) mice revealed extensive hair cell and spiral ganglion cell loss, especially in the basal turn of the cochlea. We conclude that Slc44a2 function is required for long-term hair cell survival and maintenance of hearing.

  18. Cross-section Trichometry: A Clinical Tool for Assessing the Progression and Treatment Response of Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Mauro, Lucia M; Tabas, Irene A; Chen, Anne L; Llanes, Isabel C; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2012-01-01

    Background: To properly assess the progression and treatment response of alopecia, one must measure the changes in hair mass, which is influenced by both the density and diameter of hair. Unfortunately, a convenient device for hair mass evaluation had not been available to dermatologists until the recent introduction of the cross-section trichometer, which directly measures the cross-sectional area of an isolated bundle of hair. Objective: We sought to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of the HairCheck® device, a commercial product derived from the original cross-section trichometer. Materials and Methods: Bundles of surgical silk and human hair were used to evaluate the ability of the HairCheck® device to detect and measure small changes in the number and diameter of strands, and bundle weight. Results: Strong correlations were observed between the bundle's cross-sectional area, displayed as the numeric Hair Mass Index (HMI), the number of strands, the silk/hair diameter, and the bundle dry weight. Conclusion: HMI strongly correlated with the number and diameter of silk/hair, and the weight of the bundle, suggesting that it can serve as a valid indicator of hair mass. We have given the name cross-section trichometry (CST) to the methodology of obtaining the HMI using the HairCheck® system. CST is a simple modality for the quantification of hair mass, and may be used as a convenient and useful tool to clinically assess changes in hair mass caused by thinning, shedding, breakage, or growth in males and females with progressive alopecia or those receiving alopecia treatment. PMID:23766610

  19. Hair and Scalp Disorders in a Tuscan Pediatric Dermatological Outpatient Clinic: A Clinical and Epidemiological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Conti, Rossana; Colucci, Roberta; Arunachalam, Meena; Berti, Samantha; Fabroni, Caterina; De Martino, Maurizio; Dragoni, Federica; Lazzeri, Linda; Pisaneschi, Lisa; Moretti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of hair and scalp disorders in children referred to the Pediatric Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. We performed a retrospective study of children with hair loss problems or scalp diseases who turned to the Pediatric Dermatology Service, Anna Meyer Pediatric Hospital, Florence, Italy, from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2009. Demographics, personal and familial medical history, laboratory tests, clinical examination, final diagnosis and therapeutic interventions were obtained from the manual chart review. Of the 2,640 children who had access to the Pediatric Dermatology Service, 190 (7.19%) had a hair or scalp disorder. Among the 190 children, 60 (31.57%) presented with nonscarring alopecia, 56 (29.47%) had benign neoplasias, hamartomas or vascular malformations of the scalp, 51 (26.84%) had scalp inflammatory diseases, 14 (7.36%) had scarring alopecia, 5 (2.63%) had infections and 2 (1.05%) had infestation of the scalp. A case of constitutional hypertrichosis (0.52%) and also a case (0.52%) of lamellar ichthyosis were diagnosed. Our results underline that hair and scalp diseases represent an important percentage of admittances to a dermatological pediatric outpatient clinic. The variety and complexity of the diseases observed in this study included diseases commonly found also in adulthood. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A pilot split-scalp study of combined fractional radiofrequency microneedling and 5% topical minoxidil in treating male pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Yu, A-J; Luo, Y-J; Xu, X-G; Bao, L-L; Tian, T; Li, Z-X; Dong, Y-X; Li, Y-H

    2018-06-27

    Various trials have been conducted on the management of male pattern hair loss (MPHL), but the outcomes often seem to be limited. Adjuvant therapies are urgently needed. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined fractional radiofrequency microneedling (FRM) and 5% topical minoxidil in the treatment of male pattern hair loss. In total, 19 Chinese men were enrolled in this randomized, controlled, split-scalp trial. Participants received monotherapy with 5% topical minoxidil twice daily to one half of the scalp, while on the other half of the scalp the treatment with twice-daily 5% topical minoxidil was combined with five sessions of FRM at 4-week intervals. Mean hair count and hair thickness, global assessment by the investigators, subject self-assessment and adverse effects were assessed. After 5 months of treatment, mean hair count increased from 44.12 ± 21.58 to 73.14 ± 25.45 on the combined-therapy side and from 46.22 ± 18.77 to 63.21 ± 19.22 on the monotherapy side, while mean hair thickness increased from 53 ± 13 μm to 71 ± 15 μm and from 52 ± 16 μm to 66 ± 14 μm, respectively. Compared with the monotherapy side, the combined-therapy side had a higher degree of improvement in both hair count (P = 0.01) and hair thickness (P = 0.02). Combined treatment with fractional radiofrequency microneedle and 5% topical minoxidil could be an effective and safe treatment option for male pattern hair loss. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Efficacy and safety of methotrexate in alopecia areata*

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschmidt, Mariana; Mulinari Brenner, Fabiane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alopecia areata is a chronic disorder of the hair follicles and nails, of unknown etiology, with clear autoimmune components and genetic factors. Several therapeutic options have been suggested; however, no treatment is able to modify the disease course. Methotrexate is an immunosuppressant used in various dermatoses and recently introduced as a therapeutic option for alopecia areata. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and safety of methotrexate in alopecia areata. METHODS In a retrospective, non-controlled study, we evaluated 31 patients with alopecia areata in current or prior treatment with methotrexate to assess the therapeutic response according to sex, age, pattern of alopecia areata, disease duration, cumulative dose of methotrexate, use of systemic corticosteroids or other treatments, and drug safety. RESULTS Regrowth greater than 50% was observed in 67.7% of patients, with the best responses observed in those with <5 years of disease progression (79%), age over 40 years (73.3%), male patients (72.8%), cumulative dose of methotrexate 1000-1500 mg, and multifocal alopecia areata (93%). Among patients receiving systemic corticosteroids in combination with methotrexate, 77.3% had greater than 50% regrowth, compared with 44.4% in those who used methotrexate alone. The therapeutic dose ranged from 10-25 mg/week. No patient had serious adverse effects. Relapse was observed in 33.3% of patients with more than 50% regrowth. CONCLUSION Methotrexate appears to be a promising and safe medication for the treatment of severe alopecia areata when used alone or in combination with corticosteroids. PMID:25184911

  2. A mixed methods survey of social anxiety, anxiety, depression and wig use in alopecia.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kerry; White, Caroline; Thompson, Andrew

    2017-05-04

    This study aimed to examine levels of social anxiety, anxiety and depression reported by people with alopecia as a result of a dermatological condition and associations with wig use. The study also sought to report on experiences of wearing wigs in social situations and the relationship with social confidence. A cross-sectional survey was sent by email to the Alopecia UK charity mailing list and advertised on social media. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of alopecia, aged 13 or above and sufficient English to complete the survey. Exclusion criteria included experiencing hair loss as a result of chemotherapy treatment or psychological disorder. Participants (n=338) were predominantly female (97.3%), Caucasian (93.5%) and aged between 35 and 54 years (49.4%) with a diagnosis of alopecia areata (82.6%). The Social Phobia Inventory measured symptoms of social anxiety, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of anxiety and depression. Survey questions were designed to measure the use of wigs. Open-ended questions enabled participants to comment on their experiences of wearing wigs. Clinically significant levels of social anxiety (47.5%), anxiety (35.5%) and depression (29%) were reported. Participants who reported worries about not wearing a wig reported significantly higher levels of depression: t(103)=3.40, p≤0.001; anxiety: t(109)=4.80, p≤0.001; and social anxiety: t(294)=3.89, p≤0.001. Wearing wigs was reported as increasing social confidence; however, the concealment it afforded was also reported as both reducing fear of negative evaluation and maintaining anxiety. Overall, 46% of participants reported that wearing a wig had a positive impact on their everyday life with negative experiences related to fears of the wig being noticed. Psychological interventions alongside wig provision would be beneficial for people living with alopecia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  3. Symplastic Transport of Carboxyfluorescein in Staminal Hairs of Setcreasea purpurea Is Diffusive and Includes Loss to the Vacuole.

    PubMed

    Tucker, J E; Mauzerall, D; Tucker, E B

    1989-07-01

    The kinetics of symplastic transport in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea was studied. The tip cell of a staminal hair was microinjected with carboxyfluorescein (CF) and the symplastic transport of this CF was videotaped and the digital data analyzed to produce kinetic curves. Using a finite difference equation for diffusion between cells and for loss of dye into the vacuole, kinetic curves were calculated and fitted to the observed data. These curves were matched with data from actual microinjection experiments by adjusting K (the coefficient of intercellular junction diffusion) and L (the coefficient of intracellular loss) until a minimum in the least squares difference between the curves was obtained. (a) Symplastic transport of CF was governed by diffusion through intercellular pores (plasmodesmata) and intracellular loss. Diffusion within the cell cytoplasm was never limiting. (b) Each cell and its plasmodesmata must be considered as its own diffusion system. Therefore, a diffusion coefficient cannot be calculated for an entire chain of cells. (c) The movement through plasmodesmata in either direction was the same since the data are fit by a diffusion equation. (d) Diffusion through the intercellular pores was estimated to be slower than diffusion through similar pores filled with water.

  4. Symplastic Transport of Carboxyfluorescein in Staminal Hairs of Setcreasea purpurea Is Diffusive and Includes Loss to the Vacuole 1

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph E.; Mauzerall, David; Tucker, Edward B.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics of symplastic transport in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea was studied. The tip cell of a staminal hair was microinjected with carboxyfluorescein (CF) and the symplastic transport of this CF was videotaped and the digital data analyzed to produce kinetic curves. Using a finite difference equation for diffusion between cells and for loss of dye into the vacuole, kinetic curves were calculated and fitted to the observed data. These curves were matched with data from actual microinjection experiments by adjusting K (the coefficient of intercellular junction diffusion) and L (the coefficient of intracellular loss) until a minimum in the least squares difference between the curves was obtained. (a) Symplastic transport of CF was governed by diffusion through intercellular pores (plasmodesmata) and intracellular loss. Diffusion within the cell cytoplasm was never limiting. (b) Each cell and its plasmodesmata must be considered as its own diffusion system. Therefore, a diffusion coefficient cannot be calculated for an entire chain of cells. (c) The movement through plasmodesmata in either direction was the same since the data are fit by a diffusion equation. (d) Diffusion through the intercellular pores was estimated to be slower than diffusion through similar pores filled with water. PMID:16666864

  5. No dramatic age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in Bcl-2 over-expression mice or Bax null mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Age-related decline of neuronal function is associated with age-related structural changes. In the central nervous system, age-related decline of cognitive performance is thought to be caused by synaptic loss instead of neuronal loss. However, in the cochlea, age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is consistently observed in a variety of species, including humans. Since age-related loss of these cells is a major contributing factor to presbycusis, it is important to study possible molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related cell death. Previous studies suggested that apoptotic pathways were involved in age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. In the present study, we examined the role of Bcl-2 gene in age-related hearing loss. In one transgenic mouse line over-expressing human Bcl-2, there were no significant differences between transgenic mice and wild type littermate controls in their hearing thresholds during aging. Histological analysis of the hair cells and SGNs showed no significant conservation of these cells in transgenic animals compared to the wild type controls during aging. These data suggest that Bcl-2 overexpression has no significant effect on age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. We also found no delay of age-related hearing loss in mice lacking Bax gene. These findings suggest that age-related hearing loss is not through an apoptotic pathway involving key members of Bcl-2 family. PMID:20637089

