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Sample records for hair shaft abnormalities

  1. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  2. Hair shaft abnormalities--clues to diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Itin, Peter H; Fistarol, Susanna K

    2005-01-01

    Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks lusterless. Hair shaft diseases may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. Hair shaft diseases are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. In general, optic microscopy and polarized light microscopy of hair shafts provide important clues to the diagnosis of isolated hair shaft abnormalities or complex syndromes. To establish an exact diagnosis of dysplastic hair shafts, a structured history and physical examination of the whole patient are needed which emphasizes other skin appendages such as the nails, sweat and sebaceous glands. Profound knowledge on hair biology and embryology is necessary to understand the different symptom complexes. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus on the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as drying hair with an electric dryer or permanent waves and dyes, is important. A short hairstyle is more suitable for patients with hair shaft disorders.

  3. [Hair shaft anomalies].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H

    1997-06-01

    Hair shaft disorders lead to brittle and uncombable hair. As a rule the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may present as localized of generalized alterations. Genetic predisposition and exogenous factors are able to produce hair shaft abnormalities. The most important examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Treatment of hair shaft disorders should focus on the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important.

  4. Sebaceous Gland, Hair Shaft, and Epidermal Barrier Abnormalities in Keratosis Pilaris with and without Filaggrin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Robert; Sugarman, Jeffrey L.; Crumrine, Debra; Hupe, Melanie; Mauro, Theodora M.; Mauldin, Elizabeth A.; Thyssen, Jacob P.; Brandner, Johanna M.; Hennies, Hans-Christian; Schmuth, Matthias; Elias, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Although keratosis pilaris (KP) is common, its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. KP is associated clinically with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis and molecular genetically with filaggrin-null mutations. In 20 KP patients and 20 matched controls, we assessed the filaggrin and claudin 1 genotypes, the phenotypes by dermatoscopy, and the morphology by light and transmission electron microscopy. Thirty-five percent of KP patients displayed filaggrin mutations, demonstrating that filaggrin mutations only partially account for the KP phenotype. Major histologic and dermatoscopic findings of KP were hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, mild T helper cell type 1-dominant lymphocytic inflammation, plugging of follicular orifices, striking absence of sebaceous glands, and hair shaft abnormalities in KP lesions but not in unaffected skin sites. Changes in barrier function and abnormal paracellular permeability were found in both interfollicular and follicular stratum corneum of lesional KP, which correlated ultrastructurally with impaired extracellular lamellar bilayer maturation and organization. All these features were independent of filaggrin genotype. Moreover, ultrastructure of corneodesmosomes and tight junctions appeared normal, immunohistochemistry for claudin 1 showed no reduction in protein amounts, and molecular analysis of claudin 1 was unremarkable. Our findings suggest that absence of sebaceous glands is an early step in KP pathogenesis, resulting in downstream hair shaft and epithelial barrier abnormalities. PMID:25660180

  5. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  6. Prognosis and Management of Congenital Hair Shaft Disorders with Fragility-Part I.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gaurav; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-09-01

    Hair shaft disorders are characterized by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The objective was to review the literature regarding the prognosis and treatment options of hair shaft disorders. We used keywords in the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify all publications in the English language related to the prognosis and management of hair shaft disorders. Data were extracted from 96 articles that met search criteria. Findings were limited to case reports and small case series, as no studies were found. Disorders that improve in childhood include pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, wooly hair, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Others, such as trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix, pili annulati, and pili bifurcati improve with minoxidil. Oral retinoids have improved hair abnormalities in trichorrhexis invaginata and monilethrix. There is no specific treatment for congenital hair shaft abnormalities. Gentle hair care is the mainstay of care for hair shaft disorders associated with fragility. Practices for gentle care include no brushing, backcombing, chemical products, tight braids, heat exposure, or mechanical grooming. Any inherited or congenital disorder requires genetic counseling as part of management. PMID:27292719

  7. Prognosis and Management of Congenital Hair Shaft Disorders without Fragility-Part II.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gaurav; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-09-01

    Hair shaft disorders are characterized by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the prognosis and treatment options for hair shaft disorders. We used keywords in the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify all publications in English related to the prognosis and management of hair shaft disorders. Data were extracted from 96 articles that met search criteria. Findings were limited to case reports and small case series, as no studies were found. Disorders that improve in childhood include pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, woolly hair, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Others, such as trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix, pili annulati, and pili bifurcati, improve with minoxidil. Oral retinoids have been found to improve hair abnormalities in trichorrhexis invaginata and monilethrix. There is no specific treatment for congenital hair shaft abnormalities. Gentle hair care is the mainstay of care for hair shaft disorders associated with fragility. Practices for gentle care include no brushing, backcombing, chemical products, tight braids, heat exposure, or mechanical grooming. Furthermore, any inherited or congenital disorder requires genetic counseling as part of management. PMID:27293153

  8. Isolation and Quantification of Glycosaminoglycans from Human Hair Shaft

    PubMed Central

    Bonovas, Stefanos; Sitaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the hair shaft within the follicle but there are no studies regarding GAGs isolation and measurement in the human hair shaft over the scalp surface, it means, in the free hair shaft. Objective The purpose of our research was to isolate and measure the total GAGs from human free hair shaft. Methods Seventy-five healthy individuals participated in the study, 58 adults, men and women over the age of 50 and 17 children (aged 4~9). GAGs in hair samples, received from the parietal and the occipital areas, were isolated with 4 M guanidine HCl and measured by the uronic acid-carbazole reaction assay. Results GAGs concentration was significantly higher in the occipital area than in the parietal area, in all study groups. GAG levels from both areas were significantly higher in children than in adults. GAG levels were not associated with gender, hair color or type. Conclusion We report the presence of GAGs in the human free hair shaft and the correlation of hair GAG levels with the scalp area and participants' age. PMID:27746630

  9. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones.

  10. Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Hair Shaft Damage Secondary to Cosmetic Treatments of the Hair

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Gosai, BB; Al Melhim, Walid Naief; Feroze, Kaberi; Qureshi, Habib Ahmad; Ibrahim, Sayed; Kuruvilla, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Background: Cosmetic procedures for hair, such as bleaching, dyeing, and straightening, are commonly used around the world. It has been suggested that excessive use of such procedures can cause damage to the hair shaft. We aimed to assess hair shaft changes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in female volunteers who frequently use hair treatment procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, or straightening. Methods: A cross-sectional, controlled study in a sample of 25 female volunteers (19 study group and 6 controls) in the age group of 18–45 years. The study group was composed of volunteers who regularly used different cosmetic hair treatment procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, and straightening (any one of these or a combination). The control group had never used any specific hair treatment procedure. The hair shaft damage as seen on SEM was assessed using a standardized scoring system and compared among the two groups statistically. The hair shafts were also examined clinically and with light microscopy. Results: No significant differences were seen between the test and control groups with regard to normal clinical examination and light microscopy findings. A higher degree of hair shaft damage was evident under SEM in the study group as compared to the control group. This difference was statistically significant. Conclusions: Regular use of procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, or straightening can lead to subtle changes in the hair shaft which can be detected early by SEM.

  11. Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Hair Shaft Damage Secondary to Cosmetic Treatments of the Hair

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Gosai, BB; Al Melhim, Walid Naief; Feroze, Kaberi; Qureshi, Habib Ahmad; Ibrahim, Sayed; Kuruvilla, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Background: Cosmetic procedures for hair, such as bleaching, dyeing, and straightening, are commonly used around the world. It has been suggested that excessive use of such procedures can cause damage to the hair shaft. We aimed to assess hair shaft changes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in female volunteers who frequently use hair treatment procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, or straightening. Methods: A cross-sectional, controlled study in a sample of 25 female volunteers (19 study group and 6 controls) in the age group of 18–45 years. The study group was composed of volunteers who regularly used different cosmetic hair treatment procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, and straightening (any one of these or a combination). The control group had never used any specific hair treatment procedure. The hair shaft damage as seen on SEM was assessed using a standardized scoring system and compared among the two groups statistically. The hair shafts were also examined clinically and with light microscopy. Results: No significant differences were seen between the test and control groups with regard to normal clinical examination and light microscopy findings. A higher degree of hair shaft damage was evident under SEM in the study group as compared to the control group. This difference was statistically significant. Conclusions: Regular use of procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, or straightening can lead to subtle changes in the hair shaft which can be detected early by SEM. PMID:27601867

  12. Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2007-08-03

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

  13. Optical coherent tomography: promising in vivo measurement of hair shaft cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Stieler, Karola; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Variations in hair shaft morphology reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. The measurement and the follow-up of the hair shaft thickness over a defined period of time would be a valuable diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Standard light microscopy (LM) measurements require the epilation of hair shafts and frequently yield inaccurate values caused by the elliptic geometry of human hair shafts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive investigation method based on the principles of Michelson interferometry with a detection depth of approximately 1 mm in human skin. Two-dimensional images of the cross sections of tissue samples at a resolution of approximately 10 μm are produced, which allows convenient calculation of hair shaft thickness. To evaluate this new methodology for hair shaft thickness measurements, hair shafts taken from 28 healthy volunteers were analyzed by in vivo OCT and compared to standard in vitro LM measurements of hair shaft thickness. OCT yielded highly reproducible measurements of hair shaft thickness with a distinctly reduced variation compared to standard LM. This technique offers a unique opportunity for in vivo measurement and a follow-up of the kinetics of hair shaft thickness in humans during medical therapy.

  14. Correction of Hair Shaft Defects through Allele-Specific Silencing of Mutant Krt75.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Snedecor, Elizabeth R; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Jones, Evan C; Zhang, Lianfeng; Clark, Richard A; Roop, Dennis R; Qin, Chuan; Chen, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Dominant mutations in keratin genes can cause a number of inheritable skin disorders characterized by intraepidermal blistering, epidermal hyperkeratosis, or abnormalities in skin appendages, such as nail plate dystrophy and structural defects in hair. Allele-specific silencing of mutant keratins through RNA interference is a promising therapeutic approach for suppressing the expression of mutant keratins and related phenotypes in the epidermis. However, its effectiveness on skin appendages remains to be confirmed in vivo. In this study, we developed allele-specific small interfering RNAs capable of selectively suppressing the expression of a mutant Krt75, which causes hair shaft structural defects characterized by the development of blebs along the hair shaft in mice. Hair regenerated from epidermal keratinocyte progenitor cells isolated from mutant Krt75 mouse models reproduced the blebbing phenotype when grafted in vivo. In contrast, mutant cells manipulated with a lentiviral vector expressing mutant Krt75-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) persistently suppressed this phenotype. The phenotypic correction was associated with a significant reduction of mutant Krt75 mRNA in the skin grafts. Thus, data obtained from this study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing RNA interference to achieve durable correction of hair structural phenotypes through allele-specific silencing of mutant keratin genes. PMID:26763422

  15. Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.

    PubMed

    Clack, Andrew A; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2012-01-20

    Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. In this pilot study, we report amplicons 147-152 base pairs in length (w/primers) from hair shafts preserved in a south Chilean coprolite attributed to Darwin's extinct ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. Our results suggest that hairs preserved in coprolites from temperate cave environments can serve as an effective source of ancient DNA. This bodes well for potential molecular-based population and phylogeographic studies on sloths, several species of which have been understudied despite leaving numerous coprolites in caves across of the Americas.

  16. Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.

    PubMed

    Clack, Andrew A; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2012-01-20

    Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. In this pilot study, we report amplicons 147-152 base pairs in length (w/primers) from hair shafts preserved in a south Chilean coprolite attributed to Darwin's extinct ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. Our results suggest that hairs preserved in coprolites from temperate cave environments can serve as an effective source of ancient DNA. This bodes well for potential molecular-based population and phylogeographic studies on sloths, several species of which have been understudied despite leaving numerous coprolites in caves across of the Americas. PMID:21640569

  17. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P < 0.001), hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P < 0.001), chemical relaxer use (P < 0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P < 0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P < 0.001), density (P = 0.0016), diameter (P = 0.01), number of broken hairs (P < 0.001), and blood flow (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  18. Extensive Hair Shaft Growth after Mouse Whisker Follicle Isolation, Cryopreservation and Transplantation in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Tran, Benjamin; Kajiura, Satoshi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that whole hair follicles could be cryopreserved to maintain their stem-cells differentation potential. In the present study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. Cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, evidenced by P75NTR expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles.

  19. Extensive Hair Shaft Growth after Mouse Whisker Follicle Isolation, Cryopreservation and Transplantation in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Tran, Benjamin; Kajiura, Satoshi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that whole hair follicles could be cryopreserved to maintain their stem-cells differentation potential. In the present study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. Cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, evidenced by P75NTR expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. PMID:26716690

  20. A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts using enzymatic laundry powder.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jinchuan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Sicong; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2013-01-01

    A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts was developed by using enzymatic laundry powder at the first step of the process. The whole extraction can be finished in less than 2 hours. The simple extraction reagent proposed here contains only two cheap components: ordinary enzymatic laundry powder and PCR buffer. After extraction, an ultra sensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, PicoGreen, was used for quantifying trace amount of double-stranded DNA in the solution extracted. For further validation of DNA extraction, four primers were employed to amplify DNA microsatellite loci. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and PCR results suggested that this method can extract DNA from hair shafts with good efficiency and repeatability. The study will greatly facilitate the use of hair shafts in future for DNA analyses on genome-wide scale.

  1. A Simple Method to Extract DNA from Hair Shafts Using Enzymatic Laundry Powder

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinchuan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Sicong; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2013-01-01

    A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts was developed by using enzymatic laundry powder at the first step of the process. The whole extraction can be finished in less than 2 hours. The simple extraction reagent proposed here contains only two cheap components: ordinary enzymatic laundry powder and PCR buffer. After extraction, an ultra sensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, PicoGreen, was used for quantifying trace amount of double-stranded DNA in the solution extracted. For further validation of DNA extraction, four primers were employed to amplify DNA microsatellite loci. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and PCR results suggested that this method can extract DNA from hair shafts with good efficiency and repeatability. The study will greatly facilitate the use of hair shafts in future for DNA analyses on genome-wide scale. PMID:23922747

  2. Double-wavelength laser scanning microphotometer (DWLSM) for in-vitro hair shaft and surrounding tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Ivan V.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Genina, Elina A.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2001-05-01

    The double-wavelength laser scanning microphotometer (DWLSM) with high spatial resolution had been developed for in vitro measuring of hair shaft and follicle absorbance. The instrument allows for determining the absorbance distribution across and along hair shaft and follicle. The instrument is based on standard universal binocular microscope. The construction of the instrument and the data processing reduces the influence of the light scattering on the hair and tissue samples.

  3. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  4. DNA extraction from hair shafts of wild Brazilian felids and canids.

    PubMed

    Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B

    2010-12-21

    Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the São Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme.

  5. STR typing of ancient DNA extracted from hair shafts of Siberian mummies.

    PubMed

    Amory, S; Keyser, C; Crubézy, E; Ludes, B

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if ancient hair shafts could be suitable for nuclear DNA analysis and to develop an efficient and straightforward protocol for DNA extraction and STR typing of ancient specimens. The developed method was validated on modern and forensic samples and then successfully applied on ancient hairs collected from Siberian mummies dating from the 16th to the early 19th centuries. In parallel extractions including or excluding a washing step were performed at least two times for each sample in order to evaluate the influence on the quantity of nuclear DNA yielded and on the typing efficiency. Twelve ancient individuals were analyzed through our approach and full and reliable profiles were obtained for four of them. These profiles were validated by comparison with those obtained from bone and teeth DNA extracted from the same ancient specimens. The present study demonstrates that the washing step cannot be considered as deleterious for DNA retrieval since the same results were obtained by the two approaches. This finding challenges the hypothesis that recoverable nuclear DNA is only found on the outer surface of hair shafts and provides evidence that nuclear DNA can be successfully extracted from ancient hair shafts. The method described here constitutes a promising way for non-invasive investigations in ancient DNA analysis for precious or historical samples as well as forensic casework analyses.

  6. Demonstration of Protein-Based Human Identification Using the Hair Shaft Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Leppert, Tami; Anex, Deon S.; Hilmer, Jonathan K.; Matsunami, Nori; Baird, Lisa; Stevens, Jeffery; Parsawar, Krishna; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Nelson, Chad; Fairbanks, Daniel J.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Rice, Robert H.; Woodward, Scott R.; Bothner, Brian; Hart, Bradley R.; Leppert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Human identification from biological material is largely dependent on the ability to characterize genetic polymorphisms in DNA. Unfortunately, DNA can degrade in the environment, sometimes below the level at which it can be amplified by PCR. Protein however is chemically more robust than DNA and can persist for longer periods. Protein also contains genetic variation in the form of single amino acid polymorphisms. These can be used to infer the status of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism alleles. To demonstrate this, we used mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics to characterize hair shaft proteins in 66 European-American subjects. A total of 596 single nucleotide polymorphism alleles were correctly imputed in 32 loci from 22 genes of subjects’ DNA and directly validated using Sanger sequencing. Estimates of the probability of resulting individual non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism allelic profiles in the European population, using the product rule, resulted in a maximum power of discrimination of 1 in 12,500. Imputed non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism profiles from European–American subjects were considerably less frequent in the African population (maximum likelihood ratio = 11,000). The converse was true for hair shafts collected from an additional 10 subjects with African ancestry, where some profiles were more frequent in the African population. Genetically variant peptides were also identified in hair shaft datasets from six archaeological skeletal remains (up to 260 years old). This study demonstrates that quantifiable measures of identity discrimination and biogeographic background can be obtained from detecting genetically variant peptides in hair shaft protein, including hair from bioarchaeological contexts. PMID:27603779

  7. Demonstration of Protein-Based Human Identification Using the Hair Shaft Proteome.

    PubMed

    Parker, Glendon J; Leppert, Tami; Anex, Deon S; Hilmer, Jonathan K; Matsunami, Nori; Baird, Lisa; Stevens, Jeffery; Parsawar, Krishna; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Rocke, David M; Nelson, Chad; Fairbanks, Daniel J; Wilson, Andrew S; Rice, Robert H; Woodward, Scott R; Bothner, Brian; Hart, Bradley R; Leppert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Human identification from biological material is largely dependent on the ability to characterize genetic polymorphisms in DNA. Unfortunately, DNA can degrade in the environment, sometimes below the level at which it can be amplified by PCR. Protein however is chemically more robust than DNA and can persist for longer periods. Protein also contains genetic variation in the form of single amino acid polymorphisms. These can be used to infer the status of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism alleles. To demonstrate this, we used mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics to characterize hair shaft proteins in 66 European-American subjects. A total of 596 single nucleotide polymorphism alleles were correctly imputed in 32 loci from 22 genes of subjects' DNA and directly validated using Sanger sequencing. Estimates of the probability of resulting individual non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism allelic profiles in the European population, using the product rule, resulted in a maximum power of discrimination of 1 in 12,500. Imputed non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism profiles from European-American subjects were considerably less frequent in the African population (maximum likelihood ratio = 11,000). The converse was true for hair shafts collected from an additional 10 subjects with African ancestry, where some profiles were more frequent in the African population. Genetically variant peptides were also identified in hair shaft datasets from six archaeological skeletal remains (up to 260 years old). This study demonstrates that quantifiable measures of identity discrimination and biogeographic background can be obtained from detecting genetically variant peptides in hair shaft protein, including hair from bioarchaeological contexts. PMID:27603779

  8. A High-Yield Two-Hour Protocol for Extraction of Human Hair Shaft Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sing Ying; Lee, Ching Chin; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Junit, Sarni Mat; Abrahim, Nazirahanie

    2016-01-01

    Proteome analysis of the human hair remains challenging due to the poor solubility of hair proteins and the difficulty in their extraction. In the present study, we have developed a rapid extraction protocol for hair shaft protein using alkaline-based buffer. The new protocol accelerated the procedure by reducing the extraction time from at least a day to less than two hours and showed a protein recovery of 47.3 ± 3.72%. Further analyses of the extracted protein sample through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis unveiled a total of 60 proteins, including 25 that were not previously reported. Identification of these proteins is anticipated to be crucial in helping to understand the molecular basis of hair for potential applications in the future. PMID:27741315

  9. Cyclic Alopecia and Abnormal Epidermal Cornification in Zdhhc13-Deficient Mice Reveal the Importance of Palmitoylation in Hair and Skin Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shen, Li-Fen; Haddad, Amir N S; Song, I-Wen; Chen, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yen, Jeffrey J Y; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2015-11-01

    Many biochemical pathways involved in hair and skin development have not been investigated. Here, we reported on the lesions and investigated the mechanism underlying hair and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice with a deficiency in DHHC13, a palmitoyl-acyl transferase encoded by Zdhhc13. Homozygous affected mice showed ragged and dilapidated cuticle of the hair shaft (CUH, a hair anchoring structure), poor hair anchoring ability, and premature hair loss at early telogen phase of the hair cycle, resulting in cyclic alopecia. Furthermore, the homozygous affected mice exhibited hyperproliferation of the epidermis, disturbed cornification, fragile cornified envelope (CE, a skin barrier structure), and impaired skin barrier function. Biochemical investigations revealed that cornifelin, which contains five palmitoylation sites at cysteine residues (C58, C59, C60, C95, and C101), was a specific substrate of DHHC13 and that it was absent in the CUH and CE structures of the affected mice. Furthermore, cornifelin levels were markedly reduced when two palmitoylated cysteines were replaced with serine (C95S and C101S). Taken together, our results suggest that DHHC13 is important for hair anchoring and skin barrier function and that cornifelin deficiency contributes to cyclic alopecia and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice.

  10. Flame Hair

    PubMed Central

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Flame hairs’ is a trichoscopic feature described as hair residue from pulling anagen hairs in trichotillomania. Objective: To detect whether flame hairs are present in other hair loss disorders. Methods We retrospectively, independently and blindly reviewed the trichoscopic images of 454 consecutive patients with alopecia areata (99 cases), trichotillomania (n = 20), acute chemotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 6), acute radiotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 2), tinea capitis (n = 13), lichen planopilaris (n = 33), frontal fibrosing alopecia (n = 60), discoid lupus erythematosus (n = 30), dissecting cellulitis (n = 11), central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (n = 94) and traction alopecia (n = 86) for the presence of flame hairs. We prospectively obtained trichoscopy-guided scalp biopsies from flame hairs in trichotillomania, alopecia areata, traction alopecia and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (1 case each). Results Flame hairs were detected in 100% of the acute chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced alopecias, where they were the predominant hair abnormality. They were also found in trichotillomania (55%), alopecia areata (21%), traction alopecia (4%) and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (3%). On pathology, they corresponded to distorted hair shafts. Conclusion The flame hair is a type of broken hair which can be seen in various hair loss disorders. It results from traumatic pulling of anagen hairs or from anagen arrest due to inflammation or drugs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:27171360

  11. Optical coherence tomography examination of hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Jianshu; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Human hair is a keratinous tissue composed mostly of flexible keratin, which can form a complex architecture consisting of distinct compartments or units (e.g. hair bulb, inner root sheath, shaft). Variations in hair shaft morphology can reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities in cross section and diameter, as well as ultramorphological characterization and follicle shapes, might be visualized non-invasively by high-speed 2D and 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study, swept source OCT (ThorLabs) was used to examine human hair. Preliminary results showed that the high-speed OCT was a suitable and promising tool for non-invasive analysis of hair conditions.

  12. Massively parallel sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes from hair shaft samples.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Huber, Gabriela; Moreno, Lilliana; Madel, Maria-Bernadette; Brandhagen, Michael D; Nagl, Simone; Xavier, Catarina; Eduardoff, Mayra; Callaghan, Thomas C; Irwin, Jodi A

    2015-03-01

    Though shed hairs are one of the most commonly encountered evidence types, they are among the most limited in terms of DNA quantity and quality. As a result, DNA testing has historically focused on the recovery of just about 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Here, we describe our success in recovering complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) data (∼16,569bp) from single shed hairs. By employing massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we demonstrate that particular hair samples yield DNA sufficient in quantity and quality to produce 2-3kb mtGenome amplicons and that entire mtGenome data can be recovered from hair extracts even without PCR enrichment. Most importantly, we describe a small amplicon multiplex assay comprised of sixty-two primer sets that can be routinely applied to the compromised hair samples typically encountered in forensic casework. In all samples tested here, the MPS data recovered using any one of the three methods were consistent with the control Sanger sequence data developed from high quality known specimens. Given the recently demonstrated value of complete mtGenome data in terms of discrimination power among randomly sampled individuals, the possibility of recovering mtGenome data from the most compromised and limited evidentiary material is likely to vastly increase the utility of mtDNA testing for hair evidence. PMID:25438934

  13. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth. PMID:18004288

  14. Human mesenchymal stromal cells could deliver erythropoietin and migrate to the basal layer of hair shaft when subcutaneously implanted in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Mok, P L; Cheong, S K; Leong, C F; Chua, K H; Ainoon, O

    2012-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are an attractive cell-targeting vehicle for gene delivery. MIDGE (an acronym for Minimalistic, Immunologically Defined Gene Expression) construct is relatively safer than the viral or plasmid expression system as the detrimental eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene and sequences have been eliminated. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the human MSC (hMSC) to deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in a nude mice model following nucleofection using a MIDGE construct. hMSC nucleofected with MIDGE encoding the EPO gene was injected subcutaneously in Matrigel at the dorsal flank of nude mice. Subcutaneous implantation of nucleofected hMSC resulted in increased hemoglobin level with presence of human EPO in the peripheral blood of the injected nude mice in the first two weeks post-implantation compared with the control groups. The basal layer of the hair shaft in the dermal layer was found to be significantly positive for immunohistochemical staining of a human EPO antibody. However, only a few basal layers of the hair shaft were found to be positively stained for CD105. In conclusion, hMSC harboring MIDGE-EPO could deliver and transiently express the EPO gene in the nude mice model. These cells could be localized to the hair follicle and secreted EPO protein might have possible role in hair regeneration. PMID:22560724

  15. Human mesenchymal stromal cells could deliver erythropoietin and migrate to the basal layer of hair shaft when subcutaneously implanted in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Mok, P L; Cheong, S K; Leong, C F; Chua, K H; Ainoon, O

    2012-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are an attractive cell-targeting vehicle for gene delivery. MIDGE (an acronym for Minimalistic, Immunologically Defined Gene Expression) construct is relatively safer than the viral or plasmid expression system as the detrimental eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene and sequences have been eliminated. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the human MSC (hMSC) to deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in a nude mice model following nucleofection using a MIDGE construct. hMSC nucleofected with MIDGE encoding the EPO gene was injected subcutaneously in Matrigel at the dorsal flank of nude mice. Subcutaneous implantation of nucleofected hMSC resulted in increased hemoglobin level with presence of human EPO in the peripheral blood of the injected nude mice in the first two weeks post-implantation compared with the control groups. The basal layer of the hair shaft in the dermal layer was found to be significantly positive for immunohistochemical staining of a human EPO antibody. However, only a few basal layers of the hair shaft were found to be positively stained for CD105. In conclusion, hMSC harboring MIDGE-EPO could deliver and transiently express the EPO gene in the nude mice model. These cells could be localized to the hair follicle and secreted EPO protein might have possible role in hair regeneration.

  16. Over-expression of thymosin beta 4 promotes abnormal tooth development and stimulation of hair growth.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hee-Jae; Philp, Deborah; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Hye-Sung; Kleinman, Hynda K; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It accelerates wound healing, hair growth and angiogenesis, and increases laminin-5 expression in corneal epithelium. Furthermore, thymosin beta 4 stimulates tumor growth and metastasis by induction of cell migration and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis. Using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, we have developed thymosin beta 4 over-expressing transgenic mice to further study its functional roles. Thymosin beta 4 in adult skin and in embryonic stages of the transgenic mouse was analyzed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The over-expression of thymosin beta 4 was observed especially around hair follicles and in the teeth in the transgenic mice. We examined the phenotype of the thymosin beta 4 over-expressing mice. Hair growth was accelerated. In addition, the transgenic mice had abnormally-shaped white teeth and dull incisors. We found that the expression of laminin-5 was up-regulated in the skin of the transgenic mice. We conclude that thymosin beta 4 has an important physiological role in hair growth and in tooth development.

  17. Pili annulati associated with hair fragility: cause or coincidence?

    PubMed

    Werner, Kimberly; St-Surin-Lord, Sharleen; Sperling, Leonard C

    2013-01-01

    Pili annulati is a disorder that produces a spangled appearance to the hair, caused by alternating light and dark banding of hair shafts. This phenomenon is created by abnormal cavities in the cortex of the hair shaft, which produces lighter bands seen on clinical examination. Complications of pili annulati are limited; the most noteworthy complication is increased breakage secondary to weathering of the abnormal hair shafts. We report a case of a 14-year-old adolescent girl with pili annulati and progressive hair loss of 2 months' duration. Most of her hairs were notably short, spangled, and lusterless with light and dark banding observed with handheld magnification. Light microscopy demonstrated alternating light and dark bands, and the dark bands had the typical appearance of air-filled spaces. Gentler hair grooming practices were recommended, and at a follow-up visit, the appearance of the hair had improved with darker and longer shafts. This case should alert clinicians to look for pili annulati when hair fragility is present.

