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Sample records for hair removal wax

  1. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Removing Pubic Hair Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 March 2017. + ... Twitter email Print Some guys trim their pubic hair, others prefer to shave or wax, and most ...

  2. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Zhongquan; Li, Kai; Wang, Youqiong; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  3. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  4. Hair growth promoting effect of white wax and policosanol from white wax on the mouse model of testosterone-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhan-di; Feng, Ying; Ma, Li-Yi; Li, Xian; Ding, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-05-01

    White wax (WW) has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China. However there has been no reporter WW and its extract responsible for hair growth-promoting effect on androgenetic alopecia. In this paper, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of WW and policosanol of white wax (WWP) on model animal of androgenetic alopecia and the potential target cell of WW and WWP. WW (1, 10 and 20%) and WWP (0.5, 1 and 2%) were applied topically to the backs of mice. Finasteride (2%) was applied topically as a positive control. MTS assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation in culture human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). The inhibition of WW and WWP for 5α- reductase were tested in Vitro. Results showed more lost hairs were clearly seen in mice treated with TP only and TP plus vehicle. Mice which received TP plus WW and WWP showed less hair loss. WW and WWP showed an outstanding hair growth-promoting activity as reflected by the follicular length, follicular density, A/T ratio, and hair bulb diameter. The optimal treatment effect was observed at 10% WW and 1% WWP, which were better than 2% finasteride treatment. MTS assay results suggested that WW and WWP remarkably increased the proliferation of HFDPCs. Inhibitor assay of 5α- reductase showed that WW and WWP inhibited significantly the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotesterone, and the IC 50 values of WW and WWP were higher than that of finasteride. In Conclusion, WW and WWP could act against testosterone-induced alopecia in mice, and they promoted hair growth by inhibiting 5α-reductase activity and HFDPCs proliferation. DPCs is the target cell of WW and WWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  6. Optical hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  7. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  8. Honey bee hairs and pollenkitt are essential for pollen capture and removal.

    PubMed

    Amador, Guillermo J; Matherne, Marguerite; Waller, D'Andre; Mathews, Megha; Gorb, Stanislav N; Hu, David L

    2017-03-23

    While insect grooming has been observed and documented for over one hundred years, we present the first quantitative analysis of this highly dynamic process. Pollinating insects, like honey bees, purposely cover themselves with millions of pollen particles that, if left ungroomed, would make sensing and controlled flight difficult. How do they get clean? We show that the hairs on insect eyes are tuned to the pollen they collect; namely, the hairs are spaced so that they suspend pollen above the body for easy removal by the forelegs. In turn, hair spacing on the foreleg dictates the leg's ability to store the pollen removed during each swipe. In tests with wax-covered honey bees, we show that hairy forelegs are necessary for pollen removal. Moreover, the viscous fluid found on the surface of pollen grains, or pollenkitt, greatly enhances adhesion. We find that bees accumulate twice as much pollen if pollenkitt is present. This study may help further understand pollination, as well as inform designs for mechanically-sensitive functional surfaces with micro- and nano-structures that are easier to keep clean.

  9. Post waxing folliculitis: a clinicopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Neena; Chandramohan, Kudigili; Khaitan, Binod K; Singh, Manoj K

    2014-07-01

    Epilation by waxing is one of the common methods of removing unwanted body hair, and follicular papules following this cosmetic procedure are not uncommon. However, this not so uncommon problem has not been clinically and histopathologically evaluated. To study the clinicopathological profile of folliculitis temporally developing after epilation by waxing. Clinical and histopathological evaluation was done in 28 patients who developed follicular papules within a period of eight weeks following a history of epilation by waxing over the same area. The demographic profile and the method and frequency of waxing were noted. The symptoms associated with and the morphology and distribution of the follicular lesions were recorded. A punch biopsy was done from a representative follicular lesion to evaluate the pathological changes. All the patients recruited were females (100%) with a mean age of 24.33 + 2.43 years. While all 28 patients had waxed their forearms, 25 had waxed their arms, 18 their legs, and 10 their thighs. The most common sites affected by folliculitis were arms (25; 100%) and forearms (15/28; 53.6%). Thighs, though least frequently waxed, were involved in seven (70%) subjects. Of these, seven (25%) women complained of itching. The lesions in all patients were erythematous to skin colored follicular papules, though two (7.1%) patients also had nodular lesions. A punch biopsy done showed features suggestive of pseudofolliculitis. A granulomatous reaction was seen in nine (32.1%) biopsies. A foreign body identified as a hair shaft was seen in seven (25%) biopsies and keratin in one biopsy. Folliculitis following epilation by waxing is more frequent in proximal parts of the extremities than in distal parts, even though distal parts are more frequently waxed. In one-third of the cases, post-waxing folliculitis is due to foreign body reaction to hair shaft or keratin and resembles pseudofolliculitis. To know exact pathogenesis, additional biopsies with multiple

  10. Effect of a novel low-energy pulsed-light device for home-use hair removal.

    PubMed

    Alster, Tina S; Tanzi, Elizabeth L

    2009-03-01

    Removal of unwanted hair is the most popular skin treatment worldwide. Over the past decade, various lasers and light sources for epilation have been advocated for use in an office setting, although most people continue to treat unwanted hair with a variety of temporary physical methods (e.g., waxing, shaving) in a home setting, presumably due to cost and convenience factors. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a low-energy pulsed-light device intended for home-use hair removal. Twenty women (skin phototypes I-IV) with dark terminal hair in nonfacial sites (axilla, forearms, inguinal region, legs) self-administered three treatments at 2-week intervals using a handheld intense-pulsed-light device. Matched untreated skin sites were also studied. Hair counts and clinical photographs were obtained pretreatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the third treatment. Side effects and patient satisfaction scores were recorded. All patients showed a positive clinical response to treatment, with reduction of unwanted hair. No reduction of hair was noted in untreated matched areas. Hair counts were reduced 37.8% to 53.6% 6 months after the three treatments. Skin region influenced clinical response, with lower legs exhibiting greater hair reduction than arms and inguinal and axillary areas. Mild erythema was experienced in 25% of patients, but no other side effects or complications were encountered. Patient satisfaction scores were high, with all patients stating that they would purchase the device for future home use. CONCLUSIONS Low-energy pulsed light can be applied safely and effectively for at-home hair removal in a variety of nonfacial locations and skin phototypes I-IV.

  11. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  12. Wax removal for accelerated cotton scouring with alkaline pectinase.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pramod B; Nierstrasz, Vincent A; Klug-Santner, Barbara G; Gübitz, Georg M; Lenting, Herman B M; Warmoeskerken, Marijn M C G

    2007-03-01

    A rational approach has been applied to design a new environmentally acceptable and industrially viable enzymatic scouring process. Owing to the substrate specificity, the selection of enzymes depends on the structure and composition of the substrate, i.e. cotton fibre. The structure and composition of the outer layers of cotton fibre has been established on the basis of thorough literature study, which identifies wax and pectin removal to be the key steps for successful scouring process. Three main issues are discussed here, i.e. benchmarking of the existing alkaline scouring process, an evaluation of several selected acidic and alkaline pectinases for scouring, and the effect of wax removal treatment on pectinase performance. It has been found that the pectinolytic capability of alkaline pectinases on cotton pectin is nearly 75% higher than that of acidic pectinases. It is concluded that an efficient wax removal prior to pectinase treatment indeed results in improved performance in terms of hydrophilicity and pectin removal. To evaluate the hydrophilicity, the structural contact angle (theta) was measured using an auto-porosimeter.

  13. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS. PMID:27298787

  14. Pubic hair removal and sexual behavior: findings from a prospective daily diary study of sexually active women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Herbenick, Debby; Hensel, Devon; Smith, Nicole K; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Pubic hair removal is prevalent among women in the United States. However, most studies related to pubic hair removal are based on cross-sectional surveys and retrospective recall. The purpose of this research was to, in a prospective event-level daily diary study, assess demographic, affective, relational, situational, and behavioral factors related to women's pubic hair removal. Data collection occurred as part of a 5-week prospective, Internet-based daily diary study. Age; Affective predictors (positive mood, negative mood, feeling interested in sex, feeling in love); Relational predictors (partner support, partner negativity, partner type, partner gender); Situational predictors (any vaginal symptoms, use of any vaginal hygiene products; having applied any creams to the genitals); Behavioral variables (penile-vaginal sex, penile-anal sex, had finger inserted into vagina, had clitoris stimulated with fingers, inserted toy into vagina, used vibrator on clitoris, inserted finger into anus, inserted toy into anus, duration of penetration, intensity of penetration). A total of 2,453 women ages 18 to 68 (mean age 32.69) completed the study, contributing 49,287 total diaries (mean per person 24.5; standard deviation 10.3, median 30); 15.2% of all days (N = 7,362) involved pubic hair waxing or shaving, with the vast majority of hair removal days involving shaving (N = 7,302; 99%). Pubic hair removal was significantly associated with younger age, a greater interest in sex, vaginal fingering, finger-clitoral stimulation, having a casual sex partner, using vaginal hygiene products, and applying cream to the genitals. Hair removal was marginally associated with longer duration of vaginal penetration. These findings provide greater insight into the factors associated with women's pubic hair removal and their sexual experiences on a day-to-day level. Clinical and educational implications are discussed. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Hair and bare skin discrimination for laser-assisted hair removal systems.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Sercan; Yetik, Imam Samil

    2017-07-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal devices aim to remove body hair permanently. In most cases, these devices irradiate the whole area of the skin with a homogenous power density. Thus, a significant portion of the skin, where hair is not present, is burnt unnecessarily causing health risks. Therefore, methods that can distinguish hair regions automatically would be very helpful avoiding these unnecessary applications of laser. This study proposes a new system of algorithms to detect hair regions with the help of a digital camera. Unlike previous limited number of studies, our methods are very fast allowing for real-time application. Proposed methods are based on certain features derived from histograms of hair and skin regions. We compare our algorithm with competing methods in terms of localization performance and computation time and show that a much faster real-time accurate localization of hair regions is possible with the proposed method. Our results show that the algorithm we have developed is extremely fast (around 45 milliseconds) allowing for real-time application with high accuracy hair localization ( 96.48 %).

  16. Hair today, gone tomorrow: a comparison of body hair removal practices in gay and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Martins, Yolanda; Tiggemann, Marika; Churchett, Libby

    2008-09-01

    Although hairlessness is rapidly becoming a component of the ideal male body, little research has examined men's concerns about their body hair or their hair removal practices. Samples of gay and heterosexual men completed questionnaires that assessed whether they had ever removed their back, buttock or pubic hair, the frequency with which they did so, the methods used and their self-reported reasons for removing this hair, as well as their level of appearance investment. Results indicated that many gay and heterosexual men remove their back, buttock and pubic hair regularly and that their primary reason for doing so is to maintain or improve their appearance. The frequency of hair removal was also associated with the motivational salience component of appearance investment. The findings offer further support to the premise that gay and heterosexual men exhibit similar body image concerns.

  17. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a long-pulsed ruby laser system in the removal of unwanted hair.

    PubMed

    Polderman, M C; Pavel, S; le Cessie, S; Grevelink, J M; van Leeuwen, R L

    2000-03-01

    Unwanted hair growth is a common, usually physiologic phenomenon. In this study the efficacy and tolerability of a long-pulsed ruby laser system was compared with needle electrolysis and hot wax on three parts of the body. Thirty volunteers were treated three times on the forearm (n = 10), on the face (n = 10), or in the pubic area (n = 10) with 25 J/cm2 laser, 40 J/cm2 laser, needle electrolysis, and hot wax therapy. The 25 J/cm2 and 40 J/cm2 laser treated sites showed a statistically significant decrease (38% and 49%, respectively) in the number of hairs at the first visit after the last treatment compared to the pretreatment hair counts. No significant decrease was observed in the needle electrolysis and hot wax treated sites. Laser therapy yielded better results on the forearm than on the face or pubic area and was scored as the least painful. The long-pulsed ruby laser is a promising, well-tolerated method of epilation.

  18. pH-sensitive wax emulsion copolymerization with acrylamide hydrogel using gamma irradiation for dye removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady; Elhady, Mohamed., A.

    2017-05-01

    Emulsion polymerization is an efficient method for the production of new wax-hydrogel matrices of cetyl alcohol: stearic acid wax and acrylamide hydrogel using triethylamine (TEA) as an emulsifier. A cross-linking reaction occurred when a mixture of wax-hydrogel solution was irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 20 kGy. The gelation percentage of the matrices (CtOH-StA/PAAm) was 86%, which indicates that a sufficiently high conversion occurred in these new wax-hydrogel matrices. The ability of PAAm and CtOH-StA/PAAm as an adsorbent for dye removal was investigated. The removal of three reactive dyes, namely Remazol Red (RR), Amido Black (AB), and Toluidine Blue (TB), from aqueous solutions depends on the pH of the dye solution. Removal efficiency was investigated by UV spectrophotometry, and the results showed the affinity of the wax hydrogel to adsorb TB was 98% after 320 min. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectra confirmed the cross-linking process involved between the chains of wax and hydrogel; furthermore, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the wax and hydrogel were completely miscible to form a single matrix. Swelling measurements showed the high affinity of adsorbed dyes from aqueous solutions at different pH values to the wax-hydrogel network; the highest swelling values of 13.05 and 8.24 (g/g) were observed at pH 10 and 6, respectively

  19. "I think gorilla-like back effusions of hair are rather a turn-off": 'Excessive hair' and male body hair (removal) discourse.

    PubMed

    Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Men's hair removal practices are becoming mainstream, seen as a consequence of changing masculine norms and men's relationships to their bodies. This is often presented as a straightforward 'shift' from men's ideal bodies as naturally hairy, to increased hairlessness, and the consequence on men's body concerns as inevitable. This paper analyses qualitative survey data from Aotearoa/New Zealand using critical thematic analysis, and describes three themes. Two themes capture contradictory ideas: that men's body hair is natural, and that men's body hair is unpleasant. A third theme introduces the concept of 'excess' hair, which allowed sense-making of this contradiction, mandating men's grooming of 'excessive' hair. However its vagueness as a concept may provoke anxiety for men resulting in hair removal. This paper adds to a body of research demonstrating a cultural transition: the ways changing masculinities, increased commodification of male bodies, and shifting gender roles impact on men's hair removal practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  1. Hair removal-related injuries in the United States, 1991-2014.

    PubMed

    Swain, Thomas A; Tully, Albert Scott; Redford, Travis; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    Hair removal practices have changed in frequency and location on the body. Previous research on hair removal injuries has focused on a specific body region, age, or gender. This study sought to take a broader perspective of hair removal-associated injuries in the United States which sought treatment at emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991 to 2014 were used to identify hair removal-related injuries. Incidence rates were determined for the overall population and stratified by gender and age category using US Census Bureau population estimates. From 1991 to 2014, there were an estimated 292 053 hair removal-associated injuries in the United States. The overall incidence rate was highest in 2013 (9/100 000). Those aged 65+ had the highest incidence from 1991 to 2010 with those aged 19-34 having the highest rate starting in 2011. When stratified by body region injured, males had highest injury rates to the face and females had highest rates to the lower limbs. Starting in 2010, those aged 19-34 had higher incidence particularly for pubic and trunk regions. The incidence of hair removal-associated injuries seen by emergency departments increased nearly ninefold between 1991 and 2013. Due to the increased incidence among 19- to 34-year-olds, caution should be taken particularly for this age group when undergoing depilatory practices. Overall, individuals should practice safe and acceptable usage of hair removal products to reduce the risk of injury. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Hairy Situation: Laser Hair Removal after Oral Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shields, Bridget E; Moye, Molly S; Bayon, Rodrigo; Sperry, Steven M; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2018-03-01

    To present a case series of 4 patients who underwent postoperative hair removal using the long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG laser following intraoral cutaneous flap reconstruction. Patients underwent epilation in dermatology clinic with long-pulsed Alexandrite or Nd:YAG lasers, spaced 8 weeks apart, until hair removal was achieved. All patients achieved improvement in hair removal regardless of initial flap donor site with significant improvement in quality of life and minimal side effects. The long-pulsed Alexandrite and Nd:YAG represent safe and effective treatment options to improve patient quality of life following intraoral flap repair following excision of malignancy.

  3. Hypertrichosis in Becker's nevus: effective low-fluence laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Lapidoth, M; Adatto, M; Cohen, S; Ben-Amitai, D; Halachmi, S

    2014-01-01

    Becker's nevus is cosmetically bothersome both due to the hyperpigmentation and due to the hypertrichosis which can accompany it, particularly in males. Laser hair removal can be considered, but the pigmented background of the Becker's nevus makes the treatment more challenging. Fifteen patients with Becker's nevus underwent eight sessions of hair removal with low-fluence high-repetition-rate diode lasers (808-810 nm). All participants experienced significant hair reduction at 6 and 12 months. No adverse events were reported. The study supports the use of low fluence with high-repetition-rate diode laser hair removal as a safe and effective method for the management of hypertrichosis in Becker's nevus.

  4. A feature-preserving hair removal algorithm for dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Qaisar; Garcia, Irene Fondón; Emre Celebi, M; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-02-01

    Accurate segmentation and repair of hair-occluded information from dermoscopy images are challenging tasks for computer-aided detection (CAD) of melanoma. Currently, many hair-restoration algorithms have been developed, but most of these fail to identify hairs accurately and their removal technique is slow and disturbs the lesion's pattern. In this article, a novel hair-restoration algorithm is presented, which has a capability to preserve the skin lesion features such as color and texture and able to segment both dark and light hairs. Our algorithm is based on three major steps: the rough hairs are segmented using a matched filtering with first derivative of gaussian (MF-FDOG) with thresholding that generate strong responses for both dark and light hairs, refinement of hairs by morphological edge-based techniques, which are repaired through a fast marching inpainting method. Diagnostic accuracy (DA) and texture-quality measure (TQM) metrics are utilized based on dermatologist-drawn manual hair masks that were used as a ground truth to evaluate the performance of the system. The hair-restoration algorithm is tested on 100 dermoscopy images. The comparisons have been done among (i) linear interpolation, inpainting by (ii) non-linear partial differential equation (PDE), and (iii) exemplar-based repairing techniques. Among different hair detection and removal techniques, our proposed algorithm obtained the highest value of DA: 93.3% and TQM: 90%. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is highly accurate, robust and able to restore hair pixels without damaging the lesion texture. This method is fully automatic and can be easily integrated into a CAD system. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

  6. Pubic hair preferences, reasons for removal, and associated genital symptoms: comparisons between men and women.

    PubMed

    Butler, Scott M; Smith, Nicole K; Collazo, Erika; Caltabiano, Lucia; Herbenick, Debby

    2015-01-01

    Pubic hair grooming and removal are common behaviors among men and women. However, little is known about the reasons for grooming, preferred pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with regular grooming. This study aims to assess pubic hair removal/grooming practices, pubic hairstyle preferences, and genital outcomes associated with pubic hair removal among men and women in a college sample. Data were gathered from 1,110 participants (671 women and 439 men) at a large public Midwestern university and a small Southern public university. Items assessed demographics, pubic hair grooming and removal practices in the past 4 weeks, reasons for pubic hair status, preference for pubic hairstyle of sexual partners, and symptoms associated with removal and grooming. Most (95%) participants had removed their pubic hair on at least one occasion in the past 4 weeks with shaving being the most commonly reported hair removal technique by women (82%) and men (49%). Women were significantly more likely to report their typical status as hair-free (50% vs. 19%; χ(2) = 165.528, P < 0.001) and men were significantly more likely to prefer a hair-free sexual partner (60% vs. 24%; χ(2) = 211.712, P < 0.001). Genital itching was experienced on at least one occasion by 80.3% of pubic hair groomers and was the most commonly reported side effect. Genital grooming and pubic hair removal are common practices among both men and women of college-age. Women are likely to report stronger associations with feelings of cleanliness, comfort, sex appeal, social norms of their peer group, and affordability as reasons for their chosen pubic hair style. Women also report more experiences with genital side effects of pubic hair removal, an expected result as women are removing pubic hair more frequently and more completely than their male counterparts. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Laser-assisted hair removal for facial hirsutism in women: A review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Man

    2018-06-01

    Poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been described as the common diagnosis for hirsutism in women. Facial hirsutism is by far the most distressing symptom of hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. A statistically significant improvement in psychological well-being has been reported in patients with PCOS allocated for laser-assisted hair removal. The theory of selective photothermolysis has revolutionized laser hair removal in that it is effective and safe, when operated by sufficiently trained and experienced professionals. Long-pulsed ruby (694 nm), long-pulsed alexandrite (755 nm), diode (800-980 nm), and long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) are commercially available laser devices for hair removal most widely studied. This article will introduce the fundamentals and mechanism of action of lasers in hair removal, in a contemporary literature review looking at medium to long term efficacy and safety profiles of various laser hair removal modalities most widely commercially available to date.

  8. Ear wax

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Ear wax only becomes a problem if it causes a hearing impairment or other ear-related symptoms. Ear wax is more likely to accumulate and cause a hearing impairment when normal extrusion is prevented — for example, by the use of hearing aids, or by the use of cotton buds to clean the ears. Ear wax can visually obscure the ear drum, and may need to be removed for diagnostic purposes. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of methods to remove ear wax? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ear syringing; manual removal (other than ear syringing); and wax softeners (alone or prior to syringing). PMID:19450340

  9. Risky business: is pubic hair removal by women associated with body image and sexual health?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Stephanie L; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2018-04-30

    Background: Body hair removal is a behaviour that has become normative among women in Westernised cultures, and is presented by the media as the feminine ideal, despite being painful and a potential cause of infection. Of concern, removal may be part of a more global pattern of appearance dissatisfaction and risky sexual behaviour. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among pubic hair removal, body image and sexual health indicators. Methods: Women (n=264; Mage=33.82, s.d.=11.13, range=18-66) completed self-report questionnaires assessing these constructs, including an assessment of body hair removal practices. Results: Greater appearance concerns (as measured by thin-ideal internalisation, appearance investment and self-objectification) and sexual health indicators (i.e. less condom use self-efficacy when a partner disapproves of condom use) all predicted greater importance of reasons for pubic hair removal (R2=0.315, F(8184)=9.97, P<0.001), controlling for age groups. Additionally, women who removed a greater amount of hair reported more thin-ideal internalisation and appearance investment than those who removed less hair. Conclusions: Women who express stronger reasoning for pubic hair removal, and remove a larger amount of it, may endorse problematic beliefs and behaviours particularly related to appearance concerns. It is important for practitioners to consider this practice as distinct from grooming and to be aware of its association with a broader array of risky beliefs and behaviours that can compromise women's well-being.

  10. 760nm: a new laser diode wavelength for hair removal modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölz, Martin; Zorn, Martin; Pietrzak, Agnieszka; Kindsvater, Alex; Meusel, Jens; Hülsewede, Ralf; Sebastian, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    A new high-power semiconductor laser diode module, emitting at 760 nm is introduced. This wavelength permits optimum treatment results for fair skin individuals, as demonstrated by the use of Alexandrite lasers in dermatology. Hair removal applications benefit from the industry-standard diode laser design utilizing highly efficient, portable and light-weight construction. We show the performance of a tap-water-cooled encapsulated laser diode stack with a window for use in dermatological hand-pieces. The stack design takes into account the pulse lengths required for selectivity in heating the hair follicle vs. the skin. Super-long pulse durations place the hair removal laser between industry-standard CW and QCW applications. The new 760 nm laser diode bars are 30% fill factor devices with 1.5 mm long resonator cavities. At CW operation, these units provide 40 W of optical power at 43 A with wall-plug-efficiency greater than 50%. The maximum output power before COMD is 90 W. Lifetime measurements starting at 40 W show an optical power loss of 20% after about 3000 h. The hair removal modules are available in 1x3, 1x8 and 2x8 bar configurations.

  11. [Complications after laser hair removal: the standpoint of a dermatological legal expert regarding liability].

    PubMed

    Bayle, P; Saval, F; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2015-03-01

    Laser hair removal is widely used, including outside medical settings. Potential complications, notably burns, may engage the operator's liability. In this case, investigations by medical experts are frequently requested. We describe 6 expert examinations carried out by the same legal dermatology expert between 2012 and 2014. They concerned burns of varying severity caused by laser hair removal procedures carried out by a doctor, a physiotherapist and 4 beauticians. Laser hair removal is carried out in many beauty centres, although in France it is restricted by law to medical use. This practice is thus currently the subject of legal and economic controversy. The analysis of 6 medical expert investigations of accidents involving laser hair removal illustrates the various types of fault in which the operator's liability may be engaged and it also serves to redefine the legal framework of this act within the realm of aesthetic medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Perioperative hair removal: A review of best practice and a practice improvement opportunity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Maureen; Barnden, Marsha; Johnson, Helen Boehm; Fauerbach, Loretta Litz; Graham, Denise; Edmiston, Charles E

    2018-06-01

    The current practice of perioperative hair removal reflects research-driven changes designed to minimize the risk of surgical wound infection. An aspect of the practice which has received less scrutiny is the clean-up of the clipped hair. This process is critical. The loose fibers represent a potential infection risk because of the micro-organisms they can carry, but their clean-up can pose a logistical problem because of the time required to remove them. Research has demonstrated that the most commonly employed means of clean-up, the use of adhesive tape or sticky mitts, can be both ineffective and time-consuming in addition to posing an infection risk from cross-contamination. Recently published research evaluating surgical clippers fitted with a vacuum-assisted hair collection device highlights the potential for significant practice improvement in the perioperative hair removal clean-up process. These improvements include not only further mitigation of potential infection risk but also substantial OR time and cost savings.

  13. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  14. Topical liposomal Rose Bengal for photodynamic white hair removal: randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2014-04-01

    Blond and white hair removal by laser is a complicated task with weak satisfactory results due to the deficiency in laser-absorbing chromophore. To investigate if repetitive sessions of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using external application of liposomal Rose bengal (RB) photosensitizer followed by intense pulsed light (IPL) exposure enables removal of gray and white hair. Rose bengal loaded in liposomes (LRB) was constructed, prepared in hydrogel, and was studied for some pharmaceutical properties. Penetration and selective hair follicle damage in mice skin were studied. Topical gel containing LRB was used for treating fifteen adult females who were complaining of facial white terminal hair. Unwanted facial hair was treated for three sessions at intervals of 4-6 weeks using intense pulsed light (IPL). At each session, the treatment area was pre-treated with topical LRB gel, while a control group of another 15 patients applied placebo gel before IPL treatment. Evaluations included hair regrowth, which was measured 4 weeks after each treatment session and at 6 months follow-up by counting the number of terminal hair compared with baseline pretreatment values. Treatment outcomes and complications if any were also reported. Average hair regrowth in the LRB group was 56% after 3 treatment cycles. After six-months follow up, average terminal hair count compared with baseline pretreatment showed 40% reduction and no recorded side effects. A significant difference (P<0.05) was seen compared with the control group; the clinical results were promising. Photodynamic hair removal using rose bengal-encapsulated liposomal gel in combination with IPL treatment showed significant efficacy in the treatment of white hair compared with a control group.

  15. Comparison of the effect of diode laser versus intense pulsed light in axillary hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ormiga, Patricia; Ishida, Cleide Eiko; Boechat, Alvaro; Ramos-E-Silva, Marcia

    2014-10-01

    Devices such as diode laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) are in constant development aiming at permanent hair removal, but there are few comparative studies between these technologies. The objective was to comparatively assess axillary hair removal performed by diode laser and IPL and to obtain parameters of referred pain and evolution response for each method. A comparative prospective, double-blind, and randomized study of axillary hair removal performed by the diode laser and IPL was conducted in 21 females. Six sessions were held with application of the diode laser in one axilla and the IPL in the other, with intervals of 30 days and follow-up of 6 months after the last session. Clinical photographs and digital dermoscopy for hair counts in predefined and fixed fields of the treated areas were performed before, 2 weeks after the sixth session, and 6 months after the end of treatment. A questionnaire to assess the pain was applied. The number of hair shafts was significantly reduced with the diode laser and IPL. The diode laser was more effective, although more painful than the IPL. No serious, adverse, or permanent effects were observed with both technologies. Both diode laser and the IPL are effective, safe, and able to produce lasting results in axillary hair removal.

  16. Clinical Evaluation of Hair Removal Using an 810 nm Diode Laser With a Novel Scanning Device.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Erin; Goldberg, David J

    2016-11-01

    Diode lasers are often considered as the gold standard preference for hair removal due to the deep penetration and ef- fective targeting of the hair follicle. A wide variety of diode lasers are available, which can differ in terms of their parameters (such as fluence, pulse duration, repetition rate, scanner, and cooling). The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and ef cacy of hair removal with an 810 nm novel scanning diode laser, up to six months after last treatment. A scanning 810 nm diode laser was used for axillary hair removal of 14 female patients who received 3 treatments, 4-6 weeks apart. Follow-up on hair count was conducted 3 and 6 months after last treatment and compared to baseline hair count. No unexpected or signi cant adverse events were recorded. An average hair count reduction of 72.8% after 3 months and 67.6% 6 months after the last treatment is demonstrated. The examined 810 nm diode laser was proven to be safe and effective for hair removal. Results were sustained for 6 months after last treatment. Longer follow-up data are followed for further substantiation of the clinical effect. Scanning technology can provide for potentially faster and safer treatments. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1330-1333..

  17. Intelligent Image Analysis for Image-Guided Laser Hair Removal and Skin Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Brian; Lu, Thomas; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    We present the development of advanced automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithms for the hair follicles identification in digital skin images to accurately direct the laser beam to remove the hair. The ATR system first performs a wavelet filtering to enhance the contrast of the hair features in the image. The system then extracts the unique features of the targets and sends the features to an Adaboost based classifier for training and recognition operations. The ATR system automatically classifies the hair, moles, or other skin lesion and provides the accurate coordinates of the intended hair follicle locations. The coordinates can be used to guide a scanning laser to focus energy only on the hair follicles. The intended benefit would be to protect the skin from unwanted laser exposure and to provide more effective skin therapy.

  18. Long-term hair removal using a 3-millisecond alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Laughlin , S A; Dudley, D K

    2000-04-01

    Laser epilation is now used widely as a clinical alternative to electrolysis for the removal of unwanted hair. All of the laser systems presently being used produce a reliable temporary hair loss by inducing telogen. Most of the published studies use follow-up periods of 6 months or less after the last treatment and cannot address the issue of permanency. Since many patients desire permanent hair loss, there is a need for specific information on the exact benefits and limitations of each particular system. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of hair loss attained by a single treatment with a 3-msec alexandrite laser. A designated period for follow-up was used to address the issue of long-term benefits. A single treatment was carried out on 25 study sites with a 3-msec alexandrite laser at 755 nm using fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2). Hair counts were obtained manually by two independent observers marking terminal hairs under magnification. The counts were repeated using photographic images and the average of the four readings taken. The degree of hair loss was calculated at a time after treatment equal to one complete growth cycle for the particular anatomic site. A second measurement was obtained at a time equal to one growth cycle plus 6 months to determine whether any hair loss had remained stable. The average hair loss at the first follow-up time was 43%, with 60% of sites showing a hair loss of >30%. The hair loss remained stable and the reduction in hair density at both designated times was statistically significant (p <.05). A normal-mode alexandrite laser achieves a long-term alopecia and may result in a permanent loss of terminal hair after one treatment at fluences of 30 to 50 joules/cm(2).

  19. Effects of cuticular wax on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Zheng, Yonghua

    2018-01-15

    The blueberry fruit has a light-blue appearance because its blue-black skin is covered with a waxy bloom. This layer is easily damaged or removed during fruit harvesting and postharvest handling. We investigated the effects of wax removal on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit and their possible mechanisms. The removal of natural wax on the fruit was found to accelerate the postharvest water loss and decay, reduce the sensory and nutritional qualities, and shorten the shelf-life. Wax removal decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants, and accelerated accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation, especially at the later period of storage. Moreover, the organellar membrane structure was disrupted in fruit with wax removed. These results indicate that cuticular wax plays an important role in maintaining the postharvest quality and delaying fruit senescence. The results should improve our understanding for better preservation of postharvest quality of blueberry fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uncovered secret of a Vasseur-Tramond wax model.

    PubMed

    Pastor, J F; Gutiérrez, B; Montes, J M; Ballestriero, R

    2016-01-01

    The technique of anatomical wax modelling reached its heyday in Italy during the 18th century, through a fruitful collaboration between sculptors and anatomists. It soon spread to other countries, and prestigious schools were created in England, France, Spain and Austria. Paris subsequently replaced Italy as the major centre of manufacture, and anatomical waxes were created there from the mid-19th century in workshops such as that of Vasseur-Tramond. This workshop began to sell waxes to European Faculties of Medicine and Schools of Surgery around 1880. Little is known of the technique employed in the creation of such artefacts as this was deemed a professional secret. To gain some insight into the methods of construction, we have studied a Vasseur-Tramond wax model in the Valladolid University Anatomy Museum, Spain, by means of multi-slice computerised tomography and X-ray analysis by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the hair. These results have revealed some of the methods used to make these anatomical models and the materials employed. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  1. [Habits and traditions of female college students related to intimate clothing, genital adornments, genital hair removal and sexual practices].

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Paulo César; Polo, Renata Colbachini; do Amaral, Rose Luce Gomes; Reis, Virgínia Vieitez; Beghini, Joziani; Bardin, Marcela Grigol

    2013-09-01

    To describe the practices and care with the genital area of female college students. A descriptive analytical study evaluated the habits and traditions of 364 students from the University of Campinas (Unicamp) regarding the use of underwear, body piercings, tattoos, hair removal and sexual practices. A questionnaire with 42 questions assessed the most current practices among female college students. All questions were self answered and the questionnaires, without any identification, were placed in sealed ballot boxes to ensure the confidentiality of information. The responses were tabulated in Microsoft® Excel 2007 to obtain univariate analysis. The mean age of the college students in the study was 21 years (SD ± 2.7), and 84% were white. The volunteers who participated in this study were from the biological science area (50%), the exact science area (29%) or the humanity area (21%). It was observed that 61.8% of the respondents wear cotton panties, but at the same time 75.4% wear tight jeans, and only 18.4% wore no panties when sleeping. Only one participant reported having had genital piercing and none of them reported tattooing. Most female college students do genital waxing, and approximately 1/3 of them do so completely. After hair removal, 2/3 apply an anti-inflammatory and/or moisturizer to the region. Only 62% use condoms and 17.6% use a lubricant during intercourse. Half of them receive oral sex, 17.9% practice anal sex and 26.6% of them report feeling pain during sexual intercourse. Vaginal discharge after intercourse was reported in 25.6% of the cases. Young female college students from Brazilian public universities have many inadequate care habits related to their genital area. They do not use genital piercing and tattoos, but report having pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge after sex in a large number of cases.

  2. A comparison of temperature profile depending on skin types for laser hair removal therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Gwi-Won; Youn, Jong-In

    2014-11-01

    Although numerous lasers with different wavelengths are available for laser hair removal, their use in individuals with dark-pigmented skin remains a challenge. The present study aims to develop a numerical heat diffusion model considering skin types over various wavelengths. This numerical mode uses Pennes approximation to represent heat from metabolism, blood perfusion and an external heating source. The heat diffusion model is experimentally validated by using agar-based skin tissue phantoms. Diode lasers with four different wavelengths were used with two antithetical skin models. The pulse width and beam spot size were set to 200 ms and 1 cm(2), respectively. Temperature distribution along the hair structure and skin tissue was examined to determine both thermal confinement and heat transfer to the hair follicle. Experimental results are well matched with the numerical results. The results show that for the light skin model, thermal confinement is well achieved over various wavelengths, and treatment efficacy is expected to be better at a shorter wavelength. Otherwise, for the dark skin model, thermal confinement is poorly achieved as the wavelength decreases (<808 nm) and the temperature gap between the hair tip and the hair root is significantly large compared with the light skin model, which may lead to adverse effects. We believe that the developed numerical model will help to establish optimal laser parameters for different individuals during laser hair removal.

  3. Verifying Dissolution Of Wax From Hardware Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Benjamina G.

    1995-01-01

    Wax removed by cleaning solvent revealed by cooling solution with liquid nitrogen. Such improved procedure and test needed in case of hardware that must be protected by wax during machining or plating but required to be free of wax during subsequent use. Improved cleaning procedure and test take less than 5 minutes. Does not require special skill or equipment and performs at cleaning site. In addition, enables recovery of all cleaning solvent.

  4. Paraffin wax removal from metal injection moulded cocrmo alloy compact by solvent debinding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandang, N. A. N.; Harun, W. S. W.; Khalil, N. Z.; Ahmad, A. H.; Romlay, F. R. M.; Johari, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    One of the most crucial and time consuming phase in metal injection moulding (MIM) process is “debinding”. These days, in metal injection moulding process, they had recounted that first debinding practice was depend on thermal binder degradation, which demanding more than 200 hours for complete removal of binder. Fortunately, these days world had introduced multi-stage debinding techniques to simplified the debinding time process. This research study variables for solvent debinding which are temperature and soaking time for samples made by MIM CoCrMo powder. Since wax as the key principal in the binder origination, paraffin wax will be removed together with stearic acid from the green bodies. Then, debinding process is conducted at 50, 60 and 70°C for 30-240 minutes. It is carried out in n-heptane solution. Percentage weight loss of the binder were measured. Lastly, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and visual inspection were observed for the surface of brown compact. From the results, samples debound at 70°C exhibited a significant amount of binder loss; nevertheless, sample collapse, brittle surface and cracks were detected. But, at 60°C temperature and time of 4 hours proven finest results as it shows sufficient binder loss, nonappearance of surface cracks and easy to handle. Overall, binder loss is directly related to solvent debinding temperature and time.

  5. Hair removal for Fitzpatrick skin types V and VI using light and heat energy technology.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Krespi, Yoseph

    2006-09-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of a light and heat energy (LHE)-based system (SkinStaion system; Radiancy Inc, Orangeburg, NY, USA) for hair removal in subjects with skin types V and VI. Thirty-one subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types V and VI were consented for treatment with the system. Twenty-six subjects completed the 12-week follow-up. Safety was evaluated at each visit and efficacy was evaluated at both follow-up visits. An average hair clearance of 41.7% from 57 treatment sites was reported at the 6-week follow-up visit and a 35.5% average hair clearance was reported at the 12-week follow-up. Edema was only reported in 2 cases (7.7%) of the study population. Eleven cases of erythema were reported following treatment. Treatment with the modified LHE system was safe and effective for hair removal in patients with skin types V and VI.