  6. NonScarring Diffuse Hair Loss in Women: a Clinico-Etiological Study from tertiary care center in North-West India.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Kavita; Thami, Gurvinder Pal; Bhalla, Mala; Jaiswal, Shivani; Sandhu, Jasleen

    2018-05-17

    Diffuse hair loss (DHL) is a common problem in adult women and has a major impact on quality of life. Ascertaining the etiological diagnosis is a challenging task in such patients. Satisfactory treatment can only be instituted after ascertaining the cause of hair loss. To study the clinico-epidemiological profile of nonscarring DHL in females and to ascertain its underlying etiological factors. Of a total of 110 females, who presented with nonscarring DHL to the outpatient dermatology department, 100 qualified for inclusion in the study. A detailed history, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations were performed in all the patients. Statistical analysis was performed on the data collected. Of 100 cases of DHL which were included in the study, commonest was chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) (62%), followed by female pattern hair loss (FPHL) (22%) and acute telogen effluvium (ATE) (16%). Incidence of hair loss was highest in 21-40 years age group. Psychological stress was seen to be a precipitating factor in 18 patients and found most commonly in women belong to CTE group (n-16, 25.8%). Hemoglobin levels ranged from 80 to 142 gm/L (mean: 119 ± 110). Low hemoglobin level (<120 gm/L) was observed in 57% patients. Total serum ferritin <10 ng/mL was seen in 20 patients, vitamin B12 < 211 pg/mL in 76 cases, vitamin D3 < 30 ng/mL in 81 cases. Subclinical hypothyroidism was present in 11% cases. Nonscarring DHL is a multifactorial condition with highest incidence in 21- to 40-year age group. Serum ferritin, serum vitamin B12, and D3 levels seem to have a contributing role in the pathogenesis of hair loss, and their supplementation may be needed for a faster regrowth of hair in all cases of hair loss irrespective of the pattern. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Comparing the Effects of Zinc Sulfate, Calcium Pantothenate, Their Combination and Minoxidil Solution Regimens on Controlling Hair Loss in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Siavash, Mansour; Tavakoli, Fereshteh; Mokhtari, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combination of oral supplements with 2% minoxidil solution in four groups of women with hair loss. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted from July to December 2016 in dermatology clinics affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 73, 15-45-year-old, women with hair loss participated in this 4-month study. Simple randomization using Random Allocation Software was done to put the participants in four groups to receive coadministration of zinc sulfate and calcium pantothenate, zinc sulfate, calcium pantothenate, and 2% minoxidil solution. The primary endpoint was the change in hair density and diameter measured by dermatoscope. Secondary endpoints included the researcher's evaluation, dermatologist's opinion - which was blinded to the study - from comparing the participants' photographs before and after treatment and finally, overall changes in hair density measured by participants' self-assessment. Seventy-three women participated in this study. Primary hair count and thickness were 118.5 ± 10 hairs/cm 2 and 58.8 ± 5.8 μ that changed to 124 ± 11 hairs/cm 2 and 62.3 ± 4.3 μ respectively ( P < 0.001) which in the zinc plus pantothenate group these changes were from 118.6 ± 9.9 hairs/cm 2 to 121.9 ± 11.1 hairs/cm 2 ( P = 0.042) and from 62.2 ± 6.6 μ to 64.0 ± 5.0 μ ( P = 0.126), respectively. Hair density increments were more obvious in the minoxidil group, and hair thickness increments were more obvious in pantothenate group. Participants' satisfaction was 85% in the combination therapy which was more than other groups. Participants' satisfaction, author's and blind dermatologist's opinion showed a significant correlation ( P = 0.0001). Based on the participants' satisfaction, the combination of zinc sulfate and calcium pantothenate when administered in a pulse therapy way could be a good choice for hair loss controlling in initial stages.

  8. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2016-12-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Occipital alopecia following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Lwason, N W; Mills, N L; Ochsner, J L

    1976-03-01

    Postoperative alopecia is a minor complication of surgery but a cosmetic disaster to the patient. Over a 3 year period, 60 cases of occipital alopecia were discovered in patients following open-heart surgery and 5 cases on other surgical services. In contrast to previous reports, 29 patients had alopecia one year later, presumed to be permanent. Extensive operations, with prolonged recovery and elective overnight mechanical ventilation, were common to all. Retrospective analysis and prospective studies clearly demonstrated that localized scalp pressure was the cause of the alopecia and that the duration of pressure determined the extent of the damage. Moving the patient's head at regular intervals during operation and recovery eliminated the alopecia. The type of head rest used did not modify the development of alopecia. Electrical injury and the use of heparin, hypothermia, electrocautery, or hypotension were eliminated as possible causes. Conclusive evidence correlating periperative events with the formation of pressure sores in man has not been previously reported.

  11. Vitamin D-Dependent Rickets Type II with Alopecia: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vupperla, Divya; Lunge, Snehal Balvant; Elaprolu, Praveen

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II is a rare hereditary disorder. It occurs due to mutations in the gene chr. 12q12-q14, which codes for vitamin D receptor. End-organ resistance to 1,25-(OH) 2 vitamin D3 and alopecia in severe cases are the characteristic features. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy with loss of hair over the scalp and body - first observed after 1 month of birth. The boy also developed difficulty in walking at the age of 2 year. On analysis, reduced serum calcium level (7.5 mg/dL) and elevated alkaline phosphatase level (625 IU/L) were reported. Initially, the treatment included intramuscularly administered single dose of 600,000 IU vitamin D, followed by 400 IU of vitamin D along with 1 g of supplemental calcium every day. Periodic follow-up was conducted for 2 months. Improvement was observed in the biochemical parameters and X-rays of the distal radial and ulnar metaphyses, although no improvement was observed in alopecia.

  12. Safety and efficacy analysis of liposomal insulin-like growth factor-1 in a fluid gel formulation for hair-loss treatment in a hamster model.

    PubMed

    Castro, R F; Azzalis, L A; Feder, D; Perazzo, F F; Pereira, E C; Junqueira, V B C; Rocha, K C; Machado, C D'A; Paschoal, F C; Gnann, L A; Fonseca, F L A

    2012-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 has shown some interesting results in studies examining its use as a hair-loss treatment. IGF-1 works by regulating cellular proliferation and migration during the development of hair follicles. Hepatotoxicity and myelotoxicity were evaluated in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) after topical application of the liquid gel vehicle (placebo), 1% IGF-1 or 3% IGF-1. No significant difference in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase was found between the control and treated groups. ELISA did not shown any increase in the plasma level of IGF-1. A haematopoietic niche was found, but it was not associated with myelotoxicity. Efficacy was determined by dermatoscopy analysis of hair density and microscopy analysis of hair diameter, with hair found to be thicker and with more rapid growth in the 3% group than in either the 1% group or the control group. These results strongly suggest that liposomal IGF-1 in a liquid gel formulation is a safe and efficient treatment for hair loss. © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  14. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  15. Tufted hair folliculitis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Broshtilova, V; Bardarov, E; Kazandjieva, J; Marina, S

    2011-01-01

    Tufted hair folliculitis is a rare folliculitis of the scalp that resolves with patches of scarring alopecia within multiple hair tufts emerging from dilated follicular orifices. Tufting of hair is caused by clustering of adjacent follicular units due to a fibrosing process and to retention of telogen hairs within a dilated follicular orifice. Various pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed including nevoid abnormalities, recurrent infections of the follicles, and retention of telogen hair in the tufts. We present a patient with tufted hair folliculitis who was effectively treated with antibacterial medications, verifying the infectious nature of the disease.

  16. Stem Cell Markers (Cytokeratin 17 and Cytokeratin 19) in Scarring and Nonscarring Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    El Sakka, Dalia; Gaber, Mohamed Abdel Wahed; Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Wahed, Moshira Abdel; Saleh, Ahmed Abdel-Wahab; Shehata, Walla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alopecia is one of the most important hair follicle (HF) disorders, which is divided into scarring (cicatricial) and nonscarring (noncicatricial) types. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of stem cell (SC) markers such as cytokeratin (CK) 17 and CK19 in scarring and nonscarring alopecia. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with scalp alopecia (15 with scarring alopecia and 15 without) together with ten healthy volunteers were included in this study. Biopsies were taken from all participants and stained for CK17 and CK19 using immunohistochemistry. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the nonscarring group and the control group with regard to CK17 expression in the outer layers of the HFs (P = 0.00) and CK19 staining of the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.008). There was a statistically significant difference between the scarring and the control groups regarding CK17 expression in the outer (P = 0.00) and the inner layers (P = 0.00) of the HFs and CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00). CK17 expression in the outer layers (P = 0.02) and the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00) together with CK19 expression in the inner layers of the HFs (P = 0.00) showed statistically significant differences between scarring and nonscarring alopecia groups. Conclusions: The presence of SC markers (CK17 and CK19) in the HFs was affected in both scarring and nonscarring alopecia, but the defect in scarring alopecia is more evident than that of nonscarring alopecia. The persistence of SC markers in some types of scarring alopecia could give a hope for the recovery of these lesions. Further studies are recommended to clarify the benefit from using HF SCs in the treatment of alopecia. PMID:27761086

  17. Hair follicle characteristics as early marker of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Tapia, Jose Carlos; Gastanadui-Gonzalez, Maria Gabriela; Roman-Carpio, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM2) includes a continuum of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia that causes several chronic long-term complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The hair follicle could reveal signs of early vascular impairment, yet its relationship to early metabolic injuries has been largely ignored. We propose that in earlier stages of the continuum of DM2-related metabolic disorders, a group of susceptible patients who do not yet meet the diagnostic criteria to be considered as persons with DM2 may present chronic vascular impairment and end organ damage, including hair follicle damage, which can be evaluated to identify an early risk marker. This hypothesis is based in the association found between insulin resistance and alopecia in non-diabetic persons, and the hair loss on the lower limbs as a manifestation of long-term peripheral arterial disease among subjects with DM2. In order to test this hypothesis, studies are required to evaluate if hair follicle characteristics are related to and can predict hyperglycemic complications, and if they do so, which feature of the hair follicle, such as hair growth, best characterizes such DM2-related conditions. If this hypothesis were proven to be true, significant advances towards a personalized approach for early prevention strategies and management of DM2 would be made. By focusing on the hair follicles, early stages of metabolic-related organ damage could be identified using non-invasive low-cost techniques. In so doing, this approach could provide early identification of DM2-susceptible individuals and lead to the early initiation of adequate primary prevention strategies to reduce or avoid the onset of large internal organ damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HAIR FOLLICLE CHARACTERISTICS AS EARLY MARKER OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Tapia, Jose Carlos; Gastanadui-Gonzalez, Maria Gabriela; Roman-Carpio, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM2) includes a continuum of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia that causes several chronic long-term complications such as coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, nephropathy, and neuropathy. The hair follicle could reveal signs of early vascular impairment, yet its relationship to early metabolic injuries has been largely ignored. We propose that in earlier stages of the continuum of DM2-related metabolic disorders, a group of susceptible patients who do not yet meet the diagnostic criteria to be considered as persons with DM2 may present chronic vascular impairment and end organ damage, including hair follicle damage, which can be evaluated to identify an early risk marker. This hypothesis is based in the association found between insulin resistance and alopecia in non-diabetic persons, and the hair loss on the lower limbs as a manifestation of long-term peripheral arterial disease among subjects with DM2. In order to test this hypothesis, studies are required to evaluate if hair follicle characteristics are related to and can predict hyperglycemic complications, and if they do so, which feature of the hair follicle, such as hair growth, best characterizes such DM2-related conditions. If this hypothesis were proven to be true, significant advances towards a personalized approach for early prevention strategies and management of DM2 would be made. By focusing on the hair follicles, early stages of metabolic-related organ damage could be identified using non-invasive low-cost techniques. In so doing, this approach could provide early identification of DM2-susceptible individuals and lead to the early initiation of adequate primary prevention strategies to reduce or avoid the onset of large internal organ damage. PMID:27692164