  18. The Lysosomal Protease Cathepsin L Is an Important Regulator of Keratinocyte and Melanocyte Differentiation During Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Desmond J.; Foitzik, Kerstin; Reinheckel, Thomas; Mecklenburg, Lars; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Peters, Christoph; Paus, Ralf

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that the ubiquitously expressed lysosomal cysteine protease, cathepsin L (CTSL), is essential for skin and hair follicle homeostasis. Here we examine the effect of CTSL deficiency on hair follicle development and cycling in ctsl−/− mice by light and electron microscopy, Ki67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling, and trichohyalin immunofluorescence. Hair follicle morphogenesis in ctsl−/− mice was associated with several abnormalities. Defective terminal differentiation of keratinocytes occurred during the formation of the hair canal, resulting in disruption of hair shaft outgrowth. Both proliferation and apoptosis levels in keratinocytes and melanocytes were higher in ctsl−/− than in ctsl+/+ hair follicles. The development of the hair follicle pigmentary unit was disrupted by vacuolation of differentiating melanocytes. Hair cycling was also abnormal in ctsl−/− mice. Final stages of hair follicle morphogenesis and the induction of hair follicle cycling were retarded. Thereafter, these follicles exhibited a truncated resting phase (telogen) and a premature entry into the first growth phase. Further abnormalities of telogen development included the defective anchoring of club hairs in the skin, which resulted in their abnormal shedding. Melanocyte vacuolation was again apparent during the hair cycle-associated reconstruction of the hair pigmentary unit. A hallmark of these ctsl−/− mice was the severe disruption in the exiting of hair shafts to the skin surface. This was mostly because of a failure of the inner root sheath (keratinocyte layer next to the hair shaft) to fully desquamate. These changes resulted in a massive dilation of the hair canal and the abnormal routing of sebaceous gland products to the skin surface. In summary, this study suggests novel roles for cathepsin proteases in skin, hair, and pigment biology. Principal target tissues that may contain protein substrate(s) for this cysteine protease include the

  19. Morphological comparison of the cross section of the human and animal hair shafts by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Miyasaka, S; Yoshino, M; Seta, S

    1982-01-01

    In order to obtain some fine structural informations available for the identification of hair samples collected in small amounts or fragments, the preparation method of the samples for the scanning electron microscopy was investigated. Hair samples of human individuals and animals were mounted between two sheets of celluloid using isoamyl acetate and were sectioned to 20 microns thickness. These sections were collected in a test tube for dissolving the celluloid. After centrifuging in acetone, a small mass of sections was embedded in Spurr's epoxy resin. After polymerization, 1 micron thick sections were made on an ultramicrotome. The sections were mounted on glass slide and were surface-etched by exposure to oxygen plasma for 90 seconds. Observations were made in the secondary electron image mode of a scanning electron microscope. After surface-etching, a good resolution of the cross section was obtained. The arrangement of the cortical cells of human hairs was observed to be fairly irregular with conspicuous interdigitations of cell boundaries as compared with that of animal hairs. The medulla of human and animal hairs were filled with cellular remnants of destroyed medullary cells showing fibrous structures. The lamellar structures of cuticular cells became very clearly visible. The number and the overall thickness of cuticular cell layers in human and animal hairs investigated varied considerably between scalp and pubic hairs and from animal to animal.

  20. Stimulatory effect of Brazilian propolis on hair growth through proliferation of keratinocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shota; Oda, Yozo; Matsuo, Chika; Kumura, Haruto; Kobayashi, Ken

    2014-12-10

    Propolis is a natural honeybee hive product with the potential for use in the treatment of dermatological conditions, such as cutaneous abrasions, burns, and acne. In this study, we investigated whether propolis stimulates hair growth in mice. Ethanol-extracted propolis, which contains various physiologically active substances such as caffeic acid and kaempferol, stimulated anagen induction in shaved back skin. Anagen induction occurred without any detectable abnormalities in the shape of the hair follicles (HFs), hair stem cells in the bulge, proliferating hair matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, or localization of versican in the dermal papilla. Propolis treatment also stimulated migration of hair matrix keratinocytes into the hair shaft in HFs during late anagen in the depilated back skin. Organotypic culture of skin containing anagen stage HFs revealed significant stimulation of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation by propolis. Furthermore, propolis facilitated the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. These results indicate that propolis stimulates hair growth by inducing hair keratinocyte proliferation.

  1. Stimulatory effect of Brazilian propolis on hair growth through proliferation of keratinocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shota; Oda, Yozo; Matsuo, Chika; Kumura, Haruto; Kobayashi, Ken

    2014-12-10

    Propolis is a natural honeybee hive product with the potential for use in the treatment of dermatological conditions, such as cutaneous abrasions, burns, and acne. In this study, we investigated whether propolis stimulates hair growth in mice. Ethanol-extracted propolis, which contains various physiologically active substances such as caffeic acid and kaempferol, stimulated anagen induction in shaved back skin. Anagen induction occurred without any detectable abnormalities in the shape of the hair follicles (HFs), hair stem cells in the bulge, proliferating hair matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, or localization of versican in the dermal papilla. Propolis treatment also stimulated migration of hair matrix keratinocytes into the hair shaft in HFs during late anagen in the depilated back skin. Organotypic culture of skin containing anagen stage HFs revealed significant stimulation of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation by propolis. Furthermore, propolis facilitated the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. These results indicate that propolis stimulates hair growth by inducing hair keratinocyte proliferation. PMID:25418897

  2. Deletion of Brg1 causes abnormal hair cell planer polarity, hair cell anchorage, and scar formation in mouse cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yecheng; Ren, Naixia; Li, Shiwei; Fu, Xiaolong; Sun, Xiaoyang; Men, Yuqin; Xu, Zhigang; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Yue; Xia, Ming; Gao, Jiangang

    2016-01-01

    Hair cells (HCs) are mechanosensors that play crucial roles in perceiving sound, acceleration, and fluid motion. The precise architecture of the auditory epithelium and its repair after HC loss is indispensable to the function of organ of Corti (OC). In this study, we showed that Brg1 was highly expressed in auditory HCs. Specific deletion of Brg1 in postnatal HCs resulted in rapid HC degeneration and profound deafness in mice. Further experiments showed that cell-intrinsic polarity of HCs was abolished, docking of outer hair cells (OHCs) by Deiter’s cells (DCs) failed, and scar formation in the reticular lamina was deficient. We demonstrated that Brg1 ablation disrupted the Gαi/Insc/LGN and aPKC asymmetric distributions, without overt effects on the core planer cell polarity (PCP) pathway. We also demonstrated that Brg1-deficient HCs underwent apoptosis, and that leakage in the reticular lamina caused by deficient scar formation shifted the mode of OHC death from apoptosis to necrosis. Together, these data demonstrated a requirement for Brg1 activity in HC development and suggested a role for Brg1 in the proper cellular structure formation of HCs. PMID:27255603

  3. Structural Abnormalities in the Hair of a Patient with a Novel Ribosomopathy

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Zhang, Yuchen; Pieterse, Marc; Fatona, Ayodele; Dej, Kimberly; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the biophysical characterization of hair from a patient with a de novo ribosomopathy. The patient was diagnosed with a mutation on gene RPS23, which codes for a protein which comprises part of the 40S subunit of the ribosome. The patient presents with a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, autism, extra teeth, elastic skin, and thin/brittle hair. We combined optical microscopy, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction experiments on hair samples obtained from the scalp of the patient to a multi-scale characterization of the hair from macroscopic to molecular length scales and observe distinct differences in the biophysical properties in the patient’s hair when compared to hair from other family members. While no differences were observed in the coiled-coil structure of the keratin proteins or the structure of the intermediate filaments, the patient’s hair was 22% thinner, while the Young’s modulus remained roughly constant. The X-ray diffraction results give evidence that the amount of lipids in the cell membrane complex is reduced by 20%, which well accounts for the other observations. The pathologies characterized by these techniques may be used to inform the diagnosis of similar de novo mutations in the future. PMID:26982655

  4. Structural Abnormalities in the Hair of a Patient with a Novel Ribosomopathy.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Zhang, Yuchen; Pieterse, Marc; Fatona, Ayodele; Dej, Kimberly; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2016-01-01

    We report the biophysical characterization of hair from a patient with a de novo ribosomopathy. The patient was diagnosed with a mutation on gene RPS23, which codes for a protein which comprises part of the 40S subunit of the ribosome. The patient presents with a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, autism, extra teeth, elastic skin, and thin/brittle hair. We combined optical microscopy, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction experiments on hair samples obtained from the scalp of the patient to a multi-scale characterization of the hair from macroscopic to molecular length scales and observe distinct differences in the biophysical properties in the patient's hair when compared to hair from other family members. While no differences were observed in the coiled-coil structure of the keratin proteins or the structure of the intermediate filaments, the patient's hair was 22% thinner, while the Young's modulus remained roughly constant. The X-ray diffraction results give evidence that the amount of lipids in the cell membrane complex is reduced by 20%, which well accounts for the other observations. The pathologies characterized by these techniques may be used to inform the diagnosis of similar de novo mutations in the future. PMID:26982655

  5. Structural Abnormalities in the Hair of a Patient with a Novel Ribosomopathy.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Zhang, Yuchen; Pieterse, Marc; Fatona, Ayodele; Dej, Kimberly; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2016-01-01

    We report the biophysical characterization of hair from a patient with a de novo ribosomopathy. The patient was diagnosed with a mutation on gene RPS23, which codes for a protein which comprises part of the 40S subunit of the ribosome. The patient presents with a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, autism, extra teeth, elastic skin, and thin/brittle hair. We combined optical microscopy, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction experiments on hair samples obtained from the scalp of the patient to a multi-scale characterization of the hair from macroscopic to molecular length scales and observe distinct differences in the biophysical properties in the patient's hair when compared to hair from other family members. While no differences were observed in the coiled-coil structure of the keratin proteins or the structure of the intermediate filaments, the patient's hair was 22% thinner, while the Young's modulus remained roughly constant. The X-ray diffraction results give evidence that the amount of lipids in the cell membrane complex is reduced by 20%, which well accounts for the other observations. The pathologies characterized by these techniques may be used to inform the diagnosis of similar de novo mutations in the future.

  6. Practical management of hair loss.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, J.; Wiseman, M.; Lui, H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an organized diagnostic approach for both nonscarring and scarring alopecias to help family physicians establish an accurate in-office diagnosis. To explain when ancillary laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for hair loss are based on randomized controlled studies, uncontrolled studies, and case series. MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 1998 with the MeSH words alopecia, hair, and alopecia areata. Articles were selected on the basis of experimental design, with priority given to the most current large multicentre controlled studies. Overall global evidence for therapeutic intervention for hair loss is quite strong. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common forms of nonscarring alopecias are androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. Other disorders include trichotillomania, traction alopecia, tinea capitis, and hair shaft abnormalities. Scarring alopecia is caused by trauma, infections, discoid lupus erythematosus, or lichen planus. Key to establishing an accurate diagnosis is a detailed history, including medication use, systemic illnesses, endocrine dysfunction, hair-care practices, and family history. All hair-bearing sites should be examined. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the scalp is useful, particularly to diagnose scarring alopecias. Once a diagnosis has been established, specific therapy can be initiated. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of hair loss is an interesting challenge for family physicians. An organized approach to recognizing characteristic differential features of hair loss disorders is key to diagnosis and management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10925761

  7. The targeted overexpression of a Claudin mutant in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking epidermal and hair follicle abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-06-01

    Skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and is formed during development through a highly orchestrated process involving mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, cell commitment, and terminal differentiation. It protects against microorganism invasion and UV irradiation, inhibits water loss, regulates body temperature, and is an important part of the immune system. Using transgenic mouse technology, we have demonstrated that Claudin (Cldn)-containing tight junctions (TJs) are intricately involved in cell signaling during epidermal differentiation and that an epidermal suprabasal overexpression of Cldn6 results in a perturbed epidermal terminal differentiation program with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. To delineate the role of the Cldn cytoplasmic tail domain in epidermal differentiation, we engineered transgenic mice targeting the overexpression of a Cldn6 cytoplasmic tail-truncation mutant in the epidermis. Transgenic mice were characterized by a lethal barrier dysfunction in addition to the existence of hyperproliferative squamous invaginations/cysts replacing hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an epidermal cytoplasmic accumulation of Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, and Cldn18, downregulation of Cldn1 and aberrant expression of various classical markers of epidermal differentiation; namely the basal keratins as well as K1, involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. Collectively these studies suggest an important role for Cldns in epidermal/hair follicle differentiation programs likely involving cross talk to signaling pathways (e.g., Notch) directing cell fate selection and differentiation.

  8. The targeted overexpression of a Claudin mutant in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking epidermal and hair follicle abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-06-01

    Skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and is formed during development through a highly orchestrated process involving mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, cell commitment, and terminal differentiation. It protects against microorganism invasion and UV irradiation, inhibits water loss, regulates body temperature, and is an important part of the immune system. Using transgenic mouse technology, we have demonstrated that Claudin (Cldn)-containing tight junctions (TJs) are intricately involved in cell signaling during epidermal differentiation and that an epidermal suprabasal overexpression of Cldn6 results in a perturbed epidermal terminal differentiation program with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. To delineate the role of the Cldn cytoplasmic tail domain in epidermal differentiation, we engineered transgenic mice targeting the overexpression of a Cldn6 cytoplasmic tail-truncation mutant in the epidermis. Transgenic mice were characterized by a lethal barrier dysfunction in addition to the existence of hyperproliferative squamous invaginations/cysts replacing hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an epidermal cytoplasmic accumulation of Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, and Cldn18, downregulation of Cldn1 and aberrant expression of various classical markers of epidermal differentiation; namely the basal keratins as well as K1, involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. Collectively these studies suggest an important role for Cldns in epidermal/hair follicle differentiation programs likely involving cross talk to signaling pathways (e.g., Notch) directing cell fate selection and differentiation. PMID:17914196

  9. Hair shape of curly hair.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2003-06-01

    The hair follicle is a unique composite organ, composed of epithelial and dermal compartments interacting with each other in a surprisingly autonomous way. This is a self-renewing organ that seems to be a true paradigm of epithelial and mesenchymal interactions. Each of the follicular compartments is endowed with a specific differentiation pathway under the control of an intricate network of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. As observed for ethnic hairs, even the shape of the hair shaft is intrinsically programmed from the bulb.

  10. Hair colouring, permanent styling and hair structure.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S; Sinclair, R

    2003-07-01

    Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair colour or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. Different types of hair have varying affinity for the different colouring and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a different affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair.

  11. Trichodystrophies: A hair-raising differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vij, Alok; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of an individual's hair is said to be reflective of internal health. Patients with hair shaft disorders commonly present with fragile, lusterless, sparse hair in addition to psychosocial distress. Hair shaft disorders may be hereditary or acquired and may present in children or adults. Due to the varied presentations, the differential diagnosis for hair is broad and often confusing. The authors present a question-by-question guide to help clinicians arrive at the correct diagnosis.

  12. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  13. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  14. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  15. A homozygous missense variant in type I keratin KRT25 causes autosomal recessive woolly hair

    PubMed Central

    Ansar, Muhammad; Raza, Syed Irfan; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Irfanullah; Shahi, Shamim; Acharya, Anushree; Dai, Hang; Smith, Joshua D; Shendure, Jay; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Ahmad, Wasim; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Background Woolly hair (WH) is a hair abnormality that is primarily characterised by tightly curled hair with abnormal growth. Methods In two unrelated consanguineous Pakistani families with non-syndromic autosomal recessive (AR) WH, homozygosity mapping and linkage analysis identified a locus within 17q21.1–q22, which contains the type I keratin gene cluster. A DNA sample from an affected individual from each family underwent exome sequencing. Results A homozygous missense variant c.950T>C (p.(Leu317Pro)) within KRT25 segregated with ARWH in both families, and has a combined maximum two-point LOD score of 7.9 at ϴ=0. The KRT25 variant is predicted to result in disruption of the second α-helical rod domain and the entire protein structure, thus possibly interfering with heterodimerisation of K25 with type II keratins within the inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle and the medulla of the hair shaft. Conclusions Our findings implicate a novel gene involved in human hair abnormality, and are consistent with the curled, fragile hair found in mice with Krt25 mutations, and further support the role of IRS-specific type I keratins in hair follicle development and maintenance of hair texture. PMID:26160856

  16. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation.

  17. Is alopecia areata an autoimmune-response against melanogenesis-related proteins, exposed by abnormal MHC class I expression in the anagen hair bulb?

    PubMed Central

    Paus, R.; Slominski, A.; Czarnetzki, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The etiology of alopecia areata (AA), a putative autoimmune disease characterized by sudden hair loss, has remained obscure. It is not understood, how the characteristic inflammatory infiltrate that selectively attacks anagen hair follicles in AA is generated. We hypothesize that this reflects an unexplored form of autoimmunity, a cytotoxic T cell attack on rhythmically synthesized autoantigens normally sequestered by a lack or very low level of MHC class I (MHC I)-expression, and suggest the following mechanism of AA pathogenesis: Microtrauma, neurogenic inflammation, or microbial antigens cause a localized breakdown of MHC I-"negativity" in the proximal anagen hair bulb via proinflammatory cytokines. This exposes autoantigens derived from melanogenesis-related proteins (MRP-DP), which are only generated during anagen, and triggers two successive waves of autoimmune responses: CD8+ cytotoxic T cells initiate AA after recognizing MRP-DP abnormally presented by MHC I molecules on hair matrix melanocytes and/or keratinocytes; a secondary attack, carried by CD4+ T cells and antigen presenting cells, is then mounted against MHC class II--presented additional autoantigens exposed by damaged melanocytes and keratinocytes. The latter causes most of the follicular damage, and extrafollicular disease, and depends greatly on the immunogenetic background of affected individuals. This unifying hypothesis explains the clinical heterogeneity and all salient features of AA, and argues that only the unlikely coincidence of multiple predisposing events triggers AA. The suppression of MHC I--expression and synthesis of MRP in the hair bulb, and the "tolerization" of MRP-DP autoreactive CD8+ T cells may be promising strategies for treating AA. PMID:7716973

  18. Silvery grey hair: clue to diagnose immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Ms; Sacchidanand, S; Hiremagalore, R; Asha, Gs

    2012-04-01

    Silvery hair is a common presentation of rare group of autosomal recessive disorders called Silvery hair syndromes including Griscelli syndrome (GS), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, and Elejalde syndrome. GS is characterized by a silvery grey sheen to hair, large clumped melanosomes in hair shaft, partial albinism, and variable cellular immunodeficiency. We report two cases of GS with classical clinical features and confirmatory findings by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  19. Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

    2013-04-01

    Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

  20. Cutis laxa with pulmonary emphysema, conjunctivochalasis, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, abnormal hair, and a novel FBLN5 mutation.

    PubMed

    Kantaputra, Piranit Nik; Kaewgahya, Massupa; Wiwatwongwana, Atchareeya; Wiwatwongwana, Damrong; Sittiwangkul, Rekwan; Iamaroon, Anak; Dejkhamron, Prapai

    2014-09-01

    We report on a 4-year-old girl with autosomal recessive cutis laxa, type IA, or pulmonary emphysema type (ARCL1A; OMIM #219100), with loose and wrinkled skin, mitral and tricuspid valve prolapse, conjunctivochalasis, obstructed nasolacrimal ducts, hypoplastic maxilla, and early childhood-onset pulmonary emphysema. Mutation analysis of FBLN5 showed a homozygous c.432C>G missense mutation, and heterozygosity in the parents. This is predicted to cause amino acid substitution p.Cys144Trp. Conjunctivochalasis or redundant folds of conjunctiva and obstructed nasolacrimal ducts have not been reported to be associated with FBLN5 mutations. Histopathological study of the conjunctival biopsy showed that most blood vessels had normal elastic fibers. The gingiva appeared normal, but histologically elastic fibers were defective. Scanning electron micrography of scalp hair demonstrated hypoplastic hair follicles. The cuticles appear intact underneath the filamentous meshwork.

  1. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  2. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. PMID:26370652

  3. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae.

  4. Quantification of dandruff adherence to hair.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Uhoda, E; Piérard, G E

    2005-10-01

    Dandruff adherence to hair shafts is a visible annoying phenomenon. The aspect can be recorded by different means including the ultraviolet light-enhanced visualization (ULEV) method and microscopy. We present another quantitative method. Hairs were clipped from the parietal scalp area of 25 volunteers complaining of dandruff. They were firmly applied onto cyanoacrylate-coated microscopic slides. Hairs were lifted up after 15-20 s leaving a cast in the adhesive coat. Dandruff were thus harvested from the hair shafts and remained attached to the cyanoacrylate coat. After staining, the material was submitted to image analysis to derive the dandruff density per unit length of hairs. In 11/25 subjects, a correlation was found between the width of the hair casts and the dandruff density. This method does not collect all dandruff along hair shafts, but data are likely representative of the whole corneocyte load. PMID:18492209

  5. Compound heterozygous desmoplakin mutations result in a phenotype with a combination of myocardial, skin, hair, and enamel abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, My G; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2010-04-01

    Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses.

  6. Compound Heterozygous Desmoplakin Mutations Result in a Phenotype with a Combination of Myocardial, Skin, Hair, and Enamel Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Mỹ G.; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses. PMID:19924139

  7. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations.

  8. Reduced thymic output, cell cycle abnormalities, and increased apoptosis of T lymphocytes in patients with cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Nicholas L.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Morton, D. Holmes; Adair, Margaret; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Ochs, Hans D.; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Pessach, Itai M.; Walter, Jolan E.; King, Alejandra; Giliani, Silvia; Pai, Sung-Yun; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is characterized by metaphyseal dysplasia, bone marrow failure, increased risk of malignancies, and a variable degree of immunodeficiency. CHH is caused by mutations in the RNA component of the mitochondrial RNA processing (RMRP) endoribonuclease gene, which is involved in ribosomal assembly, telomere function, and cell cycle control. Objectives We aimed to define thymic output and characterize immune function in a cohort of patients with molecularly defined CHH with and without associated clinical immunodeficiency. Methods We studied the distribution of B and T lymphocytes (including recent thymic emigrants), in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in 18 patients with CHH compared with controls. Results Patients with CHH have a markedly reduced number of recent thymic emigrants, and their peripheral T cells show defects in cell cycle control and display increased apoptosis, resulting in poor proliferation on activation. Conclusion These data confirm that RMRP mutations result in significant defects of cell-mediated immunity and provide a link between the cellular phenotype and the immunodeficiency in CHH. PMID:21570718

  9. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  10. Determination of hair structure and shape.

    PubMed

    Schlake, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    The hair follicle attracted significant attention as a model for the investigation of diverse biological problems. Whereas its morphology and the structure of the hair shaft are known in detail, the molecular biology of this miniorgan is significantly less characterised. Many efforts focussed on the development of the hair follicle and its stem cell reservoir; by contrast, the follicular product, the hair, which is interesting not only in terms of cosmetics was neglected. This review highlights our current knowledge of the control of hair structure and shape with emphasis on mouse hair follicle biology and discusses continuing problems.

  11. SHAFT79 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.

    1980-03-01

    SHAFT79 (Simultaneous Heat And Fluid Transport) is an integrated finite difference program for computing two-phase non-isothermal flow in porous media. The principal application for which SHAFT79 is designed is in geothermal reservoir simulation. SHAFT79 solves the same equations as an earlier version, called SHAFT78, but uses much more efficient mathematical and numerical methods. The present SHAFT79 user's manual gives a brief account of equations and numerical methods and then describes in detail how to set up input decks for running the program. The application of SHAFT79 is illustrated by means of a few sample problems. (MHR)

  12. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry. PMID:27319056

  13. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  14. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  15. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  16. Hair loss in children.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rubina; Grimalt, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Hair diseases represent frequent complaints in dermatology clinics, and they can be caused by a number of conditions reflected by specific diagnoses. Hair loss is not uncommon in the pediatric group, but its patterns in this group are different from those seen in adults. Additionally, in children, these disorders can have psychological effects that can interfere with growth and development. Hair is easily accessible for examination, and dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders using simple diagnostic techniques. To fully understand hair loss during childhood, a basic comprehension of normal hair growth is necessary. Knowledge of the normal range and variation observed in the hair of children further enhances its assessment. This chapter has been written in an attempt to facilitate the diagnostic process during daily practice by helping to distinguish between acquired and congenital hair diseases. It can sometimes be difficult to differentiate between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. Management of hair disorders can be quite a daunting task for the attending physician and mandates a holistic approach to the patient. Some hair disturbances have no effective treatment, and for others, no single treatment is 100% successful. If no effective treatment for a hair loss disease exists, a cosmetic approach is important. PMID:26370644

  17. SEAL FOR ROTATING SHAFT

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1957-12-10

    A seal is described for a rotatable shaft that must highly effective when the shaft is not rotating but may be less effective while the shaft is rotating. Weights distributed about a sealing disk secured to the shaft press the sealing disk against a tubular section into which the shiilt extends, and whem the shaft rotates, the centrifugal forces on the weights relieve the pressurc of the sealing disk against the tubular section. This action has the very desirible result of minimizing the wear of the rotating disk due to contact with the tubular section, while affording maximum sealing action when it is needed.

  18. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ... What should first be done before considering a hair transplant? Before the procedure, an ASDS doctor will ...

  19. Oily hair

    MedlinePlus

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  20. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  1. 118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  2. Designing Shafts For Long Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart H.

    1988-01-01

    Improved method developed for choosing sizes of power-transmitting shafts for limited or unlimited service lives under variety of operating conditions. Stress versus fatigue life of proposed shaft design plotted, modified to account for expected operating conditions and used to calculate shaft diameter required for given fatigue life. If diameter of shaft represented by plot equals or exceeds required diameter, shaft considered adequate.

  3. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  4. Vertical shaft windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Grana, D.C.; Inge, S.V. Jr.

    1983-11-15

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted thereon. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  5. Circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal comprising two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band is disclosed. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  6. Circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal is described which comprises two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  7. Crank shaft support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Natkin, Robert J.; Oltmans, Bret; Allison, John E.; Heater, Thomas J.; Hines, Joy Adair; Tappen, Grant K.; Peiskammer, Dietmar

    2007-10-23

    A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

  8. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  9. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  10. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Hair restoration ... MR, Keene SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 157. Fisher J. Hair restoration. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. ...

  11. Hair Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  12. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  13. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  14. Targeted expression of GFP in the hair follicle using ex vivo viral transduction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lingna

    2008-01-01

    There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed [corrected]. PMID:19066571

  15. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  16. Targeted expression of GFP in the hair follicle using ex vivo viral transduction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lingna

    2008-03-17

    There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed [corrected].

  17. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  18. Fabricated torque shaft

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

  19. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation.

  20. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  1. Hair transplantation in mice: Challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Azar Z; Rufaut, Nicholas W; Morrison, Wayne A; Dilley, Rodney J; Knudsen, Russle; Jones, Leslie N; Sinclair, Rodney D

    2016-07-01

    Hair follicle cells contribute to wound healing, skin circulation, and skin diseases including skin cancer, and hair transplantation is a useful technique to study the participation of hair follicle cells in skin homeostasis and wound healing. Although hair follicle transplantation is a well-established human hair-restoration procedure, follicular transplantation techniques in animals have a number of shortcomings and have not been well described or optimized. To facilitate the study of follicular stem and progenitor cells and their interaction with surrounding skin, we have established a new murine transplantation model, similar to follicular unit transplantation in humans. Vibrissae from GFP transgenic mice were harvested, flip-side microdissected, and implanted individually into needle hole incisions in the back skin of immune-deficient nude mice. Grafts were evaluated histologically and the growth of transplanted vibrissae was observed. Transplanted follicles cycled spontaneously and newly formed hair shafts emerged from the skin after 2 weeks. Ninety percent of grafted vibrissae produced a hair shaft at 6 weeks. After pluck-induced follicle cycling, growth rates were equivalent to ungrafted vibrissae. Transplanted vibrissae with GFP-positive cells were easily identified in histological sections. We established a follicular vibrissa transplantation method that recapitulates human follicular unit transplantation. This method has several advantages over current protocols for animal hair transplantation. The method requires no suturing and minimizes the damage to donor follicles and recipient skin. Vibrissae are easier to microdissect and transplant than pelage follicles and, once transplanted, are readily distinguished from host pelage hair. This facilitates measurement of hair growth. Flip-side hair follicle microdissection precisely separates donor follicular tissue from interfollicular tissue and donor cells remain confined to hair follicles. This makes it

  2. A rare case of woolly hair with unusual associations.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Biju; Verma, Rajesh; Pragasam, Vijendran; Badad, Ambresh

    2013-07-01

    Woolly hair is a congenital abnormality of scalp hair manifesting as short, kinked hair, which may also involve the hair over the other parts of the body. Keratosis pilaris has been a well known association of woolly hair, and can also be a part of the Naxos or Carvajal syndromes. We herein present a case of woolly hair with associated keratosis pilaris, canaliform dystrophy of nails, increased interdental spaces and recurrent bullous impetigo. Although keratosis pilaris and teeth abnormalities have been reported as isolated associations with woolly hair, such a combination of findings as seen in our patient has not been reported before. PMID:23984241

  3. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome.

  4. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. PMID:22960356

  5. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    PubMed

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts. PMID:16197431

  6. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  7. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium.

  8. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  9. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... lupus. If you take certain medicines or have chemotherapy for cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. ...

  10. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common baldness" usually means male-pattern baldness, or permanent-pattern baldness. It is also called androgenetic alopecia. ... will grow back normally. However, scarring can cause permanent hair loss. Hot oil hair treatments or chemicals ...

  11. The hair eclipse phenomenon: sharpening the focus on the hair cycle chronobiology.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Petit, L; Loussouarn, G; Saint-Léger, D; Piérard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Chronobiology governing the hair cycle is a fascinating and complex process. Both the hair growth cycle and the hair shaft growth are coordinated and depend on the interplay of different biological signals and various exogenous stimuli. A latency period may occur between hair shedding (teloptosis, exogen phase) and the early emergence of the next anagen VI stage. This lag time referred to on the hair eclipse phenomenon likely depends on the influence of a series of distinct synchronizers, and does not represent per se a peculiar hair cycle phase. It is the result of some dysregulations of the hair cycling, involving early teloptosis, delayed anagen I initiation or stunted hair growth at any stage between the anagen I and anagen V phases. As such, the hair eclipse phenomenon may be an erratic process occurring in physiopathological conditions affecting hair follicles singly or in focal to generalized patterns. It may be more frequent when it follows synchronized teloptosis occurring in telogen effluvium (newborn alopecia, post-partum alopecia, seasonal alopecia and alopecia areata). It may also be prominent when microinflammation is abutted on the permanent portion of the hair follicle as in dandruff, seborrhoeic dermatitis, androgenic alopecia and photoageing baldness. Local synchronizers such as growth factors and other mediators may eventually be lacking or involved in the hair eclipse phenomenon. Their identification and characterization might drive new corrective or preventive applications. PMID:18494912

  12. In vivo alteration of the keratin 17 gene in hair follicles by oligonucleotide-directed gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Fan, W; Yoon, K

    2003-12-01

    Using intradermal injection of a chimeric RNA-DNA oligonucleotide (RDO) or a single-stranded oligonucleotide (ssODN) into murine skin, we attempted to make a dominant mutation (R94p) in the conserve alpha-helical domain of keratin 17 (K17), the same mutation found in pachyononychia congenichia type 2 (PC-2) patients with phenotypes ranging from twisted hair and multiple pilosebaceous cysts. Both K17A-RDO and -ssODN contained a single base mismatch (CGC to CCC) to alter the normal K17 sequence to cause an amino acid substitution (R94P). The complexes consisting of oligonucleotides and cationic liposomes were injected to C57B1/6 murine skin at 2 and 5 day after birth. Histological examination of skin biopsies at postnatal day 8 from several mice showed consistent twisted hair shafts or broken hair follicles at the sebaceous gland level and occasional rupture of the hair bulb or epidermal cyst-like changes. In the injected area, the number of full anagen hair follicles decrease by 50%. Injection of the control oligonucleotide, identical to K17A-RDO but containing no mismatch to the normal sequence, did not result in any detectable abnormality. The frequency of gene alteration was lower than 3%, according to the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the genomic DNA isolated by dissection of hair follicles from slides. Although intradermal injection of K17A-RDO or K17-ssODN caused a dominant mutation in K17 affecting hair growth and morphology, these phenotypic changes were transient either due to the compensation of K17 by other keratins or the replacement of the mutated cells by normal surrounding cells during hair growth.