  6. Audit cycle of documentation in laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S N; Lanigan, S W

    2005-09-01

    Lasercare clinics are one of the largest providers of skin laser treatment in the United Kingdom, in both private sector and National Health Service. Laser hair removal is performed by trained nurses following written protocols. Choice of laser and fluence is tailored to Fitzpatrick skin type. We audited and re-audited documentation of six criteria in patients receiving laser hair removal (signed consent, Fitzpatrick skin type, use of appropriate laser, appropriate fluence, patient satisfaction and objective assessment) across 13 clinics at different points in time. Data were obtained on 772 treatments. Overall findings revealed excellent documentation of consent, use of appropriate laser and fluence (median 100%), good documentation of skin type (median 90%) and poor documentation of patient satisfaction and objective assessment (median 67% and 53%, respectively). Comparison between baseline and repeat audit at 6-8 months (nine clinics) showed significant improvement across clinics in these latter two criteria [patient satisfaction: odds ratio (OR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78, P=0.01; objective assessment: OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.50, P=0.0003 (Mantel-Haenszel weighted odds ratios)]. We conclude that quality of documentation was generally and consistently high in multiple clinics and that re-auditing led to significant improvement in poor scores. This simple measure could easily be implemented more widely across many disciplines.

  7. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    PubMed

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  8. Chronic neuropathic facial pain after intense pulsed light hair removal. Clinical features and pharmacological management.

    PubMed

    Gay-Escoda, Cosme; Párraga-Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Moreno-Arias, Gerardo

    2015-10-01

    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 13.1.2.3 according to the International Headache Society (IHS). Neuropathic facial pain, photodepilation, intense pulse light.

  9. Pubic hair and sexuality: a review.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Sara; Sweeney, Clare; Fraser, Michael; Oades, Gren

    2009-08-01

    Hair is a distinguishing feature of mammals, though the persistence of visible head, axillary, and pubic hair remains anthropologically unclear. Humans throughout the ages have modified their head and body hair, but aesthetic removal of pubic hair has become the "the ultimate barometer of how fashionable you really are" in the 21st century. The aim of the article is to examine the trends in pubic hair removal and its impact on health and sexuality. A literature search was performed, with a further search performed using an Internet-based search engine. For discussion, the results have been classified into the topics of "Development and anthropology","Cultural and artistic significance", "Medical implications", "Psychological and sexual significance and popular culture", "Impact of body hair loss on sexuality" and "Style and terminology." Pubic hair removal has been common since the ancient times. Pubic hair was rarely depicted in artistic representations of the nude until the late 19th century. It is postulated that the current trend of pubic hair removal may be related to the increased accessibility of Internet-based pornography. Anecdotally, pubic hair removal may carry benefits regarding increased sexual sensation and satisfaction though there is no quantative research in this field. There is a recognized morbidity to pubic hair removal, and also a lack of standardization of terms for styles adopted. We propose a definitive grading system for male and female body hair based on the widely used Tumor Node Metastasis staging system. Pubic hair removal appears to be an important aspect of expressing one's sexuality and participation in sexual activity. This practice has an interesting psychosexual basis which, to date, has not yet been fully explored in sexual medicine.

  10. Chronic neuropathic facial pain after intense pulsed light hair removal. Clinical features and pharmacological management

    PubMed Central

    Párraga-Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Moreno-Arias, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 13.1.2.3 according to the International Headache Society (IHS). Key words:Neuropathic facial pain, photodepilation, intense pulse light. PMID:26535105

  11. Safety and efficacy of low fluence, high repetition rate versus high fluence, low repetition rate 810-nm diode laser for axillary hair removal in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhai; Liu, Chengyi; Chen, Zhou; Cai, Lin; Zhou, Cheng; Xu, Qianxi; Li, Houmin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-11-01

    High-fluence diode lasers with contact cooling have emerged as the gold standard to remove unwanted hair. Lowering the energy should result in less pain and could theoretically affect the efficacy of the therapy. To compare the safety and efficacy of a low fluence high repetition rate 810-nm diode laser to those of a high fluence, low repetition rate diode laser for permanent axillary hair removal in Chinese women. Ninety-two Chinese women received four axillae laser hair removal treatments at 4-week intervals using the low fluence, high repetition rate 810-nm diode laser in super hair removal (SHR) mode on one side and the high fluence, low repetition rate diode laser in hair removal (HR) mode on the other side. Hair counts were done at each follow-up visit and 6-month follow-up after the final laser treatment using a "Hi Quality Hair Analysis Program System"; the immediate pain score after each treatment session was recorded by a visual analog scale. The overall median reduction of hair was 90.2% with the 810-nm diode laser in SHR mode and 87% with the same laser in HR mode at 6-month follow-up. The median pain scores in SHR mode and in HR mode were 2.75 and 6.75, respectively. Low fluence, high repetition rate diode laser can efficiently remove unwanted hair but also significantly improve tolerability and reduce adverse events during the course of treatment.

  12. Long-term clinical evaluation of a 800-nm long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction for hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kilmer, Suzanne L

    2012-06-01

    The long-pulsed diode (800-810-nm) laser is one of the most commonly used and effective lasers for hair removal. Limitations of currently available devices include a small treatment spot size, treatment-associated pain, and the need for skin cooling. To evaluate the long-term hair reduction capabilities of a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction. Thirty-five subjects were enrolled in a prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary hair removal. The study consisted of three treatments using a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction at 4- to 6-week intervals with follow-up visits 6 and 15 months after the last treatment. Hair clearance was quantified using macro hair-count photographs taken at baseline and at 6- and 15-month follow-up visits. Changes in hair thickness and color, levels of treatment-associated pain, and adverse events were additional study endpoints. There was statistically significant hair clearance at the 6 (54%) and 15-month (42%) follow-up visits. Remaining hairs were thinner and lighter at the 15-month follow-up visit, and the majority of subjects reported feeling up to mild to moderate pain during treatment without the use of pretreatment anesthesia or skin cooling. A long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction is safe and effective for long-term hair removal. This is the largest prospective study to evaluate long-term hair removal and the first to quantify decreases in hair thickness and darkness with treatment. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  14. Gaseous and Particulate Content of Laser Hair Removal Plume.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Gary S; Farinelli, William; Christiani, David C; Herrick, Robert F; Lee, Norman C Y; Avram, Mathew M

    2016-12-01

    Potentially harmful chemicals are released when tissues are vaporized. Laser hair removal (LHR) causes heating and often vaporization of hairs, producing both a signature malodorous plume and visible particulates. To characterize the chemical composition and quantify the ultrafine particle content of the plume generated during LHR. In the laser center of a large academic hospital, discarded terminal hairs from the trunk and extremities were collected from 2 adult volunteers. The hair samples were sealed in glass gas chromatography chambers and treated with a laser. The laser plume was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). During LHR treatment, two 6-L negative pressure canisters were used to capture 30 seconds of laser plume, and a portable condensation particle counter was used to measure ultrafine particulates (<1 µm). Ultrafine particle concentrations were measured within the treatment room, within the waiting room, and outside the building. The chemical content of the laser plume was analyzed with GC-MS and screened for aerosolized toxins using Environmental Protection Agency-certified methods. The ambient concentration of ultrafine particles during LHR was measured by condensation particle counters. Analysis with GC-MS identified 377 chemical compounds. Sixty-two of these compounds, of which 13 are known or suspected carcinogens and more than 20 are known environmental toxins, exhibited strong absorption peaks. During LHR, the portable condensation particle counters documented an 8-fold increase compared with the ambient room baseline level of ultrafine particle concentrations (ambient room baseline, 15 300 particles per cubic centimeter [ppc]; LHR with smoke evacuator, 129 376 ppc), even when a smoke evacuator was in close proximity (5.0 cm) to the procedure site. When the smoke evacuator was turned off for 30 seconds, there was a more than 26-fold increase in particulate count compared with ambient baseline levels (ambient baseline

  15. Effect of needle size and type, reuse of needles, insertion speed, and removal of hair on contamination of joints with tissue debris and hair after arthrocentesis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen B; Moore, George E; Elrashidy, Mohammed; Mohamed, Ahmed; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-08-01

    To assess joint contamination with tissue and hair after arthrocentesis of equine fetlock joints. Experimental. Limb specimens from 8 equine cadavers. Soft tissues including the joint capsule were harvested from the dorsal aspect of the fetlock joints and mounted on a wooden frame. Needles inserted through the joint tissue preparation were flushed into tissue culture plates that were examined for tissue and hair debris. Variables evaluated were gauge and type of needle (16, 18, 20, and 22 G sharp disposable needles and 20 G disposable spinal needles with stylet), number of times each needle was used (1, 2, 3, 4), length of hair (unclipped, clipped, shaved with razor), and needle insertion speed (fast, slow). Descriptive and statistical evaluations were performed. Tissue contamination was identified in 1145 of 1260 wells and hair contamination was identified in 384 of 1260 wells. Twenty gauge needles inserted through unclipped hair resulted in the least amount of hair contamination. Compared with 20 G needles with fast insertion 1 time through unclipped hair the odds ratios for contamination with hair were significantly greater for 16 G sharp disposable needles, 20 G spinal needles, clipped hair, shaved hair, and reuse of the needles. Spinal needles inserted through unclipped hair transferred many long hairs into the joint space. Reuse of needles for arthrocentesis should be avoided. Removal of hair is not indicated for arthrocentesis with sharp injection needles but is recommended when using spinal needles with stylets. Joint contamination with hair and tissue debris will be decreased by specific needle insertion techniques. Decreased contamination of joints may reduce the frequency of joint infections after arthrocentesis.

  16. Long-term efficacy of linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser for hair removal compared to a scanned alexandrite laser.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, Sonja; Bodendorf, Marc Oliver; Zygouris, Alexander; Simon, Jan Christoph; Paasch, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Alexandrite and diode lasers are commonly used for hair removal. To date, the available spot sizes and repetition rates are defining factors in terms of penetration depth, treatment speed, and efficacy. Still, larger treatment areas and faster systems are desirable. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a continuously linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser with an alexandrite 755 nm laser for axillary hair removal. A total of 31 adults with skin types I-IV received 6 treatments at 4-week intervals with a 755 nm alexandrite laser (right axilla) and a continuously linear-scanning 808 nm diode laser (left axilla). Axillary hair density was assessed using a computerized hair detection system. There was a significant reduction in axillary hair after the 6th treatment (P < 0.05) on both sides (left, 808 nm: hair clearance of 72.16%; right, 755 nm: hair clearance of 71.30%). The difference in reduction between the two lasers was not significant, but both were persistant at 18 months follow-up (left: hair clearance of 73.71%; right: hair clearance of 71.90%). Erythema and perifollicular edema were more common after alexandrite laser treatment, but all side effects were transient. While 62.50% of patients reported more pain in response to treatment with the new diode laser, all patients rated treatment with either laser tolerable. Treatment with either the alexandrite or the linear-scanning diode laser results in significant, comparable, persistent (at least 18 months) axillary hair reduction among individuals with skin types I-IV. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free cosmetics on FAEE concentrations in hair. A performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, versus the sum of four FAEEs.

    PubMed

    Dumitrascu, C; Paul, R; Kingston, R; Williams, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) are direct metabolites of ethanol and have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of alcohol consumption. Previous research has suggested that the regular use of alcohol containing cosmetic products can influence the concentration of FAEE detected in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of alcohol containing and alcohol free hair cosmetics (hairspray and waxes) on the FAEE concentrations in hair. The effect of cosmetic treatment was measured against the impact on ethyl palmitate in isolation as compared to the sum of four esters. 10 volunteers treated part of their scalp with cosmetic products every day during a 2 month period (alcohol free hairspray n=2, hairspray containing alcohol (42% by volume) n=3, alcohol free wax n=2, wax containing alcohol (11% by volume) n=3). After the 2 month period of cosmetic application hair samples from volunteers were collected from both sides of the scalp. Hair samples were washed with n-heptane, and then cut finely into small pieces. All samples were subjected to clean-up by HS-SPME and then GC PCI-MS/MS for analysis of FAEEs. Comparison of FAEE concentrations between treated and untreated hair showed in some instances that application of hair spray or wax products caused an increase in FAEE levels. Products containing alcohol caused a more substantial increase in alcohol metabolite concentrations in hair when compared to alcohol free products. Three volunteers using an alcohol based hairspray in the study experienced a significant increase in FAEE levels (+27.4%, +205.5%, and +1287.5%), with one of the volunteers showing levels below the cut off for 'abstinence' in the untreated scalp portion, and levels above the cut off for 'chronic excessive consumption' in the treated scalp portion. Performance evaluation of ethyl palmitate as sole marker, compared to the sum of four esters approach suggested that the two quantification approaches react in a very similar manner to the

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Hair Removal with a Long-Pulsed Diode Laser Depending on the Spot Size: A Randomized, Evaluators-Blinded, Left-Right Study.

    PubMed

    Jo, Seong Jin; Kim, Jin Yong; Ban, Juhee; Lee, Youngjoo; Kwon, Ohsang; Koh, Wooseok

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of the long-pulsed diode laser (LPDL) in hair removal is determined with various physical parameters. Recently, LPDLs with a larger spot size are commercially available; however, the independent effect of spot size on hair removal has not been studied. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the LPDL in hair removal depending on the spot size. A randomized, evaluators-blind, intrapatient comparison (left vs. right) trial was designed. Ten healthy Korean women received three hair removal treatment sessions on both armpits with the 805-nm LPDL and followed for 3 months. A 10×10 mm handpiece (D1) or a 10×30 mm handpiece (D3) was randomly assigned to the right or left axilla. The fluence, pulse duration, and epidermal cooling temperature were identical for both armpits. Hair clearance was quantified with high-resolution photos taken at each visit. Postprocedural pain was quantified on a visual analogue scale. Adverse events were evaluated by physical examination and the patients' self-report. The mean hair clearance at 3 months after three treatment sessions was 38.7% and 50.1% on the armpits treated with D1 and D3, respectively (p=0.028). Procedural pain was significantly greater in the side treated with D3 (p=0.009). Serious adverse events were not observed. Given that the pulse duration, fluence, and epidermal cooling were identical, the 805-nm LPDL at the three times larger spot size showed an efficacy improvement of 29.5% in axillary hair removal without serious adverse events.

  19. Removal of inhibitor(s) of the polymerase chain reaction from formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    An, S F; Fleming, K A

    1991-11-01

    A problem associated with use of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify specific DNA fragments from formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissues is the not infrequent failure of amplification. One possible reason for this could be the presence of inhibitor(s), which interfere with the activity of the reaction. It has been shown that such inhibitor(s) exist when amplifying the human beta globin gene (which exists in human genomic DNA as a single copy gene) from routine clinical samples. A variety of methods to remove such inhibitor(s) were investigated. The results indicate that inhibitor(s) are removed by proteinase K digestion, followed by purification with phenol/chloroform, and centrifugation through a Centricon-30 membrane (30,000 molecular weight cut off). Other factors, including the length and concentration of the DNA sequence to be amplified, can also affect amplification.

  20. Mammalian Wax Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Russell, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Wax monoesters are synthesized by the esterification of fatty alcohols and fatty acids. A mammalian enzyme that catalyzes this reaction has not been isolated. We used expression cloning to identify cDNAs encoding a wax synthase in the mouse preputial gland. The wax synthase gene is located on the X chromosome and encodes a member of the acyltransferase family of enzymes that synthesize neutral lipids. Expression of wax synthase in cultured cells led to the formation of wax monoesters from straight chain saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty alcohols and acids. Polyisoprenols also were incorporated into wax monoesters by the enzyme. The wax synthase had little or no ability to synthesize cholesteryl esters, diacylglycerols, or triacylglycerols, whereas other acyltransferases, including the acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes and the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and 2 enzymes, exhibited modest wax monoester synthesis activities. Confocal light microscopy indicated that the wax synthase was localized in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Wax synthase mRNA was abundant in tissues rich in sebaceous glands such as the preputial gland and eyelid and was present at lower levels in other tissues. Coexpression of cDNAs specifying fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 and wax synthase led to the synthesis of wax monoesters. The data suggest that wax monoester synthesis in mammals involves a two step biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by fatty acyl-CoA reductase and wax synthase enzymes. PMID:15220349

  1. Clinical assessment of a new 755 nm diode laser for hair removal: Efficacy, safety and practicality in 56 patients.

    PubMed

    Royo, Josefina; Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Trelles, Mario A

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the first diode laser with a wavelength of 755 nm for in-motion hair removal came on the market. The objective of this study was to check its efficacy, safety, and practicality under different options for its use. A prospective study in a heterogeneous group of 56 patients who had hair removed from various areas of their bodies using three different treatment methods. Four sessions were scheduled in all cases, with a gap of 3 months between each session. Efficacy was assessed by counting of hairs per cm 2 and the adverse effects in each session were recorded in detail in the patients' clinical histories. The three tested options achieved a significant reduction in the number of hairs (P < 0.0001). The average clearances achieved using the conventional method (HR), the in-motion method (SHR) and the stacking method were 75.5%, 70.1%, and 41.9%, respectively. The degree of satisfaction of the participants on a scale of 0-10 was 7.7, 8.1 and 6.8, respectively. Erythema and perifollicular edema, which are characteristic responses in laser hair removal, were observed. The incidence of burns was 1.33%. The 755-nm diode laser performed efficiently and safely in all the tested areas, using high total accumulated energy per surface unit. Based on our prior experience with other equipment, the results are promising. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:355-360, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Standard guidelines of care: laser and IPL hair reduction.

    PubMed

    Buddhadev, Rajesh M

    2008-01-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal, Laser hair removal, Laser and light-assisted hair removal, Laser and light-assisted, long-term hair reduction, IPL photodepilation, LHE photodepilation; all these are acceptable synonyms. Laser (Ruby, Nd Yag, Alexandrite, Diode), intense pulse light, light and heat energy system are the different light-/Laser-based systems used for hair removal; each have its advantages and disadvantages. The word "LONG-TERM HAIR REDUCTION" should be used rather than permanent hair removal. Patient counseling is essential about the need for multiple sessions. PHYSICIANS' QUALIFICATIONS: Laser hair removal may be practiced by any dermatologist, who has received adequate background training during postgraduation or later at a centre that provides education and training in Lasers or in focused workshops providing such training. The dermatologist should have adequate knowledge of the machines, the parameters and aftercare. The physician may allow the actual procedure to be performed under his/her direct supervision by a trained nurse assistant/junior doctor. However, the final responsibility for the procedure would lie with the physician. The procedure may be performed in the physician's minor procedure room. Investigations to rule out any underlying cause for hair growth are important; concurrent drug therapy may be needed. Laser parameters vary with area, type of hair, and the machine used. Full knowledge about the machine and cooling system is important. Future maintenance treatments may be needed.

  3. Epicuticular Wax Crystals of Wollemia nobilis: Morphology and Chemical Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dragota, Simona; Riederer, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The morphology of the epicuticular leaf waxes of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) was studied with special emphasis on the relationship between the microstructure of epicuticular wax crystals and their chemical composition. Wollemia nobilis is a unique coniferous tree of the family Araucariaceae and is of very high scientific value as it is the sole living representative of an ancient genus, which until 1994 was known only from fossils. Methods Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used for characterizing the morphology and the chemical structure of the epicuticular wax layer of W. nobilis needles. Key Results The main component of the leaf epicuticular wax of W. nobilis is nonacosan-10-ol. This secondary alcohol together with nonacosane diols is responsible for the tubular habit of the epicuticular wax crystals. Scanning electron micrographs revealed differences in the fine structure of adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces that could be explained by gas chromatographic studies after selective mechanical removal of the waxes. Conclusions SEM investigations established the tubular crystalline microstructure of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves. GC–MS and NMR experiments showed that nonacosan-10-ol is the major constituent of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves. PMID:17611192

  4. Hot Wax Sweeps Debris From Narrow Passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricklefs, Steven K.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and effective technique for removal of debris and contaminants from narrow passages involves entrainment of undesired material in thermoplastic casting material. Semisolid wax slightly below melting temperature pushed along passage by pressurized nitrogen to remove debris. Devised to clean out fuel passages in main combustion chamber of Space Shuttle main engine. Also applied to narrow, intricate passages in internal-combustion-engine blocks, carburetors, injection molds, and other complicated parts.

  5. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register... it is very hygroscopic and will react with some metal containers in the presence of air. Phosphoric... high enough to keep the wax melted. (Note: In preheating the sulfoxide-acid mixture, remove the stopper...

  6. Hypertrichotic Becker's nevi treated with combination 1,550 nm non-ablative fractional photothermolysis and laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Balaraman, Brundha; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-04-01

    The removal of Becker's nevi poses a significant challenge due to limited available therapeutic options and increased risk of adverse effects, including scarring and dyspigmentation. Herein, we present the use of the non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with laser hair removal for the treatment of hypertrichotic Becker's nevi. Retrospective analysis of three patients with Becker's nevi revealed that two patients with hypertrichotic Becker's nevi had greater than 75% clearance with combination therapy, and one patient with atrichotic Becker's nevus had a similar result with monotherapy non-ablative fractional photothermolysis. This report demonstrates the utility and safety of combination non-ablative fractional resurfacing and laser hair removal for the treatment of hypertrichotic Becker's nevi, and monotherapy non-ablative fractional photothermolysis for atrichotic Becker's nevi. Further comparative studies are necessary to determine optimal laser parameters, treatment schedules, and response duration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  8. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  9. Investigating the origins of nanostructural variations in differential ethnic hair types using X-ray scattering techniques.

    PubMed

    Wade, M; Tucker, I; Cunningham, P; Skinner, R; Bell, F; Lyons, T; Patten, K; Gonzalez, L; Wess, T

    2013-10-01

    Human hair is a major determinant of visual ethnic differentiation. Although hair types are celebrated as part of our ethnic diversity, the approach to hair care has made the assumption that hair types are structurally and chemically similar. Although this is clearly not the case at the macroscopic level, the intervention of many hair treatments is at the nanoscopic and molecular levels. The purpose of the work presented here is to identify the main nanoscopic and molecular hierarchical differences across five different ethnic hair types from hair fibres taken exclusively from the scalp. These are Afro (subdivided into elastic 'rubber' and softer non-elastic 'soft'), Chinese, European and Mullato (mixed race). Small angle X-Ray scattering (SAXS) is a technique capable of resolving nanostructural variations in complex materials. Individual hair fibres from different ethnic hair types were used to investigate structural features found in common and also specific to each type. Simultaneous wide angle X-Ray scattering (WAXS) was used to analyse the submolecular level structure of the fibrous keratin present. The data sets from both techniques were analysed with principal component analysis (PCA) to identify underlying variables. Principal component analysis of both SAXS and WAXS data was shown to discriminate the scattering signal between different hair types. The X-ray scattering results show a common underlying keratin intermediate filament (KIF) structure. However, distinct differences were observed in the preferential orientation and intensity signal from the lipid component of the hair. In addition, differences were observed in the intensity distribution of the very low-angle sample-dependent diffuse scatter surrounding the 'beamstop.' The results indicate that the fibrous keratin scaffold remains consistent between ethnic hair types. The hierarchies made by these may be modulated by variation in the content of keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) and lipids that

  10. The development of a method of producing etch resistant wax patterns on solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastirik, E.

    1980-01-01

    A potentially attractive technique for wax masking of solar cells prior to etching processes was studied. This technique made use of a reuseable wax composition which was applied to the solar cell in patterned form by means of a letterpress printing method. After standard wet etching was performed, wax removal by means of hot water was investigated. Application of the letterpress wax printing process to silicon was met with a number of difficulties. The most serious shortcoming of the process was its inability to produce consistently well-defined printed patterns on the hard silicon cell surface.

  11. Prevalence of Pubic Hair Grooming-Related Injuries and Identification of High-Risk Individuals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Truesdale, Matthew D; Osterberg, E Charles; Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Elmer-DeWitt, Molly A; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Allen, Isabel; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-11-01

    their pubic hair 11 times or more had increased odds of injury (AOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.53-3.19; P < .001) and high-frequency injuries (AOR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.78-5.01; P < .001) compared with groomers who do not remove all their pubic hair. In women, waxing decreased the odds of high-frequency injuries (AOR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.43; P = .001) compared with nonelectric blades. In total, 79 injuries among 5674 groomers (1.4%) required medical attention. Grooming frequency and degree of grooming (ie, removing all pubic hair) are independent risk factors for injury. The present data may help identify injury-prone groomers and lead to safer grooming practices.

  12. The efficacy of laser-assisted hair removal in the treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae; a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Samia M; Abdel Hay, Rania M; Abu Zeid, Ola M; Hosni, Hala N

    2012-01-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal causes miniaturization of hair shafts which are the principal contributors to inflammation in acne keloidalis nuchae (AKN). To assess the efficacy of hair reduction by long pulsed Nd-YAG laser as a therapeutic modality for AKN. This interventional pilot trial included 16 patients with AKN who received 5 sessions of long pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Lesions were objectively and subjectively assessed at the third and fifth laser sessions, and 1 year after. Global response to treatment was rated using a quartile grading scale regarding the percentage improvement in the count of papules and the size of the plaques. Biopsies were taken before and 2 weeks after the fifth session to evaluate the pathological changes associated with improvement of the treated lesions. All patients showed a significant improvement. The percentage of improvement in the early caseswas significantly higher when compared to late cases.Two weeks after the fifth session, all biopsies showed a significant decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate except one case. Sclerosis was markedly decreased. Complete absence of hair follicles and adenexawas observed, apart from in 2 cases. Laser hair depilation can significantly improve this disfiguring chronic disorder. Starting treatment as early as possible achieves the best results and can stop the disease process if followed by maintenance sessions.

  13. Airborne particulate concentration during laser hair removal: A comparison between cold sapphire with aqueous gel and cryogen skin cooling.

    PubMed

    Ross, Edward V; Chuang, Gary S; Ortiz, Arisa E; Davenport, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    High concentrations of sub-micron nanoparticles have been shown to be released during laser hair removal (LHR) procedures. These emissions pose a potential biohazard to healthcare workers that have prolonged exposure to LHR plume. We sought to demonstrate that cold sapphire skin cooling done in contact mode might suppress plume dispersion during LHR. A total of 11 patients were recruited for laser hair removal. They were treated on the legs and axilla with a 755 or 1064 nm millisecond-domain laser equipped with either (i) cryogen spray (CSC); (ii) refrigerated air (RA); or (iii) contact cooling with sapphire (CC). Concentration of ultrafine nanoparticles <1 μm were measured just before and during LHR with the three respective cooling methods. For contact cooling (CC), counts remained at baseline levels, below 3,500 parts per cubic centimeter (ppc) for all treatments. In contrast, the CSC system produced large levels of plume, peaking at times to over 400,000 ppc. The CA cooled system produced intermediate levels of plume, about 35,000 ppc (or about 10× baseline). Cold Sapphire Skin cooling with gel suppresses plume during laser hair removal, potentially eliminating the need for smoke evacuators, custom ventilation systems, and respirators during LHR. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:280-283, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gel network shampoo formulation and hair health benefits.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J M; Brown, M A; Felts, T J; Hutton, H D; Vatter, M L; Whitaker, S; Wireko, F C; Styczynski, P B; Li, C; Henry, I D

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work was to create a shampoo formula that contains a stable ordered gel network structure that delivers fatty alcohols inside hair. X-ray diffraction (SAXS and WAXS), SEM and DSC have been used to confirm formation of the ordered Lβ gel network with fatty alcohol (cetyl and stearyl alcohols) and an anionic surfactant (SLE1S). Micro-autoradiography and extraction methods using GC-MS were used to confirm penetration of fatty alcohols into hair, and cyclic fatigue testing was used to measure hair strength. In this work, evidence of a stable Lβ ordered gel network structure created from cetyl and stearyl alcohols and anionic surfactant (SLE1S) is presented, and this is confirmed via scanning electron microscopy images showing lamella layers and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showing new melting peaks vs the starting fatty alcohols. Hair washed for 16 repeat cycles with this shampoo showed penetration of fatty alcohols from the gel network into hair as confirmed by a differential extraction method with GC-MS and by radiolabelling of stearyl alcohol and showing its presence inside hair cross-sections. The gel network role in delivering fatty alcohol inside hair is demonstrated by comparing with a shampoo with added fatty alcohol not in an ordered gel network structure. The hair containing fatty alcohol was measured via the Dia-stron cyclic fatigue instrument and showed a significantly higher number of cycles to break vs control. The formation of a stable gel network was confirmed in the formulated shampoo, and it was demonstrated that this gel network is important to deliver cetyl and stearyl alcohols into hair. The presence of fatty alcohol inside hair was shown to deliver a hair strength benefit via cyclic fatigue testing. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Attitudes toward Women's Body Hair: Relationship with Disgust Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…

  16. Understanding the distribution of natural wax in starch-wax films using synchrotron-based FTIR (S-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Muscat, Delina; Tobin, Mark J; Guo, Qipeng; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-02-15

    High amylose starch-glycerol (HAG) films were produced incorporating beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax in the presence and absence of Tween-80 in order to determine the distribution of wax in the films during the film formation process. The distribution of these waxes within the film was studied using Synchrotron based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (S-FTIR) which provided 2D mapping along the thickness of the film. The incorporation of 5% and 10% wax in HAG films produced randomly distributed wax or wax-rich domains, respectively, within these films. Consequently, the addition of these waxes to HAG increased the surface roughness and hydrophobicity of these films. The addition of Tween-80 caused variations in wax-rich bands within the films. The HAG+carnauba wax+Tween-80 films exhibited domed wax-rich domains displayed with high integrated CH2 absorption value at the interior of the films, rougher surface and higher contact angle values than the other films. The S-FTIR 2D images indicated that the distribution of wax in starch-wax films correlated with the roughness and hydrophobicity of the starch-wax films. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel 755-nm diode laser vs. conventional 755-nm scanned alexandrite laser: Side-by-side comparison pilot study for thorax and axillary hair removal.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Uwe; Wagner, Justinus A; Paasch, Hartmut W

    2015-01-01

    Alexandrite (755 nm) and diode lasers (800-810 nm) are commonly used for hair removal. The alexandrite laser technology is somewhat cumbersome whereas new diode lasers are more robust. Recently, alexandrite-like 755 nm wavelength diodes became available. To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and subject satisfaction of a 755 nm diode laser operated in conventional (HR) and non-conventional in-motion (SHR) modes with a conventional scanned alexandrite 755 nm laser for chest and axillary hair removal. A prospective, single-center, proof of principle study was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy and handling of a 755 nm diode laser system in comparison to a standard alexandrite 755 nm scanning hair removal laser. The new 755 nm diode is suitable to be used in SHR and HR mode and has been tested for its safety, efficacy and handling in a volunteer with success. Overall, both systems showed a high efficacy in hair reduction (88.8% 755 nm diode laser vs. 77.7% 755 nm alexandrite laser). Also, during the study period, no severe adverse effects were reported. The new 755 nm diode laser is as effective and safe as the traditional 755 nm alexandrite laser. Additionally, treatment with the 755 nm diode laser with HR and SHR modes was found to be less painful.

  18. Complete regression of a melanocytic nevus under intense pulsed light therapy for axillary hair removal in a cosmetic center.

    PubMed

    Martín, José M; Monteagudo, Carlos; Bella, Rebeca; Reig, Irela; Jordá, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy using noncoherent broad-spectrum light has been reported to be effective for hair removal, and also for treating superficial pigmented lesions like ephelides and solar lentigines. We report complete regression of a pigmented melanocytic nevus, histologically confirmed, after hair removal treatment with IPL. The use of lasers and IPL is a common procedure used by dermatologists and even other professions for the treatment of cosmetically troubling skin conditions. The main advantage of such treatment is a reduction of surgical scars, thus producing a favorable cosmetic outcome, but a major limitation is that histopathologic diagnosis is not usually obtained prior to treatment. Such devices should be carefully used in patients with potentially dangerous melanocytic lesions. We also review the recent literature regarding inadequate treatment of melanocytic lesions with lasers. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Physical properties of beeswax, sunflower wax, and candelilla wax mixtures and organogels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is increased interest in natural waxes as alternatives to partially hydrogenated oils and saturated fats as oil structuring agents. Using relatively low concentrations (0.5-5%), natural waxes are able to form crystalline networks, or organogels, which bind liquid oil. Each natural wax is uniqu...

  20. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair.

  1. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  2. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Comparison of adverse events of laser and light-assisted hair removal systems in skin types IV-VI.

    PubMed

    Breadon, Jonith Y; Barnes, Chad A

    2007-01-01

    Photoepilation, utilizing lasers and noncoherent light sources, is designed to irradiate as much of the follicular unit as possible, with melanin as the target chromophore. Wavelength absorption should generate energy sufficient to heat and destroy the hair follicle, while preserving the surrounding tissue. When performing photoepilation on African-American skin (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI) a greater risk of potential epidermal adverse events, such as dyspigmentation, blistering, crusting, edema, and subsequent scarring, is possible. To reduce epidermal melanin absorption of energy longer wavelengths are considered safer for use on Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI. This article reviews and compares the reported incidences of adverse events in African-American skin, utilizing lasers and noncoherent light sources for assisted hair removal.

  4. Hair pull test: Evidence-based update and revision of guidelines.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katherine A; Shelley, Amanda J; Colantonio, Sophia; Beecker, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    The hair pull test lacks validation and has unclear pretest guidelines. We sought to quantify normal hair pull test values and elucidate the effect of pretest hair washing and brushing. The impact of hair texture and lifestyle was also examined. Participants (n = 181) completed a questionnaire recording demographics, medications, and hair health/history. A single hair pull test (scalp vertex) was performed. The mean number of hairs removed per pull was 0.44 (SD 0.75). There was no significant difference in the mean number of hairs removed regardless of when participants washed (P = .20) or brushed (P = .25) their hair. Hair pull test values were similar between Caucasian-, Asian-, and Afro-textured hair. There was no significant difference in hair pull values between participants taking medications affecting hair loss and participants not taking these medications (P = .33). Tight hairstyles did not influence hair pull test values. Participant hair washing and brushing could not be controlled during the study, but this information was documented and analyzed. Normal values for the hair pull test should be reduced to 2 hairs or fewer (97.2% of participants). The current 5-day restriction on pretest hair washing can be reduced and brushing be made permissible. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integral lipids of mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been demonstrated that hair contains lipids which cannot be removed by extensive extraction with chloroform-methanol mixtures. These integral lipids can be extracted only after the hair has been subjected to alkaline hydrolysis. 2. Integral hair lipids include cholesterol sulfate (0.7-2.9 mg/g hair), ceramides (0.6-1.4 mg/g), cholesterol (0.3-1.4 mg/g), fatty alcohols (trace-0.2 mg/g) and fatty acids (2.3-4.0 mg/g). 3. One of the major integral hair lipids, representing 38.4-47.6% of the total fatty acids, is the anteisobranched 18-methyleicosanoic acid. 4. The species examined included human (Homo sapiens), pig (Sus scrofa), dog (Canis familiaris), sheep (Ovis ammon aries) and cow (Bos taurus).

  6. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  7. Quantitative, nondestructive assessment of beech scale (Hemiptera: Cryptococcidae) density using digital image analysis of wax masses.

    PubMed

    Teale, Stephen A; Letkowski, Steven; Matusick, George; Stehman, Stephen V; Castello, John D

    2009-08-01

    Beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger, is a non-native invasive insect associated with beech bark disease. A quantitative method of measuring viable scale density at the levels of the individual tree and localized bark patches was developed. Bark patches (10 cm(2)) were removed at 0, 1, and 2 m above the ground and at the four cardinal directions from 13 trees in northern New York and 12 trees in northern Michigan. Digital photographs of each patch were made, and the wax mass area was measured from two random 1-cm(2) subsamples on each bark patch using image analysis software. Viable scale insects were counted after removing the wax under a dissecting microscope. Separate regression analyses at the whole tree level for the New York and Michigan sites each showed a strong positive relationship of wax mass area with the number of underlying viable scale insects. The relationships for the New York and Michigan data were not significantly different from each other, and when pooling data from the two sites, there was still a significant positive relationship between wax mass area and the number of scale insects. The relationships between viable scale insects and wax mass area were different at the 0-, 1-, and 2-m sampling heights but do not seem to affect the relationship. This method does not disrupt the insect or its interactions with the host tree.

  8. Comparison of hair removal efficacy and side effect of neodymium:Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and intense pulsed light systems (18-month follow-up).

    PubMed

    Szima, Georgina Zita; Janka, Eszter Anna; Kovács, Anikó; Bortély, Blanka; Bodnár, Edina; Sawhney, Irina; Szabó, Éva; Remenyik, Éva

    2017-06-01

    Photothermal destruction of hair shaft melanin with intense pulsed light (IPL) and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has become an effective treatment of hair removal. Our aim was to compare efficacy, satisfactory levels, safety, and side effects of Nd:YAG and IPL in hair reduction. This was a prospective randomized intrapatient, right-left, assessor-blinded comparison of Nd:YAG vs IPL. There were 38 volunteers recruited. Seven sessions were performed. Hair count, efficacy, and side effects were compared before and after each treatment and 6 months after the last treatment. In respect of 12 volunteers, we have examined the reduction in hair after 18 months. Initially, there was no significant difference between the numbers of hair follicles. There was significant hair reduction after each treatment on the Nd:YAG-treated side. The hair reduction became significant after the third treatment with IPL. Comparison of the efficacy of the two devices on each visits showed no significant difference. There was statistically lower pain score on the IPL-treated side and statistically higher erythema, burning sensation, and edema on the Nd:YAG-treated side. Statistically lower side effect score was observed on the IPL-treated side. Eight months after the last treatment, there was significant hair reduction both on the Nd:YAG and on the IPL-treated side, and there was no difference between the efficacy. The patient satisfaction scores were higher with the IPL. Unwanted hair can be reduced by both systems safely and effectively; however, IPL has less side effects and higher satisfaction scores. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Minimizing hair dispersal: Is this an opportunity for improvement in health care-acquired infection prevention?

    PubMed

    Mantyh, Christopher R; Xi, Hugo; Pearson, Lena; Perl, Trish M

    2017-03-01

    We performed a study to understand common practices in surgical site hair removal and barriers to guideline compliance in surgical site hair removal. We found most health care providers in the United States do not remove hair outside of the operating room. Our findings reveal minimizing hair dispersal in the operating room, including improved and innovative ways for collecting clipped loose hair, is a significant area for improvement in surgical quality and health care-acquired infection prevention. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax. Candelilla...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Candelilla wax. 184.1976 Section 184.1976 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1976 Candelilla wax. (a) Candelilla wax (CAS Reg. No. 8006-44-8) is obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax. Candelilla...