  19. Canine noninflammatory alopecia: a comprehensive evaluation of common and distinguishing histological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Müntener, Tabitha; Schuepbach-Regula, Gertraud; Frank, Linda; Rüfenacht, Silvia; Welle, Monika M

    2012-06-01

    Noninflammatory alopecia is a frequent problem in dogs, and the pathogenesis is still unclear. The objective of this study was a comparative histological description of skin biopsies from dogs with different alopecic disorders and control dogs matched for coat type, season and disease duration. Twenty-one cases of alopecia X in plush-coated dogs, 12 cases of recurrent flank alopecia, three cases of hyperestrogenism, 15 cases of hyperadrenocorticism, 12 cases of hypothyroidism and 12 cases of primary alopecic disorders of unknown cause were evaluated. The controls were biopsies from 38 dogs of different coat types. We evaluated five serial sections of each biopsy histologically and immunohistologically to compare the histological findings within the disease groups and with the control. All the dogs with hair cycle disorders had a significant increase in the number of hairless hair follicles, which we assigned to kenogen. In addition, dogs with alopecia X had the lowest percentage of anagen follicles and the highest percentage of telogen follicles. The marked increase in kenogen follicles is a strong indication that the induction of the new anagen phase is impaired in hair cycle disorders. The findings in dogs with alopecia X further suggest that premature catagen is also involved in the pathogenesis. Further work to investigate the stem cell compartment and possible initiating factors for the different cycle phases is required to elucidate the exact pathogenesis. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

    2015-03-01

    Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Exacerbation of alopecia areata: A possible complication of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy treatment for varicose veins.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Mark S; Smith, Victoria C

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with a history of alopecia areata related to stress or hormonal changes was treated for bilateral primary symptomatic varicose veins (CEAP clinical score C2S) of pelvic origin, using a staged procedure. Her first procedure entailed pelvic vein embolisation of three pelvic veins using 14 coils and including foam sclerotherapy of the tributaries, using 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Following this procedure, she had an exacerbation of alopecia areata with some moderate shedding of hair. Subsequently, she underwent endovenous laser ablation under local anaesthetic without incident. Seven months after the pelvic vein embolisation, she underwent foam sclerotherapy of leg and labial varicose veins using sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Two days following this procedure, she had a severe exacerbation of alopecia areata with gross shedding of hair. These two episodes of exacerbation of alopecia areata appear to be associated with sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy of veins.

  2. Similar Response Patterns to 5%Topical Minoxidil Foam in Frontal and Vertex Scalp of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mirmirani, P.; Consolo, M.; Oyetakin-White, P.; Baron, E.; Leahy, P.; Karnik, P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background There are regional variations in scalp hair miniaturization seen in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of topical minoxidil can lead to reversal of miniaturization in the vertex scalp. However, its effects on other scalp regions are less well studied. Methods A placebo controlled double-blinded prospective pilot study of minoxidil topical foam 5% (MTF) vs placebo was conducted in sixteen healthy men ages 18-49 with Hamilton-Norwood type IV-V thinning. The subjects were asked to apply the treatment (active drug or placebo) to the scalp twice daily for eight weeks. Stereotactic scalp photographs were taken at the baseline and final visits to monitor global hair growth. Scalp biopsies were done at the leading edge of hair loss from the frontal and vertex scalp before and after treatment with MTF and placebo and microarray analysis was done using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG U133 Plus 2.0. Results Global stereotactic photographs showed that MTF induced hair growth in both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. Regional differences in gene expression profiles were observed before treatment. However, MTF treatment induced the expression of hair keratin associated genes and decreased the expression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) and inflammatory genes in both scalp regions. Conclusions These data suggest that MTF is effective in the treatment of both the frontal and vertex scalp of AGA patients. PMID:25204361

  3. Camouflaging Cleft Lip Scar Using Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplantation Combined with Autologous Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Akdag, Osman; Evin, Nuh; Karamese, Mehtap; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2018-01-01

    The scar that occurs after cleft lip surgery poses a serious cosmetic problem. One of the methods used to solve this problem in adult male patients is hair transplantation. However, satisfactory results with this method cannot always be achieved because of possible graft loss. The corrective feature of fat grafting has been reported in many studies. The authors' aim with this report is to share their results with hair transplantation combined with fat grafting in patients with cleft lip. This study included 20 patients who had both a scar and alopecia in the cleft lip area. The patients underwent fat grafting from the periumbilical region by means of miniature liposuction harvesting cannulas. Three months after fat injection, hair transplantation was performed with hair from the submental area and scalp using the folliculate unit extraction technique. Patients were followed for 12 months. Survival rate of transplanted hair and patient satisfaction were analyzed after the procedures. After this camouflaging technique with fat grafting and hair transplantation, the scar was hidden quite well. The graft survival rate was also better compared with results from similar studies. Patient and observer satisfaction results with the scar tissue were significantly improved, which was confirmed statistically. This study demonstrates that this combined camouflaging technique is a very effective treatment in male patients with cleft lip who have serious secondary upper lip scars. The authors present a series of patients treated with this technique, which resulted in a high level of patient satisfaction. Therapeutic, IV.

  4. Efficacy and safety of a new 5% minoxidil formulation in male androgenetic alopecia: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, noninferiority study.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Issiakhem, Zahida; Gautier, Stephanie; Kottner, Jan; Wigger-Alberti, Walter; Fischer, Tobias; Hoffmann, Rolf; Tonner, Françoise; Bouroubi, Athmane; Voisard, Jean-Jacques

    2018-04-16

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common cause of hair loss in men. Topical minoxidil solutions can help to treat AGA but have to be applied continuously to be effective. A new minoxidil formulation with improved cosmetic characteristics (DC0120, Pierre-Fabre Dermatologie) was tested for noninferiority vs a comparator minoxidil product (ALOSTIL ® , Johnson & Johnson) in stimulating hair growth in men with AGA. Two 10 cm 2 areas on the scalp of each subject were randomized to receive DC0120, the comparator, or one of their corresponding vehicles, applied twice per day for 16 weeks. Nonvellus target area hair count (TAHC) was measured within treatment areas at baseline (day 1) and after 8 and 16 weeks by digital phototrichogram. Two hundred and twenty subjects were included and randomized, of which 210 completed the study. The mean change in nonvellus TAHC between baseline and week 16 was +22.0 hairs/cm 2 (95% CI: 18.1; 25.9) in the DC0120 group and +20.5 hairs/cm 2 (95% CI: 16.6; 24.4) in the comparator group. The adjusted mean difference in TAHC changes between the two treatments was +1.5 hairs/cm 2 (95% CI -2.3; 5.2), with the lower 95% confidence interval above the noninferiority threshold of -7 hairs/cm 2 . This indicated that DC0120 was noninferior to the comparator. Both minoxidil treatments also increased nonvellus TAHC compared to vehicle groups at 8 and 16 weeks. No new safety signals were observed. DC0120 was as safe and effective as a similar marketed minoxidil product for stimulating hair growth in men with AGA. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Across-frequency behavioral estimates of the contribution of inner and outer hair cell dysfunction to individualized audiometric loss

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Peter T.; Pérez-González, Patricia; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the multiple contributors to the audiometric loss of a hearing impaired (HI) listener at a particular frequency is becoming gradually more useful as new treatments are developed. Here, we infer the contribution of inner (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC) dysfunction to the total audiometric loss in a sample of 68 hearing aid candidates with mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, and for test frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz. It was assumed that the audiometric loss (HLTOTAL) at each test frequency was due to a combination of cochlear gain loss, or OHC dysfunction (HLOHC), and inefficient IHC processes (HLIHC), all of them in decibels. HLOHC and HLIHC were estimated from cochlear I/O curves inferred psychoacoustically using the temporal masking curve (TMC) method. 325 I/O curves were measured and 59% of them showed a compression threshold (CT). The analysis of these I/O curves suggests that (1) HLOHC and HLIHC account on average for 60–70 and 30–40% of HLTOTAL, respectively; (2) these percentages are roughly constant across frequencies; (3) across-listener variability is large; (4) residual cochlear gain is negatively correlated with hearing loss while residual compression is not correlated with hearing loss. Altogether, the present results support the conclusions from earlier studies and extend them to a wider range of test frequencies and hearing-loss ranges. Twenty-four percent of I/O curves were linear and suggested total cochlear gain loss. The number of linear I/O curves increased gradually with increasing frequency. The remaining 17% I/O curves suggested audiometric losses due mostly to IHC dysfunction and were more frequent at low (≤1 kHz) than at high frequencies. It is argued that in a majority of listeners, hearing loss is due to a common mechanism that concomitantly alters IHC and OHC function and that IHC processes may be more labile in the apex than in the base. PMID:25100940

  6. Low-level laser therapy for the treatment of androgenic alopecia: a review.

    PubMed

    Darwin, Evan; Heyes, Alexandra; Hirt, Penelope A; Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2018-02-01

    There are many new low-level laser technologies that have been released commercially that claim to support hair regrowth. In this paper, we will examine the clinical trials to determine whether the body of evidence supports the use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to treat androgenic alopecia (AGA). A literature search was conducted through Pubmed, Embase, and Clinicaltrials.gov for clinical trials using LLLT to treat AGA. Thirteen clinical trials were assessed. Review articles were not included. Ten of 11 trials demonstrated significant improvement of androgenic alopecia in comparison to baseline or controls when treated with LLLT. In the remaining study, improvement in hair counts and hair diameter was recorded, but did not reach statistical significance. Two trials did not include statistical analysis, but showed marked improvement by hair count or by photographic evidence. Two trials showed efficacy for LLLT in combination with topical minoxidil. One trial showed efficacy when accompanying finasteride treatment. LLLT appears to be a safe, alternative treatment for patients with androgenic alopecia. Clinical trials have indicated efficacy for androgenic alopecia in both men and women. It may be used independently or as an adjuvant of minoxidil or finasteride. More research needs to be undertaken to determine the optimal power and wavelength to use in LLLT as well as LLLT's mechanism of action.