  13. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... 70. PHYSICAL OR EMOTIONAL STRESS Physical or emotional stress may cause one-half to three-quarters of scalp hair ... for weeks to months after the episode of stress. Hair shedding ... long-term (chronic). Causes of this type of hair loss are: High ...

  14. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... someone's hair, the less melanin there is. A person with brown or black hair has much more melanin than someone with ... example, many blondes have light skin, whereas many people with darker skin have dark brown or black hair. And don't forget genes (genes are ...

  15. Gravity in a Mine Shaft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

  16. Polygonal shaft hole rotor

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, John H.; Rose, John Scott; Meystrik, Jeffrey J.; White, Kent Lee

    2001-01-23

    A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

  17. Shaft seal system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  18. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Al-Khair, Y M

    2000-09-01

    Hair transplantation is a technique in which hair follicles are harvested from the occipital area and re-transplanted in the frontal bald area. Hair transplantation is the most common cosmetic procedure in the United States nowadays despite the fact that it is expensive. Usually, patients need more than one session to receive a cosmetically acceptable result and patients need to be understanding and have realistic expectations. Although most of our patients are males, females represent about 10-15% of our new patients. This article reviews the basic principals of hair transplantation and describes new and improved techniques of hair transplantation. PMID:11376357

  19. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair. PMID:17033177

  20. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity.

  1. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  2. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  3. HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Benegas, Eduardo; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Santis Prada, Flavia de; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Marchitto, Gustavo Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Humeral shaft fractures (HSFs) represent 3% of the fractures of the locomotor apparatus, and the middle third of the shaft is the section most affected. In the majority of cases, it is treated using nonsurgical methods, but surgical indications in HSF cases are increasingly being adopted. The diversity of opinions makes it difficult to reach a consensus regarding the types of osteosynthesis, surgical technique and quantity and quality of synthesis materials that should be used. It would appear that specialists are far from reaching a consensus regarding the best method for surgical treatment of HSFs. We believe that less invasive methods, which favor relative stability, are the most appropriate methods, since the most feared complications are less frequent. PMID:27019833

  4. Limitations of human occipital scalp hair follicle organ culture for studying the effects of minoxidil as a hair growth enhancer.

    PubMed

    Magerl, Markus; Paus, Ralf; Farjo, Nilofer; Müller-Röver, Sven; Peters, Eva M J; Foitzik, Kerstin; Tobin, Desmond J

    2004-10-01

    Minoxidil induces new hair growth in approximately one-third of patients with androgenetic alopecia after 1 year of treatment. With several conflicting reports in the literature based on small-scale studies, the current study aimed to clarify whether organ culture of human scalp anagen VI hair follicles is a suitable in vitro test system for reproducing, and experimentally dissecting, the recognized in vivo hair-growth-promoting capacity of minoxidil. Hair shaft elongation was studied in terminal anagen VI hair follicles microdissected from the occipital scalp of 36 healthy adults. A total of 2300 hair follicles, approximately 65 per individual, were tested using modifications of a basic organ culture protocol. It is shown here that minoxidil does not significantly increase hair shaft elongation or the duration of anagen VI in ex vivo culture despite several enhancements on the conventional methodology. This disparity to what is seen clinically in minoxidil responders may be explained by the following: (i) use of occipital (rather than frontotemporal or vertex) hair follicles; (ii) use of, already maximally growing, anagen VI hair follicles; (iii) a predominance of hair follicles from minoxidil unresponsive-donors; (iv) use of minoxidil rather than its sulfate metabolite; and/or (v) use of a suboptimal minoxidil dosage. This disparity questions the usefulness of standard human hair follicle organ culture in minoxidil research. Unexpectedly, minoxidil even inhibited hair shaft elongation in the absence of insulin, which may indicate that the actual hair-growth-modulatory effects of minoxidil depend on the concomitant local presence/absence of other growth modulators.

  5. Characterization of human scalp hairs by optical low-coherence reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. J.; Milner, T. E.; Dhond, R. P.; Sorin, W. V.; Newton, S. A.; Nelson, J. S.

    1995-03-01

    Optical low-coherence reflectometry is used to investigate the internal structure and optical properties of human scalp hair. Regardless of hair color, the refractive index of the cortical region remains within the range of 1.56-1.59. The amplitude of the backscattered infrared light coupled into different-colored hair confirms the relative melanin content. Discontinuities in the refractive index permit identification of distinct structural layers within the hair shaft.

  6. Diffuse partial woolly hair in a patient with epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Gerkowicz, Agnieszka; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-04-01

    Diffuse partial woolly hair (DPWH) is an uncommon pilar dysplasia defined by the presence of two hair shaft populations with wooly hairs distributed diffusely among normal hairs throughout the scalp. So far the condition has been reported as an isolated disorder with familial occurrence. We report a case of DPWH in 35-year-old female patient with epidermolysis bullosa with mottled pigmentation. PMID:25191045

  7. Diffuse Partial Woolly Hair in a Patient with Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex with Mottled Pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Gerkowicz, Agnieszka; Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse partial woolly hair (DPWH) is an uncommon pilar dysplasia defined by the presence of two hair shaft populations with wooly hairs distributed diffusely among normal hairs throughout the scalp. So far the condition has been reported as an isolated disorder with familial occurrence. We report a case of DPWH in 35-year-old female patient with epidermolysis bullosa with mottled pigmentation. PMID:25191045

  8. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  9. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  10. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  11. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  12. Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part I. History and clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) is a common problem and is often a major source of distress for patients. The differential diagnosis of alopecia includes both scarring and nonscarring alopecias. In addition, many hair shaft disorders can produce hair shaft fragility, resulting in different patterns of alopecia. Therefore, an organized and systematic approach is needed to accurately address patients' complaints to achieve the correct diagnosis. Part 1 of this 2-part continuing medical education article on alopecia describes history taking and the clinical examination of different hair loss disorders. It also provides an algorithmic diagnostic approach based on the most recent knowledge about different types of alopecia. PMID:25128118

  13. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity. PMID:26454659

  14. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity.

  15. Gene and stem cell therapy of the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    The hair follicle is a highly complex appendage of the skin containing a multiplicity of cell types. The follicle undergoes constant cycling through the life of the organism including growth and resorption with growth dependent on specific stem cells. The targeting of the follicle by genes and stem cells to change its properties, in particular, the nature of the hair shaft is discussed. Hair follicle delivery systems are described such as liposomes and viral vectors for gene therapy. The nature of the hair follicle stem cells is discussed, in particular, its pluripotency.

  16. Effects of IGF-binding protein 5 in dysregulating the shape of human hair.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Hachiya, Akira; Pickens, William L; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Kitahara, Takashi; Visscher, Marty O; Kitzmiller, William J; Bello, Alexander; Takema, Yoshinori; Kobinger, Gary P

    2011-02-01

    The hair follicle has a unique dynamic property to cyclically regenerate throughout life. Despite significant progress in hair structure and hair shape determination using animal models, the mechanisms controlling the architecture and the shape of the human hair remain largely unexplored. In this study, comparison of the genetic expression of several human genes, especially those involved in growth, development, and differentiation, between Caucasian curly hair and naturally straight hair was performed. Thereafter, analyses using human recombinant and lentiviral vector technologies were conducted to further dissect and elucidate a molecular mechanism that regulates hair growth and development, particularly in controlling the shape of the hair shaft. Overexpression of IGF-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5) in the human hair xenografts obtained from straight- and curly-haired individuals was found to result in the decreased expression of several extracellular matrix proteins and disassembly of adhesional junctions, resulting in twisted hair shafts as well as an unusual deposition of hair cuticle that may be derived from the disturbance of normal proliferation and differentiation. This study provides evidence that IGFBP-5 has an effect on human hair shape, and that lentiviral transduction regimen can be used for functional analysis of genes involved in human hair morphogenesis.

  17. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  18. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  19. Use of body hair and beard hair in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sanusi

    2013-08-01

    For many hair restoration patients with limited scalp donor hair it is possible to use nonhead hair sources to increase the potential follicle supply. Follicular unit extraction provides the hair restoration surgeon with a useful surgical means for accessing this valuable source of donor reserve. Nonhead hair can also be used to restore eyebrows, eyelashes, and moustaches. This article focuses on the use of body hair and beard in hair restoration. Discussed are the indications and effective techniques for performing hair transplants using non head hair donor sources, along with the pitfalls and risks of this surgical modality.

  20. Chronological ageing of human hair keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, S; de Becker, E; Bernard, B A; Huart, M; Fiat, F; Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Leroy, F; Angevin, P; Kermoal, A M; Muller, S; Peron, M; Provot, G; Kravtchenko, S; Saint-Léger, D; Desbois, G; Gauchet, L; Nowbuth, K; Galliano, A; Kempf, J Y; Silberzan, I

    2010-12-01

    Examination of very long hair (length > 2.4 m) using a large range of evaluation methods including physical, chemical, biochemical and microscopic techniques has enabled to attain a detailed understanding of natural ageing of human hair keratin fibres. Scrutinizing hair that has undergone little or no oxidative aggression--because of the absence of action of chemical agents such as bleaching or dyeing--from the root to the tip shows the deterioration process, which gradually takes place from the outside to the inside of the hair shaft: first, a progressive abrasion of the cuticle, whilst the cortex structure remains unaltered, is evidenced along a length of roughly 1 m onwards together with constant shine, hydrophobicity and friction characteristics. Further along the fibre, a significant damage to cuticle scales occurs, which correlates well with ceramides and 18-Methyl Eicosanoic Acid (18-MEA) decline, and progressive decrease in keratin-associated protein content. Most physical descriptors of mechanical and optical properties decay significantly. This detailed description of natural ageing of human hair fibres by a fine analysis of hair components and physical parameters in relationship with cosmetic characteristics provides a time-dependent 'damage scale' of human hair, which may help in designing new targeted hair care formulations.

  1. A new cardiac manifestation associated with woolly hair: report of two cases of woolly hair, palmoplantar keratoderma, and mitral valve regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Soodabeh; Farajzadeh, Saeedeh

    2007-09-01

    Two siblings (a 24-year-old woman and a 14-year-old girl) with congenital woolly hair, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, and mitral valve regurgitation are described. An interesting additional feature in one of the patients (the 14-year-old girl) was posterior subcapsular cataract. The association of woolly hair and mitral valve regurgitation has not been reported previously. The occurrence of cataract in one of our patients is also a new ophthalmologic finding in this hair shaft anomaly.

  2. Splitting hairs.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Michael

    2005-11-01

    A dual-transgenic mouse with localized expression of two different fluorescent markers is the foundation for an inventive strategy for dissecting hair follicles and isolating their component cell populations.

  3. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... much heat on your hair (like using a hot iron or hot blow drying). Another type of ...

  4. Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2008-03-07

    Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

  5. Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

    1983-06-16

    The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

  6. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades.

  7. Protopanaxatirol type ginsenoside Re promotes cyclic growth of hair follicles via inhibiting transforming growth factor β signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Kyungsun; Kim, Sunchang; Choi, Chulhee

    2016-02-19

    Ginsenosides, the major bio-active ingredients included in Panax ginseng, have been known for the hair growth activity and used to treat patients who suffer from hair loss; however, the detailed mechanisms of this action are still largely unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for hair growth promoting effect of ginsenoside Re (GRe) in vitro and in vivo. Different doses of minoxidil and GRe were administered topically to the back regions of nude mice for up to 45 days, and hair shaft length and hair cycles were determined for hair promoting activities. Topical treatment of GRe significantly increased the hair shaft length and hair existent time, which was comparable to the action of minoxidil. We also demonstrated that GRe stimulated hair shaft elongation in the ex vivo cultures of vibrissa hair follicles isolated from C57BL/6 mouse. Systemic transcriptome analysis by next generation sequencing demonstrated that TGF-β-pathway related genes were selectively down-regulated by treatment of GRe in vivo, and the same treatment suppressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK in HeLa cells. The results clearly indicated that GRe is the effective constituent in the ginseng on hair promotion via selective inhibition of the hair growth phase transition related signaling pathways, TGF-β signaling cascades. PMID:26820528

  8. Topical liposome targeting of dyes, melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R M

    1998-01-01

    For therapeutic and cosmetic modification of hair, we have developed a hair-follicle-selective macromolecule and small molecule targeting system with topical application of phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes. Liposome-entrapped melanins, proteins, genes, and small-molecules have been selectively targeted to the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis, or bloodstream thereby demonstrating selective follicle delivery. Naked molecules are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease as well as for cosmesis has been demonstrated in 3-dimensional histoculture of hair-growing skin and mouse in vivo models. Topical liposome selective delivery to hair follicles has demonstrated the ability to color hair with melanin, the delivery of the active lac-Z gene to hair matrix cells and delivery of proteins as well. Liposome-targeting of molecules to hair follicles has also been achieved in human scalp in histoculture. Liposomes thus have high potential in selective hair follicle targeting of large and small molecules, including genes, opening the field of gene therapy and other molecular therapy of the hair process to restore hair growth, physiologically restore or alter hair pigment, and to prevent or accelerate hair loss.

  9. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, and into the hair follicle. An electric current travels down the wire and destroys the hair ... a period of time. Tweezer epilators also use electric current to remove hair. The tweezers grasp the hair ...

  10. Adenosine increases anagen hair growth and thick hairs in Japanese women with female pattern hair loss: a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oura, Hajimu; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Tajima, Masahiro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Nakaya, Yutaka; Arase, Seiji; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2008-12-01

    Adenosine upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-7 in cultured dermal papilla cells. It has been shown that, in Japanese men, adenosine improves androgenetic alopecia due to the thickening of thin hair due to hair follicle miniaturization. To investigate the efficacy and safety of adenosine treatment to improve hair loss in women, 30 Japanese women with female pattern hair loss were recruited for this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Volunteers used either 0.75% adenosine lotion or a placebo lotion topically twice daily for 12 months. Efficacy was evaluated by dermatologists and by investigators and in phototrichograms. As a result, adenosine was significantly superior to the placebo according to assessments by dermatologists and investigators and by self-assessments. Adenosine significantly increased the anagen hair growth rate and the thick hair rate. No side-effects were encountered during the trial. Adenosine improved hair loss in Japanese women by stimulating hair growth and by thickening hair shafts. Adenosine is useful for treating female pattern hair loss in women as well as androgenetic alopecia in men.

  11. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27026999

  12. Accumulation of cocaine in maternal and fetal hair; the dose response curve.

    PubMed

    Forman, R; Schneiderman, J; Klein, J; Graham, K; Greenwald, M; Koren, G

    1992-01-01

    Cocaine and its major metabolites are incorporated into hair during the growth of the shaft and stay there for the whole life of the hair. Cocaine crosses the placenta and its metabolites for example Benzoylecgonine (BZ), have been found in neonatal urine, meconium and hair. In order to utilize hair measurements of cocaine as a biological marker of systemic exposure, we conducted both animal and human investigations on the dose response characteristics of this phenomenon. Our data suggest that both maternal and fetal accumulation of cocaine and its metabolite follow a linear pattern within the clinically used doses. Similarly, a good correlation was observed in animals between maternal dose and fetal hair accumulation.

  13. The Dermal Papilla: An Instructive Niche for Epithelial Stem and Progenitor Cells in Development and Regeneration of the Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) of the hair follicle is both a chemical and physical niche for epithelial progenitor cells that regenerate the cycling portion of the hair follicle and generate the hair shaft. Here, we review experiments that revealed the importance of the DP in regulating the characteristics of the hair shaft and frequency of hair follicle regeneration. More recent work showed that the size of this niche is dynamic and actively regulated and reduction in DP cell number per follicle is sufficient to cause hair thinning and loss. The formation of the DP during follicle neogenesis provides a context to contemplate the mechanisms that maintain DP size and the potential to exploit these processes for hair preservation or restoration. PMID:24985131

  14. Time-course mass spectrometry imaging for depicting drug incorporation into hair.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Tooru; Shima, Noriaki; Sasaki, Keiko; Matsuta, Shuntaro; Takei, Shiori; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Sato, Takako; Suzuki, Koichi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the incorporation of drugs into hair, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging was performed on the longitudinal sections of single scalp hair shafts sampled from volunteers after a single oral administration of methoxyphenamine (MOP), a noncontrolled analogue of methamphetamine. Hair specimens were collected by plucking out with the roots intact, and these specimens were prepped by an optimized procedure based on freeze-sectioning to detect the drug inside the hair shaft and hair root. Time-course changes in the imaging results, with confirmatory quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for each 1-mm segment of single hair strands, revealed a substantial concentration of the drug first onto the hair bulbs after ingestion, while only a small portion appeared to be incorporated into the hair matrix, forming a 2-3 mm distinctive drug band with tailing. Comparable amount of the drug also appeared to be incorporated into the keratinized hair shaft in the upper dermis zone, forming another distinct drug band of about 2 mm, which both moved toward the distal side, following the strand's growth rate. These findings provide forensically crucial information: there are two major drug incorporation sites, at least for MOP, which cause overlap of the recordings and deteriorates its chronological resolution down to about 11 days or perhaps longer.

  15. The feasibility of targeted selective gene therapy of the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Hoffman, R M

    1995-07-01

    Loss of hair and hair colour is associated with ageing, and when it involves the scalp hair, it can be distressing to both sexes. Hair loss resulting from cancer chemotherapy is particularly distressing. However, safe, effective therapies directed to hair have only just started to be developed. The hair follicle is a complex skin appendage composed of epidermal and dermal tissue, with specialized keratinocytes, the hair matrix cells, forming the hair shaft. Specific therapy of the hair follicle depends on selective targeting of specific cells of the hair follicle. We have developed the histoculture of intact hair-growing skin on sponge-gel matrices. We have recently found in histocultured skin that liposomes can selectively target hair follicles to deliver both small and large molecules. That liposomes can target the hair follicle for delivery has been confirmed independently. Two decades ago we introduced the technique of entrapping DNA in liposomes for use in gene therapy. In this report we describe the selective targeting of the lacZ reporter gene to the hair follicles in mice after topical application of the gene entrapped in liposomes. These results demonstrate that highly selective, safe gene therapy for the hair process is feasible.

  16. Influence of bearing support structures on shaft vibration of large hydraulic pump/turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Pistner, C.A.; Greenplate, B.S.; Waddell, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Start-up transient loads from pump/turbine impellers can cause excessive vibration problems in the shaft system. If the radial guide bearing supports are structurally soft or loose, or if the bearings are worn, the resulting radial shaft movement causes abnormal wear. The wear normally occurs at the impeller sealing surfaces, main shaft seals, motor/generator components, piping, brackets, foundation connections, etc. This paper explores the critical factors causing shaft system vibration problems at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant, as well as the unique modifications which were implemented to strengthen and improve the units. The solution involved extensive three-dimensional finite element structural and thermal transient analyses of the original and re-designed turbine shoe bearing, bearing housings, and support structures. The conclusion compares the calculated and measured shaft system response to transient loads of the original and modified system.

  17. Role of Arachidonic Acid in Promoting Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Munkhbayar, Semchin; Jang, Sunhyae; Cho, A-Ri; Choi, Soon-Jin; Shin, Chang Yup; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA) is an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in all mammalian cell membranes, and involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell survival, angiogenesis, and mitogenesis. The dermal papilla, composed of specialized fibroblasts located in the bulb of the hair follicle, contributes to the control of hair growth and the hair cycle. Objective This study investigated the effect of AA on hair growth by using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods The effect of AA on human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) and hair shaft elongation was evaluated by MTT assay and hair follicle organ culture, respectively. The expression of various growth and survival factors in hDPCs were investigated by western blot or immunohistochemistry. The ability of AA to induce and prolong anagen phase in C57BL/6 mice was analyzed. Results AA was found to enhance the viability of hDPCs and promote the expression of several factors responsible for hair growth, including fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and FGF-10. Western blotting identified the role of AA in the phosphorylation of various transcription factors (ERK, CREB, and AKT) and increased expression of Bcl-2 in hDPCs. In addition, AA significantly promoted hair shaft elongation, with increased proliferation of matrix keratinocytes, during ex vivo hair follicle culture. It was also found to promote hair growth by induction and prolongation of anagen phase in telogen-stage C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion This study concludes that AA plays a role in promoting hair growth by increasing the expression of growth factors in hDPCs and enhancing follicle proliferation and survival. PMID:26848219

  18. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  19. Nudging hair shedding by antidandruff shampoos. A comparison of 1% ketoconazole, 1% piroctone olamine and 1% zinc pyrithione formulations.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Henry, F; Uhoda, I; Braham, C; Piérard, G E

    2002-10-01

    Hair shedding and hair thinning have been reported to be affected by dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The present study was conducted in 150 men presenting with telogen effluvium related to androgenic alopecia associated with dandruff. They were randomly allocated to three groups receiving each one of the three shampoos in the market containing either 1% ketoconazole (KTZ), 1% piroctone olamine (PTO) or 1% zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Shampoos had to be used 2-3 times a week for 6 months. Hair shedding during shampoo was evaluated semiquantitatively. Hair density on the vertex was evaluated on photographs using a Dermaphot. Trichograms were used for determining the anagen hair percentage and the mean proximal hair shaft diameter using computerized image analysis. The sebum excretion rate (SER, mug cm(-2) h(-1)) was also measured using a Sebumeter. The three treatments cleared pruritus and dandruff rapidly. At end point, hair density was unchanged, although hair shedding was decreased (KTZ: -17.3%, PTO: -16.5%, ZPT: -10.1%) and the anagen hair percentage was increased (KTZ: 4.9%, PTO: 7.9%, ZPT: 6.8%). The effect on the mean hair shaft diameter was contrasted between the three groups of volunteers (KTZ: 5.4%, PTO: 7.7%, ZPT: -2.2%). In conclusion, telogen effluvium was controlled by KTZ, PTO and ZPT shampoos at 1% concentration. In addition, KTZ and PTO increased the mean hair shaft thickness while discretely decreasing the sebum output at the skin surface.

  20. Nudging hair shedding by antidandruff shampoos. A comparison of 1% ketoconazole, 1% piroctone olamine and 1% zinc pyrithione formulations.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Henry, F; Uhoda, I; Braham, C; Piérard, G E

    2002-10-01

    Hair shedding and hair thinning have been reported to be affected by dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The present study was conducted in 150 men presenting with telogen effluvium related to androgenic alopecia associated with dandruff. They were randomly allocated to three groups receiving each one of the three shampoos in the market containing either 1% ketoconazole (KTZ), 1% piroctone olamine (PTO) or 1% zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Shampoos had to be used 2-3 times a week for 6 months. Hair shedding during shampoo was evaluated semiquantitatively. Hair density on the vertex was evaluated on photographs using a Dermaphot. Trichograms were used for determining the anagen hair percentage and the mean proximal hair shaft diameter using computerized image analysis. The sebum excretion rate (SER, mug cm(-2) h(-1)) was also measured using a Sebumeter. The three treatments cleared pruritus and dandruff rapidly. At end point, hair density was unchanged, although hair shedding was decreased (KTZ: -17.3%, PTO: -16.5%, ZPT: -10.1%) and the anagen hair percentage was increased (KTZ: 4.9%, PTO: 7.9%, ZPT: 6.8%). The effect on the mean hair shaft diameter was contrasted between the three groups of volunteers (KTZ: 5.4%, PTO: 7.7%, ZPT: -2.2%). In conclusion, telogen effluvium was controlled by KTZ, PTO and ZPT shampoos at 1% concentration. In addition, KTZ and PTO increased the mean hair shaft thickness while discretely decreasing the sebum output at the skin surface. PMID:18498517

  1. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... psychosocial impact of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively ... 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  2. 7-Phloroeckol promotes hair growth on human follicles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bak, Soon-Sun; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    7-Phloroeckol, phloroglucinol derivative isolated from marine brown algae, has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory responses and MMP inhibitory activities. In this study, we evaluated the hair growth-promoting effects of 7-phloroeckol in human hair follicles. To investigate cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells in the presence or absence of 7-phloroeckol treatment, MTT assay was employed. Moreover, gene expression and protein concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 7-Phloroeckol induced an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells. In addition, hair shaft growth was measured using the hair-follicle organ culture system. 7-Phloroeckol resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles. 7-Phloroeckol induced an IGF-1 mRNA expression and protein concentration in DPCs and conditioned media, respectively. These results suggest that 7-phloroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells.

  3. A preliminary study of the effect of 11a-hydroxyprogesterone on the hair growth in men suffering from androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    van der Willigen, A H; Peereboom-Wynia, J D; van Joost, T; Stolz, E

    1987-01-01

    Ten male patients suffering from androgenetic alopecia were treated during one year with a lotion containing 1% 11a-hydroxyprogesterone. Eight untreated patients served as control group. The parameters used were hair root status, hair shaft diameter of anagen hair roots and number of hairs with a diameter less than 40 micron. After therapy the cranial region showed an increase in the number and mean hair shaft diameter of anagen hair roots and in the number of hair roots with a diameter less than 40 micron. The number of hair roots in catagen/telogen decreased, the number of dysplastic/dystrophic hair roots remained unchanged. After therapy the cranial region in the controls showed a decrease in number and mean hair shaft diameter of anagen roots, and in the number of dysplastic/dystrophic hair roots. There was an increase in number of hair roots in catagen/telogen and of hair roots with a diameter less than 40 micron. The results warrant the conclusion that the above mentioned therapy would seem to be effective in men suffering from androgenetic alopecia.

  4. [Technologies for hair reconstruction and their applicability for pharmaceutical research].

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Hair follicles are the organs that produce hair shafts. They periodically regenerate throughout the life of the organisms, which is called the hair cycle. To develop new drugs to treat hair disorders and diseases, reproducible and high throughput assays or screening methods have been required to estimate the efficacy of various factors on hair follicle function. Although organ culture of hair follicles is one of the useful ways to carry out such research, it is not suitable for manipulating the genes or cells present in hair follicles. Patch assay is a method used to reconstruct hair follicles from enzymatically dissociated skin cells and has many advantages compared to the conventional Chamber method. Using the Patch method, transferring genes into follicular cells becomes easier than ever before. Chimeric follicles could be produced with dissociated cells by modifying the combination of cells or by simply merging cells of different origins. These applications certainly help the progress of hair research. However, we recently found that some functions of dermal papillae and follicular epithelia change during the growing phase (anagen) of the hair cycle. Dermal papillae produce different factors in early anagen and mid anagen. The signals from dermal papillae in early anagen could produce hair bulbs with clonogenic epithelial precursors but not with dormant epithelial precursors. On the other hand, the signals from dermal papillae in mid anagen strongly promote hair formation with dormant epithelial precursors. Therefore, more attention should be given to the hair cycle stages when using organ culture of hair follicles and conducting reconstruction experiments with follicularly derived cells.

  5. Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract induces hair growth by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of hair matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Li, Jingjie; Gu, Lijuan; Begum, Shahnaz; Wang, Yunbo; Sun, Baishen; Lee, Mira; Sung, Changkeun

    2014-07-01

    Chrysanthemum zawadskii has been proven to possess hair growth activity and has been used as treatment for hair loss. The aim of this study was to provide a novel explanation of the mechanism by which Chrysanthemum zawadskii extracts (CZe) promote hair growth and to characterize the affected hair follicle (HF) regions and the progression of growth. The n-butanol and water fractions of CZe were used for hair growth induction by topical application to the backs of C57BL/6 mice for up to 30 days. To investigate cell development during HF morphogenesis, bromodeoxyuridine-labeled skin sections were detected using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the water fraction of CZe promoted hair shaft production and induced premature entry of telogen HFs into the anagen. Subsequently, immunohistochemical studies indicated that the water fraction of CZe stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of pluripotent epidermal matrix cells in the matrix region and epithelial stem cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. Additionally, flavonoids were identified as effective constituents. Therefore, the findings of this study suggested that the water fraction of CZe may be developed as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of hair loss. PMID:24807783

  6. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  7. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient.

  8. Yellow hair following sequential application of bacitracin zinc and selenium sulfide: Report of acquired xanthotrichosis and review of yellow hair discoloration.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Christopher S; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAcquired yellow hair (xanthotrichosis) can result from the deposition of pigmented compounds on the hair shaft or from chemical modification of hair pigment and protein molecules.PurposeA white-haired 77-year-old woman who developed xanthotrichosis of her scalp hair following the sequential application of bacitracin zinc ointment and selenium sulfide 2.5% lotion is described and the causes of yellow hair discoloration are reviewed.Materials and methodsThe clinical features of a woman with acquired yellow hair discoloration are presented. Using PubMed and Google Scholar, the following terms were searched and relevant citations were assessed: bacitracin zinc, hair discoloration, selenium sulfide, xanthotrichosis, and yellow hair.ResultsYellow hair was observed on the scalp in areas treated with the following regimen: prior to bedtime, several areas of the scalp were treated with a single application of bacitracin zinc ointment. The next morning, selenium sulfide 2.5% lotion was applied and then rinsed from the scalp during showering. Yellow hair discoloration was apparent in co-treated areas immediately following rinsing; the discoloration gradually faded over 2-5 days with regular shampooing.ConclusionsAcquired yellow hair shaft discoloration has been reported secondary to multiple etiologies, including environmental and occupational exposures, iatrogenic causes (including topical and systemic drugs) and protein-calorie malnutrition. To this list, we add yellow discoloration of white scalp hair due to application of selenium sulfide following topical use of bacitracin zinc in the affected areas as an unexpected adverse effect that may occur in individuals with white hair.