  12. Static and dynamic modes of 810 nm diode laser hair removal compared: A clinical and histological study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Laser hair removal has recently become a major indication. Diode lasers have become commercially available offering two modes of application: a stamping or static mode, and a dynamic mode whereby the handpiece is continuously moved across the target tissue. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches clinically and histologically. Subjects and Methods Twenty-five subjects participated in the study, 12 males and 13 females, ages ranging from 20 to 57 yr (Mean age 41.6 yr). A baseline hair count was performed on both the target areas. The ms-pulsed diode laser delivered 810 nm via a handpiece with a cooled tip, offering both static and dynamic modes which were used on the subjects' left and right crura, respectively. Pain during treatment was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and gross inspection was performed immediately after treatment for any abnormality in the treated skin. Hair counts were performed on both crura at 1 and 3 months after the treatment, and compared with the baseline counts. Biopsies were performed in the dynamic mode treated skin at baseline and at 1 month after the treatment, and assessed with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results All subjects completed the study. Compared with baseline, hair counts were significantly lower at 1 and 3 months post-treatment with no significant difference between the static and dynamic laser depilation modes, nor in the severity of the pain experienced during the procedure. Histologically, degenerative changes in the hair follicles were noted immediately after laser treatment. At one month, cystic formation was seen in the hair follicles showing a strong tendency towards apoptotic cell death. Conclusions With the diode laser system and at the parameters used in the present study, high depilation efficacy was seen with no significant difference between the static and dynamic modes. Interestingly

  13. A Hairy Affair: Ophthalmia nodosa Due to Caterpillar Hairs.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Pratik Y; Usgaonkar, Ugam; Kamat, Pradnya

    2018-01-01

    To study different clinical presentations, course, and final outcomes of ophthalmia nodosa, a rare disease caused by hairs of the caterpillar. A total of 29 eyes of 17 patients with the disease presenting to our institute in 2013 were included. Patients presented with foreign body sensation (94%), photophobia (88%), lacrimation (82%), redness (94%), and eyelid edema (82%). Hairs were found in the conjunctiva (89.6%), cornea (65.5%), and even anterior chamber (3.4%). There was a conjunctival nodule in two eyes (6.8%). Resolution of symptoms occurred in 3-21 days. Treatment included topical steroids, cycloplegia, and removal of hairs with forceps. More than one sitting was required in 17 eyes (62.9%) due to reactional inflammation, precluding visualization of all the hairs. Ophthalmia nodosa is a relatively rare condition with subtle findings, which can be missed, causing considerable discomfort to the patient if the hairs are not removed.

  14. Structural features of reconstituted wheat wax films

    PubMed Central

    Pambou, Elias; Li, Zongyi; Campana, Mario; Hughes, Arwel; Clifton, Luke; Gutfreund, Philipp; Foundling, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular waxes are essential for the well-being of all plants, from controlling the transport of water and nutrients across the plant surface to protecting them against external environmental attacks. Despite their significance, our current understanding regarding the structure and function of the wax film is limited. In this work, we have formed representative reconstituted wax film models of controlled thicknesses that facilitated an ex vivo study of plant cuticular wax film properties by neutron reflection (NR). Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) waxes were extracted from two different wheat straw samples, using two distinct extraction methods. Waxes extracted from harvested field-grown wheat straw using supercritical CO2 are compared with waxes extracted from laboratory-grown wheat straw via wax dissolution by chloroform rinsing. Wax films were produced by spin-coating the two extracts onto silicon substrates. Atomic force microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the two reconstituted wax film models are ultrathin and porous with characteristic nanoscale extrusions on the outer surface, mimicking the structure of epicuticular waxes found upon adaxial wheat leaf surfaces. On the basis of solid–liquid and solid–air NR and ellipsometric measurements, these wax films could be modelled into two representative layers, with the diffuse underlying layer fitted with thicknesses ranging from approximately 65 to 70 Å, whereas the surface extrusion region reached heights exceeding 200 Å. Moisture-controlled NR measurements indicated that water penetrated extensively into the wax films measured under saturated humidity and under water, causing them to hydrate and swell significantly. These studies have thus provided a useful structural basis that underlies the function of the epicuticular waxes in controlling the water transport of crops. PMID:27466439

  15. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of nicotine biomarkers in hair and an evaluation of wash procedures for removal of environmental nicotine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eleanor I; Murray, Gordon J; Rollins, Douglas E; Tiffany, Stephen T; Wilkins, Diana G

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantification of nicotine, eight nicotine metabolites, and two minor tobacco alkaloids in fortified analyte-free hair and subsequently apply this method to hair samples collected from active smokers. An additional aim of the study was to include an evaluation of different wash procedures for the effective removal of environmentally deposited nicotine from tobacco smoke. An apparatus was designed for the purpose of exposing analyte-free hair to environmental tobacco smoke in order to deposit nicotine onto the hair surface. A shampoo/water wash procedure was identified as the most effective means of removing nicotine. This wash procedure was utilized for a comparison of washed and unwashed heavy smoker hair samples. Analytes and corresponding deuterated internal standards were extracted using a cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge. LC-MS-MS was carried out using an Acquity™ UPLC(®) system (Waters) and a Quattro Premier XE™ triple quadrupole MS (Waters) operated in electrospray positive ionization mode, with multiple reaction monitoring data acquisition. The developed method was applied to hair samples collected from heavy smokers (n = 3) and low-level smokers (n = 3) collected through IRB-approved protocols. Nicotine, cotinine, and nornicotine were quantified in both the washed and unwashed hair samples collected from three heavy smokers, whereas 3-hydroxycotinine was quantified in only one unwashed sample and nicotine-1'-oxide in the washed and unwashed hair samples from two heavy smokers. In contrast, nicotine-1'-oxide was quantified in one of the three low-level smoker samples; nicotine was quantified in the other two low-level smoker samples. No other analytes were detected in the hair of the three low-level smokers.

  17. Cheyletiellosis in long-haired cats.

    PubMed

    Ottenschot, T R; Gil, D

    1978-10-15

    Among 41 catteries, the majority of which were investigated because of problems of chronic pruritus, 27 proved to be infected by Cheyletiella mites. The skin lesions consisted of small erythematous papules with crusts and some loose hairs. After removal of the loose hairs Cheyletiella mites could be collected with adhesive tape for microscopic examination. Human involvement (papular urticaria) was observed in 20% of the cases. Bathing with Lindane was an effective mode of treatment.

  18. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3720 - Petroleum wax, synthetic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax, synthetic. 178.3720 Section 178.3720... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3720 Petroleum wax, synthetic. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in applications and under the same conditions where naturally derived petroleum wax is...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made metal...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made metal...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made metal...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made metal...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made metal...

  5. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  6. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  7. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  8. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  9. 21 CFR 172.890 - Rice bran wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rice bran wax. 172.890 Section 172.890 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.890 Rice bran wax. Rice bran wax may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is the refined wax obtained from rice bran and meets the following...

  10. Occurrence and patterns of waxes in Neisseriaceae.

    PubMed

    Bryn, K; Jantzen, E; Bovre, K

    1977-09-01

    Forty-five strains classified in the family Neisseriaceae were analysed for wax esters by gas-liquid chromatography. The amounts and types of waxes varied between the taxa. Waxes were not detected in 16 strains of 'true neisseriae' (genus Neisseria) or in two strains of Kingella, but they were found in all 'false neisseriae', in all species of Moraxella except Moraxella phenylpyrouvica, in five out of 10 strains of Acintobacter, and in all strains of a group of psychrophilic, oxidase-positive organisms. The chain lengths of the wax esters ranged from C24 to C42, with C36 predominating. In all taxa, esters with even numbers of carbon atoms constituted 70 to 100% of the total. Saturated, mono-unsaturated and diunsaturated waxes were found. Acinetobacter strains were characterized by large amounts (30 to 98%) of di-unsaturated wax esters; such waxes did not exceed 8% in the 'false neisseriae' or Moraxella spp. Waxes of strains belonging to the psychrophilic, oxidase-positive group generally resembled those found in Moraxella. Wax esters with odd numbers of carbon atoms were abundant in M. lacunata (29%), M. atlantae (15%) and in the psychorophilic group (19 to 28%); long-chain esters (C40 or above) were characteristic of M. atlantae (30%) and one strain of M. osloensis (26%).

  11. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. Megasessions for Robotic Hair Restoration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joa O Carlos; Pereira Filho, Joa O Carlos; Cabrera Pereira, Joa O Pedro

    2016-11-01

    A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue. Stereoscopic cameras controlled by image processing software allow the system to identify the angle and direction of hair growth. The physician and one assistant control the harvesting with a hand-held remote control and computer monitor while the patient is positioned in an adjustable chair. When the robot has harvested all the FUs they are removed by technicians with small forceps. Hairline design, creation of recipient sites, and graft placement are performed manually by the physician. Clinical photographs before and after surgery show that patients experience excellent outcomes with the robotic megasession. Phy- sician fatigue during graft extraction is reduced because the robot performs the repetitive movements without fatigue. Variability of graft extraction is minimized because the robot's optical system can be programmed to choose the best FUs. The transection rate is reduced because the robot's graft extraction system uses two needles, a sharp one to piece the skin and a blunt needle to dissect the root without trauma. A robotic megasession for hair restoration is minimally invasive, does not result in linear scars in the donor area, and is associated with minimal fatigue and discomfort for both patient and physician. Healing is rapid and patients experience a high level of satisfaction with the results. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1407-1412..

  13. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser vs. intense pulsed light for hair removal in dark skin: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S A

    2012-02-01

    Although several lasers meet the wavelength criteria for selective follicular destruction, the treatment of darker skin phototypes is particularly challenging because absorption of laser energy by the targeted hairs is compromised by an increased concentration of epidermal melanin. To compare satisfaction level, safety and effectiveness of a long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and intense pulsed light (IPL) in axillary hair reduction in subjects with dark skin. The study design was a within-patient, right-left, assessor-blinded, comparison of long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and IPL. Fifty women (skin phototypes IV-VI) volunteered for removal of axillary hair. Five sessions at 4- to 6-week intervals were performed. Hair counts at both sides were compared at baseline and 6months after the last session. Final overall evaluations were performed by subjects and clinician at the end of the study. Satisfaction was scored for both devices. Thirty-nine women completed the study. At 6months, the decrease in hair counts on the laser side (79·4%, P<0·001 vs. pretreatment) was significantly (P<0·01) greater than that on the IPL side (54·4%, P<0·01 vs. pretreatment). Only temporary adverse effects were reported at both sides. Higher pain scores and more inflammation were reported with Nd:YAG laser; however, it was preferred by 29 volunteers (74%). Volunteers reported higher satisfaction score with Nd:YAG laser (P<0·01). Dark skin can be treated by both systems safely and effectively; however, long-pulsed (1064 nm) Nd:YAG laser is more effective as reported by both subjects and clinician. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax. Candelilla wax is prepared by immersing the plants in boiling water containing sulfuric acid and skimming off the wax that rises to the surface. It... this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this chapter. (d) Prior sanctions for...

  17. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF-7

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin-induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF-5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF-7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth. PMID:29693180

  18. [Detection of metal ions in hair after metal-metal hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Vaquero, D; Rodríguez de la Flor, M; Fernandez-Carreira, J M; Sariego-Muñiz, C

    2014-01-01

    There is an increase in the levels of metals in the serum and urine after the implantation of some models of metal-metal hip prosthesis. It has recently been demonstrated that there is an association between these levels and the levels found in hair. The aim of this study is to determine the presence of metals in hair, and to find out whether these change over time or with the removal of the implant. The levels of chromium, cobalt and molybdenum were determined in the hair of 45 patients at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years after a hip surface replacement. The mean age was 57.5 years, and two were female. Further surgery was required to remove the replacement and implant a new model with metal-polyethylene friction in 11 patients, 5 of them due to metallosis and a periarticular cyst. The mean levels of metals in hair were chromium 163.27 ppm, cobalt 61.98 ppm, and molybdenum 31.36 ppm, much higher than the levels found in the general population. A decrease in the levels of chromium (43.8%), molybdenum (51.1%), and cobalt (91.1%) was observed at one year in the patients who had further surgery to remove the prosthesis. High concentrations of metals in the hair are observed in hip replacements with metal-metal friction, which decrease when that implant is removed. The determination of metal ions in hair could be a good marker of the metal poisoning that occurs in these arthroplasty models. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Sintering of wax for controlling release from pellets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Reena; Poddar, S S; Chivate, Amit

    2007-09-14

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate incorporation of hydrophobic (ie, waxy) material into pellets using a thermal sintering technique and to evaluate the pellets in vitro for controlled release. Pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology were formulated with a water-soluble drug, microcrystalline cellulose, and carnauba wax. Powdered carnauba wax (4%-20%) prepared by grinding or by emulsification was studied with an attempt to retard the drug release. The inclusion of ground or emulsified carnauba wax did not sustain the release of theophylline for more than 3 hours. Matrix pellets of theophylline prepared with various concentrations of carnauba wax were sintered thermally at various times and temperatures. In vitro drug release profiles indicated an increase in drug release retardation with increasing carnauba wax concentration. Pellets prepared with ground wax showed a higher standard deviation than did those prepared with emulsified wax. There was incomplete release at the end of 12 hours for pellets prepared with 20% ground or emulsified wax. The sintering temperature and duration were optimized to allow for a sustained release lasting at least 12 hours. The optimized temperature and duration were found to be 100 degrees C and 140 seconds, respectively. The sintered pellets had a higher hydrophobicity than did the unsintered pellets. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the carnauba wax moved internally, thereby increasing the surface area of wax within the pellets.

  20. Correlates of body depilation: an exploratory study into the health implications of body hair reduction and removal among college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Boroughs, Michael S; Thompson, J Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that body hair may be of increasing importance in men's overall body image. Body depilation is a relatively new area of clinical and research inquiry among men with much of the documented evidence of the phenomenon split between mass media accounts and descriptive scientific investigations. This study was undertaken to further our understanding of this behavior by examining the relationship between depilation and other dimensions of body image in a nonclinical sample. A total of 364 men completed measures assessing self-reported hair growth, body depilation, drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, body dysmorphia, and social comparison. The correlates of body depilation included a drive for muscularity, gender role conflict, and physical appearance social comparison. Significant differences were identified among men who depilate, compared with those who do not, on measures of social comparison and a drive for muscularity. These findings lend support for the idea that body hair, and its reduction or removal, is a key aspect of men's body image that translates into some challenges in assessment and prevention among health care practitioners.

  1. Organ-level quorum sensing directs regeneration in hair stem cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Lei; Plikus, Maksim V.; Jiang, Ting Xin; Murray, Philip J.; Ramos, Raul; Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F.; Hughes, Michael W; Lee, Oscar K.; Shi, Songtao; Widelitz, Randall B.; Lander, Arthur D.; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coordinated organ behavior is crucial for an effective response to environmental stimuli. By studying regeneration of hair follicles in response to patterned hair removal, we demonstrate that organ-level quorum sensing allows coordinated responses to skin injury. Removing hair at different densities leads to a regeneration of up to 5 times more neighboring, unplucked resting hairs, indicating activation of a collective decision-making process. Through data modeling, the range of the quorum signal was estimated to be on the order of 1 mm, greater than expected for a diffusible molecular cue. Molecular and genetic analysis uncovered a two-step mechanism, where release of CCL2 from injured hairs leads to recruitment of TNF-α secreting macrophages, which accumulate and signal to both plucked and unplucked follicles. By coupling immune response with regeneration, this mechanism allows skin to respond predictively to distress, disregarding mild injury, while meeting stronger injury with full-scale cooperative activation of stem cells. PMID:25860610

  2. Penile hair tourniquet resulting in hypospadias failure

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Lisieux E.; Bragança, Jailma J.; Rocha, Julia M.; Dekermacher, Samuel; Anderson, Kleber M.

    2014-01-01

    Penile hair tourniquet (PHT) is a painless form of penile ischemia, typically seen in toddlers with long-haired mothers, caused by entanglement of hair on the balano-prepucial sulcus, normally associated with circumcision. Its association with hypospadias has been reported only once. A school-aged boy admitted for surgery to treat hypospadias failure was incidentally detected to have PHT and severe hourglass deformity of the penis. Urethral anastomosis and glanuloplasty were done after removal of the constricting ring, without complications. Normal erections were reported during follow up. Treatment may involve urethral reconstruction and penile reimplantation in extreme cases. PMID:25097325

  3. Identification of avian wax synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

  4. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    PubMed

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  5. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  6. Body hair counts during hair length reduction procedures: a comparative study between Computer Assisted Image Analysis after Manual Processing (CAIAMP) and Trichoscan(™).

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J

    2015-08-01

    To compare two measurement methods for body hair. Calibration of computer assisted image analysis after manual processing (CAIAMP) showed variation <4% for thickness and <2.3% for densities. Images from 6 body sites with 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' were taken before hair dye, after hair dye or after hair length reduction without hair extraction or destruction. Data in the same targets were compared with Trichoscan(™) quoted for 'unambiguous evaluation of the hair growth after shaving'. CAIAMP detected a total of 337 hair and showed no statistically significant differences with the three procedures confirming 'good natural contrast between hair and skin' and that reduction methods did not affect hair counts. While CAIAMP found a mean number of 19 thick hair (≥30 μm) before dye, 18 after dye and 20 after hair reduction, Trichoscan(™) found in the same sites respectively 44, 73 and 61. Trichoscan(™) generated counts differed statistically significantly from CAIAMP-data. Automated analyses were considered un-specifically influenced by hair medulla and natural or artificial skin background. Quality control including all steps of human intervention and measurement technology are mandatory for body hair measurements during experimental or clinical trials on body hair grooming, shaving or removal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard, brittle, sparingly soluble in cold organic solvents and insoluble in water. It is marketed in five grades designated No. 1 through No...

  8. Hair growth is promoted by BeauTop via expression of EGF and FGF‑7.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Ying; Yang, Chi-Yu; Lin, Ching-Che; Yu, Min-Chien; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2018-06-01

    Minoxidil and finasteride have been approved to treat hair loss by the Food and Drug Administration. However, the further elucidation of treatments for hair loss, including those using Chinese herbal medicine, remains important clinically. BeauTop (BT) is a health food supplement which contains Ginseng radix, Astragali radix, Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ligustri fructus, Rehmannia glutinosa and Eclipta prostrata (Linn). Susbsequent to oral administration of BT at 0.6 g/kg/day to wax/rosin‑induced alopecia in C57BL/6 mice, BT significantly induced hair growth at day 8 compared with control treatment (P<0.05). The expression levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)‑7 were increased compared with control animals on day 8. In contrast, levels of FGF‑5 of the BT group were reduced compared with the control on day 12. There were no effects on the expression of insulin‑like growth factor 1. The results demonstrated that the mechanism of BT improving alopecia is potentially associated with modulation of EGF and FGF‑7 levels. Taken together, it is suggested that BT may have a potential effect of the promotion of hair growth.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard, brittle, sparingly soluble in cold organic solvents and insoluble in water. It is marketed in five grades...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard, brittle, sparingly soluble in cold organic solvents and insoluble in water. It is marketed in five grades...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard, brittle, sparingly soluble in cold organic solvents and insoluble in water. It is marketed in five grades...

  12. Supporting cells remove and replace sensory receptor hair cells in a balance organ of adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Bucks, Stephanie A; Cox, Brandon C; Vlosich, Brittany A; Manning, James P; Nguyen, Tot B; Stone, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    Vestibular hair cells in the inner ear encode head movements and mediate the sense of balance. These cells undergo cell death and replacement (turnover) throughout life in non-mammalian vertebrates. However, there is no definitive evidence that this process occurs in mammals. We used fate-mapping and other methods to demonstrate that utricular type II vestibular hair cells undergo turnover in adult mice under normal conditions. We found that supporting cells phagocytose both type I and II hair cells. Plp1-CreERT2-expressing supporting cells replace type II hair cells. Type I hair cells are not restored by Plp1-CreERT2-expressing supporting cells or by Atoh1-CreERTM-expressing type II hair cells. Destruction of hair cells causes supporting cells to generate 6 times as many type II hair cells compared to normal conditions. These findings expand our understanding of sensorineural plasticity in adult vestibular organs and further elucidate the roles that supporting cells serve during homeostasis and after injury. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18128.001 PMID:28263708

  13. Comparison of methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for determination of hair cortisol concentration in grizzly bears and polar bears.

    PubMed

    Kroshko, Thomas; Kapronczai, Luciene; Cattet, Marc R L; Macbeth, Bryan J; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Obbard, Martyn E; Janz, David M

    2017-01-01

    Methodological differences among laboratories are recognized as significant sources of variation in quantification of hair cortisol concentration (HCC). An important step in processing hair, particularly when collected from wildlife, is the choice of solvent used to remove or "wash" external hair shaft cortisol prior to quantification of HCC. The present study systematically compared methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for their efficiency at removing external cortisol without extracting internal hair shaft cortisol in samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears and polar bears. Cortisol concentrations in solvents and hair were determined in each of one to eight washes of hair with each solvent independently. •There were no significant decreases in internal hair shaft cortisol among all eight washes for either solvent, although methanol removed detectable hair surface cortisol after one wash in grizzly bear hair whereas hair surface cortisol was detected in all eight isopropanol washes.•There were no significant differences in polar bear HCC washed one to eight times with either solvent, but grizzly bear HCC was significantly greater in hair washed with isopropanol compared to methanol.•There were significant differences in HCC quantified using different commercial ELISA kits commonly used for HCC determinations.

  14. Self-Replenishable Anti-Waxing Organogel Materials.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Wang, Jianjun; Jiang, Lei

    2015-07-27

    Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self-replenishable organogel material which shows ultra-low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low-molar-mass oil from its crude-oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

  15. Comparison of Alexandrite and Diode Lasers for Hair Removal in Dark and Medium Skin: Which is Better?

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. Methods: The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. Result: In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam–skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Conclusion: Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer. PMID:25653820

  16. Comparison of Alexandrite and Diode Lasers for Hair Removal in Dark and Medium Skin: Which is Better?

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Farhad Hamad; Jaafar, Mohamad Suhimi; Ismail, Asaad Hamid; Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2014-01-01

    To improve laser hair removal (LHR) for dark skin, the fluence rate reaching the hair follicle in LHR is important. This paper presents the results of a comparative study examining the function of wavelength on dark skin types using 755 nm alexandrite and 810 nm diode lasers. The structure of the skin was created using a realistic skin model by the Advanced Systems Analysis Program. In this study, the alexandrite laser (755 nm) and diode laser (810 nm) beam-skin tissue interactions were simulated. The simulation results for both lasers differed. The transmission ratio of the diode laser to the dark skin dermis was approximately 4% more than that of the alexandrite laser for the same skin type. For the diode laser at skin depth z = 0.67 mm, the average transmission ratios of both samples were 36% and 27.5%, but those for the alexandrite laser at the same skin depth were 32% and 25%. Both lasers were suitable in LHR for dark skin types, but the diode laser was better than the alexandrite laser because the former could penetrate deeper into the dermis layer.

  17. Polyester Wax: A New Embedding Medium for the Histopathologic Study of Human Temporal Bones

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Saumil N.; Burgess, Barbara; O'Malley, Jennifer; Jones, Diane; Adams, Joe C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Celloidin and paraffin are the two common embedding mediums used for histopathologic study of the human temporal bone by light microscopy. Although celloidin embedding permits excellent morphologic assessment, celloidin is difficult to remove, and there are significant restrictions on success with immunostaining. Embedding in paraffin allows immunostaining to be performed, but preservation of cellular detail within the membranous labyrinth is relatively poor. Objectives/Hypothesis Polyester wax is an embedding medium that has a low melting point (37°C), is soluble in most organic solvents, is water tolerant, and sections easily. We hypothesized that embedding in polyester wax would permit good preservation of the morphology of the membranous labyrinth and, at the same time, allow the study of proteins by immunostaining. Methods Nine temporal bones from individuals aged 1 to 94 years removed 2 to 31 hours postmortem, from subjects who had no history of otologic disease, were used. The bones were fixed using 10% formalin, decal-cified using EDTA, embedded in polyester wax, and serially sectioned at a thickness of 8 to 12 μm on a rotary microtome. The block and knife were cooled with frozen CO2 (dry ice) held in a funnel above the block. Sections were placed on glass slides coated with a solution of 1% fish gelatin and 1% bovine albumin, followed by staining of selected sections with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Immunostaining was also performed on selected sections using antibodies to 200 kD neurofilament and Na-K-ATPase. Results Polyester wax–embedded sections demonstrated good preservation of cellular detail of the organ of Corti and other structures of the membranous labyrinth, as well as the surrounding otic capsule. The protocol described in this paper was reliable and consistently yielded sections of good quality. Immuno-staining was successful with both antibodies. Conclusion The use of polyester wax as an embedding medium for human temporal

  18. A new technique for quantitative analysis of hair loss in mice using grayscale analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Katikaneni, Ranjitha; Gulati, Rohan; Gensure, Robert

    2015-03-09

    Alopecia is a common form of hair loss which can occur in many different conditions, including male-pattern hair loss, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and alopecia areata. Alopecia can also occur as a side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients. In this study, our goal was to develop a consistent and reliable method to quantify hair loss in mice, which will allow investigators to accurately assess and compare new therapeutic approaches for these various forms of alopecia. The method utilizes a standard gel imager to obtain and process images of mice, measuring the light absorption, which occurs in rough proportion to the amount of black (or gray) hair on the mouse. Data that has been quantified in this fashion can then be analyzed using standard statistical techniques (i.e., ANOVA, T-test). This methodology was tested in mouse models of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, alopecia areata and alopecia from waxing. In this report, the detailed protocol is presented for performing these measurements, including validation data from C57BL/6 and C3H/HeJ strains of mice. This new technique offers a number of advantages, including relative simplicity of application, reliance on equipment which is readily available in most research laboratories, and applying an objective, quantitative assessment which is more robust than subjective evaluations. Improvements in quantification of hair growth in mice will improve study of alopecia models and facilitate evaluation of promising new therapies in preclinical studies.

  19. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  20. Exogenous contamination of uranium in human scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja

    2012-06-01

    The use of human scalp hair as a bioindicator of occupational or environmental exposure has been the subject of some debate over the years. One problem is how to distinguish internal contamination from external contamination. In this study, possibility that elevated levels of natural uranium in human hair are partly due to the exogenously bound uranium from uranium-rich household water was tested. Hair samples from six adult volunteers were cut and then exposed externally to uranium by using washing water with highly elevated levels of natural uranium. After that, and before making the analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the samples were washed using two commonly used washing procedures in order to remove external contamination. No quantitative information was gained in the tests, but it was shown that the use of uranium-rich water when washing hair affects the uranium concentration in hair. Although the samples were cleaned according to widely used washing procedures before the analysis, the uranium concentrations in hair were about three orders of magnitude higher after the tests. The possibility of external contamination should be kept in mind, especially when considering hair as an excretion pathway for estimating internal dose.

  1. Uniform discotic wax particles via electrospray emulsification.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Andres F; He, Peng; Luo, Dawei; Marquez, Manuel; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2009-06-01

    We present a novel colloidal discotic system: the formation and self-assembling of wax microdisks with a narrow size distribution. Uniform wax emulsions are first fabricated by electrospraying of melt alpha-eicosene. The size of the emulsions can be flexibly tailored by varying the flow rate of the discontinuous phase, its electric conductivity, and the applied voltage. The process of entrainment of wax droplets, vital for obtaining uniform emulsions, is facilitated by the reduction of air-water surface tension and the density of the continuous phase. Then uniform wax discotic particles are produced via phase transition, during which the formation of a layered structure of the rotator phase of wax converts the droplets, one by one, into oblate particles. The time span for the conversion from spherical emulsions to disk particles is linearly dependent on the size of droplets in the emulsion, indicating the growth of a rotator phase from surface to the center is the limiting step in the shape transition. Using polarized light microscopy, the self-assembling of wax disks is observed by increasing disk concentration and inducing depletion attraction among disks, where several phases, such as isotropic, condensed, columnar stacking, and self-assembly of columnar rods are present sequentially during solvent evaporation of a suspension drop.

  2. Bone wax in Neurosurgery: A Review.

    PubMed

    Das, Joe M

    2018-05-09

    In this occasion of 125 years after the so-called "initial" use of bone wax (BW) by Sir Victor Horsley, a review of this age-old hemostatic agent deemed appropriate. The first use of BW for hemostasis is dated back to the 18 th century when modeling or candle wax was used for hemostasis. Though the pioneers in the usage of BW in craniofacial surgeries were Belloq, Professor Khristian Khristianovich Salomon and François Magendie, its first successful use in neurosurgery was demonstrated by Henri Ferdinand Dolbeau in 1864, following the extirpation of a frontal osteoma. This was further popularized by Sir Victor Alexander Haden Horsley, the father of British neurosurgery, who is often incorrectly mentioned as the inventor of BW. Originally derived from bees' wax, the currently available commercial preparation contains paraffin wax and Isopropyl palmitate in addition. The main action being mechanical tamponade, BW has found several other uses in neurosurgery, other than being a hemostatic agent. Though it is cost-effective, the use of BW is associated with several complications also, including ineffective bone healing and infection. So several other alternatives are coming up, but none has yet been able to fully replace "Horsley's wax" till date. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortisol analysis of hair of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Morimura, Naruki; Mori, Yusuke; Hayashi, Misato; Suzuki, Juri

    2013-12-01

    In addition to behavioral evaluations, stress assessments are also important for measuring animal welfare. Assessments of long-term stress are particularly important given that prolonged stress can affect physical health and reproduction. The use of hair cortisol as a marker of long-term stress has been increasing, but there has not yet been any report on the use of such methods with chimpanzees. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish and validate a methodology for analyzing hair cortisol in captive chimpanzees. In the first experiment, hair was removed from the arms of nine chimpanzees living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS) and the regrown hair was sampled 3 months later. Fecal samples were collected periodically during the hair-growth period. The results showed that hair cortisol level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Although the correlation between hair and fecal cortisol levels was not significant, the individual with the highest hair cortisol concentration also had the highest fecal cortisol concentration. These results suggest that hair cortisol may reflect long-term stress in chimpanzees. In the second experiment, we investigated the physiological factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations. We cut hair from the arms, sides, and backs of 25 chimpanzees living at the KS and the Primate Research Institute. The results revealed that cortisol varied based on source body part and hair whiteness. Therefore, we recommend that hair should always be collected from the same body part and that white hair should be avoided as much as possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and analysis of damaged or porous hair.

    PubMed

    Hill, Virginia; Loni, Elvan; Cairns, Thomas; Sommer, Jonathan; Schaffer, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Cosmetic hair treatments have been referred to as 'the pitfall' of hair analysis. However, most cosmetic treatments, when applied to the hair as instructed by the product vendors, do not interfere with analysis, provided such treatments can be identified by the laboratory and the samples analyzed and reported appropriately for the condition of the hair. This paper provides methods for identifying damaged or porous hair samples using digestion rates of hair in dithiothreitol with and without proteinase K, as well as a protein measurement method applied to dithiothreitol-digested samples. Extremely damaged samples may be unsuitable for analysis. Aggressive and extended aqueous washing of hair samples is a proven method for removing or identifying externally derived drug contamination of hair. In addition to this wash procedure, we have developed an alternative wash procedure using 90% ethanol for washing damaged or porous hair. The procedure, like the aqueous wash procedure, requires analysis of the last of five washes to evaluate the effectiveness of the washing procedure. This evaluation, termed the Wash Criterion, is derived from studies of the kinetics of washing of hair samples that have been experimentally contaminated and of hair from drug users. To study decontamination methods, in vitro contaminated drug-negative hair samples were washed by both the aqueous buffer method and a 90% ethanol method. Analysis of cocaine and methamphetamine was by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Porous hair samples from drug users, when washed in 90% ethanol, pass the wash criterion although they may fail the aqueous wash criterion. Those samples that fail both the ethanolic and aqueous wash criterion are not reported as positive for ingestion. Similar ratios of the metabolite amphetamine relative to methamphetamine in the last wash and the hair is an additional criterion for assessing contamination vs. ingestion of methamphetamine. Copyright © 2014

  5. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  6. Non-invasive biomonitoring for PFRs and PBDEs: new insights in analysis of human hair externally exposed to selected flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Kucharska, Agnieszka; Covaci, Adrian; Vanermen, Guido; Voorspoels, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the hypothesis whether externally adsorbed and internally deposited flame retardants (FRs) in hair could be distinguished. To this extent, hair samples collected from one volunteer were exposed under controlled conditions to phosphate FR (PFR) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) standards to mimic external contamination. Afterwards, suitable washing procedures to selectively remove contaminants from the hair surface were investigated. The samples were measured by GC-(ECNI)-MS for PBDEs and LC-(ESI+)-MS/MS for PFRs. All investigated compounds were transferred onto the hair surface. One of the most important finding was that dust particles are not mandatory to transfer compounds on the hair surface and to be able to measure high levels of compounds in human hair. To assess different protocols to selectively remove external contamination, the exposed hair samples were washed in different media before analysis: water, methanol, hexane:dichloromethane (1:1, v/v), acetone and shampoo. Results indicated that there is no washing medium able to entirely and exclusively remove external contamination. Among investigated media, methanol removed a meaningful part of the external contamination (42-105%), but the removal efficiencies differed among compounds. We therefore concluded that hair should not be washed prior to analysis and in case of visible contamination (e.g. with cosmetic products), water would be the recommended agent. Organic solvents should not be used for the washing step. Although it is impossible to distinguish external from internal exposure, hair samples may be used as valuable biomarker of human exposure, providing a measure of integral exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which has used externally exposed hair samples to PBDEs and PFRs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  8. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF RICE BRAN WAX AS OINTMENT BASE

    PubMed Central

    Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

    2004-01-01

    Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the present study indicate, rice bran wax can be used as a good component in ointment base, comparable with white wax. PMID:22557151

  9. Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sejal; Nelson, Dennis R.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2001-01-01

    Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26–48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38–73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ∼30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values. PMID:15455064

  10. Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. IV. Environmental cocaine contamination and washing effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, W L; Cone, E J

    1995-01-05

    Active cocaine use results in sequestration of parent drug in hair. In addition, hair has unique physicochemical properties that permit absorption of cocaine from the environment. When hair is tested for evidence of cocaine, it is important to consider whether the positive test resulted from active drug use or environmental contamination. In a series of laboratory experiments, it was found that exposure of 'cut' hair to cocaine vapor ('crack' smoke) and to aqueous solutions of cocaine hydrochloride resulted in significant contamination of hair samples. Similar results were obtained with two subjects who were exposed to cocaine vapor in an unventilated room. The amount of contamination adsorbed by hair depended upon both time and extent of exposure. Washing the hair samples with methanol removed > 70% of the cocaine contaminant after cocaine vapor exposure, but was less effective (< 50%) following contamination with aqueous cocaine. Shampoo treatment cycles (overnight soaking) progressively removed increasing amounts of cocaine from the contaminated hair, but residual cocaine remained after 10 cycles. Studies were also performed to determine the usefulness of benzoylecgonine as a marker of active cocaine administration. Small amounts of benzoylecgonine (ca. 1 ng/mg) were formed in hair as a result of environmental contamination with cocaine. Also, it was found that benzoylecgonine could be adsorbed from illicit cocaine contaminated with benzoylecgonine. It was concluded that positive hair test results should be interpreted cautiously due to the possibility of environmental contamination from cocaine and related constituents.

  11. Cuticular wax coverage and composition differ among organs of Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanjun; Busta, Lucas; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    Primary plant surfaces are coated with hydrophobic cuticular waxes to minimize non-stomatal water loss. Wax compositions differ greatly between plant species and, in the few species studied systematically so far, also between organs, tissues, and developmental stages. However, the wax mixtures of more species in diverse plant families must be investigated to assess overall wax variability, and ultimately to correlate organ-specific composition with local water barrier properties. Here, we present comprehensive analyses of the waxes covering five organs of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), to help close a gap in our understanding of wax chemistry in the Asteraceae family. First, novel wax constituents of the petal wax were identified as C 25 6,8- and 8,10-ketols as well as C 27 6,8- and 8,10-ketols. Nine other component classes (fatty acids, primary alcohols, esters, aldehydes, alkanes, triterpenols, triterpene acetates, sterols, and tocopherols) were detected in the wax mixtures covering leaves, peduncles, and petals, as well as fruit beaks and pappi. Wax coverages varied from 5 μg/cm 2 on peduncles to 37 μg/cm 2 on petals. Alcohols predominated in leaf wax, while both alcohols and alkanes were found in similar amounts on peduncles and petals, and mainly alkanes on the fruit beaks and pappi. Chain length distributions within the wax compound classes were similar between organs, centered around C 26 for fatty acids, alcohols, and aldehydes, and C 29 for alkanes. However, the quantities of homologs with longer chain lengths varied substantially between organs, reaching well beyond C 30 on all surfaces except leaves, suggesting differences in elongation enzymes determining the alkyl chain structures. The detailed wax profiles presented here will serve as basis for future investigations into wax biosynthesis in the Asteraceae and into wax functions on different dandelion organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Hair as a Biomarker of Environmental Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Rachel R.; Jursa, Tom P.; Benedetti, Chiara; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    The absence of well-validated biomarkers of manganese (Mn) exposure in children remains a major obstacle for studies of Mn toxicity. We developed a hair cleaning methodology to establish the utility of hair as an exposure biomarker for Mn and other metals (Pb, Cr, Cu), using ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy, and laser ablation ICP-MS to evaluate cleaning efficacy. Exogenous metal contamination on hair that was untreated or intentionally contaminated with dust or Mn-contaminated water was effectively removed using a cleaning method of 0.5% Triton X-100 sonication plus 1N nitric acid sonication. This cleaning method was then used on hair samples from children (n=121) in an ongoing study of environmental Mn exposure and related health effects. Mean hair Mn levels were 0.121 μg/g (median = 0.073 μg/g, range = 0.011 – 0.736 μg/g), which are ~4 to 70-fold lower than levels reported in other pediatric Mn studies. Hair Mn levels were also significantly higher in children living in the vicinity of active, but not historic, ferroalloy plant emissions compared to controls (P<0.001). These data show that exogenous metal contamination on hair can be effectively cleaned of exogenous metal contamination, and they substantiate the use of hair Mn levels as a biomarker of environmental Mn exposure in children. PMID:23259818

  13. Precision phenotyping of epicuticular waxes associated with insect resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate phenotyping is imperative for linkage mapping and association genetics. Amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on the leaf surface are important for plant-insect interactions. In onion, specific wax profiles are associated with resistance to the insect pest Thrips tabaci. Epicuticular wax ...

  14. Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet.

    PubMed

    Bhalekar, M R; Madgulkar, A R; Sheladiya, D D; Kshirsagar, S J; Wable, N D; Desale, S S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X(1)) and bees wax (X(2)) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t(50)) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t(50) but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings.

  15. Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Bhalekar, M. R.; Madgulkar, A. R.; Sheladiya, D. D.; Kshirsagar, S. J.; Wable, N. D.; Desale, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 32 full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X1) and bees wax (X2) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t50) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t50 but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings. PMID:20046773

  16. Shape-tunable wax microparticle synthesis via microfluidics and droplet impact

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doojin; Beesabathuni, Shilpa N.; Shen, Amy Q.