  7. Platelets rich plasma versus minoxidil 5% in treatment of alopecia areata: A trichoscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    El Taieb, Moustafa A; Ibrahim, Hassan; Nada, Essam A; Seif Al-Din, Mai

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common cause of nonscarring alopecia that occurs in a patchy, confluent, or diffuse pattern. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique for the clinical diagnosis of many skin diseases. Topical minoxidil solution 5% and platelet rich plasma are important modalities used in treatment of alopecia areata. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PRP versus topical minoxidil 5% in the treatment of AA by clinical evaluation and trichoscopic examination. Ninety patients were allocated into three groups; the first was treated with topical minoxidil 5% solution, the second with platelets rich plasma injections, and the third with placebo. Diagnosis and follow up were done by serial digital camera photography of lesions and dermoscopic scan before and every 1 month after treatment for 3 months. Patients treated with minoxidil 5% and platelets rich plasma both have significant hair growth than placebo (p < .05). Patients treated with platelets rich plasma had an earlier response in the form of hair regrowth, reduction in short vellus hair and dystrophic hair unlike patients treated with minoxidil and control (p < .05). In conclusion, platelets rich plasma is more effective in the treatment of alopecia areata than topical minoxidil 5% as evaluated by clinical and trichoscopic examination. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Noise-induced inner hair cell ribbon loss disturbs central arc mobilization: a novel molecular paradigm for understanding tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Singer, Wibke; Zuccotti, Annalisa; Jaumann, Mirko; Lee, Sze Chim; Panford-Walsh, Rama; Xiong, Hao; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Franz, Christoph; Geisler, Hyun-Soon; Köpschall, Iris; Rohbock, Karin; Varakina, Ksenya; Verpoorten, Sandrine; Reinbothe, Thomas; Schimmang, Thomas; Rüttiger, Lukas; Knipper, Marlies

    2013-02-01

    Increasing evidence shows that hearing loss is a risk factor for tinnitus and hyperacusis. Although both often coincide, a causal relationship between tinnitus and hyperacusis has not been shown. Currently, tinnitus and hyperacusis are assumed to be caused by elevated responsiveness in subcortical circuits. We examined both the impact of different degrees of cochlear damage and the influence of stress priming on tinnitus induction. We used (1) a behavioral animal model for tinnitus designed to minimize stress, (2) ribbon synapses in inner hair cells (IHCs) as a measure for deafferentation, (3) the integrity of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) to detect differences in stimulus-evoked neuronal activity, (4) the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein, Arc, to identify long-lasting changes in network activity within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), hippocampal CA1, and auditory cortex (AC), and (5) stress priming to investigate the influence of corticosteroid on trauma-induced brain responses. We observed that IHC ribbon loss (deafferentation) leads to tinnitus when ABR functions remain reduced and Arc is not mobilized in the hippocampal CA1 and AC. If, however, ABR waves are functionally restored and Arc is mobilized, tinnitus does not occur. Both central response patterns were found to be independent of a profound threshold loss and could be shifted by the corticosterone level at the time of trauma. We, therefore, discuss the findings in the context of a history of stress that can trigger either an adaptive or nonadaptive brain response following injury.

  9. What Is Alopecia Areata?

    MedlinePlus

    ... sun and dust , when eyebrows or eyelashes are missing. Wear wigs, hats, or scarves to protect your ... help keep germs out if nostril hair is missing. Reduce the disease’s effects on your looks. Try ...

  10. Genome-wide association study in alopecia areata implicates both innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Petukhova, Lynn; Duvic, Madeleine; Hordinsky, Maria; Norris, David; Price, Vera; Shimomura, Yutaka; Kim, Hyunmi; Singh, Pallavi; Lee, Annette; Chen, Wei V; Meyer, Katja C; Paus, Ralf; Jahoda, Colin A B; Amos, Christopher I; Gregersen, Peter K; Christiano, Angela M

    2010-07-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is among the most highly prevalent human autoimmune diseases, leading to disfiguring hair loss due to the collapse of immune privilege of the hair follicle and subsequent autoimmune attack. The genetic basis of AA is largely unknown. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a sample of 1,054 cases and 3,278 controls and identified 139 single nucleotide polymorphisms that are significantly associated with AA (P hair follicle itself (PRDX5 and STX17). A region of strong association resides within the ULBP (cytomegalovirus UL16-binding protein) gene cluster on chromosome 6q25.1, encoding activating ligands of the natural killer cell receptor NKG2D that have not previously been implicated in an autoimmune disease. By probing the role of ULBP3 in disease pathogenesis, we also show that its expression in lesional scalp from patients with AA is markedly upregulated in the hair follicle dermal sheath during active disease. This study provides evidence for the involvement of both innate and acquired immunity in the pathogenesis of AA. We have defined the genetic underpinnings of AA, placing it within the context of shared pathways among autoimmune diseases, and implicating a novel disease mechanism, the upregulation of ULBP ligands, in triggering autoimmunity.

  11. Defining the Cellular Environment in the Organ of Corti following Extensive Hair Cell Loss: A Basis for Future Sensory Cell Replacement in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ruth R.; Jagger, Daniel J.; Forge, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background Following the loss of hair cells from the mammalian cochlea, the sensory epithelium repairs to close the lesions but no new hair cells arise and hearing impairment ensues. For any cell replacement strategy to be successful, the cellular environment of the injured tissue has to be able to nurture new hair cells. This study defines characteristics of the auditory sensory epithelium after hair cell loss. Methodology/Principal Findings Studies were conducted in C57BL/6 and CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with an aminoglycoside-diuretic combination produced loss of all outer hair cells within 48 hours in both strains. The subsequent progressive tissue re-organisation was examined using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. There was no evidence of significant de-differentiation of the specialised columnar supporting cells. Kir4.1 was down regulated but KCC4, GLAST, microtubule bundles, connexin expression patterns and pathways of intercellular communication were retained. The columnar supporting cells became covered with non-specialised cells migrating from the outermost region of the organ of Corti. Eventually non-specialised, flat cells replaced the columnar epithelium. Flat epithelium developed in distributed patches interrupting regions of columnar epithelium formed of differentiated supporting cells. Formation of the flat epithelium was initiated within a few weeks post-treatment in C57BL/6 mice but not for several months in CBA/Ca's, suggesting genetic background influences the rate of re-organisation. Conclusions/Significance The lack of dedifferentiation amongst supporting cells and their replacement by cells from the outer side of the organ of Corti are factors that may need to be considered in any attempt to promote endogenous hair cell regeneration. The variability of the cellular environment along an individual cochlea arising from patch-like generation of flat epithelium, and the possible variability between individuals resulting from genetic

  12. Thickness, medullation and growth rate of female scalp hair are subject to significant variation according to pigmentation and scalp location during ageing.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    The biological importance and/or significance of human hair colour is unknown even though greying is obviously associated with ageing. In order to further characterise hair pigmentation in relation with hair growth variables we evaluated 3 scalp sites (top of the head (T): left and right and occipital(O)) in 12 untreated menopausal women (age range: 49-66 years: average 59.63 +/- 5.66) who presented complaining of hair loss and/or diffuse alopecia. Controls were 12 non menopausal sexually mature woman (7 age range 15-21 and 5 age range 38-48) not complaining of hair loss. One hair sample (whenever possible n = 60) was taken one month after clipping from T and O on each person; menopausal women were sampled twice. The following measures were performed with a light microscope: diameter (average min-max., microm), medulla (0% = absent to 100% = fully developed) and linear hair growth rate (mm/day). The hairs were categorised as pigmented (P) or non-pigmented (white, W) as compared with a black and white reference card. A total of 3343 hairs were analysed with 2-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). A global comparison (all hairs) showed that the average diameter of W hair (67.68 microm) exceeded that of P hair (57.41 microm) (p = 0.0001) and this was maintained on all 3 scalp sites. In addition, the medulla of W hair (23.91%) appeared more developed than the medulla of P hair (12.21%) (p = 0.0001) and was more expressed in W T hairs as compared with W O hairs (p = 0.0325). There was also a significant interaction between site and pigmentation (p = 0.0074). Growth rate of W hairs (0.38 mm/d) was higher than that of P hairs (0.35 mm/d) (p = 0.0001) and there was a significant variation according to scalp sites (p = 0.0001). There was also a significant interaction between site and pigmentation (p = 0.0062) with the following rank order: O W (0.40 mm/d), T W (0.37 mm/d), O P (0.37 mm/d) and T P (0.34 mm/d). Subgroups of W and P of paired thickness in the range of 50 to 80

  13. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  14. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  15. An open, randomized, comparative study of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Arca, Ercan; Açikgöz, Gürol; Taştan, Halis Bülent; Köse, Osman; Kurumlu, Zafer

    2004-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is undoubtedly the most common form of hair loss in males. It is a condition which may cause cosmetic and psychosocial problems in androgen-dependent cases. In this open, randomized and comparative study we evaluated the efficacy of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil treatment for 12 months in 65 male patients with mild to severe AGA. We randomly assigned 40 (61.53%) patients to receive 1 mg/day oral finasteride for 12 months, and 25 (38.47%) patients applied 5% topical minoxidil solution twice daily for 12 months. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups considering age, age of onset of hair loss, family history and type of hair loss (p > 0.05). In the clinical evaluation at the endpoint of treatment, the clinical cure rates (i.e. increased intensity of hair) were 80% (32/40) for the oral finasteride group and 52% (13/25) for the 5% topical minoxidil group. Encountered side effects were all mild, and there was no need to stop the treatment. In the group given oral finasteride, side effects were noted in 7 patients: 6 patients suffered from loss of libido, and 1 patient had an increase in other body hairs; irritation of the scalp was seen in 1 patient in the group administered 5% minoxidil. These adverse events disappeared as soon as the treatment was stopped. The laboratory data on both drug groups did not show any statistically or clinically significant intragroup changes from baseline values to the endpoint (p > 0.05), except the level of serum total testosterone which was increased, and free testosterone and serum prostate-specific antigen in the finasteride group which were statistically decreased from baseline values to the endpoint (p < 0.05). In this comparative study of systemic finasteride and topical minoxidil, it was concluded that both drugs were effective and safe in the treatment of mild to severe AGA, although oral finasteride treatment was more effective (p < 0.05). Adverse events were not

  16. iNOS inhibits hair regeneration in obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Mari; Shinozaki, Shohei; Morinaga, Hironobu; Kaneki, Masao; Nishimura, Emi; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2018-07-02

    Previous studies have shown that androgenic alopecia is associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. However, the detailed mechanism whereby diabetes causes alopecia still remains unclear. We focused on the inflammatory response that is caused by diabetes or obesity, given that inflammation is a risk factor for hair loss. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to be upregulated under conditions of acute or chronic inflammation. To clarify the potential role of iNOS in diabetes-related alopecia, we generated obese diabetic iNOS-deficient (ob/ob; iNOS-KO mice). We observed that ob/ob; iNOS-KO mice were potentiated for the transition from telogen (rest phase) to anagen (growth phase) in the hair cycle compared with iNOS-proficient ob/ob mice. To determine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the hair cycle, we administered an iNOS inhibitor intraperitoneally (compound 1400 W, 10 mg/kg) or topically (10% aminoguanidine) in ob/ob mice. We observed that iNOS inhibitors promoted anagen transition in ob/ob mice. Next, we administered an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO), to test whether NO has the telogen elongation effects. The NO donor was sufficient to induce telogen elongation in wild-type mice. Together, our data indicate that iNOS-derived NO plays a role in telogen elongation under the inflammatory conditions associated with diabetes in mice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal triangular alopecia and a review of 52 past cases.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masashi; Irisawa, Ryokichi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2010-04-01

    Temporal triangular alopecia (TTA) is a circumscribed, non-cicatricial form of alopecia confined to the frontotemporal region. The patient, a 15-year-old boy, was noticed at birth to have an alopecial area, sized 1.5 cm x 2.5 cm, in the right temporal region. Microscopic examination revealed miniaturized hair follicles accompanied by differentiated sebaceous glands. We have provided a synopsis of the past 52 cases. Of the 53 cases of TTA including our case, more than half (55.8%) were detected in childhood between the ages of 2 and 9 years, while 36.5% were detected at birth and only 3.8% (only two cases) in adulthood. There were three familial cases. Several congenital diseases were associated with the condition, for example, phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, Down syndrome and Dandy-Walker malformation. This information suggests that TTA can be recognized as a hamartomatous mosaic disease.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: alopecia areata

    MedlinePlus

    ... areata the immune system targets hair follicles , stopping hair growth. However, the condition does not permanently damage the follicles, which is why hair may later regrow. Many of the genes that ...