  9. Yellow hair following sequential application of bacitracin zinc and selenium sulfide: Report of acquired xanthotrichosis and review of yellow hair discoloration.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Christopher S; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAcquired yellow hair (xanthotrichosis) can result from the deposition of pigmented compounds on the hair shaft or from chemical modification of hair pigment and protein molecules.PurposeA white-haired 77-year-old woman who developed xanthotrichosis of her scalp hair following the sequential application of bacitracin zinc ointment and selenium sulfide 2.5% lotion is described and the causes of yellow hair discoloration are reviewed.Materials and methodsThe clinical features of a woman with acquired yellow hair discoloration are presented. Using PubMed and Google Scholar, the following terms were searched and relevant citations were assessed: bacitracin zinc, hair discoloration, selenium sulfide, xanthotrichosis, and yellow hair.ResultsYellow hair was observed on the scalp in areas treated with the following regimen: prior to bedtime, several areas of the scalp were treated with a single application of bacitracin zinc ointment. The next morning, selenium sulfide 2.5% lotion was applied and then rinsed from the scalp during showering. Yellow hair discoloration was apparent in co-treated areas immediately following rinsing; the discoloration gradually faded over 2-5 days with regular shampooing.ConclusionsAcquired yellow hair shaft discoloration has been reported secondary to multiple etiologies, including environmental and occupational exposures, iatrogenic causes (including topical and systemic drugs) and protein-calorie malnutrition. To this list, we add yellow discoloration of white scalp hair due to application of selenium sulfide following topical use of bacitracin zinc in the affected areas as an unexpected adverse effect that may occur in individuals with white hair. PMID:27617598

  10. Axle Shaft Optical Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Fritz; Geise, Philip; George, Eugene; Singh, Tom

    1980-11-01

    An electro-optical instrument to gauge automotive rear axle shafts is described. A high contrast image of the axle lug flange is projected via a high quality photographic lens on two self-scanning linear photodiode arrays. In one three-second rotation, a dedicated digital processor measures bolt circle location, hole diameter and separation. The unit automatically: compares each measurement with preset tolerances, computes the average bolt circle diameter, computes the bolt circle runout, makes a pass/fail decision, provides a digital readout, marks the axle shaft with colored ink and provides the operator a pass/fail light.

  11. Neural Stem Cells Restore Hair Growth Through Activation of the Hair Follicle Niche.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Insik; Choi, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hang-Soo; Jeong, Hyesun; Kim, Jeong-Ok; Seol, Ki-Cheon; Kwon, Han-Jin; Park, In-Hyun; Hong, Sunghoi

    2016-01-01

    Several types of hair loss result from the inability of hair follicles to initiate the anagen phase of the hair regeneration cycle. Modulating signaling pathways in the hair follicle niche can stimulate entry into the anagen phase. Despite much effort, stem cell-based or pharmacological therapies to activate the hair follicle niche have not been successful. Here, we set out to test the effect of neural stem cell (NSC) extract on the hair follicle niche for hair regrowth. NSC extracts were applied to the immortalized cell lines HaCaT keratinocytes and dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and the shaven dorsal skin of mice. Treatment with NSC extract dramatically improved the growth of HaCaT keratinocytes and DPCs. In addition, NSC extract enhanced the hair growth of the shaven dorsal skin of mice. In order to determine the molecular signaling pathways regulated by NSCs, we evaluated the expression levels of multiple growth and signaling factors, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members. We found that treatment with an NSC extract enhanced hair growth by activating hair follicle niches via coregulation of TGF-β and BMP signaling pathways in the telogen phase. We also observed activation and differentiation of intrafollicular hair follicle stem cells, matrix cells, and extrafollicular DPCs in vivo and in vitro. We tested whether activation of growth factor pathways is a major effect of NSC treatment on hair growth by applying the growth factors to mouse skin. Combined growth factors, including TGF-β, significantly increased the hair shaft length and growth rate. DNA damage and cell death were not observed in skin cells of mice treated with the NSC extract for a prolonged period. Overall, our data demonstrate that NSC extract provides an effective approach for promoting

  12. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Proteins of normal hair and of cystine-deficient hair from mentally retarded siblings.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, R J; Stonier, P D

    1971-05-01

    1. S-Carboxymethylkerateines extracted from normal hair can be fractionated into high-sulphur and low-sulphur proteins similar to those obtained from sheep's wool. Normal human hair gives a major high-sulphur protein of higher molecular weight and S-carboxymethylcysteine content than any isolated from normal sheep's wool. 2. The proteins from cystine-deficient hair can also be divided into high-sulphur and low-sulphur proteins. There is a lower proportion of high-sulphur protein in cystine-deficient hair than in normal hair. 3. The high-sulphur proteins from cystine-deficient hair have an abnormal amino acid composition and in particular are lower in S-carboxymethylcysteine content than the corresponding proteins from normal hair. New components are present and the content of very high-sulphur proteins of high molecular weight is much decreased. The low-sulphur proteins of cystine-deficient hair are probably also deficient in S-carboxymethylcysteine. 4. The proteins of cystine-deficient hair probably resemble those in the normal hair root, except that disulphide-bridge formation has occurred.

  14. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002702.htm Hair bleach poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows hair bleach or ...

  15. Observations on fur development in echidna (Monotremata, Mammalia) indicate that spines precede hairs in ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Rogers, George

    2015-04-01

    In the primitive mammal echidna, the initial 2-3 generations of skin appendages produced from birth forms spines and only later true hairs appear. Microscopy on preserved museum specimens reveals that the morphogenesis of spines and hairs is similar but that a larger dermal papilla is formed in spines. The growing shaft comprises a medulla surrounded by a cortex and by an external cuticle. A thick inner root sheath made of cornified cells surrounds the growing shaft inside the spine canal that eventually exits with a pointed tip. Hairs develop later with the same modality of spines but have a smaller papilla and give rise to a fur coat among spines. Therefore the integument of developing echidnas initially produces spines from large dermal papillae but the reduction in size of the papillae later determines the formation of hairs. Although the morphogenesis of spines and hairs can represent a case of specialization in this species, the primitive mammalian characteristics of echidnas has also inspired new speculations on the evolution of the mammalian hair from mammalian-like reptiles with a spiny coat. The resemblance in the morphogenesis between spines and hairs has suggested some hypothesis on hair evolution, in particular that hairs might be derived from the reduction of protective large spines present in ancient mammalian-like reptiles possibly derived from the reduction of pre-existing pointed scales. The hypothesis suggests that spines became reduced and internalized in the skin forming hairs.

  16. Observations on fur development in echidna (Monotremata, Mammalia) indicate that spines precede hairs in ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Rogers, George

    2015-04-01

    In the primitive mammal echidna, the initial 2-3 generations of skin appendages produced from birth forms spines and only later true hairs appear. Microscopy on preserved museum specimens reveals that the morphogenesis of spines and hairs is similar but that a larger dermal papilla is formed in spines. The growing shaft comprises a medulla surrounded by a cortex and by an external cuticle. A thick inner root sheath made of cornified cells surrounds the growing shaft inside the spine canal that eventually exits with a pointed tip. Hairs develop later with the same modality of spines but have a smaller papilla and give rise to a fur coat among spines. Therefore the integument of developing echidnas initially produces spines from large dermal papillae but the reduction in size of the papillae later determines the formation of hairs. Although the morphogenesis of spines and hairs can represent a case of specialization in this species, the primitive mammalian characteristics of echidnas has also inspired new speculations on the evolution of the mammalian hair from mammalian-like reptiles with a spiny coat. The resemblance in the morphogenesis between spines and hairs has suggested some hypothesis on hair evolution, in particular that hairs might be derived from the reduction of protective large spines present in ancient mammalian-like reptiles possibly derived from the reduction of pre-existing pointed scales. The hypothesis suggests that spines became reduced and internalized in the skin forming hairs. PMID:25367156

  17. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-09-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts.

  18. Repairing A Shaft Prone To Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A.; Larsen, David V.; Bates, Garold A.

    1991-01-01

    Shaft of hydraulic motor now outlives its bearings. Procedure for repairing John Deere Series 50 (or equivalent) hydraulic motor solves problem posed by common type of fatigue failure of shaft. Includes forming internally threaded hole in end of shaft, inserting double-threaded end stud, and adding washers and collars.

  19. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  20. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  1. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  2. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  3. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  4. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  5. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  6. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  7. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  9. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  10. The additive effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyeon Gyeong; Chang, In-Young; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Seung Ho; Kwon, Oh Sang; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, Kyu Han

    2007-01-01

    Minoxidil enhances hair growth by prolonging the anagen phase and induces new hair growth in androgenetic alopecia (AGA), whereas retinol significantly improves scalp skin condition and promotes hair growth. We investigated the combined effects of minoxidil and retinol on human hair growth in vitro and on cultured human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The combination of minoxidil and retinol additively promoted hair growth in hair follicle organ cultures. In addition, minoxidil plus retinol more effectively elevated phosphorylated Erk, phosphorylated Akt levels, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio than minoxidil alone in DPCs and HaCaT. We found that the significant hair shaft elongation demonstrated after minoxidil plus retinol treatment would depend on the dual kinetics associated with the activations of Erk- and Akt-dependent pathways and the prevention of apoptosis by increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. PMID:17202653

  11. Successful direct amplification of nuclear markers from single dog hairs using DogFiler multiplex.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Renée; Taylor, Duncan; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    We report on successful amplification of canine STR DNA profiles from single dog hairs. Dog hairs are commonly found on clothing or items of interest in forensic casework and may be crucial associative evidence if linked to an individual dog. We used direct amplification from these hairs to increase the DNA yield of the sample, as well as greatly reducing analysis time. Hairs from different somatic regions were used from several different dog breeds to amplify a selection of eight loci from the validated DogFiler multiplex. Naturally shed canine hairs were processed, with a mix of coarse topcoat (guard) hairs and thinner soft undercoat hairs. Multiple sections of single hairs were amplified in 5 mm segments to determine the viability of DNA recovery from the shaft of the hair. Single guard hairs were cut into 5 mm sections and added directly into a PCR tube. Undercoat hairs, which are very fine, were amplified together in a single tube (approximately ten small hairs). Coarse hairs were found to be the most successful in producing full DNA profiles at all eight loci, matching the corresponding reference profile for that dog.

  12. Case study: ancient sloth DNA recovered from hairs preserved in paleofeces.

    PubMed

    Clack, Andrew A; Macphee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2012-01-01

    Ancient hair, which has proved to be an excellent source of well-preserved ancient DNA, is often preserved in paleofeces. Here, we separate and wash hair shafts preserved in a paleofecal specimen believed to be from a Darwin's ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. After extracting DNA from the recovered and cleaned hair using a protocol optimized for DNA extraction from keratinous substrates, we amplify 12S and 16S rDNA sequences from the DNA extract. As expected, the recovered sequences most closely match previously published sequences of M. darwinii. Our results demonstrate that hair preserved in paleofeces, even from temperate cave environments, is an effective source of ancient DNA.

  13. Case study: ancient sloth DNA recovered from hairs preserved in paleofeces.

    PubMed

    Clack, Andrew A; Macphee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2012-01-01

    Ancient hair, which has proved to be an excellent source of well-preserved ancient DNA, is often preserved in paleofeces. Here, we separate and wash hair shafts preserved in a paleofecal specimen believed to be from a Darwin's ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. After extracting DNA from the recovered and cleaned hair using a protocol optimized for DNA extraction from keratinous substrates, we amplify 12S and 16S rDNA sequences from the DNA extract. As expected, the recovered sequences most closely match previously published sequences of M. darwinii. Our results demonstrate that hair preserved in paleofeces, even from temperate cave environments, is an effective source of ancient DNA. PMID:22237521

  14. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed. PMID:26274963

  15. MALDI-TOF and MALDI-FTICR imaging mass spectrometry of methamphetamine incorporated into hair.

    PubMed

    Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Kamata, Tooru; Zaitsu, Kei; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Takubo, Takayuki; Suzuki, Koichi

    2011-04-01

    A new approach is described for imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of methamphetamine (MA) incorporated into human hair using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF) and MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR). A longitudinal section of a lengthwise manually-cut single human hair shaft from a chronic MA user was directly analyzed by MALDI-TOF-IMS after deposited with α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix. A barcode-like image, which was most probably generated with repeated intakes of MA, was for the first time obtained by monitoring MA-specific product ion in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Laser beam scan lengthwise-cut hair shafts gave only poor mass spectra of MA, probably due to the loss of MA and/or the thermal denaturation of hair. The identity of MA detected in hair was further confirmed by MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry. A combination with ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry by FTICR provided indisputable identification of MA. The MALDI-FTICR-IMS of another hair shaft from the same MA user also provided a barcode-like image by monitoring the protonated molecule of MA with ultra-high resolution. The two barcode-like images exhibited a close resemblance. Thus, MALDI-IMS can offer a new perspective: 'imaging hair analyses for drugs'.

  16. Hermetic seal for a shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An hermetic seal for a linear rod having a portion thereof projected axially through a port defined in a wall for a pressure chamber and supported thereby for omni-directional motion is described. The seal is characterized by a resilient, impervious, cylindrical body having a first section concentrically related to the shaft and integrally affixed thereto comprising a linear ordered array of annular flutes. A second section integrally is affixed to the wall of the chamber and concentrically related to the port comprising a second linear ordered array of annular flutes. A third section is interposed between the first and second sections and integrally affixed in coaxial alignment therewith comprising an annular ordered array of linear flutes concentrically related to the shaft, whereby axial, angular, and pivotal motion of the rod is accommodated.

  17. New topical antiandrogenic formulations can stimulate hair growth in human bald scalp grafted onto mice.

    PubMed

    Sintov, A; Serafimovich, S; Gilhar, A

    2000-01-20

    The purpose of this study was to test the ability of topical formulations of finasteride and flutamide to re-enlarge hair follicles in male-pattern baldness. This was evaluated by an experimental model of human scalp skin graft transplanted onto SCID mice. A comparison was made between formulations containing finasteride and flutamide, and a vehicle formulation in terms of the mean hairs per graft, length, diameter of the shafts, and structures of the growth stages of the hair. Flutamide and finasteride had a significantly higher effect (P<0.05) than the placebo in all the tested parameters, but flutamide demonstrated more hair per graft and longer hair shafts than finasteride (P<0.05). The number of hairs per graft for flutamide and finasteride groups were 1.22+/-0. 47 and 0.88+/-0.95 hairs/0.5 mm2 graft, respectively, versus 0. 35+/-0.6 hairs/graft for vehicle-treated graft. Similarly, hair lengths for flutamide and finasteride were 5.82+/-0.50 and 4.50+/-0. 32 mm, respectively, versus 2.83+/-0.18 mm for the vehicle-treated grafts. An in vitro diffusion study of flutamide gel using hairless mouse skin demonstrated the beneficial effect of the vehicle composition in comparison with a hydroalcoholic solution or a gel containing no penetration enhancer. It is therefore suggested that this topical composition containing flutamide or finasteride may effectively result in regression of male-pattern baldness.

  18. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  19. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  20. The Very Large G-Protein-Coupled Receptor VLGR1: A Component of the Ankle Link Complex Required for the Normal Development of Auditory Hair Bundles

    PubMed Central

    McGee, JoAnn; Goodyear, Richard J.; McMillan, D. Randy; Stauffer, Eric A.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Locke, Kirsten G.; Birch, David G.; Legan, P. Kevin; White, Perrin C.; Walsh, Edward J.; Richardson, Guy P.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory hair bundles in the inner ear are composed of stereocilia that can be interconnected by a variety of different link types, including tip links, horizontal top connectors, shaft connectors, and ankle links. The ankle link antigen is an epitope specifically associated with ankle links and the calycal processes of photoreceptors in chicks. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were used to identify this antigen as the avian ortholog of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, the product of the Usher syndrome USH2C (Mass1) locus. Like ankle links, Vlgr1 is expressed transiently around the base of developing hair bundles in mice. Ankle links fail to form in the cochleae of mice carrying a targeted mutation in Vlgr1 (Vlgr1/del7TM), and the bundles become disorganized just after birth. FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammonium)propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] dye loading and whole-cell recordings indicate mechanotransduction is impaired in cochlear, but not vestibular, hair cells of early postnatal Vlgr1/del7TM mutant mice. Auditory brainstem recordings and distortion product measurements indicate that these mice are severely deaf by the third week of life. Hair cells from the basal half of the cochlea are lost in 2-month-old Vlgr1/del7TM mice, and retinal function is mildly abnormal in aged mutants. Our results indicate that Vlgr1 is required for formation of the ankle link complex and the normal development of cochlear hair bundles. PMID:16775142

  1. On the distribution of uranium in hair: Non-destructive analysis using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelsson, A.; Eriksson, M.; Pettersson, H. B. L.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the distribution of uranium in single human hair shafts has been evaluated using two synchrotron radiation (SR) based micro X-ray fluorescence techniques; SR μ-XRF and confocal SR μ-XRF. The hair shafts originated from persons that have been exposed to elevated uranium concentrations. Two different groups have been studied, i) workers at a nuclear fuel fabrication factory, exposed mainly by inhalation and ii) owners of drilled bedrock wells exposed by ingestion of water. The measurements were carried out on the FLUO beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility ANKA, Karlsruhe. The experiment was optimized to detect U with a beam size of 6.8 μm × 3 μm beam focus allowing detection down to ppb levels of U in 10 s (SR μ-XRF setup) and 70 s (SR confocal μ-XRF setup) measurements. It was found that the uranium was present in a 10-15 μm peripheral layer of the hair shafts for both groups studied. Furthermore, potential external hair contamination was studied by scanning of unwashed hair shafts from the workers. Sites of very high uranium signal were identified as particles containing uranium. Such particles, were also seen in complementary analyses using variable pressure electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (ESEM-EDX). However, the particles were not visible in washed hair shafts. These findings can further increase the understanding of uranium excretion in hair and its potential use as a biomonitor.

  2. [Hair and their environment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia. PMID:26011990

  3. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  4. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  5. Dermal papilla cell number specifies hair size, shape and cycling and its reduction causes follicular decline

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Woo; Wu, Eleanor; Morgan, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the hair shaft is derived from the progeny of keratinocyte stem cells in the follicular epithelium, the growth and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes is guided by a specialized mesenchymal population, the dermal papilla (DP), that is embedded in the hair bulb. Here we show that the number of DP cells in the follicle correlates with the size and shape of the hair produced in the mouse pelage. The same stem cell pool gives rise to hairs of different sizes or types in successive hair cycles, and this shift is accompanied by a corresponding change in DP cell number. Using a mouse model that allows selective ablation of DP cells in vivo, we show that DP cell number dictates the size and shape of the hair. Furthermore, we confirm the hypothesis that the DP plays a crucial role in activating stem cells to initiate the formation of a new hair shaft. When DP cell number falls below a critical threshold, hair follicles with a normal keratinocyte compartment fail to generate new hairs. However, neighbouring follicles with a few more DP cells can re-enter the growth phase, and those that do exploit an intrinsic mechanism to restore both DP cell number and normal hair growth. These results demonstrate that the mesenchymal niche directs stem and progenitor cell behaviour to initiate regeneration and specify hair morphology. Degeneration of the DP population in mice leads to the types of hair thinning and loss observed during human aging, and the results reported here suggest novel approaches to reversing hair loss. PMID:23487317

  6. The cross-sectional size and shape of human terminal scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, P E; Thompson, J R

    1997-02-01

    Change in size of the hair shaft with distance form the scalp has been investigated, using a rotatory profile method of diameter measurement, in terminal human scalp hair of long-haired young Caucasian women. As the whole length of hairs having completed anagen are rarely found intact, two types of hair were investigated: those including segments produced at the onset of anagen ('anagen hairs'), and those including segments produced at the end of anagen ('telogen hairs'). In addition, a method of determining the cause of any size variation has been described and employed. Changes were found in the major axis of the hair cross-section, cross-sectional area and ellipticity with distance from the scalp, while the minor cross-sectional axis remained constant. It was established that these changes were the result of intrafollicular rather than extrafollicular mechanisms. Finally, a composite picture of the cross-sectional size and shape of the 'average' whole anagen hair of the study has been constructed. From the distal tip towards the scalp for approximately 6-8 cm, there was an abrupt increase in size, representing a starting-up phase of early anagen. Following this, the hair was at its greatest cross-sectional size and ellipticity which then progressively decreased through anagen (20% decrease for cross-sectional area and 13% for ellipticity). In contrast, the minor axis of the hair cross-section, remained constant throughout anagen. The hair was not therefore a uniformly sized cylinder. It was approximately spear-shaped, being broadened out in one plane distally where it was more elliptical. Subsequently as anagen progressed the hair shaft became smaller and more circular.

  7. Dermal papilla cell number specifies hair size, shape and cycling and its reduction causes follicular decline.

    PubMed

    Chi, Woo; Wu, Eleanor; Morgan, Bruce A

    2013-04-01

    Although the hair shaft is derived from the progeny of keratinocyte stem cells in the follicular epithelium, the growth and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes is guided by a specialized mesenchymal population, the dermal papilla (DP), that is embedded in the hair bulb. Here we show that the number of DP cells in the follicle correlates with the size and shape of the hair produced in the mouse pelage. The same stem cell pool gives rise to hairs of different sizes or types in successive hair cycles, and this shift is accompanied by a corresponding change in DP cell number. Using a mouse model that allows selective ablation of DP cells in vivo, we show that DP cell number dictates the size and shape of the hair. Furthermore, we confirm the hypothesis that the DP plays a crucial role in activating stem cells to initiate the formation of a new hair shaft. When DP cell number falls below a critical threshold, hair follicles with a normal keratinocyte compartment fail to generate new hairs. However, neighbouring follicles with a few more DP cells can re-enter the growth phase, and those that do exploit an intrinsic mechanism to restore both DP cell number and normal hair growth. These results demonstrate that the mesenchymal niche directs stem and progenitor cell behaviour to initiate regeneration and specify hair morphology. Degeneration of the DP population in mice leads to the types of hair thinning and loss observed during human aging, and the results reported here suggest novel approaches to reversing hair loss.

  8. Pathobiology of chemotherapy-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    Paus, Ralf; Haslam, Iain S; Sharov, Andrey A; Botchkarev, Vladimir A

    2013-02-01

    Hair loss can be a psychologically devastating adverse effect of chemotherapy, but satisfactory management strategies for chemotherapy-induced alopecia remain elusive. In this Review we focus on the complex pathobiology of this side-effect. We discuss the clinical features and current management approaches, then draw upon evidence from mouse models and human hair-follicle organ-culture studies to explore the main pathobiology principles and explain why chemotherapy-induced alopecia is so challenging to manage. P53-dependent apoptosis of hair-matrix keratinocytes and chemotherapy-induced hair-cycle abnormalities, driven by the dystrophic anagen or dystrophic catagen pathway, play important parts in the degree of hair-follicle damage, alopecia phenotype, and hair-regrowth pattern. Additionally, the degree of hair-follicle stem-cell damage determines whether chemotherapy-induced alopecia is reversible. We highlight the need for carefully designed preclinical research models to generate novel, clinically relevant pointers to how this condition may be overcome.

  9. Tufted hair folliculitis after scalp injury.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J C; Correia, T M; Azevedo, F; Mesquita-Guimarães, J

    2001-03-01

    We describe the case of a 38-year-old epileptic man with tufted hair folliculitis. The condition started 5 years ago after a scalp laceration that had been sustained 3 months earlier during an epileptic crisis. There then appeared a circumscribed inflammatory bulging lesion (with exudation and crusts) that evolved to scarring alopecia with tufts of 20 to 30 apparently normal hair shafts. Results of bacteriologic examination of pus extruding from the dilated follicular ostia revealed Staphylococcus aureus. The cutaneous pathologic examination showed polymorphous inflammatory exudate in the upper and mid dermis, which was mostly perifollicular, and the presence of normal and independent follicles in the deep dermis, which, while ascending, converged to a common dilated follicular channel. The patient was treated successively with oral flucloxacillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and with topical application of erythromycin, clindamycin, povidone iodine, and ketoconazole. Transient improvement was followed by recurrence and enlargement of the affected area.

  10. Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part II. Trichoscopic and laboratory evaluations.

    PubMed

    Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    The use of trichoscopy for evaluating a number of hair and scalp disorders is gaining popularity. It is a simple and noninvasive in vivo tool for visualizing hair shafts and the scalp. Recently, alopecias have been classified according to their trichoscopic findings. The second part of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews recent advances in this field and describes a systematic approach for using the differential diagnostic findings of trichoscopy in alopecia. PMID:25128119

  11. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania.

  12. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  13. Clinical outcome of smoking-cessation trial of nicotine chewing gum evaluated by analysis of nicotine in hair.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, A; Uematsu, T; Ishikawa, T; Yoshimine, N; Nakashima, M

    1997-08-01

    The axial distribution of nicotine along the hair shafts was examined in 21 subjects enrolled in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of nicotine chewing gum (Nicorette) for validating their self-reported smoking behavior and their physicians' assessments. Hair samples obtained from the subjects once during the 3-month follow-up period (n = 10 for placebo and n = 11 for Nicorette ad libitum) were analyzed for the cm x cm distribution of nicotine along the hair shafts. Hair analysis results were compared with the monthly self-reports and with the plasma concentrations of thiocyanate (SCN-) measured at 1-month intervals. A gradual decrease in nicotine content along the hair shafts generally corresponded to the decrease in self-reported number of cigarettes smoked daily by the subjects who reported that they abstained from smoking or decreased the number of daily cigarettes in placebo and nicotine chewing gum groups. Because nicotine may dissociate slowly from hair follicle cells, nicotine in the hair did not mark a sudden decrease or cessation of smoking and, therefore, hair analysis tended to underestimate the real decrease of smoking. However, physician assessment seemed to depend solely on self-reporting because the time profile of changes in serum SCN- concentration did not correspond necessarily to the changes in the self-reported number of cigarettes used daily.

  14. Runx1 modulates developmental, but not injury-driven, hair follicle stem cell activation.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Karen M; Lee, Song Eun; McDermitt, David J; Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Zhang, Ying V; Woo, Hyun Nyun; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2008-03-01

    Aml1/Runx1 controls developmental aspects of several tissues, is a master regulator of blood stem cells, and plays a role in leukemia. However, it is unclear whether it functions in tissue stem cells other than blood. Here, we have investigated the role of Runx1 in mouse hair follicle stem cells by conditional ablation in epithelial cells. Runx1 disruption affects hair follicle stem cell activation, but not their maintenance, proliferation or differentiation potential. Adult mutant mice exhibit impaired de novo production of hair shafts and all temporary hair cell lineages, owing to a prolonged quiescent phase of the first hair cycle. The lag of stem cell activity is reversed by skin injury. Our work suggests a degree of functional overlap in Runx1 regulation of blood and hair follicle stem cells at an equivalent time point in the development of these two tissues. PMID:18256199

  15. The ABO blood grouping of a minute hair sample by the immunohistochemical technique.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, S; Yoshino, M; Sato, H; Miyake, B; Seta, S

    1987-01-01

    The unlabeled antibody (PAP) immunoperoxidase technique was applied to the ABO blood grouping of human scalp hairs. Hair samples were subjected to longitudinal- or cross-sectioning, thus obtaining suitable samples for subsequent immunostaining. The immunostaining was carried out using rabbit anti-A and anti-B sera as the primary antibodies. With this technique, the group-specific staining which is revealed as a dark brown precipitate was clearly observed within the medullae of the hair shaft, and depending on the presence or absence of these precipitates, respective blood groups of unknown hair samples were determined. At the hair root, on the other hand, positive stainings were observed not only in medullary cells but also in some cortical cells of the keratogenous zone. From the present study, it can be safely said that this technique is of practical use for the ABO blood grouping from a minute (less than 3 mm) hair sample.

  16. Runx1 modulates developmental, but not injury-driven, hair follicle stem cell activation.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Karen M; Lee, Song Eun; McDermitt, David J; Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Zhang, Ying V; Woo, Hyun Nyun; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2008-03-01

    Aml1/Runx1 controls developmental aspects of several tissues, is a master regulator of blood stem cells, and plays a role in leukemia. However, it is unclear whether it functions in tissue stem cells other than blood. Here, we have investigated the role of Runx1 in mouse hair follicle stem cells by conditional ablation in epithelial cells. Runx1 disruption affects hair follicle stem cell activation, but not their maintenance, proliferation or differentiation potential. Adult mutant mice exhibit impaired de novo production of hair shafts and all temporary hair cell lineages, owing to a prolonged quiescent phase of the first hair cycle. The lag of stem cell activity is reversed by skin injury. Our work suggests a degree of functional overlap in Runx1 regulation of blood and hair follicle stem cells at an equivalent time point in the development of these two tissues.

  17. A Hot New Twist to Hair Biology

    PubMed Central

    Bodó, Enikő; Bíró, Tamás; Telek, Andrea; Czifra, Gabriella; Griger, Zoltán; Tóth, Balázs I.; Mescalchin, Alessandra; Ito, Taisuke; Bettermann, Albrecht; Kovács, László; Paus, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1, or transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor, TRPV1) is activated by capsaicin, the key ingredient of hot peppers. TRPV1 was originally described on sensory neurons as a central integrator of various nociceptive stimuli. However, several human skin cell populations are also now recognized to express TRPV1, but with unknown function. Exploiting the human hair follicle (HF) as a prototypic epithelial-mesenchymal interaction system, we have characterized the HF expression of TRPV1 in situ and have examined TRPV1 signaling in organ-cultured human scalp HF and outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes in vitro. TRPV1 immunoreactivity was confined to distinct epithelial compartments of the human HF, mainly to the ORS and hair matrix. In organ culture, TRPV1 activation by capsaicin resulted in a dose-dependent and TRPV1-specific inhibition of hair shaft elongation, suppression of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, premature HF regression (catagen), and up-regulation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-β2. Cultured human ORS keratinocytes also expressed functional TRPV1, whose stimulation inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, elevated intracellular calcium concentration, up-regulated known endogenous hair growth inhibitors (interleukin-1β, transforming growth factor-β2), and down-regulated known hair growth promoters (hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, stem cell factor). These findings strongly support TRPV1 as a significant novel player in human hair growth control, underscore the physiological importance of TRPV1 in human skin beyond nociception, and identify TRPV1 as a promising, novel target for pharmacological manipulations of epithelial growth disorders. PMID:15793280

  18. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-12-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function.