    2015-01-01

    Spherical and non-spherical wax microparticles are generated by employing a facile two-step droplet microfluidic process which consists of the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a flow-focusing microchannel and their subsequent off-chip crystallization and deformation via microdroplet impingement on an immiscible liquid interface. Key parameters on the formation of molten wax microdroplets in a microfluidic channel are the viscosity of the molten wax and the interfacial tension between the dispersed and continuous fluids. A cursory phase diagram of wax morphology transition is depicted depending on the Capillary number and the Stefan number during the impact process. A combination of numerical simulation and analytical modeling is carried out to understand the physics underlying the deformation and crystallization process of the molten wax. The deformation of wax microdroplets is dominated by the viscous and thermal effects rather than the gravitational and buoyancy effects. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the wax illustrates the time dependent thermal effects on the droplet deformation and crystallization. The work presented here will benefit those interested in the design and production criteria of soft non-spherical particles (i.e., alginate gels, wax, and polymer particles) with the aid of time and temperature mediated solidification and off-chip crosslinking. PMID:26697124

  17. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Sheila K; Larsen, Sofus C; Olsen, Nanna J; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1-2cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. No statistically significant difference (p=0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean: 137pg/mg [95% CI: 122,153]) and women with natural hair color (adjusted mean: 139pg/mg [95% CI: 123,155]). Frequency of hair washing was not associated with HCC (β: -3.7 [95% CI: -9.0, 1.5; P=0.20]). This study of 266 Danish women provides no evidence in support of an association between HCC and hair dyeing status or hair washing frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in organogel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant waxes are considered as promising alternatives to unhealthy solid fats such as trans fats and saturated fats in structured food products including margarines and spreads. Sunflower wax is of a great interest due to its strong gelling ability. Morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in soyb...

  19. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax. Candelilla wax is prepared by immersing the plants in boiling water containing sulfuric acid and skimming off the... practice: in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1976 - Candelilla wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... obtained from the candelilla plant. It is a hard, yellowish-brown, opaque-to-translucent wax. Candelilla wax is prepared by immersing the plants in boiling water containing sulfuric acid and skimming off the... practice: in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter and in hard candy as defined in § 170...

  2. Waxes: A Forgotten Topic in Lipid Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the biological importance of the lipids categorized as waxes and describes some of the organic chemistry of these compounds. Presents a short laboratory exercise on the extraction of plant waxes and their analysis by thin layer chromatography. (Author/CCM)

  3. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

  4. Diversity of cuticular wax among Salix species and Populus species hybrids.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Bevilacqua, Eddie; Smart, Lawrence B

    2002-08-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of three Salix species and two Populus species hybrids, selected for their ability to produce high amounts of biomass, were characterized. Samples were extracted in CH(2)Cl(2) three times over the growing season. Low kV SEM was utilized to observe differences in the ultrastructure of leaf surfaces from each clone. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups, and the variation in wax components due to clone, sample time, and their interaction was identified. All Salix species and Populus species hybrids showed differences in total wax load at each sampling period, whereas the pattern of wax deposition over time differed only between the Salix species. A strong positive relationship was identified between the entire homologous series of alcohols and total wax load in all clones. Similarly strong relationships were observed between fatty acids and total wax load as well as fatty acids and alcohols in two Salix species and one Populus species hybrid. One Salix species, S. dasyclados, also displayed a strong positive relationship between alcohols and alkanes. These data indicate that species grown under the same environmental conditions produce measurably different cuticular waxes and that regulation of wax production appears to be different in each species. The important roles cuticular waxes play in drought tolerance, pest, and pathogen resistance, as well as the ease of wax extraction and analysis, strongly suggest that the characteristics of the cuticular wax may prove to be useful selectable traits in a breeding program.

  5. Release from or through a wax matrix system. I. Basic release properties of the wax matrix system.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Y; Ishida, S; Sunada, H

    2001-11-01

    Release properties from a wax matrix tablet was examined. To obtain basic release properties, the wax matrix tablet was prepared from a physical mixture of drug and wax powder (hydrogenated caster oil) at a fixed mixing ratio. Properties of release from the single flat-faced surface or curved side surface of the wax matrix tablet were examined. The applicability of the square-root time law and of Higuchi equations was confirmed. The release rate constant obtained as g/min(1/2) changed with the release direction. However, the release rate constant obtained as g/cm2 x min(1/2) was almost the same. Hence it was suggested that the release property was almost the same and the wax matrix structure was uniform independent of release surface or direction at a fixed mixing ratio. However, these equations could not explain the entire release process. The applicability of a semilogarithmic equation was not as good compared with the square-root time law or Higuchi equation. However, it was revealed that the semilogarithmic equation was available to simulate the entire release process, even though the fit was somewhat poor. Hence it was suggested that the semilogarithmic equation was sufficient to describe the release process. The release rate constant was varied with release direction. However, these release rate constants were expressed by a function of the effective surface area and initial amount, independent of the release direction.

  6. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    PubMed Central

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products. PMID:22315575

  7. Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax.

    PubMed

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  8. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorb, Elena V.; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-04-01

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion.

  9. Phototransformation of the herbicide sulcotrione on maize cuticular wax.

    PubMed

    Ter Halle, Alexandra; Drncova, Daniela; Richard, Claire

    2006-05-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in environmental cycling and the fate of many organic pollutants. This is especially the case for pesticides because plant leaves are their first reaction environment after application. It is commonly accepted that photochemical reactions of pollutants on plants predominantly take place in the cuticular wax coating of the leaves. Thus, we used films made of either cuticular wax extracted from maize or carnauba gray wax as a model support. Under simulated sunlight irradiation, sulcotrione (a new class of triketone herbicides) sorbed on cuticular wax films was photolyzed and mainly underwent an intramolecular cyclization. The photoproduct is a chromone derivative which was isolated and fully characterized. It is reported for the first time as a sulcotrione degradation product. The photoreactivity of formulated sulcotrione at the surface of cuticular waxes was investigated too. It photodegraded more rapidly than nonformulated sulcotrione. This study also shows that the rate of sulcotrione photolysis was much faster than the rate of penetration into the wax; photolysis should be, thus, a relevant process in real conditions.

  10. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  11. Hair Follicle Miniaturization in a Woolly Hair Nevus: A Novel "Root" Perspective for a Mosaic Hair Disorder.

    PubMed

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Perez, Alfonso; Hoque, Shamali R; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fleck, Roland A; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a mosaic disorder characterized by unruly, tightly curled hair in a circumscribed area of the scalp. This condition may be associated with epidermal nevi. We describe an 11-year-old boy who initially presented with multiple patches of woolly hair and with epidermal nevi on his left cheek and back. He had no nail, teeth, eye, or cardiac abnormalities. Analysis of plucked hairs from patches of woolly hair showed twisting of the hair shaft and an abnormal hair cuticle. Histopathology of a woolly hair patch showed diffuse hair follicle miniaturization with increased vellus hairs.

  12. Treatment of unwanted hair in auricular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gault, David

    2009-08-01

    In many microtia patients, the hairline is lower than ideal. Despite this, it is essential to position the reconstructed ear in the correct place. Here is a series of tips and tricks to deal with unwanted hair on the skin that covers an autogenous tissue reconstruction. Replacement of the skin with a fascial flap and skin graft remains the mainstay of treatment for a very-low-hairline case. Surgical removal of hair on the helical rim during the release procedure is also described. Laser depilation, surgical electrolysis, and even shaving techniques are also discussed. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of an aqueous wax emulsion for controlled-release coating.

    PubMed

    Walia, P S; Stout, P J; Turton, R

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of an aqueous carnauba wax emulsion (Primafresh HS, Johnson Wax) in a spray-coating process. This involved assessing the effectiveness of the wax in sustaining the release of the drug, theophylline. Second, the process by which the drug was released from the wax-coated pellets was modeled. Finally, a method to determine the optimum blend of pellets with different wax thicknesses, in order to yield a zero-order release profile of the drug, was addressed. Nonpareil pellets were loaded with theophylline using a novel powder coating technique. These drug-loaded pellets were then coated with different levels of carnauba wax in a 6-in. diameter Plexiglas fluid bed with a 3.5-in. diameter Wurster partition. Drug release was measured using a spin-filter dissolution device. The study resulted in continuous carnauba wax coatings which showed sustained drug release profile characteristics typical of a barrier-type, diffusion-controlled system. The effect of varying wax thickness on the release profiles was investigated. It was observed that very high wax loadings would be required to achieve long sustained-release times. The diffusion model, developed to predict the release of the drug, showed good agreement with the experimental data. However, the data exhibited an initial lag-time for drug release which could not be predicted a priori based on the wax coating thickness. A method of mixing pellets with different wax thicknesses was proposed as a way to approximate zero-order release.

  14. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  15. Hair segmentation using adaptive threshold from edge and branch length measures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ian; Du, Xian; Anthony, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Non-invasive imaging techniques allow the monitoring of skin structure and diagnosis of skin diseases in clinical applications. However, hair in skin images hampers the imaging and classification of the skin structure of interest. Although many hair segmentation methods have been proposed for digital hair removal, a major challenge in hair segmentation remains in detecting hairs that are thin, overlapping, of similar contrast or color to underlying skin, or overlaid on highly-textured skin structure. To solve the problem, we present an automatic hair segmentation method that uses edge density (ED) and mean branch length (MBL) to measure hair. First, hair is detected by the integration of top-hat transform and modified second-order Gaussian filter. Second, we employ a robust adaptive threshold of ED and MBL to generate a hair mask. Third, the hair mask is refined by k-NN classification of hair and skin pixels. The proposed algorithm was tested using two datasets of healthy skin images and lesion images respectively. These datasets were taken from different imaging platforms in various illumination levels and varying skin colors. We compared the hair detection and segmentation results from our algorithm and six other hair segmentation methods of state of the art. Our method exhibits high value of sensitivity: 75% and specificity: 95%, which indicates significantly higher accuracy and better balance between true positive and false positive detection than the other methods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The interpretation of hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Eva; Flanagan, Robert J

    2018-02-01

    Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing. We searched the PubMed database for papers published 2010-2016 using the terms "hair" and "drug" and "decontamination", the terms "hair" and "drug" and "contamination", the terms "hair" and "drug-facilitated crime", the terms "hair" and "ethyl glucuronide", and the terms "hair", "drug testing" and "analysis". Study of the reference lists of the 46 relevant papers identified 25 further relevant citations, giving a total of 71 citations. Hair samples: Drugs, drug metabolites and/or decomposition products may arise not only from deliberate drug administration, but also via deposition from a contaminated atmosphere if drug(s) have been smoked or otherwise vaporized in a confined area, transfer from contaminated surfaces via food/fingers, etc., and transfer from sweat and other secretions after a single large exposure, which could include anesthesia. Excretion in sweat of endogenous analytes such as γ-hydroxybutyric acid is a potential confounder if its use is to be investigated. Cosmetic procedures such as bleaching or heat treatment of hair may remove analytes prior to sample collection. Hair color and texture, the area of the head the sample is taken from, the growth rate of individual hairs, and how the sample has been stored, may also affect the interpretation of results. Toxicological analysis: Immunoassay results alone do not provide reliable evidence on which to base judicial decisions. Gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  17. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation.

  18. Rapid analysis of 13C in plant-wax n-alkanes for reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation signals from aquatic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffee, Kelsey E.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean; Wagner, Thomas; Hayes, John M.

    2004-10-01

    Long-chain, odd-carbon-numbered C25 to C35 n-alkanes are characteristic components of epicuticular waxes produced by terrestrial higher plants. They are delivered to aquatic systems via eolian and fluvial transport and are preserved in underlying sediments. The isotopic compositions of these products can serve as records of past vegetation. We have developed a rapid method for stable carbon isotopic analyses of total plant-wax n-alkanes using a novel, moving-wire system coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (MW-irMS). The n-alkane fractions are prepared from sediment samples by (1) saponification and extraction with organic solvents, (2) chromatographic separation using silica gel, (3) isolation of straight-chain carbon skeletons using a zeolite molecular sieve, and (4) oxidation and removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons with RuO4. Short-chain n-alkanes of nonvascular plant origin (removed by evaporation on the moving wire. Test samples processed using this procedure yielded n-alkane fractions essentially free of interfering components. The δ13C values obtained by MW-irMS did not differ significantly from weighted averages of individual n-alkane δ13C values obtained by irmGC-MS. Isotopic variations in compound-class n-alkane fractions from a latitudinal transect of core-top sediments from the Southwest African margin (3°N-28°S) were congruent with those measured by compound-specific isotopic analyses of plant-wax n-alkanes. The amplitude of the variations was smaller, indicating contributions from non-plant-wax hydrocarbons, but the measurements revealed variations in carbon isotopic composition that are consistent with vegetation zones on the adjacent continent.

  19. Rapid analysis of 13C in plant-wax n-alkanes for reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation signals from aquatic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffee, Kelsey E.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Sessions, Alex L.; Sylva, Sean; Wagner, Thomas; Hayes, John M.

    2004-10-01

    Long-chain, odd-carbon-numbered C25 to C35n-alkanes are characteristic components of epicuticular waxes produced by terrestrial higher plants. They are delivered to aquatic systems via eolian and fluvial transport and are preserved in underlying sediments. The isotopic compositions of these products can serve as records of past vegetation. We have developed a rapid method for stable carbon isotopic analyses of total plant-wax n-alkanes using a novel, moving-wire system coupled to an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (MW-irMS). The n-alkane fractions are prepared from sediment samples by (1) saponification and extraction with organic solvents, (2) chromatographic separation using silica gel, (3) isolation of straight-chain carbon skeletons using a zeolite molecular sieve, and (4) oxidation and removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons with RuO4. Short-chain n-alkanes of nonvascular plant origin (removed by evaporation on the moving wire. Test samples processed using this procedure yielded n-alkane fractions essentially free of interfering components. The δ13C values obtained by MW-irMS did not differ significantly from weighted averages of individual n-alkane δ13C values obtained by irmGC-MS. Isotopic variations in compound-class n-alkane fractions from a latitudinal transect of core-top sediments from the Southwest African margin (3°N-28°S) were congruent with those measured by compound-specific isotopic analyses of plant-wax n-alkanes. The amplitude of the variations was smaller, indicating contributions from non-plant-wax hydrocarbons, but the measurements revealed variations in carbon isotopic composition that are consistent with vegetation zones on the adjacent continent.

  20. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  1. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  2. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  3. Incomplete caries removal and indirect pulp capping in primary molars: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bressani, Ana Eliza Lemes; Mariath, Adriela Azevedo Souza; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; de Araujo, Fernando Borba

    2013-08-01

    To compare the effect of incomplete caries removal (ICR) and indirect pulp capping (IPC) with calcium hydroxide (CH) or an inert material (wax) on color, consistency and contamination of the remaining dentin of primary molars. This double-blind, parallel-design, randomized controlled trial included 30 children presenting one primary molar with deep caries lesion. Children were randomly assigned after ICR to receive IPC with CH or wax. All teeth were then restored with resin composite. Baseline dentin color and consistency were evaluated after ICR, and dentin samples were collected for contamination analyses using scanning electron microscopy. After 3 months, restorations were removed and the three parameters were re-evaluated. In both groups, dentin became significantly darker after 3 months. No cases of yellow dentin were observed after 3 months with CH compared to 33.3% of the wax cases (P < 0.05). A statistically significant difference over time was observed only for CH regarding consistency. CH stimulated a dentin hardening process in a statistically higher number of cases than wax (86.7% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.008). Contamination changed significantly over time in CH and wax without significant difference between groups. It was concluded that CH and wax arrested the carious process of the remaining carious dentin after indirect pulp capping, but CH showed superior dentin color and consistency after 3 months.

  4. Removal of trimethylamine (fishy odor) by C₃ and CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2015-08-01

    From screening 23 plant species, it was found that Pterocarpus indicus (C3) and Sansevieria trifasciata (crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)) were the most effective in polar gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) uptake, reaching up to 90% uptake of initial TMA (100 ppm) within 8 h, and could remove TMA at cycles 1-4 without affecting photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry. Up to 55 and 45% of TMA was taken up by S. trifasciata stomata and leaf epicuticular wax, respectively. During cycles 1-4, interestingly, S. trifasciata changed its stomata apertures, which was directly induced by gaseous TMA and light treatments. In contrast, for P. indicus the leaf epicuticular wax and stem were the major pathways of TMA removal, followed by stomata; these pathways accounted for 46, 46, and 8%, respectively, of TMA removal percentages. Fatty acids, particularly tetradecanoic (C14) acid and octadecanoic (C18) acid, were found to be the main cuticular wax components in both plants, and were associated with TMA removal ability. Moreover, the plants could degrade TMA via multiple metabolic pathways associated with carbon/nitrogen interactions. In CAM plants, one of the crucial pathways enabled 78% of TMA to be transformed directly to dimethylamine (DMA) and methylamine (MA), which differed from C3 plant pathways. Various metabolites were also produced for further detoxification and mineralization so that TMA was completely degraded by plants.

  5. Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Hair Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in hair cortisol concentrations as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of metabolic diseases and chronic psychological stress. Fifty-three volunteers were recruited, and hair segments proximal to the scalp were collected from each individual. A cost-effective ball mill was used for the preparation of hair samples, and ELISA was performed to analyze cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that the frequency of hair washing affects the hair cortisol concentration. The group that washed their hair every day had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than the group that washed it less often. However, no significant differences were detected between cosmetic-treated and nontreated hair samples. The study also shows that hair cortisol concentrations in the first 3 cm of hair segments proximal to the scalp corresponded to average hair growth rate based on 1 cm/month. Thus, hair cortisol concentrations of segments 3 cm proximal to the scalp may represent cumulative stress exposure over the previous 3 months. These findings will allow more widespread research to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a potential biomarker to assess chronic stress. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Gluconeogenesis from storage wax in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Moreau, R A; Huang, A H

    1977-08-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the beta oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings.

  7. A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of a marine complex supplement to promote hair growth in men with thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Ablon, Glynis

    2016-12-01

    Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, affects approximately 50% of the adult population and can cause poor self-image, low self-esteem and have a significant negative impact on the quality of life. An oral nutraceutical supplement based on a marine complex formulation has previously been reported to significantly increase the number of terminal hairs in women with thinning hair. The objective of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to confirm the beneficial effects of a similar marine complex supplement in adult male subjects with thinning hair (Viviscal ® Man; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Healthy adult male subjects with thinning hair associated with clinically diagnosed male pattern hair loss were enrolled and randomized to receive study drug or placebo twice daily. At Day 90, subjects indicated a significant improvement in three of six quality of life measures as well as a significant overall improvement in quality of life. After 180 days, significant increases were observed for total hair count, total hair density, and terminal hair density (for each, P = 0.001). The investigator assessments revealed significant improvements in terminal and vellus hair count and terminal hair density. Hair pull test results were significantly lower (fewer hairs removed) for study drug vs. placebo at Days 90 (P < 0.05) and 180 (P < 0.01). There were no reports of treatment-emergent adverse events. The results of this study showed for the first time that a dietary supplement containing a marine complex and other ingredients can decrease hair shedding and promote hair growth in men with thinning hair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  9. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  10. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  11. Activities in support of the wax-impregnated wallboard concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kedl, R.J.; Stovall, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of octadecane wax impregnated wallboard for the passive solar application is a major thrust of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Thermal Energy Storage (TES) program. Thus, ORNL has initiated a number of internal efforts in support of this concept. The results of these efforts are: The immersion process for filling wallboard with wax has been successfully sealed up from small samples to full-size sheets; analysis shows that the immersion process has the potential for achieving higher storage capacity than adding wax filled pellets to wallboard during its manufacture; analysis indicates that 75/degree/F is close to an optimummore » phase change temperature for the non-passive solar application; and the thermal conductivity of wallboard without wax has been measured and will be measured for wax impregnated wallboard. In addition, efforts are underway to confirm an analytical model that handles phase change wallboard for the passive solar application. 4 refs., 10 figs.« less

  12. Self-association of plant wax components: a thermodynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Casado, C G; Heredia, A

    2001-01-01

    Excess specific heat, C(p)()(E), of binary mixtures of selected components of plant cuticular waxes has been determined. This thermodynamic parameter gives an explanation of the special molecular arrangement in crystalline and amorphous zones of plant waxes. C(p)()(E) values indicate that hydrogen bonding between chains results in the formation of amorphous zones. Conclusions on the self-asembly process of plant waxes have been also made.

  13. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  14. Towards a body hair atlas of women of caucasian ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, D; Hoff, A; Scheede, S; Fischer, F; Tilsner, J; Lüttke, J; Neumann, Y; Hagens, R

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary study was conducted in 17 female volunteers (mean age 29.8 years) to gain deeper insights into the characteristics of terminal Caucasian female body hair of different body parts. The focus on Caucasian women was driven by the high number of different scalp hair phenotypes in this ethnicity and intended to identify relevant differences between body areas to improve body hair removal approaches. Multiple growth parameters and structural parameters were assessed for hair on the upper arm, forearm, upper leg, lower leg, axilla and intimate area and compared to scalp data. In particular, macroscopic and much less microscopic or hair surface properties differ strikingly in the investigated body areas. Hair density on the body is much lower than on scalp with the highest hair density in the axilla and intimate area. Multihair follicular units are described for scalp but were also found to a smaller proportion in the axilla and the intimate area. Substantial percentages of hair triplets are only found on the scalp and intimate area. Hair diameter is highest in the intimate area, followed by axillary and lower leg hair and correlates with a faster hair growth rate. The angle of emerging hair is smallest in the intimate area, axilla and on the lower leg. Hair shafts on the lower leg and in the axilla have most overlapping cuticle layers, but independent of body region, no significant differences in the mean thickness of cuticle layers were detectable. In addition, no differences were found in the mean distance between cuticle layer edges along the hair shaft and the hair surface roughness. Hair on the scalp, forearm, upper arm and upper leg had an almost round shape, whereas hair of the lower leg, intimate area and axilla had more elliptical shape. Hairs on the arm showed the highest luminance values and no visible medulla. The darkest hairs were in the axilla and intimate area containing the highest level of visible medulla in hair shafts. To our knowledge

  15. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  16. From Hair in India to Hair India

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  17. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  18. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  19. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Loss What's in ... after the problem that causes it is corrected. Hair Basics Hair is made of a kind of ...

  20. A Study on the Development of a Robot-Assisted Automatic Laser Hair Removal System

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoung-woo; Park, Sungwoo; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Chiyul; Koh, Wooseok; Kim, Youdan; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and Objective: The robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal (LHR) system is developed to automatically detect any arbitrary shape of the desired LHR treatment area and to provide uniform laser irradiation to the designated skin area. Methods: For uniform delivery of laser energy, a unit of a commercial LHR device, a laser distance sensor, and a high-resolution webcam are attached at the six axis industrial robot's end-effector, which can be easily controlled using a graphical user interface (GUI). During the treatment, the system provides real-time treatment progress as well as the total number of “pick and place” automatically. Results: During the test, it was demonstrated that the arbitrary shapes were detected, and that the laser was delivered uniformly. The localization error test and the area-per-spot test produced satisfactory outcome averages of 1.04 mm error and 38.22 mm2/spot, respectively. Conclusions: Results showed that the system successfully demonstrated accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed system is expected to become a promising device in LHR treatment. PMID:25343281

  1. A study on the development of a robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyoung-Woo; Park, Sungwoo; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yoon, Chiyul; Koh, Wooseok; Kim, Youdan; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Sungwan

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background and Objective: The robot-assisted automatic laser hair removal (LHR) system is developed to automatically detect any arbitrary shape of the desired LHR treatment area and to provide uniform laser irradiation to the designated skin area. For uniform delivery of laser energy, a unit of a commercial LHR device, a laser distance sensor, and a high-resolution webcam are attached at the six axis industrial robot's end-effector, which can be easily controlled using a graphical user interface (GUI). During the treatment, the system provides real-time treatment progress as well as the total number of "pick and place" automatically. During the test, it was demonstrated that the arbitrary shapes were detected, and that the laser was delivered uniformly. The localization error test and the area-per-spot test produced satisfactory outcome averages of 1.04 mm error and 38.22 mm(2)/spot, respectively. RESULTS showed that the system successfully demonstrated accuracy and effectiveness. The proposed system is expected to become a promising device in LHR treatment.

  2. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-24

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings.

  3. Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, M; Torabi, K; Farjood, E; Khaledi, Aar

    2013-09-01

    Metal-ceramic crowns are most commonly used as the complete coverage restorations in clinical daily use. Disadvantages of conventional hand-made wax-patterns introduce some alternative ways by means of CAD/CAM technologies. This study compares the marginal and internal fit of copings cast from CAD/CAM and conventional fabricated wax-patterns. Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). CAD/CAM milling machine (Cori TEC 340i; imes-icore GmbH, Eiterfeld, Germany) was used to fabricate the CAD/CAM group wax-patterns. The copings cast from 24 wax-patterns were cemented to the corresponding dies. For all the coping-die assemblies cross-sectional technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal fit at 15 points. The Student's t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). The overall mean (SD) for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) was 254.46 (25.10) um for CAD/CAM group and 88.08(10.67) um for conventional group (control). The overall mean of internal gap total (IGT) was 110.77(5.92) um for CAD/CAM group and 76.90 (10.17) um for conventional group. The Student's t-test revealed significant differences between 2 groups. Marginal and internal gaps were found to be significantly higher at all measured areas in CAD/CAM group than conventional group (p< 0.001). Within limitations of this study, conventional method of wax-pattern fabrication produced copings with significantly better marginal and internal fit than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique. All the factors for 2 groups were standardized except wax pattern fabrication technique, therefore, only the conventional group results in copings with clinically acceptable

  4. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  5. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017718 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. Kondratyev and Coleman used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  6. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  7. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    PubMed

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  8. Simple Synthesis Hydrogenated Castor Oil Fatty Amide Wax and Its Coating Characterization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuzhu; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for incorporating amine groups in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) to produce wax for beeswax or carnauba wax substitution in packaging and coating was developed. From the conversion rate of the products, HCO was reacted with ethanolamine at 150°C for 5 h, and the molar ratio of HCO and ethanolamine was 1:4. The hardness of the final product was seven times higher than that of beeswax, the cohesiveness of the final product was 1.3 times higher than that of beeswax and approximately one half of that of carnauba wax, and the melting point of the final product is 98°C. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy showed that the amide groups were incorporated to form the amide products. In coating application, the results showed that the force of the final product coating cardboard was higher than that of beeswax and paraffin wax and less than that of carnauba wax. After 24 h soaking, the compression forces were decreased. HCO fatty acid wax can be an alternative wax for carnauba wax and beeswax in coating applications.

  9. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Possibility of wax control techniques in Indonesian oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurrahman, M.; Ferizal, F. H.; Husna, U. Z.; Pangaribuan, L.

    2018-03-01

    Wax is one of the common problem which can reduce the oil production, especially for the reservoir with high paraffin content case. When the temperature of crude oil is lower than pour point, wax molecules can begin rapidly precipitated. The impacts of this problem are the clogging of production equipment, sealing off the pores in the reservoir, and decreasing production flow rate. In order to solve the wax problem, several methods have been applied in some oil fields in the world. For example, chemical methods in Jiangsu field (China) and Mumbai High field (India), hot water in Mangala field (India), magnetic method in Daqing field (China), water-dispersible in Bakken basin (US), and microbial in Jidong field (China). In general, the various crude oils present in the Indonesia contain wax content between 10%-39% and pour point of 22°C-49°C. Hot water and chemical method are commonly used to solve wax problems in Indonesian oil fields. However, the primary solution is magnetic method, and the secondary solution is water dispersible.

  11. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY: The Commission... petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury...

  12. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-02-01

    In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen) and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (U.K., Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the U.S.A., Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017725 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  14. Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1977-01-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

  15. Wax layers on Cosmos bipinnatus petals contribute unequally to total petal water resistance.

    PubMed

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C(22) and C(24) fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 10(4) and 1.5 × 10(4) s m(-1) for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Thermal behavior of gamma-irradiated low-density polyethylene/paraffin wax blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Saleh M.; Elnahas, H. H.; El-Zahed, H.; Abdeldaym, A.

    2016-05-01

    The thermal properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/paraffin wax blends were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and melt flow index (MFI). Blends of LDPE/wax in ratios of 100/0, 98/2, 96/4, 94/6, 92/8, 90/10 and 85/15 (w/w) were prepared by melt-mixing at the temperature of 150°C. It was found that increasing the wax content more than 15% leads to phase separation. DSC results showed that for all blends both the melting temperature (Tm) and the melting enthalpy (ΔHm) decrease linearly with an increase in wax content. TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of all blends decreases linearly with increasing wax content. No clear correlation was observed between the melting point and thermal stability. Horowitz and Metzger method was used to determine the thermal activation energy (Ea). MFI increased exponentially by increasing the wax content. The effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal behavior of the blends was also investigated at different gamma irradiation doses. Significant correlations were found between the thermal parameters (Tm, ΔHm, T5%, Ea and MFI) and the amount of wax content and gamma irradiation.

  17. Hair Transplantation Controversies.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R; Finney, Robert; Rogers, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing transplanted hair for men. It is increasingly popular procedure to restore natural growing hair for men with hair loss. To review some current controversies in hair transplant surgery. Review of the English PubMed literature and specialty literature in hair transplant surgery. Some of the controversies in hair transplant surgery include appropriate donor harvesting technique including elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction whether manual versus robotic, the role of platelet-rich plasma and low-level light surgery in hair transplant surgery. Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing hair. As with all techniques, there are controversies regarding the optimal method for performing the procedure. Some of the current controversies in hair transplant surgery include optimal donor harvesting techniques, elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction, the role of low-level light therapy and the platelet-rich plasma therapy in the procedure. Future studies will further clarify their role in the procedure.

  18. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  19. Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, M; Torabi, K; Farjood, E; Khaledi, AAR

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Metal-ceramic crowns are most commonly used as the complete coverage restorations in clinical daily use. Disadvantages of conventional hand-made wax-patterns introduce some alternative ways by means of CAD/CAM technologies. Purpose: This study compares the marginal and internal fit of copings cast from CAD/CAM and conventional fabricated wax-patterns. Materials and Method: Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). CAD/CAM milling machine (Cori TEC 340i; imes-icore GmbH, Eiterfeld, Germany) was used to fabricate the CAD/CAM group wax-patterns. The copings cast from 24 wax-patterns were cemented to the corresponding dies. For all the coping-die assemblies cross-sectional technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal fit at 15 points. The Student’s t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). Results: The overall mean (SD) for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) was 254.46 (25.10) um for CAD/CAM group and 88.08(10.67) um for conventional group (control). The overall mean of internal gap total (IGT) was 110.77(5.92) um for CAD/CAM group and 76.90 (10.17) um for conventional group. The Student’s t-test revealed significant differences between 2 groups. Marginal and internal gaps were found to be significantly higher at all measured areas in CAD/CAM group than conventional group (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Within limitations of this study, conventional method of wax-pattern fabrication produced copings with significantly better marginal and internal fit than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique. All the factors for 2 groups were standardized except wax pattern fabrication technique, therefore

  20. Coleman cuts Nespoli's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017741 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner (partially out of frame) to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  1. Coleman cuts Nespoli's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017736 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner (partially out of frame) to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  2. Nespoli cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017715 (15 Jan. 2011) --- European Space Agency astronaut Paolo Nespoli assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  3. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  4. WAXS studies of the structural diversity of hemoglobin in solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, L.; Bardhan, J.; Gore, D.

    2011-01-01

    Specific ligation states of hemoglobin are, when crystallized, capable of taking on multiple quaternary structures. The relationship between these structures, captured in crystal lattices, and hemoglobin structure in solution remains uncertain. Wide-angle X-ray solution scattering (WAXS) is a sensitive probe of protein structure in solution that can distinguish among similar structures and has the potential to contribute to these issues. We used WAXS to assess the relationships among the structures of human and bovine hemoglobins in different liganded forms in solution. WAXS data readily distinguished among the various forms of hemoglobins. WAXS patterns confirm some of the relationships among hemoglobinmore » structures that have been defined through crystallography and NMR and extend others. For instance, methemoglobin A in solution is, as expected, nearly indistinguishable from HbCO A. Interestingly, for bovine hemoglobin, the differences between deoxy-Hb, methemoglobin and HbCO are smaller than the corresponding differences in human hemoglobin. WAXS data were also used to assess the spatial extent of structural fluctuations of various hemoglobins in solution. Dynamics has been implicated in allosteric control of hemoglobin, and increased dynamics has been associated with lowered oxygen affinity. Consistent with that notion, WAXS patterns indicate that deoxy-Hb A exhibits substantially larger structural fluctuations than HbCO A. Comparisons between the observed WAXS patterns and those predicted on the basis of atomic coordinate sets suggest that the structures of Hb in different liganded forms exhibit clear differences from known crystal structure.« less

  5. Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.

    PubMed

    El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.

  6. Policosanol fabrication from insect wax and optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhongquan; Wang, Youqiong; Li, Kai; Chen, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is a famous biological resource for the role in economic production in China. Insect wax is a good source of policosanol, which may is a candidate supplement in foodstuff and pharmaceuticals that has important physiological activities. Therefore, this work aims to investigate a high-yield and rapid method for policosanol fabrication from insect wax. The conditions for policosanol fabrication were optimized as follows: an oil bath temperature of 112.7°C and reductant dosage of 0.97 g (used for the reduction of 10.00 g of insect wax). The yield of policosanol reached 83.20%, which was 4 times greater than that of existing methods, such as saponification. The total content of policosanol obtained under the optimal conditions reached 87%. In other words, a high yield of policosanol was obtained from insect wax (723.84 mg/g), that was 55 times higher than that generated from beeswax-brown via saponification. The concentrations of metal residues in policosanol were within the limits of the European Union regulations and EFSA stipulation. The LD50 values for oral doses of insect wax and policosanol were both > 5 g/kg. Policosanol was fabricated via solvent-free reduction from insect wax using LiAlH4 at a high yield. The fabrication conditions were optimized. Policosanol and insect wax showed high security, which made them potential candidates as supplements in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The rapid and high-yield method has great potential for commercial manufacturing of policosanol.

  7. Equisetum species show uniform epicuticular wax structures but diverse composition patterns

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Thomas; Haas, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Only few data on the epicuticular waxes (EWs) of horsetails are available. This contribution therefore focuses on the wax micromorphology and chemical composition of Equisetum species of the subgenera Equisetum and Hippochaete. Methodology Distribution patterns and structural details of EW on the shoots were studied by scanning electron microscopy. After extraction with chloroform, the chemical composition of wax isolates was analysed by gas chromatography. Principal results Epicuticular wax crystals were non-oriented platelets or membraneous platelets. They were usually located on subsidiary cells of stomata and adjacent cells. Other parts of the shoots were covered mainly with a smooth wax film or small granules only. The chemical constituents found were alkanes, esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols and free fatty acids in a range of C20–C36 (in esters C36–C56). All species of the subgenus Hippochaete showed a similar pattern of fractions with high percentages of alkanes and aldehydes, whereas the subgenus Equisetum species had distinctly different wax compositions. Extracts from the internodes—surfaces without well-developed EW crystals and only few stomata—showed the lowest contents of aldehydes. Conclusions The covering with EW crystals will provide unhindered gas exchange and, combined with intracuticular wax, may prevent excess water loss during winter in the evergreen shoots of the subgenus Hippochaete. The results indicate that the Equisetum wax micromorphology and biosynthesis are comparable to EW of other pteridophyte classes and mosses. PMID:22476480

  8. Influence of the formulations in removing eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Picollo, María Inés; Vassena, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Head lice lay eggs in human head hairs in order to reproduce. There is a difficulty associated to the process of detaching these eggs: they are tightly gripped to the hair by a secretion produced by female head lice. The physical removal of eggs has become an important part of treatment of louse infestations. The finding of new products to loosen the eggs is necessary to avoid mistaken diagnosis or reinfestations. This work aimed to compare different kinds of pediculicide formulations in order to find if their presentations represented differences in the egg remover effect. We also wanted to present a new device to test the efficacy of the egg remover formulations. Products with creamy presentations (Bio infant lice and egg remover and hair conditioner) and one containing dimethicone (Nyda) showed the lower mean forces compared with the control (lower mean forces represented best removal activity). Whereas, the Biferdil egg remover (gel) and Nopucid Tribit (hydroalcoholic lotion) had no egg removal effect, presenting the highest mean forces (177.82 and 189.99 mN, respectively) compared with the control. Additionally, we proposed a removal index (RI) to compare the efficacy of different products on the egg removal activity (RI > 0, good performance). The higher index values were for Bio infant lice and egg remover (0.72) and Biferdil hair conditioner (0.58). The lowest index values were for Biferdil egg remover (-0.26) and Nopucid Tribit (-0.35).The formulation of over the counter pediculicides in the egg remover effect was discussed.

  9. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Caifu; Liu, Qian; Mei, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration. Considering the viscosity of the oil phase and the interfacial tension, we conclude that the wax is liquid-like during the high temperature emulsification process, but during cooling wax crystals appear around the oil/water interface and stabilize the droplets. The oil/water ratio has minimal effect on the emulsions between ratios of 3:7 and 7:3. The Laponite is believed to stabilize the emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase and also by adsorbing at the oil/water interface, thus providing a physical barrier to coalescence.

  11. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    Bechshøft, TØ; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3–19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled 1994–2006. Hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. Samples were categorized according to contamination: Eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p = 0.81) or sampling year (p = 0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p = 0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. PMID:21144554

  12. Analysis of wax esters by silver-ion high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Urbanová, Klára; Háková, Matina; Cvačka, Josef

    2013-08-09

    Wax esters (WEs), esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols, were analysed by Ag-HPLC/APCI-MS/MS. Two ChromSpher Lipids columns connected in series (a total length of 50cm) and hexane-2-propanol-acetonitrile mobile phases were used to achieve good separation of the molecular species. The chromatographic behaviour of WEs was studied under optimised conditions: retention increased with the number of double bonds and with the temperature (15-35°C); retention times were affected by the double-bond position, trans isomers eluted earlier than cis isomers, and the WEs were partially separated depending on the aliphatic-chain length. The WEs provided simple APCI spectra with [M+H](+) ions, the MS/MS spectra showed fragments, which allowed their identification. The method was applied for an analysis of the WE mixtures from jojoba oil and human hair and the results were compared with analogous data from an optimised RP-HPLC system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethyl glucuronide: unusual distribution between head hair and pubic hair.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Vallet, Emilie; Etter, Mathieu; Salquebre, Guillaume; Cirimele, Vincent

    2008-03-21

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in hair. In some specific situations, head hair can be missing, and therefore, alternative anatomical locations of hair are of interest. In this study, paired hair specimens (head hair and pubic hair) from eight social drinkers were analyzed for EtG. Each sample was decontaminated by two dichloromethane bathes (5 ml) for 2 min. After cutting into small pieces, about 50 mg of hair was incubated in 2 ml water in the presence of 10 ng of EtG-d5, used as internal standard and submitted to ultra-sonication for 2 h. The aqueous phase was extracted by SPE using Oasis MAX columns. The hair extract was separated on an ACQUITY BEH HILIC column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 221-85 and 75 and m/z 226-75 for EtG and the IS, respectively. This laboratory is using a positive cut-off at 50 pg/mg. All eight head hair specimens were negative for EtG at a limit of quantitation fixed at 10 pg/mg. Surprisingly, EtG was identified at high concentrations in pubic hair, in the range 12-1370 pg/mg. It appears, therefore, that it is not possible to document the drinking status of a subject by simply switching from head hair to pubic hair.