  19. Mural folliculitis and alopecia caused by infection with goat-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus in two sika deer.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Timothy B; Li, Hong; Rosenburg, Stuart R; Norhausen, Robert W; Garner, Michael M

    2002-09-15

    Two sika deer from a zoo in Florida were examined because of chronic hair loss and skin lesions. No common causes of alopecia were identified in either deer. One deer was treated with prednisone, but the condition worsened when the dosage was decreased. Both deer were euthanatized after several months because of continued disease. The predominant histologic lesion in skin specimens was granulomatous mural folliculitis. Serologic testing and sequencing of fragments produced with a consensus polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that both deer were infected with caprine herpesvirus-2, a newly recognized member of the malignant catarrhal fever group of viruses. Disease in these deer was substantially different from that typically seen following infection with ovine herpesvirus-2, the sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever virus. Findings in these deer establish the pathogenicity of caprine herpesvirus-2 in sika deer and illustrate the ability of this group of complex herpesviruses to cause a wide variety of clinical abnormalities in diverse species.

  20. Is there an association of ABO blood groups and Rhesus factor with alopecia areata?

    PubMed

    İslamoğlu, Zeynep Gizem Kaya; Unal, Mehmet

    2018-01-15

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by noncicatricial hair loss localized on hair, beard, mustache, eyebrow, eyelash, and sometimes on the body. Although etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, many studies show remarkable associations between various diseases and ABO blood groups. However, there is no study with AA and blood groups. Healthy people and patients with AA were included in this study. A total of 155 patients with AA and 299 healthy controls were included in the study. ABO blood group distribution in patients with AA and distribution of healthy donors were similar. However, Rhesus factor positivity in the AA group was significantly higher than in healthy donors. The relationship between stress and AA was high as known. But, ABO blood group and Rhesus factor were not in a significant connection with stress. We conclude that there was no association between ABO blood group and AA, but the observed distribution of Rhesus blood group differed slightly but significantly from that of the healthy population. The result of the study shows a small but statistically significant difference in the Rh blood group between patients with AA and the healthy population blood groups. This result is important because it suggests that genetic factors may influence the development of AA. The role of blood groups in the development of AA remains to be determined. We believe that the studies which will be carried out in other centers with wider series will be more valuable to support this hypothesis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Therapeutic Efficacy of a Combination Therapy of Topical 17α-Estradiol and Topical Minoxidil on Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Noncomparative, Retrospective Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sung Jay; Lee, Solam; Choi, Jaewoong

    2017-01-01

    Background A variety of agents have been used to treat female pattern hair loss (FPHL), including topical minoxidil, topical 17α-estradiol, oral anti-androgen agents, and mineral supplements. Compared with these single agent regimens, combination therapies could be a better therapeutic option in expectation of superior treatment outcome. Objective This study was designed to determine the efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil in Korean patients with FPHL. Methods Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 34 women who applied topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil once daily for more than 6 months. Phototrichogram analysis was performed before and after therapy. The efficacy was evaluated with respect to total hair count, hair caliber (as assessed by phototrichogram analysis), and photographic assessment. Results Total hair count and hair caliber both increased from baseline to 6 months in patients treated with the combination therapy of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil (p<0.001). Photographic assessment also revealed significant disease improvement, thus supporting the therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion A combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil can be tried as an effective treatment for FPHL. PMID:28566902

  2. Therapeutic Efficacy of a Combination Therapy of Topical 17α-Estradiol and Topical Minoxidil on Female Pattern Hair Loss: A Noncomparative, Retrospective Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sung Jay; Lee, Solam; Choi, Jaewoong; Lee, Won-Soo

    2017-06-01

    A variety of agents have been used to treat female pattern hair loss (FPHL), including topical minoxidil, topical 17α-estradiol, oral anti-androgen agents, and mineral supplements. Compared with these single agent regimens, combination therapies could be a better therapeutic option in expectation of superior treatment outcome. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil in Korean patients with FPHL. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in 34 women who applied topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil once daily for more than 6 months. Phototrichogram analysis was performed before and after therapy. The efficacy was evaluated with respect to total hair count, hair caliber (as assessed by phototrichogram analysis), and photographic assessment. Total hair count and hair caliber both increased from baseline to 6 months in patients treated with the combination therapy of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil ( p <0.001). Photographic assessment also revealed significant disease improvement, thus supporting the therapeutic efficacy. A combination therapy consisting of topical 0.025% 17α-estradiol and 3% minoxidil can be tried as an effective treatment for FPHL.

  3. Use of Low-Level Laser Therapy as Monotherapy or Concomitant Therapy for Male and Female Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Munck, Andréia; Gavazzoni, Maria Fernanda; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb®, in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. Results: Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. Conclusions: LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth. PMID:25191036

  4. Use of low-level laser therapy as monotherapy or concomitant therapy for male and female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Munck, Andréia; Gavazzoni, Maria Fernanda; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and in women. Currently, minoxidil and finasteride are the treatments with the highest levels of medical evidence, but patients who exhibit intolerance or poor response to these treatments are in need of additional treatment modalities. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for AGA, either as monotherapy or as concomitant therapy with minoxidil or finasteride, in an office-based setting. Retrospective observational study of male and female patients with AGA, treated with the 655 nm-HairMax Laser Comb(®), in an office-based setting. Efficacy was assessed with global photographic imaging. Of 32 patients (21 female, 11 male), 8 showed significant, 20 moderate, and 4 no improvement. Improvement was seen both with monotherapy and with concomitant therapy. Improvement was observed as early as 3 months and was sustained up to a maximum observation time of 24 months. No adverse reactions were reported. LLLT represents a potentially effective treatment for both male and female AGA, either as monotherapy or concomitant therapy. Combination treatments with minoxidil, finasteride, and LLLT may act synergistic to enhance hair growth.

  5. [A case of myasthenia gravis with invasive thymoma associated with diffuse panbronchiolitis, alopecia, dysgeusia, cholangitis and myositis].

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Risa; Shibuya, Hideki; Hideyama, Takuto; Shiio, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of diplopia, ptosis, and dysphagia that had begun three years previously. He was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis (MG) and invasive thymoma and treated with corticosteroid, thymectomy, and radiation therapy. Ten years after the thymectomy, computed tomography (CT) showed metastasis of the thymoma in the left lower lobe of the lung. Two years after this recurrence, when the patient was 55, respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, persistent cough, and dyspnea appeared. Chronic sinusitis, diffuse centrilobular opacities on CT, and positivity for HLA-B54 led to a diagnosis of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB). Despite treatment with clarithromycin, the respiratory symptoms worsened. The patient developed alopecia and body hair loss at the age of 56 followed by dysgeusia, cholangitis, and myositis with positivity for anti-Kv1.4 antibodies. Although treatment with an increased dose of corticosteroid improved hair loss, dysgeusia, cholangitis, and myositis, he died of progression of DPB and serious respiratory infection at the age of 58. In this case, various autoimmune disorders occurred together with MG as complications of thymoma. Although alopecia, dysgeusia, and myositis are already known as complications of MG associated with thymoma, cholangitis is not well-recognized since there have been few reports suggesting a causal relationship between cholangitis and thymoma. Furthermore, DPB caused by immunodeficiency and respiratory tract hypersensitivity associated with thymoma and HLA-B54, respectively, is the distinctive feature of our case. Neurologists should be aware that various organs can be damaged directly and indirectly by abnormal T cells from thymoma in patients with MG.

  6. Deletion of SLC19A2, the high affinity thiamine transporter, causes selective inner hair cell loss and an auditory neuropathy phenotype.

    PubMed

    Liberman, M C; Tartaglini, E; Fleming, J C; Neufeld, E J

    2006-09-01

    Mutations in the gene coding for the high-affinity thiamine transporter Slc19a2 underlie the clinical syndrome known as thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) characterized by anemia, diabetes, and sensorineural hearing loss. To create a mouse model of this disease, a mutant line was created with targeted disruption of the gene. Cochlear function is normal in these mutants when maintained on a high-thiamine diet. When challenged with a low-thiamine diet, Slc19a2-null mice showed 40-60 dB threshold elevations by auditory brainstem response (ABR), but only 10-20 dB elevation by otoacoustic emission (OAE) measures. Wild-type mice retain normal hearing on either diet. Cochlear histological analysis showed a pattern uncommon for sensorineural hearing loss: selective loss of inner hair cells after 1-2 weeks on low thiamine and significantly greater inner than outer hair cell loss after longer low-thiamine challenges. Such a pattern is consistent with the observed discrepancy between ABR and OAE threshold shifts. The possible role of thiamine transport in other reported cases of selective inner hair cell loss is considered.

  7. Industry Perspective on Alopecia Areata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Amanda T

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the autoimmune basis of alopecia areata provide an opportunity to create novel effective pharmaceutical interventions. The current lack of approved therapies for alopecia areata presents a high unmet medical need, as well as a potentially attractive market opportunity. From an industry perspective, achieving clinical proof of concept (PoC) gates investments into larger approval studies. Recent investigator-initiated experience suggests that it may be possible to demonstrate rigorous PoC for new therapies in an attractive time frame with relatively fewer patients than were believed necessary in the past. However, the lack of prior regulatory approval precedent for pharmaceuticals to treat alopecia areata poses significant development challenges, and early interaction with the FDA and other stakeholders will be critically important in evaluating the path to approval and reimbursement for new treatments for this indication. This paper presents a brief industry perspective on the potential development of new alopecia areata therapeutics.

  8. Effect of a Scalp Cooling Device on Alopecia in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: The SCALP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Nangia, Julie; Wang, Tao; Osborne, Cynthia; Niravath, Polly; Otte, Kristen; Papish, Steven; Holmes, Frankie; Abraham, Jame; Lacouture, Mario; Courtright, Jay; Paxman, Richard; Rude, Mari; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Osborne, C Kent; Rimawi, Mothaffar

    2017-02-14

    Chemotherapy may induce alopecia. Although scalp cooling devices have been used to prevent this alopecia, efficacy has not been assessed in a randomized clinical trial. To assess whether a scalp cooling device is effective at reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia and to assess adverse treatment effects. Multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Patients were enrolled from December 9, 2013, to September 30, 2016. One interim analysis was planned to allow the study to stop early for efficacy. Data reported are from the interim analysis. This study was conducted at 7 sites in the United States, and 182 women with breast cancer requiring chemotherapy were enrolled and randomized. Participants were randomized to scalp cooling (n = 119) or control (n = 63). Scalp cooling was done using a scalp cooling device. The primary efficacy end points were successful hair preservation assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 scale (grade 0 [no hair loss] or grade 1 [<50% hair loss not requiring a wig] were considered to have hair preservation) at the end of 4 cycles of chemotherapy by a clinician unaware of treatment assignment, and device safety. Secondary end points included wig use and scores on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and a summary scale of the Body Image Scale. At the time of the interim analysis, 142 participants were evaluable. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 52.6 (10.1) years; 36% (n = 51) received anthracycline-based chemotherapy and 64% (n = 91) received taxane-based chemotherapy. Successful hair preservation was found in 48 of 95 women with cooling (50.5%; 95% CI, 40.7%-60.4%) compared with 0 of 47 women in the control group (0%; 95% CI, 0%-7.6%) (success rate difference, 50.5%; 95% CI, 40.5%-60.6%). Because the 1-tailed P value from the Fisher

  9. A Phase III, Multicenter, Parallel-Design Clinical Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of 5% Minoxidil Foam Versus Vehicle in Women With Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, Wilma; Washenik, Ken; Callender, Valerie; Zhang, Paul; Quiza, Carlos; Doshi, Uday; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common hair disorder that affects millions of women. A new 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) formulation, which does not contain propylene glycol, has been developed.
    To compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily 5% MTF with vehicle foam for the treatment of FPHL.
    This was a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group, international multicenter trial (17 sites) in women aged at least 18 years with FPHL (grade D3 to D6 on the Savin Density Scale), treated once daily with 5% MTF or vehicle foam for 24 weeks. The co-primary efficacy endpoints were the change from baseline at week 24 in target area hair count (TAHC) and subject assessment of scalp coverage. Also evaluated were TAHC at week 12, expert panel review of hair regrowth at week 24, and change from baseline in total unit area density (TUAD, sum of hair diameters/cm2) at weeks 12 and 24.
    A total of 404 women were enrolled. At 12 and 24 weeks, 5% MTF treatment resulted in regrowth of 10.9 hairs/cm2 and 9.1 hairs/cm2 more than vehicle foam, respectively (both P<.0001). Improved scalp coverage at week 24 was observed by both subject self-assessment (0.69-point improvement over vehicle foam; P<.0001) and expert panel review (0.36-point improvement over the vehicle foam; P<.0001). TUAD increased by 658 μm/cm2 and 644 μm/cm2 more with 5% MTF than with vehicle foam at weeks 12 and 24, respectively (both P<.0001). MTF was well tolerated. A low incidence of scalp irritation and facial hypertrichosis was observed, with no clinically significant differences between groups.
    Five percent MTF once daily for 24 weeks was well tolerated and promoted hair regrowth in women with FPHL, resulting in improved scalp coverage and increased hair density compared with vehicle foam. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: nCT01226459

  10. Hair Growth Promoting and Anticancer Effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) Inhibitors Isolated from Different Parts of Alpinia zerumbet.