  19. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Mardaryev, Andrei N; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Vlahov, Nikola V; Fessing, Michael Y; Gill, Jason H; Sharov, Andrey A; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2010-10-01

    The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation. PMID:20522784

  1. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Mardaryev, Andrei N; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Vlahov, Nikola V; Fessing, Michael Y; Gill, Jason H; Sharov, Andrey A; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2010-10-01

    The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation.

  2. Replacing facial hair.

    PubMed

    Straub, Paul M

    2008-11-01

    The face is the second most common area for hair transplantation after the scalp. Areas that are transplanted include eyebrows, eyelashes, moustaches, beards, temples and temporal points, as well as scars either traumatic or the side effect of cosmetic procedures such as rhytidectomies or brow lifts. The hair is harvested from the same area as the hair that is transplanted to the head. For this reason, it grows longer than nongrafted facial hair and must be trimmed regularly. Occasionally, hair lower in the neck region is harvested, which is finer than occipital hair; however, because of movement in the neck area, the scars are often larger. Body hair has been suggested as donor hair but is not recommended because it spends as much as 85% of its time in the telogen phase.

  3. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  4. Unitary Shaft-Angle and Shaft-Speed Sensor Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a unit that contains a rotary-position or a rotary-speed sensor, plus electronic circuitry necessary for its operation, all enclosed in a single housing with a shaft for coupling to an external rotary machine. This rotation sensor unit is complete: when its shaft is mechanically connected to that of the rotary machine and it is supplied with electric power, it generates an output signal directly indicative of the rotary position or speed, without need for additional processing by other circuitry. The incorporation of all of the necessary excitatory and readout circuitry into the housing (in contradistinction to using externally located excitatory and/or readout circuitry) in a compact arrangement is the major difference between this unit and prior rotation-sensor units. The sensor assembly inside the housing includes excitatory and readout integrated circuits mounted on a circular printed-circuit board. In a typical case in which the angle or speed transducer(s) utilize electromagnetic induction, the assembly also includes another circular printed-circuit board on which the transducer windings are mounted. A sheet of high-magnetic permeability metal ("mu metal") is placed between the winding board and the electronic-circuit board to prevent spurious coupling of excitatory signals from the transducer windings to the readout circuits. The housing and most of the other mechanical hardware can be common to a variety of different sensor designs. Hence, the unit can be configured to generate any of variety of outputs by changing the interior sensor assembly. For example, the sensor assembly could contain an analog tachometer circuit that generates an output proportional (in both magnitude and sign or in magnitude only) to the speed of rotation.

  5. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  6. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each...

  7. The diaphanous Gene of Drosophila Interacts Antagonistically with multiple wing hairs and Plays a Key Role in Wing Hair Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila wing is covered by an array of distally pointing hairs that has served as a key model system for studying planar cell polarity (PCP). The adult cuticular hairs are formed in the pupae from cell extensions that contain extensive actin filaments and microtubules. The importance of the actin cytoskeleton for hair growth and morphogenesis is clear from the wide range of phenotypes seen in mutations in well-known actin regulators. Formin proteins promote the formation of long actin filaments of the sort thought to be important for hair growth. We report here that the formin encoding diaphanous (dia) gene plays a key role in hair morphogenesis. Both loss of function mutations and the expression of a constitutively active Dia led to cells forming both morphologically abnormal hairs and multiple hairs. The conserved frizzled (fz)/starry night (stan) PCP pathway functions to restrict hair initiation and activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal most part of wing cells. It also ensures the formation of a single hair per cell. Our data suggest that the localized inhibition of Dia activity may be part of this mechanism. We found the expression of constitutively active Dia greatly expands the region for activation of the cytoskeleton and that dia functions antagonistically with multiple wing hairs (mwh), the most downstream member of the fz/stan pathway. Further we established that purified fragments of Dia and Mwh could be co-immunoprecipitated suggesting the genetic interaction could reflect a direct physical interaction. PMID:25730111

  8. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. PMID:26176286

  9. The structure of people’s hair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

  10. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  11. Shaft Sinking at the Nevada Test Site, U1h Shaft Project

    SciTech Connect

    B. Briggs; R. Musick

    2001-03-01

    The U1h Shaft Project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 6.1 meter (m) (20 feet (ft)) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the U.S. Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 297.5 m (976 ft.), and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper will describe the design phase, the excavation and lining operation, shaft station construction and the contractual challenges encountered on this project.

  12. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  13. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  14. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  15. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  16. A Rare Association of Pili Multigemini and Rolled Hairs in a Young Female

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya Ashok; Kota, Rahulkrishna S; Gandhi, Shailee; Singhal, Rochit R

    2016-01-01

    Pili multigemini and circle hairs (CHs) both are hair shaft deformities. Being asymptomatic and benign they are often under-reported in medical science. Till now, literature showed the involvement of only males. CHs are seen in obese individuals with sedentary lifestyle and pili multigemini is seen in adults over beard and children over scalp. Cosmetic concern in a young female with asymptomatic hyperpigmented papular lesions brought her to dermatology clinic. Apart from histopathology, dermatoscopy is a noninvasive technique that can be utilized for the evaluation of various hair disorders, especially like this. PMID:27127374

  17. Palmitoylation Regulates Epidermal Homeostasis and Hair Follicle Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fukata, Yuko; Tsutsumi, Ryouhei; Fukata, Masaki; Keighren, Margaret; Porter, Rebecca M.; McKie, Lisa; Smyth, Ian; Jackson, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    Palmitoylation is a key post-translational modification mediated by a family of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyl-transferases (PATs). Unlike other lipid modifications, palmitoylation is reversible and thus often regulates dynamic protein interactions. We find that the mouse hair loss mutant, depilated, (dep) is due to a single amino acid deletion in the PAT, Zdhhc21, resulting in protein mislocalization and loss of palmitoylation activity. We examined expression of Zdhhc21 protein in skin and find it restricted to specific hair lineages. Loss of Zdhhc21 function results in delayed hair shaft differentiation, at the site of expression of the gene, but also leads to hyperplasia of the interfollicular epidermis (IFE) and sebaceous glands, distant from the expression site. The specific delay in follicle differentiation is associated with attenuated anagen propagation and is reflected by decreased levels of Lef1, nuclear β-catenin, and Foxn1 in hair shaft progenitors. In the thickened basal compartment of mutant IFE, phospho-ERK and cell proliferation are increased, suggesting increased signaling through EGFR or integrin-related receptors, with a parallel reduction in expression of the key differentiation factor Gata3. We show that the Src-family kinase, Fyn, involved in keratinocyte differentiation, is a direct palmitoylation target of Zdhhc21 and is mislocalized in mutant follicles. This study is the first to demonstrate a key role for palmitoylation in regulating developmental signals in mammalian tissue homeostasis. PMID:19956733

  18. Analysis of anabolic steroids in hair: time courses in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Yan, Hui; Shen, Baohua; Wang, Mengye

    2009-09-01

    Sensitive, specific, and reproducible methods for the quantitative determination of eight anabolic steroids in guinea pig hair have been developed using LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS. Methyltestosterone, stanozolol, methandienone, nandrolone, trenbolone, boldenone, methenolone and DHEA were administered intraperitoneally in guinea pigs. After the first injection, black hair segments were collected on shaved areas of skin. The analysis of these segments revealed the distribution of anabolic steroids in the guinea pig hair. The major components in hair are the parent anabolic steroids. The time courses of the concentrations of the steroids in hair (except methenolone, which does not deposit in hair) demonstrated that the peak concentrations were reached on days 2-4, except stanozolol, which peaked on day 10 after administration. The concentrations in hair appeared to be related to the physicochemical properties of the drug compound and to the dosage. These studies on the distribution of drugs in the hair shaft and on the time course of their concentration changes provide information relevant to the optimal time and method of collecting hair samples. Such studies also provide basic data that will be useful in the application of hair analysis in the control of doping and in the interpretation of results.

  19. Targeted expression of SV40 T antigen in the hair follicle of transgenic mice produces an aberrant hair phenotype.

    PubMed

    Keough, R; Powell, B; Rogers, G

    1995-03-01

    Directed expression of SV40 large T antigen (TAg) in transgenic mice can induce tissue-specific tumorigenesis and useful cell lines exhibiting differentiated characteristics can be established from resultant tumor cells. In an attempt to produce an immortalised mouse hair follicle cortical cell line for the study of hair keratin gene control, SV40 TAg expression was targeted to the hair follicles of transgenic mice using a sheep hair gene promoter. Expression of SV40 TAg in the follicle cortex disrupted normal fiber ultrastructure, producing a marked phenotypic effect. Affected hairs were wavy or severely kinked (depending on the severity of the phenotype) producing an appearance ranging from a ruffled coat to a stubble covering the back of the mouse. The transgenic hairs appeared to be weakened at the base of the fibers, leading to premature hair-loss and a thinner pelage, or regions of temporary nudity. No follicle tumors or neoplasia were apparent and immortalisation of cortical cells could not be established in culture. In situ hybridisation studies in the hair follicle using histone H3 as a cell proliferation marker suggested that cell proliferation had ceased prior to commencement of K2.10-TAg expression and was not re-established in the differentiating cortical cells. Hence, TAg was unable to induce cell immortalisation at that stage of cortical cell differentiation. However, transgenic mice developed various other abnormalities including vertebral abnormalities and bladder, liver and intestinal tumors, which resulted in reduced life expectancy.

  20. Targeted expression of SV40 T antigen in the hair follicle of transgenic mice produces an aberrant hair phenotype.

    PubMed

    Keough, R; Powell, B; Rogers, G

    1995-03-01

    Directed expression of SV40 large T antigen (TAg) in transgenic mice can induce tissue-specific tumorigenesis and useful cell lines exhibiting differentiated characteristics can be established from resultant tumor cells. In an attempt to produce an immortalised mouse hair follicle cortical cell line for the study of hair keratin gene control, SV40 TAg expression was targeted to the hair follicles of transgenic mice using a sheep hair gene promoter. Expression of SV40 TAg in the follicle cortex disrupted normal fiber ultrastructure, producing a marked phenotypic effect. Affected hairs were wavy or severely kinked (depending on the severity of the phenotype) producing an appearance ranging from a ruffled coat to a stubble covering the back of the mouse. The transgenic hairs appeared to be weakened at the base of the fibers, leading to premature hair-loss and a thinner pelage, or regions of temporary nudity. No follicle tumors or neoplasia were apparent and immortalisation of cortical cells could not be established in culture. In situ hybridisation studies in the hair follicle using histone H3 as a cell proliferation marker suggested that cell proliferation had ceased prior to commencement of K2.10-TAg expression and was not re-established in the differentiating cortical cells. Hence, TAg was unable to induce cell immortalisation at that stage of cortical cell differentiation. However, transgenic mice developed various other abnormalities including vertebral abnormalities and bladder, liver and intestinal tumors, which resulted in reduced life expectancy. PMID:7542671

  1. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  2. Foxi3 Deficiency Compromises Hair Follicle Stem Cell Specification and Activation.

    PubMed

    Shirokova, Vera; Biggs, Leah C; Jussila, Maria; Ohyama, Takahiro; Groves, Andrew K; Mikkola, Marja L

    2016-07-01

    The hair follicle is an ideal system to study stem cell specification and homeostasis due to its well characterized morphogenesis and stereotypic cycles of stem cell activation upon each hair cycle to produce a new hair shaft. The adult hair follicle stem cell niche consists of two distinct populations, the bulge and the more activation-prone secondary hair germ (HG). Hair follicle stem cells are set aside during early stages of morphogenesis. This process is known to depend on the Sox9 transcription factor, but otherwise the establishment of the hair follicle stem cell niche is poorly understood. Here, we show that that mutation of Foxi3, a Forkhead family transcription factor mutated in several hairless dog breeds, compromises stem cell specification. Further, loss of Foxi3 impedes hair follicle downgrowth and progression of the hair cycle. Genome-wide profiling revealed a number of downstream effectors of Foxi3 including transcription factors with a recognized function in hair follicle stem cells such as Lhx2, Runx1, and Nfatc1, suggesting that the Foxi3 mutant phenotype results from simultaneous downregulation of several stem cell signature genes. We show that Foxi3 displays a highly dynamic expression pattern during hair morphogenesis and cycling, and identify Foxi3 as a novel secondary HG marker. Absence of Foxi3 results in poor hair regeneration upon hair plucking, and a sparse fur phenotype in unperturbed mice that exacerbates with age, caused by impaired secondary HG activation leading to progressive depletion of stem cells. Thus, Foxi3 regulates multiple aspects of hair follicle development and homeostasis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1896-1908.

  3. Radixin is a constituent of stereocilia in hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Pataky, F.; Pironkova, R.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Proteins of the ezrin-radixin-moesin family are ubiquitous constituents of the submembrane cortex, especially in epithelial cells. Earlier biochemical results suggested that a protein of this family occurs in the hair bundle, the cluster of actin-filled stereocilia that serves as the mechanoreceptive organelle of each hair cell in the inner ear. We prepared antipeptide antisera directed against chicken radixin and ezrin and demonstrated their specificity and absence of crossreactivity. When used in immunocytochemical studies of isolated hair cells, anti-radixin produced an intense band of labeling at the bases of hair bundles from the chicken, frog, mouse, and zebrafish. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry disclosed that radixin labeling commenced in the stereociliary taper, peaked in the lower stereociliary shaft, and declined progressively toward the hair bundle's top. Labeling with anti-ezrin produced no signal in hair bundles. Radixin is thus a prominent constituent of stereocilia, where it may participate in anchoring the “pointed” ends of actin filaments to the membrane. PMID:14983055

  4. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field. PMID:26763421

  5. A guide to studying human hair follicle cycling in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A.; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo life-long cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative “quiescence” (telogen). Since HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. While available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. Here, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in sub-optimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field. PMID:26763421

  6. A Guide to Studying Human Hair Follicle Cycling In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Won; Kloepper, Jennifer; Langan, Ewan A; Kim, Yongsoo; Yeo, Joongyeub; Kim, Min Ji; Hsi, Tsai-Ching; Rose, Christian; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seykora, John; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Moonkyu; Paus, Ralf; Plikus, Maksim V

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo lifelong cyclical transformations, progressing through stages of rapid growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and relative "quiescence" (telogen). Given that HF cycling abnormalities underlie many human hair growth disorders, the accurate classification of individual cycle stages within skin biopsies is clinically important and essential for hair research. For preclinical human hair research purposes, human scalp skin can be xenografted onto immunocompromised mice to study human HF cycling and manipulate long-lasting anagen in vivo. Although available for mice, a comprehensive guide on how to recognize different human hair cycle stages in vivo is lacking. In this article, we present such a guide, which uses objective, well-defined, and reproducible criteria, and integrates simple morphological indicators with advanced, (immuno)-histochemical markers. This guide also characterizes human HF cycling in xenografts and highlights the utility of this model for in vivo hair research. Detailed schematic drawings and representative micrographs provide examples of how best to identify human HF stages, even in suboptimally sectioned tissue, and practical recommendations are given for designing human-on-mouse hair cycle experiments. Thus, this guide seeks to offer a benchmark for human hair cycle stage classification, for both hair research experts and newcomers to the field.

  7. Comparison of hair from rectum cancer patients and from healthy persons by Raman microspectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoli; Wang, Xin; Fang, Yusheng; Huang, Qing

    2013-09-01

    In this work, Raman microspectroscopy and imaging was employed to analyze cancer patients' hair tissue. The comparison between the hair from rectum cancer patients and the hair from healthy people reveals some remarkable differences, such as for the rectum cancer patients, there are more lipids but less content of α-helix proteins in the hair medulla section. Though more statistic data are required to establish universary rules for practical and accurate diagnosis, this work based on case study demonstrates the possibility of applying Raman microspectroscopy to reveal abnormality in non-cancer tissues such as hair in order to predict and diagnose cancers.

  8. Toxic effects of metals from the environment on hair growth and structure.

    PubMed

    Pierard, G E

    1979-08-01

    Diffuse alopecia related to ingestion of toxic metals from the environment has been observed in 36 patients. Copper, arsenic, mercury and cadmium were involved and the intensity of disturbance of the hair cycle, heralded by presence of dystrophic hairs, was proportional to the amount of toxic material detected in blood and urine. Toxicity can be observed in vitro by measuring labeled cells on squash preparations after incorporation of tritiated uridine and thymidine in plucked hairs. The labeling indexes, as well as the ratio between cells entering the S phase and the viable cells were always lower in toxic alopecia than in normal hair. Toxic metals do not seem to affect the morphology of the hair shaft.

  9. Secondary ion mass spectrometric investigation of penetration of coconut and mineral oils into human hair fibers: relevance to hair damage.

    PubMed

    Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K; Rele, A S; Mohile, R B

    2001-01-01

    An attempt has been made to show the difference in the penetrability of coconut oil and mineral oil in human hair. We have used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in combination with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Characteristic ions formed by the pure components when bombarded with gallium ions have been identified with their m/z values. The distribution of the ion, characteristic of the particular treatment, has been established in the cross sections of hair treated with coconut and mineral oils. The results show that coconut oil penetrates the hair shaft while mineral oil does not. The difference may be due to the polarity of the coconut oil compared to the nonpolar nature of the mineral oil. The affinity of the penetrant to the protein seems to be the cause for this difference in their behavior. This study also indicates that the swelling of hair is limited by the presence oil. Since the process of swelling and deswelling of hair is one of the causes of hair damage by hygral fatigue, coconut oil, which is a better penetrant than mineral oil, may provide better protection from damage by hygral fatigue.

  10. Hair analysis for drug abuse. XIV. Identification of substances causing acute poisoning using hair root. I. Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Y; Kikura, R; Yasuhara, M; Mukai, T

    1997-01-17

    A hair root was evaluated as a specimen for proving acute methamphetamine (MA) poisonings using an animal model and fatal cases of MA intoxicaton. First of all, male pigmented hairy rats (n = 5) were administered with acute poisonous doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) of MA and the hair roots were plucked out with a hair nipper 5 min and 0.5, 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after i.p. injection. The hair root samples were, directly or after washing with detergent, extracted with methanol/5 N HCl (20:1) under vortex mixing at room temperature for 14 h. After evaporation, the residue was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analyzed with GC/MS. From all samples including a 5-min sample, MA was detected at high concentrations (approximately 150 ng/mg) with a small amount of amphetamine (AP). Many animals died within 120 min of administration, but the concentrations in the hair roots increased up to 120 min and then slowly decreased until 24 h. Although MA was definitely detected anytime in the hair roots, almost no MA was found in 24-h plasma. In comparison of the drug levels in hair roots between the washed group and the unwashed group, the levels of the washed group were as a whole 4-5-fold higher than those of the unwashed group. These differences show that most of the drug incorporated into hair root is still not immobilized in the early stage. The ratios of the MA remainder in the washed samples increased with the elapse of time in all cases. However, the slope of the curves definitely dropped after the death of rats, probably due to the stopping of the hair growth and the incorporation of drug into the hair shaft. The ratios of AP/MA after death became a plateau probably due to the stoppage of the activity of metabolism after death, while those before death had increased over time. We analyzed the specimens of hair root of four men who died mainly due to acute poisonings with MA. Consequently, MA in the hair roots was detected at high concentrations, 30.5-134.6 ng

  11. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOEpatents

    Blanz, John H.

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  12. Tibial shaft fractures in amateur footballers

    PubMed Central

    Lenehan, B; Fleming, P; Walsh, S; Kaar, K

    2003-01-01

    Background: Footballers constitute a unique group of patients with tibial shaft fractures. They tend to have excellent general health and well developed musculature in the leg, and their fractures are generally closed injuries caused by low velocity trauma. However, little has been reported on the outcome after tibial shaft fractures in this group. Objective: To identify patterns of injury, response to treatment, and functional outcome in such a group. Method: Fifty consecutive tibial shaft fractures in adult footballers treated at Merlin Park Regional Hospital over a five year period were analysed. Results: Most of the fractures were type A injuries (AO/ASIF classification). The incidence of complications was low. All patients reported good or excellent satisfaction with their outcome. However, only 54% of patients returned to playing competitive football. Conclusion: Tibial shaft fractures in amateur footballers are associated with good results when traditional outcome criteria are used, but many patients do not regain their previous level of function. PMID:12663363

  13. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100... Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100... Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100... Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100... Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100... Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56... Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the collar to... an emergency power source shall be provided. When persons are on the shaft bottom, a chain...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56... Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the collar to... an emergency power source shall be provided. When persons are on the shaft bottom, a chain...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56.19109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and repair work in vertical...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 57.19109 Section 57.19109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and repair work in vertical...

  4. 119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING #3 SHAFT COUPLING WITH LOCKING DEVICE INSTALLED, SHAFT SPRING BEARING, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE, FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN AND BALLASTING MANIFOLD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  6. Body Hair Transplant by Follicular Unit Extraction: My Experience With 122 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Sanusi

    2016-01-01

    Background Body hair shafts from the beard, trunk, and extremities can be used to treat baldness when patients have inadequate amounts of scalp donor hair, but reports in the literature concerning use of body hair to treat baldness are confined to case reports. Objectives This study aimed to assess the outcome of body hair transplanted to bald areas of the scalp in selected patients. Methods From 2005 through 2011, 122 patients preselected for adequate body hair had donor hair transplanted from the beard, trunk, and the extremities to the scalp by follicular unit extraction (FUE) by the author at a single center. All patients were emailed surveys to assess surgical outcomes and overall satisfaction. Results Seventy-nine patients (64.8%) responded with a mean time of 2.9 years between date of last surgery and time of survey. Patients were generally very satisfied with results of their procedure, giving mean scores of at least a 7.8 on a Likert-like scale of 0 to 10 for their healing status, hair growth in recipient areas, and overall satisfaction with their surgeries. These scores were comparable to mean scores provided by patients whose transplants included scalp donor sources. Conclusions FUE using body hair can be an effective hair transplantation method for a select patient population of hirsute individuals who suffer from severe baldness or have inadequate scalp donor reserve. Level of Evidence: 4 Therapeutic PMID:27241361

  7. Blockade of S100A3 activity inhibits murine hair growth.

    PubMed

    Guan, W; Deng, Q; Yu, X L; Yuan, Y S; Gao, J; Li, J J; Zhou, L; Xia, P; Han, G Y Q; Han, W; Yu, Y

    2015-10-28

    Using mouse gene expression microarray analysis, we obtained dynamic expression profiles of the whole genome in a depilation-induced hair growth mouse model. S100A3 expression increased during the anagen phase and returned to normal during the telogen phase. The effects of S100A3 blockade on the hair growth cycle were examined in mice after subcutaneous injection of an anti-mouse S100A3 antibody. Protein localization of S100A3 was confined to the hair shafts during the anagen phase and the sebaceous glands during the telogen phase. S100A3 blockade delayed hair follicle entry into the anagen phase, decreased hair elongation, and reduced the number of hair follicles in the subcutis, which correlated with the downregulated expression of hair growth induction-related genes in vivo. The present study demonstrates that anti-S100A3 antibody inhibits mouse hair growth, suggesting that S100A3 can be used as a target for hair loss treatment.

  8. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  9. Photoaggravation of Hair Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation. PMID:20927230

  10. Tarantula hair keratitis.

    PubMed

    Mangat, Simran Singh; Newman, Bill

    2012-10-26

    We describe a 12-year-old boy in England with keratitis secondary to tarantula hairs embedded within the stroma of his cornea. Every attempt must be made to isolate these hairs at the first visit as they have a barbed nature and have a propensity to propagate through ocular tissues. A chronic keratitis requiring long-term steroid use may result if hairs persist in the cornea. Children who keep tarantulas as pets should be instructed on safe handling to prevent the tarantula from adopting defence mechanisms and shedding their hairs. PMID:23242405

  11. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  12. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  13. Syndecan-1 is strongly expressed in the anagen hair follicle outer root sheath and in the dermal papilla but expression diminishes with involution of the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Garner, Ilene B; Sanderson, Ralph D; Smoller, Bruce R

    2002-12-01

    Syndecan-1 is the prototypic member of a family of heparan sulfate-bearing cell surface proteoglycans that function in adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, migration, and proliferation. During embryogenesis, syndecan-1 expression in the epithelium is downregulated when the epithelium gives rise to motile mesenchymal cells, whereas mesenchymal syndecan-1 expression is upregulated during organ formation. In aggressive basal cell carcinomas, syndecan-1 expression is evident in the stroma. Some neoplastic cells induce stroma to meet needs for growth, and it may be the mesenchymal cells that produce and shed syndecan-1 into the stroma. The physiologic mechanism by which the hair follicle undergoes its cyclic process of involution and formation of a new active hair follicle is not well understood. Sixty scalp biopsies and a large scalp resection were evaluated for syndecan-1 expression within hair follicles in the growing (anagen), involuting (catagen), and resting (telogen) phases. Strong syndecan-1 immunoreactivity was evident in the outer root sheath (ORS) of the anagen hair follicle, but this expression diminished in intensity with the involution and resting stages in the hair follicle cycle. The diminution of syndecan-1 immunoreactivity in the ORS of involuting and resting hair follicles may be a result of terminal keratinocyte differentiation. Syndecan-1 was also present in the dermal papilla of the anagen hair follicle, where it may promote growth factor-mediated cell signaling that induces and maintains growth of the hair shaft and the inner root sheath.

  14. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... regain normal fullness even earlier. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

  15. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... This includes permanents and hair colors. Put away things that will put stress on your hair. This includes curling irons and brush rollers. If you blow-dry your hair, put the setting at cool or ...

  16. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Each hair follicle contains a certain number of pigment cells. These pigment cells continuously produce a chemical called melanin (say: ... each hair contains. As we get older, the pigment cells in our hair follicles gradually die. When ...

  17. Integrated controls and health monitoring fiberoptic shaft monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P.; Darejeh, H.; Collins, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work was performed on development optical technology to provide real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement, and shaft orbit of the OTVE hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mills by two fiber optic deflectometers. The final results of this condition monitoring development effort are presented.

  18. A 1-bp deletion in Fgf5 causes male-dominant long hair in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Yasuhiro; Wada, Kenta; Shimoi, Gaku; Shiomi, Gaku; Kameyama, Yuichi; Wakabayashi, Yuichi; Fukuta, Katsuhiro; Hashizume, Ryoichi

    2015-12-01

    Hair length in mammals is generally regulated by the hair cycle, and its disruption leads to abnormal hair morphogenesis in several species. FGF5, one of the hair cycle regulators, has a role in inducing catagen, and that mutation causes abnormal hair length in both sexes in humans, mice, dogs, and cats. Male-dominant long-haired coat (MALC) is an inbred strain of Syrian hamster exhibiting spontaneous long hair in males. After castration, MALC exhibited significantly shorter hair than the control individuals, but testosterone administration to castrated MALC showed reversion to the original phenotype. Moreover, flutamide administration led to MALC phenotype repression. Histological analysis revealed that hair follicle regression was shown in the wild-type 4 weeks after depilation, but that of MALC remained in the anagen phase. We detected a c.546delG of Fgf5 in MALC (Fgf5malc) that might lead to truncation resulting from a frame shift in FGF5 (p.Arg184GlyfsX6). Additionally, homozygous Fgf5malc was only detected in long-haired (Slc:Syrian×MALC)F2 and (J-2-Nn×MALC)F2 progenies, and all homozygous wild and heterozygous Fgf5malc individuals showed normal hair length. Thus, Fgf5malc leads to male-dominant long hair via a prolonged anagen phase which is affected by testosterone in hamsters. To our knowledge, this report is the first to present the sexual dimorphism of hair length caused by the Fgf5 mutation.

  19. Localizations of γ-Actins in Skin, Hair, Vibrissa, Arrector Pili Muscle and Other Hair Appendages of Developing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morioka, Kiyokazu; Takano-Ohmuro, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Six isoforms of actins encoded by different genes have been identified in mammals including α-cardiac, α-skeletal, α-smooth muscle (α-SMA), β-cytoplasmic, γ-smooth muscle (γ-SMA), and γ-cytoplasmic actins (γ-CYA). In a previous study we showed the localization of α-SMA and other cytoskeletal proteins in the hairs and their appendages of developing rats (Morioka K., et al. (2011) Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 44, 141–153), and herein we determined the localization of γ type actins in the same tissues and organs by immunohistochemical staining. Our results indicate that the expression of γ-SMA and γ-CYA is suggested to be poor in actively proliferating tissues such as the basal layer of the epidermis and the hair matrix in the hair bulb, and as well as in highly keratinized tissues such as the hair cortex and hair cuticle. In contrast, the expression of γ-actins were high in the spinous layer, granular layer, hair shaft, and inner root sheath, during their active differentiations. In particular, the localization of γ-SMA was very similar to that of α-SMA. It was located not only in the arrector pili muscles and muscles in the dermis, but also in the dermal sheath and in a limited area of the outer root sheath in both the hair and vibrissal follicles. The γ-CYA was suggested to be co-localized with γ-SMA in the dermal sheath, outer root sheath, and arrector pili muscles. Sparsely distributed dermal cells expressed both types of γ-actin. The expression of γ-actins is suggested to undergo dynamic changes according to the proliferation and differentiation of the skin and hair-related cells. PMID:27222613

  20. Effects of body region and time on hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Rukundo, Joshua; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-11-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are increasingly recognized as an integrated measure of the systemic cortisol secretion. Yet, we still know very little about confounding effects on HCC in animals. The present study therefore used hair from semi-wild and zoo living chimpanzees to investigate (1) intra-individual variability of HCC (body-region effect), and (2) the stability of HCC along the hair shaft (traditionally called the washout effect). Our results indicate that absolute HCC varied substantially between certain body regions, but a factor analysis revealed that these HCC differences were mainly attributable to one common source of variance. Thus, hair from all body regions provides similar biological signals and can be mixed, albeit at the cost of a lower signal-to-noise ratio. With regard to potential underlying mechanisms, we studied skin blood flow, as observed through thermal images from one chimpanzee. We found the general HCC pattern was reflected in differences in surface body temperature observed in this individual in three out of four body regions. In a separate set of samples, we found first evidence to suggest that the systematic cortisol decrease along the hair shaft, as observed in humans, is also present in chimpanzee hair. The effect was more pronounced in semi-wild than in zoo chimpanzees presumably due to more exposure to ambient weather conditions. PMID:26409891

  1. Effects of body region and time on hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Rukundo, Joshua; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-11-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are increasingly recognized as an integrated measure of the systemic cortisol secretion. Yet, we still know very little about confounding effects on HCC in animals. The present study therefore used hair from semi-wild and zoo living chimpanzees to investigate (1) intra-individual variability of HCC (body-region effect), and (2) the stability of HCC along the hair shaft (traditionally called the washout effect). Our results indicate that absolute HCC varied substantially between certain body regions, but a factor analysis revealed that these HCC differences were mainly attributable to one common source of variance. Thus, hair from all body regions provides similar biological signals and can be mixed, albeit at the cost of a lower signal-to-noise ratio. With regard to potential underlying mechanisms, we studied skin blood flow, as observed through thermal images from one chimpanzee. We found the general HCC pattern was reflected in differences in surface body temperature observed in this individual in three out of four body regions. In a separate set of samples, we found first evidence to suggest that the systematic cortisol decrease along the hair shaft, as observed in humans, is also present in chimpanzee hair. The effect was more pronounced in semi-wild than in zoo chimpanzees presumably due to more exposure to ambient weather conditions.