  14. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, Jr., W. Rodman; Garwood, William E.; Kuo, James C.; Leib, Tiberiu M.; Nace, Donald M.; Tabak, Samuel A.

    1987-01-01

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel.

  15. Coating green slash asphalt and wax prevent drying

    Treesearch

    Harry E. Schimke; Ronald H. Dougherty

    1967-01-01

    Dry logging slash has been successfully kept dry for later burning by spraying it with asphalt and wax emulsions. The same treatments were tried on green slash. Tests made by applying SS-1 grade asphalt emulsion and a lumber wax on green slash showed that these protective coatings prevented the slash from drying satisfactorily.

  16. Spruce budworm feeding and oviposition are stimulated by monoterpenes in white spruce epicuticular waxes.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Darragh; Despland, Emma; Chen, Fei; Forgione, Pat; Bauce, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Monoterpenes, source of the distinctive odor of conifers, are generally considered plant defensive compounds. However, they are also known to act as long-range insect attractants, as they are volatile and permeate forest airspaces. Moreover, they are lipid soluble and can be absorbed into plant epicuticular waxes. We test their role in short-range host plant choice by both adult females and larvae of a folivorous forest pest (Choristoneura fumiferana). We conducted laboratory assays testing the responses of Eastern spruce budworm to an artificial monoterpene mix (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, myrcene) and to white spruce (Picea glauca) epicuticular waxes in closed arenas. Ovipositing females preferred filter paper discs treated with P. glauca waxes to controls, and preferred the waxes + monoterpenes treatment to waxes alone. However, females showed no preference between the monoterpene-treated disc and the control when presented without waxes. Feeding larvae prefered wax discs to control discs. They also consumed discs treated with realistic monoterpene concentrations and wax preferentially over wax-only discs, but showed no preference between extremely high monoterpene concentrations and wax-only controls. In an insect-free assay, P. glauca epicuticular wax decreased monoterpene volatilization. These results suggest that P. glauca waxes and realistic concentrations of monoterpenes are stimulatory to both egg-laying females and feeding larvae, and that their effects are synergistic. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Reproduction and subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in rats.

    PubMed

    Parent, R A; Re, T A; Babish, J G; Cox, G E; Voss, K A; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    The reproductive performance of Wistar rats fed carnauba wax at levels of 0.1, 0.3 or 1% in the diet and the effects of subchronic administration of carnauba wax at these dose levels on the resultant progeny were studied. Reproductive indices, body-weight gain, food consumption, haematological and clinical chemical data, ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations were used to study the possible toxic or pathological effects. Serum free fatty acid levels were found to be decreased in male and female rats fed carnauba wax at dietary levels of 0.3 and 1.0%. No other effects of feeding carnauba wax at levels up to 1.0% of the diet were observed.

  18. Molecular and Evolutionary Mechanisms of Cuticular Wax for Plant Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dawei; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lu, Xueli; Chen, Guang; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature. Drought, a major type of abiotic stress, poses huge threats to global food security and health of terrestrial ecosystem by limiting plant growth and crop productivity. The composition, biochemistry, structure, biosynthesis, and transport of plant cuticular wax have been reviewed extensively. However, the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms of cuticular wax in plants in response to drought stress are still lacking. In this review, we focus on potential mechanisms, from evolutionary, molecular, and physiological aspects, that control cuticular wax and its roles in plant drought tolerance. We also raise key research questions and propose important directions to be resolved in the future, leading to potential applications of cuticular wax for water use efficiency in agricultural and environmental sustainability.

  19. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017689 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner (partially out of frame) to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  20. Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.

    PubMed

    Mellema, M; Van Benthum, W A J; Boer, B; Von Harras, J; Visser, A

    2006-11-01

    Water-soluble ingredients have been successfully encapsulated in wax using two preparation techniques. The first technique ('solid preparation') leads to relatively large wax particles. The second technique ('liquid preparation') leads to relatively small wax particles immersed in vegetable oil. On the first technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (dissolved at low concentration in water) has been achieved making use of beeswax and PGPR. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 2 mm, is about 30% after 16 weeks storage in water at room temperature. To form such capsules a minimum wax mass of 40% relative to the total mass is needed. High amounts of salt or acids at the inside water phase causes more leaking, probably because of the osmotic pressure difference. Osmotic matching of inner and outer phase can lead to a dramatic reduction in leakage. Fat capsules are less suitable to incorporate water soluble colourants. The reason for this could be a difference in crystal structure (fat is less ductile and more brittle). On the second technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (encapsulated in solid wax particles) has been achieved making use of carnauba wax. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 250 mm, is about 40% after 1 weeks storage in water at room temperature.

  1. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  2. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Process for upgrading wax from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Garwood, W.E.; Kuo, J.C.; Leib, T.M.; Nace, D.M.; Tabak, S.A.

    1987-08-04

    The waxy liquid phase of an oil suspension of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst containing dissolved wax is separated out and the wax is converted by hydrocracking, dewaxing or by catalytic cracking with a low activity catalyst to provide a highly olefinic product which may be further converted to premium quality gasoline and/or distillate fuel. 2 figs.

  4. Studies on the structure of the plant wax nonacosan-10-ol, the main component of epicuticular wax conifers.

    PubMed

    Matas, Antonio J; Sanz, María José; Heredia, Antonio

    2003-11-01

    The main component presents in the epicuticular waxes of needles of Pinus halepensis and the most of conifers, the secondary alcohol nonacosan-10-ol, has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results obtained from these physical techniques permitted to establish a definitive structural model of the molecular arrangement of this wax, basically in good agreement with the model formulated by other authors from theoretical formulations. Biological implications of the proposed structure have been also formulated.

  5. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  6. Trimethylamine (fishy odor) adsorption by biomaterials: effect of fatty acids, alkanes, and aromatic compounds in waxes.

    PubMed

    Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2015-03-02

    Thirteen plant leaf materials were selected to be applied as dried biomaterial adsorbents for polar gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) adsorption. Biomaterial adsorbents were efficient in adsorbing gaseous TMA up to 100% of total TMA (100 ppm) within 24 h. Sansevieria trifasciata is the most effective plant leaf material while Plerocarpus indicus was the least effective in TMA adsorption. Activated carbon (AC) was found to be lower potential adsorbent to adsorb TMA when compared to biomaterial adsorbents. As adsorption data, the Langmuir isotherm supported that the gaseous TMA adsorbed monolayer on the adsorbent surface and was followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Wax extracted from plant leaf could also adsorb gaseous TMA up to 69% of total TMA within 24 h. Another 27-63% of TMA was adsorbed by cellulose and lignin that naturally occur in high amounts in plant leaf. Subsequently, the composition appearing in biomaterial wax showed a large quantity of short-chain fatty acids (≤C18) especially octadecanoic acid (C18), and short-chain alkanes (C12-C18) as well as total aromatic components dominated in the wax, which affected TMA adsorption. Hence, it has been demonstrated that plant biomaterial is a superior biosorbent for TMA removal.

  7. Policosanol fabrication from insect wax and optimization by response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinju; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Background Insect wax is a famous biological resource for the role in economic production in China. Insect wax is a good source of policosanol, which may is a candidate supplement in foodstuff and pharmaceuticals that has important physiological activities. Therefore, this work aims to investigate a high-yield and rapid method for policosanol fabrication from insect wax. Results The conditions for policosanol fabrication were optimized as follows: an oil bath temperature of 112.7°C and reductant dosage of 0.97 g (used for the reduction of 10.00 g of insect wax). The yield of policosanol reached 83.20%, which was 4 times greater than that of existing methods, such as saponification. The total content of policosanol obtained under the optimal conditions reached 87%. In other words, a high yield of policosanol was obtained from insect wax (723.84 mg/g), that was 55 times higher than that generated from beeswax-brown via saponification. The concentrations of metal residues in policosanol were within the limits of the European Union regulations and EFSA stipulation. The LD50 values for oral doses of insect wax and policosanol were both > 5 g/kg. Conclusion Policosanol was fabricated via solvent-free reduction from insect wax using LiAlH4 at a high yield. The fabrication conditions were optimized. Policosanol and insect wax showed high security, which made them potential candidates as supplements in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The rapid and high-yield method has great potential for commercial manufacturing of policosanol. PMID:29763430

  8. Novel bone wax based on poly(ethylene glycol)-calcium phosphate cement mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Theresa; Schamel, Martha; Kübler, Alexander C; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Classic bone wax is associated with drawbacks such as the risk of infection, inflammation and hindered osteogenesis. Here, we developed a novel self-setting bone wax on the basis of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) forming calcium phosphate cement (CPC), to overcome the problems that are linked to the use of conventional beeswax systems. Amounts of up to 10 wt.% of pregelatinized starch were additionally supplemented as hemostatic agent. After exposure to a humid environment, the PEG phase dissolved and was exchanged by penetrating water that interacted with the HA precursor (tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP)/monetite) to form highly porous, nanocrystalline HA via a dissolution/precipitation reaction. Simultaneously, pregelatinized starch could gel and supply the bone wax with liquid sealing features. The novel bone wax formulation was found to be cohesive, malleable and after hardening under aqueous conditions, it had a mechanical performance (∼2.5 MPa compressive strength) that is comparable to that of cancellous bone. It withstood systolic blood pressure conditions for several days and showed antibacterial properties for almost one week, even though 60% of the incorporated drug vancomycin hydrochloride was already released after 8h of deposition by diffusion controlled processes. The study investigated the development of alternative bone waxes on the basis of a hydroxyapatite (HA) forming calcium phosphate cement (CPC) system. Conventional bone waxes are composed of non-biodegradable beeswax/vaseline mixtures that are often linked to infection, inflammation and hindered osteogenesis. We combined the usage of bioresorbable polymers, the supplementation with hemostatic agents and the incorporation of a mineral component to overcome those drawbacks. Self-setting CPC precursors (tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), monetite) were embedded in a resorbable matrix of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and supplemented with pregelatinized starch. This

  9. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  12. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like device intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food...

  14. Ingrowing Hair

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Di-Qing; Liang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xi-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fang; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous pili migrans and creeping eruption caused by parasitic diseases may present as a moving linear lesion in skin. The former, caused by a hair shaft or fragment embedded in the superficial skin or middle dermis, is a rare condition characterized by creeping eruption with a black line observed at the advancing end. In exceptionally rare instance, the hair grows inside the skin and burrows in the uppermost dermis, such a condition has been called “ingrown hair.” We report a 30-year-old Chinese man, who was accustomed to pull or extrude the beard hairs, with 1-year history of slowly extending black linear eruption on his right chin. Cutaneous examination revealed a 4-cm long black linear lesion beneath the skin associated with edematous erythema around and folliculitis on both ends of the lesion. After treatment with topical mupirocin ointment, the erythema and folliculitis improved and 2 hairs of the beard with hair follicles were pulled out from the skin. Two weeks later, another similar black line about 1 cm in length in the skin presented on the prior lesional area, which was pulled out by a shallow incision of the skin and was also demonstrated as a beard hair with hair follicle. The patient was diagnosed as “ingrowing hair” with multiple recurrences. The lesions recovered after the beard hairs were pulled out. No recurrence occurred in a year of follow-up. We suggest that “ingrowing hair” is better than “ingrown hair” to describe such a condition. Pulling out the involved hair and correcting the bad practice are its optimal management strategies. PMID:27175694

  15. Accuracy of Digitally Fabricated Wax Denture Bases and Conventional Completed Complete Dentures.

    PubMed

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Lümkemann, Nina; Eichberger, Marlis; Wimmer, Timea

    2017-12-19

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the accuracy of digitally fabricated wax trial dentures and conventionally finalized complete dentures in comparison to a surface tessellation language (STL)-dataset. A generated data set for the denture bases and the tooth sockets was used, converted into STL-format, and saved as reference. Five mandibular and 5 maxillary denture bases were milled from wax blanks and denture teeth were waxed into their tooth sockets. Each complete denture was checked on fit, waxed onto the dental cast, and digitized using an optical laboratory scanning device. The complete dentures were completed conventionally using the injection method, finished, and scanned. The resulting STL-datasets were exported into the three-dimensional (3D) software GOM Inspect. Each of the 5 mandibular and 5 maxillary complete dentures was aligned with the STL- and the wax trial denture dataset. Alignment was performed based on a best-fit algorithm. A three-dimensional analysis of the spatial divergences in x -, y - and z -axes was performed by the 3D software and visualized in a color-coded illustration. The mean positive and negative deviations between the datasets were calculated automatically. In a direct comparison between maxillary wax trial dentures and complete dentures, complete dentures showed higher deviations from the STL-dataset than the wax trial dentures. The deviations occurred in the area of the teeth as well as in the distal area of the denture bases. In contrast, the highest deviations in both the mandibular wax trial dentures and the mandibular complete dentures were observed in the distal area. The complete dentures showed higher deviations on the occlusal surfaces of the teeth compared to the wax dentures. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-fabricated wax dentures exhibited fewer deviations from the STL-reference than the complete dentures. The deviations were significantly greater in the vicinity of the

  16. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  17. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    Hair loss Overview Hair loss can affect just your scalp or your entire body. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or medications. Anyone can experience hair loss, but it's more common in men. Baldness ...

  18. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D.; Baker, Marissa G.; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11–29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels. PMID:26409267

  19. A Prospective Study of Axillary Hair Reduction in Patients Treated With Microwave Technology.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Jeremy A; Neckman, Julia P; Zelickson, Brian; Vasily, David B; Geronemus, Roy G

    2017-04-01

    Removing unwanted body hair is a growing trend in society today, and there are many laser-based devices for hair reduction. There are some limitations to those methods, including the lack of efficacy for lighter color hair. The objective was to quantify hair reduction in the axillae after treatment with a noninvasive microwave energy device. A prospective, multicenter study was performed at 3 private dermatology clinics. Fifty-six adult subjects seeking axillary hair reduction were enrolled and treated with the device in 1 or 2 treatment sessions 3 months apart at various energy levels, and followed for 12 months. The primary analysis was monitoring reduction of hair counts from baseline to follow-up visits. A subject assessment of overall satisfaction, odor ratings, and sweat reduction ratings was provided at follow-up visits. Fifty-six subjects received treatment, with an average total underarm hair reduction of approximately 70% for both light and dark hair. Percentage of patients with hair reduction of 30% or more was significantly higher than 50% at all follow-up visits. Half of treated subjects reported expected mild transient post-treatment effects such as localized edema, discomfort, and bruising. Other reported events were mild. This clinical study provides evidence for safe and permanent axillary hair reduction, showing stable average reduction that lasted through the year of follow-up. Most notably, the study has shown the treatment's efficacy for reduction of light-colored axillary hair.

  20. Comparative Analyses of Cuticular Waxes on Various Organs of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanjun; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-05-17

    Complex mixtures of cuticular waxes coat plant surfaces to seal them against environmental stresses, with compositions greatly varying between species and possibly organs. This paper reports comprehensive analyses of the waxes on both above- and below-ground organs of potato, where total wax coverages varied between petals (2.6 μg/cm 2 ), leaves, stems, and tubers (1.8-1.9 μg/cm 2 ), and rhizomes (1.1 μg/cm 2 ). The wax mixtures on above-ground organs were dominated by alkanes, occurring in homologous series of isomeric C 25 -C 35 n-alkanes, C 25 -C 35 2-methylalkanes, and C 26 -C 34 3-methylalkanes. In contrast, below-ground organs had waxes rich in monoacylglycerols (C 22 -C 28 acyls) and C 18 -C 30 alkyl ferulates, together with fatty acids (rhizomes) or primary alcohols (tubers). The organ-specific wax coverages, compound class distribution, and chain length profiles suggest highly regulated activities of wax biosynthesis enzymes, likely related to organ-specific ecophysiological functions.

  1. Development and Performance Evaluation of Image-Based Robotic Waxing System for Detailing Automobiles

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Bing-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Waxing is an important aspect of automobile detailing, aimed at protecting the finish of the car and preventing rust. At present, this delicate work is conducted manually due to the need for iterative adjustments to achieve acceptable quality. This paper presents a robotic waxing system in which surface images are used to evaluate the quality of the finish. An RGB-D camera is used to build a point cloud that details the sheet metal components to enable path planning for a robot manipulator. The robot is equipped with a multi-axis force sensor to measure and control the forces involved in the application and buffing of wax. Images of sheet metal components that were waxed by experienced car detailers were analyzed using image processing algorithms. A Gaussian distribution function and its parameterized values were obtained from the images for use as a performance criterion in evaluating the quality of surfaces prepared by the robotic waxing system. Waxing force and dwell time were optimized using a mathematical model based on the image-based criterion used to measure waxing performance. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robotic waxing system and image-based performance evaluation scheme. PMID:29757940

  2. Development and Performance Evaluation of Image-Based Robotic Waxing System for Detailing Automobiles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Hsu, Bing-Cheng

    2018-05-14

    Waxing is an important aspect of automobile detailing, aimed at protecting the finish of the car and preventing rust. At present, this delicate work is conducted manually due to the need for iterative adjustments to achieve acceptable quality. This paper presents a robotic waxing system in which surface images are used to evaluate the quality of the finish. An RGB-D camera is used to build a point cloud that details the sheet metal components to enable path planning for a robot manipulator. The robot is equipped with a multi-axis force sensor to measure and control the forces involved in the application and buffing of wax. Images of sheet metal components that were waxed by experienced car detailers were analyzed using image processing algorithms. A Gaussian distribution function and its parameterized values were obtained from the images for use as a performance criterion in evaluating the quality of surfaces prepared by the robotic waxing system. Waxing force and dwell time were optimized using a mathematical model based on the image-based criterion used to measure waxing performance. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robotic waxing system and image-based performance evaluation scheme.

  3. Hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E A

    2000-06-01

    Disorders of the hair are commonplace in the primary care practice. Among these disorders are male pattern baldness, Telogen effluvium, alopecia areata, Trichotillomania, and fungal infections involving the hair shaft. A review of the normal anatomy and life cycle of hair also is presented.

  4. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Soybean Root Hairs Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tran H.; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Aldrich, Joshua T.

    2012-11-11

    Root hairs are single hair-forming cells on roots that function to increase root surface area, enhancing water and nutrient uptake. In leguminous plants, root hairs also play a critical role as the site of infection by symbiotic nitrogen fixing rhizobia, leading to the formation of a novel organ, the nodule. The initial steps in the rhizobia-root hair infection process are known to involve specific receptor kinases and subsequent kinase cascades. Here, we characterize the phosphoproteome of the root hairs and the corresponding stripped roots (i.e., roots from which root hairs were removed) during rhizobial colonization and infection to gain insightmore » into the molecular mechanism of root hair cell biology. We chose soybean (Glycine max L.), one of the most important crop plants in the legume family, for this study because of its larger root size, which permits isolation of sufficient root hair material for phosphoproteomic analysis. Phosphopeptides derived from root hairs and stripped roots, mock inoculated or inoculated with the soybean-specific rhizobium Bradyrhizobium japonicum, were labeled with the isobaric tag 8-plex ITRAQ, enriched using Ni-NTA magnetic beads and subjected to nRPLC-MS/MS analysis using HCD and decision tree guided CID/ETD strategy. A total of 1,625 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1,659 non-redundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1,126 soybean phosphoproteins. Among them, 273 phosphopeptides corresponding to 240 phosphoproteins were found to be significantly regulated (>1.5 fold abundance change) in response to inoculation with B. japonicum. The data reveal unique features of the soybean root hair phosphoproteome, including root hair and stripped root-specific phosphorylation suggesting a complex network of kinase-substrate and phosphatase-substrate interactions in response to rhizobial inoculation.« less

  6. Wooly hair nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus.

  7. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    PubMed

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  8. Marginal adaptation of four inlay casting waxes on stone, titanium, and zirconia dies.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Kapsampeli, Vassiliki; Kitsou, Aikaterini; Kirmanidou, Yvone; Fotiou, Anna; Pissiotis, Argirios L; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kudara, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    Different inlay casting waxes do not produce copings with satisfactory marginal accuracy when used on different die materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal accuracy of 4 inlay casting waxes on stone dies and titanium and zirconia abutments and to correlate the findings with the degree of wetting between the die specimens and the inlay casting waxes. The inlay casting waxes tested were Starwax (Dentaurum), Unterziehwachs (Bredent), SU Esthetic wax (Schuler), and Sculpturing wax (Renfert). The marginal opening of the waxes was measured with a stereomicroscope on high-strength stone dies and on titanium and zirconia abutments. Photographic images were obtained, and the mean marginal opening for each specimen was calculated. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Wetting between die materials and waxes was determined after fabricating stone, titanium, and zirconia rectangular specimens. A calibrated pipette was used to place a drop of molten wax onto each specimen. The contact angle was calculated with software after an image of each specimen had been made with a digital camera. Collected data were subjected to a 2-way analysis of variance (α=.05). Any association between marginal accuracy and wetting of different materials was found by using the Pearson correlation. The wax factor had a statistically significant effect both on the marginal discrepancy (F=158.31, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=68.09, P<.001). A statistically significant effect of the die material factor both on the marginal adaptation (F=503.47, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=585.02, P<.001) was detected. A significant correlation between the marginal accuracy and the contact angle values (Pearson=0.881, P=.01) was also found. Stone dies provided wax copings with the best marginal integrity, followed by titanium and zirconia abutments. Unterziehwachs (Bredent), wax produced the best marginal adaptation on different die materials. A significant correlation was found

  9. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis).

    PubMed

    Barnett, Eric; Palma, Kathleen G; Clayton, Bert; Ballard, Timothy

    2012-09-03

    In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice's cuticular wax. A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5) was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax appears to offer a mechanism for killing lice without the

  10. Non-Invasive Delivery of dsRNA into De-Waxed Tick Eggs by Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Newton; de Abreu, Leonardo Araujo; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Kim, Tae Kwon; Mulenga, Albert; Braz, Gloria Regina Cardoso; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Logullo, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing was shown to be an efficient tool for validation of targets that may become anti-tick vaccine components. Here, we demonstrate the application of this approach in the validation of components of molecular signaling cascades, such as the Protein Kinase B (AKT) / Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK) axis during tick embryogenesis. It was shown that heptane and hypochlorite treatment of tick eggs can remove wax, affecting corium integrity and but not embryo development. Evidence of AKT and GSK dsRNA delivery into de-waxed eggs of via electroporation is provided. Primers designed to amplify part of the dsRNA delivered into the electroporated eggs dsRNA confirmed its entry in eggs. In addition, it was shown that electroporation is able to deliver the fluorescent stain, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). To confirm gene silencing, a second set of primers was designed outside the dsRNA sequence of target gene. In this assay, the suppression of AKT and GSK transcripts (approximately 50% reduction in both genes) was demonstrated in 7-day-old eggs. Interestingly, silencing of GSK in 7-day-old eggs caused 25% reduction in hatching. Additionally, the effect of silencing AKT and GSK on embryo energy metabolism was evaluated. As expected, knockdown of AKT, which down regulates GSK, the suppressor of glycogen synthesis, decreased glycogen content in electroporated eggs. These data demonstrate that electroporation of de-waxed R. microplus eggs could be used for gene silencing in tick embryos, and improve the knowledge about arthropod embryogenesis. PMID:26091260

  11. Wild boar hair (Sus scrofa) as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Sobańska, Marta A

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the usefulness of wild boar (Sus scrofa) hair as a non-invasive indicator of mercury pollution. Samples were collected in two hunting seasons (1998/1999 and 1999/2000) by hunters from four differently polluted regions of Poland. Mercury content was determined by AAS methods. Different washing procedures were compared. De-ionised water was found to be suitable for the removal of exogenous mercury sources in hair analysis. Metal distribution along hair was analysed. It was found that problems arising from differences in distribution of metal along a single hair strand as well as differences in the hair colour can be eliminated through the careful homogenisation of the samples before analysis. The influences of physiological, ecological and environmental factors that might significantly affect the obtained results (age, gender, season, location of habitat and diet of the sampled animals) were estimated and taken into account. The present study revealed that female hair contained a higher amount of mercury than male hair. Moreover the highest mercury content was found in young individuals between 1 and 2 years of age. A positive correlation of the present results with environmental data taken from the State Offices showed an influence of environmental pollution on the mercury level in wild boar hair.

  12. The Lore of the Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunes, Nicolas; Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo

    2016-03-01

    Stars can be hairy beasts, especially in theories that go beyond Einstein's. In the latter, a scalar field can be sourced and anchored to a neutron star, and if the later is in a binary system, the scalar field will emit dipole radiation. This radiation removes energy from the binary, forcing the orbit to adiabatically decay much more rapidly than due to the emission of gravitational waves as predicted in General Relativity. The detailed radio observation of binary pulsars has constrained the orbital decay of compact binaries stringently, so much so that theories that predict neutron stars with scalar hair are believed to be essentially ruled out. In this talk I will explain why this ``lore'' is actually incorrect, providing a counter-example in which scalar hair is sourced by neutron stars, yet dipole radiation is absent. I will then describe what binary systems need to be observed to constrain such theories with future astrophysical observations. I acknowledge support from NSF CAREER Grant PHY-1250636.

  13. Hair cortisol reflects socio-economic factors and hair zinc in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Vaghri, Ziba; Guhn, Martin; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.; Yu, Wayne; Hertzman, Clyde

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study examined the relationship between children’s hair cortisol and socioeconomic status of the family, as measured by parental education and income. Low family socioeconomic status has traditionally been considered a long-term environmental stressor. Measurement of hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cumulative stress exposure across an extended period of time. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between hair cortisol and parental education as well as parental income in a representative sample of preschoolers. Data on hair cortisol, family income, and parental education were collected for a representative sample of 339 children (Mean age = 4.6 years; SD = .5 years) from across 23 neighbourhoods of the city of Vancouver, Canada. As maternal education was shown previously to be associated with hair zinc level, hair zinc measurements were included as well in order to explore potential relationships between hair zinc and hair cortisol. The relationship between hair cortisol and parental education was examined using hierarchical regression, with hair zinc, gender, age, and single parenthood included as covariates. Maternal and paternal education both were correlated significantly with hair cortisol (r = −0.18; p = .001). The relationship remained statistically significant even after controlling for all demographic covariates as well as for hair zinc and after taking the neighbourhood-level clustering of the data into account. Parental income, on the other hand, was not related significantly to children’s hair cortisol. This study provides evidence that lower maternal and paternal education are associated with higher hair cortisol levels. As hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cortisol exposure over an extended time period, these findings suggest a possibly stable influence of SES on the function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Cumulative exposure to cortisol during early childhood may

  14. Wooly hair nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus. PMID:29267480

  15. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018991 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Novitskiy used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  16. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1987-07-01

    Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image.

  17. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wax Layers on Cosmos bipinnatus Petals Contribute Unequally to Total Petal Water Resistance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Hager, Dana; Jetter, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular waxes coat all primary aboveground plant organs as a crucial adaptation to life on land. Accordingly, the properties of waxes have been studied in much detail, albeit with a strong focus on leaf and fruit waxes. Flowers have life histories and functions largely different from those of other organs, and it remains to be seen whether flower waxes have compositions and physiological properties differing from those on other organs. This work provides a detailed characterization of the petal waxes, using Cosmos bipinnatus as a model, and compares them with leaf and stem waxes. The abaxial petal surface is relatively flat, whereas the adaxial side consists of conical epidermis cells, rendering it approximately 3.8 times larger than the projected petal area. The petal wax was found to contain unusually high concentrations of C22 and C24 fatty acids and primary alcohols, much shorter than those in leaf and stem waxes. Detailed analyses revealed distinct differences between waxes on the adaxial and abaxial petal sides and between epicuticular and intracuticular waxes. Transpiration resistances equaled 3 × 104 and 1.5 × 104 s m−1 for the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. Petal surfaces of C. bipinnatus thus impose relatively weak water transport barriers compared with typical leaf cuticles. Approximately two-thirds of the abaxial surface water barrier was found to reside in the epicuticular wax layer of the petal and only one-third in the intracuticular wax. Altogether, the flower waxes of this species had properties greatly differing from those on vegetative organs. PMID:25413359

  19. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  20. An LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of 15 antipsychotics and two metabolites in hair and its application to rat hair.

    PubMed

    Sim, Juhyun; Kim, Eunmi; Yang, Wonkyung; Woo, Sanghee; In, Sangwhan

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the inappropriate use of antipsychotics by young Korean men has become a social problem. As military service exemptions are given for mental illness, some men pose as mental health patients to avoid military service. In order to verify the authenticity of mental illnesses, we developed simultaneous analytical methods for the detection of 15 antipsychotics and 2 of their metabolites in hair using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The target drugs were modafinil, atomoxetine, aripiprazole, benztropine, buspirone, duloxetine, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, escitalopram, paliperidone, ziprasidone, lamotrigine, clonazepam, levetiracetam, and metabolites of oxcarbazepine and clonazepam. To remove possible contaminants on the hair surface, hair samples were washed twice with methanol and distilled water, and then were extracted with methanol overnight at 38°C. Desipramine-d 3 was used as an internal standard. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed on an Agilent 1290 Infinity UHPLC coupled to an AB Sciex Qtrap ® 5500 MS/MS. The total chromatographic run time was 14min. The following validation parameters were evaluated: selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, accuracy, matrix effect, and recovery. The LOD and LOQ values for all analytes, except modafinil, ranged from 0.2 to 10pg/mg hair and from 0.2 to 20pg/mg hair, respectively. Good linearity was achieved for most of the analytes in the range of 20-200pg/mg hair. The method showed acceptable precision and accuracy, which were less than 15%, as well as satisfactory matrix effects and recoveries. Furthermore, this method was also applied to the analysis of rat hair samples. The study in rats showed that the concentrations of atomoxetine and aripiprazole in pigmented hair were significantly higher than those in non-pigmented hair. However, no significant difference was observed in the concentration of topiramate between

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Rice Bran Wax as an Ointment Base with Standard Base

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P. M.; Lakhotiya, C. L.

    2009-01-01

    Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases. PMID:20177466

  2. DDT Behavior of Waxed Mixtures of RDX, HMX, and Tetryl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-18

    HMX (689*; Class A, 6 ’ 200p), RDX (659; Class E, 6 P 15p), tetryl (812; 6 s 470p), carnauba wax (134; 6 r 125p). The mixing procedure was that used...NSWC/WOL TR 77-96 O DDT BEHAVIOR OF WAXED MIXTURES OF " RDX, HMX, AND TETRYL BY DONNA PRICE and RICHARD R. BERNECKER RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY...BEFORE COMPLETING FORM RY PORT NUM ER 2. GOVT ACCESSION No. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED PDT Behavior of Waxed Mixtures

  3. Research on influence of wax deposition on flow state in coiled tubing with cable inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qinyou; Xian, Linyun; Zhang, Fan; Yu, Han; Li, Xiao

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the morphology of the wax on the flow state in the coiled tubing with concentric cable was studied by numerical simulation. The results show that flow stream lines of crude oil are parallel to each other in the tubing with no waxing. It is disturbed at the two ends of wax deposition, transvers flow is formed at ends of wax and flow oil is speeded up in gap between wax and cable, friction pressure loss is then increased. This kind of influence becomes more serious with the increase of wax deposition proportion and thickness. An equivalent thickness is proposed to incorporate the influence of wax deposition proportion, length and thickness. With this parameter, a model is developed to calculate the pressure loss induced by wax on the base of concentric model, which can be used conveniently in engineering.

  4. Hair Manganese as an Exposure Biomarker among Welders.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Boris; Simpson, Christopher D; Baker, Marissa G; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Seixas, Noah S

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying exposure and dose to manganese (Mn) containing airborne particles in welding fume presents many challenges. Common biological markers such as Mn in blood or Mn in urine have not proven to be practical biomarkers even in studies where positive associations were observed. However, hair Mn (MnH) as a biomarker has the advantage over blood and urine that it is less influenced by short-term variability of Mn exposure levels because of its slow growth rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hair can be used as a biomarker for welders exposed to manganese. Hair samples (1cm) were collected from 47 welding school students and individual air Mn (MnA) exposures were measured for each subject. MnA levels for all days were estimated with a linear mixed model using welding type as a predictor. A 30-day time-weighted average MnA (MnA30d) exposure level was calculated for each hair sample. The association between MnH and MnA30d levels was then assessed. A linear relationship was observed between log-transformed MnA30d and log-transformed MnH. Doubling MnA30d exposure levels yields a 20% (95% confidence interval: 11-29%) increase in MnH. The association was similar for hair washed following two different wash procedures designed to remove external contamination. Hair shows promise as a biomarker for inhaled Mn exposure given the presence of a significant linear association between MnH and MnA30d levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  5. The color(s) of human hair--forensic hair analysis with SpectraCube.

    PubMed

    Birngruber, Christoph; Ramsthaler, Frank; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2009-03-10

    Human hair is among the most common kind of evidence secured at crime scenes. Although DNA analysis through STR-typing is possible in principle, it is not very promising for telogenic hair or single hairs. For the mixed traces frequently found in practice, composed of different hair from an unknown number of individuals, mtDNA sequencing of each individual hair seems to be the only possible, even if technically elaborate, solution. If it were possible to pool all hair belonging to an individual prior to DNA analysis, then this effort could not only be reduced, but the number of hair for an STR-approach could also be increased. Although it is possible to examine hair microscopically, this method must be considered unsuitable for pooling, since the results depend strongly on examiner experience, and the hair cannot always be correctly attributed to an individual. The goal of this study was to develop an objective non-DNA-contaminative pooling method for hair. To this end, the efficacy of spectral imaging as a method of obtaining information--beyond that obtained from a purely microscopic and morphological approach--for the identification of individuals was investigated. Three hairs each from 25 test persons (female: 18; male: 7) were examined with a SpectraCube-System and a light microscope. Six spectra were calculated for each hair, and the hairs from each individual were not only compared to each other, but also to those of the other individuals. From a forensic vantage, the examination showed, in particular, that individuals, whose hair could not be distinguished on the basis of morphology, could also not be accurately distinguished with the SpectraCube. The intra-individual differences were, in part, greater than the inter-individual differences. Altogether, the study shows that a person's hair color, as perceived, is composed of many naturally different, individual colors.

  6. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  7. [Experimental study on Dendrobium candidum polysaccharides on promotion of hair growth].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Qi, Hui; Li, Jin-Biao; Yi, Yan-Qun; Chen, Dan; Hu, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Mei-Ling; Sun, Xing-Li; Wei, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To observe the effect and mechanism of Dendrobium candidum polysaccharides (DCP) in promoting hair growth, in order to lay a foundation for the development and utilization of D. candidum. The water-extraction and alcohol-precipitation method was adopted to extract DCP, and the phenol-sulphuric acid method was used to determine its content. Thirty C57BL6J mice were collected to establish the hair loss model with hair removal cream. They were randomly divided into the control group, the positive control group and the DCP group, and given 0.2 mL of ultra-pure water, minoxidil tincture and DCP (5.0 g x L(-1)) 21 days. The mice hair growth scoring standard was adopted to evaluate the hair growth of C57BL/6J mice at 7, 14 d. The hairs in unit hair-losing areas of treated C57BL/6J mice at 21 d were weighed to evaluate the effect of DCP on the promotion of hair growth. MTT assay and RT-PCR method were used to evaluate the effect of DCP on the proliferatin of HaCaT cells and the mRNA expression of VEGF in HaCaT cells. The extraction percent of DCP was 29.87%, and its content was 79.65%. The average scores for the hair growth and weight of C57BL/6J mice of DCP group were much higher than the control group. The survival rate and mRNA expression of VEGF of HaCaT cells were much higher than the control group. DCP has the effect in promoting hair growth. Its mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of VEGF.

  8. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed Central

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-01-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable. PMID:20002228

  9. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    PubMed

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  10. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  11. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  12. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C.; Morrison, Sean J.; Le, Lu Q.

    2017-01-01

    Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20+ cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix progenitors that regulate hair growth and pigmentation, partly by creating an SCF-dependent niche for follicular melanocytes. PMID:28465357

  13. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018986 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Tarelkin used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, flight engineer, is visible in the background.

  14. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  15. Feasibility study for wax deposition imaging in oil pipelines by PGNAA technique.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Can; Jia, Wenbao; Hei, Daqian; Wei, Zhiyong; Wang, Hongtao

    2017-10-01

    Wax deposition in pipelines is a crucial problem in the oil industry. A method based on the prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis technique was applied to reconstruct the image of wax deposition in oil pipelines. The 2.223MeV hydrogen capture gamma rays were used to reconstruct the wax deposition image. To validate the method, both MCNP simulation and experiments were performed for wax deposited with a maximum thickness of 20cm. The performance of the method was simulated using the MCNP code. The experiment was conducted with a 252 Cf neutron source and a LaBr 3 : Ce detector. A good correspondence between the simulations and the experiments was observed. The results obtained indicate that the present approach is efficient for wax deposition imaging in oil pipelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does the recipient site influence the hair growth characteristics in hair transplantation?

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungjoo; Kim, Jung Chul; Ryu, Hyo Sub; Cha, Young Chang; Lee, Seok Jong; Na, Gun Yoen; Kim, Do Won

    2002-09-01

    Recently hair transplantation has been widely applied not only to correct androgenetic alopecia, but also to correct hair loss on other parts of the body such as the eyebrows and pubic area. It is believed that the transplanted hairs will maintain their integrity and characteristics after transplantation to new nonscalp sites. To evaluate whether the transplanted hairs maintain their hair growth characteristics after transplantation to a new anatomic site other than the scalp. Three study designs were used. Study I: Hair transplantation from the author's occipital scalp to his lower leg was performed and clinical evaluations were made at both 6 months and at 3 years after the transplantation. Study II: After finding changes in hair growth characteristics, transplanted hairs were harvested from the leg and retransplanted to the left side of the nape of the neck (group A). As a control study, occipital hairs were transplanted to the opposite side (group B). Observations were made at 6 months after the operation. Study III: An observational study was done in 12 patients with androgenetic alopecia about 1 year after transplantation of occipital hair to frontal scalp. At each step, survival rates were documented and the rate of growth and the diameter of the shafts were measured for both recipient and donor sites. Study I: Surviving hairs on the lower leg showed a lower growth rate (8.2 +/- 0.9 mm/month), but the same diameter (0.086 +/- 0.018 mm) compared with occipital hairs (16.0 +/- 1.1 mm/month, 0.088 +/- 0.016 mm). The survival rate 3 years after transplantation was 60.2%. Study II: There was no significant difference in the growth rate, shaft diameter, and survival rate between retransplanted hairs (group A) and controls (group B). Groups A and B showed a lower growth rate, but the same diameter, compared with occipital hairs. Study III: There was no significant difference in the growth rate and shaft diameter between the transplanted hairs on the frontal scalp

  17. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Physico-chemical properties and efficacy of silk fibroin fabric coated with different waxes as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Kanokpanont, Sorada; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used as a wound dressing material due to its suitable physical and biological characteristics. In this study, a non-adhesive wound dressing which applies to cover the wound surface as an absorbent pad that would absorb wound fluid while accelerate wound healing was developed. The modification of SF fabrics by wax coating was purposed to prepare the non-adhesive wound dressing that is required in order to minimize pain and risk of repeated injury. SF woven fabrics were coated with different types of waxes including shellac wax, beeswax, or carnauba wax. Physical and mechanical properties of the wax-coated SF fabrics were characterized. It was clearly observed that all waxes could be successfully coated on the SF fabrics, possibly due to the hydrophobic interactions between hydrophobic domains of SF and waxes. The wax coating improved tensile modulus and percentage of elongation of the SF fabrics due to the denser structure and the thicker fibers coated. The in vitro degradation study demonstrated that all wax-coated SF fabrics remained up to 90% of their original weights after 7 weeks of incubation in lysozyme solution under physiological conditions. The wax coating did not affect the degradation behavior of the SF fabrics. A peel test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was carried out in the partial- and full-thickness wounds of porcine skin in comparison to that of the commercial wound dressing. Any wax-coated SF fabrics were less adhesive than the control, as confirmed by less number of cells attached and less adhesive force. This might be that the wax-coated SF fabrics showed the hydrophobic property, allowing the loosely adherence to the hydrophilic wound surface. In addition, the in vivo biocompatibility test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with subcutaneous model. The irritation scores indicated that the carnauba wax-coated SF fabric was not irritant while the shellac wax or beeswax-coated SF

  20. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  1. Cold temperature increases winter fruit removal rate of a bird-dispersed shrub

    Treesearch

    Charles Kwit; Douglas J. Levey; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Scott F. Pearson; John P. McCarty; Sarah Sargent

    2004-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that winter removal rates of fruits of wax myrtle, Myrica cerifera, are higher in colder winters. Over a 9-year period, we monitored M. cerifera fruit crops in 13 0.1-ha study plots in South Carolina, U.S.A. Peak ripeness occurred in November, whereas peak removal occurred in the coldest months, December...