    PubMed

    Taira, Nozomi; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2017-01-14

    PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) is an emerging target for the treatment of hair loss (alopecia) and cancer; therefore, the search for PAK1 blockers to treat these PAK1-dependent disorders has received much attention. In this study, we evaluated the anti-alopecia and anticancer effects of PAK1 inhibitors isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) in cell culture. The bioactive compounds isolated from alpinia were found to markedly promote hair cell growth. Kaempferol-3- O -β-d-glucuronide (KOG) and labdadiene, two of the isolated compounds, increased the proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells by approximately 117%-180% and 132%-226%, respectively, at 10-100 μM. MTD (2,5-bis(1 E ,3 E ,5 E )-6-methoxyhexa-1,3,5-trien-1-yl)-2,5-dihydrofuran) and TMOQ (( E )-2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-8-methylene-7-(oct-6-en-1-yl)octahydro-1 H -quinolizine) showed growth-promoting activity around 164% and 139% at 10 μM, respectively. The hair cell proliferation induced by these compounds was significantly higher than that of minoxidil, a commercially available treatment for hair loss. Furthermore, the isolated compounds from alpinia exhibited anticancer activity against A549 lung cancer cells with IC 50 in the range of 67-99 μM. Regarding the mechanism underlying their action, we hypothesized that the anti-alopecia and anticancer activities of these compounds could be attributed to the inhibition of the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

  11. Hair Transplantation Controversies.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R; Finney, Robert; Rogers, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing transplanted hair for men. It is increasingly popular procedure to restore natural growing hair for men with hair loss. To review some current controversies in hair transplant surgery. Review of the English PubMed literature and specialty literature in hair transplant surgery. Some of the controversies in hair transplant surgery include appropriate donor harvesting technique including elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction whether manual versus robotic, the role of platelet-rich plasma and low-level light surgery in hair transplant surgery. Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing hair. As with all techniques, there are controversies regarding the optimal method for performing the procedure. Some of the current controversies in hair transplant surgery include optimal donor harvesting techniques, elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction, the role of low-level light therapy and the platelet-rich plasma therapy in the procedure. Future studies will further clarify their role in the procedure.

  12. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  13. Epidermal Cadm1 expression promotes autoimmune alopecia via enhanced T cell adhesion and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Giangreco, Adam; Hoste, Esther; Takai, Yoshimi; Rosewell, Ian; Watt, Fiona M

    2012-02-01

    Autoimmune alopecia is characterized by an extensive epidermal T cell infiltrate that mediates hair follicle destruction. We have investigated the role of cell adhesion molecule 1 (Cadm1; Necl2) in this disease. Cadm1 is expressed by epidermal cells and mediates heterotypic adhesion to lymphocytes expressing class 1-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM). Using a murine autoimmune alopecia model, we observed an increase in early-activated cytotoxic (CD8-restricted, CRTAM-expressing) T cells, which preferentially associated with hair follicle keratinocytes expressing Cadm1. Coculture with Cadm1-transduced MHC-matched APCs stimulated alopecic lymph node cells to release IL-2 and IFN-γ. Overexpression of Cadm1 in cultured human keratinocytes did not promote cytokine secretion, but led to increased adhesion of alopecic cytotoxic T cells and enhanced T cell cytotoxicity in an MHC-independent manner. Epidermal overexpression of Cadm1 in transgenic mice led to increased autoimmune alopecia susceptibility relative to nontransgenic littermate controls. Our findings reveal that Cadm1 expression in the hair follicle plays a role in autoimmune alopecia.

  14. Epidermal E-Cadherin Dependent β-Catenin Pathway Is Phytochemical Inducible and Accelerates Anagen Hair Cycling.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Noha S; Ghatak, Subhadip; El Masry, Mohamed S; Gnyawali, Surya C; Roy, Sashwati; Amer, Mohamed; Everts, Helen; Sen, Chandan K; Khanna, Savita

    2017-11-01

    Unlike the epidermis, which regenerates continually, hair follicles anchored in the subcutis periodically regenerate by spontaneous repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), degeneration (catagen), and rest (telogen). The loss of hair follicles in response to injuries or pathologies such as alopecia endangers certain inherent functions of the skin. Thus, it is of interest to understand mechanisms underlying follicular regeneration in adults. In this work, a phytochemical rich in the natural vitamin E tocotrienol (TRF) served as a productive tool to unveil a novel epidermal pathway of hair follicular regeneration. Topical TRF application markedly induced epidermal hair follicle development akin to that during fetal skin development. This was observed in the skin of healthy as well as diabetic mice, which are known to be resistant to anagen hair cycling. TRF suppressed epidermal E-cadherin followed by 4-fold induction of β-catenin and its nuclear translocation. Nuclear β-catenin interacted with Tcf3. Such sequestration of Tcf3 from its otherwise known function to repress pluripotent factors induced the plasticity factors Oct4, Sox9, Klf4, c-Myc, and Nanog. Pharmacological inhibition of β-catenin arrested anagen hair cycling by TRF. This work reports epidermal E-cadherin/β-catenin as a novel pathway capable of inducing developmental folliculogenesis in the adult skin. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical effects of non-ablative and ablative fractional lasers on various hair disorders: a case series of 17 patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Suhyun; Choi, Min Ju; Zheng, Zhenlong; Goo, Boncheol; Kim, Do-Young; Cho, Sung Bin

    2013-04-01

    Both ablative and non-ablative fractional lasers have been applied to various uncommon hair disorders. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical effects of fractional laser therapy on the course of primary follicular and perifollicular pathologies and subsequent hair regrowth. A retrospective review of 17 patients with uncommon hair disorders - including ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, various secondary cicatricial alopecias, pubic hypotrichosis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens - was conducted. All patients had been treated with non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser therapies. The mean clinical improvement score in these 17 patients was 2.2, while the mean patient satisfaction score was 2.5. Of the 17 subjects, 12 (70.6%) demonstrated a clinical response to non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser treatments, including individuals with ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, secondary cicatricial alopecia (scleroderma and pressure-induced alopecia), frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens. Conversely, patients with long-standing ophiasis, surgical scar-induced secondary cicatricial alopecia, and pubic hypotrichosis did not respond to fractional laser therapy. Our findings demonstrate that the use of non-ablative and/or ablative fractional lasers promoted hair growth in certain cases of uncommon hair disorders without any remarkable side effects.

  16. Conservation of hearing and protection of auditory hair cells against trauma-induced losses by local dexamethasone therapy: molecular and genetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Van De Water, Thomas R; Abi Hachem, Ralph N; Dinh, Christine T; Bas, Esperanza; Haake, Scott M; Hoosien, Gia; Vivero, Richard; Chan, Sherry; He, Jao; Eshraghi, Adrien A; Angeli, Simon I; Telischi, Fred F; Balkany, Thomas J

    2010-06-01

    Dexamethasone (DXM) protects hearing against trauma-induced loss. in vivo: A guinea pig model of electrode induced trauma (EIT)-induced hearing loss was used to locally deliver dexamethasone. In vitro: TNF-α-challenged organ of Corti explants treated with DXM or polymer-eluted DXM +/- PI3K/Akt/PkB/NFkB inhibitors were used for hair cells count and gene expression studies. in vivo: local DXM treatment of EIT-animals prevents trauma-induced loss of ABR thresholds that occurs in EIT-animals and EIT-animals treated with the carrier solution (i.e., AP), and prevented loss of auditory hair cells. In vitro: DXM and polymer-eluted DXM were equally effective in protecting hair cells from ototoxic levels of TNF-α Inhibitor treated explants demonstrated that DXM treatment requires both Akt/PKB and NFkB signalling for otoprotection. DXM treatment of explants showed up regulation of anti-apoptosis related genes (i.e., Bcl-2, Bcl-xl) and down regulation of pro-apoptosis related genes (i.e., Bax, TNFR-1). DXM exert its otoprotective action by activation of cell signal molecules (e.g., NFkB) that alter the expression of anti- and pro-apoptosis genes.

  17. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Korting, Hans Christian; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    This paper continues our review of scientifically evaluated plant extracts in dermatology. After plants effective against dermatophytes, botanicals with anti-edema effects in chronic venous insufficiency are discussed. There is good evidence from randomized clinical studies that plant extracts from grape vine leaves (Vitis vinifera), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), sea pine (Pinus maritima) and butcher's broom (Ruscus aculeatus) can reduce edema in chronic venous insufficiency. Plant extracts from witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana), green tea (Camellia sinensis), the fern Polypodium leucotomos and others contain antioxidant polyphenolic compounds that may protect the skin from sunburn and photoaging when administered topically or systemically. Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies. Some plant extracts have also been investigated in the treatment of vitiligo, various forms of hair loss and pigmentation disorders, and in aesthetic dermatology. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  18. Polymorphic CAG Repeat Numbers in the Androgen Receptor Gene of Female Pattern Hair Loss in a Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Rui, Wenlong; Sheng, Youyu; Hu, Ruiming; Miao, Ying; Han, Yumei; Qi, Sisi; Xu, Feng; Xu, Jinhua; Yang, Qinping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association of CAG repeat numbers in the androgen receptor (AR) gene with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in a Chinese population. A total of 200 Han Chinese patients with FPHL (142 Ludwig II and 58 Ludwig III cases) and 200 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The polymorphism of CAG repeat numbers was analyzed by the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism technique. The CAG biallelic mean length was 23.73 ± 2.04 repeats in Han Chinese FPHL patients and 23.90 ± 2.13 repeats in healthy controls, without any significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.481). In addition, neither the shorter nor the longer CAG repeat numbers were significantly different between FPHL and control subjects (p = 0.726, p = 0.383). The polymorphism of CAG repeat numbers of the AR gene may not be the genetic marker of FPHL in a Chinese population. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Treatment of permanent chemotherapy-induced alopecia with low dose oral minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyi; Thai, Keng-Ee