  2. Differentiating neoplasms of hair germ

    PubMed Central

    Headington, J. T.

    1970-01-01

    Differentiating neoplasms of hair germ are benign epithelial-mesenchymal tumours of skin in which hair follicle development may be partly or completely recapitulated. The epithelial component is equivalent to the hair germ. The mesenchymal component is equivalent to the dermal papilla. Epithelial-mesenchymal interaction results in the morphogenesis of hair follicles. In neoplasms showing stromal induction, there is centrifugal organizations: hair bulbs are found at the periphery of tumour lobules and hairs are projected centrally to lie within small keratinizing cysts. Neoplasms of hair germ without advanced morpho-differentiation are termed `trichoblastomas', and those neoplasms in which hair follicle development is advanced are called `trichogenic trichoblastomas'. Images PMID:5476873

  3. Lack of Collagen VI Promotes Wound-Induced Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiwen; Cescon, Matilde; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix molecule that is abundantly expressed in the skin. However, the role of collagen VI in hair follicle growth is unknown. Here, we show that collagen VI is strongly deposited in hair follicles, and is markedly upregulated by skin wounding. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1(-/-) mice delays hair cycling and growth under physiological conditions, but promotes wound-induced hair regrowth without affecting skin regeneration. Conversely, addition of purified collagen VI rescues the abnormal wound-induced hair regrowth in Col6a1(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that the increased wound-induced hair regrowth of Col6a1(-/-) mice is triggered by activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and is abolished by inhibition of this pathway. These findings highlight the essential relationships between extracellular matrix (ECM) and hair follicle regeneration, and suggest that collagen VI could be a potential therapeutic target for hair loss and other skin-related diseases.

  4. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  5. [Hair follicle regeneration].

    PubMed

    Itami, Satoshi

    2008-05-01

    Hair growth cycle is coordinated with complex processes that are dependent on the interactions of follicular stem cells and dermal papilla cells (DPCs). For the past 10 years, the developmental mechanism of hair follicles has been extensively studied, and spatial and temporal expressions of many molecules are required for the hair morphogenesis. These molecules are also required for hair cycle progression. Androgen receptor, which is a ligand dependent transcription factor, plays an important role in human hair cycle. Frontal scalp DPCs from androgenetic alopecia (AGA) are the target cells of androgen action. Minoxidil and Finasteride were recently introduced for the treatment of AGA, and cell therapy using DPCs is a next strategy for the innovative treatment. PMID:18464507

  6. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, there have been numerous advances in hair laser removal that utilize melanin as a chromophore. All of the devices on the market may be used in patients with light skin (phototypes I-III) and yield hair reduction near 75%. The ruby (694 nm) laser, alexandrite (755 nm) laser, and diode (810 nm) laser, as well as intense pulsed light are commonly used devices for hair laser removal. The long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser represents the safest device for hair removal in dark-skinned patients because of its long wavelength, although the diode laser, alexandrite laser, and intense pulse light may be used. For treatment of light hair, combination radiofrequency and optical devices as well as photodynamic therapy are under investigation. PMID:16229722

  7. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  8. Instability of asymmetric continuous shaft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinath, R.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sekhar, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the governing equation of asymmetric continuous shaft in inertial frame of reference is studied. In particular, determination of the parameter ranges for the stability or instability of the shaft response is the focus of the present work. The governing equations are a fourth-order coupled partial differential equations containing time dependent coefficients. The equations are non-dimensionalized in terms of two parameters related to the average moment of inertia and the difference of moments of inertia about the principal axes. Using the latter as the asymptotic parameter and employing modal superposition, a formal methodology based on perturbation methods is developed to ascertain the stability and instability characteristics. The methodology is applicable to shafts subjected to some of the classical boundary conditions viz. simply supported, cantilever, and fixed-fixed. Similar stability curves are obtained for each mode for these different boundary conditions. The novel non-dimensionalization scheme chosen leads to the stability boundaries as well as the loci of varying speeds to be in the form of straight lines. The intersection of these lines determine the stable and unstable speed ranges of different asymmetric shafts. The results are generalized for different material and geometric properties of the shaft.

  9. Constant-mesh, multiple-shaft transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, J.E.; Mills, D.D.; Sewell, J.S.

    1992-04-21

    This patent describes a multiple-shaft, constant-mesh transmission adapted to establish selectively a reverse torque delivery path and a forward drive torque delivery path and having a torque input means including a torque input shaft, a mainshaft aligned with the input shaft, a countershaft geared to the input shaft in spaced, parallel relationship with respect to the mainshaft, a torque output shaft joined to the mainshaft; multiple mainshaft gear elements journalled on the main airshaft, multiple cluster gear elements carried by the countershaft in meshing engagement with the mainshaft gear elements, one of the cluster gear elements being rotatably journalled on the countershaft; a reverse idle gear, a reverse gear journalled on the countershaft, the reverse idler gear being in constant mesh with the reverse gear and one of the mainshaft gear elements; first clutch means for connecting selectively the reverse gear and the countershaft; second synchronizer clutch means for connecting selectively the one of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; and third synchronizer clutch means for selectively connecting another of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; the first clutch means being a double-acting clutch with a first common axially movable clutch element adapted upon movement in one axial direction to drivably connected the reverse gear to the countershaft and adapted upon movement in the opposite axial direction to connect the one cluster gear element to the countershaft.

  10. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AND SHAFT SEALING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A description is given of sealing means between a hollow rotatable shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft which defines therewith a sealing space of annular cross-section, comprising a plurality of axially spaced rings held against seats by ring springs which serve to subdivide the sealing space- into a plurality of zones. Process gas introduced into the hollow shaft through a port communicating with a centrally located zone which iu turn communicates with a bore in the sleeve, is removed from the shaft through a second port communicating with an adjacent central zone and discharged through a second bore. A sealant gas is supplied to an end zone under a pressure sufficient to cause it to flow axially into adjacent zones and then maintained at a lower pressure than either the sealant gas source or the process gas inlet zone, preventing the sealant gas from entering the shaft and allowing gases leaking into the sealant gas to be withdrawn and led to a separator.

  11. The COW1 locus of arabidopsis acts after RHD2, and in parallel with RHD3 and TIP1, to determine the shape, rate of elongation, and number of root hairs produced from each site of hair formation.

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, C S; Roberts, K; Feldmann, K A; Dolan, L

    1997-01-01

    Two recessive mutant alleles at CAN OF WORMS1 (COW1), a new locus involved in root hair morphogenesis, have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. Root hairs on Cow1- mutants are short and wide and occasionally formed as pairs at a single site of hair formation. The COW1 locus maps to chromosome 4. Root hairs on Cow1- plants form in the usual positions, suggesting that the phenotype is not the result of abnormal positional signals. Root hairs on Cow1- roots begin hair formation normally, forming a small bulge, or root hair initiation site, of normal size and shape and in the usual position on the hair-forming cell. However, when Cow1- root hairs start to elongate by tip growth, abnormalities in the shape and elongation rate of the hairs become apparent. Genetic evidence from double-mutant analysis of cow1-1 and other loci involved in root hair development supports our conclusion that COW1 is required during root hair elongation. PMID:9390433

  12. The COW1 locus of arabidopsis acts after RHD2, and in parallel with RHD3 and TIP1, to determine the shape, rate of elongation, and number of root hairs produced from each site of hair formation.

    PubMed

    Grierson, C S; Roberts, K; Feldmann, K A; Dolan, L

    1997-11-01

    Two recessive mutant alleles at CAN OF WORMS1 (COW1), a new locus involved in root hair morphogenesis, have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. Root hairs on Cow1- mutants are short and wide and occasionally formed as pairs at a single site of hair formation. The COW1 locus maps to chromosome 4. Root hairs on Cow1- plants form in the usual positions, suggesting that the phenotype is not the result of abnormal positional signals. Root hairs on Cow1- roots begin hair formation normally, forming a small bulge, or root hair initiation site, of normal size and shape and in the usual position on the hair-forming cell. However, when Cow1- root hairs start to elongate by tip growth, abnormalities in the shape and elongation rate of the hairs become apparent. Genetic evidence from double-mutant analysis of cow1-1 and other loci involved in root hair development supports our conclusion that COW1 is required during root hair elongation.

  13. Study of turbocharger shaft motion by means of non-invasive optical techniques: Application to the behaviour analysis in turbocharger lubrication failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, J. V.; Serrano, J. R.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a novel non-invasive technique to estimate the turbocharger shaft whirl motion. The aim of this article is to present a system for monitoring the shaft motion of a turbocharger, which will be used in turbocharger destructive testing. To achieve this, a camera and a light source were installed in a turbocharger test bench with a controlled lubrication circuit. An image recording methodology and a process algorithm have been developed, in order to estimate the shaft motion. This processing consists on differentiating specific zones of the image, in order to obtain their coordinates. Two reference points have been configured on the compressor side, which help to calculate the relative position of the shaft, avoiding the errors due to structural vibrations. Maximum eccentricity of the turbocharger has been determined and it has been compared with shaft motion when it is spinning in different conditions. A luminosity study has been also done, in order to improve the process and to obtain locus of shaft position in a picture exposition time period. The technique has been applied to diagnosis of a lubrication failure test and the main results will be presented in this article: like shaft motion figures; thermodynamic variables and pictures of the shaft while it is spinning at abnormal lubrication conditions. The measuring components used in this technique have the ability to withstand the catastrophic failure of the turbocharger in this type of test.

  14. Long-Term Extensive Ectopic Hair Growth on the Spinal Cord of Mice from Transplanted Whisker Follicles.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Mii, Sumiyuki; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells that can effect nerve and spinal cord repair upon transplantation. In the present study, isolated whisker follicles from nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) mice were histocultured on Gelfoam for 3 weeks for the purpose of transplantation to the spinal cord to heal an induced injury. The hair shaft was cut off from Gelfoam-histocultured whisker follicles, and the remaining part of the whisker follicles containing GFP-nestin expressing pluripotent stem cells were transplanted into the injured spinal cord of nude mice, along with the Gelfoam. After 90 days, the mice were sacrificed and the spinal cord lesion was observed to have healed. ND-GFP expression was intense at the healed area of the spinal cord, as observed by fluorescence microscopy, demonstrating that the hair follicle stem cells were involved in healing the spinal cord. Unexpectedly, the transplanted whisker follicles sprouted out remarkably long hair shafts in the spinal cord during the 90 days after transplantation of Gelfoam whisker histocultures to the injured spine. The pigmented hair fibers, grown from the transplanted whisker histocultures, curved and enclosed the spinal cord. The unanticipated results demonstrate the great potential of hair growth after transplantation of Gelfoam hair follicle histocultures, even at an ectopic site.

  15. [Hair as a study object in case of poisoning with heavy metal salts].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, A Z; Bogomolov, D V; Larev, Z V; Amanmuradov, A Kh

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to analyse the results of morphological studies of hair taken from the children with suspected thallium poisoning. The findings obtained by isoelectrofocusing, spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were compared with the relevant literature data. Original investigations included a comparative microstructural study along the hair length and cross section. We failed to observe formation of black-purple structures in the hair bulb and root region of the shaft usually associated with thallium poisoning. It is concluded that thallium poisoning can not be diagnosed based on the presence of a black pigment, knob-like swellings, and spindle-shaped bulbs since they are normal elements of healthy hair. More sensitive methods for the determination of trace elements and their combination with morphological investigations are needed for the definitive diagnosis of thallium poisoning.

  16. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a "Yin Yang" type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control. PMID:26918186

  17. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  19. Cornu cervi pantotrichum Pharmacopuncture Solution Facilitate Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-Yong; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kwon, Kang; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Shin, Hyun Jong; Kim, Jai Eun; Ha, Ki-Tae; Jeong, Han-Sol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP) has been widely used in Korean and China, as an anti-fatigue, anti-aging, and tonic agent to enhance the functions of the reproductive and the immune systems. Because CCP has various growth factors that play important roles in the development of hair follicles, we examined whether CCP pharmacopuncture solution (CCPPS) was capable of promoting hair growth in an animal model. Methods: One day after hair depilation, CCPPS were topically applied to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 15 days. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using macro- and microscopic observations. Dorsal skin tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 were examined by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was also conducted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of FGF-7. Results: CCPPS induced more active hair growth than normal saline. Histologic analysis showed enlargement of the dermal papilla, elongation of the hair shaft, and expansion of hair thickness in CCPPS treated mice, indicating that CCPPS effectively induced the development of anagen. CCPPS treatment markedly increased the expressions of BrdU and PCNA in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, CCPPS up regulated the expression of FGF-7, which plays an important role in the development of hair follicles. Conclusion: These results reveal that CCPPS facilitates hair re-growth by proliferation of hair follicular cells and up-regulation of FGF-7 and suggest that CCPPS can potentially be applied as an alternative treatment for patients with alopecia. PMID:27386145

  20. Transmission with two parallel driving shafts bearing two driving gears each meshed with same driven gear on parallel driven shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Akashi, T.; Ito, H.; Yamada, S.

    1986-06-17

    A transmission mechanism for a vehicle is described for receiving input of rotational power from a power supply member which rotates in a particular rotational direction and for outputting rotational power to a power receiving member which includes: an input member connected to the power supply member and which is rotatably mounted and receives supplying of the rotational power from the power supply member; a first driving gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first driving gear wheel shaft; a driven gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first and second driving gear wheel shafts, the driven gear wheel shaft being rotationally connected to the power receiving member; a first driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a first driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is constant mesh with the driven gear wheel, the first driving and driven gear wheels providing a first reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the second driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the first driven gear wheel, the second driving and the first driven gear wheels providing a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio from the second driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a third driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the second driven gear wheel, the third driving and the second driven gear wheels providing a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft.

  1. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    How well someone does depends on how much hair straightener they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better the chance for recovery. Extensive damage to the mouth, throat, and stomach is possible. ...

  2. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is likely that only a small amount of hair straightening products are actually absorbed into your system, so the developing baby would only be exposed to small amounts. I work full time as a cosmetologist and recently became ...

  3. Scurvy, corkscrew hair (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Scurvy is a nutritional disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C. Pinpoint bleeding around hair follicles, and " ... this picture, can occur as a result of scurvy. Bleeding along the gums is common. This disease ...

  4. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other harmful ... bleeding and infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ...

  5. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for these devices are not known. Prescription medicine Finasteride: The FDA approved this medicine to treat men ... hair re-growth in many (about 66%) men. Finasteride works by stopping the body from making a ...

  6. Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shultz, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

  7. Spontaneous Gingivitis Related to Hair Penetration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Aya; Sonoda, Jiro; Seki, Yuki; Taketa, Yoshikazu; Ohta, Etsuko; Nakano, Kyoko; Inomata, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Toyohiko; Tsukidate, Kazuo; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Maxillary gingivae from male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats at 12, 16, 21, and 34 weeks of age were examined histologically. The incidence of gingivitis was approximately 40%, with no age or sex predilection, and was most frequent between the first and second molar. Lesions were characterized by acute focal neutrophilic infiltration into the gingival mucosa, occasionally with inflammatory exudate. In severe cases, inflammation extended to the periodontal ligament with abscess formation, and adjacent alveolar bone destruction/resorption. The most characteristic finding was the presence of hair shafts associated with the lesion, which was observed in approximately 80% of the rats with gingivitis. These findings suggest that molar gingivitis occurs in rats from an early age and persists thereafter, and that the main cause of gingivitis in rats is hair penetration into the gingiva. It would be prudent to keep these background lesions in mind as potential modifiers in toxicity studies. PMID:22988343

  8. Gloriosa superba ingestion: Hair loss and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Khanam, P. S.; Sangeetha, B.; Kumar, B. V.; Kiran, U.; Priyadarshini, P. I.; Ram, R.; Sridhar, M. S.; Kumar, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that grows wild in several parts of South India. Tubers of this plant contain several alkaloids. Acute intoxication following the ingestion of G. superba results in gastrointestinal and haematological abnormalities, hepatic and renal insufficiency, cardiotoxicity and hair loss. We present a case with typical features of G superba toxicity. PMID:26060369

  9. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  10. Defining BMP functions in the hair follicle by conditional ablation of BMP receptor IA.

    PubMed

    Kobielak, Krzysztof; Pasolli, H Amalia; Alonso, Laura; Polak, Lisa; Fuchs, Elaine

    2003-11-10

    Using conditional gene targeting in mice, we show that BMP receptor IA is essential for the differentiation of progenitor cells of the inner root sheath and hair shaft. Without BMPRIA activation, GATA-3 is down-regulated and its regulated control of IRS differentiation is compromised. In contrast, Lef1 is up-regulated, but its regulated control of hair differentiation is still blocked, and BMPRIA-null follicles fail to activate Lef1/beta-catenin-regulated genes, including keratin genes. Wnt-mediated transcriptional activation can be restored by transfecting BMPRIA-null keratinocytes with a constitutively activated beta-catenin. This places the block downstream from Lef1 expression but upstream from beta-catenin stabilization. Because mice lacking the BMP inhibitor Noggin fail to express Lef1, our findings support a model, whereby a sequential inhibition and then activation of BMPRIA is necessary to define a band of hair progenitor cells, which possess enough Lef1 and stabilized beta-catenin to activate the hair specific keratin genes and generate the hair shaft.

  11. Defining BMP functions in the hair follicle by conditional ablation of BMP receptor IA

    PubMed Central

    Kobielak, Krzysztof; Pasolli, H. Amalia; Alonso, Laura; Polak, Lisa; Fuchs, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Using conditional gene targeting in mice, we show that BMP receptor IA is essential for the differentiation of progenitor cells of the inner root sheath and hair shaft. Without BMPRIA activation, GATA-3 is down-regulated and its regulated control of IRS differentiation is compromised. In contrast, Lef1 is up-regulated, but its regulated control of hair differentiation is still blocked, and BMPRIA-null follicles fail to activate Lef1/β-catenin–regulated genes, including keratin genes. Wnt-mediated transcriptional activation can be restored by transfecting BMPRIA-null keratinocytes with a constitutively activated β-catenin. This places the block downstream from Lef1 expression but upstream from β-catenin stabilization. Because mice lacking the BMP inhibitor Noggin fail to express Lef1, our findings support a model, whereby a sequential inhibition and then activation of BMPRIA is necessary to define a band of hair progenitor cells, which possess enough Lef1 and stabilized β-catenin to activate the hair specific keratin genes and generate the hair shaft. PMID:14610062

  12. Protocols for Ectopic Hair Growth from Transplanted Whisker Follicles on the Spinal Cord of Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenluo; Liu, Fang; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Isolated whisker follicles from nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) mice, containing hair-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, were histocultured in three dimensions on Gelfoam(®) for 3 weeks for subsequent transplantation to the spinal cord in order to heal an induced injury with the HAP stem cells. The hair shafts were removed from Gelfoam(®)-histocultured whisker follicles, and the remaining parts of the whisker follicles, containing GFP-nestin-expressing (HAP) stem cells, were transplanted into the injured spinal cord of nude mice, along with the Gelfoam(®). After 90 days, the mice were sacrificed and the spinal cord injuries were observed to have healed. ND-GFP expression was intense at the healed area of the spinal cord, as observed by fluorescence microscopy, demonstrating that the HAP stem cells were involved in healing the spinal cord. The transplanted whisker follicles produced remarkably long hair shafts in the spinal cord over 90 days and curved and enclosed the spinal cord. This result changes our concept of hair growth, demonstrating it is not limited to the skin and that hair growth appears related to HAP stem cells as both increased in tandem on the spinal cord.

  13. Topical calcitriol enhances normal hair regrowth but does not prevent chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Schilli, M B; Handjiski, B; Menrad, A; Henz, B M; Plonka, P

    1996-10-01

    Using a murine model that mimics chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) in humans particularly well, we show here that in contrast to previously reported CIA-protective effects in neonatal rats, topical calcitriol does not prevent CIA in adolescent mice but enhances the regrowth of normally pigmented hair shafts. When, prior to injecting 1 X 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide i.p., 0.2 microg calcitriol or vehicle alone were administered topically to the back skin of C57BL/6 mice with all hair follicles in anagen, no significant macroscopic differences in the onset and severity of CIA were seen. However, hair shaft regrowth after CIA, which is often retarded and patchy, thus displaying severe and sometimes persistent pigmentation disorders, was significantly accelerated, enhanced, and qualitatively improved in test compared with control mice. Histomorphometric analysis suggests that this is related to the fact that calcitriol-pretreated follicles favor the "dystrophic catagen pathway" of response to chemical injury, ie., a follicular repair strategy allowing for the unusually fast reconstruction of a new, undamaged anagen hair bulb. Thus, it may be unrealistic to expect that topical calcitriol can prevent human CIA, but topical calcitriols may well enhance the regrowth of a normal hair coat.

  14. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100... § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100... § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100... § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100... § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100... § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will not go through or under them; gates shall be closed except when loading...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the... ladder, wire rope ladder, or other extension ladders shall be used from the fixed ladder or lower...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the... ladder, wire rope ladder, or other extension ladders shall be used from the fixed ladder or lower...

  1. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-12-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder-associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75(A161T) and KRT75(E337K), are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75(A161T) variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries.

  2. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R.; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L.; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder–associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75A161T and KRT75E337K, are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75A161T variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:25347471

  3. Enhancement of Human Hair Growth Using Ecklonia cava Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyoseung; Cho, A-Ri; Kim, Dong Young; Munkhbayer, Semchin; Choi, Soon-Jin; Jang, Sunhyae; Kim, Seong Ho; Shin, Hyeon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background Ecklonia cava is a brown alga that contains various compounds, including carotenoids, fucoidans, and phlorotannins. E. cava polyphenols (ECPs) are known to increase fibroblast survival. The human dermal papilla cell (hDPC) has the properties of mesenchymal-origin fibroblasts. Objective This study aims to investigate the effect of ECPs on human hair growth promotion in vitro and ex vivo. Methods MTT assays were conducted to examine the effect of ECPs on hDPC proliferation. Hair growth was measured using ex-vivo hair follicle cultures. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate the mRNA expression of various growth factors in ECP-treated hDPCs. Results Treatment with 10 µg/ml purified polyphenols from E. cava (PPE) enhanced the proliferation of hDPCs 30.3% more than in the negative control (p<0.001). Furthermore, 0.1 µg/ml PPE extended the human hair shaft 30.8% longer than the negative control over 9 days (p<0.05). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA expression increased 3.2-fold in hDPCs following treatment with 6 µg/ml PPE (p<0.05). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression was also increased 2.0-fold by 3 µg/ml PPE (p<0.05). Treatment with 10 µg/ml PPE reduced oxidative stress in hDPCs (p<0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that PPE could enhance human hair growth. This can be explained by hDPC proliferation coupled with increases in growth factors such as IGF-1 and VEGF. Reducing oxidative stress is also thought to help increase hDPCs. These favorable results suggest that PPE is a promising therapeutic candidate for hair loss. PMID:26848214

  4. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which hair follicles produce. Follicles are structures in ... grow hair. With aging, the follicles make less melanin, and this causes gray hair. Graying often begins ...

  5. Fiber-Optic Sensor Would Detect Movements Of Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschak, Edmund J.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensor senses both rotational speed and axial displacement of shaft in motor, pump, or other rotating machine. Does not require magnetic materials, notches, or grooves in shaft. Required modification of shaft is etching or plating surface to make ring black around half circumference and reflective around other half along short length at one end or some other convenient location. Triangular bundle of sending and receiving optical fibers aimed at black/reflective ring on shaft. Frequency and amplitude of output pulses of fiber-optic probe indicates rotational frequency and axial position of shaft.

  6. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics.

  7. The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

    Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

  8. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 μm in length, and 40 μm in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  9. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  10. Femoral shaft stress fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hershman, E B; Lombardo, J; Bergfeld, J A

    1990-01-01

    Stress fractures of the femoral shaft in athletes occur most commonly in the proximal third of the femur. They can, however, also be found in the mid- or distal third. Conservative treatment is highly successful in healing these fractures without complications. Athletes can usually return to activity in 8 to 14 weeks. Recognition of the symptoms characteristic of these fractures (vague thigh pain, diffuse tenderness, no trauma) will assist early diagnosis. Early definitive diagnosis can be made by radionuclide scanning or later, by plain radiography, if symptoms have been present for a sufficient period. Diagnosis is not limited to novice runners since runners with significant mileage, or baseball or basketball players, can develop femoral shaft stress fractures.

  11. Evaluation of hair humidity resistance/moisturization from hair elasticity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Average water regain and hair elasticity (Young's modulus) of virgin dark brown and bleached hair fibers under different relative humidity (RH) were determined. It is observed that hair water regain increases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 40-85%; and the remaining percent of hair elasticity decreases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 50-80%. Therefore, measurements of average hair elasticity at 50% and 80% RH, respectively, under various equilibrium times before and after cosmetic treatments can be used to evaluate effects of cosmetic treatments on water adsorption behavior of hair-improvement in hair humidity resistance or enhancement in hair moisture uptake. A Hair Humidity Resistance Factor (H(2)RF) has been defined. If R(2)HF > 1, the product improves hair humidity resistance-anti-frizz; if R(2)HF < 1, the product enhances hair water adsorption; when R(2)HF approximately 1, the product has no significant effect on hair water adsorption behavior. This method was applied to evaluate anti-frizz performance of several shampoo formulations containing Polyquaternium-10, or Polyquaternium-70, or Polyquaternium-67, or Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. It was found PQ-70 shampoo showed the highest H(2)RF value and the best anti-frizz performance among these tested shampoos. The results were consistent with those obtained from Image Analysis.

  12. Causes of hair loss and the developments in hair rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Rushton, D H; Norris, M J; Dover, R; Busuttil, Nina

    2002-02-01

    Hair is considered to be a major component of an individual's general appearance. The psychological impact of hair loss results in a measurably detrimental change in self-esteem and is associated with images of reduced worth. It is not surprising that both men and women find hair loss a stressful experience. Genetic hair loss is the major problem affecting men and by the age of 50, up to 50% will be affected. Initial attempts to regenerate the lost hair have centred on applying a topical solution of between 2% to 5% minoxidil; however, the results proved disappointing. Recently, finasteride, a type II 5alpha reductase inhibitor has been found to regrow a noticeable amount of hair in about 40% of balding men. Further developments in treatments have lead to the use of a dual type I and type II inhibitor where 90% of those treated regrow a noticeable amount of hair. In women the major cause of hair loss before the age of 50 is nutritional, with 30% affected. Increased and persistent hair shedding (chronic telogen effluvium) and reduced hair volume are the principle changes occurring. The main cause appears to be depleted iron stores, compromised by a suboptimal intake of the essential amino acid l-lysine. Correction of these imbalances stops the excessive hair loss and returns the hair back to its former glory. However, it can take many months to redress the situation. PMID:18498491

  13. Evaluation of hair humidity resistance/moisturization from hair elasticity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Average water regain and hair elasticity (Young's modulus) of virgin dark brown and bleached hair fibers under different relative humidity (RH) were determined. It is observed that hair water regain increases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 40-85%; and the remaining percent of hair elasticity decreases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 50-80%. Therefore, measurements of average hair elasticity at 50% and 80% RH, respectively, under various equilibrium times before and after cosmetic treatments can be used to evaluate effects of cosmetic treatments on water adsorption behavior of hair-improvement in hair humidity resistance or enhancement in hair moisture uptake. A Hair Humidity Resistance Factor (H(2)RF) has been defined. If R(2)HF > 1, the product improves hair humidity resistance-anti-frizz; if R(2)HF < 1, the product enhances hair water adsorption; when R(2)HF approximately 1, the product has no significant effect on hair water adsorption behavior. This method was applied to evaluate anti-frizz performance of several shampoo formulations containing Polyquaternium-10, or Polyquaternium-70, or Polyquaternium-67, or Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. It was found PQ-70 shampoo showed the highest H(2)RF value and the best anti-frizz performance among these tested shampoos. The results were consistent with those obtained from Image Analysis. PMID:17728940

  14. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  15. Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  16. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal.

  17. Bone mineral density of the spine and radius shaft in children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH).

    PubMed

    Oliveri, M B; Cassinelli, H; Bergadá, C; Mautalen, C A

    1991-02-01

    X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is characterized by inadequate skeletal mineralization. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the radius shaft and the lumbar spine was determined in 13 children with XLH. Ten patients were on treatment, whereas three patients had discontinued treatment 20-32 months prior to this study. Two of them had radiological evidence of rickets. The radius shaft BMD was significantly diminished: Z score was -1.33 +/- 0.89 (P less than 0.001), while the BMD of lumbar spine was significantly augmented (Z score +1.95 +/- 1.17, P less than 0.001). A positive correlation was found between the Z scores for the BMD of the radius shaft and spine. The two patients with overt rickets had lower radius shaft BMD values and a lesser increment of BMD of the spine. The BMD deficit of cortical bone may be related to the lack of efficacy of the treatment and/or to an intrinsic defect of the bone on this disease. On the other hand, the augmented BMD of the lumbar spine might reflect the overabundance of partially mineralized osteoid. The determination of the BMD of the radius shaft by SPA was a sensitive method for detecting abnormalities of the bone mass in XLH patients under treatment without radiological signs of rickets.