  2. Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeremy K.; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh. PMID:25207969

  3. Critical Involvement of Environmental Carbon Dioxide Fixation to Drive Wax Ester Fermentation in Euglena

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Masami; Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation profiles of wax esters in Euglena gracilis Z were studied under several environmental conditions. The highest amount of total wax esters accumulated under hypoxia in the dark, and C28 (myristyl-myristate, C14:0-C14:0) was prevalent among all conditions investigated. The wax ester production was almost completely suppressed under anoxia in the light, and supplying exogenous inorganic carbon sources restored wax ester fermentation, indicating the need for external carbon sources for the wax ester fermentation. 13C-labeling experiments revealed specific isotopic enrichment in the odd-numbered fatty acids derived from wax esters, indicating that the exogenously-supplied CO2 was incorporated into wax esters via the propionyl-CoA pathway through the reverse tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The addition of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) inhibitor, significantly affected the incorporation of 13C into citrate and malate as the biosynthetic intermediates of the odd-numbered fatty acids, suggesting the involvement of PEPCK reaction to drive wax ester fermentation. Additionally, the 13C-enrichment pattern of succinate suggested that the CO2 assimilation might proceed through alternative pathways in addition to the PEPCK reaction. The current results indicate that the mechanisms of anoxic CO2 assimilation are an important target to reinforce wax ester fermentation in Euglena. PMID:27669566

  4. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijender; Ali, Mohammed; Upadhyay, Sukirti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica) and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair PMID:26130937

  5. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    PubMed

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects.

  7. Hair Loss Myths.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective.

    METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth.

    RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments.

    DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694.

    .

  8. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common chemicals in hair dyes include hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and alcohols. Hair curling or permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners ( ...

  9. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C; Morrison, Sean J; Le, Lu Q

    2017-04-15

    Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20 + cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix progenitors that regulate hair growth and pigmentation, partly by creating an SCF-dependent niche for follicular melanocytes. © 2017 Liao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  11. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Purification of a Jojoba Embryo Wax Synthase, Cloning of its cDNA, and Production of High Levels of Wax in Seeds of Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lardizabal, Kathryn D.; Metz, James G.; Sakamoto, Tetsuo; Hutton, William C.; Pollard, Michael R.; Lassner, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. 13C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds. PMID:10712527

  13. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.

  14. Cuticular Waxes of Arabidopsis thaliana Shoots: Cell-Type-Specific Composition and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hegebarth, Daniela; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    It is generally assumed that all plant epidermis cells are covered with cuticles, and the distinct surface geometries of pavement cells, guard cells, and trichomes imply functional differences and possibly different wax compositions. However, experiments probing cell-type-specific wax compositions and biosynthesis have been lacking until recently. This review summarizes new evidence showing that Arabidopsis trichomes have fewer wax compound classes than pavement cells, and higher amounts of especially long-chain hydrocarbons. The biosynthesis machinery generating this characteristic surface coating is discussed. Interestingly, wax compounds with similar, long hydrocarbon chains had been identified previously in some unrelated species, not all of them bearing trichomes. PMID:28686187

  15. Cryopreservation of Hair-Follicle Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells Maintains Differentiation and Hair-Growth Potential.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Kajiura, Satoshi; Cao, Wenluo; Liu, Fang; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C. After thawing and culture of the cryopreserved whisker follicles, growing HAP stem cells formed hair spheres. The hair spheres contained cells that differentiated to neurons, glial cells, and other cell types. The hair spheres derived from slow-cooling cryopreserved hair follicles were as pluripotent as hair spheres from fresh hair follicles. We have also previously demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair-growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the HAP stem cells, evidenced by P75 ntr expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair-shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. HAP stem cells can be used for nerve and spinal-cord repair. This biobanking of hair follicles can allow each patient the potential for their own stem cell use for regenerative medicine or hair transplantation.

  16. Modulating hair follicle size with Wnt10b-DKK1 pair during hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Mingxing; Guo, Haiying; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Yang, Tian; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles have characteristic sizes corresponding to their cycle specific stage. However, how the anagen hair follicle specifies its size remains elusive. Here, we show that in response to prolonged ectopic Wnt10b-mediated β-catenin activation, regenerating anagen hair follicles grow larger in size. In particular, the hair bulb, dermal papilla and hair shaft become enlarged. While the formation of different hair types (Guard, Awl, Auchene, and Zigzag) is unaffected. Interestingly, we found the effect of exogenous WNT10b was mainly on Zigzag and less on the other kinds of hairs. We observed dramatically enhanced proliferation within the matrix, DP and hair shaft of the enlarged AdWnt10b-treated hair follicles compared with those of normal hair follicles at P98. Furthermore, expression of CD34, a specific hair stem cell marker, was increased in its number to the bulge region after AdWnt10b treatment. Ectopic expression of CD34 throughout the ORS region was also observed. Many CD34 positive hair stem cells were actively proliferating in AdWnt10b-induced hair follicles. Importantly, subsequent co-treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, DKK1, reduced hair follicle enlargement, decreased proliferation and maintained proper hair stem cell localization. Moreover, injection of DKK1 during early anagen significantly reduced the width of prospective hairs. Together, these findings strongly suggest that a balance of Wnt10b/DKK1 governs reciprocal signaling between cutaneous epithelium and mesenchyme to regulate proper hair follicle size. PMID:24750467

  17. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  18. Prevalence and Motivation: Pubic Hair Grooming Among Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gaither, Thomas W.; Awad, Mohannad A.; Osterberg, E. Charles; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    Pubic hair grooming is a growing phenomenon and is associated with body image and sexual activity. A nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in the United States was conducted. Differences in demographic and sexual characteristics between groomers and nongroomers were explored. Four thousand one hundred and ninety-eight men completed the survey. Of these men, 2,120 (50.5%) reported regular pubic hair grooming. The prevalence of grooming decreases with age, odds ratio = 0.95 (95% confidence interval [0.94, 0.96]), p < .001. Adjusting for sexual frequency and sexual orientation, grooming is associated with performing and receiving oral sex. The majority of men report grooming in preparation for sexual activity with a peak prevalence of 73% among men aged 25 to 34 years, followed by hygiene (61%) and routine care (44%). The majority of men who remove their pubic hair groom the hair above the penis (87%), followed by the scrotum (66%) and the penile shaft (57%). Overall, pubic hair grooming is common among men aged 18 to 65 years in the United States. Younger ages are associated with greater rates of pubic hair grooming. Many men groom for sex, in particular oral sex, as well as for routine care and hygiene. PMID:27480727

  19. Prevalence and Motivation: Pubic Hair Grooming Among Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Rowen, Tami S; Shindel, Alan W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2017-05-01

    Pubic hair grooming is a growing phenomenon and is associated with body image and sexual activity. A nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 to 65 years residing in the United States was conducted. Differences in demographic and sexual characteristics between groomers and nongroomers were explored. Four thousand one hundred and ninety-eight men completed the survey. Of these men, 2,120 (50.5%) reported regular pubic hair grooming. The prevalence of grooming decreases with age, odds ratio = 0.95 (95% confidence interval [0.94, 0.96]), p < .001. Adjusting for sexual frequency and sexual orientation, grooming is associated with performing and receiving oral sex. The majority of men report grooming in preparation for sexual activity with a peak prevalence of 73% among men aged 25 to 34 years, followed by hygiene (61%) and routine care (44%). The majority of men who remove their pubic hair groom the hair above the penis (87%), followed by the scrotum (66%) and the penile shaft (57%). Overall, pubic hair grooming is common among men aged 18 to 65 years in the United States. Younger ages are associated with greater rates of pubic hair grooming. Many men groom for sex, in particular oral sex, as well as for routine care and hygiene.

  20. A Study on Scalp Hair Health and Hair Care Practices among Malaysian Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B Satheesha; Ann, Chua Yuet; Azhar, Azeldeen Bin; Ling, Emily Chan Su; Yen, Wong Hui; Aithal, P Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. It was a cross-sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination-related stress. Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.

  1. The role of hair follicles in the percutaneous absorption of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Otberg, Nina; Patzelt, Alexa; Rasulev, Utkur; Hagemeister, Timo; Linscheid, Michael; Sinkgraven, Ronald; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    utilized a selective closure technique of hair follicle orifices in vivo, for the comparison of interfollicular and follicular absorption rates of caffeine in humans. Every single hair follicle within a delimited area of skin was blocked with a microdrop of a special varnish-wax-mixture in vivo. Caffeine in solution was topically applied and transcutaneous absorption into the blood was measured by a new surface ionization mass spectrometry (SI/MS) technique, which enabled a clear distinction to be made between interfollicular and follicular penetration of a topically applied substance. Caffeine (3.75 ng ml(-1)) was detected in blood samples, 5 min after topical application, when the follicles remained open. When the follicles were blocked, caffeine was detectable after 20 min (2.45 ng ml(-1)). Highest values (11.75 ng caffeine ml(-1)) were found 1 h after application when the follicles were open. Our findings demonstrate that hair follicles are considerable weak spots in our protective sheath against certain hydrophilic drugs and may allow a fast delivery of topically applied substances.

  2. Understanding wax screen-printing: a novel patterning process for microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Chunsun; Liu, Feifei

    2015-09-03

    In this work, we first introduce the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a wax screen-printing approach that is suitable for simple, inexpensive, rapid, low-energy-consumption and high-throughput preparation of cloth-based analytical devices. We have carried out a detailed study on the wax screen-printing of μCADs and have obtained some interesting results. Firstly, an analytical model is established for the spreading of molten wax in cloth. Secondly, a new wax screen-printing process has been proposed for fabricating μCADs, where the melting of wax into the cloth is much faster (∼5 s) and the heating temperature is much lower (75 °C). Thirdly, the experimental results show that the patterning effects of the proposed wax screen-printing method depend to a certain extent on types of screens, wax melting temperatures and melting time. Under optimized conditions, the minimum printing width of hydrophobic wax barrier and hydrophilic channel is 100 μm and 1.9 mm, respectively. Importantly, the developed analytical model is also well validated by these experiments. Fourthly, the μCADs fabricated by the presented wax screen-printing method are used to perform a proof-of-concept assay of glucose or protein in artificial urine with rapid high-throughput detection taking place on a 48-chamber cloth-based device and being performed by a visual readout. Overall, the developed cloth-based wax screen-printing and arrayed μCADs should provide a new research direction in the development of advanced sensor arrays for detection of a series of analytes relevant to many diverse applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wax transfer printing to enable robust barrier definition in devices based on non-standard porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, Anthony; Downs, Corey; Fu, Elain

    2017-05-01

    Wax printing has become a common method of fabricating channels in cellulose-based microfluidic devices. However, a limitation of wax printing is that it is restricted to relatively thin, smooth substrates that are compatible with processing by a commercial wax printer. In the current report, we describe a simple patterning method that extends the utility of wax printers for creating hydrophobic barriers on non-standard porous substrates via a process called wax transfer printing. We demonstrate the use of multiple wax transfer cycles to create well-defined, robust, and reproducible barriers in a thick cellulose substrate that is not compatible with feeding through a wax printer. We characterize the method for (i) wax spreading within the substrate as a function of heating time, (ii) the ability to create functional barriers in a substrate, and (iii) reproducibility in line width.

  4. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... component of articles intended for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, transporting, or... Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives as provided in § 178.3870 Synthetic wax polymer as...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3850 - Reinforced wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... component of articles intended for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, transporting, or... Type II Polyethylene Rosins and rosin derivatives as provided in § 178.3870 Synthetic wax polymer as...

  6. Familial Uncombable Hair Syndrome: Ultrastructural Hair Study and Response to Biotin.

    PubMed

    Boccaletti, V; Zendri, E; Giordano, G; Gnetti, L; De Panfilis, G

    2007-01-01

    We report a family affected to the fourth generation by uncombable hair syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by unruly, dry, blond hair with a tangled appearance. The family pedigree strongly supports the hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance; some members of the family had, apart from uncombable hair, minor signs of atopy and ectodermal dysplasia, such as abnormalities of the nails. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of extensive scanning electron microscopy. A trial with oral biotin 5 mg/day was started on two young patients with excellent results as regards the hair appearance, although scanning electron microscopy did not show structural changes in the hair. After a 2-year-period of follow-up, hair normality was maintained without biotin, while nail fragility still required biotin supplementation for control.

  7. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  8. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.

  10. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5) was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax appears to offer a

  11. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    SciTech Connect

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100more » F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.« less

  12. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...

  13. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan), and R. trichocarpa (China, Indo-China, India, and Japan). Japan wax is soluble in hot alcohol, benzene...

  15. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  16. Hair corticosterone measurement in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Browne, Caroline A; Lucki, Irwin

    2017-09-01

    In diabetes, glucocorticoid secretion increases secondary to hyperglycemia and is associated with an extensive list of disease complications. Levels of cortisol in humans, or corticosterone in rodents, are usually measured as transitory biomarkers of stress in blood or saliva. Glucocorticoid concentrations accumulate in human or animal hair over weeks and could more accurately measure the cumulative stress burden of diseases like chronic diabetes. In this study, corticosterone levels were measured in hair in verified rodent models of diabetes mellitus. To induce type 1 diabetes, C57BL/6J mice were injected with streptozotocin and blood and hair samples were collected 28days following induction. Leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice were used as a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes and blood and hair samples were collected at 8weeks of age, after the development of hyperglycemia and obesity. Corticosterone levels from serum, new growth hair and total growth hair were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay. Corticosterone levels in new growth hair and serum were significantly elevated in both models of diabetes compared to controls. In contrast, corticosterone levels in old hair growth did not differ significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic animals. Thus, hair removal and sampling of new hair growth was a more sensitive procedure for detecting changes in hair corticosterone levels induced by periods of hyperglycemia lasting for 4weeks in mice. These results validate the use of hair to measure long-term changes in corticosterone induced by diabetes in rodent models. Further studies are now needed to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a tool for measuring the stress burden of individuals with diabetes and for following the effects of long-term medical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  18. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G″/G' (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes.

  19. Subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Parent, R A; Cox, G E; Babish, J G; Gallo, M A; Hess, F G; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    Carnauba wax fed at levels of 0.1, 0.3 and 1% in the diet to beagle dogs for 28 wk did not produce evidence of toxicity or pathological effects. Body weight gain, food consumption, clinical chemical, haematological, and urine analysis data, and organ weights of animals fed carnauba wax were comparable with those of control animals. Ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations revealed no significant treatment-related findings.

  20. Development of hydrophilic dental wax without surfactant using a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2014-06-01

    Dental wax (DW), a low-melting and high-molecular-weight organic mixture, is widely used in dentistry for forming moulds of teeth. Hydrophilicity is an important property for DW, as a wet dental investment is used to surround the wax before wax burnout is performed. However, recent attempts to improve the hydrophilicity of DW using a surfactant have resulted in the reduced mechanical properties of the dental investment, leading to the failure of the dental restoration. This study applied a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) for DW surface treatment and investigated its effect on both DW hydrophilicity and the dental investment's mechanical properties. The results showed that the application of the AAPPJ significantly improved the hydrophilicity of the DW, and that the results were similar to that of cleaner-treated DW using commercially available products with surfactant. A surface chemical analysis indicated that the improvement of hydrophilicity was related to an increase in the number of oxygen-related bonds on the DW surface following the removal of carbon hydrate in both AAPPJ and cleaner-treated DW. However, cleaner treatment compromised the mechanical property of the dental investment when the dental investment was in contact with the treated DW, while the AAPPJ treatment did not. Therefore, the use of AAPPJ to treat DW is a promising method for accurate dental restoration, as it induces an improvement in hydrophilicity without harming the dental investment.

  1. Selective deletion of cochlear hair cells causes rapid age-dependent changes in spiral ganglion and cochlear nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling; Strong, Melissa K; Kaur, Tejbeer; Juiz, Jose M; Oesterle, Elizabeth C; Hume, Clifford; Warchol, Mark E; Palmiter, Richard D; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-05-20

    During nervous system development, critical periods are usually defined as early periods during which manipulations dramatically change neuronal structure or function, whereas the same manipulations in mature animals have little or no effect on the same property. Neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (CN) are dependent on excitatory afferent input for survival during a critical period of development. Cochlear removal in young mammals and birds results in rapid death of target neurons in the CN. Cochlear removal in older animals results in little or no neuron death. However, the extent to which hair-cell-specific afferent activity prevents neuronal death in the neonatal brain is unknown. We further explore this phenomenon using a new mouse model that allows temporal control of cochlear hair cell deletion. Hair cells express the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor behind the Pou4f3 promoter. Injections of DT resulted in nearly complete loss of organ of Corti hair cells within 1 week of injection regardless of the age of injection. Injection of DT did not influence surrounding supporting cells directly in the sensory epithelium or spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Loss of hair cells in neonates resulted in rapid and profound neuronal loss in the ventral CN, but not when hair cells were eliminated at a more mature age. In addition, normal survival of SGNs was dependent on hair cell integrity early in development and less so in mature animals. This defines a previously undocumented critical period for SGN survival. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357878-14$15.00/0.

  2. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  3. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  4. Hair and Salivary Testosterone, Hair Cortisol, and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grotzinger, Andrew D; Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2018-05-01

    Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations. Salivary testosterone was not associated with aggression. Hair testosterone significantly predicted increased aggression, particularly at low levels of hair cortisol (i.e., Testosterone × Cortisol interaction). This study is the first to examine the relationship between hair hormones and externalizing behaviors and adds to the growing literature that indicates that androgenic effects on human behavior are contingent on aspects of the broader endocrine environment-in particular, levels of cortisol.

  5. Electrochemical behaviors of wax-coated Li powder/Li 4Ti 5O 12 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Han Eol; Seong, Il Won; Yoon, Woo Young

    The wax-coated Li powder specimen was effectively synthesized using the drop emulsion technique (DET). The wax layer on the powder was verified by SEM, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), EDX and XPS. The porosity of a sintered wax-coated Li electrode was measured by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and compared with that of a bare, i.e., un-coated Li electrode. The electrochemical behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode cell was examined by the impedance analysis and cyclic testing methods. The cyclic behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode with the Li 4Ti 5O 12 (LTO) cathode cell was examined at a constant current density of 0.35 mA cm -2 with the cut-off voltages of 1.2-2.0 V at 25 °C. Over 90% of the initial capacity of the cell remained even after the 300th cycle. The wax-coated Li powder was confirmed to be a stable anode material.

  6. MRI of human hair.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Eveline; Weiger, Markus; Schmidig, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter; Fey, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added by demonstrating the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human hair. Established dedicated nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy hardware (solenoidal radiofrequency microcoils and planar field gradients) and methods (constant time imaging) were adapted to the specific needs of hair MRI. Images were produced at a spatial resolution high enough to resolve the inner structure of the hair, showing contrast between cortex and medulla. Quantitative evaluation of a scan series with different echo times provided a T*(2) value of 2.6 ms for the cortex and a water content of about 90% for hairs saturated with water. The demonstration of the feasibility of hair MRI potentially adds a new tool to the large variety of analytical methods used nowadays in the development of hair care products.

  7. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

  8. [Hair and their environment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  9. Hair cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Albert SB; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear largely lacks the capacity to regenerate hair cells, the sensory cells required for hearing and balance. Recent studies in both lower vertebrates and mammals have uncovered genes and pathways important in hair cell development and have suggested ways that the sensory epithelia could be manipulated to achieve hair cell regeneration. These approaches include the use of inner ear stem cells, transdifferentiation of nonsensory cells, and induction of a proliferative response in the cells that can become hair cells. PMID:18929656

  10. Crystallography of waxes - an electron diffraction study of refined and natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1997-02-01

    The crystal structure of four waxes has been investigated by electron crystallography. Two of these waxes, including a refined petroleum product (Gulfwax) and a material from lignite (montan wax), form well ordered crystals and their structure could be solved quantitatively from the observed 0022-3727/30/3/018/img1 diffraction patterns. As also found previously for simpler binary n-paraffin solid solutions, the average structure resembles that of a pure paraffin (e.g. n-0022-3727/30/3/018/img2) but with a Gaussian distribution of atomic occupancies near the chain ends to account for the statistical distribution of chain lengths within a lamella. Two other waxes from living organisms, South African bee honeycomb and the leaves of the Brazilian carnauba palm, are much less ordered, even though they share the same methylene subcell packing of the most crystalline parts of the previous materials. It appears that these waxes cannot fully separate into distinct lamellae, perhaps due to the presence of very long `tie' molecules, and are therefore `frustrated' crystal structures.

  11. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth.

  12. Facial hair restoration: hair transplantation to eyebrows, beard, sideburns, and eyelashes.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey

    2013-08-01

    Refinements in hair transplantation techniques allow the experienced surgeon to create natural-appearing facial hair transplants. Restoring eyebrows, beards/goatees, and sideburns have all become popular procedures, and the results can be outstanding. This article provides a comprehensive review of hair grafting techniques to achieve the best results in restoring various hair-bearing areas of the face, including the eyebrows, beard/goatee, and sideburns, and repairing the alopecic scarring from prior facial plastic surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

  14. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Gelling ability and crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant waxes can effectively form organogels with vegetable oils and these organogels have drawn considerable interests as alternatives to solid fats containing trans fats and saturated fats in margarines and spreads. Among them sunflower wax showed the most pronounced gelling ability. In an attempt ...

  16. [Comparative adaptation of crowns of selective laser melting and wax-lost-casting method].

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-qiang; Shen, Qing-yi; Gao, Jian-hua; Wu, Xue-ying; Chen, Li; Dai, Wen-an

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and wax-lost-casting method, so as to provide an experimental basis for clinic. Co-Cr alloy full crown were fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting for 24 samples in each group. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement and cut along longitudinal axis by line cutting machine. The gap between crown tissue surface and die was measured by 6-point measuring method with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting were compared statistically. The gap between SLM crowns were (36.51 ± 2.94), (49.36 ± 3.31), (56.48 ± 3.35), (42.20 ± 3.60) µm, and wax-lost-casting crowns were (68.86 ± 5.41), (58.86 ± 6.10), (70.62 ± 5.79), (69.90 ± 6.00) µm. There were significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). Co-Cr alloy full crown fabricated by wax-lost-casting method and SLM method provide acceptable marginal adaptation in clinic, and the marginal adaptation of SLM is better than that of wax-lost-casting method.

  17. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  18. Emulsions of sunflower wax in pectin aqueous solutions: Physical characterization and stability.

    PubMed

    Chalapud, Mayra C; Baümler, Erica R; Carelli, Amalia A

    2018-06-01

    The knowledge of the stability and physical properties of film-forming solutions is necessary for optimizing the process design of films. In order to evaluate their applicability for the production of edible films, the rheological and microstructural properties, particle size and physicochemical stability of aqueous emulsions of low methoxyl pectin and sunflower waxes from normal and high-oleic hybrids were assessed. Emulsions were prepared with different pectin concentrations (1, 2 and 3% w/w) and wax proportions (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g/g pectin). The rheological behavior was best described by the power law model. The values of the behavior index (n) were close to 1, exhibiting a behavior close to Newtonian fluids. The addition of waxes caused an increase in viscosity and shear stress. The particle size of the emulsions made with waxes from high-oleic sunflower was smaller than those from the normal hybrid. In most cases, size distributions with greater height and less amplitude were obtained, mainly when the pectin content was higher. Confocal images allowed to observe the presence of waxes and their dispersion in the pectin matrix. Destabilization phenomena such as sedimentation, coalescence and creaming were observed at long test times independent of the wax origin. These results evidence the potential use of these emulsions for the manufacture of edible films. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accuracy of ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination technique: a comparative in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Rahul; Al-Keraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Kathuria, Nidhi; Gandhi, P V; Bhide, S V

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination techniques can be combined to offer a cost-effective, clinically acceptable, and time-saving alternative for fabricating single unit castings in fixed prosthodontics. Sixty standardized wax copings were fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a stainless steel die. The wax patterns were divided into four groups. The first group was cast using the ringless investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the second group was cast using the ringless investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method; the third group was cast using the conventional metal ring investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the fourth group was cast using the metal ring investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method. The vertical marginal gap was measured at four sites per specimen, using a digital optical microscope at 100× magnification. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA to determine statistical significance. The vertical marginal gaps of castings fabricated using the ringless technique (76.98 ± 7.59 μm) were significantly less (p < 0.05) than those castings fabricated using the conventional metal ring technique (138.44 ± 28.59 μm); however, the vertical marginal gaps of the conventional (102.63 ± 36.12 μm) and accelerated wax-elimination (112.79 ± 38.34 μm) castings were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The ringless investment technique can produce castings with higher accuracy and can be favorably combined with the accelerated wax-elimination method as a vital alternative to the time-consuming conventional technique of casting restorations in fixed prosthodontics. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Ingrown Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed to determine whether a single- or multiple-blade razor is best for preventing ingrown hair. See ... in the direction of hair growth. Rinse the blade after each stroke. Rinse your skin and apply ...

  1. Activating Hair Follicle Stem Cells via R-spondin2 to Stimulate Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew A; Li, Jingtao; Liu, Bo; Hunter, Daniel; Pyles, Malcolm; Gillette, Martin; Dhamdhere, Girija R; Abo, Arie; Oro, Anthony; Helms, Jill A

    2016-08-01

    Wnt signaling is required for the development of the hair follicle, and for inciting the growth (anagen) phase of the hair cycle. Most strategies to enhance Wnt signaling for hair growth create a state of constitutive Wnt activation, which leads to neoplastic transformation of the epithelial hair matrix. Using Axin2(LacZ/+) and Axin2(Cre/+)R26R(mTmG/+) reporter mice and RNA analyses, we show that Wnt signaling is elevated during anagen, is reduced at the onset of catagen, and can be reamplified in the skin and surrounding hair follicles via intradermal injection of recombinant R-spondin2 protein. Using Lgr5(LacZ/+) reporter mice, we demonstrate that this amplified Wnt environment leads to activation of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive stem cells in the hair follicle. The onset of catagen is repressed by R-spondin2 injection, and the anagen phase persists. As a consequence, hair shafts grow longer. We conclude that R-spondin2 treatment activates hair follicle stem cells and therefore may have therapeutic potential to promote hair growth. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial decolorization and detoxification of emerging environmental pollutant: Cosmetic hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2017-09-15

    Since the usage of hair dyes has increased in recent time, the removal of residual dye from environment is also an emerging issue. Hair dye contains mixture of chemicals including genotoxic chemical, p-phenylenediamine (p-PD or PPD). The present study reports bioremediation of hair dye using bacteria isolated from saloon effluent. Sugarcane bagasse powder (SBP) was used as a source of nutrient and surface for bacterial growth. The 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed the isolate as Enterobacter cloacae which was designated as DDB I. The decolourization of dye was studied using UV-vis spectrophotometer. The detoxification study was conducted on microbes isolated from fresh ponds using well diffusion assay. The 1mg/ml of dye was effectively decolourised within 18h of DDB I treatment in the minimal medium containing 30mg/ml of SBP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hair bundles of cochlear outer hair cells are shaped to minimize their fluid-dynamic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ciganović, Nikola; Wolde-Kidan, Amanuel; Reichenbach, Tobias

    2017-06-15

    The mammalian sense of hearing relies on two types of sensory cells: inner hair cells transmit the auditory stimulus to the brain, while outer hair cells mechanically modulate the stimulus through active feedback. Stimulation of a hair cell is mediated by displacements of its mechanosensitive hair bundle which protrudes from the apical surface of the cell into a narrow fluid-filled space between reticular lamina and tectorial membrane. While hair bundles of inner hair cells are of linear shape, those of outer hair cells exhibit a distinctive V-shape. The biophysical rationale behind this morphology, however, remains unknown. Here we use analytical and computational methods to study the fluid flow across rows of differently shaped hair bundles. We find that rows of V-shaped hair bundles have a considerably reduced resistance to crossflow, and that the biologically observed shapes of hair bundles of outer hair cells are near-optimal in this regard. This observation accords with the function of outer hair cells and lends support to the recent hypothesis that inner hair cells are stimulated by a net flow, in addition to the well-established shear flow that arises from shearing between the reticular lamina and the tectorial membrane.

  4. Changes in Cuticular Wax Composition of Two Blueberry Cultivars during Fruit Ripening and Postharvest Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Wu, Weijie; Fang, Xiangjun

    2018-03-21

    Cuticular wax plays an important role for the quality of blueberry fruits. In this study, the cuticular wax composition of two blueberry cultivars, 'Legacy' ( Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Brightwell' ( Vaccinium ashei), was examined during fruit ripening and postharvest cold storage. The results showed that wax was gradually deposited on the epidermis of blueberry fruits and the content of major wax compounds, except that for diketones, increased significantly during fruit ripening. The total wax content was 2-fold greater in 'Brightwell' blueberries than that in 'Legacy' blueberries during fruit ripening. The total wax content of both cultivars decreased during 30 days of storage at 4 °C, and the variation of cuticular wax composition was cultivar-dependent. The content of diketones decreased significantly in 'Legacy' blueberries, while the content of triterpenoids and aliphatic compounds showed different fold changes in 'Brightwell' blueberries after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. Overall, our study provided a quantitative and qualitative overview of cuticular wax compounds of blueberry fruits during ripening and postharvest cold storage.

  5. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Attard, Thomas M; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J

    2015-07-31

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be € 88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of € 10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM.

  6. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Thomas M.; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM. PMID:26263976

  7. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR′) were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS3 (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: 1) [RCOOH2]+ for saturated wax esters, 2) [RCOOH2]+, [RCO]+ and [RCO – H2O]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and 3) [RCOOH2]+ and [RCO]+ for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R′]+ and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2]+ ions for all types of wax esters and [R′ – 2H]+ ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions. PMID:26178197

  8. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-08-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR') were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS(3) (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: (1) [RCOOH2](+) for saturated wax esters, (2) [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and (3) [RCOOH2](+) and [RCO](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R'](+) and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2](+) ions for all types of wax esters and [R'-2H](+) ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions.

  9. The acquisition of mechano-electrical transducer current adaptation in auditory hair cells requires myosin VI.

    PubMed

    Marcotti, Walter; Corns, Laura F; Goodyear, Richard J; Rzadzinska, Agnieszka K; Avraham, Karen B; Steel, Karen P; Richardson, Guy P; Kros, Corné J

    2016-07-01

    The transduction of sound into electrical signals occurs at the hair bundles atop sensory hair cells in the cochlea, by means of mechanosensitive ion channels, the mechano-electrical transducer (MET) channels. The MET currents decline during steady stimuli; this is termed adaptation and ensures they always work within the most sensitive part of their operating range, responding best to rapidly changing (sound) stimuli. In this study we used a mouse model (Snell's waltzer) for hereditary deafness in humans that has a mutation in the gene encoding an unconventional myosin, myosin VI, which is present in the hair bundles. We found that in the absence of myosin VI the MET current fails to acquire its characteristic adaptation as the hair bundles develop. We propose that myosin VI supports the acquisition of adaptation by removing key molecules from the hair bundle that serve a temporary, developmental role. Mutations in Myo6, the gene encoding the (F-actin) minus end-directed unconventional myosin, myosin VI, cause hereditary deafness in mice (Snell's waltzer) and humans. In the sensory hair cells of the cochlea, myosin VI is expressed in the cell bodies and along the stereocilia that project from the cells' apical surface. It is required for maintaining the structural integrity of the mechanosensitive hair bundles formed by the stereocilia. In this study we investigate whether myosin VI contributes to mechano-electrical transduction. We report that Ca(2+) -dependent adaptation of the mechano-electrical transducer (MET) current, which serves to keep the transduction apparatus operating within its most sensitive range, is absent in outer and inner hair cells from homozygous Snell's waltzer mutant mice, which fail to express myosin VI. The operating range of the MET channels is also abnormal in the mutants, resulting in the absence of a resting MET current. We found that cadherin 23, a component of the hair bundle's transient lateral links, fails to be downregulated

  10. Adenosine increases anagen hair growth and thick hairs in Japanese women with female pattern hair loss: a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oura, Hajimu; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Tajima, Masahiro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Nakaya, Yutaka; Arase, Seiji; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2008-12-01

    Adenosine upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-7 in cultured dermal papilla cells. It has been shown that, in Japanese men, adenosine improves androgenetic alopecia due to the thickening of thin hair due to hair follicle miniaturization. To investigate the efficacy and safety of adenosine treatment to improve hair loss in women, 30 Japanese women with female pattern hair loss were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Volunteers used either 0.75% adenosine lotion or a placebo lotion topically twice daily for 12 months. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists and by investigators and in phototrichograms. As a result, adenosine was significantly superior to the placebo according to assessments by dermatologists and investigators and by self-assessments. Adenosine significantly increased the anagen hair growth rate and the thick hair rate. No side-effects were encountered during the trial. Adenosine improved hair loss in Japanese women by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts. Adenosine is useful for treating female pattern hair loss in women as well as androgenetic alopecia in men.

  11. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  12. The influence of hair bleach on the ultrastructure of human hair with special reference to hair damage.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takehito

    2011-05-01

    The influence of human hair bleaching agents with different bleaching strength on the ultrastructure of human hair was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with TEM (EDS-TEM). Two kinds of bleaching agents were used: a lightener agent with a weak bleaching effect and a powder-bleach with a stronger bleaching effect. From the comparison of the bleaching properties obtained by the electronic staining of black and white hair samples, it was suggested that the permeability of hair was increased by bleaching, and there was an increase of the stainability of hair subjected to electronic staining. The bleaching action provoked the decomposition of melanin granules and the flow out of granular contents into the intermacrofibrillar matrix. Some metal elements were detected in the melanin granular matrix by EDS-TEM. As a result, the diffusion of metal elements into the intermacrofibrillar matrix promoted further damage to the hair by catalytic action with the hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching agents outside the melanin granules. Further study will lead us to the edge of the development of a new bleaching agent, which reacts only with melanin granules and causes the minimum of damage to outside the melanin granules.

  13. Hair Follicle Bulb as a Biodosimeter for Low-Level VX Vapor Exposure: Initial Studies Validating the Presence of Potential Protein Biomarkers of Exposure in the Sprague-Dawley Rat Whisker Follicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    lead to false positive segmental hair analysis results.13 Due to the increased risk of false positives associated with segmental hair analysis ...to 200 mg of hair (to allow confirmation testing). 7 The segments are typically washed to remove external contaminants and the chemicals in the hair ...further confirmation. The method overcomes the false positives associated with traditional segmental hair analysis such. By measuring the

  14. Comparison of hair shaft damage after chemical treatment in Asian, White European, and African hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Lee, Sung Yul; Hong, Hannah; Lee, Won-Soo

    2014-09-01

    Diverse causes of extrinsic damage to the hair shaft have been documented and can be roughly divided into physical and chemical causes. Chemical causes of hair damage include bleaching, hair dyeing, and perming. The goal of this study was to investigate differences in patterns of serial damage in Asian, White European (WE), and African hair after chemical stress imposed by straightening and coloring treatments. Hairs were divided into control and treatment groups (straightening, coloring, and a combination of straightening and coloring). At 24 hours after the final treatment, patterns of hair damage were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM. Grades of hair cuticle and cortex damage were evaluated by three dermatologists. In the TEM examination, the cuticle of Asian hair proved to be resistant to damage caused by straightening treatments, whereas the WE hair cuticle and cortex were relatively susceptible to stress imposed by coloring treatments. In the combination treatment of straightening and coloring, African hair emerged as the most resistant to stress. In the lipid TEM examination, no notable differences in cell membrane complex damage were observed among the three groups of hairs. The present study suggests that WE hair is relatively susceptible and African hair is more resistant to chemical stresses, such as those imposed by straightening and coloring. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Does the hair influence heat extraction from the head during head cooling under heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    SHIN, Sora; PARK, Joonhee; LEE, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of head hair on thermoregulatory responses when cooling the head under heat stress. Eight young males participated in six experimental conditions: normal hair (100–130 mm length) and cropped hair (5 mm length) with three water inlet temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C. The head and neck of subjects were cooled by a liquid perfused hood while immersing legs at 42°C water for 60 min in a sitting position at the air temperature of 28°C with 30% RH. The results showed that heat removal from the normal hair condition was not significantly different from the cropped hair condition. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, and sweat rate showed no significant differences between the normal and cropped hair conditions. Heat extraction from the head was significantly greater in 10°C than in 15 or 20°C cooling (p<0.05) for both normal and cropped hair, whereas subjects preferred the 15°C more than the 10 or 20°C cooling regimen. These results indicate that the selection of effective cooling temperature is more crucial than the length of workers’ hair during head cooling under heat stress, and such selection should be under the consideration of subjective perceptions with physiological responses. PMID:26165361

  16. Evaluation of the effect of formic acid and sodium formate on hair reduction in rat

    PubMed Central

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Rad, Abolfazl Khajavi; Yazdi, Seyed Abbas Tabatabaee; Rakhshande, Hasan; Ghoyonlo, Vahid Mashayekhi; Zabihi, Zahra; Yousefzadeh, Hadis

    2011-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common problem in dermatology that imposes high socioeconomical costs on medical care. Consequently, researchers are actively searching for cheaper and safer methods for therapeutic treatment. The objective of the present study is to evaluate formic oil, enriched from formic acid, for the removal of unwanted hair. In this study, 32 female rats (150–200 g) were randomly divided into four groups and maintained with normal water and food availability. A patch of skin was shaved on each rat for application of test solutions. The control group was treated with local once-daily applications of normal saline. The formic acid, acetic acid, and sodium formate groups were treated with once-daily applications of formic acid (pH 5.5), acetic acid (pH 5.5), or sodium formate, respectively. After 2 weeks, horizontally cut sample biopsies were removed, and the numbers of hair follicles were counted under high field microscopy by a specialist blinded to the treatments. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test results indicated a nonparametric distribution for the rat groups. ANOVA analysis indicated no statistically significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). There weren’t any side effects or evidence for toxicity during the study period. However, hair follicle counts showed a descending order of control, acetic acid, formic acid, and sodium formate. Although the sodium formate group had the lowest hair follicle numbers, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Formic acid was not effective in reducing hair follicle numbers in rats. PMID:21760741

  17. The hair follicle enigma.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2017-06-01

    The hair follicle is a mini-organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behaviour. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome-mediated cell-cell interactions. Even though bricks of knowledge are solidly being acquired, an integrative picture remains to emerge. One can predict that computer science, algorithms and bioinformatics will assist in fostering our understanding hair biology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Anatomically realistic ultrasound phantoms using gel wax with 3D printed moulds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneas, Efthymios; Xia, Wenfeng; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Daher, Batol; Manimaran, Maniragav; Wong, Rui Yen J.; Chang, Chia-Wei; Rahmani, Benyamin; Capelli, Claudio; Schievano, Silvia; Burriesci, Gaetano; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L.; Finlay, Malcolm C.; West, Simeon J.; Vercauteren, Tom; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2018-01-01

    Here we describe methods for creating tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantoms based on patient anatomy using a soft material called gel wax. To recreate acoustically realistic tissue properties, two additives to gel wax were considered: paraffin wax to increase acoustic attenuation, and solid glass spheres to increase backscattering. The frequency dependence of ultrasound attenuation was well described with a power law over the measured range of 3-10 MHz. With the addition of paraffin wax in concentrations of 0 to 8 w/w%, attenuation varied from 0.72 to 2.91 dB cm-1 at 3 MHz and from 6.84 to 26.63 dB cm-1 at 10 MHz. With solid glass sphere concentrations in the range of 0.025-0.9 w/w%, acoustic backscattering consistent with a wide range of ultrasonic appearances was achieved. Native gel wax maintained its integrity during compressive deformations up to 60%; its Young’s modulus was 17.4  ±  1.4 kPa. The gel wax with additives was shaped by melting and pouring it into 3D printed moulds. Three different phantoms were constructed: a nerve and vessel phantom for peripheral nerve blocks, a heart atrium phantom, and a placental phantom for minimally-invasive fetal interventions. In the first, nerves and vessels were represented as hyperechoic and hypoechoic tubular structures, respectively, in a homogeneous background. The second phantom comprised atria derived from an MRI scan of a patient with an intervening septum and adjoining vena cavae. The third comprised the chorionic surface of a placenta with superficial fetal vessels derived from an image of a post-partum human placenta. Gel wax is a material with widely tuneable ultrasound properties and mechanical characteristics that are well suited for creating patient-specific ultrasound phantoms in several clinical disciplines.