    2016-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a well-established cause of major distress to patients. Permanent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (PCIA) is the absence of or incomplete hair regrowth lasting longer than 6 months after the cessation of chemotherapy and it does not respond to standard treatments of scalp cooling or topical minoxidil. The increasing numbers of reports of PCIA highlight the need for research into an effective treatment. We report a case of a 39 year-old woman with cosmetically significant regrowth after continuous therapy with oral minoxidil. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Thyroid Disorders Associated with Alopecia Areata in Egyptian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bakry, Ola A; Basha, Mohamed A; El Shafiee, Maather K; Shehata, Wafaa A

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common form of localized, non-scarring hair loss. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is still unclear, but the role of autoimmunity is strongly suggested. AA is commonly associated with various autoimmune disorders; the most frequent among them is autoimmune thyroid disorders. Aim: To determine whether AA is associated with thyroid autoimmunity or thyroid function abnormalities in Egyptian patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects with AA (37 males and 13 females) without clinical evidence of thyroid disorders were selected from Dermatology Outpatient Clinic, Menoufiya University Hospital, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt, during the period from June 2009 to February 2010. They were divided into 3 groups according to severity of AA. Fifty age and sex-matched healthy volunteers (35 males and 15 females) were selected as a control group. Every case and control were subjected to history taking, complete general and dermatological examination. Venous blood samples were taken from cases and controls after taking their consents for measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T3, freeT4 and detection of Anti-thyroglobulin Antibody (Tg-Ab) and Anti-thyroid Peroxidase Antibody (TPO-Ab). Results: Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 16% of cases. There were statistically significant differences between cases and controls regarding levels of TSH, free T3 and free T4. There were significant differences between cases and controls regarding the presence of Tg-Ab and TPO-Ab. Conclusions: Every patient with AA should be screened for thyroid functions and presence of thyroid autoantibodies even in absence of clinical manifestations suggestive of thyroid affection. PMID:24470660

  1. Age-dependent associations between androgenetic alopecia and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Muller, David C; Giles, Graham G; Sinclair, Rod; Hopper, John L; English, Dallas R; Severi, Gianluca

    2013-02-01

    Both prostate cancer and androgenetic alopecia are strongly age-related conditions that are considered to be androgen dependent, but studies of the relationship between them have yielded inconsistent results. We aimed to assess whether androgenetic alopecia at ages 20 and 40 years are associated with risk of prostate cancer. At a follow-up of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, men were asked to assess their hair pattern at ages 20 and 40 years relative to eight categories in showcards. Cases were men notified to the Victorian Cancer Registry with prostate cancer diagnosed between cohort enrollment (1990-1994) and follow-up attendance (2003-2009). Flexible parametric survival models were used to estimate age-varying HRs and predicted cumulative probabilities of prostate cancer by androgenetic alopecia categories. Of 9,448 men that attended follow-up and provided data on androgenetic alopecia, we identified 476 prostate cancer cases during a median follow-up of 11 years four months. Cumulative probability of prostate cancer was greater at all ages up to 76 years, for men with vertex versus no androgenetic alopecia at age of 40 years. At age of 76 years, the estimated probabilities converged to 0.15. Vertex androgenetic alopecia at 40 years was also associated with younger age of diagnosis for prostate cancer cases. Vertex androgenetic alopecia at age of 40 years might be a marker of increased risk of early-onset prostate cancer. If confirmed, these results suggest that the apparently conflicting findings of previous studies might be explained by failure to adequately model the age-varying nature of the association between androgenetic alopecia and prostate cancer.

  2. The Great Silk Alternative: Multiple Co-Evolution of Web Loss and Sticky Hairs in Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jonas O.; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Spiders are the most important terrestrial predators among arthropods. Their ecological success is reflected by a high biodiversity and the conquest of nearly every terrestrial habitat. Spiders are closely associated with silk, a material, often seen to be responsible for their great ecological success and gaining high attention in life sciences. However, it is often overlooked that more than half of all Recent spider species have abandoned web building or never developed such an adaptation. These species must have found other, more economic solutions for prey capture and retention, compensating the higher energy costs of increased locomotion activity. Here we show that hairy adhesive pads (scopulae) are closely associated with the convergent evolution of a vagrant life style, resulting in highly diversified lineages of at least, equal importance as the derived web building taxa. Previous studies often highlighted the idea that scopulae have the primary function of assisting locomotion, neglecting the fact that only the distal most pads (claw tufts) are suitable for those purposes. The former observations, that scopulae are used in prey capture, are largely overlooked. Our results suggest the scopulae evolved as a substitute for silk in controlling prey and that the claw tufts are, in most cases, a secondary development. Evolutionary trends towards specialized claw tufts and their composition from a low number of enlarged setae to a dense array of slender ones, as well as the secondary loss of those pads are discussed further. Hypotheses about the origin of the adhesive setae and their diversification throughout evolution are provided. PMID:23650526

  3. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 signaling contributes to cochlear hair cell apoptosis: implications for age-related hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hao; Pang, Jiaqi; Yang, Haidi; Dai, Min; Liu, Yimin; Ou, Yongkang; Huang, Qiuhong; Chen, Suijun; Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Yaodong; Lai, Lan; Zheng, Yiqing

    2015-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying age-related hearing loss are not fully understood, and currently, there is no treatment for this disorder. MicroRNAs have recently been reported to be increasingly associated with age-related diseases and are emerging as promising therapeutic targets. In this study, miR-34a/Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/p53 signaling was examined in cochlear hair cells during aging. MiR-34a, p53 acetylation, and apoptosis increased in the cochlea of C57BL/6 mice with aging, whereas an age-related decrease in SIRT1 was observed. In the inner ear HEI-OC1 cell line, miR-34a overexpression inhibited SIRT1, leading to an increase in p53 acetylation and apoptosis. Moreover, miR-34a knockdown increased SIRT1 expression and diminished p53 acetylation, and apoptosis. Additionally, resveratrol, an activator of SIRT1, significantly rescued miR-34a overexpression-induced HEI-OC1 cell death and significantly reduced hearing threshold shifts and hair cell loss in C57BL/6 mice after a 2-month administration. Our results support a link between age-related cochlear hair cell apoptosis and miR-34a/SIRT1/p53 signaling, which may serve as a potential target for age-related hearing loss treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia: a frontal variant of lichen planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Kossard, S; Lee, M S; Wilkinson, B

    1997-01-01

    Lichen planopilaris usually produces multifocal areas of scarring alopecia. Recently, a condition in postmenopausal women characterized by progressive frontal hairline recession associated with scarring has been described. Our purpose was to study the clinical and histopathologic features and results of treatment in a group of women with the frontal variant of lichen planopilaris and to compare the immunohistochemical profile of scalp biopsy specimens from this subset with that found in the multifocal variant of lichen planopilaris. The clinical data as well as the histopathologic findings in 16 women with frontal fibrosing alopecia were collated. The immunohistochemical profile of six scalp biopsy specimens from the frontal hairline were compared with six specimens from women with multifocal lichen planopilaris. In addition to the progressive frontal fibrosing alopecia in all 16 women, total loss or a marked decrease of the eyebrows was observed in 13. No evidence of lichen planus was observed at other sites. In one patient multifocal areas of lichen planopilaris developed in the scalp. The frontal fibrosing alopecia was slowly progressive but has stabilized in five patients. Biopsy specimens from the frontal hairline showed histologic changes identical to lichen planopilaris. Immunophenotyping failed to reveal any significant differences between the frontal and multifocal variants. No effective treatments emerged although oral steroids and antimalarials may temporarily slow the course. Hormone replacement therapy did not appear to influence the course of the alopecia. Progressive frontal fibrosing alopecia is a clinically distinct variant of lichen planopilaris that affects in particular elderly women and frequently involves the eyebrows. The basis for this lichenoid tissue reaction targeting frontal scalp follicles and eyebrows is unknown.

  6. Low-level laser/light therapy for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Lyons, Danika C A; Abramovits, William

    2014-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a persistent and pervasive condition that affects men worldwide. Some common treatment options for AGA include hair prosthetics, oral and topical medications, and surgical hair restoration (SHR). Pharmaceutical and SHR treatments are associated with limitations including adverse side effects and significant financial burden. Low-level laser or light (LLL) devices offer alternative treatment options that are not typically associated with adverse side effects or significant costs. There are clinic- and home-based LLL devices. One home-based laser comb device has set a standard for others; however, this device requires time devoted to carefully moving the comb through the hair to allow laser penetration to the scalp. A novel helmet-like LLL device for hair growth has proven effective in preliminary trials and allows for hands-free use. Regardless, there are few clinical trials that have been conducted regarding LLL devices for AGA and results are mixed. Further research is required to establish the true efficacy of these devices for hair growth in comparison to existing alternative therapies.

  7. Keratin 17 null mice exhibit age- and strain-dependent alopecia

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Kevin M.; Tong, Xuemei; Colucci-Guyon, Emma; Langa, Francina; Babinet, Charles; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2002-01-01

    Onset of type I keratin 17 (K17) synthesis marks the adoption of an appendageal fate within embryonic ectoderm, and its expression persists in specific cell types within mature hair, glands, and nail. We report that K17 null mice develop severe alopecia during the first week postbirth, correlating with hair fragility, alterations in follicular histology, and apoptosis in matrix cells. These alterations are incompletely penetrant and normalize starting with the first postnatal cycle. Absence of a hair phenotype correlates with a genetic strain-dependent compensation by related keratins, including K16. These findings reveal a crucial role for K17 in the structural integrity of the first hair produced and the survival of hair-producing cells. Given that identical inherited mutations in this gene can cause either pachyonychia congenita or steatocystoma multiplex, the features of this mouse model suggest that this clinical heterogeneity arises from a cell type-specific, genetically determined compensation by related keratins. PMID:12050118

  8. Keratin 17 null mice exhibit age- and strain-dependent alopecia.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Kevin M; Tong, Xuemei; Colucci-Guyon, Emma; Langa, Francina; Babinet, Charles; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2002-06-01

    Onset of type I keratin 17 (K17) synthesis marks the adoption of an appendageal fate within embryonic ectoderm, and its expression persists in specific cell types within mature hair, glands, and nail. We report that K17 null mice develop severe alopecia during the first week postbirth, correlating with hair fragility, alterations in follicular histology, and apoptosis in matrix cells. These alterations are incompletely penetrant and normalize starting with the first postnatal cycle. Absence of a hair phenotype correlates with a genetic strain-dependent compensation by related keratins, including K16. These findings reveal a crucial role for K17 in the structural integrity of the first hair produced and the survival of hair-producing cells. Given that identical inherited mutations in this gene can cause either pachyonychia congenita or steatocystoma multiplex, the features of this mouse model suggest that this clinical heterogeneity arises from a cell type-specific, genetically determined compensation by related keratins.

  9. Trichotillomania: a case report with clinical and dermatoscopic differential diagnosis with alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana Cecília Versiani Duarte; Andrade, Tatiana Cristina Pedro Cordeiro de; Brito, Fernanda Freitas de; Silva, Gardênia Viana da; Cavalcante, Maria Lopes Lamenha Lins; Martelli, Antonio Carlos Ceribelli

    2017-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychodermatologic disorder characterized by uncontrollable urge to pull one's own hair. Differential diagnoses include the most common forms of alopecia such as alopecia areata. It is usually associated with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Trichotillomania treatment standardization is a gap in the medical literature. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (a glutamate modulator) for the treatment of the disease. We report the clinical case of a 12-year-old female patient who received the initial diagnosis of alopecia areata, but presented with clinical and dermoscopic features of trichotillomania. She was treated with the combination of psychotropic drugs and N-acetylcysteine with good clinical response. Due to the chronic and recurring nature of trichotillomania, more studies need to be conducted for the establishment of a formal treatment algorithm.