  18. A 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the ability of an extra-strength marine protein supplement to promote hair growth and decrease shedding in women with self-perceived thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Ablon, Glynis

    2015-01-01

    An oral marine protein supplement (MPS) is designed to promote hair growth in women with temporary thinning hair (Viviscal Extra Strength; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL). This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the ability of MPS to promote terminal hair growth in adult women with self-perceived thinning hair associated with poor diet, stress, hormonal influences, or abnormal menstrual cycles. Adult women with thinning hair were randomized to receive MPS (N = 30) or placebo (N = 30) twice daily for 90 days. Digital images were obtained from a 4 cm(2) area scalp target area. Each subject's hair was washed and shed hairs were collected and counted. After 90 days, these measures were repeated and subjects completed Quality of Life and Self-Assessment Questionnaires. MPS-treated subjects achieved a significant increase in the number of terminal hairs within the target area (P < 0.0001) which was significantly greater than placebo (P < 0.0001). MPS use also resulted in significantly less hair shedding (P = 0.002) and higher total Self-Assessment (P = 0.006) and Quality of Life Questionnaires scores (P = 0.035). There were no reported adverse events. MPS promotes hair growth and decreases hair loss in women suffering from temporary thinning hair. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02297360.

  19. A 3-Month, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Ability of an Extra-Strength Marine Protein Supplement to Promote Hair Growth and Decrease Shedding in Women with Self-Perceived Thinning Hair

    PubMed Central

    Ablon, Glynis

    2015-01-01

    An oral marine protein supplement (MPS) is designed to promote hair growth in women with temporary thinning hair (Viviscal Extra Strength; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL). This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the ability of MPS to promote terminal hair growth in adult women with self-perceived thinning hair associated with poor diet, stress, hormonal influences, or abnormal menstrual cycles. Adult women with thinning hair were randomized to receive MPS (N = 30) or placebo (N = 30) twice daily for 90 days. Digital images were obtained from a 4 cm2 area scalp target area. Each subject's hair was washed and shed hairs were collected and counted. After 90 days, these measures were repeated and subjects completed Quality of Life and Self-Assessment Questionnaires. MPS-treated subjects achieved a significant increase in the number of terminal hairs within the target area (P < 0.0001) which was significantly greater than placebo (P < 0.0001). MPS use also resulted in significantly less hair shedding (P = 0.002) and higher total Self-Assessment (P = 0.006) and Quality of Life Questionnaires scores (P = 0.035). There were no reported adverse events. MPS promotes hair growth and decreases hair loss in women suffering from temporary thinning hair. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02297360. PMID:25883641

  20. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  1. Hair pulling: a review.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2005-10-01

    Hair pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. This behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. It has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. The hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. Hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests more often in females than in males, is associated with psychogenic distress, and resists treatment. Research data collected from affected animals are probably not normative, hence scientifically unreliable. The preemptive correction of husbandry deficiencies causing long-term stress may prevent the development of this bizarre behaviour in healthy subjects.

  2. Hair pulling: a review.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2005-10-01

    Hair pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. This behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. It has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. The hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. Hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests more often in females than in males, is associated with psychogenic distress, and resists treatment. Research data collected from affected animals are probably not normative, hence scientifically unreliable. The preemptive correction of husbandry deficiencies causing long-term stress may prevent the development of this bizarre behaviour in healthy subjects. PMID:16197702

  3. The Growth of Human Hair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  4. Shaft-Angle Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    A proposed brushless shaft-angle sensor for use in extreme cold would offer significant advantages over prior such sensors: (1) It would be capable of operating in extreme cold; and (2) Its electronic circuitry would be simpler than that of a permanent-magnet/ multiple-Hall-probe shaft-angle sensor that would otherwise ordinarily be used to obtain comparable angular resolution. The principle of operation of the proposed shaft-angle sensor requires that the shaft (or at least the portion of the shaft at the sensor location) be electrically insulating. The affected portion of the shaft would be coated with metal around half of its circumference. Two half-circular-cylinder electrodes having a radius slightly larger than that of the shaft would be mounted on the stator, concentric with the shaft, so that there would be a small radial gap between them and the outer surface of the shaft. Hence, there would be a capacitance between each stationary electrode and the metal coat on the shaft.

  5. Study of hair shine and hair surface smoothness.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy; Pereira, Abel; Zhu, Sam

    2009-01-01

    A new hair visual appearance measurement system called SAMBA from Bossa Nova Technologies (Venice, CA) has been employed to measure effects of cosmetic treatments on hair shine and surface smoothness of different types of hair samples. Experimental procedures for evaluations of shine value and surface cuticle angle of hair samples treated with rinse-off products (shampoo or/and conditioner) have been successfully established and applied. We demonstrated that hair spray and conditioner formulas containing PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate (PBEM) (1) showed great performance on shine enhancement for hairs with light and medium colors. Instrumental measurement of shine values was also conducted to compare different commercial shampoo and conditioner products. This study showed reliable utility of SAMBA system and demonstrated the shine enhancement of PBEM in hair care. PMID:19450419

  6. Microrefined microfollicular hair transplant: a new modification in hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit

    2014-09-01

    : Hair transplant is the most common cosmetic surgery procedure in men; at our center, we perform nearly 40 transplants a month, with nearly 450 procedures in a year. Current techniques of hair transplant are well established and several authors have had remarkable results using the current techniques of microfollicular hair transplant. Orentreich described hair transplant, Shiell has reviewed current techniques in his paper, whereas Rose reviews the latest innovations in hair transplant including Neograft and robotic procedures. We present our modifications to the process based on our experience of more than 1000 cases in the last 3 years.Microrefined microfollicular hair transplant is a procedure with innovations at each step of the standard microfollicular hair transplant procedure to improve results.The steps of the procedure are as follows: PMID:24374401

  7. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Bruno A.

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control. PMID:26918186

  8. Drug-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes. PMID:27280198

  9. Drug-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    Hair loss can have major psychological consequences. It can be due to a wide variety of causes, including hormonal disorders, dietary factors, infections, inflammation, trauma, emotional factors, and cancer. Drugs can also induce hair loss, by interacting with the hair growth cycle. Drug-induced hair loss may be immediate or delayed, sudden or gradual, and diffuse or localised. It is usually reversible after drug discontinuation. The drugs most often implicated in hair loss are anticancer agents, interferon, azole antifungals, lithium, immunosuppressants, and many other drugs belonging to a variety of pharmacological classes.

  10. [Formaldehyde in hair shampoos].

    PubMed

    Bork, K; Heise, D; Rosinus, A

    1979-01-01

    In most hair shampoos commercially available in Western Germany formaldehyde or formaldehyde liberating substances serve as efficient preservatives especially in shampoos of the lower price group. Besides, PHB-ester, mercury containing substances and since recently brome compounds are used for this purpose. We observed a 15 year old patient who developed an allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde in a hair shampoo. However, compared to the widespread opportunities of exposure allergic contact dermatitis caused by hair shampoos is not very frequent. For this rarity of formaldehyde dermatitis caused by shampoos the short period of application and the low concentration because of the high dilution and perhaps the low contact dermatitis reactivity of the scalp are responsible. After all only two out of thirtyone thoroughly questioned patients, who had acquired a professional formaldehyde sensitivity elsewhere, reported a contact dermatitis caused by shampoos, which by the way appeared in the orbital region as typical. Probably allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde in shampoos will be expected in patients with a formaldehyde sensitivity acquired formerly elsewhere, especially professionally. To those patients formaldehyde free hair shampoos should be recommended. The declaration of formaledehyde in cosmetics, which will be legally obligatory in Germany in 1979, will be valuable for finding out the alternate products free of formaldehyde.

  11. Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

    2004-10-01

    The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections.

  12. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Keratinocyte Progenitor Cell Expansion, Differentiation and Hair Follicle Regression by miR-22.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shukai; Li, Feifei; Meng, Qingyong; Zhao, Yiqiang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hongquan; Xue, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Lengner, Christopher; Yu, Zhengquan

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicles (HF) undergo precisely regulated recurrent cycles of growth, cessation, and rest. The transitions from anagen (growth), to catagen (regression), to telogen (rest) involve a physiological involution of the HF. This process is likely coordinated by a variety of mechanisms including apoptosis and loss of growth factor signaling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying follicle involution after hair keratinocyte differentiation and hair shaft assembly remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a highly conserved microRNA, miR-22 is markedly upregulated during catagen and peaks in telogen. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in vivo, we find that miR-22 overexpression leads to hair loss by promoting anagen-to-catagen transition of the HF, and that deletion of miR-22 delays entry to catagen and accelerates the transition from telogen to anagen. Ectopic activation of miR-22 results in hair loss due to the repression a hair keratinocyte differentiation program and keratinocyte progenitor expansion, as well as promotion of apoptosis. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that miR-22 directly represses numerous transcription factors upstream of phenotypic keratin genes, including Dlx3, Foxn1, and Hoxc13. We conclude that miR-22 is a critical post-transcriptional regulator of the hair cycle and may represent a novel target for therapeutic modulation of hair growth.

  13. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates the hair-inductive capacity of dermal papilla cells: therapeutic potential for hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Noriyuki; Inoue, Keita; Chikanishi, Toshihiro; Fujiki, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Hanako; Kato, Harunosuke; Eto, Hitomi; Doi, Kentaro; Itami, Satoshi; Kato, Shigeaki; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2012-08-01

    Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) have the potential to induce differentiation of epithelial stem cells into hair, and Wnt signaling is deeply involved in the initiation process. The functional limitation of expanded adult DPCs has been a difficult challenge for cell-based hair regrowth therapy. We previously reported that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD(3)) upregulates expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, both features of hair-inducing human DPCs (hDPCs). In this study, we further examined the effects and signaling pathways associated with VD(3) actions on DPCs. VD(3) suppressed hDPC proliferation in a dose-dependent, noncytotoxic manner. Among the Wnt-related genes investigated, Wnt10b expression was significantly upregulated by VD(3) in hDPCs. Wnt10b upregulation, as well as upregulation of ALPL (ALP, liver/bone/kidney) and TGF-β2, by VD(3) was specific in hDPCs and not detected in human dermal fibroblasts. Screening of paracrine or endocrine factors in the skin indicated that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) upregulated Wnt10b gene expression, although synergistic upregulation (combined atRA and VD(3)) was not seen. RNA interference with vitamin D receptor (VDR) revealed that VD(3) upregulation of Wnt10b, ALPL, and TGF-β2 was mediated through the genomic VDR pathway. In a rat model of de novo hair regeneration by murine DPC transplantation, pretreatment with VD(3) significantly enhanced hair folliculogenesis. Specifically, a greater number of outgrowing hair shafts and higher maturation of regenerated follicles were observed. Together, these data suggest that VD(3) may promote functional differentiation of DPCs and be useful in preserving the hair follicle-inductive capacity of cultured DPCs for hair regeneration therapies.

  14. Metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids in hair--proof of consumption or false friends for interpretation?

    PubMed

    Franz, Florian; Angerer, Verena; Hermanns-Clausen, Maren; Auwärter, Volker; Moosmann, Bjoern

    2016-05-01

    The detection of drug metabolites in hair is widely accepted as a proof for systemic uptake of the drug, unless the metabolites can be formed as artefacts. However, regarding synthetic cannabinoids, not much is known about mechanisms of incorporation into hair. For a correct interpretation concerning hair findings of these compounds and their metabolites, it is necessary to identify the different routes of incorporation and to assess their contribution to analytical findings. This study presents the results of the LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of an authentic hair sample taken from a patient with a known history of heavy consumption of synthetic cannabinoids. In the authentic hair sample, 5F-PB-22 and AB-CHMINACA as well as their main metabolites 5F-PB-22 3-carboxyindole, PB-22 5-OH-pentyl, and AB-CHMINACA valine were detected in all segments, comprising segments grown in a time period where the substances had not been distributed on the 'legal high' market. To enable interpretation of the results regarding the distribution of the detected analytes along the hair shaft, the stability of 5F-PB-22 and AB-CHMINACA in hair matrix and under thermal stress was assessed. The stability tests revealed that the three 'metabolites' are also formed in externally contaminated hair after storage of the samples under different conditions. In addition, 5F-PB-22 3-carboxyindole and AB-CHMINACA valine were identified as degradation products in smoke condensate. Therefore, interpretation of 'metabolite' findings of compounds comprising chemically labile amide/ester bonds or 5-fluoro-pentyl side chains should be carried out with utmost care, taking into account the different mechanisms of formation and incorporation into hair.

  15. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  16. Twin-capacitive shaft angle encoder with analog output signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Wilson, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A precision capacitive shaft encoder providing a dc signal corresponding to the angular position of a shaft is described. Two variable capacitances are coupled in tandem by a rotatable shaft. Each capacitor has a capacitance that varies linearly with a change in the angular position of the shaft. The sum of the two capacitances is always constant for any angular position of the shaft. Each capacitance is alternately coupled to a reference dc voltage and a discharge circuit. The capacitances are electrically coupled in series and the charge periodically acquired at the junction of the capacitance is a function of the position of the shaft. An error-compensating voltage is imposed on the junction when the capacitances are coupled to the reference voltages. The junction is coupled to sample-and-hold apparatus provided with a error-correcting circuit.

  17. Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A new standard for the design of transmission shafting is reported. Computed was the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

  18. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  19. 5. SPARE SHIPPER SHAFT IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE PINION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SPARE SHIPPER SHAFT IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE PINION GEARS ON SHAFT. END OF DIPPER STICK IN FOREGROUND, NOTE RACK IRON ON BOTTOM OF STICK, WHICH MESHES WITH GEARS ON SHIPPER SHAFT. LIVING QUARTERS IN BACKGROUND. CYLINDER AND SHEAVES FOR OPERATING BULL WHEEL (FOR SWINGING BOOM) ON LOWER RIGHT. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSEUP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING THE STEEL PLATE BULKHEAD THROUGH A STUFFING BOX AND AND ALSO SHOWING THE CONTROL GATE SHAFT. THIS PARTICULAR UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1916. THE ADMISSION OF WATER TO ALL FOUR RUNNERS IN A PENSTOCK UNIT COULD SIMULTANEOUSLY BE CONTROLLED BY THE CONTROL SHAFT ON THE LEFT. (899) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. Age-induced hair greying - the multiple effects of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Seiberg, M

    2013-12-01

    An obvious sign of ageing is hair greying, or the loss of pigment production and deposition within the hair shafts. Numerous mechanisms, acting at different levels and follicular locations, contribute to hair greying, ranging from melanocyte stem cells defects to follicular melanocyte death. One key issue that is in common to these processes is oxidative damage. At the hair follicle stem cells niche, oxidative stress, accelerated by B-cell lymphoma 2 gene (BCL-2) depletion, leads to selective apoptosis and diminution of melanocyte stem cells, reducing the repopulation of newly formed anagen follicles. Melanotic bulbar melanocytes express high levels of BCL-2 to enable survival from melanogenesis- and ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks. With ageing, the bulbar melanocyte expression of anti-oxidant proteins such as BCL-2, and possibly TRP-2, is reduced, and the dedicated enzymatic anti-oxidant defence system throughout the follicle weakens, resulting in enhanced oxidative stress. A marked reduction in catalase expression and activity results in millimolar accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, contributing to bulbar melanocyte malfunction and death. Interestingly, amelanotic melanocytes at the outer root sheath (ORS) are somewhat less affected by these processes and survive for longer time even within the white, ageing hair follicles. Better understanding of the overtime susceptibility of melanocytes to oxidative stress at the different follicular locations might yield clues to possible therapies for the prevention and reversal of hair greying.

  2. Stress-linked cortisol concentrations in hair: what we know and what we need to know

    PubMed Central

    Sharpley, Christopher F.; McFarlane, James R.; Slominski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Cortisol has major impacts upon a range of physiological homeostatic mechanisms and plays an important role in stress, anxiety and depression. Although traditionally described as being solely synthesised via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, recent animal and human studies indicate that cortisol may also be synthesised via a functionally-equivalent ‘peripheral’ HPA-like process within the skin, principally within hair follicles, melanocytes, epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Current data indicate that basal levels of cortisol within hair vary across body regions, show diurnal variation effects, respond to the onset and cessation of environmental stressors, and may demonstrate some degree of localisation in those responses. There are conflicting data regarding the presence of variability in cortisol concentrations across the length of the hair shaft, thus challenging the suggestion that hair cortisol may be used as a historical biomarker of stress and questioning the primary origin of cortisol in hair. The need to comprehensively ‘map’ the hair cortisol response for age, gender, diurnal rhythm and responsivity to stressor type is discussed, plus the major issue of if, and how, the peripheral and central HPA systems communicate. PMID:22150070

  3. An examination of the utility of a nuclear DNA/mitochondrial DNA duplex qPCR assay to assess surface decontamination of hair.

    PubMed

    Date-Chong, Mavis; Buoncristiani, Martin R; Aceves, Margaret; Orrego, Cristián

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study was to compare two commonly used methods for the surface decontamination of human hair shafts, and to evaluate the use of a duplex real-time qPCR assay to assess decontamination effectiveness for the purpose of mitochondrial DNA typing. Hair shafts of known mitochondrial DNA haplotype were coated with undiluted saliva, semen or blood, each of known mitochondrial haplotype distinct from the test hair. Surface decontamination was conducted by enzymatic treatment with Terg-a-zyme™ and by chemical treatment with dilutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, bleach). Following DNA extraction, a duplex (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA) real-time qPCR assay was used to quantify mitochondrial DNA and to test for surface contamination by quantifying the exogenous nuclear DNA not removed from the hair shaft. The NaClO treatment was found to be more effective for removing surface contamination than the Terg-a-zyme™ treatment, and it was procedurally simpler to implement, resulting in a significant savings of sample processing time. Exposure to 3% NaClO for up to two minutes had no detrimental effect on quantity or typing of the mitochondrial DNA belonging to the hair. In addition, we demonstrated that the duplex real-time PCR assay is a convenient early-warning diagnostic method for the detection of the presence of external DNA contamination, providing an assessment of the purity of the sample prior to embarking on further analysis by more laborious mitochondrial DNA typing methods.

  4. Ultra-structural hair alterations in Friedreich's ataxia: A scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, F Pinar; Kasirga, U Baran; Celik, H Hamdi

    2015-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder involving progressive damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems and cardiomyopathy. FRDA is caused by the silencing of the FXN gene and reduced levels of the encoded protein, frataxin. Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein that functions primarily in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis. Skin disorders including hair abnormalities have previously been reported in patients with mitochondrial disorders. However, to our knowledge, ultra-structural hair alterations in FRDA were not demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine ultra-structural alterations in the hairs of FRDA patients as well as carriers. Hair specimen from four patients, who are in different stages of the disease, and two carriers were examined by scanning electron microscope. Thin and weak hair follicles with absence of homogeneities on the cuticular surface, local damages of the cuticular layer, cuticular fractures were detected in both carriers and patients, but these alterations were much more prominent in the hair follicles of patients. In addition, erosions on the surface of the cuticle and local deep cavities just under the cuticular level were observed only in patients. Indistinct cuticular pattern, pores on the cuticular surface, and presence of concavities on the hair follicle were also detected in patients in later stages of the disease. According to our results, progression of the disease increased the alterations on hair structure. We suggest that ultra-structural alterations observed in hair samples might be due to oxidative stress caused by deficient frataxin expression in mitochondria.

  5. The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia M.; Sipe, Conor W.; Géléoc, Gwenaëllle S.G.; Lu, Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Morphogenesis of sensory hair cells, in particular their mechanotransduction organelle, the stereociliary bundle, requires highly organized remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The roles of Rho family small GTPases during this process remain unknown. Here we show that deletion of Rac1 in the otic epithelium resulted in severe defects in cochlear epithelial morphogenesis. The mutant cochlea was severely shortened with a reduced number of auditory hair cells and cellular organization of the auditory sensory epithelium was abnormal. Rac1 mutant hair cells also displayed defects in planar cell polarity and morphogenesis of the stereociliary bundle, including bundle fragmentation or deformation, and mispositioning or absence of the kinocilium. We further demonstrate that a Rac-PAK signaling pathway mediates kinocilium-stereocilia interactions and is required for cohesion of the stereociliary bundle. Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle. PMID:20016102

  6. Quantifying hair shape and hair damage induced during reshaping of hair.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of hair shape, either to straighten or curl hair, is carried out on a grand scale in the hair care consumer market. Often, such changes are brought about through chemical or physical treatment, resulting in changes to hair chemistry. In this article, we review existing and present new data on methods to assess the efficacy of such treatments, mostly concentrating on imaging technologies used in conjunction with image analysis. In addition, we introduce spectroscopic imaging techniques and fluorescence spectrophotometry as tools to assess the biochemical state of the hair fiber as a result of hair shape modification regimens. Finally, we demonstrate how the structural integrity of the fiber is monitored with dynamic scanning calorimetry and traditional mechanical testing of the tensile properties of hair.

  7. Determination of trace elements in hair of Wilson's disease patients using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Yin; Liu, Pingsheng; Zhang, Runhua; Liu, Guilin; Zhang, Zhengxin; Feng, Yinkun; Liu, Guodong; Sun, Guiqin; Wang, Shizhen

    1987-03-01

    The contents of nine elements (P, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Se, Sr) in the hair of 52 patients with Wilson's disease (HLD) and 52 well matched healthy controls were determined by the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method and they were in good agreement with published data. The apparently abnormal contents of Ca and Cu in the patient's hair were not observed. The Zn content of hair in Wilson's disease patients with splenomegaly was obviously higher than that in the matched controls ( P < 0.025). The abnormal content of Zn seems to indicate that Wilson's disease is a disease with a multielemental metabolic disturbance. Our results provide a proper ground for treatment of Wilson's disease patients with zinc sulphate. In contrast to reports from western countries, the content of Cu in the hair of healthy females was lower than that of healthy males.

  8. 30 CFR 56.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 56... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage around open shaft compartments shall be provided on landings with more than one entrance to the shaft....

  9. The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Eun-JI; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jeon, You-Jin; Kang, Sung-Myung; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs) with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3β level, β-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of β-catenin pathway, and the 5α-reductase inhibition. PMID:23708185

  10. Induction of Hair Growth by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in 1,763 MHz Radiofrequency-Irradiated Hair Follicle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Cho, A-Ri; Jeon, Soon-Ik; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Kyu Han; Park, Gun-Sik; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Oh Sang; Park, Woong-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) radiation does not transfer high energy to break the covalent bonds of macromolecules, but these low energy stimuli might be sufficient to induce molecular responses in a specific manner. We monitored the effect of 1,763 MHz RF radiation on cultured human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) by evaluating changes in the expression of cytokines related to hair growth. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hDPCs was significantly induced upon RF radiation at the specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg, which resulted in increased expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) proteins and increased phosphorylation of MAPK1 protein. Exposure to 10 W/kg RF radiation 1 h per day for 7 days significantly enhanced hair shaft elongation in ex vivo hair organ cultures. In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs. PMID:22164296

  11. Biomedical Analyses of Mice Body Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight as a Compliment of Human Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Introduction: To understand the effect of space environment characterized by microgravity and radiation on protein and mineral metabolisms is important for developing the countermeasures to the adverse effects happening on the astronauts who stay long-term in space. Thus JAXA has started a human research to study the effects of long-term exposure in space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing astronaut's hair grown in space since December 2009 (Experiment nicknamed "HAIR"). Ten human subjects who are the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will be expected to complete this experiment. Thanks to the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice which is presented and organized by AGI(Italian Space Agency), we can also have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples which will greatly compliment human hair experiment by enable us to conduct more detailed analysis with the expansion of skin analysis which is not include in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment such as microgravity and space radiation on mineral and protein metabolism, the biological responses to the stress levels, and the initial process of skin carcinogenesis by analyzing hair shaft, its root cells, and skin. Approach and Method In this experiment, we analyzed hair shaft, hair root and skin. Hair samples with skin were taken from 3-month space-flown mice and ground-control mice in the AGI's tissue sharing program in 2009. The sample numbers of space-flown mice and control-mice were three and six, respectively. And they were at the Mice Drawer System (MDS) in ISS and in the laboratory of Geneva University. For the hair shaft, the mineral balance is investi-gated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For hair root, the extracted RNA undergoes DNA microarray analysis, and will be further examined particular interests of gene-expression by real time Reverse Transcription

  12. FGF5 as a regulator of the hair growth cycle: evidence from targeted and spontaneous mutations.

    PubMed

    Hébert, J M; Rosenquist, T; Götz, J; Martin, G R

    1994-09-23

    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) is a secreted signaling protein. Mice homozygous for a predicted null allele of the Fgf5 gene, fgf5neo, produced by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, have abnormally long hair. This phenotype appears identical to that of mice homozygous for the spontaneous mutation angora (go). The fgf5neo and go mutations fail to complement one another, and exon 1 of Fgf5 is deleted in DNA from go homozygotes, demonstrating that go is a mutant allele of Fgf5. Expression of Fgf5 is detected in hair follicles from wild-type mice and is localized to the outer root sheath during the anagen VI phase of the hair growth cycle. These findings provide evidence that FGF5 functions as an inhibitor of hair elongation, thus identifying a molecule whose normal function is apparently to regulate one step in the progression of the follicle through the hair growth cycle.

  13. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  14. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  15. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  16. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  17. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair.

  18. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  19. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  20. 8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the northwest, with turbine shaft and thrust bearing visible in upper center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  1. Thermo-plastic analysis of a bowed sodium pump shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, E.O.

    1989-03-01

    A hollow sodium pump shaft was found to have a residual bow sufficient to cause unacceptable vibrations. Investigations suggested that the bow was caused by a sodium overfill event while the pump was shut down and the shaft was not turning. A rising sodium level with natural convection effects could result in local heating of the shaft. Even though the shaft may be essentially free, a local one-sided thermal loading may cause thermal stresses and plastic stains sufficient to give a residual bow when the thermal load is removed. A series of elastic-plastic analyses were carried out to assess the likelihood of the proposed mechanism's causing the residual bow. A special purpose computer program modelled the shaft as a Bernoulli beam. Isotropic hardening was evaluated by successive approximation. For each case studied, a loading sequence was followed by an assumed elastic unloading step, and the thermal loading zone was assumed small compared to the shaft length. These simplifying assumptions allowed parameterization of several variables--yield stress, thermal loading magnitude, extent of the heated zone around the shaft circumference, temperature distribution around the circumference, and shaft unrestrained/restrained conditions. Although the magnitude of the residual bow is not centered with the solution using mean parameters of this study, it is possible that a one-sided combination of parameter values did exist and that such a condition caused the bow under the proposed mechanism. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  2. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  3. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  4. BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  5. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  6. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  7. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  8. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  9. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  10. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  11. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  12. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  13. 29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. 7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT CENTER), VERTICAL SHAFT TO GOVERNOR WITH RACK-AND-PINION GEARING (LEFT), AND BELTS - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  15. Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-09-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88□0.82 g gallic acid/100 g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15□1.58 mg cyaniding chloride/100 g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50 mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death.

  16. Optical properties of human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Gregory B.; Ilyasov, Ildar K.; Prikhodko, Constantin V.

    1995-01-01

    Optical properties of human hair are the subject of great interest for the realization of any possible cosmetic applications. This paper represents the results of hair microstructure as an optical substance investigation, indicates melanin and keratin absorption spectra, and shows experimentally discovered anisotropia of optical properties of human hair. Radiation weakening coefficient value at the range from 450 up to 800 nm is estimated. Thresholds of hair destruction by Nd, Ho, Cu, and Er laser radiation are obtained. Perspectives of laser application for epilation and other medical purposes are evaluated.

  17. Nanomechanical responses of human hair.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Aniruddha; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Dalui, Srikanta; Acharya, Megha; Das, Pradip Sekhar; Chanda, Dipak Kr; Acharya, Saikat Deb; Sivaraman, Sankar Kalidas; Nath, Shekhar; Mandal, Ashok Kumar; Ghosh, Jiten; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Here we report the first ever studies on nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and Young׳s modulus for human hair of Indian origin. Three types of hair samples e.g., virgin hair samples (VH), bleached hair samples (BH) and Fe-tannin complex colour treated hair samples (FT) with the treatment by a proprietary hair care product are used in the present work. The proprietary hair care product involves a Fe-salt based formulation. The hair samples are characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) genesis line map, EDAX spot mapping, nanoindentation, tensile fracture, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The nanoindentation studies are conducted on the cross-sections of the VH, BH and FT hair samples. The results prove that the nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and Young׳s modulus are sensitive to measurement location e.g., cortex or medulla and presence or absence of the chemical treatment. Additional results obtained from the tensile fracture experiments establish that the trends reflected from the evaluations of the nanomechanical properties are general enough to hold good. Based on these observations a schematic model is developed. The model explains the present results in a qualitative yet satisfactory manner.

  18. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the-counter “depilatories” or cream hair removers: This method of hair removal is painless, but it’s important ... the cloth strip is quickly pulled off. This method of hair removal usually stings (when the cloth ...

  19. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: keratoderma with woolly hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions keratoderma with woolly hair keratoderma with woolly hair Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Keratoderma with woolly hair is a group of related conditions that affect ...

  1. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  2. Shaft instantaneous angular speed for blade vibration in rotating machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubran, Ahmed A.; Sinha, Jyoti K.

    2014-02-01

    Reliable blade health monitoring (BHM) in rotating machines like steam turbines and gas turbines, is a topic of research since decades to reduce machine down time, maintenance costs and to maintain the overall safety. Transverse blade vibration is often transmitted to the shaft as torsional vibration. The shaft instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is nothing but the representing the shaft torsional vibration. Hence the shaft IAS has been extracted from the measured encoder data during machine run-up to understand the blade vibration and to explore the possibility of reliable assessment of blade health. A number of experiments on an experimental rig with a bladed disk were conducted with healthy but mistuned blades and with different faults simulation in the blades. The measured shaft torsional vibration shows a distinct difference between the healthy and the faulty blade conditions. Hence, the observations are useful for the BHM in future. The paper presents the experimental setup, simulation of blade faults, experiments conducted, observations and results.