  19. Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection analysis of human hair: comparison of hair from breast cancer patients with hair from healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Donald J; Murray-Wijelath, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectra of 32 scalp and pubic hair samples from individuals diagnosed with breast cancer and those who were negative for breast cancer showed increases in the beta-sheet/disorder structures (relative to alpha-helix structures) and C-H lipid content of hair from breast cancer patients. Thus, the presence of breast cancer appears to alter the hair growth process, resulting in changes in the composition and conformation of cell membrane and matrix materials of hair fiber. These appear to be consistent with the changes observed in X-ray diffraction patterns for hair from breast cancer patients. A blind study of 12 additional hair samples using these FTIR-ATR spectral differences as markers correctly identified all four hair samples from cancer patients (100%). Two of these samples were from breast cancer patients. Of the remaining two samples analyzing positive for cancer, one was from a prostate cancer patient and one from a lung cancer patient. Thus, it appears that the mechanism that alters hair fiber synthesis in the three types of cancer may be similar. The blind study incorrectly identified as positive for cancer three hair samples from two apparently healthy individuals and one patient considered cured from prostate cancer.

  20. Discrimination Training and Formative Evaluation for Remediation in Basic Waxing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, G. William; Guenzel, Pamela

    1990-01-01

    An experimental group (n=6) of student dentists received discrimination training and self-evaluation exercises on 4 waxing projects and 4 handpiece projects over 13 hours. An equivalent "conventional" group (n=7) received verbal feedback with models on 7 waxing projects over 13 hours. The experimental group outperformed the conventional…

  1. Major Evolutionary Trends in Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation of Vascular Plant Leaf Waxes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Edwards, Erika J.; Zeng, Yongbo; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopic ratios of terrestrial plant leaf waxes (δD) have been widely used for paleoclimate reconstructions. However, underlying controls for the observed large variations in leaf wax δD values in different terrestrial vascular plants are still poorly understood, hampering quantitative paleoclimate interpretation. Here we report plant leaf wax and source water δD values from 102 plant species grown in a common environment (New York Botanic Garden), chosen to represent all the major lineages of terrestrial vascular plants and multiple origins of common plant growth forms. We found that leaf wax hydrogen isotope fractionation relative to plant source water is best explained by membership in particular lineages, rather than by growth forms as previously suggested. Monocots, and in particular one clade of grasses, display consistently greater hydrogen isotopic fractionation than all other vascular plants, whereas lycopods, representing the earlier-diverging vascular plant lineage, display the smallest fractionation. Data from greenhouse experiments and field samples suggest that the changing leaf wax hydrogen isotopic fractionation in different terrestrial vascular plants may be related to different strategies in allocating photosynthetic substrates for metabolic and biosynthetic functions, and potential leaf water isotopic differences. PMID:25402476

  2. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  3. Effects of gamma rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Kimihiko

    2017-09-01

    This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1st telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2nd and 3rd anagen phases. An increased frequency of hypopigmented hair bulbs was still observed in the later hair cycle at postnatal day 200. There was no significant difference in the number of stem cells in the hair bulge region between control and irradiated skin. These results show that the effects of γ-rays on the pigmentation of murine hair follicles are persistently carried over to later hair cycles, although those on the number and structure of hair follicles appear to be hidden by the effects of aging. Our findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of the actions of stem cells on hair regeneration in connection with age-related phenotypes.

  4. Three-dimensional wax patterning of paper fluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Renault, Christophe; Koehne, Jessica; Ricco, Antonio J; Crooks, Richard M

    2014-06-17

    In this paper we describe a method for three-dimensional wax patterning of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The method is rooted in the fundamental details of wax transport in paper and provides a simple way to fabricate complex channel architectures such as hemichannels and fully enclosed channels. We show that three-dimensional μPADs can be fabricated with half as much paper by using hemichannels rather than ordinary open channels. We also provide evidence that fully enclosed channels are efficiently isolated from the exterior environment, decreasing contamination risks, simplifying the handling of the device, and slowing evaporation of solvents.

  5. Fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair.

    PubMed

    Sewram, Vikash; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Shephard, Gordon S; Marasas, Walter F O

    2003-01-01

    This study shows for the first time the accumulation of fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair of population clusters exposed to contaminated maize, and thus the feasibility of human hair analysis for the assessment of past fumonisin exposure. Composite hair samples were obtained from the Bizana, Butterworth and Centane districts within the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Following methanol extraction and strong anion exchange clean up, the fumonisins FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) were detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Hair from Centane and Butterworth showed mean levels of FB(1) of 26.7 and 23.5 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. FB(2) was only detected in hair from Centane and in one sampling point in Butterworth, with mean levels of 6.5 and 5.7 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. Hair samples from Bizana, on the other hand, were found to contain higher levels of FB(1) (mean 33.0 microg kg(-1) hair) and FB(2) (mean 11.1 microg kg(-1) hair). No samples contained more than trace levels of FB(3). Recoveries from spiked hair samples using this method ranged from 81% to 101%, demonstrating the applicability of hair analysis in assessing human exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins.

  6. OsWS1 involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis is regulated by osa-miR1848.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kuaifei; Ou, Xiaojin; Gao, Chunzhi; Tang, Huadan; Jia, Yongxia; Deng, Rufang; Xu, Xinlan; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-12-01

    Cuticular wax forms a hydrophobic layer covering aerial plant organs and acting as a protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses. Compared with well-known wax biosynthetic pathway, molecular regulation of wax biosynthesis is less known. Here, we show that rice OsWS1, a member of the membrane-bound O-acyl transferase gene family, involved in wax biosynthesis and was regulated by an osa-miR1848. OsWS1-tagged green fluorescent protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Compared with wild-type rice, OsWS1 overexpression plants displayed a 3% increase in total wax, especially a 35% increase in very long-chain fatty acids, denser wax papillae around the stoma, more cuticular wax crystals formed on leaf and stem surfaces, pollen coats were thicker and more seedlings survived after water-deficit treatment. In contrast, OsWS1-RNAi and osa-miR1848 overexpression plants exhibited opposing changes. Gene expression analysis showed that overexpression of osa-miR1848 down-regulated OsWS1 transcripts; furthermore, expression profiles of OsWS1 and osa-miR1848 were inversely correlated in the leaf, panicle and stem, and upon water-deficit treatment. These results suggest that OsWS1 is regulated by osa-miR1848 and participates in cuticular wax formation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Optical Properties and Crystallization of Natural Waxes at Several Annealing Temperatures: a Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lu; Xu, Xinlong

    2018-03-01

    The thermal analysis and optical properties of paraffin wax, beeswax, and liquid paraffin annealed at variable temperatures have been conducted using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) coupled with SEM methods. The characteristic optical properties of natural waxes can be used to analyze natural wax adulteration. The lamellar structure of paraffin wax and beeswax grew by a sheet of chain expansion. Furthermore, the crystallization process of paraffin wax can be assigned: rotator-solid transition and liquid-solid ones. According to the temperature-dependent refractive index curves, the refractive index of paraffin wax varies from large to small followed by rotator-liquid transition, untreated one, and liquid-solid one, respectively. The results indicated that THz-TDS has been proved to be of great potential in identification the crystallization of waxes.

  8. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riekel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 μm. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 μm and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 μm beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk.

  9. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2016-12-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Texas hair salon settles suit while another faces EEOC action. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

    PubMed

    1995-03-24

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has filed suit against the nationally based [name removed] after hair stylist "John Doe" was fired shortly after his employer discovered he was HIV-positive. According to EEOC officials, [name removed] claimed that John Doe was fired for failing to attend a mandatory training class, but the EEOC said the real motivation was the fact that Doe was regarded as disabled. The suit asked the U.S. District Court to enjoin [name removed] from discharging employees based on their HIV status, reinstate Doe, and order the salon to pay Doe back wages, other compensatory damages, and punitive damages. The lawsuit comes just two months after P.M.K. Corporation, which does business as Cost Cutters of [name removed], agreed to pay $13,200 to stylist "Pat Doe," who was fired after her employer discovered she was HIV-positive. The company claimed Pat Doe was terminated because of a layoff, but the EEOC concluded the real reason was her HIV status. Both actions were filed by the EEOC under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). An EEOC representative said that the fact that both actions involved hair salons was coincidental.

  12. Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Lenk, Robert; Dellinger, Anthony; MacFarland, Darren; Kumar, Krishan; Wilson, Stephen R; Kepley, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 "bald" mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle numbers. In shaved mice, fullerenes increase the rate of hair growth as compared with mice receiving vehicle only. In SKH-1 hairless mice fullerene derivatives given topically or subdermally markedly increased hair growth. This was paralleled by a significant increase in the number of hair follicles in fullerene-treated mice as compared with those mice treated with vehicle only. The fullerenes also increased hair growth in human skin sections maintained in culture. These studies have wide-ranging implications for those conditions leading to hair loss, including alopecia, chemotherapy, and reactions to various chemicals.

  13. Cuticular waxes in alpine meadow plants: climate effect inferred from latitude gradient in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanjun; Guo, Na; He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Alpine meadow ecosystems are susceptible to climate changes. Still, climate impact on cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants is poorly understood. Assessing the variations of cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants across different latitudes might be useful for predicting how they may respond to climate change. We studied nine alpine meadows in a climate gradient in the east side of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, with mean annual temperature ranging from -7.7 to 3.2°C. In total, 42 plant species were analyzed for cuticular wax, averaged 16 plant species in each meadow. Only four plant species could be observed in all sampling meadows, including Kobresia humilis,Potentilla nivea,Anaphalis lacteal, and Leontopodium nanum. The amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax in the four plant species varied among sampling meadows, but no significant correlation could be observed between them and temperature, precipitation, and aridity index based on plant species level. To analyze the variations of cuticular wax on community level, we averaged the amounts of n-alkanes, aliphatic acids, primary alcohols, and total cuticular wax across all investigated plant species in each sampling site. The mean annual temperature, mean temperature in July, and aridity index were significantly correlated with the averaged amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax. The average chain length of n-alkanes in both plant and soil linearly increased with increased temperature, whereas reduced with increased aridity index. No significant correlation could be observed between mean annual precipitation and mean precipitation from June to August and the cuticular wax amounts and average chain length. Our results suggest that the survival of some alpine plants in specific environments might be depended on their abilities in adjusting wax deposition on plant leaves, and the alpine meadow plants as a whole respond to climate change, benefiting the stability of alpine meadow ecosystem.

  14. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Inhibition of Repulsive Guidance Molecule, RGMa, Increases Afferent Synapse Formation with Auditory Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brugeaud, Aurore; Tong, Mingjie; Luo, Li; Edge, Albert S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The peripheral fibers that extend from auditory neurons to hair cells are sensitive to damage, and replacement of the fibers and their afferent synapse with hair cells would be of therapeutic interest. Here, we show that RGMa, a repulsive guidance molecule previously shown to play a role in the development of the chick visual system, is expressed in the developing, newborn, and mature mouse inner ear. The effect of RGMa on synaptogenesis between afferent neurons and hair cells, from which afferent connections had been removed, was assessed. Contact of neural processes with hair cells and elaboration of postsynaptic densities at sites of the ribbon synapse were increased by treatment with a blocking antibody to RGMa, and pruning of auditory fibers to achieve the mature branching pattern of afferent neurons was accelerated. Inhibition by RGMa could thus explain why auditory neurons have a low capacity to regenerate peripheral processes: postnatal spiral ganglion neurons retain the capacity to send out processes that respond to signals for synapse formation, but expression of RGMa postnatally appears to be detrimental to regeneration of afferent hair cell innervation and antagonizes synaptogenesis. Increased synaptogenesis after inhibition of RGMa suggests that manipulation of guidance or inhibitory factors may provide a route to increase formation of new synapses at deafferented hair cells. PMID:24123853

  16. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

  17. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... pillow. This is the result of the normal hair growth cycle. Hairs will grow for a few years, ... the name for the resting stage of the hair growth cycle. A telogen effluvium is when some stress ...

  18. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  19. Stomatal Density Influences Leaf Water and Leaf Wax D/H Values in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Feakins, S. J.; Sternberg, L. O.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of plant leaf wax is a powerful tool to study the hydrology of past and present environments. The δD value of leaf waxes is known to primarily reflect the δD value of source water, modified by biological fractionations commonly summarized as the 'net or apparent' fractionation. It remains a challenge, however, to quantitatively relate the isotopic composition of the end product (wax) back to that of the precursor (water) because multiple isotope effects contributing to the net fractionation are not yet well understood. Transgenic variants have heretofore unexplored potential to isolate individual isotope effects. Here we report the first hydrogen isotopic measurements from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with calculations of leaf water enrichment, net and biosynthetic fractionation values from measured δD of plant waters and leaf wax n-alkanes. We employed transgenic Arabidopsis leaves, engineered to have different stomatal density, by differential expression of the stomatal growth hormone stomagen. Comparison of variants and wild types allow us to isolate the effects of stomatal density on leaf water and the net fractionation expressed by leaf wax biomarkers. Results show that transgenic leaves with denser pores have more enriched leaf water and leaf wax δD values than wild type and even more so than transgenic leaves with sparse stomata (difference of 10 ‰). Our findings that stomatal density controls leaf water and leaf wax δD values adds insights into the cause of variations in net fractionations between species, as well as suggesting that geological variations in stomatal density may modulate the sedimentary leaf wax δD record. In nature, stomatal density varies between species and environments, and all other factors being equal, this will contribute to variations in fractionations observed. Over geological history, lower stomatal densities occur at times of elevated pCO2; our findings predict reduced leaf

  20. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  1. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) Overview Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of ...

  2. Stable hydrogen isotopic composition of n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols as a tracer for the source region of terrestrial plant waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2009-12-01

    Studies on molecular composition and compound-specific carbon isotopic ratio (δ13C) of leaf wax n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols have revealed a long-range atmospheric transport of terrestrial higher plant materials over the south Atlantic and western Pacific oceans. However, molecular and δ13C compositions of terrestrial plant waxes in the eastern part of the Asian continent are relatively constant reflecting C3-dominated vegetation, which makes it difficult to specify the source regions of plant materials in the atmospheric aerosols over the East Asia and northwest Pacific regions. Recent observation displays a large (>100‰) spatial variation in hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of rainwater in East Asia. Because δD values of terrestrial higher plants sensitively reflect those of precipitation waters, δD of leaf waxes are expected to provide information on their source region. In this study, we measured the δD of n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols from Tokyo to better understand the origin of leaf wax n-alkanes in atmospheric aerosols. The δD values of fossil fuel n-alkanes (C21 to C24) in Tokyo aerosols range from -65 to -94‰, which are in a range of those reported in marine crude oils. In contrast, the δD of higher molecular weight (C29 and C31) n-alkanes (δDHMW) show much larger values by ~70‰ than those of fossil fuel n-alkanes. Their values were found to exhibit concomitant variations with carbon preference index (CPI), suggesting that the δDHMW reflect the δD of leaf wax n-alkanes with a variable contribution from fossil fuel n-alkanes. Nevertheless, good positive correlation (r = 0.89, p < 0.01) between the δDHMW and CPI values enable us to remove the contribution of fossil fuels using a mass balance approach by assuming that CPI of fossil fuel is 1 and CPI of plant waxes is 5-15. Calculated n-alkane δD values averaged from -170 to -185‰ for C29 and from -155 to -168‰ for C31. These values are consistent with those reported from

  3. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  4. An ultrastructural study on corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mao; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lei, Song; Zhang, Chaoliang; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Hu, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to explain the formation mechanisms of corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis. In the present work, the ultrastructure of the involved hairs collected from a girl with tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM observation of the corkscrew hair revealed bent hair shaft and asymmetrically disrupted cuticle layer. TEM findings demonstrated the hair shaft became weak. The corkscrew hairs closely covered by scales on the scalp were observed under dermoscopy. We speculate that the formation of corkscrew hairs is a result of a combination of internal damage due to hair degradation by T. violaceum and external resistance due to scales covering the hair. SEM observation of the cigarette-ash-shaped hair revealed irregularly disrupted and incompact end, which might represent the stump of the broken corkscrew hair after treatment. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A core subunit of the RNA-processing/degrading exosome specifically influences cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Tanya S; Lam, Patricia; Zheng, Huanquan; Kunst, Ljerka

    2007-03-01

    The cuticle is an extracellular matrix composed of cutin polyester and waxes that covers aerial organs of land plants and protects them from environmental stresses. The Arabidopsis thaliana cer7 mutant exhibits reduced cuticular wax accumulation and contains considerably lower transcript levels of ECERIFERUM3/WAX2/YORE-YORE (CER3/WAX2/YRE), a key wax biosynthetic gene. We show here that CER7 protein is a putative 3'-5' exoribonuclease homologous to yeast Ribonuclease PH45 (RRP45p), a core subunit of the RNA processing and degrading exosome that controls the expression of CER3/WAX2/YRE. We propose that CER7 acts by degrading a specific mRNA species encoding a negative regulator of CER3/WAX2/YRE transcription. A second RRP45p homolog found in Arabidopsis, designated At RRP45a, is partially functionally redundant with CER7, and complete loss of RRP45 function in Arabidopsis is lethal. To our knowledge, CER7 is currently the only example of a core exosomal subunit specifically influencing a cellular process.

  6. Wax inhibitor based on ethylene vinyl acetate with methyl methacrylate and diethanolamine for crude oil pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Abang, S.; Bono, A.; Krishnaiah, D.; Karali, R.; Safuan, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Wax precipitation and deposition is one of the most significant flow assurance challenges in the production system of the crude oil. Wax inhibitors are developed as a preventive strategy to avoid an absolute wax deposition. Wax inhibitors are polymers which can be known as pour point depressants as they impede the wax crystals formation, growth, and deposition. In this study three formulations of wax inhibitors were prepared, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl acetate co-methyl methacrylate (EVA co-MMA) and ethylene vinyl acetate co-diethanolamine (EVA co-DEA) and the comparison of their efficiencies in terms of cloud point¸ pour point, performance inhibition efficiency (%PIE) and viscosity were evaluated. The cloud point and pour point for both EVA and EVA co-MMA were similar, 15°C and 10-5°C, respectively. Whereas, the cloud point and pour point for EVA co-DEA were better, 10°C and 10-5°C respectively. In conclusion, EVA co-DEA had shown the best % PIE (28.42%) which indicates highest percentage reduction of wax deposit as compared to the other two inhibitors.

  7. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    PubMed

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  9. Splitting hairs: differentiating between entomological activity, taphonomy, and sharp force trauma on hair.

    PubMed

    Mazzarelli, Debora; Vanin, Stefano; Gibelli, Daniele; Maistrello, Lara; Porta, Davide; Rizzi, Agostino; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of hair can provide useful information for the correct evaluation of forensic cases, but studies of trauma on hair are extremely rare. Hair may present lesions caused by traumatic events or by animals: in fact, signs of sharp force weapons on hair may provide important information for the reconstruction of the manner of death, and, for example, may suggest fetishist practice. This study stemmed from a judicial case where it was fundamental to distinguish between sharp force lesions and insect activity on hair. In order to highlight differences between sharp force lesions and insect feeding activity, different experiments were performed with high power microscopy: hair samples were subjected to several lesions by blunt and sharp force trauma; then samples were used as pabulum for two taxa of insects: the common clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella Lepidoptera, Tineidae) and the carpet beetle (Anthrenus sp., Coleoptera, Dermestidae). Hairs were examined from a macroscopic and microscopic point of view by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM): the morphological characteristics of the lesions obtained from the different experimental samples were compared. Results show that sharp force trauma produces lesions with regular edges, whereas insects leave concave lesions caused by their "gnawing" activity. These two types of lesions are easily distinguishable from breaking and tearing using SEM. This study demonstrates that insect activity leaves very specific indications on hair and sheds some light on different hair lesions that may be found in forensic cases.

  10. Chemical composition of preen wax reflects major histocompatibility complex similarity in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Slade, J W G; Watson, M J; Kelly, T R; Gloor, G B; Bernards, M A; MacDougall-Shackleton, E A

    2016-11-16

    In jawed vertebrates, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a key role in immunity by encoding cell-surface proteins that recognize and bind non-self antigens. High variability at MHC suggests that these loci may also function in social signalling such as mate choice and kin recognition. This requires that MHC genotype covaries with some perceptible phenotypic trait. In mammals and fish, MHC is signalled chemically through volatile and non-volatile peptide odour cues, facilitating MHC-dependent mate choice and other behaviours. In birds, despite evidence for MHC-dependent mating, candidate mechanisms for MHC signalling remain largely unexplored. However, feather preen wax has recently been implicated as a potential source of odour cues. We examined whether the chemical composition of preen wax correlates with MHC class IIβ genotypes of wild song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Pairwise chemical distance reflected amino acid distance at MHC for male-female dyads, although not for same-sex dyads. Chemical diversity did not reflect MHC diversity. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to characterize preen wax compounds, and identified four wax esters that best reflect MHC similarity. Provided songbirds can detect variation in preen wax composition, this cue may allow individuals to assess MHC compatibility of potential mates. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  12. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible women, but is most commonly seen after menopause. In female pattern hair loss some excess loss of hair is noted, but ... all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially whose hair loss starts before menopause but takes many months. Hormone replacement pills, such ...

  13. Pubic Hair Shaving Is Correlated to Vulvar Dysplasia and Inflammation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Objective The risk factors for vulvar dysplasia and infections are not fully known. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation between pubic hair shaving and the occurrence of vulvar inflammation, dysplasia, and cancer. Methods This study was performed between January 2013 and December 2016 in which a standardized questionnaire concerning genital hair shaving was administered to vulvar dysplasia and cancer patients and healthy participants. The presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the occurrence of genital inflammation were documented. Results We recruited 49 patients with vulvar dysplasia or cancer and 234 healthy women as a control group. Smoking, HPV infection, genital inflammation, and complete pubic hair removal were significantly more common in the vulvar dysplasia/cancer group. Pubic hair shaving per se presented a clear association with vulvar dysplasia/cancer. Shaving the labia majora in particular showed also an association. Conclusion Our findings suggest that partial or complete pubic hair shaving using a razor is correlated with and could be a potential risk factor for the development of genital inflammation, vulvar dysplasia, and malignancies. These results need to be confirmed in larger studies. HPV status and genital inflammation should be documented by medical personnel. PMID:29104417

  14. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P < 0.006) and global thinning is associated with slower growth rates. Compared with hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Vacuum/compression valving (VCV) using parrafin-wax on a centrifugal microfluidic CD platform.

    PubMed

    Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Moebius, Jacob; Joseph, Karunan; Arof, Hamzah; Madou, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces novel vacuum/compression valves (VCVs) utilizing paraffin wax. A VCV is implemented by sealing the venting channel/hole with wax plugs (for normally-closed valve), or to be sealed by wax (for normally-open valve), and is activated by localized heating on the CD surface. We demonstrate that the VCV provides the advantages of avoiding unnecessary heating of the sample/reagents in the diagnostic process, allowing for vacuum sealing of the CD, and clear separation of the paraffin wax from the sample/reagents in the microfluidic process. As a proof of concept, the microfluidic processes of liquid flow switching and liquid metering is demonstrated with the VCV. Results show that the VCV lowers the required spinning frequency to perform the microfluidic processes with high accuracy and ease of control.

  16. Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on a Centrifugal Microfluidic CD Platform

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Moebius, Jacob; Joseph, Karunan; Arof, Hamzah; Madou, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces novel vacuum/compression valves (VCVs) utilizing paraffin wax. A VCV is implemented by sealing the venting channel/hole with wax plugs (for normally-closed valve), or to be sealed by wax (for normally-open valve), and is activated by localized heating on the CD surface. We demonstrate that the VCV provides the advantages of avoiding unnecessary heating of the sample/reagents in the diagnostic process, allowing for vacuum sealing of the CD, and clear separation of the paraffin wax from the sample/reagents in the microfluidic process. As a proof of concept, the microfluidic processes of liquid flow switching and liquid metering is demonstrated with the VCV. Results show that the VCV lowers the required spinning frequency to perform the microfluidic processes with high accuracy and ease of control. PMID:23505528

  17. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  18. Neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet long impulse laser for the elimination of superfluous hair: experiences and considerations from 3 years of activity.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, G A; Perrotta, A; Rossano, F; D'Andrea, F

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the results obtained with a modern apparatus for laser hair removal (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Nd:YAG] laser at long impulses with a wave-length of 1,064 nm; Q-switched laser) over a follow-up period of 3 years. A large heterogeneous group of 480 patients was taken into consideration. These patients were treated according to a standard protocol with monthly checkups and a personalized protocol at deferred appointments. The results, discovered by means of the most objective procedure possible, were retrieved and put into a graph showing two different curves for the repopulation of hair. In their clinical travels, the authors observed an average variable regrowth of 40% to 65%, allowing them to affirm that laser hair removal using Nd:YAG at long impulses is decisively efficient in obtaining long-term results. The use of a protocol (denominated "prolonged monthly checkup") with laser sessions at ever-decreasing periods permits, among other things, more outstanding and advantageous results for the patient. Thanks to more efficiently synchronized phases of the biologic hair cycle, this shortens and moves the telegenic phases closer and also renders the anagenic phases (those in which the selective photoermolysis on the pilipheric follicle proves to be efficient) more efficient. Personalization of the treatment relative to the monthly health checkup sessions is of fundamental importance to the scope of obtaining the best results in terms of cost-benefit rate, provided submassimal fluxes are (i.e., those well-tolerated by the patient) used. All this allows hair removal that is not definitive, but which becomes progressively permanent (i.e., characterized by ever-growing periods of lack of hair sustained by sporadic maintenance laser sessions based on the individual's necessity).

  19. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system, the calming ingredient bisabolol, and

  20. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. Methods The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers’ self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Conclusion Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system

  1. Physical characterization of crystalline networks formed by binary blends of waxes in soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Jana, Sarbojeet; Martini, Silvana

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the physical properties of 2.5% (wt. basis) binary wax in soybean oil (SBO) system. Differential scanning calorimetry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance, rheology, and polarized light microscopy were used to measure melting profiles, solid fat content, viscoelastic parameters, and crystal morphology, respectively. Binary blends were prepared using beeswax (BW), rice bran wax (RBW), and sunflower wax (SFW) in 0, 20, 50, 80 and 100% proportions. Melting behavior of binary waxes was significantly affected by the type and proportion of wax used. Melting T on and T p for RBW/SFW and RBW/BW blends were significantly higher than those observed for SFW/BW. Enthalpy values suggest that different molecules present in the wax affect intermolecular interactions in the binary blends by either inducing (SFW/BW) or delaying (RBW/BW) crystallization. Iso-solid diagrams show that there is certainly a softening effect when different proportions of RBW/BW and SFW/BW are used, while a solid solution is formed in RBW/SFW systems. Viscoelastic parameters (G', G″) results show that RBW has the highest G' value (3.1×10 4 ±1×10 3 Pa) followed by SFW (2.7×10 4 ±0.2×10 4 Pa) and BW having the lowest (90.7±74.4Pa). Higher G' values in all proportions of RBW/SFW binary system in SBO indicate significantly more solid-like behavior than any other combinations. However, blending of two different waxes does not necessary result in a linear increase in elastic properties and in some cases no changes in elasticity is observed as the amount of the high melting wax is added to the low melting one. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human hair pigmentation--biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Tobin, D J

    2008-08-01

    Skin and hair colour contribute significantly to our overall visual appearance and to social/sexual communication. Despite their shared origins in the embryologic neural crest, the hair follicle and epidermal pigmentary units occupy distinct, although open, cutaneous compartments. They can be distinguished principally on the basis of the former's stringent coupling to the hair growth cycle compared with the latter's continuous melanogenesis. The biosynthesis of melanin and its subsequent transfer from melanocyte to hair bulb keratinocytes depend on the availability of melanin precursors and on a raft of signal transduction pathways that are both highly complex and commonly redundant. These signalling pathways can be both dependent and independent of receptors, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. Despite many shared features, follicular melanocytes appear to be more sensitive than epidermal melanocytes to ageing influences. This can be seen most dramatically in hair greying/canities and this is likely to reflect significant differences in the epidermal and follicular microenvironments. The hair follicle pigmentary unit may also serve as an important environmental sensor, whereby hair pigment contributes to the rapid excretion of heavy metals, chemicals and toxins from the body by their selective binding to melanin; rendering the hair fibre a useful barometer of exposures. The recent availability of advanced cell culture methodologies for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture should provide the research tools necessary to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. In the longer term, it may be feasible to develop hair colour modifiers of a biological nature to accompany those based on chemicals.

  3. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Hair stylist wins handsome reward, but will his estate collect?

    PubMed

    1999-04-16

    A hair salon in Washington, D.C., has been ordered to pay $445,190 in damages to a former stylist who was fired because he had an AIDS-related skin tumor. The stylist, [name removed], died in 1996, and his estate continued the litigation. Although the salon, Natural Motion by Sandra, Inc., and a partner in the corporation were found to have discriminated against [name removed], the salon is no longer in business. It is questionable if the estate will ever collect. The District of Columbia Human Rights Act prohibits firing workers for discriminatory reasons based on personal appearance or physical disability.

  5. Optical coherence tomography using images of hair structure and dyes penetrating into the hair.

    PubMed

    Tsugita, Tetsuya; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Hair dyes are commonly evaluated by the appearance of the hair after dyeing. However, this approach cannot simultaneously assess how deep the dye has penetrated into hair. For simultaneous assessment of the appearance and the interior of hair, we developed a visible-range red, green, and blue (RGB) (three primary colors)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) using an RGB LED light source. We then evaluated a phantom model based on the assumption that the sample's absorbability in the vertical direction affects the tomographic imaging. Consistent with theory, our device showed higher resolution than conventional OCT with far-red light. In the experiment on the phantom model, we confirmed that the tomographic imaging is affected by absorbability unique to the sample. Furthermore, we verified that permeability can be estimated from this tomographic image. We also identified for the first time the relationship between penetration of the dye into hair and characteristics of wavelength by tomographic imaging of dyed hair. We successfully simultaneously assessed the appearance of dyed hair and inward penetration of the dye without preparing hair sections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Development of a smart, anti-water polyurethane polymer hair coating for style setting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Liu, Y J; Hu, J; Ji, F L; Lv, J; Chen, S J; Zhu, Y

    2016-06-01

    be recovered 94% at 75°C, once its shape is changed by an external force. The treated hair can withstand warm water rinsing for at least five cycles, and it can keep 65% of its original setting style after water rinsing. The polyurethane polymer could be totally removed by shampooing the hair and hot towel covering for 5-10 min. This research provides an effective way for the development of new intelligent shaping agents. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Root hairs increase root exudation and rhizosphere extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebandanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carmintati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase their access to limited soil resources. An example of such strategies is the production of root hairs. Root hairs extend the root surface and therefore increase the access to nutrients. Additionally, carbon release from root hairs might facilitate nutrient uptake by spreading of carbon in the rhizosphere and enhancing microbial activity. The aim of this study was to test: i) how root hairs change the allocation of carbon in the soil-plant system; ii) whether root hairs exude carbon into the soil and iii) how differences in C release between plants with and without root hairs affect rhizosphere extension. We grew barley plants with and without root hairs (wild type: WT, bald root barley: brb) in rhizoboxes filled with a sandy soil. Root elongation was monitored over time. After 4 weeks of growth, plants were labelled with 14CO2. A filter paper was placed on the soil surface before labelling and was removed after 36 h. 14C imaging of the soil surface and of the filter paper was used to quantify the allocation of 14C into the roots and the exudation of 14C, respectively. Plants were sampled destructively one day after labeling to quantify 14C in the plant-soil system. 14CO2 release from soil over time (17 d) was quantified by trapping CO2 in NaOH with an additional subset of plants. WT and brb plants had a similar aboveground biomass and allocated similar amounts of 14C into shoots (170 KBq for WT; 152 KBq for brb) and roots one day after labelling. Biomass of root, rhizosphere soil as well as root elongation were lower for brb compared to the wild type. WT plants transported more C from the shoots to the roots (22.8% for WT; 13.8% for brb) and from the root into the rhizosphere (8.8% for WT 3.5% for brb). Yet lower amounts of 14CO2 were released from soil over time for WT. Radial and longitudinal rhizosphere extension was increased for WT compared to brb (4.7 vs. 2.6 mm; 5.6 vs. 3.1 cm). The total exudation which was

  8. Morphological degradation of human hair cuticle due to simulated sunlight irradiation and washing.

    PubMed

    Richena, M; Rezende, C A

    2016-08-01

    Morphological changes in hair surface are undesirable, since they cause shine loss, roughness increase and split ends. These effects occur more frequently in the cuticle, which is the outermost layer of the hair strand, and thus the most exposed to the environmental damages. Sunlight irradiation contributes significantly to these morphological alterations, which motivates the investigation of this effect on hair degradation. In this work, the influence of irradiation and hand-washing steps on the morphology of pigmented and non-pigmented hair cuticle was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To simulate daily conditions, where hair is hand-washed and light exposed, samples of dark brown and gray hair underwent three different conditions: 1) irradiation with a mercury lamp for up to 600h; 2) irradiation with the mercury lamp combined with washes with a sodium lauryl sulphate solution; and 3) only washing. A new preparation procedure was applied for TEM samples to minimize natural variations among different hair strands: a single hair strand was cut into two neighbouring halves and only one of them underwent irradiation and washing. The non-exposed half was used as a control, so that the real effects caused by the controlled irradiation and washing procedures could be highlighted in samples that had very similar morphologies initially. More than 25images/sample were analysed using FESEM (total of 300 images) and ca. 150images/sample were obtained with TEM (total of 900 images). The results presented herein show that the endocuticle and the cell membrane complex (CMC) are the cuticle structures more degraded by irradiation. Photodegradation alone results in fracturing, cavities (Ø≈20-200nm) and cuticle cell lifting, while the washing steps were able to remove cuticle cells (≈1-2 cells removed after 60 washes). Finally, the combined action of irradiation and washing caused the most severe

  9. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  10. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants...

  13. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  14. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    PubMed

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding breakage in curly hair.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Bragado, G A; Balooch, G; Dixon-Parks, F; Porter, C; Bryant, H

    2015-07-01

    In 2005, the L'Oréal Institute for hair and skin research carried out a multiethnic study to investigate hair breakage in women residing in the U.S.A. In this study it was reported that a large percentage (96%) of the African-American respondents experience breakage. A combination of structural differences and grooming-induced stresses seem to contribute to the higher breakage incidence in the African-American group as the chemical composition of African-American hair is not significantly different from other ethnic groups. Some authors have proposed that the repeated elongation, torsion and flexion actions may affect the components of the hair fibre. However, considering the different properties of cuticle and cortex, one would expect a different wearing mechanism of each, leading to the ultimate failure of hair. Knowing in detail how each part of the structure fails can potentially lead to better ways to protect the hair from physical insults. To investigate crack propagation and fracture mechanisms in African-American hair. Virgin hair of excellent quality was collected, with informed consent, from a female African-American volunteer. A series of controlled mechanical stresses was applied to 10-mm hair sections using a high-resolution mechanical stage (20 mN) up to the fracture of the fibre. The surface was monitored using scanning electron microscopy imaging during the stress application. X-ray tomographic microscopy images were acquired and quantified to detect changes in energy absorption as a function of applied stress that could be linked to increase in crack density. Analysis of the mechanical response of hair combined with the two imaging techniques led us to propose the following mechanism of hair breakage: cuticle sliding; failure of the cuticle-cortex interface; nucleation of intercellular cracks and growth of cracks at the cuticle-cortex junction; and propagation of intercellular cracks towards the surface of the hair and final breakage when these

  17. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer treatment - alopecia; Chemotherapy - hair loss; Radiation - hair loss ... Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. This is because cancer cells divide rapidly. Since the cells in hair ...

  18. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for calcium soaps in human hair shaft revealed by sub-micrometer X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briki, F.; Mérigoux, C.; Sarrot-Reynauld, F.; Salomé, M.; Fayard, B.; Susini, J.; Doucet, J.

    2003-03-01

    New information about calcium status in human scalp hair shaft, deduced from X-ray microfluorescence imaging, including its distribution over the hair section, the existence of one or several binding-types and its variation between people, is presented. The existence of two different calcium types is inferred. The first one corresponds to atoms (or ions) easily removable by hydrochloric acid, located in the cortex (granules), in the cuticle zone and also in the core of the medulla, which are identified as calcium soaps cy comparison with X-ray diffraction and IR spectromicroscopy data. The second type consists of non-easily removable calcium atoms (or ions) that are located in the medulla wall, probably also the cuticle, and rather uniformly in the cortex; these calcium atoms may be involved in Ca^{2+}-binding proteins, their concentration is fairly constant from one subject to another.

  20. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    PubMed

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strontium-90 in hair.

    PubMed

    HOPKINS, B J; TUTTLE, L W; PORIES, W J; STRAIN, W H

    1963-03-15

    The hair of rats injected with strontium-90 retains a significant amount of the radionuclide. Although the strontium-90 content of hair is variable in these rats and appears to be subject to a variety of influences, determination of the radionuclide content of hair may offer a nondestructive method of estimating strontium-90 in bone.

  2. Chemical Composition and Crystal Morphology of Epicuticular Wax in Mature Fruits of 35 Pear (Pyrus spp.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Yin, Hao; Shi, Zebin; Chen, Yangyang; Qi, Kaijie; Qiao, Xin; Wang, Guoming; Cao, Peng; Zhang, Shaoling

    2018-01-01

    An evaluation of fruit wax components will provide us with valuable information for pear breeding and enhancing fruit quality. Here, we dissected the epicuticular wax concentration, composition and structure of mature fruits from 35 pear cultivars belonging to five different species and hybrid interspecies. A total of 146 epicuticular wax compounds were detected, and the wax composition and concentration varied dramatically among species, with the highest level of 1.53 mg/cm2 in Pyrus communis and the lowest level of 0.62 mg/cm2 in Pyrus pyrifolia. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis showed amorphous structures of the epicuticular wax crystals of different pear cultivars. Cluster analysis revealed that the Pyrus bretschneideri cultivars were grouped much closer to Pyrus pyrifolia and Pyrus ussuriensis, and the Pyrus sinkiangensis cultivars were clustered into a distant group. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), the cultivars could be divided into three groups and five groups according to seven main classes of epicuticular wax compounds and 146 wax compounds, respectively. PMID:29875784

  3. Effect of spatial distribution of wax and PEG-isocyanate on the morphology and hydrophobicity of starch films.

    PubMed

    Muscat, Delina; Adhikari, Raju; Tobin, Mark J; McKnight, Stafford; Wakeling, Lara; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-10-13

    This study proposes a novel method for improving surface hydrophobicity of glycerol plasticized high amylose (HAG) films. We used polyethylene glycol isocyanate (PEG-iso) crosslinker to link HAG and three natural waxes (beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax) to produce HAG+wax+PEG-iso films. The spatial distributions of wax and PEG-iso across the thickness of these films were determined using Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the films were determined using contact angle (CA) and scanning electron microscopic measurements, respectively. The distribution patterns of wax and the PEG-iso across the thickness of the film, and the nature of crystalline patterns formed on the surface of these films were found to be the key factors affecting surface hydrophobicity. The highest hydrophobicity (CA >90°) was created when the PEG-iso was primarily distributed in the interior of the films and a hierarchical circular pinnacle structure of solidified wax was formed on the surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  5. Major constituents of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the Caatinga and Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A F; Salatino, A

    2000-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes of leaves of four species (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) from the Caatinga, (a semi-arid ecosystem of Northeast Brazil) and four species (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) from the Cerrado, (a savanna ecosystem covering one third of the Brazilian territory), were analyzed. Six species contained a high content (above 60 microg x cm(-2)) of wax, four of them from the Caatinga. Triterpenoids and n-alkanes were the most frequent and abundant constituents found in the species from both habitats. The distribution of n-alkanes predominated by homologues with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms, displayed no consistent differences between species from the two habitats. Lupeol, beta-amyrin, epifriedelinol and ursolic acid were the triterpenoids found. Triterpenoids clearly predominate over alkanes in the waxes from the Cerrado species. The waxes of two evergreen species from the Caatinga yielded n-alkanes as predominant constituents. A comparison of foliar epicuticular waxes of native plants from ecosystems with different hydric constraints is discussed.

  6. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  7. [Body hair and advertising in French magazines].

    PubMed

    Héas, S; Bodin, D; Robène, L; Misery, L

    2007-10-01

    Sociological analysis of advertising reveals the currently operative body codes within a society, and more fundamentally, depicts the (ideal) relationships between men and women, between generations, and so on. To demonstrate that sports advertising based largely on trichological stereotypes. The idealised portrayal of human relations in advertisements (N=700) taken from French magazines was analysed by means of systematic coding and use of analytical software. This approach allowed characterisation of each advertisement in relation to the entire sample, with identification of significant elements (dominant colour, stature of models, setting, etc.), and determination of frequency of appearance and occurrence as well as testing of dependency relations. There were significant differences in the portrayal of men and women in advertisements. In the 700 advertisements in the series we examined, male subjects very often had short hair (231 cases, 33%) or shaved heads (33 cases, 4.7%) while women were shown with long hair, either free (80 cases) or tied (73 cases). Women with short hair were rarely portrayed (4.3%), as were men with long hair (42 cases, 6%). Above all, with the exception of eyebrows and eyelashes, no other body hair was seen in male and female athletic figures in 238 advertisements, being visible in only 60 cases (8.6%). Facial stubble, and more particularly beards and moustaches, was fairly infrequent, despite the omnipresence of male models. The majority of advertising situations involving sporting figures show clear stereotyping. Body hair is a pertinent pointer to understanding of contemporary sports models. A clear overall male/female distinction was present throughout. Men were presented in these adverts as active figures, leaders, etc. while women tended to be passive, spectators, and in some cases, admiring onlookers. A degree of confusion between genders was noticeable as a result of the shaving and depilation trends currently in vogue in the

  8. Targeting of CXXC5 by a Competing Peptide Stimulates Hair Regrowth and Wound-Induced Hair Neogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soung-Hoon; Seo, Seol Hwa; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Pi, Long-Quan; Lee, Won-Soo; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2017-11-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in hair follicle development and hair regeneration in adults. We discovered that CXXC-type zinc finger protein 5 (CXXC5) is a negative regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway involved in hair regrowth and wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis via an interaction with Dishevelled. CXXC5 was upregulated in miniaturized hair follicles and arrector pili muscles in human balding scalps. The inhibitory effects of CXXC5 on alkaline phosphatase activity and cell proliferation were demonstrated using human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Moreover, CXXC5 -/- mice displayed accelerated hair regrowth, and treatment with valproic acid, a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor that activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, further induced hair regrowth in the CXXC5 -/- mice. Disrupting the CXXC5-Dishevelled interaction with a competitor peptide activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and accelerated hair regrowth and wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that the CXXC5-Dishevelled interaction is a potential target for the treatment of hair loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Getting in shape: molten wax drop deformation and solidification at an immiscible liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa N; Lindberg, Seth E; Caggioni, Marco; Wesner, Chris; Shen, Amy Q

    2015-05-01

    The controlled production of non-spherical shaped particles is important for many applications such as food processing, consumer goods, adsorbents, drug delivery, and optical sensing. In this paper, we investigated the deformation and simultaneous solidification of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface of higher density. By varying initial temperature and viscoelasticity of the molten drop, drop size, impact velocity, viscosity and temperature of the bath fluid, and the interfacial tension between the molten wax and bath fluid, spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath and were arrested into non-spherical solidified particles in the form of ellipsoid, mushroom, disc, and flake-like shapes. We constructed cursory phase diagrams for the various particle shapes generated over a range of Weber, Capillary, Reynolds, and Stefan numbers, governed by the interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal effects. We solved a simplified heat transfer problem to estimate the time required to initiate the solidification at the interface of a spherical molten wax droplet and cooling aqueous bath after impact. By correlating this time with the molten wax drop deformation history captured from high speed imaging experiments, we elucidate the delicate balance of interfacial, inertial, viscous, and thermal forces that determine the final morphology of wax particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004005.htm Aging changes in hair and nails To use the sharing ... you age, your hair and nails begin to change. HAIR CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS Hair color change . ...

  11. Health status by gender, hair color, and eye color: Red-haired women are the most divergent

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Peter; Kleisner, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer. Red-haired men showed a balanced pattern, doing better than other men in three health categories and worse in three. Number of children was the only category where both male and female redheads did better than other respondents. We also confirmed earlier findings that red hair is naturally more frequent in women than in men. Of the ‘new’ hair and eye colors, red hair diverges the most from the ancestral state of black hair and brown eyes, being the most sexually dimorphic variant not only in population frequency but also in health status. This divergent health status may have one or more causes: direct effects of red hair pigments (pheomelanins) or their by-products; effects of other genes that show linkage with genes involved in pheomelanin production; excessive prenatal exposure to estrogen (which facilitates expression of red hair during fetal development and which, at high levels, may cause health problems later in life); evolutionary recentness of red hair and corresponding lack of time to correct negative side effects; or genetic incompatibilities associated with the allele Val92Met, which seems to be of Neanderthal origin and is one of the alleles that can cause red hair. PMID:29284020

  12. Health status by gender, hair color, and eye color: Red-haired women are the most divergent.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter; Kleisner, Karel; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer. Red-haired men showed a balanced pattern, doing better than other men in three health categories and worse in three. Number of children was the only category where both male and female redheads did better than other respondents. We also confirmed earlier findings that red hair is naturally more frequent in women than in men. Of the 'new' hair and eye colors, red hair diverges the most from the ancestral state of black hair and brown eyes, being the most sexually dimorphic variant not only in population frequency but also in health status. This divergent health status may have one or more causes: direct effects of red hair pigments (pheomelanins) or their by-products; effects of other genes that show linkage with genes involved in pheomelanin production; excessive prenatal exposure to estrogen (which facilitates expression of red hair during fetal development and which, at high levels, may cause health problems later in life); evolutionary recentness of red hair and corresponding lack of time to correct negative side effects; or genetic incompatibilities associated with the allele Val92Met, which seems to be of Neanderthal origin and is one of the alleles that can cause red hair.

  13. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredient is used as a constituent of cotton and cotton fabrics used for dry food packaging. (2) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD...

  14. [Tufted hair folliculitis].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; Pericin, M; Hafner, J; Burg, G

    1997-04-01

    A case of tufted hair folliculutis presenting as circumscribed, tender and inflamed areas in the occiput with residual tufted follicles in a 28-year old man is reported. Tufted hair folliculitis is a characteristic localized scarring bacterial folliculitis of the scalp due to Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathological studies reveal perifollicular inflammation around the upper portions of the follicles sparing the hair root level. Within areas of inflammation, several follicles converge toward a common follicular duct with a widely dilated opening. Currently, tufted hair folliculitis is considered a variant of folliculitis decalvans of Quinquaud. Staphylococcal infection is believed to be an initial causative factor, and underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be important in determining which reaction pattern occurs in an affected individual. The development of atrophy with loss of adnexal structures (in folliculitis decalvans) or of hair tufts (in tufting folliculitis) may depend upon the depth and destructive potential of the inflammatory process. The therapeutic approach is problematic; prolonged treatment with oral antibiotics may stabilize the disease, but good and at times more definitive results (as in the presented case) have been reported after radical surgical excision of the involved areas.

  15. Successful treatment of generalized refractory chronic periodontitis through discontinuation of waxed or coated dental floss use: A report of 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Kelekis-Cholakis, Anastasia; Perry, John B; Pfeffer, Lorraine; Millete, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Generalized refractory chronic periodontitis is a periodontal condition that is resistant to conventional therapy. Management of this condition often is frustrating to both the patient and the clinician. The authors present 4 cases of generalized refractory chronic periodontitis characterized by an inflammatory gingival response and progressive bone loss that did not respond to extensive periodontal treatments and regular periodontal care. Histologic examination of affected gingival tissue revealed an abundance of plasma cells, a feature seen in certain oral contact hypersensitivity reactions. The authors suspected that waxed or coated dental floss was the offending contactant, and its removal from the patients' oral hygiene regimens resulted in a dramatic improvement of the periodontal characteristics. In cases of periodontal disease as described in this report, dental practitioners should consider the possibility of a contact hypersensitivity reaction to waxed or coated dental floss, whereby the floss exacerbates the condition instead of assisting in its resolution. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The structure of people's hair.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  17. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  18. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  19. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  20. Hair transplantation in patients with inadequate head donor supply using nonhead hair: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sanusi

    2011-10-01

    Follicular unit extraction is becoming an increasingly popular technique for hair transplantation, as it obviates the linear scarring associated with strip harvesting, and can provide highly presentable results. Using this technique, a few reports have described the small scale use of nonhead hair for head hair transplantation in men with inadequate head hair donor supply. In this report, 3 patients who were severely bald had hair transplanted from the chest, abdomen, legs, shoulders, or beard, as well as the head to achieve full coverage and excellent hairlines. Of the 3 cases, 2 had undergone previously unsuccessful hair transplant surgeries. Approximately 80% to 85% of the transplanted grafts survived. Although hair length and quality, surgery time, and the requirement for improved surgical skills remain challenges when using this technique, the sufficiently good outcomes from these selected candidates suggest that this technique may offer the possibility of restoring even severely bald states to normality in patients who would otherwise not be candidates for traditional hair transplantation surgery.

  1. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  2. Does D matter? The role of vitamin D in hair disorders and hair follicle cycling.

    PubMed

    Amor, Karrie T; Rashid, Rashid M; Mirmirani, Paradi

    2010-02-15

    The role of vitamin D in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes is well known within the field of dermatology. We sought to evaluate the role that vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor play in the hair cycle and assess how this can be clinically applied to the treatment of hair disorders. A MEDLINE search (1955-July 2009) was preformed to find relevant articles pertaining to vitamin D, the vitamin D receptor, and hair loss. The vitamin D receptor, independent of vitamin D, plays an important role in hair cycling, specifically anagen initiation. The role of vitamin D in hair follicle cycling is not as well understood. The review is broad and there are limited human studies available to date. Additional studies to evaluate the role of vitamin D in the hair cycle should be done. Treatments that up regulate the vitamin D receptor may be successful in treating hair disorders and are a potential area of further study.

  3. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  4. Comparable hydrogen isotopic fractionation of plant leaf wax n-alkanoic acids in arid and humid subtropical ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Zheng, Mei; Fraser, Matthew; Huang, Yongsong

    2014-02-01

    Leaf wax hydrogen isotope proxies have been widely used to reconstruct past hydrological changes. However, published reconstructions have given little consideration for the potentially variable hydrogen isotopic fractionation relative to precipitation (ɛwax-p) under different climate and environmental settings. Chief among various potential factors controlling fractionation is relative humidity, which is known to strongly affect oxygen isotopic ratios of plant cellulose, but its effect on hydrogen isotopic fractionation of leaf waxes is still ambiguous. Analyses of lake surface sediments and individual modern plants have provided valuable information on the variability of ɛwax-p, but both approaches have significant limitations. Here, we present an alternative method to obtain the integrated, time-resolved ecosystem-level ɛwax-p values, by analyzing modern aerosol samples collected weekly from arid (Arizona lowlands) and humid subtropical (Atlanta, Georgia) environments during the main growth season. Because aerosol samples mainly reflect regional leaf wax resources, the extreme contrast in the hydroclimate and associated vegetation assemblages between our study sites allows us to rigorously assess the impact of relative humidity and associated vegetation assemblages on leaf wax hydrogen isotopic fractionation. We show there is only minor difference (mostly <10‰) in the mean ɛwax-p values in the two end-member environments. One possible explanation is that the positive isotopic effects of low relative humidity are offset by progressive replacement of trees with grasses that have a more negative apparent fractionation. Our results represent an important step toward quantitative interpretation of leaf wax hydrogen isotopic records.

  5. Extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction as a result of involuntary transcavitary implantation of hair in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Michael; Buffa, Eugene; Simon, Adrian; Ashton, Julie; McGregor, Ross; Foster, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Case summary A 4-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of jaundice. The cat had a recent history of a skin laceration repair following trauma. Sequential serum biochemistry demonstrated increasing plasma bilirubin concentrations; abdominal ultrasonography revealed ongoing pancreatitis and apparent extrahepatic obstruction of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy identified constriction of the common bile duct with foreign material (cat hair). The constricting band of hair was removed surgically; cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. Postsurgical quality of life is excellent with chronic treatment of tylosin, omeprazole and ursodeoxycholic acid. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction resulting from the intra-abdominal migration of a foreign body, in this case, hair shafts. The mechanism by which this occurred was likely a combination of physical constriction by the hair shafts and subsequent foreign body reaction surrounding this. This should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cat with jaundice. PMID:28491390

  6. Nanometre-scale investigations by atomic force microscopy into the effect of different treatments on the surface structure of hair.

    PubMed

    Durkan, C; Wang, N

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different washing regimes on the surface of human hair at the nanometre scale - comparable to the size of typical deposits left behind by commercial products. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related techniques. It can be directly seen that washing hair using commercial hair care products removes deposits that naturally form on the shaft, revealing the underlying structure of the hair, whereas in many cases leaving new deposits behind. The spatial distribution of these deposits is explored and quantified. The spatial distribution of the surface charge of pristine hair is mapped, and the electrical screening effect of deposits is directly observed. We also show that the roughness of the treated hair depends directly on the type of product used, with a marked difference between shampoo and conditioner. Some products leave isolated deposits behind, whereas others leave layers of material behind which wet the hair surface. Atomic force microscopy and the related techniques we have employed in a forensic approach is able to distinguish between different hair care products on the basis of the deposits they leave behind. This opens up the capability of further analysis tools to complement already existing techniques. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Improved radiocarbon analyses of modern human hair to determine the year-of-death by cross-flow nanofiltered amino acids: common contaminants, implications for isotopic analysis, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Guaciara M; De La Torre, Hector A Martinez; Boudin, Mathieu; Bonafini, Marco; Saverwyns, Steven

    2015-10-15

    In forensic investigation, radiocarbon ((14)C) measurements of human tissues (i.e., nails and hair) can help determine the year-of-death. However, the frequent use of cosmetics can bias hair (14)C results as well as stable isotope values. Evidence shows that hair exogenous impurities percolate beyond the cuticle layer, and therefore conventional pretreatments are ineffective in removing them. We conducted isotopic analysis ((14)C, δ(13)C, δ(15)N and C/N) of conventionally treated and cross-flow nanofiltered amino acid (CFNAA)-treated samples (scalp- and body-hair) from a single female subject using fingernails as a reference. The subject studied frequently applies a permanent dark-brown dye kit to her scalp-hair and uses other care products for daily cleansing. We also performed pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) analyses of CFNAA-treated scalp-hair to identify contaminant remnants that could possibly interfere with isotopic analyses. The conventionally treated scalp- and body-hair showed (14)C offsets of ~21‰ and ~9‰, respectively. These offsets confirm the contamination by petrochemicals in modern human hair. A single CFNAA extraction reduced those offsets by ~34%. No significant improvement was observed when sequential extractions were performed, as it appears that the procedure introduced some foreign contaminants. A chromatogram of the CFNAA scalp-hair pyrolysis products showed the presence of petroleum and plant/animal compound residues, which can bias isotopic analyses. We have demonstrated that CFNAA extractions can partially remove cosmetic contaminants embedded in human hair. We conclude that fingernails are still the best source of keratin protein for year-of-death determinations and isotopic analysis, with body-hair and/or scalp-hair coupled with CFNAA extraction a close second. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A GC-MS method for the detection and quantitation of ten major drugs of abuse in human hair samples.

    PubMed

    Orfanidis, A; Mastrogianni, O; Koukou, A; Psarros, G; Gika, H; Theodoridis, G; Raikos, N

    2017-03-15

    A sensitive analytical method has been developed in order to identify and quantify major drugs of abuse (DOA), namely morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylenedioxyamphetamine in human hair. Samples of hair were extracted with methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C after a three step rinsing process to remove external contamination and dirt hair. Derivatization with BSTFA was selected in order to increase detection sensitivity of GC/MS analysis. Optimization of derivatization parameters was based on experiments for the selection of derivatization time, temperature and volume of derivatising agent. Validation of the method included evaluation of linearity which ranged from 2 to 350ng/mg of hair mean concentration for all DOA, evaluation of sensitivity, accuracy, precision and repeatability. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.46ng/mg of hair. The developed method was applied for the analysis of hair samples obtained from three human subjects and were found positive in cocaine, and opiates. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. MODELING OF THE FAST ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A WOOD-FINISHING PRODUCT -- FLOOR WAX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses environmental chamber and full-scale residential house tests conducted to characterize the fast organic emissions from a wood finishing product, floor wax. For the environmental chamber tests, a very small amount (< 5 g/sq m) of the wax was applied to an alumi...

  10. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the

  11. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  12. Forskolin and protein kinase inhibitors differentially affect hair cell potassium currents and transmitter release at the cytoneural junction in the isolated frog labyrinth.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Maria Lisa; Rubbini, Gemma; Martini, Marta; Canella, Rita; Fesce, Riccardo

    2017-08-15

    The post-transductional elaboration of sensory input at the frog semicircular canal has been studied by correlating the effects of drugs that interfere with phosphorylation processes on: (i) potassium conductances in isolated hair cell and (ii) transmitter release at the cytoneural junction in the intact labyrinth. At hair cells, delayed potassium currents (IKD) undergo voltage- and time-dependent inactivation; inactivation removal requires ATP, is sensitive to kinase blockade, but is unaffected by exogenous application of cyclic nucleotides. We report here that forskolin, an activator of endogenous adenylyl cyclase, enhances IKD inactivation removal in isolated hair cells, but produces an overall decrease in IKD amplitude consistent with the direct blocking action of the drug on several families of K channels. In the intact labyrinth, forskolin enhances transmitter release, consistent with such depression of K conductances. Kinase blockers - H-89 and KT5823 - have been shown to reduce IKD inactivation removal and IKD amplitude at isolated hair cells. In the labyrinth, the effects of these drugs on junctional activity are quite variable, with predominant inhibition of transmitter release, rather than the enhancement expected from the impairment of K currents. The overall action of forskolin and kinase inhibitors on K conductances is similar (depression), but they have opposite effects on transmitter release: this indicates that some intermediate steps between the bioelectric control of hair cell membrane potential and transmitter release are affected in opposite ways and therefore are presumably regulated by protein phosphorylation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Actions of Calcium on Hair Bundle Mechanics in Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beurg, Maryline; Nam, Jong-Hoon; Crawford, Andrew; Fettiplace, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Sound stimuli excite cochlear hair cells by vibration of each hair bundle, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels. We have measured hair-bundle mechanics in isolated rat cochleas by stimulation with flexible glass fibers and simultaneous recording of the MT current. Both inner and outer hair-cell bundles exhibited force-displacement relationships with a nonlinearity that reflects a time-dependent reduction in stiffness. The nonlinearity was abolished, and hair-bundle stiffness increased, by maneuvers that diminished calcium influx through the MT channels: lowering extracellular calcium, blocking the MT current with dihydrostreptomycin, or depolarizing to positive potentials. To simulate the effects of Ca2+, we constructed a finite-element model of the outer hair cell bundle that incorporates the gating-spring hypothesis for MT channel activation. Four calcium ions were assumed to bind to the MT channel, making it harder to open, and, in addition, Ca2+ was posited to cause either a channel release or a decrease in the gating-spring stiffness. Both mechanisms produced Ca2+ effects on adaptation and bundle mechanics comparable to those measured experimentally. We suggest that fast adaptation and force generation by the hair bundle may stem from the action of Ca2+ on the channel complex and do not necessarily require the direct involvement of a myosin motor. The significance of these results for cochlear transduction and amplification are discussed. PMID:18178649

  14. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax δD, δ13C, and Δ14C analyses in two lake sediment cores from southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change. Plant-wax specific Δ14C ages indicate a large input of pre-aged plant waxes into lake sediment. Comparison of plant-wax δD records with other regional hydroclimate proxy records suggest that plant-wax ages are evenly distributed around plant-wax radiocarbon ages, and that applying an age model based on plant-wax radiocarbon ages is appropriate for these lake sediments. We evaluate how differences in plant-wax age distributions influence stable isotope records to assess the age uncertainty associated with records of climate and vegetation change derived from plant-wax stable isotopes. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax δ13C is largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δ13C would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analysis of plant-wax δD and δ13C from both lakes indicates increasingly divergent trends following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend to correspond with low plant-wax δ13C values and vice versa. This pattern is consistent with

  15. Dark Matter Hairs Around Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average. The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20176

  16. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE Class I Genes Promote Root Hair Development in the Grass Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Min

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL) class I basic helix loop helix proteins are expressed in future root hair cells of the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem where they positively regulate root hair cell development. Here we show that there are three RSL class I protein coding genes in the Brachypodium distachyon genome, BdRSL1, BdRSL2 and BdRSL3, and each is expressed in developing root hair cells after the asymmetric cell division that forms root hair cells and hairless epidermal cells. Expression of BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair cell development: ectopic overexpression of any of the three RSL class I genes induces the development of root hairs in every cell of the root epidermis. Expression of BdRSL class I genes in root hairless Arabidopsis thaliana root hair defective 6 (Atrhd6) Atrsl1 double mutants, devoid of RSL class I function, restores root hair development indicating that the function of these proteins has been conserved. However, neither AtRSL nor BdRSL class I genes is sufficient for root hair development in A. thaliana. These data demonstrate that the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity can account for the pattern of root hair cell differentiation in B. distachyon. However, the spatial pattern of class I RSL activity cannot account for the spatial pattern of root hair cells in A. thaliana. Taken together these data indicate that that the functions of RSL class I proteins have been conserved among most angiosperms—monocots and eudicots—despite the dramatically different patterns of root hair cell development. PMID:27494519

  18. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship

  20. Development and properties of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    PubMed

    Huang, A H; Moreau, R A; Liu, K D

    1978-03-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent K(m) value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 muM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax).

  1. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From... Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from... order on petroleum wax candles from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  2. Ecklonia cava promotes hair growth.

    PubMed

    Bak, S S; Ahn, B N; Kim, J A; Shin, S H; Kim, J C; Kim, M K; Sung, Y K; Kim, S K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the protective effects on skin elasticity of the edible marine seaweed Ecklonia cava, which acts through regulation of both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effect of E. cava and one of its components, dioxinodehydroeckol, on hair-shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and on hair growth in mice. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to check cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells after treatment with E. cava and its metabolite, dioxinodehydroeckol. Hair-shaft growth was measured using the in vitro hair-follicle organ-culture system, in the presence or absence of E. cava and dioxinodehydroeckol. Anagen induction activity was examined by topical application of E. cava to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. The proliferation activity was found to be highest for the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of E. cava (EAFE) in DPCs and in ORS cells. Treatment with EAFE resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles, and promoted transition of the hair cycle from the telogen to the anagen phase in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, EAFE induced an increase in IGF-1 expression in DPCs. Dioxinodehydroeckol, a component of E. cava, induced elongation of the hair shaft, an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells, and an increase in expression of IGF-1 in DPCs. These results suggest that E. cava containing dioxinodehydroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Dark Matter Hairs Around Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Jupiter surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Jupiter, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a trillion times greater than average. The size of Jupiter relative to the distance between Jupiter and the hair roots is to scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20178

  4. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1999-06-01

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of `bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene.

  5. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  6. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  7. Contactless decontamination of hair samples: cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2017-02-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have already been shown to provide efficient extraction media for several systems, and to capture volatile compounds, namely opiates. In this work, a novel, contactless, artefact-free extraction procedure for the removal of Δ 9 -tetrahrydrocannabinol (THC) from the surface of human hair is presented. To prepare in vitro cannabinoids-contaminated hair, samples were flushed with hashish smoke for 7 h. The decontamination experiments were carried at 100 °C for 24 h, according to the procedure previously described. Fifty-three ILs were screened and presented decontamination efficiencies ranging from 0 to 96 %. Although the majority of the ILs presented efficiencies above 90%, the 1-ethanol-3-methyl tetrafluoroborate (96%) was chosen for further process optimization. The Design of Experiments results demonstrated that all studied variables were significant for the process and the obtained optimum conditions were: 100 °C, 13 h and 175 mg of IL. In the work of Perrotin-Brunel et al. (J. Mol. Struct. 2011, 987, 67), it is demonstrated that, at 100 °C, full conversion of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into THC is obtained after 60 min. Since our decontamination takes place over 13 h at 100 °C, full conversion of THCA into THC is expected. Additionally, our method was compared with the method proposed by Cairns et al. (Forensic Sci. Int. 2004, 145, 97), through the analysis of 15 in vitro contaminated hair samples. The results demonstrated that with our method a mean extraction efficiency of 11 % higher was obtained. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Post-mortem quetiapine concentrations in hair segments of psychiatric patients - Correlation between hair concentration, dose and concentration in blood.

    PubMed

    Günther, Kamilla Nyborg; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Wicktor, Petra; Banner, Jytte; Linnet, Kristian

    2018-04-01

    Drug analysis in hair is useful when seeking to establish drug intake over a period of months to years. Segmental hair analysis can also document whether psychiatric patients are receiving a stable intake of antipsychotics. This study describes segmental analysis of the antipsychotic drug quetiapine in post-mortem hair samples from long-term quetiapine users by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The aim was to obtain more knowledge on quetiapine concentrations in hair and to relate the concentration in hair to the administered dose and the post-mortem concentration in femoral blood. We analyzed hair samples from 22 deceased quetiapine-treated individuals, who were divided into two groups: natural hair colour and dyed/bleached hair. Two to six 1cm long segments were analyzed per individual, depending on the length of the hair, with 6cm corresponding to the last six months before death. The average daily quetiapine dose and average concentration in hair for the last six months prior to death were examined for potential correlation. Estimated doses ranged from 45 to 1040mg quetiapine daily over the period, and the average concentration in hair ranged from 0.18 to 13ng/mg. A significant positive correlation was observed between estimated daily dosage of quetiapine and average concentration in hair for individuals with natural hair colour (p=0.00005), but statistical significance was not reached for individuals with dyed/bleached hair (p=0.31). The individual coefficient of variation (CV) of the quetiapine concentrations between segments ranged from 3 to 34% for individuals with natural hair colour and 22-62% for individuals with dyed/bleached hair. Dose-adjusted concentrations in hair were significantly lower in females with dyed/bleached hair than in individuals with natural hair colour. The quetiapine concentrations in post-mortem femoral blood and in the proximal hair segment, segment 1 (S1), representing

  9. Impact of changing wax type during storage on mandarin flavor and quality attributes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) packers sometimes apply a storage wax (SW) designed to limit water loss during the initial part of storage and then replace it with a higher shine pack wax (PW) prior to shipment of the fruit. Mandarins are prone to the development of off-flavors as a result of lo...

  10. Compound-Specific Radiocarbon Dating Reveals the Age Distribution of Plant-Wax Biomarkers Exported to the Bengal Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, V.; French, K. L.; Hein, C. J.; Haghipour, N.; Wacker, L.; Kudrass, H.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of leaf-wax compounds preserved in lacustrine and marine sediments has been widely used to reconstruct terrestrial paleo-environments. However, the timescales of plant-wax storage in continental reservoirs before riverine export are not well known, representing a key uncertainty in paleo-environment studies. We couple numerical models with bulk and leaf-wax fatty acid organic 13C and 14C signatures hosted in a high-deposition-rate sediment core from the Bengal shelf canyon in order to estimate storage timescales within the Ganges-Brahmaputra catchment area. The fatty acid 14C record reveals a muted nuclear weapons bomb spike, requiring that the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system exports a mixture of young and old (pre-aged) leaf-wax compounds. According to numerical simulations, 79-83% of the leaf-wax fatty acids in this core are sourced from continental reservoirs that store organic carbon on an average of 1000-1200 calendar years, while the remainder has an average age of 15 years. These results demonstrate that a majority of the leaf-wax compounds produced in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin was stored in soils, floodplains, and wetlands prior to its export to the Bengal Fan. We will discuss the implications of these findings for plant-wax based paleoenvironmental records.

  11. African american women, hair care, and health barriers.

    PubMed

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population.

  12. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

  13. Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wakeford, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair breakage is a common unrecognized form of hair loss in women most often the result of hair weathering and traumatic grooming practices. Lipids are major determinants of the physical properties of the hair. Synsepalum dulcificum seed oil (MFSO®; Miracle Fruit Oil Co., Miami Beach, Florida), is an exotic fruit oil with physicochemical properties suited to providing a superior ability to reduce hair breakage. Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of a hair oil containing MFSO and its effects on hair breakage rates. Methods: Healthy, long-haired women (age range: 19–63 years, mean age: 36.7 years, standard deviation: 10.77 years) with excessive hair breakage were randomized in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study to receive MFSO (n=24), vehicle (n=17), or argan oil (n=16). Measurements of hair length, hair diameter, and Hair Mass Index were performed at baseline, Month 4, and Month 8. Hair Breakage Index and the Healthy Hair Index values were calculated from the trichometer measurements, and subject self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. The primary efficacy endpoints were the percent change in Healthy Hair Index 75 and Healthy Hair Index 50 measurements from baseline to the eighth month. Results: The Healthy Hair Index calculations, expressed as percent change from baseline to Month 4 and from baseline to Month 8, revealed that the MFSO® treatment group improved by 103.6 percent and 215.7 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 133.7 and 188.3 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively. When compared with the vehicle and the argan oil brand groups, the Healthy Hair Index levels were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for the MFSO® treatment group, indicating a much greater ability to increase the levels of unbroken hairs by reducing hair breakage. With respect to the mean percent improvements from baseline to Month 4 and Month 8, the MFSO® hair oil treatment group was better than each of the other two

  14. Hair growth induction by substance P.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Heinzelmann, T; Schultz, K D; Furkert, J; Fechner, K; Czarnetzki, B M

    1994-07-01

    In vitro, some neuropeptides, including the tachykinin, substance P (SP), act as growth factors. The cyclic growth of the richly innervated hair follicle offers a model for probing such functions in a complex, developmentally regulated tissue interaction system under physiologic conditions. Dissecting the role of neuropeptides in this system may also reveal as yet obscure neural mechanisms of hair growth control. The neuropeptide-releasing neurotoxin, capsaicin was injected intradermally, or SP slow-release formulations were implanted subcutaneously in the back skin of C57BL/6 mice with all follicles in the resting stage of the hair cycle (telogen) in order to see whether this induced hair growth (anagen). In addition, the endogenous SP skin concentration and the activity of the main SP-degrading enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, were determined during the induced murine hair cycle by high performance liquid chromatography-controlled radioimmuno-assay (SP) or by fluorometry (neutral endopeptidase). Both capsaicin and SP induced significant hair growth (anagen) in the back skin of telogen mice. This was associated with substantial mast cell degranulation. The endogenous SP skin concentration showed significant, hair cycle-dependent fluctuations during the induced murine hair cycle, which were largely independent of the activity of neutral endopeptidase. SP may play a role in the neural control of hair growth. Whereas this pilot study does not address the underlying mechanisms of action, it demonstrates that SP has potential as a hair growth-stimulatory agent in vivo, and serves as a basis for exploring the role of tachykinins in epithelial-mesenchymal-neuroectodermal interaction systems like the hair follicle.

  15. Geometrical effects of conventional and digital prosthodontic planning wax-ups on lateral occlusal contact number, contact area, and steepness.

    PubMed

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the effect of conventional and digital wax-ups on three lateral occlusion variables: contact number, contact area, and steepness. Dental casts of 10 patients with Angle Class I relationship were included in the study. All patients required fixed prosthodontic treatment that would affect lateral occlusion. The casts of all patients received conventional and digital wax-ups. For pretreatment, conventional wax-up, and digital wax-up casts, contact number, contact area, and occlusion steepness were measured at four lateral positions, that is, at excursions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm from maximal intercuspation. Lateral occlusion scheme variables were affected by use of diagnostic wax-ups. For all types of casts, contact number decreased as excursion increased. The two types of wax-ups had similar contact number patterns, and contact number was significantly greater for these casts than for pretreatment casts in the earlier stages of excursion. Similarly, contact area gradually decreased with increasing excursion in the pretreatment and conventional and digital wax-up casts. There was only a minimal decrease in occlusion steepness as excursion increased. However, lateral occlusion was generally steeper for digital wax-up casts.

  16. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print en español ¿Por qué se ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  17. A survey of the awareness, knowledge and behavior of hair dye use in a korean population with gray hair.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-08-01

    Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. We conducted a questionnaire survey for adult males and females aged over 20 who had gray hair. A total of 500 subjects were included in this study and statistical analysis was performed. Large numbers of the people who had experience with hair dye (233 out of 319 people, 73.0%) did not know about the exact brand name of the hair dye product that they were using. Of 319 hair dye users, 23.8% (76 out of 319) people stated that they experienced side effects. Despite the occurrence of side effects from hair dyeing products, it seems they did not realize the seriousness of the side effects or the need for treatment. It is advisable to introduce a system that enables users to become aware of the ingredients and side effects of hair coloring products and give opportunities for users to become aware of the side effects of hair coloring through education, publicity and publication of an informational booklet.

  18. The biology, structure, and function of eyebrow hair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer V

    2014-01-01

    Eyebrow hair serves many important biologic and aesthetic functions. This article reviews the structure and function of the hair follicle, as well as hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Eyebrow hair follicles share the same basic structure as hair follicles elsewhere on the body, but are distinguished by their shorter anagen (growing) phase. Knowledge of the hair follicle structure and cycle is important for understanding the pathophysiology of alopecia, as diseases affecting the stem cell portion of the hair follicle in the bulge region may cause permanent hair loss. Furthermore, therapeutic agents that target distinct phases and hormones involved in the hair cycle may be useful for promoting hair growth.

  19. Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expanded our understanding of the development, organization, and regeneration of hair follicle stem cells. At a basic level, this review is intended to help construct a reference point to integrate the surge of studies on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. PMID:22293183

  20. Production of wax esters via microbial oil synthesis from food industry waste and by-product streams.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Aguieiras, Erika C G; Freire, Denise M G; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-12-01

    The production of wax esters using microbial oils was demonstrated in this study. Microbial oils produced from food waste and by-product streams by three oleaginous yeasts were converted into wax esters via enzymatic catalysis. Palm oil was initially used to evaluate the influence of temperature and enzyme activity on wax ester synthesis catalysed by Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme lipases using cetyl, oleyl and behenyl alcohols. The highest conversion yields (up to 79.6%) were achieved using 4U/g of Novozyme 435 at 70°C. Transesterification of microbial oils to behenyl and cetyl esters was achieved at conversion yields up to 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. Novozyme 435 was efficiently reused for six and three cycles during palm esters and microbial esters synthesis, respectively. The physicochemical properties of microbial oil derived behenyl esters were comparable to natural waxes. Wax esters from microbial oils have potential applications in cosmetics, chemical and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.