  10. Trichotillomania: a case report with clinical and dermatoscopic differential diagnosis with alopecia areata*

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ana Cecília Versiani Duarte; de Andrade, Tatiana Cristina Pedro Cordeiro; de Brito, Fernanda Freitas; da Silva, Gardênia Viana; Cavalcante, Maria Lopes Lamenha Lins; Martelli, Antonio Carlos Ceribelli

    2017-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a psychodermatologic disorder characterized by uncontrollable urge to pull one's own hair. Differential diagnoses include the most common forms of alopecia such as alopecia areata. It is usually associated with depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Trichotillomania treatment standardization is a gap in the medical literature. Recent studies demonstrated the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (a glutamate modulator) for the treatment of the disease. We report the clinical case of a 12-year-old female patient who received the initial diagnosis of alopecia areata, but presented with clinical and dermoscopic features of trichotillomania. She was treated with the combination of psychotropic drugs and N-acetylcysteine with good clinical response. Due to the chronic and recurring nature of trichotillomania, more studies need to be conducted for the establishment of a formal treatment algorithm. PMID:28225970

  11. Vitamin D Level in Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Latif, Insha; Malik, Rauf; Hassan, Iffat; Sheikh, Gousia; Lone, Kouser Sideeq; Majeed, Sabiya; Sajad, Peerzada

    2017-01-01

    Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated disease in which autoantigens play an important part in activating T-lymphocytes. Vitamin D has been associated with various autoimmune diseases, and Vitamin D receptors are strongly expressed in hair follicles and their expression in keratinocytes is necessary for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the association between Vitamin D level and AA. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study in which 50 patients with clinically and trichoscopically diagnosed AA cases, and 35 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied in summer months. Blood samples were taken from both cases as well as controls and samples were immediately processed by centrifugation (4000 rpm) at room temperature. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analyzed by chemiluminescence method. A deficiency in Vitamin D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Results: The mean body mass index in cases was 20.96 ± 1.91, whereas in controls, it was 21.37 ± 1.70 (P = 0.31). The mean serum 25(OH)D levels of AA patients was 16.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml, whereas in control group, the mean level was 40.5 ± 5.7, the difference being statistically significant (P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between severity of alopecia tool score and Vitamin D level (P < 0.001; r = −0.730) and also between the number of patches and Vitamin D level (P < 0.001, r = −0.670). Conclusion: In our study, we found that the levels of 25(OH)D were low in AA patients when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum Vitamin D and severity of AA. Thus, the study suggests the role of Vitamin D in pathogenesis of AA and hence a possible role of Vitamin D supplementation in treatment of same. Limitations: Our study was limited by the lesser number of patients and lack of therapeutic trial of Vitamin D

  12. Vitamin D Level in Alopecia Areata.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Latif, Insha; Malik, Rauf; Hassan, Iffat; Sheikh, Gousia; Lone, Kouser Sideeq; Majeed, Sabiya; Sajad, Peerzada

    2017-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an immune-mediated disease in which autoantigens play an important part in activating T-lymphocytes. Vitamin D has been associated with various autoimmune diseases, and Vitamin D receptors are strongly expressed in hair follicles and their expression in keratinocytes is necessary for the maintenance of the normal hair cycle. The aim of this study was to find the association between Vitamin D level and AA. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study in which 50 patients with clinically and trichoscopically diagnosed AA cases, and 35 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied in summer months. Blood samples were taken from both cases as well as controls and samples were immediately processed by centrifugation (4000 rpm) at room temperature. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was analyzed by chemiluminescence method. A deficiency in Vitamin D was defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <30 ng/ml. The mean body mass index in cases was 20.96 ± 1.91, whereas in controls, it was 21.37 ± 1.70 ( P = 0.31). The mean serum 25(OH)D levels of AA patients was 16.6 ± 5.9 ng/ml, whereas in control group, the mean level was 40.5 ± 5.7, the difference being statistically significant ( P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between severity of alopecia tool score and Vitamin D level ( P < 0.001; r = -0.730) and also between the number of patches and Vitamin D level ( P < 0.001, r = -0.670). In our study, we found that the levels of 25(OH)D were low in AA patients when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of serum Vitamin D and severity of AA. Thus, the study suggests the role of Vitamin D in pathogenesis of AA and hence a possible role of Vitamin D supplementation in treatment of same. Our study was limited by the lesser number of patients and lack of therapeutic trial of Vitamin D for these patients.

  13. Vitamin D3 analogs stimulate hair growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vegesna, Vijaya; O'Kelly, James; Uskokovic, Milan; Said, Jonathan; Lemp, Nathan; Saitoh, Takayuki; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Binderup, Lise; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2002-11-01

    The active form of vitamin D3 can regulate epidermal keratinization by inducing terminal differentiation; and mice lacking the vitamin D receptor display defects leading to postnatal alopecia. These observations implicate the vitamin D3 pathway in regulation of hair growth. We tested the ability of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its synthetic analogs to stimulate hair growth in biege/nude/xid (BNX) nu/nu (nude) mice exhibiting congenital alopecia. Nude mice were treated with different vitamin D3 analogs at doses that we had previously found to be the highest dose without inducing toxicity (hypercalcemia). The mice were monitored for hair growth and were scored according to a defined scale. Skin samples were taken for histological observation of hair follicles and for extraction of RNA and protein. Vitamin D3 analogs dramatically stimulated the hair growth of nude mice, although parental 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 had no effect. Hair growth occurred in a cyclical pattern, accompanied by formation of normal hair follicles and increased expression of certain keratins (Ha7, Ha8, and Hb3). Vitamin D3 analogs seem to act on keratinocytes to initiate hair follicle cycling and stimulate hair growth in mice that otherwise do not grow hair.

  14. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  15. Vitiligo and alopecia areata associated with subclinical/clinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N

    2011-01-01

    /dL (86-186); total thyroxine (T4), 6.54 microg/dL (4.5-12.5 microg/dL); and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 0.32 microIU/mL (0.3-5.6 microIU/mL), supplemented by antithyroid microsomal peroxidase antibodies (thyroid microsomal antibody and thyroid peroxidase), 21.9 IU/mL (1-40 IU/mL), and antithyroglobulin antibodies, 78.1 U/mL (1-100 U/mL). During the patient's treatment period, 4 other patients with clinical symptoms and signs of long-standing hypothyroidism developed vitiligo, the duration of which was variable in each patient (Table I). All of the patients were taking thyroxin. Thyroid and lipid profiles were performed periodically to evaluate the progress (Table I). These patients were also treated with PUVA therapy and thyroxin. During the course of treatment, 2 of the patients noticed asymptomatic, progressive, localized, and well-circumscribed hair loss at the temporal region of the scalp that extended to involve the vertex, conforming to findings of alopecia areata (Figure 2A and Figure 2B).

  16. [Hair growth effect of minoxidil].

    PubMed

    Otomo, Susumu

    2002-03-01

    The length and size of hair are depend on the anagen term in its hair cycle. It has been reported that the some cell growth factors, such as VEGF, FGF-5S, IGF-1 and KGF, induce the proliferation of cells in the matrix, dermal papilla and dermal papillary vascular system and increase the amount of extra cellular matrix in dermal papilla and then maintain follicles in the anagen phase. On the other hand, negative factors, like FGF-5, thrombospondin, or still unknown ones, terminate the anagen phase. If the negative factors become dominant against cell proliferation factors according to fulfilling some time set by the biological clock for hair follicles, TGF beta induced in the matrix tissues evokes apoptosis of matrix cells and shifts the follicles from anagen to catagen. Androgenetic alopecia is caused by miniaturizing of hair follicles located in the frontal or crown part of scalp and are hereditarily more sensitive to androgen. In their hair cycles, the androgen shortens the anagen phase of follicles and shifts them to the catagen phase earlier than usual. The mode of action of hair growth effect of minoxidil is not completely elucidated, but the most plausible explanation proposed here is that minoxidil works as a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) activator and prolongs the anagen phase of hair follicles in the following manner: minoxidil (1) induces cell growth factors such as VEGF, HGF, IGF-1 and potentiates HGF and IGF-1 actions by the activation of uncoupled SUR on the plasma membrane of dermal papilla cells, (2) inhibits of TGF beta induced apoptosis of hair matrix cells by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the mitochondrial inner membrane, and (3) dilates hair follicle arteries and increases blood flow in dermal papilla by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the plasma membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells.

  17. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spring Meeting Meeting Feedback CME CME Attestation CME Disclosure CME Objectives CME Requirements OCC GME Training ACGME ... 2017 Foundation for Osteopathic Dermatology 7/6/2016 Disclosure to members regarding CME activities 4/3/2014 ...

  18. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Giving Governance By-Laws Committees Committee Service Conflict of Interest Policy Meeting Minutes Archive History Mission Statement Membership AOCD Membership Life Membership Membership Applications and Renewals Membership Benefits Fellows ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: androgenetic alopecia

    MedlinePlus

    ... in both males and females, such as regulating hair growth and sex drive. Hair growth begins under the skin in structures called follicles. ... follicles can lead to a shorter cycle of hair growth and the growth of shorter and thinner strands ...

  20. Hair and Scalp Changes in Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Udompanich, Siriorn; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Suchonwanit, Poonkiat

    2018-06-09

    Cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) commonly involves the hair and scalp. Alopecia can result from direct activity of disease on the scalp or from the state of physical stress in the form of telogen effluvium. Discoid lupus erythematosus and lupus panniculitis/profundus are known to cause scarring alopecia, while accumulation of recent studies has shown that non-scarring alopecia in SLE may have different subtypes, comprising lupus erythematosus-specific and lupus erythematosus-nonspecific changes on histology. This review aims to summarize the clinical pattern, trichoscopic, histopathological, and direct immunofluorescence features of different types of alopecia in cutaneous and systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as exploring their relationship with SLE disease activity.

  1. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    PubMed

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide.

  2. Comparison of the Efficacy of Homologous and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) for Treating Androgenic Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Mehmet Emin Cem; Dadaci, Mehmet; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Savaci, Nedim

    2018-02-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), the most common cause of hair loss in both sexes, accounts for 95% of all cases of hair loss. Although the literature has suggested that both nonactivated (n-PRP) and activated autologous (a-PRP) PRP can be used to treat AGA, we did not find any study investigating the use of homologous PRP (h-PRP) for this purpose. Also, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies comparing the efficacy of h-PRP, a-PRP, or n-PRP on AGA therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the increase in hair density, average number of platelets, complications, preparation, and duration of application in the treatment of AGA using a-PRP, n-PRP, and h-PRP. Between 2014 and 2015, we studied male patients who had experienced increased hair loss in the last year. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1 received n-PRP, Group 2 received active PRP, and Group 3 received h-PRP. For Group 1, PRP was prepared by a single centrifugation prepared from the patient's own blood. For Group 2, the PRP was prepared from the patient's own blood, but a second centrifugation was applied for platelet activation with calcium chloride. For Group 3, the PRP was prepared from pooled platelets with the same blood group as the patient from the blood center. PRP was injected at 1, 2, and 6 months. The hair density (n/cm 2 ) of each patient before and after injection was calculated. Each patient was assigned a fixed evaluation point at the time of application to calculate hair density. At 2, 6, and 12 months after the first treatment, the increase in hair density was calculated as 11.2, 26.1, and 32.4%, respectively