  3. Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-06-30

    We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

  4. Navigated femoral shaft fracture treatment: current status.

    PubMed

    Hawi, Nael; Haentjes, Jonas; Suero, Eduardo M; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Krettek, Christian; Stübig, Timo; Hüfner, Tobias; Citak, Musa

    2012-01-01

    Femoral malrotation is a common complication after internal fixation of a femoral shaft fracture. The only valid, objective monitoring method is computer tomography-assisted torsion measurement between the proximal and distal femur; unfortunately, this can only be carried out postoperatively. A difference of 15° compared to the contralateral femur is seen as an indication for revision. With the development of computer-assisted surgery, new possibilities for performing torsion control and correction intraoperatively has been introduced. These methods also allow for navigation-assisted definition of the optimal incision site, intramedullary access, femoral nail and interlocking. The main problem lies in the extra time of surgery, which is due to performing all the steps of the surgery navigated. The solution for this problem is "hybrid navigation", in which the surgeon can select the steps he needs from the navigation system, depending on his experience or surgical technique.

  5. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  6. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  7. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  8. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  9. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Główka, Eliza; Wosicka-Frąckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrzębska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation. PMID:25014763

  10. Glycerophospholipid analysis of Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) hair by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; McGuire, Liam P; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-03-01

    Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is composed largely of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. Glycerophospholipid proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

  11. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Główka, Eliza; Wosicka-Frąckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrzębska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation.

  12. Cyclosporine A stimulated hair growth from mouse vibrissae follicles in an organ culture model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenrong; Fan, Weixin; Yao, Kun

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is one of the most common side effects of systemic cyclosporine A therapy. It has been previously shown that cyclosporine A induces anagen and inhibits catagen development in mice. In the present study, to explore the mechanisms of cyclosporine A, we investigated the effects of cyclosporine A on hair shaft elongation, hair follicle cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mRNA expression of selected growth factors using an organ culture model of mouse vibrissae. In this model, cyclosporine A stimulated hair growth of normal mouse vibrissae follicles by inhibiting catagen-like development and promoting matrix cell proliferation. In addition, cyclosporine A caused an increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF), and inhibited follistatin expression. Our findings provide an explanation for the clinically observed effects of cyclosporine A on hair growth. The mouse vibrissae organ culture offers an attractive model for identifying factors involved in the modulation of hair growth. PMID:23554774

  13. GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPID ANALYSIS OF EASTERN RED BAT (Lasiurus borealis) HAIR BY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMET

    PubMed Central

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; McGuire, Liam P.; Gilmore, David F.; Savary, Brett J.; Risch, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is largely composed of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. GP proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

  14. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  15. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  16. Human Hair: An Educational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, John

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

  17. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemical treatments: Relaxers. Relaxers (straighteners) work by breaking chemical bonds in curly hair. Relaxers containing lye can cause skin irritation and hair breakage. Although "no lye" relaxers may cause less ... before a chemical relaxing treatment can increase these risks. And don' ...

  18. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... including aromatic amines that were found to cause cancer in animals. In the mid- to late 1970s, however, manufacturers changed the components in dye products to eliminate some of these chemicals ... in hair dyes can cause cancer. Given the widespread use of hair dye products, ...

  19. DC Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic-bearing-supported shaft may have a number of concentricity and alignment problems. One of these involves the relationship of the position sensors, the centerline of the backup bearings, and the magnetic center of the magnetic bearings. For magnetic bearings with permanent magnet biasing, the average control current for a given control axis that is not bearing the shaft weight will be minimized if the shaft is centered, on average over a revolution, at the magnetic center of the bearings. That position may not yield zero sensor output or center the shaft in the backup bearing clearance. The desired shaft position that gives zero average current can be achieved if a simple additional term is added to the control law. Suppose that the instantaneous control currents from each bearing are available from measurements and can be input into the control computer. If each control current is integrated with a very small rate of accumulation and the result is added to the control output, the shaft will gradually move to a position where the control current averages to zero over many revolutions. This will occur regardless of any offsets of the position sensor inputs. At that position, the average control effort is minimized in comparison to other possible locations of the shaft. Nonlinearities of the magnetic bearing are minimized at that location as well.

  20. Survival of auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michelle L; Pereira, Fred A

    2015-07-01

    The inability of mammals to regenerate auditory hair cells creates a pressing need to understand the means of enhancing hair cell survival following insult or injury. Hair cells are easily damaged by noise exposure, by ototoxic medications and as a consequence of aging processes, all of which lead to progressive and permanent hearing impairment as hair cells are lost. Significant efforts have been invested in designing strategies to prevent this damage from occurring since permanent hearing loss has a profound impact on communication and quality of life for patients. In this mini-review, we discuss recent progress in the use of antioxidants, anti-inflammatories and apoptosis inhibitors to enhance hair cell survival. We conclude by clarifying the distinction between protection and rescue strategies and by highlighting important areas of future research.

  1. Multiple engine drive for single output shaft and combining gearbox therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Soloy, J.I.

    1989-05-16

    A multiple engine drive system is described for driving a single drive shaft, comprising: multiple input shafts, each drivingly coupled to an output shaft of a different engine; a common final drive shaft; separate gear train means for drivingly coupling each of the multiple input shafts to the common final drive shaft; each separate gear train means including a separate input gear on an associated input shaft and a separate output gear on the common final drive shaft, and separate coupling means for coupling each output gear to the common final drive shaft; the coupling means comprising a separate clutch means operable to drivingly couple each output gear to the common final drive shaft when each output gear is driven by its associated input gear at a speed at least as great as that of the common final drive shaft.

  2. Construction features of the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, G.W.; Fiore, J.N.

    1984-12-31

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1480-ft-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 ft, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 ft from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2300 ft from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1480 ft and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1200 ft consists of the equivalent of 1150 ft of 15- by 15-ft drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Certain lateral boring operations associated with tests to be conducted in the underground development may pose some unusual problems or require specialized equipment. One of the operations is boring and lining a 30-in.-diam by 600-ft-long horizontal hole with a boring machine being developed under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories. Another special operation is coring long lateral holes (500 to 2000 ft) with minimum use of liquid circulating fluids. 8 figures.

  3. Computing Operating Characteristics Of Bearing/Shaft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, James D.

    1996-01-01

    SHABERTH computer program predicts operating characteristics of bearings in multibearing load-support system. Lubricated and nonlubricated bearings modeled. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives of ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable in design and analysis of shaft/bearing systems. Two versions of SHABERTH available. Cray version (LEW-14860), "Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts and Bearings". IBM PC version (MFS-28818), written for IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS.

  4. An alternative method of osteosynthesis for distal humeral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan C; Kalandiak, Steven P; Hutson, James J; Zych, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures with plating techniques is often difficult, as traditional centrally located posterior plates often encroach on the olecranon fossa, limiting distal osseous fixation. The use of a modified Synthes Lateral Tibial Head Buttress Plate (Synthes, Paoli, PA) allows for a centrally placed posterior plating of the humeral shaft that angles anatomically along the lateral column to treat far distal humeral shaft fractures. Fifteen patients treated in this manner were followed to radiographic and clinical union. There were no cases of instrumentation failure or loss of reduction.

  5. Noncontact Measurement Of Shaft Speed, Torque, And Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Noncontact fiber-optic sensor and associated electronic equipment measure twist and speed of rotation of shaft. Measurements determine torque and power. Response of sensor remains linear even at cryogenic temperatures. Reflective strips on rotating shaft reflect two series of light pulses back into optical system. Bidirectional coupler in each of two optical fiber paths separates reflected light from incident light, sending it to photodiode for output to analog-to-digital converter and computer. Sensor requires no slip rings or telemetry to transfer signals from shaft. Well suited for providing data on performances of turbopumps for such cryogenic fluids as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

  6. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Bombara, David; Green, Kevin E.; Bird, Connic; Holowczak, John

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  7. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. ); Bethmann, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  8. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  9. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries.

  10. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries. PMID:20860738

  11. Evaluation of deep shaft biological wastewater treatment process at Ithaca, New York. Final report Oct 79-Aug 81

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinn, D.E.; Storrier, D.F.; Butterworth, R.

    1983-10-01

    The major objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of the Deep Shaft biological treatment process and to evaluate its application for the treatment of municipal wastewater. A 757-cu m day (0.2-mgd) pilot plant facility was constructed at the existing wastewater treatment plant site in Ithaca, New York, for this purpose. Performance of the Deep Shaft process was evaluated under a variety of operating conditions including raw wastewater and primary effluent as influent sources, constant and diurnal (varying) flow patterns, with and without polymer addition as a flotation aid, and with alum addition for a short period for phosphorus removal. Pilot plant influent characteristics were not typical of domestic raw wastewater or primary effluent as had been anticipated in selecting Ithaca as the project site as a result of the practice of returning partially ground screenings and abnormally strong anaerobic digester supernatant to the main plant headworks.

  12. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  13. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  14. Effect of hair dyes and bleach on the hair protein patterns as revealed by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Nagai, A; Komoriya, H; Bunai, Y; Yamada, S; Jiang, X Y; Ohya, I

    1991-06-01

    The effect of hair dyes, i.e., temporary, semi-permanent, or permanent hair dyes, or hair bleach on the isoelectric focusing (IEF) hair protein patterns was studied. A permanent hair dye (metallic, alkaline oxidative, or acidic oxidative) and hair bleach induced changes in the IEF hair protein patterns and in the intensity of hair protein bands. The changes in the IEF patterns, caused by the alkaline oxidative dye or the bleach, are considered to result from the combined effect of an alkaline agent and an oxidative agent in the alkaline oxidative dye and in the hair bleach.

  15. Effect of hair dyes and bleach on the hair protein patterns as revealed by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Nagai, A; Komoriya, H; Bunai, Y; Yamada, S; Jiang, X Y; Ohya, I

    1991-06-01

    The effect of hair dyes, i.e., temporary, semi-permanent, or permanent hair dyes, or hair bleach on the isoelectric focusing (IEF) hair protein patterns was studied. A permanent hair dye (metallic, alkaline oxidative, or acidic oxidative) and hair bleach induced changes in the IEF hair protein patterns and in the intensity of hair protein bands. The changes in the IEF patterns, caused by the alkaline oxidative dye or the bleach, are considered to result from the combined effect of an alkaline agent and an oxidative agent in the alkaline oxidative dye and in the hair bleach. PMID:1889397

  16. Detection of mercury in the 411-year-old beard hairs of the astronomer Tycho Brahe by elemental analysis in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Ludwig; Jaksch, Heiner; Zellmann, Erhard; Klemm, Kerstin I; Andersen, Peter Hvilshøj

    2012-10-01

    Hairs more than 400 years old of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe were studied by electron microscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that Johannes Kepler murdered his teacher Brahe by mercury intoxication. The beard hairs showed a well-preserved ultrastructure with typical hair scales and melanosomes. The authors detected an accumulation of electron-dense granules of about 10 nm inside the outer hair scales, but not in the hair shaft and roots. At the places of these heavy-metal-containing granules they detected mercury besides other elements by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Oxford, UK) in a field cathode scanning electron microscope (SEM, Gemini, Zeiss). The mercury-containing granules were found over the whole length of hairs, but only in the outer hair scales. Nevertheless, surface coatings of hairs were free of mercury. This distribution of mercury does not support the murder hypothesis, but could be related to precipitation of mercury dust from the air during long-term alchemistic activities. PMID:23025649

  17. Detection of mercury in the 411-year-old beard hairs of the astronomer Tycho Brahe by elemental analysis in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Ludwig; Jaksch, Heiner; Zellmann, Erhard; Klemm, Kerstin I; Andersen, Peter Hvilshøj

    2012-10-01

    Hairs more than 400 years old of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe were studied by electron microscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that Johannes Kepler murdered his teacher Brahe by mercury intoxication. The beard hairs showed a well-preserved ultrastructure with typical hair scales and melanosomes. The authors detected an accumulation of electron-dense granules of about 10 nm inside the outer hair scales, but not in the hair shaft and roots. At the places of these heavy-metal-containing granules they detected mercury besides other elements by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Oxford, UK) in a field cathode scanning electron microscope (SEM, Gemini, Zeiss). The mercury-containing granules were found over the whole length of hairs, but only in the outer hair scales. Nevertheless, surface coatings of hairs were free of mercury. This distribution of mercury does not support the murder hypothesis, but could be related to precipitation of mercury dust from the air during long-term alchemistic activities.

  18. The Ethnic Differences of the Damage of Hair and Integral Hair Lipid after Ultra Violet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. Objective To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. Methods We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. Results African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. Conclusion We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light. PMID:23467772

  19. Evaluation of human hair sources for the in vitro hair perforation test.

    PubMed Central

    Salkin, I F; Hollick, G E; Hurd, N J; Kemna, M E

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro hair perforation test for dermatophytes was evaluated with hair from males and females aged 6 months to 67 years, including hair of various natural colors and hair which had been bleached, tinted, curled, sprayed, or subjected to various combinations of these treatments. In contrast to published recommendations, the source of hair had no effect on this diagnostic procedure. PMID:3905844

  20. Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

  1. tmie Is required for gentamicin uptake by the hair cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong-Han; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyu-yup; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yun, Byung-Wook; Ryoo, ZaeYoung

    2013-04-01

    The circling (cir/cir) mouse is a spontaneous model of deafness due to deletion of a 40-kb genomic region that includes the transmembrane inner ear (tmie) gene. In addition to being deaf, cir/cir mice exhibit abnormal behaviors including circling and hyperactivity. Here we investigated differences between 3-d-old (that is, before hair-cell degeneration) cir/cir and phenotypically normal (+/cir) mice and the reason underlying the degeneration of the inner ear structure of cir/cir mice. To this end, we used gentamicin, gentamicin-Texas red conjugate, and FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransducer channel activity in the hair cells of cir/cir mice; these compounds are presumed to enter hair cells through the mechanotransducer channel. Although the structure of the inner ear of +/cir mice was equivalent to that of cir/cir mice, the hair cells of cir/cir mice (unlike +/cir) did not take up gentamicin, gentamicin-Texas red conjugate, or FM1-43. These findings suggest that hair cells in cir/cir mice demonstrate abnormal maturation and mechanotransduction. In addition, our current results indicate that tmie is required for maturation and maintenance of hair cells. PMID:23582420

  2. Bridging plate osteosynthesis of humeral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Livani, Bruno; Belangero, William Dias

    2004-06-01

    This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences and developed during November 2000 and July 2001 in the Orthopedic and Traumatology Department of UNICAMP. There were 15 patients, 11 males, age between 14 and 66 years. All fractures were unilateral. Of the 15 patients eight were polytraumatised, two of them had open fractures. The others had an isolated fracture of the humerus, of which one was open. None of the patients had previous lesions of the radial nerve, but in two patients there was a lesion of the brachial plexus. All of the patients underwent a bridging plate osteosynthesis of the humeral shaft fractures using only two small incisions proximal and distal to the fracture site. We used broad or narrow D.C.P. plates for large fragments mostly with 12 holes, fixed with two or three screws at each end. All cases united with an average time of 8-12 weeks, with the exception of one case with a grade III open fracture and a brachial plexus lesion on the same side. We had no major complications. All patients recovered good function of the limb without significant residual deformity. PMID:15135278

  3. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer. PMID:6993608

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  5. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  6. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A; Hester, S L; Rees, C A; Kennis, R A; Zoran, D L; Bauer, J E

    2009-08-01

    It is generally believed that diets containing increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) result in improved canine skin and hair coat (SHC). However, the extent to which dietary fat amount and type play a role remains to be systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of both increased dietary fat amount and type on SHC assessments of dogs. Improvements of SHC conditions were investigated after feeding three diets containing increased total dietary fat (i.e. 13% total fat) for 12 weeks in relation to a lower fat acclimation diet (i.e. 9% total fat). The higher fat diets varied in polyunsaturated and saturated fat types and amounts but total fat was kept constant. Skin and hair coat assessments were performed at selected intervals by a trained group of veterinarians and graduate students. In addition, hair lipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography after extraction of plucked hair samples. Significant improvements were found in hair coat glossiness and softness in all dogs fed the higher fat diets in relation to the acclimation diet. Improvements as a result of fat type were also seen but only at 12 weeks. A parallel finding was a marked increase in hair cholesteryl ester content determined at the end of the study at which time SHC scores were significantly improved. Skin and hair coat condition improvements may thus be related to increased cholesteryl ester deposited on the hair shaft surface when high fat diets are fed. Whereas this finding is preliminary, hair lipid analysis may be a useful, non-invasive technique with which to help assess dietary effects on canine SHC.

  7. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases.

  8. 80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 UNIT IN POSITION. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST IN THE POWERHOUSE, Print No. 234, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  9. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (b) Ventilation fans shall be: (1) Installed on the surface; (2) Installed in fireproof housing and connected to the slope or shaft opening with fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (b) Ventilation fans shall be: (1) Installed on the surface; (2) Installed in fireproof housing and connected to the slope or shaft opening with fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (b) Ventilation fans shall be: (1) Installed on the surface; (2) Installed in fireproof housing and connected to the slope or shaft opening with fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of...

  12. 90. East Haven Tunnel Shaft. East Haven, New Haven Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. East Haven Tunnel Shaft. East Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 77.00 - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  13. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  14. 17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear and cane mill drive gears - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  15. 15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  18. 28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO CAPSTAN BARREL. LARGE DRUM ON LEFT PART OF SPUD ENGINE CABLE DRUM. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  20. 9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  1. 3. Building 9 elevation, showing connection between elevator shaft and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Building 9 elevation, showing connection between elevator shaft and Building 11 on right. View looking NWW. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 9, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 2. Building 9 north elevation oblique including elevator shaft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building 9 north elevation oblique including elevator shaft. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 9, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servomotor and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servo-motor and operating ring (left foreground) and hand wheel for butterfly valve (right background) - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  4. 5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND METAL FRAGMENT AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Aerovane Fan, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

  5. 1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM AND FURNACE). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Steel Skimmer Salt Roaster, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  6. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE AS THE PROJECTING SUPERSTRUCTURE). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  8. 16. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF MAIN SHAFT, WEST BASCULE OPERATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF MAIN SHAFT, WEST BASCULE OPERATING MECHANISM, SHOWING BEVEL GEARS THAT PERMIT MANUAL OPERATION - Grand Street Bridge, Spanning Pequonnock River at Grand Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  9. 30 CFR 57.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage around open shaft compartments shall be provided on landings with more than one entrance to...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. 77.1900... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900 Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. (a) Each operator of... slope or shaft that is commenced or extended after June 30, 1971. The plan shall be consistent...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. 77.1900... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900 Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. (a) Each operator of... slope or shaft that is commenced or extended after June 30, 1971. The plan shall be consistent...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling hoisting operations...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling hoisting operations...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling hoisting operations...

  17. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more.

  18. Distinct roles of Eps8 in the maturation of cochlear and vestibular hair cells.

    PubMed

    Tavazzani, Elisa; Spaiardi, Paolo; Zampini, Valeria; Contini, Donatella; Manca, Marco; Russo, Giancarlo; Prigioni, Ivo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2016-07-22

    Several genetic mutations affecting the development and function of mammalian hair cells have been shown to cause deafness but not vestibular defects, most likely because vestibular deficits are sometimes centrally compensated. The study of hair cell physiology is thus a powerful direct approach to ascertain the functional status of the vestibular end organs. Deletion of Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), a gene involved in actin remodeling, has been shown to cause deafness in mice. While both inner and outer hair cells from Eps8 knockout (KO) mice showed abnormally short stereocilia, inner hair cells (IHCs) also failed to acquire mature-type ion channels. Despite the fact that Eps8 is also expressed in vestibular hair cells, Eps8 KO mice show no vestibular deficits. In the present study we have investigated the properties of vestibular Type I and Type II hair cells in Eps8-KO mice and compared them to those of cochlear IHCs. In the absence of Eps8, vestibular hair cells show normally long kinocilia, significantly shorter stereocilia and a normal pattern of basolateral voltage-dependent ion channels. We have also found that while vestibular hair cells from Eps8 KO mice show normal voltage responses to injected sinusoidal currents, which were used to mimic the mechanoelectrical transducer current, IHCs lose their ability to synchronize their responses to the stimulus. We conclude that the absence of Eps8 produces a weaker phenotype in vestibular hair cells compared to cochlear IHCs, since it affects the hair bundle morphology but not the basolateral membrane currents. This difference is likely to explain the absence of obvious vestibular dysfunction in Eps8 KO mice.

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTHSOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTH-SOUTH IS IN PLACE; AT RIGHT IS A PRESS FOR WORKING THE ALUMINUM SHEETS; E. W. BLISS CO. OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, MANUFACTURED THE PRESS. MACHINERY ORIGINALLY POWERED BY OVERHEAD BELTS CONNECTED TO CENTRAL LINE SHAFTS; BY ABOUT THE 1940s THE MACHINERY WAS ELECTRICALLY POWERED. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  1. A shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Ahrens, E.H.; Dennis, A.W.; Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Tillerson, J.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Galbraith, D.

    1996-07-01

    As part of the demonstration of compliance with federal regulations, a shaft seal system has been designed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The system completely fills the 650 m shafts with components consisting of the common engineering materials, each of which possesses low permeability, longevity, and can be constructed using available technology. Design investigations couple rock mechanics and fluid flow analysis and tests of these materials within the natural geological setting, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

  2. 11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the south, with operating ring at base of shaft and servo motor arms in foreground and in left background recess. Turbine monitoring and auxiliary equipment is located in the rightbackground recess. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  3. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  4. Long-term brine migration through an engineered shaft seal system

    SciTech Connect

    Fryar, D.G.; Beach, J.A.; Kelley, V.A.; Knowles, M.K.

    1997-07-01

    The shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must provide a barrier to the migration of fluids within the shafts to prevent the release of contaminants to the accessible environment. To investigate the performance of the shaft seal system, a set of fluid flow performance models was developed based upon the physical characteristics of the WIPP shaft seal system and the surrounding geologic media. This paper describes the results of a numerical model used to investigate the long-term potential for brine migration through the shaft seal system. Modeling results demonstrate that the WIPP shaft seal system will effectively limit brine migration within the repository shafts.

  5. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  6. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  7. Tryptophan in human hair: correlation with pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, A; Biasiolo, M; Costa, C V; Cardin de Stefani, E; Allegri, G

    2000-08-01

    The distribution of tryptophan content in human hair of various colours was evaluated, in order to study the accumulation of this amino acid, precursor of serotonin, melatonin and niacin, in hair and the influence on hair pigmentation. Pigmentation is an important factor in determining drug incorporation into hair. Results from 1211 samples of hair from healthy subjects (577 men and 634 women) show that tryptophan levels are significantly higher in males (37.83 +/- 3.45 microg/g dry hair) than in females (26.62 +/- 2.40 microg/g hair). Besides sex, age also influences the distribution of tryptophan in human hair, the highest levels being found in both sexes in the first few years of life, probably due to the influence of milk, and in aging subjects in the groups of 61-80 and > 80 years. In order to investigate the influence of hair colour, hair samples were subdivided according to colour into blond, dark blond, red, light brown, brown, black, grey and white. The hair contents of tryptophan in both sexes was higher in brown and black hair than in blond hair, but in grey and white hair concentrations were the highest, demonstrating that tryptophan accumulates among hair fibres with age. Grouping subjects by age in relation to hair colour, we observed that at ages 1-5 and 6-12 years, colour did not influence tryptophan contents, but at ages 13-19 and 20-40 years tryptophan content increased significantly from blond to brown at 13-19 years and from blond to black at 20-40 years in both sexes. Therefore, variations in tryptophan levels of human hair appear to be correlated with differences in hair colour in both sexes. Tryptophan also accumulates in hair during keratinization, as shown by the presence of high levels of this amino acid in grey and white hair. PMID:11132729

  8. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  9. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found

  10. Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Shaft Siting and Configuration for Flexible Operating Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boutin

    2001-08-02

    The purpose of this document as stated in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M&O 2001a, pg. 14) is to review and evaluate the most current concepts for shaft siting and configuration. The locations of the shaft sites will be evaluated in reference to the overall subsurface ventilation layout shown in Figure 1. The scope will include discussions on pad size requirements, shaft construction components such as collars, shaft stations, sumps, ground support and linings, head frames, fan ducting and facility equipping. In addition to these, shaft excavation methodologies and integration with the overall subsurface construction schedule will be described. The Technical Work Plan (TWP), (CRWMS M&O 2001a), for this document has been prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering and Regulatory Compliance Activities''. This document will be prepared in accordance with AP-3.10Q, ''Analysis and Models''. This document contributes to Site Recommendation (SR). The intended use of this document is to provide an analysis for shaft siting and configuration criteria for subsequent construction. This document identifies preliminary design concepts that should not be used for procurement, fabrication, or construction.

  12. Speed control device for a heavy duty shaft. [solar sails for spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, A. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A speed control device is characterized by a reference speed shaft spatially related to a heavy duty shaft, a drive train for driving the reference speed shaft at a constant angular velocity, a drive train for driving the heavy duty shaft at a variable angular velocity and a speed control assembly for continuously comparing the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft with the angular velocity of the reference speed shaft. A brake assembly is connected to the heavy duty shaft and is adapted to respond to errors in the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft in order to reduce the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft to that of the reference speed shaft.

  13. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  14. Hair as a biomarker of polybrominated diethyl ethers' exposure in infants, children and adults.

    PubMed

    Aleksa, Katarina; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Koren, Gideon

    2012-04-25

    Over the last 20 years hair has moved from being a highly questionable biological matrix to mainstream and acceptable biomarker in forensic sciences where it is primarily used to determine past and present exposure to illicit drugs. In contrast, the use of hair to assess exposure to pesticides and persistent environmental pollutants is still not common. The applicability of this matrix to assess an individual's body burden of chemicals such as polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) can provide critical insight into current, but also to past exposure levels, which is not possible with more conventional matrices such as blood and urine. Furthermore, as PBDEs cross the placenta and since the hair the fetus is born with begins to grow during the third trimester, this matrix can be used to assess in utero exposure. These features of hair may therefore be used to determine the potential roles of chemicals such as PBDEs in mediating physiological or anatomical abnormalities in infants, children or adults.

  15. Silvery Hair with Speckled Dyspigmentation: Chediak-Higashi Syndrome in Three Indian Siblings.

    PubMed

    Raghuveer, Chekuri; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Mithuna, Mallur N; Suresh, Tamraparni

    2015-01-01

    Silvery hair is a common feature of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome, and Elejalde syndrome. CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, frequent pyogenic infections, and the presence of abnormal large granules in leukocytes and other granule containing cells. A 6-year-old girl had recurrent respiratory infections, speckled hypo- and hyper-pigmentation over exposed areas, and silvery hair since early childhood. Clinical features, laboratory investigations, hair microscopy, and skin biopsy findings were consistent with CHS. Her younger sisters aged 4 and 2 years had similar clinical, peripheral blood picture, and hair microscopy findings consistent with CHS. This case is reported for its rare occurrence in all the three siblings of the family, prominent pigmentary changes, and absent accelerated phase till date. Awareness, early recognition, and management of the condition may prevent the preterm morbidity associated. PMID:26622160

  16. Silvery Hair with Speckled Dyspigmentation: Chediak-Higashi Syndrome in Three Indian Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Raghuveer, Chekuri; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Mithuna, Mallur N; Suresh, Tamraparni

    2015-01-01

    Silvery hair is a common feature of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome, and Elejalde syndrome. CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, frequent pyogenic infections, and the presence of abnormal large granules in leukocytes and other granule containing cells. A 6-year-old girl had recurrent respiratory infections, speckled hypo- and hyper-pigmentation over exposed areas, and silvery hair since early childhood. Clinical features, laboratory investigations, hair microscopy, and skin biopsy findings were consistent with CHS. Her younger sisters aged 4 and 2 years had similar clinical, peripheral blood picture, and hair microscopy findings consistent with CHS. This case is reported for its rare occurrence in all the three siblings of the family, prominent pigmentary changes, and absent accelerated phase till date. Awareness, early recognition, and management of the condition may prevent the preterm morbidity associated. PMID:26622160

  17. Drugs of abuse in maternal hair and paired neonatal meconium: an objective assessment of foetal exposure to gestational consumption.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Marchei, Emilia; Salat-Batlle, Judith; García-Algar, Oscar; Calvaresi, Valeria; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2016-08-01

    In a prospective sample of 80 mother-infant dyads, we investigated whether drugs of abuse in maternal hair measured during the pregnancy trimesters were also present in neonatal meconium. Principal drugs of abuse were analyzed in the three consecutive maternal hair segments and meconium samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay. Of the 80 mothers, 32 (40%) presented one or more hair shafts with at least one of the analyzed drugs of abuse and/or its metabolites. The drug of abuse with a higher prevalence in our study population was methamphetamine: 19 mothers had methamphetamine in one or more hair segments (59.4%). The second most detected drug of abuse was cocaine; nine mothers presented cocaine in one or more hair segments (28.1%). Nineteen pregnant women consumed at least one drug of abuse during the first trimester, ten continued consuming drugs of abuse during the second trimester; and nine consumed until the end of pregnancy. Five of the nine newborns from mothers who consumed drugs during the whole pregnancy showed drugs of abuse in meconium samples. Newborns from the 23 remaining mothers with one or two hair shafts positive to drugs of abuse did not present drugs in their meconium. Indeed from these results, it seems that discontinuous and/or sporadic consumption during pregnancy could produce a negligible transplacental passage and hence negative results in meconium. Furthermore, the role of placenta in the metabolism and excretion of drugs of abuse is still to be precisely investigated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Hair thyroid hormones concentration in patients with depression changes with disease episodes in female Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jinxue; Sun, Guizhi; Zhao, Liansheng; Liu, Xiang; Lin, Dongtao; Li, Tao; Ma, Xiaohong

    2014-12-15

    Abnormal function of thyroid and deregulation of level of blood thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), have been observed in patients with major depression. Nevertheless, no consistent conclusion can be drawn from previous reports. Hair hormones reflect average hormones levels in a certain period and have been involved in the studies of psychiatric diseases. However, no research has elucidated the relation between hair thyroid hormones level and depression. In the present study, we explored the correlation between thyroid hormones and major depression by analyzing and comparing the levels of hair thyroid hormones in patients with depression (n=30) and healthy controls (n=30). Our results showed that the levels of hair T3 and T4 were significantly lower in patients with depression in disease episode than that in pre-disease episode or in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with depression in pre-disease episode had a higher hair T4 level than healthy controls. No significant correlation was observed between hair T3 or T4 levels and the Hamilton depression rating scale and Hamilton anxiety rating scale scores. Our results indicate that hair thyroid hormones levels change with the episodes of depressions, which may be helpful for pathological studies of depression.

  19. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  20. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting