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Sample records for hair straightening products

  1. Hair straightener poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002706.htm Hair straightener poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows products that ...

  2. Novel analytical method to measure formaldehyde release from heated hair straightening cosmetic products: Impact on risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Galli, Corrado Lodovico; Bettin, Federico; Metra, Pierre; Fidente, Paola; De Dominicis, Emiliano; Marinovich, Marina

    2015-08-01

    Hair straightening cosmetic products may contain formaldehyde (FA). In Europe, FA is permitted for use in personal care products at concentrations ⩽ 0.2g/100g. According to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel products are safe when formalin (a 37% saturated solution of FA in water) concentration does not exceed 0.2g/100g (0.074 g/100g calculated as FA). The official method of reference does not discriminate between "free" FA and FA released into the air after heating FA donors. The method presented here captures and collects the FA released into the air from heated cosmetic products by derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and final analysis by UPLC/DAD instrument. Reliable data in terms of linearity, recovery, repeatability and sensitivity are obtained. On a total of 72 market cosmetic products analyzed, 42% showed FA concentrations very close to or above the threshold value (0.074 g/100g calculated as FA) suggested by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review committee, whereas 11 products, negative using the official method of reference, were close to or above the threshold value (0.074 g/100g calculated as FA). This may pose a health problem for occasional users and professional hair stylists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein loss in human hair from combination straightening and coloring treatments.

    PubMed

    França-Stefoni, Simone Aparecida; Dario, Michelli Ferrera; Sá-Dias, Tânia Cristina; Bedin, Valcinir; de Almeida, Adriano José; Baby, André Rolim; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-09-01

    Hair chemical treatments, such as dyeing and straightening products, are known to cause damage that can be assessed by protein loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hair protein loss caused by combined chemical treatments (dye and relaxer) using the validated bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method. Three kinds of straighteners, based on ammonium thioglycolate, guanidine hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, were evaluated and the least harmful combination indicated. Caucasian virgin dark brown hair tresses were treated with developed natural brown color oxidative hair dyeing and/or straightening commercial products based on ammonium thioglycolate, sodium hydroxide, or guanidine hydroxide. Protein loss quantification was assessed by the validated BCA method which has several advantages for quantifying protein loss in chemically treated hair. When both treatments (straightening and dyeing) were combined, a higher negative effect was observed, particularly for dyed hair treated with sodium hydroxide. In this case, a 356% increase in protein loss relative to virgin hair was observed and 208% in relation to only dyed hair. The combination of dying and relaxers based on ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide caused a small increase in protein loss, suggesting that these straightening products could be the best alternatives for individuals wishing to combine both treatments. These results indicated that when application of both types of products is desired, ammonium thioglycolate or guanidine hydroxide should be chosen for the straightening process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

    2014-02-01

    Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread.

  6. Influence of chemical straightening on the stability of drugs of abuse in hair.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Jeanita S; Phinney, Karen W

    2015-01-01

    Chemical straightening, also known as a relaxer, is ubiquitously used among African American women to obtain straighter hair compared with their natural tresses. This study focused on the stability of drugs of abuse in hair after a single application of the relaxer. Commercially available 'Lye' or 'No-Lye' chemical straightening products (Silk Elements™) were applied in vitro to drug-fortified hair (standard reference materials (SRM) 2379 and 2380) and hairs clipped from established drug users. Target analytes (cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE), cocaethylene (CE), phencyclidine and tetrahydrocannabinol) were isolated using solid-phase extraction and then analyzed with isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. After either treatment, drug concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in both the SRM sample and the hair from authentic abusers. In the SRM groups, 6-67% of the original concentration remained after a single chemical treatment. Similarly, only 5-30% of the original concentration remained in authentic drug hairs that had formerly tested positive for COC, BZE and CE. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  8. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common chemicals in hair dyes include hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, and alcohols. Hair curling or permanent wave chemicals include ammonium thioglycolate and ammonia. Hair bleaching chemicals include hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners ( ...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201.70... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. (1) Personal hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications, including shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair care...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201.70... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. (1) Personal hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications, including shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair care...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201.70... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. (1) Personal hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications, including shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair care...

  12. Hair product artifact in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chenji, Sneha; Wilman, Alan H; Mah, Dennell; Seres, Peter; Genge, Angela; Kalra, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    The presence of metallic compounds in facial cosmetics and permanent tattoos may affect the quality of magnetic resonance imaging. We report a case study describing a signal artifact due to the use of a leave-on powdered hair dye. On reviewing the ingredients of the product, it was found to contain several metallic compounds. In lieu of this observation, we suggest that MRI centers include the use of metal- or mineral-based facial cosmetics or hair products in their screening protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nanotribological effects of hair care products and environment on human hair using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2005-07-01

    Tribological properties are useful in the study of human hair and other biological materials. Major sources of investigation for conditioner treated hair includes localization of conditioner, mechanisms related to changes in surface roughness, friction, and adhesion on the nanoscale due to conditioner agents, and how the products change the microstructure of the cuticle. The paper presents nanotribological studies investigating surface roughness, friction, and adhesion using atomic force/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). Test samples include virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without commercial conditioner treatment, as well as chemically damaged hair with experimental conditioner treatments. Friction force mapping provides insight into the localized change in friction caused by the application of hair care materials. Adhesive force maps to study adhesion on the cuticle surface provide information about localization and distribution of conditioner as well. A discussion is presented on these properties of hair as a function of relative humidity, temperature, durability, and conditioning treatments.

  15. Contact sensitizers in commercial hair dye products sold in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonchai, Waranya; Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Winayanuwattikun, Waranaree; Kasemsarn, Pranee

    2016-04-01

    Hair dyes are known to contain potent contact allergens for which sensitization rates have increased over the last decade. To examine the type and frequency of potent contact sensitizers labelled on hair dyes sold in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. During the 2013-2014 study period, labelled ingredient information from home use and professional hair dye products was collected. Two hundred and fifty-two hair dye products were evaluated. One hundred and forty-nine products from 48 brands were domestically produced in Thailand, and 103 products were from 23 multinational brands produced in countries other than Thailand. Two hundred and fourteen of 252 (84.9%) hair dye products were found to contain strong skin sensitizers, with 118 (46.8%) being found in domestically produced products, and 96 (38.1%) being found in multinational brand products. Thirty-eight hair dye products (15.1%) were free of potent skin sensitizers. The number of domestically produced products (31, 20.8%) that were free of potent skin sensitizers was significantly higher (p = 0.002) than the number of multinational brand products (7, 6.8%). p-Phenylenediamine was the most prevalent potent sensitizer found among domestically produced hair dyes available on the market. Our findings indicate regional differences in hair dye allergen exposure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Void and pore formation inside the hair cortex by a denaturation and super-contraction process occurring during hair setting with hot irons.

    PubMed

    Gamez-Garcia, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of hair fibers from donors that frequently use hot irons for hair straightening showed the presence of multiple pores and voids (φ approximately 0.1-1.5 μm) that extend from the cuticle sheath to regions inside the hair cortex. Pore formation in the cortex was found to be confined at its periphery and could be reproduced in the laboratory with virgin hair fibers after the application of various hot-iron straightening cycles. The appearance of pores and voids in the cortex was found to be associated to the production of hot water vapor while the fiber is undergoing mechanical elongation or contraction. The number of pores was seen to rapidly increase with temperature in the range from 190 to 220°C and also with the number of straightening cycles. Larger hair voids (φ approximately 2-5 μm) were also detected in the cortex. The small pores found at the cortex periphery appear to occur by the simultaneous occurrence of rearrangement of hair proteins, fiber mechanical contraction/expansion, and the flow of super-heated steam. Hot irons create, thus, the conditions for the onset of pore formation as the high temperatures produce superheated steam and soften the native state of hair proteins by a process involving denaturation and changes in the crystalline regions.

  17. Comparison of hair shaft damage after chemical treatment in Asian, White European, and African hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Lee, Sung Yul; Hong, Hannah; Lee, Won-Soo

    2014-09-01

    Diverse causes of extrinsic damage to the hair shaft have been documented and can be roughly divided into physical and chemical causes. Chemical causes of hair damage include bleaching, hair dyeing, and perming. The goal of this study was to investigate differences in patterns of serial damage in Asian, White European (WE), and African hair after chemical stress imposed by straightening and coloring treatments. Hairs were divided into control and treatment groups (straightening, coloring, and a combination of straightening and coloring). At 24 hours after the final treatment, patterns of hair damage were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM. Grades of hair cuticle and cortex damage were evaluated by three dermatologists. In the TEM examination, the cuticle of Asian hair proved to be resistant to damage caused by straightening treatments, whereas the WE hair cuticle and cortex were relatively susceptible to stress imposed by coloring treatments. In the combination treatment of straightening and coloring, African hair emerged as the most resistant to stress. In the lipid TEM examination, no notable differences in cell membrane complex damage were observed among the three groups of hairs. The present study suggests that WE hair is relatively susceptible and African hair is more resistant to chemical stresses, such as those imposed by straightening and coloring. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    PubMed Central

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  19. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  20. Evaluation of concordance between labelling and content of 52 hair dye products: overview of the market of oxidative hair dye.

    PubMed

    Antelmi, Annarita; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Engfeldt, Malin; Young, Ewa; Persson, Lena; Foti, Caterina; Sörensen, Östen; Svedman, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    Hair dyes contain strong allergens and are widely available. Correct labelling is a necessity in order to provide information about the contents. To compare the labelling and content of hair dyes. In total, 52 hair dyes, from 11 different countries, were bought over the counter. High-pressure liquid chromatography was used for the analysis of p-phenylenediamine (PPD), toluene-2,5-diamine (2,5-TDA), and three oxidation products of PPD. There was good agreement between labelling and content, although seven of the 52 products (13.5%) studied were incorrectly labelled. There were differences in the geographical use of PPD and 2,5-TDA; 2,5-TDA was more common in European products, while PPD was more common in products purchased outside Europe and was present in higher concentrations. All dyes purchased in Europe contained PPD and 2,5-TDA at levels within the limits defined by European legislation, however, levels were higher in some products purchased outside Europe. Only a small group of hair dyes sold in Europe were mislabelled. Further improvement in labelling, by providing the concentration of chemicals, may facilitate products to be purchased both locally and within the global market, when travelling or on the internet.

  1. Topologically preserving straightening of spinal cord MRI.

    PubMed

    De Leener, Benjamin; Mangeat, Gabriel; Dupont, Sara; Martin, Allan R; Callot, Virginie; Stikov, Nikola; Fehlings, Michael G; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-10-01

    To propose a robust and accurate method for straightening magnetic resonance (MR) images of the spinal cord, based on spinal cord segmentation, that preserves spinal cord topology and that works for any MRI contrast, in a context of spinal cord template-based analysis. The spinal cord curvature was computed using an iterative Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) approximation. Forward and inverse deformation fields for straightening were computed by solving analytically the straightening equations for each image voxel. Computational speed-up was accomplished by solving all voxel equation systems as one single system. Straightening accuracy (mean and maximum distance from straight line), computational time, and robustness to spinal cord length was evaluated using the proposed and the standard straightening method (label-based spline deformation) on 3T T 2 - and T 1 -weighted images from 57 healthy subjects and 33 patients with spinal cord compression due to degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). The proposed algorithm was more accurate, more robust, and faster than the standard method (mean distance = 0.80 vs. 0.83 mm, maximum distance = 1.49 vs. 1.78 mm, time = 71 vs. 174 sec for the healthy population and mean distance = 0.65 vs. 0.68 mm, maximum distance = 1.28 vs. 1.55 mm, time = 32 vs. 60 sec for the DCM population). A novel image straightening method that enables template-based analysis of quantitative spinal cord MRI data is introduced. This algorithm works for any MRI contrast and was validated on healthy and patient populations. The presented method is implemented in the Spinal Cord Toolbox, an open-source software for processing spinal cord MRI data. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1209-1219. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Prevalence of potent skin sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Kisok

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the prevalence of potent skin sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products manufactured by Korean domestic companies. A database on hair dye products made by domestic companies and selling in the Korean market in 2013 was used to obtain information on company name, brand name, quantity of production, and ingredients. The prevalence of substances categorized as potent skin sensitizers was calculated using the hair dye ingredient database, and the pattern of concomitant presence of hair dye ingredients was analyzed using network analysis software. A total of 19 potent skin sensitizers were identified from a database that included 99 hair dye products manufactured by Korean domestic companies. Among 19 potent skin sensitizers, the four most frequent were resorcinol, m-aminophenol, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and p-aminophenol; these four skin-sensitizing ingredients were found in more than 50% of the products studied. Network analysis showed that resorcinol, m-aminophenol, and PPD existed together in many hair dye products. In 99 products examined, the average product contained 4.4 potent sensitizers, and 82% of the products contained four or more skin sensitizers. The present results demonstrate that oxidative hair dye products made by Korean domestic manufacturers contain various numbers and types of potent skin sensitizers. Furthermore, these results suggest that some hair dye products should be used with caution to prevent adverse effects on the skin, including allergic contact dermatitis.

  3. Hair product use, age at menarche and mammographic breast density in multiethnic urban women.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Tehranifar, Parisa; Flom, Julie D; Terry, Mary Beth; James-Todd, Tamarra

    2018-01-04

    Select hair products contain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that may affect breast cancer risk. We hypothesize that, if EDCs are related to breast cancer risk, then they may also affect two important breast cancer risk factors: age at menarche and mammographic breast density. In two urban female cohorts (N = 248): 1) the New York site of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project and 2) the New York City Multiethnic Breast Cancer Project, we measured childhood and adult use of hair oils, lotions, leave-in conditioners, root stimulators, perms/relaxers, and hair dyes using the same validated questionnaire. We used multivariable relative risk regression models to examine the association between childhood hair product use and early age at menarche (defined as <11 years of age) and multivariable linear regression models to examine the association between childhood and adult hair product use and adult mammographic breast density. Early menarche was associated with ever use of childhood hair products (RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1, 4.8) and hair oil use (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2, 5.2); however, additional adjustment for race/ethnicity, attenuated associations (hair products RR 1.8, 95% CI 0.8, 4.1; hair oil use RR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0, 5.5). Breast density was not associated with adult or childhood hair product or hair oil use. If confirmed in larger prospective studies, these data suggest that exposure to EDCs through hair products in early life may affect breast cancer risk by altering timing of menarche, and may operate through a mechanism distinct from breast density.

  4. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair..., quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? (a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting..., baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes...

  5. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair..., quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? (a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting..., baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes...

  6. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair..., quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? (a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting..., baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes...

  7. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair..., quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? (a) Beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting..., baskets, bags, pouches, and other containers; belts, buckles, jewelry, hatbands, hair clips, barrettes...

  8. Topical Products for Human Hair Regeneration: A Comparative Study on an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Orasan, Meda Sandra; Coneac, Andrei; Muresan, Adriana; Mihu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background Hair loss and hair growth is the subject of tremendous amount of research. Objective This study investigated the efficacy of three chemical treatments used in humans for hair loss, using a rat model of hair regrowth. The products tested were 2% minoxidil, Hairgrow (Dar-Al-Dawa Pharma), Aminexil, Dercos (Vichy Laboratoires), and Kerium, Anti-chute (La Roche-Posay). Methods Thirty-two adult female Wistar-Bratislava rats were assigned to 4 groups. Two rectangular areas (2×4 cm) were shaved on either sides of the mid dorsal line (left side - control; right side - test area). Group I was treated topically with 2% minoxidil, group II with Aminexil, and group III with Kerium. Each rat received 0.3 ml of substance applied topically to the shaved dorsal skin every day for 28 days. Rats in group IV served as sham controls receiving no treatment. Hair regrowth was evaluated by trichoscopy (with a dermatoscope), grown hair weight (from a surface area of 1 cm2), and histopathological examination for skin thickness, follicle count, and percentage of anagen induction (morphometric assessment). Results Treatment with 2% minoxidil significantly induced hair regrowth as assessed by trichoscopy, hair weight examination, and morphometric evaluation. Hair weight examination and morphometric assessment demonstrated the lowest hair growth effect with Aminexil among the tested products. Treatment with Kerium was found to significantly induce hair regrowth (p<0.05 as compared to the control group). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that hair regrowth efficacy of products recommended for human use is not similar when tested on an animal model. PMID:26848220

  9. Hair cortisol and progesterone detection in dairy cattle: interrelation with physiological status and milk production.

    PubMed

    Tallo-Parra, O; Carbajal, A; Monclús, L; Manteca, X; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2018-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) and hair progesterone concentrations (HPCs) allow monitoring long-term retrospective steroid levels. However, there are still gaps in the knowledge of the mechanisms of steroid deposition in hair and its potential application in dairy cattle research. This study aimed to evaluate the potential uses of hair steroid determinations by studying the interrelations between HCC, HPC, physiological data from cows, and their milk production and quality. Cortisol and progesterone concentrations were analyzed in hair from 101 milking Holstein Friesian cows in a commercial farm. Physiological data were obtained from the 60 d prior to hair collection. Moreover, productive data from the month when hair was collected and the previous one were also obtained as well as at 124 d after hair sampling. Significant but weak correlations were found between HCC and HPC (r = 0.25, P < 0.0001) and between HPC and age (r = 0.06, P = 0.0133). High HCC were associated with low milk yields from the 2 previous months to hair sampling (P = 0.0396) and during the whole lactation (P < 0.0001). High HCC were also related to high somatic cell count (P = 0.0241). No effect of HCC on fat or protein content was detected. No significant correlations were detected between hair steroid concentrations and pregnancy status, days of gestation, parturition category (primiparous vs multiparous), number of lactations or days in milk. The relationship between physiological variables and HCC or HPC could depend on the duration of the time period over which hair accumulates hormones. Steroid concentrations in hair present high variability between individuals but are a potential tool for dairy cattle welfare and production research by providing a useful and practical tool for long-term steroid monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent trends in the formulation of permanent waving products for hair.

    PubMed

    Puri, A K

    1979-02-01

    Synopsis Current trends in the formulation of permanent waving products for hair are discussed in light of recently reported findings on the reactivity of disulphide bond in the hair keratin and theories on the mechanism of permanent waving. Effectiveness of protein and other additives is discussed in detail.

  11. Hair waving natural product: Dillenia indica seed sap.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad

    2013-02-01

    Knowing keratin is the main component and mechanical strength of hair a study was performed to evaluate whether Dillenia indica seed sap can affect molecular strength of hair or not. In the present study the human hair collected from barber shop waste were subjected to purified sap for 12 h and then analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for documenting evidence for keratin degradation. Further the deterioration was confirmed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemicals in hair products used by Black women.

    PubMed

    Helm, Jessica S; Nishioka, Marcia; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A; Dodson, Robin E

    2018-08-01

    Personal care products are a source of exposure to endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemicals. Because use of hair products differs by race/ethnicity, these products may contribute to exposure and disease disparities. This preliminary study investigates the endocrine disrupting and asthma-associated chemical content of hair products used by U.S. Black women. We used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to test 18 hair products in 6 categories used by Black women: hot oil treatment, anti-frizz/polish, leave-in conditioner, root stimulator, hair lotion, and relaxer. We tested for 66 chemicals belonging to 10 chemical classes: ultraviolet (UV) filters, cyclosiloxanes, glycol ethers, fragrances, alkylphenols, ethanolamines, antimicrobials, bisphenol A, phthalates, and parabens. The hair products tested contained 45 endocrine disrupting or asthma-associated chemicals, including every targeted chemical class. We found cyclosiloxanes, parabens, and the fragrance marker diethyl phthalate (DEP) at the highest levels, and DEP most frequently. Root stimulators, hair lotions, and relaxers frequently contained nonylphenols, parabens, and fragrances; anti-frizz products contained cyclosiloxanes. Hair relaxers for children contained five chemicals regulated by California's Proposition 65 or prohibited by EU cosmetics regulation. Targeted chemicals were generally not listed on the product label. Hair products used by Black women and children contained multiple chemicals associated with endocrine disruption and asthma. The prevalence of parabens and DEP is consistent with higher levels of these compounds in biomonitoring samples from Black women compared with White women. These results indicate the need for more information about the contribution of consumer products to exposure disparities. A precautionary approach would reduce the use of endocrine disrupting chemicals in personal care products and improve labeling so women can select products consistent with

  13. Childhood hair product use and earlier age at menarche in a racially diverse study population: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18-77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used before age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (<12 vs. ≥12), adjusting for potential confounders. African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Part 2 of a 4-part series Hair Products: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Bhinder, Manpreet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of hair products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in hair products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for hair products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in hair products, including shampoos, conditioners, and styling products. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779419

  15. Method for producing ultrafine-grained materials using repetitive corrugation and straightening

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yuntian T.; Lowe, Terry C.; Jiang, Honggang; Huang, Jianyu

    2001-01-01

    A method of refining the grain structure and improving the hardness and strength properties of a metal or metal alloy workpiece is disclosed. The workpiece is subjected to forces that corrugate and then straighten the workpiece. These steps are repeated until an ultrafine-grained product having improved hardness and strength is produced.

  16. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of off-the-shelf hair and skin care products

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Sharon L.; Yang, Chun Z.; Bittner, George D.; Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R.; Baird, Donna D.

    2014-01-01

    Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products. PMID:24849798

  17. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of off-the-shelf hair and skin care products.

    PubMed

    Myers, Sharon L; Yang, Chun Z; Bittner, George D; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R; Baird, Donna D

    2015-05-01

    Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products.

  18. Use of hair products containing hormone or placenta by US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Chandra M; Ward, John A

    2003-09-01

    We surveyed 2,097 subjects stationed at a US Army School to study the use of commercial hair products whose labeled ingredients included hormone or placenta. Use of some of these products is associated with premature sexual development. Use by demographics is: All = 14.8%, whites = 6.3%, non-whites = 27.0%; males = 8.7%, females = 24.6%; officers = 7.3%, enlisted = 18.7%. Frequency of use was highest among non-white female enlisted personnel (43 +/- 6.4%) and lowest among white male commissioned officers (2.0 +/- 1.7%). Regardless of ethnicity, 13.4% of respondents' children used the hair product. Use is about four times higher for non-whites than for whites. Females and enlisted personnel are more likely to use the hair product than males or officers. The use of hormonal hair products among children parallels use by their parents. In spite of federal regulation, the use of these hair products is still common.

  19. Design procedures for heat-straightening repair : an engineering guide.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes over four years of research on heat-straightening repairs and provides a prototype engineering guide for the application of heat-straightening to bridge structures. It is based on the research results detailed in a companion re...

  20. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ...The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (``CPSIA''), authorizes the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (``Commission'') to specify, by rule, for any consumer product or class of consumer products, characteristics whose existence or absence shall be deemed a substantial product hazard under certain circumstances. In this document, the Commission is proposing a rule to determine that any hand-held hair dryer without integral immersion protection presents a substantial product hazard.

  1. Hair--Curvy or Straight; Cosmetology 1: 9205.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Permanent curling and straightening require a thorough understanding of hair. Through diligent study and practice the student prepares for a profitable part of a beauty career. The course requires 135 hours of classroom-laboratory instruction. Those entering must have mastered the skills of shaping and conditioning hair. On completion of the…

  2. Iridescent colour production in hairs of blind golden moles (Chrysochloridae).

    PubMed

    Snyder, Holly K; Maia, Rafael; D'Alba, Liliana; Shultz, Allison J; Rowe, Karen M C; Rowe, Kevin C; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2012-06-23

    Relative to other metazoans, the mammalian integument is thought to be limited in colour. In particular, while iridescence is widespread among birds and arthropods, it has only rarely been reported in mammals. Here, we examine the colour, morphology and optical mechanisms in hairs from four species of golden mole (Mammalia: Chrysochloridae) that are characterized by sheens ranging from purple to green. Microspectrophotometry reveals that this colour is weak and variable. Iridescent hairs are flattened and have highly reduced cuticular scales, providing a broad and smooth surface for light reflection. These scales form multiple layers of light and dark materials of consistent thickness, strikingly similar to those in the elytra of iridescent beetles. Optical modelling suggests that the multi-layers produce colour through thin-film interference, and that the sensitivity of this mechanism to slight changes in layer thickness and number explains colour variability. While coloured integumentary structures are typically thought to evolve as sexual ornaments, the blindness of golden moles suggests that the colour may be an epiphenomenon resulting from evolution via other selective factors, including the ability to move and keep clean in dirt and sand.

  3. 18. VIEW OF ROLLER LEVELER USED TO STRAIGHTEN AND FLATTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ROLLER LEVELER USED TO STRAIGHTEN AND FLATTEN METAL SHEETS. (7/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. 6. VIEW OF FIVEFOOT WIND TUNNEL WITH AIR STRAIGHTENER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF FIVE-FOOT WIND TUNNEL WITH AIR STRAIGHTENER AND OPERATOR STATION IN FOREGROUND (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building No. 19, Five-Foot Wind Tunnel, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  5. 30 CFR 56.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before attempts are made...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before attempts are made...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before attempts are made...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before attempts are made...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before...

  12. 30 CFR 57.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before attempts are made...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7011 - Straightening crossed cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7011 Straightening crossed cables. The drill stem shall be resting on the bottom of the hole or on the platform with the stem secured to the mast before...

  15. Survey of sensitizing components of oxidative hair dyes (retail and professional products) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kirchlechner, Stephan; Hübner, Anja; Uter, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Components of oxidative hair dyes, such as p-toluylenediamine, are very potent contact sensitizers to which many consumers as well as hairdressers and their clients are commonly exposed. Based on the qualitative composition of both retail and professional haircare products as determined by package labeling (according to INCI), we conducted a survey on the exposure to active components of oxidative hair dyes in Germany. The joint occurrence of components is also discussed. Nearly all of the 20 most commonly used substances are potent or very potent contact sensitizers. Contained in 88 % of all products, p-toluylenediamine is the most common component. There are only minor differences between retail and professional products. A frequent combination of substances includes p-toluylenediamine (sulfate), resorcinol as well as m-aminophenol. However, their actual concentrations (which were not investigated in this study) may vastly differ depending on the shade of the individual hair dye. Descriptive univariate analysis reveals that the currently used patch test series "Hairdressing Chemicals", as recommended by the German Contact Allergy Research Group (DKG), does not adequately cover the spectrum of allergens consumers and professionals are exposed to. Other studies have also suggested that a number of other allergens should be tested as well. Taking into account the dynamic kinetics of oxidative hair dyes with respect to allergy development, the effects of combined simultaneous exposure to multiple allergens on the risk of sensitization requires further research. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Racial/ethnic differences in hormonally-active hair product use: a plausible risk factor for health disparities.

    PubMed

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Senie, Ruby; Terry, Mary Beth

    2012-06-01

    Estrogen and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are associated with several health outcomes have been found in hair products. We evaluated the proportion, frequency, duration, and content of hair products in a racially/ethnically diverse population. We recruited n = 301 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York metropolitan area. We collected data on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, root stimulator, perm, and other product use. Estrogen and EDC information was collected from commonly used hair products' labels (used by >3% of population). African-American and African-Caribbean women were more likely to use all types of hair products compared to white women (P < 0.0001). Among hair product users, frequency varied significantly by race/ethnicity, but not duration. More African-Americans (49.4%) and African-Caribbeans (26.4%) used products containing placenta or EDCs compared to whites (7.7%). African-American and African-Caribbean women were more likely to be exposed to hormonally-active chemicals in hair products.

  17. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1987-07-01

    Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image.

  18. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Stiel, Laura; Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non-Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to estrogen and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study reviews the current state of the science associating one such means of exposure, hair products containing EDCs, with breast cancer risk in African American women. We found a growing body of evidence linking: (1) environmental estrogen and EDC exposures to breast cancer risk, (2) the presence of such chemicals in personal care products, including hair products, and (3) the use of certain hair products with potential breast cancer risk in African Americans. At the same time, there is also increasing concern in the lay community about this risk. These results indicate the need for additional research, and the opportunity to benefit from strategic partnerships in community-collaborative approaches in order to better understand the potential "cost of beauty." © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Time-course measurements of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko T; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Segawa, Hiroki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    Hair and nails are often used to prove long-term intake of drugs in forensic drug testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of drug testing using hair and nails and the feasibility of determining when drugs were ingested by measuring the time-courses of drug concentrations in hair and toenails after single administrations of various drugs. Healthy subjects ingested four pharmaceutical products containing eight active ingredients in single doses. Hair and toenails were collected at predetermined intervals, and drug concentrations in hair and nails were measured for 12 months. The administered drugs and their main metabolites were extracted using micropulverized extraction with a stainless steel bullet and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Acidic compounds such as ibuprofen and its metabolites were not detected in both specimens. Acetaminophen, a weakly acidic compound, was detected in nails more frequently than in hair. The maximum concentration of allyl isopropyl acetylurea, a neutral compound, in nails was significantly higher than in hair. Nails are an effective specimen to detect neutral and weakly acidic compounds. For fexofenadine, a zwitterionic compound, and for most basic compounds, the maximum concentrations in hair segments tended to be higher than those in nails. The hair segments showing the maximum concentrations varied between drugs, samples, and subjects. Drug concentrations in hair segments greatly depended on the selection of the hair. Careful interpretation of analytical results is required to predict the time of drug intake. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  1. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  2. 25 CFR 309.14 - What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are Indian products? 309.14 Section 309.14 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.14 What are examples of beadwork, quillwork, and moose hair tufting that are...

  3. Diseases that turn African hair silky.

    PubMed

    Ajose, Frances O A

    2012-11-01

    African hair in its natural state poses tenacious grooming challenges; consequently a large portion of the African cosmetic industry is focused on means to relax the tight curls of African hair to make the hair more manageable. In malnourished and hypoproteinemic states, African hair straightens in an uncomplimentary manner. Recently, we observed that in certain diseases African hair changes to a desirable silky wavy texture. To identify the diseases that turn African hair silky and their parameters we examined 5612 dermatology patients at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. We then studied the clinical and basic laboratory parameters of those patients whose diseases were accompanied by the silky hair change. Silky hair change similar to the hair of the African neonatal child was observed in five diseases, namely AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary tuberculosis with cachexia, and Behçet's disease. Our study identified retrogression of African hair to the neonatal structure in five diseases. Anemia of chronic illness, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mild hypocalcemia were significant laboratory parameters. This is an important observation, which should excite and advance research into the nature and structure of African hair. The causes of structural hair changes should include these five diseases. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Finite element estimation of the residual stresses in roller-straightened rail

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-11-13

    The purpose of this paper is to develop models to accurately predict : the residual stresses due to the roller straightening of railroad rails. : Several aspects of residual stress creation in rail due to roller : straightening are addressed. The eff...

  5. Flow Straightener for a Rotating-Drum Liquid Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R.; Converse, David G.; Rethke, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    A flow straightener has been incorporated into a rotary liquid separator that originally comprised an inlet tube, a shroud plate, an impeller, an inner drum, an outer drum, a housing, a pitot tube, and a hollow shaft motor. As a consequence of the original geometry of the impeller, shroud, inner drum, and hollow shaft, swirl was created in the airflow inside the hollow shaft during operation. The swirl speed was large enough to cause a significant pressure drop. The flow straightener consists of vanes on the back side of the shroud plate. These vanes compartmentalize the inside of the inner drum in such a way as to break up the flow path and thereby stop the air from swirling; as a result, the air enters the hollow shaft with a predominantly axial velocity instead of a swirl. Tests of the rotary liquid separator at an airflow rate of 10 cu ft/min (0.0047 cu m/s) revealed that the dynamic pressure drop was 8 in. of water (approx.=2 kPa) in the absence of the flow straightener and was reduced to 1 in. of water (approx.=0.25 kPa) in the presence of the flow straightener.

  6. Taylorwilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Taylor-wilson four roll straightener of the no. 1 seamless line in bay 12 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Implementation of heat-straightening repairs for Louisiana bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-12-01

    The goal of this study was to implement the latest heat-straightening repair technology on a Louisiana Bridge. The bridge chosen was an overpass just east of Lake Charles crossing 1-10. Working with both state and district personnel, the bridge was r...

  8. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  9. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth.

  10. Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  11. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Loss What's in ... after the problem that causes it is corrected. Hair Basics Hair is made of a kind of ...

  12. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Skin Experts Skin Treatments Hair Transplants Share » HAIR TRANSPLANTS Before (left) and after (right) - front of ... transplant. Photo courtesy of N. Sadick What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ...

  13. Dihydrotestosterone inhibits hair growth in mice by inhibiting insulin-like growth factor-I production in dermal papillae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Harada, Naoaki; Okajima, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production in dermal papillae was increased and hair growth was promoted after sensory neuron stimulation in mice. Although the androgen metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) inhibits hair growth by negatively modulating growth-regulatory effects of dermal papillae, relationship between androgen metabolism and IGF-I production in dermal papillae is not fully understood. We examined whether DHT inhibits IGF-I production by inhibiting sensory neuron stimulation, thereby preventing hair growth in mice. Effect of DHT on sensory neuron stimulation was examined using cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from mice. DHT inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from cultured DRG neurons. The non-steroidal androgen-receptor antagonist flutamide reversed DHT-induced inhibition of CGRP release. Dermal levels of IGF-I and IGF-I mRNA, and the number of IGF-I-positive fibroblasts around hair follicles were increased at 6h after CGRP administration. DHT administration for 3weeks decreased dermal levels of CGRP, IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA in mice. Immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I and the number of proliferating cells in hair follicles were decreased and hair re-growth was inhibited in animals administered DHT. Co-administration of flutamide and CGRP reversed these changes induced by DHT administration. These observations suggest that DHT may decrease IGF-I production in dermal papillae by inhibiting sensory neuron stimulation through interaction with the androgen receptor, thereby inhibiting hair growth in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic-Force-Assisted Straightening of Bent Mild Steel Strip by Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Polash P.; Kalita, Karuna; Dixit, Uday S.; Liao, Hengcheng

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a technique to straighten bent metallic strips with magnetic-force-assisted laser irradiation. Experiments were conducted for three different types of mechanically-bent mild strips. The first type was bent strips without any heat treatment. The second type was stress-relieved and third type was subcritical-annealed bent strips. These strips were straightened following different schemes of laser irradiation sequence to understand the performance of straightening. A parametric study was conducted by varying laser power and scanning speed. Micro-hardness, tensile test, Charpy impact test and microstructure after straightening were also studied. Different scanning schemes provided different microstructures and mechanical properties. Any serious deterioration in the quality of straightened strips was not noticed. Overall, subcritical-annealed bent strips provided the best performance in straightening. The proposed straightening scheme has potential of becoming an industrial practice.

  15. Postural orientation in microgravity depends on straightening up movement performed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2009-08-01

    Whether the vertical body orientation depends on the initial posture and/or the type of straightening up movement is the main question raised in this paper. Another objective was to specify the compensatory role of visual input while adopting an erected posture during microgravity. The final body orientation was analysed in microgravity during parabolic flights. After either (1) straightening up movement from a crouching or (2) a sitting posture, with and without vision. The main results are the following: (1) a vertical erected final posture is correctly achieved after sit to stand movement, whereas all subjects were tilted forward after straightening up from a crouching posture and (2) vision may contribute to correct final posture. These results suggest the existence of a re-weighting of the remaining sensory information, visual information, contact cutaneous cues and proprioceptive information under microgravity condition. We can put forward the alternative hypothesis that the control of body orientation under microgravity condition may also be achieved on the basis of a postural body scheme, that seems to be dependant on the type of movement and/ or the initial position of the whole body.

  16. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    Hair loss Overview Hair loss can affect just your scalp or your entire body. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or medications. Anyone can experience hair loss, but it's more common in men. Baldness ...

  18. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  19. Straightened sternal wire causes iatrogenic pectus carinatum after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jess L; Teodori, Michael F

    2013-03-01

    Pectus carinatum is a protrusion deformity of the anterior chest wall that is most likely caused by a disproportionate growth of the costal cartilages compared with the remainder of the thoracic skeleton. A young boy had previously undergone corrective congenital heart operation, after which a prominent sternal protrusion was noted. During the past year, the protrusion had greatly increased in size and had become recurrently infected. Chest X-ray showed that a sternal wire, the ends of which were pointing toward the skin, had straightened. Operative intervention included removal of the offending wire, draining a chronic abscess, and shaving the protruding sternum so that it conformed to the rest of the sternum.

  20. Discussion: Changes in Vocal Production and Auditory Perception after Hair Cell Regeneration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, Brenda M.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A bird study found that with sufficient time and training after hair cell and hearing loss and hair cell regeneration, the mature avian auditory system can accommodate input from a newly regenerated periphery sufficiently to allow for recognition of previously familiar vocalizations and the learning of new complex acoustic classifications.…

  1. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  2. Hyposmotic stimulation-induced nitric oxide production in outer hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea.

    PubMed

    Takeda-Nakazawa, Hiroko; Harada, Narinobu; Shen, Jing; Kubo, Nobuo; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Yamashita, Toshio

    2007-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production during hyposmotic stimulation in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the guinea pig cochlea was investigated using the NO sensitive dye DAF-2. Simultaneous measurement of the cell length and NO production showed rapid hyposmotic-induced cell swelling to precede NO production in OHCs. Hyposmotic stimulation failed to induce NO production in the Ca2+-free solution. L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor and gadolinium, a stretch-activated channel blocker inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced NO production whereas suramin, a P2 receptor antagonist did not. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a NO donor inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) while L-NAME enhanced it. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase and KT5823, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) mimicked effects of L-NAME on the Ca2+ response. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an osmo- and mechanosensitive channel was expressed in the OHCs by means of immunohistochemistry. 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, a TRPV4 synthetic activator, induced NO production in OHCs. These results suggest that hyposmotic stimulation can induce NO production by the [Ca2+]i increase, which is presumably mediated by the activation of TRPV4 in OHCs. NO conversely inhibits the Ca2+ response via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway by a feedback mechanism.

  3. Hyposmotic stimulation-induced nitric oxide production in outer hair cells of the guinea pig cochlea.

    PubMed

    Takeda-Nakazawa, Hiroko; Harada, Narinobu; Shen, Jing; Kubo, Nobuo; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Yamashita, Toshio

    2007-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production during hyposmotic stimulation in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the guinea pig cochlea was investigated using the NO sensitive dye DAF-2. Simultaneous measurement of the cell length and NO production showed rapid hyposmotic-induced cell swelling to precede NO production in OHCs. Hyposmotic stimulation failed to induce NO production in the Ca(2+)-free solution. L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a non-specific NO synthase inhibitor and gadolinium, a stretch-activated channel blocker inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced NO production whereas suramin, a P2 receptor antagonist did not. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a NO donor inhibited the hyposmotic stimulation-induced increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) while L-NAME enhanced it. 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase and KT5823, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) mimicked effects of L-NAME on the Ca(2+) response. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an osmo- and mechanosensitive channel was expressed in the OHCs by means of immunohistochemistry. 4alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, a TRPV4 synthetic activator, induced NO production in OHCs. These results suggest that hyposmotic stimulation can induce NO production by the [Ca(2+)](i) increase, which is presumably mediated by the activation of TRPV4 in OHCs. NO conversely inhibits the Ca(2+) response via the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway by a feedback mechanism.

  4. Application of operational radiographic inspection method for flaw detection of blade straightener from polymeric composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoshkin, A. N.; Osokin, V. M.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Potrakhov, N. N.; Bessonov, V. B.

    2017-02-01

    In the article on the example of the straightener blade made of polymer composite materials, discusses the advantages of using the method of microfocus X-ray for nondestructive testing of aviation products. Described basic types of defects characteristics occurring in a similar type parts both during their manufacture and during their operation, namely, interlayer delamination, pores and wrinkles. Peculiarities of microfocus X-ray are shown, which is the use of radiation sources with a focal spot size of less than 100 μm. These features make it possible to increase the details and therefore, to minimize the size of detected defects in transmission. On the basis of experimental studies were defined radiographic signs of major types of defects, typical for products made of polymeric composite materials. Calculated time costs of personnel required for high-resolution X-ray recording and evaluation of test results.

  5. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation.

  6. MRI of human hair.

    PubMed

    Mattle, Eveline; Weiger, Markus; Schmidig, Daniel; Boesiger, Peter; Fey, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added by demonstrating the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human hair. Established dedicated nuclear magnetic resonance microscopy hardware (solenoidal radiofrequency microcoils and planar field gradients) and methods (constant time imaging) were adapted to the specific needs of hair MRI. Images were produced at a spatial resolution high enough to resolve the inner structure of the hair, showing contrast between cortex and medulla. Quantitative evaluation of a scan series with different echo times provided a T*(2) value of 2.6 ms for the cortex and a water content of about 90% for hairs saturated with water. The demonstration of the feasibility of hair MRI potentially adds a new tool to the large variety of analytical methods used nowadays in the development of hair care products.

  7. Tolerance to a Hair Dye Product Containing 2-Methoxymethyl-P-Phenylenediamine in an Ethnically Diverse Population of P-Phenylenediamine-Allergic Individuals.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Amir; Kindred, Chesahna; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Goebel, Carsten; Gaspari, Anthony A

    Allergic contact dermatitis after exposure to p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dye products is a common and important clinical problem. Because there is a high rate of cross-elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to other important hair dye products (such as p-toluene diamine and other aminophenol hair dyes) in PPD-allergic patients, safer alternative dyes with excellent hair coloring options are needed. This study aimed to study tolerance to Me-PPD in a PPD-allergic cohort. Twenty ethnically diverse volunteers with a history of contact dermatitis to hair dyes or other PPD-containing chemicals and positive patch test results to 1% PPD in petrolatum were recruited to study their immediate and delayed skin reactivity to PPD, vehicle control, and 2-methoxy-methyl-PPD (Me-PPD) using the allergy alert test (simulating hair dyeing conditions) on volar forearm skin. This test is a short-contact open patch test. The Me-PPD may offer a safer alternative for PPD-allergic patients with an absent or reduced elicitation response in the allergy alert test simulating hair dye use conditions. The absent or reduced response to Me-PPD diagnosed using the allergy alert test has been shown to help reduce the possibility of moderate to severe cross-elicitation reactions among consumers during hair dyeing.

  8. Implication of Human Hair in Regaining Spilled Oil Further Creating A Production Rise in Oyster Mushrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A.; Srivastava, P.; Singh, U.

    2016-12-01

    It is estimated that 4.9 million liters of petroleum are spilled into U.S. waters from vessels and pipelines in a typical year. Oil spill may be as huge as of 8 million barrels (The Persian Gulf oil spill of 1991). Oil-water separation processes using polymeric or inorganic membranes have been proposed as effective and cost competitive technologies but in present the commercial use of membrane in treatment of spilled oil is currently limited by their low efficiency as well as high capital and operating cost. Indian hair-market is a billion-dollar industry yearly exporting thousands of tones of thick and dark hairs. Hairs contain keratin, a family of fibrous structural proteins been proved to adsorb oils. Laboratory results conclude that one gram of human hair can selectively adsorb about 15.5301 grams of crude oil over water, following Frendlich's isotherm. We seek hair mats made up of hairs of size ≤5 inches, costing 37/ton from selected parts of Indian hair market. With a known adsorbing efficiency of 95% towards crude oil, an estimated desorption efficiency of 70% oil worth 0.8M per year can be regained in crude form from U.S. waters only. To ensure solid waste management of hairs, hair mats left with 30% of adsorbed oil can be utilized in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms, a 20-34/kg crop that grows best in 20-25°C ,80-90% relative humidity and oily conditions. This will reduce the growing period of crop ensuring yearly profit of $6.06M in U.S. only engaging variety of stakeholders over borders. Results thus obtained in this study present an economic, safer and sustainable technique to minimize oil loss due to oil spill in waters further ensuring a low labor-low cost technique of waste management that enhances the growth of an in-demand crop. Keywords: Oil Spill, Human Hair Mats, Adsorb, Oyster Mushrooms

  9. Ingrown Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed to determine whether a single- or multiple-blade razor is best for preventing ingrown hair. See ... in the direction of hair growth. Rinse the blade after each stroke. Rinse your skin and apply ...

  10. Investigation of hair dye deposition, hair color loss, and hair damage during multiple oxidative dyeing and shampooing cycles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojin; McMullen, Roger L; Kulcsar, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Color fastness is a major concern for consumers and manufacturers of oxidative hair dye products. Hair dye loss results from multiple wash cycles in which the hair dye is dissolved by water and leaches from the hair shaft. In this study, we carried out a series of measurements to help us better understand the kinetics of the leaching process and pathways associated with its escape from the fiber. Hair dye leaching kinetics was measured by suspending hair in a dissolution apparatus and monitoring the dye concentration in solution (leached dye) with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The physical state of dye deposited in hair fibers was evaluated by a reflectance light microscopy technique, based on image stacking, allowing enhanced depth of field imaging. The dye distribution within the fiber was monitored by infrared spectroscopic imaging of hair fiber cross sections. Damage to the ultrafine structure of the hair cuticle (surface, endocuticle, and cell membrane complex) and cortex (cell membrane complex) was determined in hair cross sections and on the hair fiber surface with atomic force microscopy. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we investigated how consecutive coloring and leaching processes affect the internal proteins of hair. Further, to probe the surface properties of hair we utilized contact angle measurements. This study was conducted on both pigmented and nonpigmented hair to gain insight into the influence of melanin on the hair dye deposition and leaching processes. Both types of hair were colored utilizing a commercial oxidative hair dye product based on pyrazole chemistry.

  11. Hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E A

    2000-06-01

    Disorders of the hair are commonplace in the primary care practice. Among these disorders are male pattern baldness, Telogen effluvium, alopecia areata, Trichotillomania, and fungal infections involving the hair shaft. A review of the normal anatomy and life cycle of hair also is presented.

  12. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018986 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Tarelkin used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair. NASA astronaut Kevin Ford, flight engineer, is visible in the background.

  13. Hair cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-10

    ISS033-E-018991 (10 Nov. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 33 flight engineer, trims the hair of Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, flight engineer, in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station. Novitskiy used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  14. [Forensic aspects of thermal changes in human head hair].

    PubMed

    Kijewski, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Under experimental conditions, head hairs of individuals of different age were exposed to defined increases of temperature up to 450 degrees C and examined by transmitted- and reflected-light microscopy with and without polarization. Preliminary tests had shown that the hair changes alone do not allow conclusions as to the temperature acting on the hair. Especially in the range of 200 to 300 degrees C, the temperature gradient during the heating process and the exposure time were additional influencing factors. Thick hair and hair with a high water content showed more pronounced thermal changes than thin hair. Elasticity and permeability of the cuticle and the cementing substance (cell membrane complex CMC) are also relevant factors. When heating head hairs lacking a medulla, a multiform pseudo-medulla formed under certain conditions. In the presence of thermally induced structural disturbances (e.g. by using hair straighteners), foreign substances can penetrate more easily into the hair shaft from outside. The possibility of such exogenous contamination has to be taken into consideration when performing chemical and toxicological analyses of hair.

  15. Autonomic straightening after gravitropic curvature of cress roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankovic, B.; Volkmann, D.; Sack, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    Few studies have documented the response of gravitropically curved organs to a withdrawal of a constant gravitational stimulus. The effects of stimulus withdrawal on gravitropic curvature were studied by following individual roots of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) through reorientation and clinostat rotation. Roots turned to the horizontal curved down 62 degrees and 88 degrees after 1 and 5 h, respectively. Subsequent rotation on a clinostat for 6 h resulted in root straightening through a loss of gravitropic curvature in older regions and through new growth becoming aligned closer to the prestimulus vertical. However, these roots did not return completely to the prestimulus vertical, indicating the retention of some gravitropic response. Clinostat rotation shifted the mean root angle -36 degrees closer to the prestimulus vertical, regardless of the duration of prior horizontal stimulation. Control roots (no horizontal stimulation) were slanted at various angles after clinostat rotation. These findings indicate that gravitropic curvature is not necessarily permanent, and that the root retains some commitment to its equilibrium orientation prior to gravitropic stimulation.

  16. A Simplified Finite Element Simulation for Straightening Process of Thin-Walled Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziqian; Yang, Huilin

    2017-12-01

    The finite element simulation is an effective way for the study of thin-walled tube in the two cross rolls straightening process. To determine the accurate radius of curvature of the roll profile more efficiently, a simplified finite element model based on the technical parameters of an actual two cross roll straightening machine, was developed to simulate the complex straightening process. Then a dynamic simulation was carried out using ANSYS LS-DYNA program. The result implied that the simplified finite element model was reasonable for simulate the two cross rolls straightening process, and can be obtained the radius of curvature of the roll profile with the tube’s straightness 2 mm/m.

  17. Effects of realistic heat straightening repair on the properties and serviceability of damaged steel beam bridges.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-02-01

    The permanent deformations in steel beam bridges caused by collision with high profile vehicles can be repaired by heat straightening, : which is a structurally efficient and costeffective repair process developed by many engineers over the years....

  18. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  19. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  20. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air due to the climate Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( hypoparathyroidism ) Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Other hormone abnormalities

  1. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching kits and hair cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Bousquet, Claudine; Lassu, Nelly; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2015-03-25

    This manuscript presents an HPLC/UV method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching products and hair products. The method is based on an oxidation of triphenylphosphine into triphenylphosphine oxide by hydrogen peroxide. Triphenylphosphine oxide formed is quantified by HPLC/UV. Validation data were obtained using the ISO 12787 standard approach, particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. For comparative purpose, hydrogen peroxide was also determined using ceric sulfate titrimetry for both types of products. For hair products, a cross validation of both ceric titrimetric method and HPLC/UV method using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive (official iodometric titration method) was performed. Results obtained for 6 commercialized teeth whitening products and 5 hair products point out similar hydrogen peroxide contain using either the HPLC/UV method or ceric sulfate titrimetric method. For hair products, results were similar to the hydrogen peroxide content using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive method and for the HPLC/UV method, mean recoveries obtained on spiked samples, using the ISO 12787 standard, ranges from 100% to 110% with a RSD<3.0%. To assess the analytical method proposed, the HPLC method was used to control 35 teeth bleaching products during a market survey and highlight for 5 products, hydrogen peroxide contents higher than the regulated limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Forensic Investigation of Formaldehyde in Illicit Products for Hair Treatment by DAD-HPLC: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Oiye, Erica N; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda M; Okumura, Leonardo L; Saczk, Adelir A; Ciancaglini, Pietro; de Oliveira, Marcelo F

    2016-07-01

    The illegal use of formalin (commercial formaldehyde) in cosmetic products harms the health of individuals exposed to this substance. Over the last years, the commercial availability of these products, especially those containing irregular dosage of formaldehyde, has increased in Brazil. This work analyzes some products for hair treatment available in the Brazilian market and verifies their safety. The adopted analytical methodology involved sample derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (UV-VIS) at λ = 365 nm. The limit of quantification is 2.5 × 10 -3% w/w, and the recovery tests were around 93%. Some of the samples contained high and illegal formaldehyde levels ranging from 9% to 19% (w/w) and others presented suitable concentrations of the analyte. On the basis of the results, this work discusses the efficiency and practicality of this analytical method for forensic purposes. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Ingrowing Hair

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Di-Qing; Liang, Yu-Hua; Li, Xi-Qing; Zhao, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fang; Sarkar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cutaneous pili migrans and creeping eruption caused by parasitic diseases may present as a moving linear lesion in skin. The former, caused by a hair shaft or fragment embedded in the superficial skin or middle dermis, is a rare condition characterized by creeping eruption with a black line observed at the advancing end. In exceptionally rare instance, the hair grows inside the skin and burrows in the uppermost dermis, such a condition has been called “ingrown hair.” We report a 30-year-old Chinese man, who was accustomed to pull or extrude the beard hairs, with 1-year history of slowly extending black linear eruption on his right chin. Cutaneous examination revealed a 4-cm long black linear lesion beneath the skin associated with edematous erythema around and folliculitis on both ends of the lesion. After treatment with topical mupirocin ointment, the erythema and folliculitis improved and 2 hairs of the beard with hair follicles were pulled out from the skin. Two weeks later, another similar black line about 1 cm in length in the skin presented on the prior lesional area, which was pulled out by a shallow incision of the skin and was also demonstrated as a beard hair with hair follicle. The patient was diagnosed as “ingrowing hair” with multiple recurrences. The lesions recovered after the beard hairs were pulled out. No recurrence occurred in a year of follow-up. We suggest that “ingrowing hair” is better than “ingrown hair” to describe such a condition. Pulling out the involved hair and correcting the bad practice are its optimal management strategies. PMID:27175694

  4. Modeling 3-D deformation of outer hair cells and their production of the active force in the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Spector, A A; Ameen, M; Schmiedt, R A

    2002-10-01

    We analyze the deformation of the outer hair cell and its production of active force under physiological conditions. The active force has two components. One results from the strain caused by loading in the organ of Corti in the cochlea and depends on the level of the acoustic signal; the other is related to the intrinsic active properties of the cell membrane. We demonstrate our approach by considering, as a basic model of an outer hair cell in the organ of Corti, a cylindrical shell that is filled with an incompressible fluid and located between two planes that move relative to each other. These planes represent the basilar membrane and tectorial membrane complexes. We show that the deformed state of the cell has a 3-D nature, including bending and twisting components. This is different from the experimental conditions in which the active force is usually measured. We estimate the active force as a function of the relative position of the planes, angle of the cell's inclination, and the cell length.

  5. 'Relaxers' damage hair: evidence from amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Khumalo, Nonhlanhla P; Stone, Janet; Gumedze, Freedom; McGrath, Emily; Ngwanya, Mzudumile R; de Berker, David

    2010-03-01

    'Relaxers' are used by more than two thirds of African females to straighten hair, with easy grooming and increased length often cited as reasons. A recent study reported relaxed hair lengths much shorter than expected, suggesting increased fragility; the potential for scalp inflammation and scarring alopecia remains unclear. To investigate the biochemical effects of 'relaxers' on hair. With informed consent, included participants represented 3 groups: natural hair, asymptomatic relaxed hair, and symptomatic (brittle) relaxed hair. Biochemical analysis was performed by using a Biochrom 30 amino acid analyzer. Differences in amino acid levels were assessed using either Wilcoxon rank sum test or matched-pairs signed-rank test. There was a decrease in cystine, citrulline, and arginine; however, an increase in glutamine was found in all relaxed compared to natural hair. Cystine levels (milligram per gram amino acid nitrogen) were similar in natural proximal and distal hair: 14 mg/g (range, 4-15 mg/g) versus 14 mg/g (range, 12-15 mg/g); P = .139. In asymptomatic relaxed hair, cystine levels were higher in less frequently relaxed samples proximal to scalp: 7.5 mg/g (5.6-12) versus 3.3 mg/g (1.3-9.2); P = .005. Cystine levels in distal asymptomatic relaxed and symptomatic relaxed hair were similar to each other and to those in the genetic hair fragility disease trichothiodystrophy. It was not possible to analyze lye and no-lye 'relaxers' separately. 'Relaxers' are associated with reduced cystine consistent with fragile damaged hair. A decrease in citrulline and glutamine has been associated with inflammation; prospective studies are needed to investigate whether or how 'relaxers' induce inflammation. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of crossbreeding indigenous Hair Goat with Saanen on carcass measurements and meat quality of kids under an intensive production system.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Alper; Ekiz, Bulent; Ozcan, Mustafa; Kaptan, Cuneyt; Hanoglu, Hulya; Yildirir, Mesut

    2009-08-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the effect of genotype on carcass measurements and meat quality characteristics of purebred Hair Goat, Saanen x Hair Goat (F(1) and B(1)) kids under an intensive production system. In total, 24 kids were slaughtered at the age of approximately 133 days. Kids were fattened for 56 days immediately after weaning. Hot carcass weights were 6.78, 7.61 and 7.02 kg and dressing percentages were 49.71, 49.27 and 48.78%, respectively (P > 0.05). Differences between genotypes for carcass measurements and indexes were not significant. Effect of genotype on pH measurements, drip loss, water holding capacity, cooking loss and Warner Bratzler shear force values were not significant. Meat lightness values at 0 h, 1 h and 1 day after cutting were higher in crossbred kids than Hair Goat kids (P < 0.05). Redness value was significantly higher in meat samples of Hair goat kids at 0 h, 1 h and 1 day measurements (P < 0.05). Kid genotype had no significant effect on meat sensory characteristics, except tenderness. Panelists gave lower scores for meat tenderness to F(1) and B(1) crosses compared to purebred Hair Goat kids. In conclusion, higher meat lightness values of crossbred kids, at particularly B(1) level, might have a positive effect on the consumer choices.

  7. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Accounting for intended use application in characterizing the contributions of cyclopentasiloxane (D5) to aquatic loadings following personal care product use: antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Beta P; Price, Bradford B; van Egmond, Roger A

    2013-10-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, commonly known as D5 (cyclopentasiloxane) has a wide application of use across a multitude of personal care product categories. The relative volatility of D5 is one of the key properties attributed to this substance that provide for the derived performance benefits from the use of this raw material in personal care formulations. On this basis, rapid evaporative loss following use of many products comprising D5 is expected following typical use application and corresponding wear time. Studies were conducted on three key product categories containing D5 (antiperspirants, skin care products and hair care products) to characterize the amount of D5 that may be destined to 'go down the drain' following simulated typical personal care use scenarios. Marketed antiperspirants and skin care products were applied to human subjects and hair care products were applied to human hair tressesand subsequently rinsed off at designated time points representative of typical consumer cleansing and personal hygiene habits. Wash water was collected at 0, 8 and 24h (antiperspirant and hair care analysis) and additionally at 4h (skin care analysis) post product application and samples were analyzed by isotope dilution headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify the concentration of D5 destined to be available to go down the drain in captured wash water. It is demonstrated that significant amounts of D5 in 'leave-on' application products evaporate during typical use and that the concentration of D5 available to go down the drain under such conditions of use is only a very small (negligible) fraction of that delivered immediately upon product application. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Removing Hair Safely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... related to common methods of hair removal. Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair ...

  10. Regulation of organ straightening and plant posture by an actin-myosin XI cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Keishi; Ueda, Haruko; Shimada, Tomoo; Tamura, Kentaro; Kato, Takehide; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo Terao; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2015-03-23

    Plants are able to bend nearly every organ in response to environmental stimuli such as gravity and light(1,2). After this first phase, the responses to stimuli are restrained by an independent mechanism, or even reversed, so that the organ will stop bending and attain its desired posture. This phenomenon of organ straightening has been called autotropism(3) and autostraightening(4) and modelled as proprioception(5). However, the machinery that drives organ straightening and where it occurs are mostly unknown. Here, we show that the straightening of inflorescence stems is regulated by an actin-myosin XI cytoskeleton in specialized immature fibre cells that are parallel to the stem and encircle it in a thin band. Arabidopsis mutants defective in myosin XI (specifically XIf and XIk) or ACTIN8 exhibit hyperbending of stems in response to gravity, an effect independent of the physical properties of the shoots. The actin-myosin XI cytoskeleton enables organs to attain their new position more rapidly than would an oscillating series of diminishing overshoots in environmental stimuli. We propose that the long actin filaments in elongating fibre cells act as a bending tensile sensor to perceive the organ's posture and trigger the straightening system.

  11. HEU Holdup Measurements in the 321-M Draw Bench, Straightener, and Fluoroscope Components

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    The Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. This report covers holdup measurements of uranium residue on the draw bench, straightener, and the fluoroscope components of the 321-M facility.

  12. The use of HPLC-Q-TOF-MS for comprehensive screening of drugs and psychoactive substances in hair samples and several "legal highs" products.

    PubMed

    Aszyk, Justyna; Kot-Wasik, Agata

    Non-targeted screening of drugs present in herbal products, known as "legal high" drugs and in hair as a biological matrix commonly used in toxicological investigations was accomplished with the use of high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS). In total, 25 and 14 therapeutical drugs and psychoactive substances/metabolites were detected in investigated hair samples and herbal products, respectively. We demonstrate that the HPLC-Q-TOF methodology seems to be a powerful tool in the qualitative analysis applied in identification of these designer drugs, thus enabling a laboratory to stay-up-to-date with the drugs that are being sold as legal high products on black market.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of hair index on Karachi's population for social and professional appearance enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Zohra, R R; Qader, S A U; Mumtaz, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair texture, appearance and pigment play an important role in social and professional communication and maintaining an overall appearance. This study was especially designed for morphological assessment of hair damage caused to Karachi's population due to natural factors and cosmetic treatments using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. Hair samples under the study of synthetic factor's effect were given several cosmetic treatments (hot straightened, bleached, synthetic dyed and henna dyed) whereas samples under natural factor's effect (variation in gender, age and pigmentation) were left untreated. Morphological assessment was performed using SEM technique. Results obtained were statistically analysed using minitab 16 and spss 18 softwares. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed less number of cuticular scales in males than females of same age although size of cuticular scales was found to be larger in males than in females. Mean hair index of white hair was greater than black hair of the same head as it is comparatively newly originated. Tukey's method revealed that among cosmetic treatments, bleaching and synthetic henna caused most of the damage to the hair. Statistical evaluation of results obtained from SEM analysis revealed that human scalp hair index show morphological variation with respect to age, gender, hair pigmentation, chemical and physical treatments. Individuals opting for cosmetic treatments could clearly visualize the extent of hair damage these may cause in long run. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. High levels of hair manganese in children living in the vicinity of a ferro-manganese alloy production plant.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Filho, José A; Paes, Ciro R; Pontes, Angela M de C; Moreira, Josino C; Sarcinelli, Paula N; Mergler, Donna

    2009-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, but an effective toxic at high concentrations. While there is an extensive literature on occupational exposure, few studies have examined adults and children living near important sources of airborne Mn. The objective of this study was to analyze hair Mn of children living in the vicinity of a ferro-manganese alloy production plant in the Great Salvador region, State of Bahia, Brazil and examine factors that influence this bioindicator of exposure. We examined 109 children in the age range of 1-10 years, living near the plant. Four separate housing areas were identified a priori on the bases of proximity to the emission sources and downwind location. A non-exposed group (n=43) of similar socio-economic status was also evaluated. Mn hair (MnH) concentration was measured by graphite atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Possible confounding hematological parameters were also assessed. Mean MnH concentration was 15.20 microg/g (1.10-95.50 microg/g) for the exposed children and 1.37 microg/g (0.39-5.58 microg/g) for the non-exposed. For the former, MnH concentrations were 7.95+/-1.40 microg/g (farthest from the plant), 11.81+/-1.11 microg/g (mid-region), 34.43+/-8.66 microg/g (closest to the plant) and 34.22+/-9.15 microg/g (directly downwind). Multiple regression analysis on log transformed MnH concentrations for the exposed children derived a model that explained 36.8% of the variability. In order of importance, area of children's residence, gender (girls>boys) and time of mother's residence in the area at the birth of the child, were significantly associated with MnH. Post hoc analyses indicated two groupings for exposure areas, with those living closest to and downwind of the plant displaying higher MnH concentrations compared to the others. The contribution of the time the mother lived in the community prior to the child's birth to the children's current MnH suggests that in utero exposure may play a role. A study of

  15. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P < 0.006) and global thinning is associated with slower growth rates. Compared with hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. 76 FR 37636 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... to be substantial product hazards. Authority: 15 U.S.C. 2064(j). Sec. 1120.1 Authority. Under the... subsection (j). That subsection delegates authority to the Commission to specify by rule, for a consumer... been substantial compliance with it. 15 U.S.C. 2064(j). Underwriters Laboratories' (``UL'') Standard...

  17. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  18. Heat-straightening effects on the behavior of plates and rolled shapes : volume 2 : second interim report of phase 1.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-08-01

    One of the primary reasons that highway departments are hesitant to use heat-straightening techniques to repair damaged steel girders is the lack of experimental verification of the process. A comprehensive experimental program on the subject has bee...

  19. Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under traditional extensive production system: effects of slaughter age and gender.

    PubMed

    Toplu, Hayriye Deger Oral; Goksoy, Ergun Omer; Nazligul, Ahmet; Kahraman, Tolga

    2013-08-01

    Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under an extensive production system were investigated in this study. A total of 60 Hair goat kids (30 females and 30 males) were slaughtered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of ages. Slaughter age significantly affected meat quality characteristics. Cooking loss (P < 0.01) and shear force value (P < 0.001) increased with age. Meat color became darker red with increasing slaughter age (P < 0.001). The percentage of fat of musculus (M.) semimembranosus increased with age (P < 0.01). The percentage of saturated fatty acids was significantly higher (P < 0.01), whereas the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids was lower (P < 0.001) in the M. longissimus dorsi of the kids slaughtered at 3 months of age than those in the other age groups. The females had higher intramuscular fat than that in males (P < 0.001) and meat from male kids contained a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid than that from females (P < 0.01). In conclusion, meat from Hair kids slaughtered between 3 and 9 months of ages had better quality than those slaughtered at the other ages and also meat from male kids had better quality than those female kids slaughtered at the same age under extensive production system.

  20. Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Managing hair loss in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2013-02-01

    Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

  3. Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

  4. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania) No. 96; Reviewed July 2013 It ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead ...

  5. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... pillow. This is the result of the normal hair growth cycle. Hairs will grow for a few years, ... the name for the resting stage of the hair growth cycle. A telogen effluvium is when some stress ...

  6. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hair tint poisoning ... Different types of hair dye contain different harmful ingredients. The harmful ingredients in permanent dyes are: Naphthylamine Other aromatic amino compounds Phenylenediamines Toluene ...

  7. Localization and expression of clarin-1, the Clrn1 gene product, in auditory hair cells and photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Meehan, Daniel T.; Delimont, Duane; Askew, Charles; Garrige, Suneetha; Gratton, Michael Anne; Rothermund-Franklin, Christie A.; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    The Usher syndrome 3A (CLRN1) gene encodes clarin-1, which is a member of the tetraspanin family of transmembrane proteins. Although identified more than 6 years ago, little is known about its localization or function in the eye and ear. We developed a polyclonal antibody that react with all clarin-1 isoforms and used it to characterize protein expression in cochlea and retina. In the cochlea, we observe clarin-1expression in the stereocilia of P0 mice, and in synaptic terminals present at the base of the auditory hair cells from E18 to P6. In the retina, clarin-1 localizes to the connecting cilia, inner segment of photoreceptors and to the ribbon synapses. RT-PCR from P0 cochlea and P28 retina show mRNAs encoding only isoforms 2 and 3. Western-blots show that only isoform 2 is present in protein extracts from these same tissues. We examined clarin-1 expression in the immortomouse-derived hair cell line UB/OC-1. Only isoform 2 is expressed in UB/OC-1 at both mRNA and protein levels, suggesting this isoform is biologically relevant to hair cell function. The protein co-localizes with microtubules and post-transgolgi vesicles. The sub-cellular localization of clarin-1 in hair cells and photoreceptors suggests it functions at both the basal and apical poles of neurosensoriepithelia. PMID:19539019

  8. Hair sterol signatures coupled to multivariate data analysis reveal an increased 7β-hydroxycholesterol production in cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyun-Hwa; Lee, Do-Yup; Seo, Hong Seog; Jeong, Jihyeon; Moon, Ju-Yeon; Lee, Jung-Eun; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Eosu; Choi, Man Ho

    2016-01-01

    Altered cholesterol metabolism could be associated with cognitive impairment. The quantitative profiling of 19 hair sterols was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled to multivariate data analysis. The limit of quantification of all sterols ranged from 5 to 20 ng/g, while the calibration linearity was higher than 0.98. The precision (% CV) and accuracy (% bias) ranged from 3.2% to 9.8% and from 83.2% to 119.4%, respectively. Among the sterols examined, 8 were quantitatively detected from two strands of 3-cm-long scalp hair samples of female participants, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=15), Alzheimer's disease (AD, n=31), and healthy controls (HC, n=36). The cognitive impairment (MCI or AD) was correlated with a higher metabolic rate than that of HCs based on 7β-hydroxycholesterol (P<0.005). Significant negative correlations (r=-0.822) were detected between Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and hair sample metabolic ratios of 7β-hydroxycholesterol to cholesterol, which is an accepted, sensitive, and specific tool for discriminating HCs from individuals with MCI or AD. In conclusion, improved diagnostic values can be obtained using hair sterol signatures coupled with MMSE scores. This method may prove useful for predictive diagnosis in population screening of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and validation of rapid and simultaneous method for determination of 12 hair-growth compounds in adulterated products by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Park, Han Na; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Sung-Kwan; Baek, Sun Young; Lee, Yong-Moon; Kang, Hoil

    2018-03-01

    Synthetic hair-growth compounds have been illegally used in diverse products to enhance the short-term efficacy of these products. In this study, a rapid and simultaneous method for the determination of hair-growth compounds in adulterated products based on ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQs) of the method were 0.08-43.6ng/mL and 0.27-145ng/mL for the solid-, liquid-, and cream-type samples, respectively. Good calibration linearity for all compounds was demonstrated with a correlation coefficient (r 2 ) higher than 0.997. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were within 11%. The corresponding accuracies were 86-117% and 81-113%, respectively. The mean recoveries obtained for the solid-, liquid, and cream-type samples ranged from 87 to 114%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) within 6%. The RSD of the stability evaluated at 4°C for 48h was less than 6%. The established method was used to screen 76 samples advertised as hair-growth treatments, from online and offline markets, over the course of two years. In 10% of the samples, four compounds, including triaminodil, minoxidil, finasteride, methyltestosterone, and testosterone-propionate were detected. The concentrations were in the range of 0.5-16.4mg/g. This technique provides a reliable platform for technical analysis for continuous monitoring of adulterated products to protect public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

  11. African american women, hair care, and health barriers.

    PubMed

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population.

  12. A survey of the awareness, knowledge and behavior of hair dye use in a korean population with gray hair.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-08-01

    Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. We conducted a questionnaire survey for adult males and females aged over 20 who had gray hair. A total of 500 subjects were included in this study and statistical analysis was performed. Large numbers of the people who had experience with hair dye (233 out of 319 people, 73.0%) did not know about the exact brand name of the hair dye product that they were using. Of 319 hair dye users, 23.8% (76 out of 319) people stated that they experienced side effects. Despite the occurrence of side effects from hair dyeing products, it seems they did not realize the seriousness of the side effects or the need for treatment. It is advisable to introduce a system that enables users to become aware of the ingredients and side effects of hair coloring products and give opportunities for users to become aware of the side effects of hair coloring through education, publicity and publication of an informational booklet.

  13. Economic implications of mercury exposure in the context of the global mercury treaty: Hair mercury levels and estimated lost economic productivity in selected developing countries.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; DiGangi, Joseph; Evers, David C; Petrlik, Jindrich; Buck, David G; Šamánek, Jan; Beeler, Bjorn; Turnquist, Madeline A; Regan, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    Several developing countries have limited or no information about exposures near anthropogenic mercury sources and no studies have quantified costs of mercury pollution or economic benefits to mercury pollution prevention in these countries. In this study, we present data on mercury concentrations in human hair from subpopulations in developing countries most likely to benefit from the implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. These data are then used to estimate economic costs of mercury exposure in these communities. Hair samples were collected from sites located in 15 countries. We used a linear dose-response relationship that previously identified a 0.18 IQ point decrement per part per million (ppm) increase in hair mercury, and modeled a base case scenario assuming a reference level of 1 ppm, and a second scenario assuming no reference level. We then estimated the corresponding increases in intellectual disability and lost Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY). A total of 236 participants provided hair samples for analysis, with an estimated population at risk of mercury exposure near the 15 sites of 11,302,582. Average mercury levels were in the range of 0.48 ppm-4.60 ppm, and 61% of all participants had hair mercury concentrations greater than 1 ppm, the level that approximately corresponds to the USA EPA reference dose. An additional 1310 cases of intellectual disability attributable to mercury exposure were identified annually (4110 assuming no reference level), resulting in 16,501 lost DALYs (51,809 assuming no reference level). A total of $77.4 million in lost economic productivity was estimated assuming a 1 ppm reference level and $130 million if no reference level was used. We conclude that significant mercury exposures occur in developing and transition country communities near sources named in the Minamata Convention, and our estimates suggest that a large economic burden could be avoided by timely implementation of measures to

  14. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Loss KidsHealth / For Kids / Hair Loss What's in ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  15. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common type of hair loss seen in women is androgenetic alopecia, also ... men, it does not have to be complete hair loss. This is seen as hair thinning predominantly ...

  16. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth.

  17. Model investigation of inlet plenum flow straightening techniques for altitude test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.; Linke, H. G.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate and improve the quality of the airflow to be supplied to the engine in altitude test chambers 3 and 4 of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the Lewis Research Center. One-twentieth-scale models of the inlet plenum chamber of the two test chambers were used in the investigation to minimize time and cost. It was possible to reduce the velocity spread in the inlet plenum from approximately 100 m/sec (330 ft/sec) to approximately 10 m/sec (30 ft/sec) through the combined use of flow diverters, multiple spaced screens, flow straighteners, and turning vanes.

  18. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. PMID:22960356

  19. Effect of Patency File on Transportation and Curve Straightening in Canal Preparation with ProTaper System

    PubMed Central

    Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of using a patency file on apical transportation and curve straightening during canal instrumentation with the ProTaper rotary system. Seventy permanent mandibular first molars with mesiobuccal canals, measuring 18–23 mm in length and with a 25–40° curvature (according to the Schneider method), were selected. The working lengths were determined and the teeth were mounted and divided into two experimental groups: (A) prepared by the ProTaper system without using a patency file (n = 35) and (B) prepared by the ProTaper system using a patency file (n = 35). Radiographs taken before and after the preparation were imported into Photoshop software and the apical transportation, and curve straightening were measured. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Partial correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the initial curvature, transportation, and curve straightening (α = 0.05). Using a patency file during canal preparation significantly decreased both apical transportation and curve straightening (P < 0.001). There were significant relationships between the angle of curvature, transportation and curve straightening in pairs (P < 0.001). Apical patency is recommended during root canal preparation with the ProTaper rotary system. PMID:24159390

  20. Effect of Patency File on Transportation and Curve Straightening in Canal Preparation with ProTaper System.

    PubMed

    Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen; Farhadi, Nastaran; Shokraneh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of using a patency file on apical transportation and curve straightening during canal instrumentation with the ProTaper rotary system. Seventy permanent mandibular first molars with mesiobuccal canals, measuring 18-23 mm in length and with a 25-40° curvature (according to the Schneider method), were selected. The working lengths were determined and the teeth were mounted and divided into two experimental groups: (A) prepared by the ProTaper system without using a patency file (n = 35) and (B) prepared by the ProTaper system using a patency file (n = 35). Radiographs taken before and after the preparation were imported into Photoshop software and the apical transportation, and curve straightening were measured. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Partial correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the initial curvature, transportation, and curve straightening (α = 0.05). Using a patency file during canal preparation significantly decreased both apical transportation and curve straightening (P < 0.001). There were significant relationships between the angle of curvature, transportation and curve straightening in pairs (P < 0.001). Apical patency is recommended during root canal preparation with the ProTaper rotary system.

  1. Wooly hair nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus. PMID:29267480

  2. Wooly hair nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Karen de Almeida Pinto; Fernandes, Karina de Almeida Pinto; Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Melo, Daniel Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by a structural anomaly of the hair, restricted to certain areas of the scalp. The hair becomes coiled and slightly hypopigmented. The term woolly hair refers to changes that affect all the scalp and has a hereditary character. We present a case of woolly hair nevus, that developed at the age of 2 years, associated with dental diastema and verrucous epidermal nevus.

  3. [Hair and their environment].

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    2015-02-01

    Hair is influenced by the effects of the daily environment. Some toxic xenobiotics slow down or block the cell renewal of the hair matrix, thus inhibiting hair growth. The ultraviolet light obviously influences the physical structure and physiology of the hair follicle. Tobacco is similarly responsible for negative influences on the evolution of various alopecias. Several cosmetic procedures for maintaining and making hair more attractive are not always harmless, and they occasionally represent a possible origin for alopecia.

  4. Return of Function after Hair Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, Brenda M.; Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of hair cell regeneration is to restore functional hearing. Because birds begin perceiving and producing song early in life, they provide a propitious model for studying not only whether regeneration of lost hair cells can return auditory sensitivity but also whether this regenerated periphery can restore complex auditory perception and production. They are the only animal where hair cell regeneration occurs naturally after hair cell loss and where the ability to correctly perceive and produce complex acoustic signals is critical to procreation and survival. The purpose of this review article is to survey the most recent literature on behavioral measures of auditory functional return in adult birds after hair cell regeneration. The first portion of the review summarizes the effect of ototoxic drug induced hair cell loss and regeneration on hearing loss and recovery for pure tones. The second portion reviews studies of complex, species-specific vocalization discrimination and recognition after hair cell regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of temporary hearing loss and recovery through hair cell regeneration on complex call and song production. Hearing sensitivity is restored, except for the highest frequencies, after hair cell regeneration in birds, but there are enduring changes to complex auditory perception. These changes do not appear to provide any obstacle to future auditory or vocal learning. PMID:23202051

  5. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Hair KidsHealth / For Teens / Taking Care of Your Hair ... role in how healthy it looks. Caring for Hair How you take care of your hair depends ...

  6. Myosin VIIa, harmonin and cadherin 23, three Usher I gene products that cooperate to shape the sensory hair cell bundle

    PubMed Central

    Boëda, Batiste; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Bahloul, Amel; Goodyear, Richard; Daviet, Laurent; Blanchard, Stéphane; Perfettini, Isabelle; Fath, Karl R.; Shorte, Spencer; Reiners, Jan; Houdusse, Anne; Legrain, Pierre; Wolfrum, Uwe; Richardson, Guy; Petit, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Deaf-blindness in three distinct genetic forms of Usher type I syndrome (USH1) is caused by defects in myosin VIIa, harmonin and cadherin 23. Despite being critical for hearing, the functions of these proteins in the inner ear remain elusive. Here we show that harmonin, a PDZ domain-containing protein, and cadherin 23 are both present in the growing stereocilia and that they bind to each other. Moreover, we demonstrate that harmonin b is an F-actin-bundling protein, which is thus likely to anchor cadherin 23 to the stereocilia microfilaments, thereby identifying a novel anchorage mode of the cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, harmonin b interacts directly with myosin VIIa, and is absent from the disorganized hair bundles of myosin VIIa mutant mice, suggesting that myosin VIIa conveys harmonin b along the actin core of the developing stereocilia. We propose that the shaping of the hair bundle relies on a functional unit composed of myosin VIIa, harmonin b and cadherin 23 that is essential to ensure the cohesion of the stereocilia. PMID:12485990

  7. Comparison of productive and reproductive performance and hair cortisol levels between Brown Swiss cross-bred and Holstein cows housed in the same barn.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Kuroki, Reimi; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2017-10-01

    The productive and reproductive characteristics of Brown Swiss (B) cross-bred cows were investigated by comparing with those of Holstein (H) cows housed in the same barn. Additionally, their hair cortisol levels were analyzed to evaluate the extent of stress experienced during dry and lactation periods. B cross-bred cows had lower milk yields and higher milk fat rates than H cows. Reproductive records showed that days from parturition to first artificial insemination (AI) in B cross-bred (n = 16) and H (n = 27) cows were not significantly different, but conception rate at first AI of B cross-bred cows tended to be higher than that of H cows. Percentage of B cross-bred cows that resumed ovarian cyclic activity within 45 days after parturition was higher than that of H cows (6/6 (100%) and 5/11 (45.5%), P < 0.05), and B cross-bred cows had higher body condition scores at that time. Hair cortisol level at 60 to 90 days after parturition in H cows increased significantly compared with in the dry period, and it was higher than that of B cows during the same period. These results suggest that B cross-bred cows experience less metabolic stress during early lactation, which may result in earlier resumption of reproductive function. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Ogilvie, Judith M.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

  9. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  10. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  11. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  12. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Spiny Dendrites Using Straightening and Unrolling Transforms

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Pastor, Luis; Yuste, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of the synaptic organization of the brain depends to a large extent on knowledge about the synaptic inputs to the neurons. Indeed, the dendritic surfaces of pyramidal cells (the most common neuron in the cerebral cortex) are covered by thin protrusions named dendritic spines. These represent the targets of most excitatory synapses in the cerebral cortex and therefore, dendritic spines prove critical in learning, memory and cognition. This paper presents a new method that facilitates the analysis of the 3D structure of spine insertions in dendrites, providing insight on spine distribution patterns. This method is based both on the implementation of straightening and unrolling transformations to move the analysis process to a planar, unfolded arrangement, and on the design of DISPINE, an interactive environment that supports the visual analysis of 3D patterns. PMID:22644869

  13. High-Temperature Creep Behaviour and Positive Effect on Straightening Deformation of Q345c Continuous Casting Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Long; Zhang, Xingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical and creep properties of Q345c continuous casting slab subjected to uniaxial tensile tests at high temperature were considered in this paper. The minimum creep strain rate and creep rupture life equations whose parameters are calculated by inverse-estimation using the regression analysis were derived based on experimental data. The minimum creep strain rate under constant stress increases with the increase of the temperature from 1000 °C to 1200 °C. A new casting machine curve with the aim of fully using high-temperature creep behaviour is proposed in this paper. The basic arc segment is cancelled in the new curve so that length of the straightening area can be extended and time of creep behaviour can be increased significantly. For the new casting machine curve, the maximum straightening strain rate at the slab surface is less than the minimum creep strain rate. So slab straightening deformation based on the steel creep behaviour at high temperature can be carried out in the process of Q345c steel continuous casting. The effect of creep property at high temperature on slab straightening deformation is positive. It is helpful for the design of new casting machine and improvement of old casting machine.

  14. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible women, but is most commonly seen after menopause. In female pattern hair loss some excess loss of hair is noted, but ... all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially whose hair loss starts before menopause but takes many months. Hormone replacement pills, such ...

  15. Strontium-90 in hair.

    PubMed

    HOPKINS, B J; TUTTLE, L W; PORIES, W J; STRAIN, W H

    1963-03-15

    The hair of rats injected with strontium-90 retains a significant amount of the radionuclide. Although the strontium-90 content of hair is variable in these rats and appears to be subject to a variety of influences, determination of the radionuclide content of hair may offer a nondestructive method of estimating strontium-90 in bone.

  16. Active self-correction of back posture in children instructed with 'straighten your back' command.

    PubMed

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Pawłowska, Paulina; Stoliński, Lukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    The ability to adopt the properly corrected body posture is one of the factors determining the effectiveness of therapeutic programmes. This study determined the active self-correction expressed by the change of sagittal spinal curvatures (in standing and sitting positions) in 249 children (136 females, 113 males, aged 10-14 years) instructed with 'straighten your back' command (SYB). Spinal curvatures (sacral slope-SS, lumbar lordosis-LL, global, lower and upper thoracic kyphosis-TK, LK, UK, respectively) were assessed using Saunders inclinometer. The assessment was done in spontaneous standing and sitting positions and in the positions adopted after the SYB. In a standing position SYB led to the significant (P < 0.001) increase in SS, and the significant (P < 0.01) decrease in LL, TK, LK, UK. In a sitting position SYB led to significant changes (P < 0.001) from kyphotic to lordotic position of SS and LL and to the significant (P < 0.001) reduction of TK (36.5° ± 10.8 vs. 23.5° ± 11) and the flattening of LK (15.2° ± 8.7 vs. 1.0° ± 8.4). There were gender-based discrepancy regarding active self-correction only for LL in a standing and UK in a sitting position. Females demonstrated a significant decrease in LL (P < 0.001). UK significantly increased only in males (P < 0.001). The 'straighten your back' command leads to moving the spine away from mid-range towards end range of motion. Therefore, the command should not be used to elicit the most optimal back posture. Further studies are needed to determine if the active self-correction is different in females and males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. From Hair in India to Hair India.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance.

  18. From Hair in India to Hair India

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2017-01-01

    In all cultures, human hair and hairdo have been a powerful metaphor. Tracing back the importance and significance of human hair to the dawn of civilization on the Indian subcontinent, we find that all the Vedic gods are depicted as having uncut hair in mythological stories as well as in legendary pictures. The same is true of the Hindu avatars, and the epic heroes of the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata. Finally, there are a number of hair peculiarities in India pertinent to the creed and religious practices of the Hindu, the Jain, and the Sikh. Shiva Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu God Shiva as the cosmic dancer who performs his divine dance as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time. The same principle manifests in the hair cycle, in which perpetual cycles of growth, regression, and resting underly the growth and shedding of hair. Finally, The Hair Research Society of India was founded as a nonprofit organisation dedicated to research and education in the science of hair. Notably, the HRSI reached milestones in the journey of academic pursuit with the launch of the International Journal of Trichology, and with the establishment of the Hair India conference. Ultimately, the society aims at saving the public from being taken for a ride by quackery, and at creating the awareness that the science of hair represents a subspecialty of Dermatology. In analogy again, the dwarf on which the Nataraja dances represents the demon of egotism, and thus symbolizes Shiva's, respectively, the HRSI's victory over ignorance. PMID:28761257

  19. [Adverse effects of hair care in users].

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, D; Herman, A; Lachapelle, J-M

    2018-06-26

    The panoply of products used by hair care professionals to wash, dye, shape and beautify hair is not entirely free from adverse events. Such effects consist mainly of irritation dermatitis and allergic contact eczema affecting the scalp, as well as the back and front of the neck, the forehead and periorbital areas, and the cheeks. The most frequently cited allergens include paraphenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes, glycerol monothioglycolate (GMTG) in acid perm lotions, and ammonium persulphate in hair lighteners (the latter substance being responsible primarily for contact urticaria). However, care should also be paid to other allergens such as cocamidopropyl betaine among surfactants, as well as certain components in hair formulations such as preservatives and fragrances (as well as minoxidil, frequently used by patients). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Emergency radiology: straightening of the cervical spine in MDCT after trauma—a sign of injury or normal variant?

    PubMed Central

    Deak, Zsuszsanna; Krtakovska, Aina; Ruschi, Francesco; Kammer, Nora; Wirth, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian; Geyer, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether straightening of the cervical spine (C-spine) alignment after trauma can be considered a significant multidetector CT (MDCT) finding. Methods: 160 consecutive patients after C-spine trauma admitted to a Level 1 trauma centre received MDCT according to Canadian Cervical Spine Rule and National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study indication rule; subgroups with and without cervical collar immobilization (CCI +/−) were compared with a control group (n = 20) of non-traumatized patients. Two independent readers evaluated retrospectively the alignment, determined the absolute rotational angle of the posterior surface of C2 and C7 (ARA C2–7) and grouped the results for lordosis (<−13°), straight (−13 to +6°) and kyphosis (>+6°). Results: In the two CCI−/CCI+ study groups, the straight or kyphotic alignment significantly (p = 0.001) predominated over lordosis. The number of patients with straight C-spine alignment was higher in the CCI+ group (CCI+ 69% vs CCI− 49%, p = 0.05). A comparison of the CCI+ group vs the CCI− group revealed a slightly smaller number of kyphotic (10% vs 18%, p = 0.34) and lordotic (21% vs 33%, p = 0.33) alignments. Statistically, however, the differences were of no significance. The control group revealed no significant differences. Conclusion: Straightening of the C-spine alone is not a definitive sign of injury but is a biomechanical variation due to CCI and neck positioning during MDCT or active patient control. Advances in knowledge: Straightening of the C-spine alignment in MDCT alone is not a definitive sign of injury. Straightening of the C-spine alignment is related to neck positioning and active patient control. CCI has a straightening effect on the cervical alignment. PMID:26764283

  1. Hair Transplantation Controversies.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R; Finney, Robert; Rogers, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing transplanted hair for men. It is increasingly popular procedure to restore natural growing hair for men with hair loss. To review some current controversies in hair transplant surgery. Review of the English PubMed literature and specialty literature in hair transplant surgery. Some of the controversies in hair transplant surgery include appropriate donor harvesting technique including elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction whether manual versus robotic, the role of platelet-rich plasma and low-level light surgery in hair transplant surgery. Hair transplant surgery creates consistently natural appearing hair. As with all techniques, there are controversies regarding the optimal method for performing the procedure. Some of the current controversies in hair transplant surgery include optimal donor harvesting techniques, elliptical donor harvesting versus follicular unit extraction, the role of low-level light therapy and the platelet-rich plasma therapy in the procedure. Future studies will further clarify their role in the procedure.

  2. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  3. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wakeford, Charles

    2017-01-01

    treatment groups by at least 117.6 percent and 234.9 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 316.5 percent and 312 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively, thereby achieving the primary efficacy objective. Subjects favored the MFSO® hair oil treatment, rating it as safe, effective, and aesthetically pleasing. Conclusions: The MFSO hair oil product is a safe and effective option for the treatment of women suffering from hair breakage and damaged hair. PMID:29399260

  5. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The hair follicle enigma.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Bruno A

    2017-06-01

    The hair follicle is a mini-organ endowed with a unique structure and cyclic behaviour. Despite the intense research efforts which have been devoted at deciphering the hair follicle biology over the past 70 years, one must admit that hair follicle remains an enigma. In this brief review, various aspects of hair follicle biology will be addressed, and more importantly, unsolved questions and new possible research tracks will be highlighted, including hair follicle glycobiology and exosome-mediated cell-cell interactions. Even though bricks of knowledge are solidly being acquired, an integrative picture remains to emerge. One can predict that computer science, algorithms and bioinformatics will assist in fostering our understanding hair biology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  9. Hair cell regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Albert SB; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear largely lacks the capacity to regenerate hair cells, the sensory cells required for hearing and balance. Recent studies in both lower vertebrates and mammals have uncovered genes and pathways important in hair cell development and have suggested ways that the sensory epithelia could be manipulated to achieve hair cell regeneration. These approaches include the use of inner ear stem cells, transdifferentiation of nonsensory cells, and induction of a proliferative response in the cells that can become hair cells. PMID:18929656

  10. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

  11. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer treatment - alopecia; Chemotherapy - hair loss; Radiation - hair loss ... Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. This is because cancer cells divide rapidly. Since the cells in hair ...

  12. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  13. The Influence of the "Straighten Your Back" Command on the Sagittal Spinal Curvatures in Children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility.

    PubMed

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kolwicz-Gańko, Aleksandra; Sitarski, Dominik; Kędra, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Objectives . The aim of the study was to assess the change of sagittal spinal curvatures in children with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) instructed with "straighten your back" command (SYB). Methods . The study included 56 children with GJH. The control group consisted of 193 children. Sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), global thoracic kyphosis (TK), lower thoracic kyphosis (LK), and upper thoracic kyphosis (UK) were assessed with Saunders inclinometer both in spontaneous positions (standing and sitting) and after the SYB. Results . Children with GJH after SYB presented the following: in standing, increase in SS and decrease in TK, LK, and UK ( P < 0.01), with LL not significantly changed; in sitting: decrease in global thoracic kyphosis (35.5° (SD 20.5) versus 21.0° (SD 15.5), P < 0.001) below the standards proposed in the literature (30-40°) and flattening of its lower part ( P < 0.001). The same changes were observed in the control group. Conclusions . In children with generalized joint hypermobility, the "straighten your back" command leads to excessive reduction of the global thoracic kyphosis and flattening of its lower part. Therefore, the "straighten your back" command should not be used to achieve the optimal standing and sitting positions.

  14. Identification and analysis of damaged or porous hair.

    PubMed

    Hill, Virginia; Loni, Elvan; Cairns, Thomas; Sommer, Jonathan; Schaffer, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Cosmetic hair treatments have been referred to as 'the pitfall' of hair analysis. However, most cosmetic treatments, when applied to the hair as instructed by the product vendors, do not interfere with analysis, provided such treatments can be identified by the laboratory and the samples analyzed and reported appropriately for the condition of the hair. This paper provides methods for identifying damaged or porous hair samples using digestion rates of hair in dithiothreitol with and without proteinase K, as well as a protein measurement method applied to dithiothreitol-digested samples. Extremely damaged samples may be unsuitable for analysis. Aggressive and extended aqueous washing of hair samples is a proven method for removing or identifying externally derived drug contamination of hair. In addition to this wash procedure, we have developed an alternative wash procedure using 90% ethanol for washing damaged or porous hair. The procedure, like the aqueous wash procedure, requires analysis of the last of five washes to evaluate the effectiveness of the washing procedure. This evaluation, termed the Wash Criterion, is derived from studies of the kinetics of washing of hair samples that have been experimentally contaminated and of hair from drug users. To study decontamination methods, in vitro contaminated drug-negative hair samples were washed by both the aqueous buffer method and a 90% ethanol method. Analysis of cocaine and methamphetamine was by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Porous hair samples from drug users, when washed in 90% ethanol, pass the wash criterion although they may fail the aqueous wash criterion. Those samples that fail both the ethanolic and aqueous wash criterion are not reported as positive for ingestion. Similar ratios of the metabolite amphetamine relative to methamphetamine in the last wash and the hair is an additional criterion for assessing contamination vs. ingestion of methamphetamine. Copyright © 2014

  15. Chapter 6: Hair collection

    Treesearch

    Katherine C. Kendall; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2008-01-01

    The identification of species from hair samples is probably as old as humanity, but did not receive much scientific attention until efficient and relatively inexpensive methods for amplifying DNA became available. Prior to this time, keys were used to identify species through the microscopic analysis of hair shaft morphology (Moore et al. 1974; also see Raphael 1994...

  16. Hair Loss Myths.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Gabriella; McMichael, Amy

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hair loss is a common complaint seen in dermatology clinics. From frustration and attempts at self-help, patients with hair loss may present to the dermatologist with false beliefs, or myths, about the causes of their condition and what treatments are effective.

    METHODS: We identified 12 common myths about hair loss, categorized as myths about minoxidil treatment, vitamin and mineral supplements, natural topical treatments, and hair care practices. We performed a PubMed search to find evidence to support or refute each myth.

    RESULTS: We found that there is little evidence to support many of these common hair loss myths. In some cases, randomized controlled trials have investigated the effects of particular therapies and point to the effectiveness of certain hair loss treatments.

    DISCUSSION: In many cases, there have not been sufficient randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effect of different therapies and hair care practices on hair loss. It is best to guide patients toward treatments with a long track record of efficacy and away from those where little is known scientifically.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):690-694.

    .

  17. Hair and Physiological Baldness

    PubMed Central

    Mercantini, Edward S.

    1965-01-01

    Human hair is one of the structures of the body about which little is generally known. Disease affecting the hair is often minimized or ignored by physicians because of lack of knowledge of this rudimentary organ. However, the patient's attitude toward hair loss is very different from the doctor's and he feels great concern about such loss. The development, growth and morphology of human hair are briefly presented. Experimental work which will increase our knowledge of hair growth and loss is reviewed. The various forms of physiological alopecia from birth onward are discussed, with special emphasis on the least-known type of physiological baldness, “male-pattern baldness” in the adult female. PMID:14312445

  18. Optical hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ort, R J; Anderson, R R

    1999-06-01

    Traditional methods of hair removal have proven unsatisfactory for many individuals with excessive or unwanted hair. In the last few years, several lasers and xenon flashlamps have been developed that promise to fulfill the need for a practical, safe, and long-lasting method of hair removal. Aggressive marketing of these has contributed to their popularity among patients and physicians. However, significant controversy and confusion surrounds this field. This article provides a detailed explanation of the scientific underpinnings for optical hair removal and explores the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices currently available (Nd:YAG, ruby, alexandrite, diode lasers, and xenon flashlamp). Treatment and safety guidelines are provided to assist the practitioner in the use of these devices. Although the field of optical hair removal is still in its infancy, initial reports of long-term efficacy are encouraging.

  19. High-efficiency production of bioactive recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18 in Escherichia coli and its effects on hair follicle growth.

    PubMed

    Song, Lintao; Huang, Zhifeng; Chen, Yu; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Chao; Li, Xiaokun

    2014-01-01

    Using fusion tags, expression of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 18 (rhFGF18) in mammalian cells and Escherichia coli has been extensively used for fundamental research and clinical applications, including chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, hair growth, and neuroprotection. However, high-level rhFGF18 expression is difficult and the products are often not homogeneous. Furthermore, fusion-tagged protein has higher immunogenicity and lower bioactivity, and the removal of the fused tag is expensive. To overcome the limitations of fusion-tagged expression of protein and to prepare soluble highly bioactive rhFGF18, we have developed a rapid and efficient expression strategy. Optimized hFGF18 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into pET22b and pET3c vectors, then transformed into E. coli strains Origima (DE3) and BL21 (DE3)PlysS. The best combination of plasmid and host strain was selected, and only Origima (DE3)/pET3c-rhFGF18 was screened for high-level expressed rhFGF18. Under optimal conditions in a 30-L fermentor, the average bacterial yield and expression level of rhFGF18 of three batches were more than 652 g and 30 % respectively, after treatment with 1 mM isopropyl-thio-β-galactopyranoside for 10 h at 25 °C. The target protein was purified by CM Sepharose FF and heparin affinity chromatography. The purity of rhFGF18 was shown by HPLC to be higher than 95 %, and the yield was 155 mg/L. In vitro MTT assays demonstrated that the purified rhFGF18 could stimulate significant proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, and animal experiments showed that rhFGF18 could effectively regulate hair growth. In conclusion, this may be a better method of producing rhFGF18 to meet the increasing demand in its pharmacological application.

  20. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2013-11-22

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A primer to natural hair care practices in black patients.

    PubMed

    Bosley, Rawn E; Daveluy, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Natural hairstyles have increased in popularity in the United States among individuals of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Dermatologists should be aware of general principles of natural hair care in this patient population, including basic hair care terminology, types of natural hairstyles, methods of washing, and product selection. A basic knowledge of natural hair care practices in black patients will assist dermatologists in the management and treatment of many conditions associated with traumatic hairstyling in this patient population.

  2. Numerical simulation of the hair formation -modeling of hair cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajihara, Narumichi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2018-01-01

    In the recent years, the fields of study of anti-aging, health and beauty, cosmetics, and hair diseases have attracted significant attention. In particular, human hair is considered to be an important aspect with regard to an attractive appearance. To this end, many workers have sought to understand the formation mechanism of the hair root. However, observing growth in the hair root is difficult, and a detailed mechanism of the process has not yet been elucidated. Hair repeats growth, retraction, and pause cycles (hair cycle) in a repetitive process. In the growth phase, hair is formed through processes of cell proliferation and differentiation (keratinization). During the retraction phase, hair growth stops, and during the resting period, hair fall occurs and new hair grows. This hair cycle is believed to affect the elongation rate, thickness, strength, and shape of hair. Therefore, in this study, we introduce a particle model as a new method to elucidate the unknown process of hair formation, and to model the hair formation process accompanying the proliferation and differentiation of the hair root cells in all three dimensions. In addition, to the growth period, the retraction and the resting periods are introduced to realize the hair cycle using this model.

  3. Health status by gender, hair color, and eye color: Red-haired women are the most divergent

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Peter; Kleisner, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer. Red-haired men showed a balanced pattern, doing better than other men in three health categories and worse in three. Number of children was the only category where both male and female redheads did better than other respondents. We also confirmed earlier findings that red hair is naturally more frequent in women than in men. Of the ‘new’ hair and eye colors, red hair diverges the most from the ancestral state of black hair and brown eyes, being the most sexually dimorphic variant not only in population frequency but also in health status. This divergent health status may have one or more causes: direct effects of red hair pigments (pheomelanins) or their by-products; effects of other genes that show linkage with genes involved in pheomelanin production; excessive prenatal exposure to estrogen (which facilitates expression of red hair during fetal development and which, at high levels, may cause health problems later in life); evolutionary recentness of red hair and corresponding lack of time to correct negative side effects; or genetic incompatibilities associated with the allele Val92Met, which seems to be of Neanderthal origin and is one of the alleles that can cause red hair. PMID:29284020

  4. Health status by gender, hair color, and eye color: Red-haired women are the most divergent.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter; Kleisner, Karel; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Red hair is associated in women with pain sensitivity. This medical condition, and perhaps others, seems facilitated by the combination of being red-haired and female. We tested this hypothesis by questioning a large sample of Czech and Slovak respondents about the natural redness and darkness of their hair, their natural eye color, their physical and mental health (24 categories), and other personal attributes (height, weight, number of children, lifelong number of sexual partners, frequency of smoking). Red-haired women did worse than other women in ten health categories and better in only three, being particularly prone to colorectal, cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancer. Red-haired men showed a balanced pattern, doing better than other men in three health categories and worse in three. Number of children was the only category where both male and female redheads did better than other respondents. We also confirmed earlier findings that red hair is naturally more frequent in women than in men. Of the 'new' hair and eye colors, red hair diverges the most from the ancestral state of black hair and brown eyes, being the most sexually dimorphic variant not only in population frequency but also in health status. This divergent health status may have one or more causes: direct effects of red hair pigments (pheomelanins) or their by-products; effects of other genes that show linkage with genes involved in pheomelanin production; excessive prenatal exposure to estrogen (which facilitates expression of red hair during fetal development and which, at high levels, may cause health problems later in life); evolutionary recentness of red hair and corresponding lack of time to correct negative side effects; or genetic incompatibilities associated with the allele Val92Met, which seems to be of Neanderthal origin and is one of the alleles that can cause red hair.

  5. Therapeutic strategy for hair regeneration: Hair cycle activation, niche environment modulation, wound-induced follicle neogenesis and stem cell engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, Shan-Chang; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Chih-Chiang; Lei, Mingxing; Wang, Ling Mei; Widelitz, Randall B.; Hughes, Michael W.; Jiang, Ting-Xing; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are major new advancements in the fields of stem cell biology, developmental biology, regenerative hair cycling, and tissue engineering. The time is ripe to integrate, translate and apply these findings to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Readers will learn about new progress in cellular and molecular aspects of hair follicle development, regeneration and potential therapeutic opportunities these advances may offer. Areas covered Here we use hair follicle formation to illustrate this progress and to identify targets for potential strategies in therapeutics. Hair regeneration is discussed in four different categories. (1) Intra-follicle regeneration (or renewal) is the basic production of hair fibers from hair stem cells and dermal papillae in existing follicles. (2) Chimeric follicles via epithelial-mesenchymal recombination to identify stem cells and signaling centers. (3) Extra-follicular factors including local dermal and systemic factors can modulate the regenerative behavior of hair follicles, and may be relatively easy therapeutic targets. (4) Follicular neogenesis means the de novo formation of new follicles. In addition, scientists are working to engineer hair follicles, which require hair forming competent epidermal cells and hair inducing dermal cells. Expert opinion Ideally self-organizing processes similar to those occurring during embryonic development should be elicited with some help from biomaterials. PMID:23289545

  6. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2016-12-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  7. Hair camouflage: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Saed, Stephanie; Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2017-03-01

    Hair is venerated, cherished, and desired in societies throughout the world. Both women and men express their individual identities through their hairstyles. Healthy hair contributes to successful social assimilation, employment, and overall quality of life. Therefore, hair loss can have detrimental effects on almost every aspect of a person's life. In this review, we discuss the myriad of options that aid in concealing and camouflaging hair loss to facilitate a healthier-appearing scalp. Camouflage options for patients who suffer from hair loss include full or partial wigs, hair extensions, concealing powders and sprays, surgical tattoos, and hair transplants. We describe these modalities in detail and discuss their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Microtubules in root hairs.

    PubMed

    Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

    1985-06-01

    The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis.

  9. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Scrotal hair in infants].

    PubMed

    Sentchordi Montane, L; Quintanar Rioja, A; Ayala Bernardo de Quirós, L; Martínez Granero, M A; Bonet Serra, B

    2008-02-01

    The presence of pubic hair is exceptional in healthy infants of both sexes. In most of the cases described in the literature, the process was self-limited and no etiology was found. Nevertheless, in some patients, this finding has been associated with other manifestations of hyperandrogenism related to potentially serious diseases such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or virilizing tumors. In the present article, we describe seven infants followed-up in the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic because of scrotal hair. In all patients, the process was self-limited and resolved spontaneously and no hormonal or developmental alterations were observed. Key words: Scrotal hair, infants, virilization.

  11. From conditioning shampoo to nanomechanics and haptics of human hair.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claudia; Sugiharto, Albert Budiman; Max, Eva; Fery, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Shampoo treatment and hair conditioning have a direct impact on our wellbeing via properties like combability and haptic perception of hair. Therefore, systematic investigations leading to quality improvement of hair care products are of major interest. The aim of our work is a better understanding of complex testing and the correlation with quantitative parameters. The motivation for the development of physical testing methods for hair feel relates to the fact that an ingredient supplier like BASF can only find new, so far not yet toxicologically approved chemistries for hair cosmetics, if an in-vitro method exists.In this work, the effects of different shampoo treatments with conditioning polymers are investigated. The employed physical test method, dry friction measurements and AFM observe friction phenomena on a macroscopic as well as on a nanoscale directly on hair. They are an approach to complement sensoric evaluation with an objective in-vitro method.

  12. Hair dye use and risk of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yawei; Kim, Christopher; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2012-01-01

    Over 50% of the adult population will use hair dyes at some point in their lifetimes. Hair dyes consist of various chemicals and the composition of these chemicals vary by hair dye types. Chemicals p-phenylenediamine and aminophenyl have been suggested as possible carcinogens or mutagens in experimental studies. The scientific community has been interested in this potential public health impact and the results of published epidemiological studies are summarized here. The current evidence provides limited evidences on the association between personal hair dye use and human cancer risk, except for the possibility of hematopoietic cancers and to a lesser extent, bladder cancer. Risk appears to be affected by time period of use and by specific genetic polymorphisms. Future studies should investigate potential gene and environment interaction to assess possible genetic susceptibility. Several methodological issues should also be considered in future studies including completed hair dye use information such as on timing, duration, frequency and type of hair dye product use.

  13. Biomechanical differences in the stem straightening process among Pinus pinaster provenances. A new approach for early selection of stem straightness.

    PubMed

    Sierra-de-Grado, Rosario; Pando, Valentín; Martínez-Zurimendi, Pablo; Peñalvo, Alejandro; Báscones, Esther; Moulia, Bruno

    2008-06-01

    Stem straightness is an important selection trait in Pinus pinaster Ait. breeding programs. Despite the stability of stem straightness rankings in provenance trials, the efficiency of breeding programs based on a quantitative index of stem straightness remains low. An alternative approach is to analyze biomechanical processes that underlie stem form. The rationale for this selection method is that genetic differences in the biomechanical processes that maintain stem straightness in young plants will continue to control stem form throughout the life of the tree. We analyzed the components contributing most to genetic differences among provenances in stem straightening processes by kinetic analysis and with a biomechanical model defining the interactions between the variables involved (Fournier's model). This framework was tested on three P. pinaster provenances differing in adult stem straightness and growth. One-year-old plants were tilted at 45 degrees, and individual stem positions and sizes were recorded weekly for 5 months. We measured the radial extension of reaction wood and the anatomical features of wood cells in serial stem cross sections. The integral effect of reaction wood on stem leaning was computed with Fournier's model. Responses driven by both primary and secondary growth were involved in the stem straightening process, but secondary-growth-driven responses accounted for most differences among provenances. Plants from the straight-stemmed provenance showed a greater capacity for stem straightening than plants from the sinuous provenances mainly because of (1) more efficient reaction wood (higher maturation strains) and (2) more pronounced secondary-growth-driven autotropic decurving. These two process-based traits are thus good candidates for early selection of stem straightness, but additional tests on a greater number of genotypes over a longer period are required.

  14. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... with certain abnormalities of the nails and the teeth. Later in childhood, hair loss may be due ...

  15. Penile strangulation by hair.

    PubMed

    Acimi, Smail

    2014-07-01

    To know the causes and results of treatment of complications from a penile strangulation by hair in seven boys. From April 2000 to December 2012, seven boys presenting serious penile complications by hair strangulation have been operated in two centers. All seven boys had transection of the urethra at the coronal level. And none of our patients were at the stage of necrosis or amputation of the glans. The age of the patients at surgery ranged from 34 to 134 months (mean 96 months). Four children presented urethrocutaneous fistulas (57% of cases), and the innervation and vascularization of the glans remained poor after repair in three patients. The penile strangulation by hair was due to a simple accident. However, several predisposing factors were discovered in our patients: lack of cleanliness; a moist environment with nocturnal enuresis; the presence of pubic hair in young children reported in the four children, and a coronal sulcus not covered by the foreskin in circumcised children.

  16. Hair cuttime on ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-22

    Caption: ISS043E044174 (03/22/2015) --- Its haircut time onboard the International Space Station as Expedition 43 Commander and NASA astronaut Terry Virts handles the scissors while ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti holds the vacuum to immediately pull the fine hair strands into the safe container so they don't float away into the station. Hair trims are a regular occurrence during an astronaut's six month tour.

  17. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Sheila K; Larsen, Sofus C; Olsen, Nanna J; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1-2cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. No statistically significant difference (p=0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean: 137pg/mg [95% CI: 122,153]) and women with natural hair color (adjusted mean: 139pg/mg [95% CI: 123,155]). Frequency of hair washing was not associated with HCC (β: -3.7 [95% CI: -9.0, 1.5; P=0.20]). This study of 266 Danish women provides no evidence in support of an association between HCC and hair dyeing status or hair washing frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  20. Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Lenk, Robert; Dellinger, Anthony; MacFarland, Darren; Kumar, Krishan; Wilson, Stephen R; Kepley, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 "bald" mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle numbers. In shaved mice, fullerenes increase the rate of hair growth as compared with mice receiving vehicle only. In SKH-1 hairless mice fullerene derivatives given topically or subdermally markedly increased hair growth. This was paralleled by a significant increase in the number of hair follicles in fullerene-treated mice as compared with those mice treated with vehicle only. The fullerenes also increased hair growth in human skin sections maintained in culture. These studies have wide-ranging implications for those conditions leading to hair loss, including alopecia, chemotherapy, and reactions to various chemicals.

  1. Friction and wear of human hair fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James; Johnson, Simon A.; Avery, Andrew R.; Adams, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    An experimental study of the tribological properties of hair fibres is reported, and the effect of surface treatment on the evolution of friction and wear during sliding. Specifically, orthogonally crossed fibre/fibre contacts under a compressive normal load over a series of 10 000 cycle studies are investigated. Reciprocating sliding at a velocity of 0.4 mm s-1, over a track length of 0.8 mm, was performed at 18 °C and 40%-50% relative humidity. Hair fibres retaining their natural sebum were studied, as well as those stripped of their sebum via hexane cleaning, and hair fibres conditioned using a commercially available product. Surface topography modifications resulting from wear were imaged using scanning electron microscopy and quantified using white light interferometry. Hair fibres that presented sebum or conditioned product at the fibre/fibre junction exhibited initial coefficients of friction at least 25% lower than those that were cleaned with hexane. Coefficients of friction were observed to depend on the directionality of sliding for hexane cleaned hair fibres after sufficient wear cycles that cuticle lifting was present, typically on the order 1000 cycles. Cuticle flattening was observed for fibre/fibre junctions exposed to 10 mN compressive normal loads, whereas loads of 100 mN introduced substantial cuticle wear and fibre damage.

  2. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes... coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall bear, in...

  3. 9 CFR 95.7 - Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.7 Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry. Wool, hair, or bristles derived from ruminants and/or swine which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  4. 9 CFR 95.8 - Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.8 Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Wool, hair, or bristles offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  5. 9 CFR 95.8 - Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.8 Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Wool, hair, or bristles offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  6. 9 CFR 95.8 - Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.8 Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Wool, hair, or bristles offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  7. 9 CFR 95.7 - Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.7 Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry. Wool, hair, or bristles derived from ruminants and/or swine which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  8. 9 CFR 95.7 - Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.7 Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry. Wool, hair, or bristles derived from ruminants and/or swine which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  9. Detection of oxidative hair treatment using fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Witt, Silvana; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2016-08-01

    In assessing abstinence from drug or alcohol abuse, hair analysis plays an important role. Cosmetic hair treatment influences the content of deposited drugs which is not always detectable during analysis. Since oxidation of melanin leads to an increase in fluorescence, a microscopic method was developed to distinguish natural from cosmetically treated hair. For validation, natural hair samples were treated with different types of cosmetics and inspected by fluorescence microscopy. Hair samples from 20 volunteers with documented cosmetic treatment and as a proof of concept 100 hair samples from forensic cases were analyzed by this method. Apart from autofluorescence with excitation at 365 nm, no obvious fluorescence was observed in untreated hair samples. Tinting and a natural plant product had no influence on fluorescence, but dyeing procedures including oxidation led to a marked increase in fluorescence. Proof of cosmetic treatment was achieved in hair samples from the 20 volunteers. In 100 forensic cases, 13 samples were characterized as oxidatively treated, which was in accordance with the respective disclosure except for one case where treatment was not admitted. This fluorescence microscopic procedure proved to be fast, easy, and reliable to identify oxidatively treated hair samples, which must be considered especially in evaluating cases of negative drug results. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) Seed Oil (MFSO®) on the Measurable Improvement of Hair Breakage in Women with Damaged Hair: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Eight-month Trial.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Roberta; Zhang, Yu; Wakeford, Charles

    2017-11-01

    treatment groups by at least 117.6 percent and 234.9 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 75 and 316.5 percent and 312 percent for the Healthy Hair Index 50 values, respectively, thereby achieving the primary efficacy objective. Subjects favored the MFSO ® hair oil treatment, rating it as safe, effective, and aesthetically pleasing. Conclusions: The MFSO hair oil product is a safe and effective option for the treatment of women suffering from hair breakage and damaged hair.

  11. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A 71 Cases Study Ascertaining that Straightening Is Possible, and a New Etiological Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Polak, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Seventy-one children (23 boys and 48 girls, aged 6 to 18 year-old) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) between 11° and 62°, without braces, have been treated manually, only at the level of the neck. To ascertain that non-surgical straightening of AIS is possible (without brace). So far no disease modifying treatment for AIS existed. Braces can only slow down worsening (and this can only be achieved if they are worn 23 hours a day). Surgery is not without important risks. All patients have been treated exclusively with a manual therapy called Brachy-Myotherapy. This method treats spasmed (contractured) muscles by placing them in a shortening position according to a specific protocol. An average straightening of 8° of AIS was observed, with a maximum of 25°. 94% of cases improved, 67 out of 71. The worst prognosis was, the better results. The more advanced AIS was, the better the results. A simple and reliable treatment of AIS is possible. AIS seems to be a compensation mechanism of the body, with the aim of keeping the ears, and thus the labyrinths, at a horizontal level for correct equilibrium. When lasting post-traumatic neck muscle contractures causing a permanent side-bending of the skull have been treated, this compensation mechanism becomes irrelevant and scoliosis tends to subside.

  12. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  13. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004005.htm Aging changes in hair and nails To use the sharing ... you age, your hair and nails begin to change. HAIR CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS Hair color change . ...

  14. Clinical Evidence of Increase in Hair Growth and Decrease in Hair Loss without Adverse Reactions Promoted by the Commercial Lotion ECOHAIR®.

    PubMed

    Alonso, María Rosario; Anesini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hair exerts protection, sensory functions, thermoregulation, and sexual attractiveness. Hair loss (alopecia) is caused by several diseases, drug intake, hormone imbalance, stress, and infections (Malassesia furfur). Drugs usually used in alopecia produce irreversible systemic and local side effects. An association of extracts of Coffea arabica and Larrea divaricata (ECOHAIR®) is successfully being commercialized in Argentina for hair growth. The aim of this study was to provide scientific support for the efficacy and innocuousness of ECOHAIR® in patients with noncicatricial alopecia during a 3-month treatment. The efficacy was determined through the assessment of an increase in hair volume, improvement in hair looks, growth of new hair, and a decrease in hair loss by the test of hair count and hair traction. The capacity to decrease the amount of dandruff was also evaluated as well as the adverse local effects caused by the treatment. ECOHAIR® spray improved the overall hair volume and appearance; it increased its thickness, induced hair growth, and decreased hair loss. Besides, no adverse local reactions were observed upon treatment with the product. This study provides scientific support for the clinical use of ECOHAIR® as a treatment to be used in noncicatricial alopecia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. [Tufted hair folliculitis].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; Pericin, M; Hafner, J; Burg, G

    1997-04-01

    A case of tufted hair folliculutis presenting as circumscribed, tender and inflamed areas in the occiput with residual tufted follicles in a 28-year old man is reported. Tufted hair folliculitis is a characteristic localized scarring bacterial folliculitis of the scalp due to Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathological studies reveal perifollicular inflammation around the upper portions of the follicles sparing the hair root level. Within areas of inflammation, several follicles converge toward a common follicular duct with a widely dilated opening. Currently, tufted hair folliculitis is considered a variant of folliculitis decalvans of Quinquaud. Staphylococcal infection is believed to be an initial causative factor, and underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be important in determining which reaction pattern occurs in an affected individual. The development of atrophy with loss of adnexal structures (in folliculitis decalvans) or of hair tufts (in tufting folliculitis) may depend upon the depth and destructive potential of the inflammatory process. The therapeutic approach is problematic; prolonged treatment with oral antibiotics may stabilize the disease, but good and at times more definitive results (as in the presented case) have been reported after radical surgical excision of the involved areas.

  17. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects.

  18. Development of a stiffness-angle law for simplifying the measurement of human hair stiffness.

    PubMed

    Jung, I K; Park, S C; Lee, Y R; Bin, S A; Hong, Y D; Eun, D; Lee, J H; Roh, Y S; Kim, B M

    2018-04-01

    This research examines the benefits of caffeine absorption on hair stiffness. To test hair stiffness, we have developed an evaluation method that is not only accurate, but also inexpensive. Our evaluation method for measuring hair stiffness culminated in a model, called the Stiffness-Angle Law, which describes the elastic properties of hair and can be widely applied to the development of hair care products. Small molecules (≤500 g mol -1 ) such as caffeine can be absorbed into hair. A common shampoo containing 4% caffeine was formulated and applied to hair 10 times, after which the hair stiffness was measured. The caffeine absorption of the treated hair was observed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with a focal plane array (FPA) detector. Our evaluation method for measuring hair stiffness consists of a regular camera and a support for single strands of hair. After attaching the hair to the support, the bending angle of the hair was observed with a camera and measured. Then, the hair strand was weighed. The stiffness of the hair was calculated based on our proposed Stiffness-Angle Law using three variables: angle, weight of hair and the distance the hair was pulled across the support. The caffeine absorption was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The concentration of amide bond in the hair certainly increased due to caffeine absorption. After caffeine was absorbed into the hair, the bending angle and weight of the hair changed. Applying these measured changes to the Stiffness-Angle Law, it was confirmed that the hair stiffness increased by 13.2% due to caffeine absorption. The theoretical results using the Stiffness-Angle Law agree with the visual examinations of hair exposed to caffeine and also the known results of hair stiffness from a previous report. Our evaluation method combined with our proposed Stiffness-Angle Law effectively provides an accurate and inexpensive evaluation technique for measuring bending stiffness of human hair. © 2018

  19. Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?

    PubMed Central

    Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E.; Messina, Jane L.; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C.; Grekin, Steven K.; Holland, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

  20. Preliminary analysis of the distribution of water in human hair by small-angle neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Yash; Murthy, N Sanjeeva; Ramaprasad, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion and distribution of water in hair can reveal the internal structure of hair that determines the penetration of various products used to treat hair. The distribution of water into different morphological components in unmodified hair, cuticle-free hair, and hair saturated with oil at various levels of humidity was examined using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) by substituting water with deuterium oxide (D(2)O). Infrared spectroscopy was used to follow hydrogen-deuterium exchange. Water present in hair gives basically two types of responses in SANS: (i) interference patterns, and (ii) central diffuse scattering (CDS) around the beam stop. The amount of water in the matrix between the intermediate filaments that gives rise to interference patterns remained essentially constant over the 50-98% humidity range without swelling this region of the fiber extensively. This observation suggests that a significant fraction of water in the hair, which contributes to the CDS, is likely located in a different morphological region of hair that is more like pores in a fibrous structure, which leads to significant additional swelling of the fiber. Comparison of the scattering of hair treated with oil shows that soybean oil, which diffuses less into hair, allows more water into hair than coconut oil. These preliminary results illustrate the utility of SANS for evaluating and understanding the diffusion of deuterated liquids into different morphological structures in hair.

  1. Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Hair Growth Rate.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in hair cortisol concentrations as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of metabolic diseases and chronic psychological stress. Fifty-three volunteers were recruited, and hair segments proximal to the scalp were collected from each individual. A cost-effective ball mill was used for the preparation of hair samples, and ELISA was performed to analyze cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that the frequency of hair washing affects the hair cortisol concentration. The group that washed their hair every day had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than the group that washed it less often. However, no significant differences were detected between cosmetic-treated and nontreated hair samples. The study also shows that hair cortisol concentrations in the first 3 cm of hair segments proximal to the scalp corresponded to average hair growth rate based on 1 cm/month. Thus, hair cortisol concentrations of segments 3 cm proximal to the scalp may represent cumulative stress exposure over the previous 3 months. These findings will allow more widespread research to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a potential biomarker to assess chronic stress. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Ethyl glucuronide: unusual distribution between head hair and pubic hair.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Vallet, Emilie; Etter, Mathieu; Salquebre, Guillaume; Cirimele, Vincent

    2008-03-21

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in hair. In some specific situations, head hair can be missing, and therefore, alternative anatomical locations of hair are of interest. In this study, paired hair specimens (head hair and pubic hair) from eight social drinkers were analyzed for EtG. Each sample was decontaminated by two dichloromethane bathes (5 ml) for 2 min. After cutting into small pieces, about 50 mg of hair was incubated in 2 ml water in the presence of 10 ng of EtG-d5, used as internal standard and submitted to ultra-sonication for 2 h. The aqueous phase was extracted by SPE using Oasis MAX columns. The hair extract was separated on an ACQUITY BEH HILIC column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 221-85 and 75 and m/z 226-75 for EtG and the IS, respectively. This laboratory is using a positive cut-off at 50 pg/mg. All eight head hair specimens were negative for EtG at a limit of quantitation fixed at 10 pg/mg. Surprisingly, EtG was identified at high concentrations in pubic hair, in the range 12-1370 pg/mg. It appears, therefore, that it is not possible to document the drinking status of a subject by simply switching from head hair to pubic hair.

  3. The impact of oxidative stress on hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. They are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges, while the body possesses endogenous defense mechanisms. With age, production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defense mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the aging phenotype. While the role of oxidative stress has been widely discussed in skin aging, little focus has been placed on its impact on hair condition. Moreover, most literature on age-related hair changes focuses on alopecia, but it is equally important that the hair fibers that emerge from the scalp exhibit significant age-related changes that have equal impact on the overall cosmetic properties of hair. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the pre-emerging fiber include: oxidative metabolism, smoking, UVR, and inflammation from microbial, pollutant, or irritant origins. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the post-emerging fiber include: UVR (enhanced by copper), chemical insults, and oxidized scalp lipids. The role of the dermatologist is recognition and treatment of pre- and post-emerging factors for lifetime scalp and hair health. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair.

    PubMed

    Sewram, Vikash; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Shephard, Gordon S; Marasas, Walter F O

    2003-01-01

    This study shows for the first time the accumulation of fumonisin mycotoxins in human hair of population clusters exposed to contaminated maize, and thus the feasibility of human hair analysis for the assessment of past fumonisin exposure. Composite hair samples were obtained from the Bizana, Butterworth and Centane districts within the Transkei region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Following methanol extraction and strong anion exchange clean up, the fumonisins FB(1), FB(2) and FB(3) were detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Hair from Centane and Butterworth showed mean levels of FB(1) of 26.7 and 23.5 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. FB(2) was only detected in hair from Centane and in one sampling point in Butterworth, with mean levels of 6.5 and 5.7 microg kg(-1) hair, respectively. Hair samples from Bizana, on the other hand, were found to contain higher levels of FB(1) (mean 33.0 microg kg(-1) hair) and FB(2) (mean 11.1 microg kg(-1) hair). No samples contained more than trace levels of FB(3). Recoveries from spiked hair samples using this method ranged from 81% to 101%, demonstrating the applicability of hair analysis in assessing human exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins.

  5. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) Overview Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of ...

  6. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print en español ¿Por qué se ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  7. The Growth of Human Hair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  8. Hair Follicle Miniaturization in a Woolly Hair Nevus: A Novel "Root" Perspective for a Mosaic Hair Disorder.

    PubMed

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Perez, Alfonso; Hoque, Shamali R; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fleck, Roland A; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a mosaic disorder characterized by unruly, tightly curled hair in a circumscribed area of the scalp. This condition may be associated with epidermal nevi. We describe an 11-year-old boy who initially presented with multiple patches of woolly hair and with epidermal nevi on his left cheek and back. He had no nail, teeth, eye, or cardiac abnormalities. Analysis of plucked hairs from patches of woolly hair showed twisting of the hair shaft and an abnormal hair cuticle. Histopathology of a woolly hair patch showed diffuse hair follicle miniaturization with increased vellus hairs.

  9. The interpretation of hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Eva; Flanagan, Robert J

    2018-02-01

    Head hair analysis for drugs and drug metabolites has been used widely with the aim of detecting exposure in the weeks or months prior to sample collection. However, inappropriate interpretation of results has likely led to serious miscarriages of justice, especially in child custody cases. The aim of this review is to assess critically what can, and perhaps more importantly, what cannot be claimed as regards the interpretation of hair test results in a given set of circumstances in order to inform future testing. We searched the PubMed database for papers published 2010-2016 using the terms "hair" and "drug" and "decontamination", the terms "hair" and "drug" and "contamination", the terms "hair" and "drug-facilitated crime", the terms "hair" and "ethyl glucuronide", and the terms "hair", "drug testing" and "analysis". Study of the reference lists of the 46 relevant papers identified 25 further relevant citations, giving a total of 71 citations. Hair samples: Drugs, drug metabolites and/or decomposition products may arise not only from deliberate drug administration, but also via deposition from a contaminated atmosphere if drug(s) have been smoked or otherwise vaporized in a confined area, transfer from contaminated surfaces via food/fingers, etc., and transfer from sweat and other secretions after a single large exposure, which could include anesthesia. Excretion in sweat of endogenous analytes such as γ-hydroxybutyric acid is a potential confounder if its use is to be investigated. Cosmetic procedures such as bleaching or heat treatment of hair may remove analytes prior to sample collection. Hair color and texture, the area of the head the sample is taken from, the growth rate of individual hairs, and how the sample has been stored, may also affect the interpretation of results. Toxicological analysis: Immunoassay results alone do not provide reliable evidence on which to base judicial decisions. Gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  10. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  11. Hair tonic poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair tonic, give them water or milk right away, ...

  12. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider tells you to. If the chemical is on the skin or in the eyes, flush with lots of water for at least 15 minutes. If the person swallowed the hair bleach, give them water or milk right away, ...

  13. Davis combs her hair

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-08-28

    STS085-327-011 (7 - 19 August 1997) --- Astronaut N. Jan Davis spends a moment of her off-duty time aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery brushing her hair. Davis, payload commander, never strayed far from the payload operations checklist, seen attached to nearby mid-deck wall.

  14. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds promote proliferation of mouse hair follicle cells in vitro and convert hair cycle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Kamiya, T; Yokoo, Y

    1998-11-01

    For the purpose of discovering natural products which possess hair growing activity, we examined about 1000 kinds of plant extracts concerning growth-promoting activity with respect to hair follicle cells. After an extensive search, we discovered that proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds promote proliferation of hair follicle cells isolated from mice by about 230% relative to controls (100%); and that proanthocyanidins possess remarkable hair-cycle-converting activity from the telogen phase to the anagen phase in C3H mice in vivo test systems. The profile of the active fraction of the proanthocyanidins was elucidated by thiolytic degradation and tannase hydrolysis. We found that the constitutive monomers were epicatechin and catechin; and that the degree of polymerization was 3.5. We demonstrated the possibility of using the proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds as agents inducing hair growth.

  16. Analysis of Nerve Agent Metabolites from Hair for Long-Term Verification of Nerve Agent Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-09

    Analysis of Nerve Agent Metabolites from Hair for Long-Term Verification of Nerve Agent Exposure Amanda S. Appel,† John H. McDonough,‡ Joseph D...feasible. In this study, hair was evaluated as a long-term repository of nerve agent hydrolysis products. Pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA...hydrolysis product of soman) and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA; hydrolysis product of sarin) were extracted from hair samples with N,N

  17. Use of a modified hair strand test to assess the antifungal activity kinetics of dog hair after a 2% climbazole shampoo application.

    PubMed

    Petit, Jean Yanique; Cavana, Paola; Thoumire, Sandra; Guillot, Jacques; Perrot, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    The "hair strand test" was first developed as a model to evaluate the antifungal activity of antidandruff shampoos. To assess the residual activity of an antifungal shampoo on the hair shafts of dogs after a single application, followed by bathing with a physiological shampoo one month later. Six beagles (two males and four females) from a research colony. Dogs were bathed with a 2% climbazole shampoo. Hairs were collected before application of the shampoo and at scheduled intervals for 30 days after treatment. A physiological shampoo was then applied to all dogs and hairs were collected following the same schedule. The inhibition zone around the hair shafts was measured after incubation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates streaked with three Malassezia pachydermatis strains. Inhibition zones around hairs collected from dogs bathed with 2% climbazole shampoo were significantly larger than those around hairs collected before shampooing at all time points (P = 0.003). An increase in the width of the inhibition zones around climbazole treated hairs was observed following physiological shampoo on Day 30 (P = 0.005). No significant differences were observed between Malassezia pachydermatis isolates (P = 0.571). No inhibition zones were seen around the hairs of dogs bathed with physiological shampoo only. The modified hair strand test is useful for the assessment of residual antifungal activity on animal hairs. Use of a physiological shampoo following antifungal shampoo therapy may increase the efficacy of the antifungal product for the control of Malassezia overgrowth. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Effect of the multifunctional cosmetic ingredient sphinganine on hair loss in males and females with diffuse hair reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Nicole; Mentel, Matthias; Köhler, Tim; Tuchscherer, Benjamin; Garbe, Birgit; Ülker, Jasmina; Tronnier, Hagen; Heinrich, Ulrike; Farwick, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are well known to promote keratinocyte differentiation and to induce ceramide production. In addition, they show anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential effect of sphinganine on prolonging the hair anagen rate and improving the overall hair quality and scalp health. The inhibitory potential of sphinganine toward 5-α-reductase was studied using an in vitro assay. The stimulation of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2 by sphinganine was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Sphinganine bioavailability was studied ex vivo using a pig skin model. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of sphinganine on hair loss and hair/scalp quality in vivo. In vitro results showed that sphinganine is a potent inhibitor of 5-α-reductase type I that prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a key factor of androgenetic male baldness. In vivo results demonstrated efficacy in reducing non-illness-related hair loss among males. In terms of expert rating, all hair quality and scalp parameters improved after application of sphinganine. Improved scalp health might be linked to the observed increase of the antimicrobial peptide HBD2. Thus, sphinganine is well suited as a topical alternative for the improvement of scalp health and hair quality and anti-hair loss application. PMID:27660477

  19. Adult-onset hair loss in Chesapeake Bay retrievers: a clinical and histological study.

    PubMed

    Cerundolo, R; Mauldin, E A; Goldschmidt, M H; Beyerlein, S L; Refsal, K R; Oliver, J W

    2005-02-01

    Ten Chesapeake Bay retriever (CBRS) dogs with hair loss were recruited in collaboration with the American Chesapeake Club. All dogs had nonpruritic, noninflammatory, regionalized hair loss affecting the same areas of the body in male and female dogs. Hormonal investigations showed increased adrenal and sex steroid concentration in seven cases. Histopathology revealed follicular hyperkeratosis and plugging, follicular atrophy, and occasional melanin clumping with malformed hair shafts. This study suggests that hair loss in CBRS is a breed syndrome in which young adult dogs have hair loss characterized by unusual histological features and abnormal steroid production. A familial predisposition seems likely and selective breeding might reduce the occurrence of this condition.

  20. A Measurement and Modeling Study of Hair Partition of Neutral, Cationic, and Anionic Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingyi; Yang, Senpei; Chen, Tao; Han, Lujia; Lian, Guoping

    2018-04-01

    Various neutral, cationic, and anionic chemicals contained in hair care products can be absorbed into hair fiber to modulate physicochemical properties such as color, strength, style, and volume. For environmental safety, there is also an interest in understanding hair absorption to wide chemical pollutants. There have been very limited studies on the absorption properties of chemicals into hair. Here, an experimental and modeling study has been carried out for the hair-water partition of a range of neutral, cationic, and anionic chemicals at different pH. The data showed that hair-water partition not only depends on the hydrophobicity of the chemical but also the pH. The partition of cationic chemicals to hair increased with pH, and this is due to their electrostatic interaction with hair increased from repulsion to attraction. For anionic chemicals, their hair-water partition coefficients decreased with increasing pH due to their electrostatic interaction with hair decreased from attraction to repulsion. Increase in pH did not change the partition of neutral chemicals significantly. Based on the new physicochemical insight of the pH effect on hair-water partition, a new quantitative structure property relationship model has been proposed, taking into account of both the hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic interaction of chemical with hair fiber. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments. PMID:27095961

  2. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause.

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna Sabina

    2016-03-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments.

  3. Hair loss at injection sites of mesotherapy for alopecia.

    PubMed

    El-Komy, Mohamed; Hassan, Akmal; Tawdy, Amira; Solimon, Mohamed; Hady, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-12-01

    The side effects of mesotherapy for treatment of various forms of alopecia are often underreported, while scientific data for its efficacy are severely lacking. To demonstrate the late onset side effects of mesotherapy for alopecia. Three patients with androgenetic alopecia showed hair loss after previously uneventful mesotherapy sessions up to 1 year. Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological findings suggested an inflammatory scaring process at sites of mesotherapy injections. Mesotherapy for androgenetic alopecia may paradoxically induce hair loss and scarring. Proper regulation and monitoring of the use of mesotherapy products for treating hair loss in women, needs to be addressed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  5. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  6. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  7. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or...

  8. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  9. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  10. A clinical trial to investigate the effect of Cynatine HNS on hair and nail parameters.

    PubMed

    Beer, Christina; Wood, Simon; Veghte, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n = 25) received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500 mg) plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n = 25) received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22.

  11. Tryptophan and kynurenine determination in human hair by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Freire, Thamires Batello; Pinto, Claudinéia Aparecida Sales de Oliveira; Prado, María Segunda Aurora; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2017-10-15

    Tryptophan, an amino acid found in hair proteinaceous structure is used as a marker of hair photodegradation. Also, protein loss caused by several chemical/physical treatments can be inferred by tryptophan quantification. Kynurenine is a photo-oxidation product of tryptophan, expected to be detected when hair is exposed mainly to UVB (290-320nm) radiation range. Tryptophan from hair is usually quantified directly as a solid or after alkaline hydrolysis, spectrofluorimetrically. However, these types of measure are not sufficiently specific and present several interfering substances. Thus, this work aimed to propose a quantification method for both tryptophan and kynurenine in hair samples, after alkali hydrolysis process, by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric and UV detection. The tryptophan and kynurenine quantification method was developed and validated. Black, white, bleached and dyed (blond and auburn) hair tresses were used in this study. Tryptophan and kynurenine were separated within ∼9min by HPLC. Both black and white virgin hair samples presented similar concentrations of tryptophan, while bleaching caused a reduction in the tryptophan content as well as dyeing process. Unexpectedly, UV/vis radiation did not promote significantly the conversion of tryptophan into its photo-oxidation product and consequently, kynurenine was not detected. Thus, this works presented an acceptable method for quantification of tryptophan and its photooxidation metabolite kynurenine in hair samples. Also, the results indicated that bleaching and dyeing processes promoted protein/amino acids loss but tryptophan is not extensively degraded in human hair by solar radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hair cycle control by leptin as a new anagen inducer.

    PubMed

    Sumikawa, Yasuyuki; Inui, Shigeki; Nakajima, Takeshi; Itami, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose is to clarify the physiological role of leptin in hair cycle as leptin reportedly causes activation of Stat3, which is indispensable for hair cycling. While hair follicles in dorsal skin of 5-week-old C57/BL6 mice had progressed to late anagen phase, those in dorsal skin of 5-week-old leptin receptor deficient db/db mice remained in the first telogen and later entered the anagen at postnatal day 40, indicating that deficiency in leptin receptor signalling delayed the second hair cycle progression. Next, we shaved dorsal hairs on wild-type mice at postnatal 7 weeks and injected skin with mouse leptin or a mock. After 20 days, although mock injection showed no effect, hair growth occurred around leptin injection area. Human leptin fragment (aa22-56) had similar effects. Although the hair cycle of ob/ob mice was similar to that of wild-type mice, injection of mouse leptin on ob/ob mice at postnatal 7 weeks induced anagen transition. Immunohistochemically, leptin is expressed in hair follicles from catagen to early anagen in wild-type mice, suggesting that leptin is an anagen inducer in vivo. Phosphorylation of Erk, Jak2 and Stat3 in human keratinocytes was stimulated by leptin and leptin fragment. In addition, RT-PCR and ELISA showed that the production of leptin by human dermal papilla cells increased under hypoxic condition, suggesting that hypoxia in catagen/telogen phase promotes leptin production, preparing for entry into the next anagen. In conclusion, leptin, a well-known adipokine, acts as an anagen inducer and represents a new player in hair biology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase activity drives hair follicle stem cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Aimee, Flores; John, Schell; Abby, Krall; David, Jelinek; Matilde, Miranda; Melina, Grigorian; Daniel, Braas; White Andrew, C; Jessica, Zhou; Nick, Graham; Thomas, Graeber; Pankaj, Seth; Denis, Evseenko; Hilary, Coller; Jared, Rutter; Heather, Christofk; Lowry William, E

    2017-01-01

    Summary While normally dormant, Hair Follicle Stem Cells (HFSCs) quickly become activated to divide during a new hair cycle. The quiescence of HFSCs is known to be regulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Here we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate that HFSCs utilize glycolytic metabolism and produce significantly more lactate than other cells in the epidermis. Furthermore, lactate generation appears to be critical for the activation of HFSCs as deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldha) prevented their activation. Conversely, genetically promoting lactate production in HFSCs through mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (Mpc1) deletion accelerated their activation and the hair cycle. Finally, we identify small molecules that increase lactate production by stimulating Myc levels or inhibiting Mpc1 carrier activity and can topically induce the hair cycle. These data suggest that HFSCs maintain a metabolic state that allow them to remain dormant and yet quickly respond to appropriate proliferative stimuli. PMID:28812580

  14. Dark Matter Hairs Around Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Earth surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Earth, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a billion times greater than average. The hairs in this illustration are not to scale. Simulations show that the roots of such hairs can be 600,000 miles (1 million kilometers) from Earth, while Earth's radius is only about 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20176

  15. Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

  16. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: uncombable hair syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Uncombable hair syndrome Uncombable hair syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Uncombable hair syndrome is a condition that is characterized by ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a disorder of bone growth characterized ...

  19. The proteomic profile of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Flagler, M J; Jones, L; Rufaut, N; Davis, M G

    2012-06-01

    Monilethrix is a congenital hair shaft disorder with associated fragility. Many of the changes seen in monilethrix hair on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy are also seen in hair weathering and cosmetic damage to hair. We used monilethrix as a model to investigate the relationship between hair protein structure and hair strength and resistance to cosmetic insult. We applied proteomic techniques to identify novel peptide damage markers for chemical oxidative damage to hair. The findings suggest that specific sites in the protein structure of hair are targeted during oxidative damage from bleaching, a unique insight into how chemical damage compromises the structural integrity of the hair shaft at the molecular level. Applying proteomics to the study of congenital and acquired hair shaft disorders can deliver new insights into hair damage and novel strategies to strengthen hair. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. In vivo procedures for assessment of hair greasiness.

    PubMed

    Knott, C A; Daykin, K; Ryan, J

    1983-06-01

    Synopsis Greasy hair is a common problem in Europe. The first step in developing anti-grease hair products must be to establish a sensitive protocol for measuring any changes in perceived hair greasiness. Sensitive clinical trials and in vivo evaluation methods of determining hair greasiness have been developed that show significant differences in the perceived hair greasiness following the use of different shampoos. Products tested in two clinical trials for efficacy as anti-grease shampoos were an anti-grease shampoo containing 2% 3,4-thiolanediol as the active ingredient, and a baby shampoo based on mild surfactants. The same placebo shampoo based on ether sulphates used in typical European shampoo formulations was used in both tests. A shampoo containing 2% zinc pyrithione was included in the trials as a control, since there were indications that this would increase the amount of hair greasiness. Neither of the test products were shown to be effective anti-grease shampoos. The shampoo containing 2% zinc pyrithione was shown to produce significantly more greasiness than both the placebo and the test shampoos. Since significant differences could be shown between the different shampoos, the protocol and in vivo evaluation techniques used in these clinical trials are considered to be validated.

  1. Hair Transplantation in Migraine Headache Patients.

    PubMed

    Ors, Safvet

    2017-09-01

    Migraine headache is a primary neurologic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. As a consequence, quality of life is diminished, productivity suffers (through loss of work force), and treatment costs are substantial. The occurrence rate in the general population is quite high, with women accounting for 3 of every 4 cases. Between January 2011 and May 2012, a total of 221 patients received hair transplants. Another 590 patients underwent hair transplantation between June 2012 and December 2016. Initially (first interval), patients were not questioned on migraine headaches in preoperative visits, but questioning was regularly done thereafter. Overall, 150 patients given transplants in the first period were surveyed by phone regarding preoperative migraine headaches. Aside from the 1 incidental discovery, no other instances of migraine emerged. Headache origins were occipital-frontal in 2 patients, occipital-temporal in 2 patients, and occipital-temporal-frontal in the 2 others. Donor/receiver areas in hair transplantation and migraine trigger zones shared locations. Headache frequencies ranged from 4 to 8 days per month (average, 6 days), and pain scores were 5-8 (10 being highest). Duration of pain was 3-5 hours (average, 4 hours). All six patients had used various medications, such as triptans, ergot, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, before hair transplantation. The 1 female patient was a 32-year-old seeking treatment for alopecia, with a 6-year history of migraine headaches. The male patients presenting with androgenetic alopecia (grade 4-5 by Norwood classification) had 6- to 20-year migrainous histories. After hair transplantation, each migraine sufferer was checked once in the first month and then once every 3 months. Those who could not appear in person after the first year were evaluated by phone every 3 months. Migraine headaches had ceased in all 6 patients, none of whom used medical treatments for migraines thereafter. The postoperative

  2. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  3. Contact allergy to common ingredients in hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Søsted, Heidi; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Gonçalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Goossens, An; Giménez-Arnau, Ana M; Le Coz, Christophe J; White, Ian R; Diepgen, Thomas L; Andersen, Klaus E; Agner, Tove; Maibach, Howard; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2013-07-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy, and approximately 100 different hair dye chemicals are allowed. To examine whether PPD is an optimal screening agent for diagnosing hair dye allergy or whether other clinically important sensitizers exist. Two thousand nine hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients in 12 dermatology clinics were patch tested with five hair dyes available from patch test suppliers. Furthermore, 22 frequently used hair dye ingredients not available from patch test suppliers were tested in subgroups of ~500 patients each. A positive reaction to PPD was found in 4.5% of patients, and 2.8% reacted to toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD), 1.8% to p-aminophenol, 1% to m-aminophenol, and 0.1% to resorcinol; all together, 5.3% (n = 156). Dying hair was the most frequently reported cause of the allergy (55.4%); so-called 'temporary henna' tattoos were the cause in 8.5% of the cases. p-Methylaminophenol gave a reaction in 20 patients (2.2%), 3 of them with clinical relevance, and no co-reaction with the above five well-known hair dyes. Hair dyes are the prime cause of PPD allergy. PPD identifies the majority of positive reactions to PTD, p-aminophenol and m-aminophenol, but not all, which justifies additional testing with hair dye ingredients from the used product. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Understanding breakage in curly hair.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Bragado, G A; Balooch, G; Dixon-Parks, F; Porter, C; Bryant, H

    2015-07-01

    In 2005, the L'Oréal Institute for hair and skin research carried out a multiethnic study to investigate hair breakage in women residing in the U.S.A. In this study it was reported that a large percentage (96%) of the African-American respondents experience breakage. A combination of structural differences and grooming-induced stresses seem to contribute to the higher breakage incidence in the African-American group as the chemical composition of African-American hair is not significantly different from other ethnic groups. Some authors have proposed that the repeated elongation, torsion and flexion actions may affect the components of the hair fibre. However, considering the different properties of cuticle and cortex, one would expect a different wearing mechanism of each, leading to the ultimate failure of hair. Knowing in detail how each part of the structure fails can potentially lead to better ways to protect the hair from physical insults. To investigate crack propagation and fracture mechanisms in African-American hair. Virgin hair of excellent quality was collected, with informed consent, from a female African-American volunteer. A series of controlled mechanical stresses was applied to 10-mm hair sections using a high-resolution mechanical stage (20 mN) up to the fracture of the fibre. The surface was monitored using scanning electron microscopy imaging during the stress application. X-ray tomographic microscopy images were acquired and quantified to detect changes in energy absorption as a function of applied stress that could be linked to increase in crack density. Analysis of the mechanical response of hair combined with the two imaging techniques led us to propose the following mechanism of hair breakage: cuticle sliding; failure of the cuticle-cortex interface; nucleation of intercellular cracks and growth of cracks at the cuticle-cortex junction; and propagation of intercellular cracks towards the surface of the hair and final breakage when these

  5. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a

  6. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Photoprotective Effects of a Multifunctional Hair Care Formulation Containing Botanical Extracts, Vitamins, and UV Filters.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marcella Gabarra Almeida; Maia Campos, Patricia M B G

    2018-05-04

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a multifunctional hair care formulation-Hair BB Cream-containing botanical extracts of Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinifera, and Euterpe orleacea, vitamins, amino acids, UV filters, and silicones for hair treatment and prevention of UV damages. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the botanical extracts was evaluated using the DPPH and chemiluminescence methods. A tensile test, combability, shine, and image analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the formulation. To evaluate protection against UV damage, the hair strands were submitted to UV radiation without and with the application of the Hair BB Cream. The results showed that the application of the Hair BB Cream promoted a reduction in combability values and an increase in break stress and gloss values. After exposure to UV radiation, the hair treated with the BB Cream formulation showed no difference in the mechanical properties test, indicating protection against UV damage. In conclusion, the multifunctional formulation showed several benefits of single product acting in the prevention of UV damage and the treatment of hair damage. Thus, the Hair BB Cream proposed can be suggested as an effective multifunctional hair care product. © 2018 The American Society of Photobiology.

  8. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

  9. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

    2005-12-30

    The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by

  10. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation.

  11. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  12. The Influence of the “Straighten Your Back” Command on the Sagittal Spinal Curvatures in Children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowska, Paulina; Kolwicz-Gańko, Aleksandra; Sitarski, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess the change of sagittal spinal curvatures in children with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) instructed with “straighten your back” command (SYB). Methods. The study included 56 children with GJH. The control group consisted of 193 children. Sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), global thoracic kyphosis (TK), lower thoracic kyphosis (LK), and upper thoracic kyphosis (UK) were assessed with Saunders inclinometer both in spontaneous positions (standing and sitting) and after the SYB. Results. Children with GJH after SYB presented the following: in standing, increase in SS and decrease in TK, LK, and UK (P < 0.01), with LL not significantly changed; in sitting: decrease in global thoracic kyphosis (35.5° (SD 20.5) versus 21.0° (SD 15.5), P < 0.001) below the standards proposed in the literature (30–40°) and flattening of its lower part (P < 0.001). The same changes were observed in the control group. Conclusions. In children with generalized joint hypermobility, the “straighten your back” command leads to excessive reduction of the global thoracic kyphosis and flattening of its lower part. Therefore, the “straighten your back” command should not be used to achieve the optimal standing and sitting positions. PMID:28116313

  13. The influence of hair lipids in ethnic hair properties.

    PubMed

    Martí, M; Barba, C; Manich, A M; Rubio, L; Alonso, C; Coderch, L

    2016-02-01

    Biochemical studies have mainly focused on the composition of hair. African hair exhibited lower moisturization and less radial swelling when flushing with water compared with Asian or Caucasian hair, and they assumed a possible lipid differentiation among human populations. This study consists in the lipid characterization of different ethnic hairs (Caucasian, Asian and African hairs) and the influence of these lipids in different hair properties such as humidity and mechanical properties. Evaluation of water sorption and desorption of the different ethnic hairs and with and without lipids is also studied mainly to determine permeation changes of the keratin fibres. Extractions of exogenous and endogenous lipids with different organic solvents were performed; lipid analysis and its quantification using thin-layer chromatography coupled to an automated flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) were performed. Absorption and desorption curves were obtained in a thermogravimetric balance equipped with a controlled humidity chamber, the Q5000SA Sorption Analyzer (TA Instruments, New Castle, IL, U.S.A.). Also, mechanical properties (breaking stress and breaking elongation) were analysed using a computer programmable dynamometer (Instron 5500R). Lipid extraction showed the highest amount of total lipids for the African hair which may come from external sebaceous lipids compared with Asian or Caucasian hair. Caucasian fibres were found to be the most hydrated fibre, and a decrease in moisture was found in the extracted fibres, again, which is more important for the Caucasian hair. A superior lineal mass was found for the Asian fibres which supported their higher strength. The results obtained from the analysis of the mechanical properties of delipidized fibres indicate a surprising increase in the strength of African and Caucasian fibres. Perhaps this increase in strength could be related to the humidity decrease in lipid-extracted hair fibres. Results of water uptake and

  14. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  15. Dark Matter Hairs Around Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-23

    This illustration shows Jupiter surrounded by filaments of dark matter called "hairs," which are proposed in a study in the Astrophysical Journal by Gary Prézeau of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. A hair is created when a stream of dark matter particles goes through the planet. According to simulations, the hair is densest at a point called the "root." When particles of a dark matter stream pass through the core of Jupiter, they form a hair whose root has a particle density about a trillion times greater than average. The size of Jupiter relative to the distance between Jupiter and the hair roots is to scale. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20178

  16. Integral lipids of mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been demonstrated that hair contains lipids which cannot be removed by extensive extraction with chloroform-methanol mixtures. These integral lipids can be extracted only after the hair has been subjected to alkaline hydrolysis. 2. Integral hair lipids include cholesterol sulfate (0.7-2.9 mg/g hair), ceramides (0.6-1.4 mg/g), cholesterol (0.3-1.4 mg/g), fatty alcohols (trace-0.2 mg/g) and fatty acids (2.3-4.0 mg/g). 3. One of the major integral hair lipids, representing 38.4-47.6% of the total fatty acids, is the anteisobranched 18-methyleicosanoic acid. 4. The species examined included human (Homo sapiens), pig (Sus scrofa), dog (Canis familiaris), sheep (Ovis ammon aries) and cow (Bos taurus).

  17. Genuine cosmic hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastor, David; Ray, Sourya; Traschen, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    We show that asymptotically future de Sitter (AFdS) spacetimes carry ‘genuine’ cosmic hair; information that is analogous to the mass and angular momentum of asymptotically flat spacetimes and that characterizes how an AFdS spacetime approaches its asymptotic form. We define new ‘cosmological tension’ charges associated with future asymptotic spatial translation symmetries, which are analytic continuations of the ADM mass and tensions of asymptotically planar AdS spacetimes, and which measure the leading anisotropic corrections to the isotropic, exponential de Sitter expansion rate. A cosmological Smarr relation, holding for AFdS spacetimes having exact spatial translation symmetry, is derived. This formula relates cosmological tension, which is evaluated at future infinity, to properties of the cosmology at early times, together with a ‘cosmological volume’ contribution that is analogous to the thermodynamic volume of AdS black holes. Smarr relations for different spatial directions imply that the difference in expansion rates between two directions at late times is related in a simple way to their difference at early times. Hence information about the very early universe can be inferred from cosmic hair, which is potentially observable in a late time de Sitter phase. Cosmological tension charges and related quantities are evaluated for Kasner-de Sitter spacetimes, which serve as our primary examples.

  18. Ecklonia cava promotes hair growth.

    PubMed

    Bak, S S; Ahn, B N; Kim, J A; Shin, S H; Kim, J C; Kim, M K; Sung, Y K; Kim, S K

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have reported the protective effects on skin elasticity of the edible marine seaweed Ecklonia cava, which acts through regulation of both antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. We evaluated the effect of E. cava and one of its components, dioxinodehydroeckol, on hair-shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and on hair growth in mice. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to check cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells after treatment with E. cava and its metabolite, dioxinodehydroeckol. Hair-shaft growth was measured using the in vitro hair-follicle organ-culture system, in the presence or absence of E. cava and dioxinodehydroeckol. Anagen induction activity was examined by topical application of E. cava to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expression was measured by reverse transcriptase PCR and ELISA. The proliferation activity was found to be highest for the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of E. cava (EAFE) in DPCs and in ORS cells. Treatment with EAFE resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles, and promoted transition of the hair cycle from the telogen to the anagen phase in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, EAFE induced an increase in IGF-1 expression in DPCs. Dioxinodehydroeckol, a component of E. cava, induced elongation of the hair shaft, an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells, and an increase in expression of IGF-1 in DPCs. These results suggest that E. cava containing dioxinodehydroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Phase slips in oscillatory hair bundles.

    PubMed

    Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Shlomovitz, Roie; Bruinsma, Robijn; Bozovic, Dolores

    2013-04-05

    Hair cells of the inner ear contain an active amplifier that allows them to detect extremely weak signals. As one of the manifestations of an active process, spontaneous oscillations arise in fluid immersed hair bundles of in vitro preparations of selected auditory and vestibular organs. We measure the phase-locking dynamics of oscillatory bundles exposed to low-amplitude sinusoidal signals, a transition that can be described by a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle. The transition is characterized by the occurrence of phase slips, at a rate that is dependent on the amplitude and detuning of the applied drive. The resultant staircase structure in the phase of the oscillation can be described by the stochastic Adler equation, which reproduces the statistics of phase slip production.

  20. Research on design connotation of hair drier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongchuan; Wu, Qiong

    2018-04-01

    After the analysis and summary of the research on the design of hair drier system, the system design is focused on. Product system design is not only to study its entity, but also is recognized as the part, element and component with a systematic feature to deeply analyze the innovation way of product system design, which is taken as its concept to carry out the association analysis on the component elements of hair driers and the overall analysis and study on the system design process of hair dryers. The product life cycle is taken as the main goal, through system analysis, system synthesis and system optimization, to solve the problems of product design. It is of great practical significance.

  1. Harvesting electricity from human hair.

    PubMed

    Tulachan, Brindan; Singh, Sushil K; Philip, Deepu; Das, Mainak

    2016-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of human hair is a debatable issue among hair experts and scientists. There are unsubstantiated claims that hair conducts electricity. However, hair experts provided ample evidence that hair is an insulator. Although wet hair exhibited drastic reduction in resistivity; scientists regarded hair as a proton semiconductor at the best. Here, we demonstrate that hair filaments generate electricity on absorbing water vapor between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. This electricity can operate low power electronic systems. Essentially, we are exposing the hydrated hair polymer to a high temperature (50 degrees-80 degrees C). It has long been speculated that when certain biopolymers are simultaneously hydrated and exposed to high temperature, they exhibit significant proton hopping at a specific temperature regime. This happens due to rapid movement of water molecules on the polymer surface. This lead us to speculate that the observed flow of current is partly ionic and partly due to "proton hopping" in the hydrated nano spaces of hair filament. Such proton hopping is exceptionally high when the hydrated hair polymer is exposed to a temperature between 50 degrees and 80 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetry data further corroborated the results and indicated that indeed at this temperature range, there is an enormous movement of water molecules on the hair polymer surface. This enormously rapid movement of water molecules lead to the "making and breaking" of innumerable hydrogen bonds and thus resulting in hopping of the protons. What is challenging is "how to tap these hopping protons to obtain useful electricity?" We achieved this by placing a bundle of hair between two different electrodes having different electro negativities, and exposing it to water vapor (water + heat). The two different electrodes offered directionality to the hopping protons and the existing ions and thus resulting in the generation of useful current. Further, by

  2. The use of personal hair dye and its implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye products now represent one of the most rapidly growing beauty and personal care industries as both men and women commonly change hair color to enhance youth and beauty and to follow fashion trends. Irrespective of economic and education status, people dye their hair to emphasize the importance given to appearance. Despite adverse reactions, many people continue dyeing mainly for cosmetic purposes. This paper provides a comprehensive review on various aspects of hair dying products, especially with respect to the hair-coloring process, classification, chemical ingredients, possible human health impacts, and regulations. Permanent hair dye, which is the most commonly used product type, is formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines to bring about concerns with long-term exposure. Hence, significant efforts have been put to understand the possible side effects of such exposure including cancer risk. However, hair dyes and their ingredients are mainly identified to have moderate to low acute toxicity such as the cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Although some hair dye components are reported to be carcinogenic in animals, such evidence is not consistent enough in the case of human studies. Consequently, further research is desirable to critically address the significance of this issue, especially with respect to the safety of hair dye ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hair Follicular Expression and Function of Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin*

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Seiko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Morioka, Kiyokazu; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Fukami, Kiyoko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA2 (sPLA2-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA2-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA2-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA2-X activation, a functional link of sPLA2-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis. PMID:21266583

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  5. [Hair growth effect of minoxidil].

    PubMed

    Otomo, Susumu

    2002-03-01

    The length and size of hair are depend on the anagen term in its hair cycle. It has been reported that the some cell growth factors, such as VEGF, FGF-5S, IGF-1 and KGF, induce the proliferation of cells in the matrix, dermal papilla and dermal papillary vascular system and increase the amount of extra cellular matrix in dermal papilla and then maintain follicles in the anagen phase. On the other hand, negative factors, like FGF-5, thrombospondin, or still unknown ones, terminate the anagen phase. If the negative factors become dominant against cell proliferation factors according to fulfilling some time set by the biological clock for hair follicles, TGF beta induced in the matrix tissues evokes apoptosis of matrix cells and shifts the follicles from anagen to catagen. Androgenetic alopecia is caused by miniaturizing of hair follicles located in the frontal or crown part of scalp and are hereditarily more sensitive to androgen. In their hair cycles, the androgen shortens the anagen phase of follicles and shifts them to the catagen phase earlier than usual. The mode of action of hair growth effect of minoxidil is not completely elucidated, but the most plausible explanation proposed here is that minoxidil works as a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) activator and prolongs the anagen phase of hair follicles in the following manner: minoxidil (1) induces cell growth factors such as VEGF, HGF, IGF-1 and potentiates HGF and IGF-1 actions by the activation of uncoupled SUR on the plasma membrane of dermal papilla cells, (2) inhibits of TGF beta induced apoptosis of hair matrix cells by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the mitochondrial inner membrane, and (3) dilates hair follicle arteries and increases blood flow in dermal papilla by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the plasma membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells.

  6. Hair dye use and risk of human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yawei; Kim, Christopher; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2016-01-01

    Over 50% of the adult population will use hair dyes at some point in their lifetimes. Hair dyes consist of various chemicals and the composition of these chemicals vary by hair dye types. Chemicals p-phenylenediamine and aminophenyl have been suggested as possible carcinogens or mutagens in experimental studies. The scientific community has been interested in this potential public health impact and the results of published epidemiological studies are summarized here. The current evidence provides limited evidences on the association between personal hair dye use and human cancer risk, except for the possibility of hematopoietic cancers and to a lesser extent, bladder cancer. Risk appears to be affected by time period of use and by specific genetic polymorphisms. Future studies should investigate potential gene and environment interaction to assess possible genetic susceptibility. Several methodological issues should also be considered in future studies including completed hair dye use information such as on timing, duration, frequency and type of hair dye product use. PMID:22201892

  7. A novel cosmetic approach to treat thinning hair.

    PubMed

    Davis, M G; Thomas, J H; van de Velde, S; Boissy, Y; Dawson, T L; Iveson, R; Sutton, K

    2011-12-01

    Many of today's treatments associated with 'thinning hair', such as female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, are focused on two of the key aspects of the condition. Over-the-counter or prescription medications are often focused on improving scalp hair density while high-quality cosmetic products work to prevent further hair damage and minimize mid-fibre breakage. Fibre diameter is another key contributor to thinning hair, but it is less often the focus of medical or cosmetic treatments. To examine the ability of a novel leave-on technology combination [caffeine, niacinamide, panthenol, dimethicone and an acrylate polymer (CNPDA)] to affect the diameter and behaviour of individual terminal scalp hair fibres as a new approach to counteract decreasing fibre diameters. Testing methodology included fibre diameter measures via laser scan micrometer, assessment of fibre mechanical and behavioural properties via tensile break stress and torsion pendulum testing, and mechanistic studies including cryoscanning electron microscopy and autoradiographic analysis. CNPDA significantly increased the diameter of individual, existing terminal scalp hair fibres by 2-5 μm, which yields an increase in the cross-sectional area of approximately 10%. Beyond the diameter increase, the CNPDA-thickened fibres demonstrated the altered mechanical properties characteristic of thicker fibres: increased suppleness/pliability (decreased shear modulus) and better ability to withstand force without breaking (increased break stress). Although cosmetic treatments will not reverse the condition, this new approach may help to mitigate the effects of thinning hair. © 2011 Procter & Gamble. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  9. The structure of people's hair.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of α-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization

  10. Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Hair Loss Disease Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia areata is considered to be a cell-mediated autoimmune disease, in which autoreactive cytotoxic T cells recognize melanocyte-associated proteins such as tyrosinase. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of alopecia areata, focusing on immunobiology and hormonal aspects of hair follicles (HFs). The HF is a unique “miniorgan” with its own immune and hormonal microenvironment. The immunosuppressive milieu of the anagen hair bulb modulated by immunosuppressive factors is known as “hair follicle immune privilege.” The collapse of the hair follicle immune privilege leads to autoimmune reactions against hair follicle autoantigens. Alopecia areata is sometimes triggered by viral infections such as influenza that causes excess production of interferons (IFN). IFN-γ is one of the key factors that lead to the collapse of immune privilege. This paper reviews the interactions between the endocrine and immune systems and hair follicles in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. PMID:24151515

  11. Fabrication of human hair keratin/jellyfish collagen/eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: From waste to regenerative medicine products.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Yavuz Emre; Sezgin Arslan, Tugba; Derkus, Burak; Emregul, Emel; Emregul, Kaan C

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we aimed at fabricating an osteoinductive biocomposite scaffold using keratin obtained from human hair, jellyfish collagen and eggshell-derived nano-sized spherical hydroxyapatite (nHA) for bone tissue engineering applications. Keratin, collagen and nHA were characterized with the modified Lowry method, free-sulfhydryl groups and hydroxyproline content analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) which confirmed the success of the extraction and/or isolation processes. Human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were isolated and the cell surface markers were characterized via flow cytometry analysis in addition to multilineage differentiation capacity. The undifferentiated hAMSCs were highly positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, but were not seen to express hematopoietic cell surface markers such as CD14, CD34 and CD45. The cells were successfully directed towards osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages in vitro. The microarchitecture of the scaffolds and cell attachment were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cell viability on the scaffolds was assessed by the MTT assay which revealed no evidence of cytotoxicity. The osteogenic differentiation of hAMSCs on the scaffolds was determined histologically using alizarin red S, osteopontin and osteonectin stainings. Early osteogenic differentiation markers of hAMSCs were significantly expressed on the collagen-keratin-nHA scaffolds. In conclusion, it is believed that collagen-keratin-nHA osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds have the potential of being used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair.

    PubMed

    Geim, A K; Dubonos, S V; Grigorieva, I V; Novoselov, K S; Zhukov, A A; Shapoval, S Yu

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force approximately 10(-7) N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of approximately 10 N x cm(-2): sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  13. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  14. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  15. Protein Analysis with Human Hair

    ScienceCinema

    Hart, Brad; Anex, Deon; Parker, Glendon

    2018-01-16

    In an important breakthrough for the forensic science community, researchers have developed the first-ever biological identification method that exploits the information encoded in proteins of human hair.

  16. Protein Analysis with Human Hair

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Brad; Anex, Deon; Parker, Glendon

    In an important breakthrough for the forensic science community, researchers have developed the first-ever biological identification method that exploits the information encoded in proteins of human hair.

  17. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to West African ancestry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust performance even in the presence of drug resistant ga...

  18. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

    2009-01-01

    regimen significantly outperforms commercial products that were tested containing a color protection claim. The proposed mechanism for the anti-fading action of hydrophobically modified polymers includes a cationic charge-reinforced hydrophobic barrier. This model is supported by evaluating the color fastness effect of several different polymer chemistries and by measuring hair surface hydrophobicity changes.

  19. Multicenter clinical trial on a permanent hair dye containing paratoluenediamine.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Balato, Nicola; Cristaudo, Antonio; Patruno, Cataldo; Pigatto, Paolo; Ambrifi, Marina; Bufano, Tamara; Damiani, Giovanni; De Rocco, Mariagrazia; Diani, Marco; Napolitano, Maddalena; Romita, Paolo

    2018-08-01

    Adverse reactions to hair dyes are frequent and usually caused by sensitization to paraphenylenediamine (PPD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the tolerability of a PPD-free permanent hair dye (Shine On, BioNike, Milan, Italy) containing paratoluenediamine (PTD) in a group of subjects sensitized to PPD. The trial, which carried out at four dermatology centers, included subjects sensitized to PPD that turned out negative to patch testing to PTD. The subjects underwent to an open test consisting in the application of two hair dye colors of the product under examination. Finally, subjects who were negative upon the open test were offered to undergo the usage test with the dye, with dermatological evaluations carried out 48 and 96 hours after product application. Sixty subjects were enrolled. They underwent the open test with two shades of dyes: "color 1 - black," the dye color with the highest concentration of color intermediates, and "color 7.3 - golden blonde," the dye color with the highest number of chemically different color intermediates. No reactions occurred with "color 7.3 - golden blonde," while 3 cases (3 out of 60) showed erythema and edema reactions to color 1. The hair dye usage test was negative for all the 21 subjects that were enrolled. The hair dye evaluated in this study (Shine On, BioNike) can be a valid alternative for subjects sensitized to PPD.

  20. Thebaine in hair as a marker for chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-01-30

    Opium poppy products are often illegally used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In order to demonstrate the ingestion of opium poppy substances, morphine, codeine and their metabolites have been identified. However, morphine and codeine also originate from the ingestion of therapeutic drugs. Therefore, thebaine, one of the main opium alkaloids, in hair was suggested as a marker for chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances in the present study. First, thebaine was included in the analyte list of our routine analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of codeine, morphine, norcodeine, normorphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in hair, which was fully validated previously. Then, the incorporation of thebaine and other opiates into hair and the effect of hair pigmentation were examined using lean Zucker rats with both dark grey and white hair on the same body. Thebaine was also measured in hair samples from actual cases of opium poppy substance use. Consequently, thebaine in hair was demonstrated as a marker of chronic use of illegal opium poppy substances using an animal study and actual cases. Thebaine and other opiates were successfully measured in pigmented hair from rats that ingested raw opium suspension. Moreover, thebaine identified in hair excluded possibility of ingestion of pharmaceutical opiates in actual cases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A PAIR OF TRANSMEMBRANE RECEPTORS ESSENTIAL FOR THE RETENTION AND PIGMENTATION OF HAIR

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Beppu, Hideyuki; Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Georgopoulos, Katia; Larue, Lionel; Li, En; Weiner, Lorin; Brissette, Janice L.

    2012-01-01

    Hair follicles are simple, accessible models for many developmental processes. Here, using mutant mice, we show that Bmpr2, a known receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), and Acvr2a, a known receptor for Bmps and activins, are individually redundant but together essential for multiple follicular traits. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in cutaneous epithelium, hair follicles undergo rapid cycles of hair generation and loss. Alopecia results from a failure to terminate hair development properly, as hair clubs never form, and follicular retraction is slowed. Hair regeneration is rapid due to premature activation of new hair-production programs. Hair shafts differentiate aberrantly due to impaired arrest of medullary-cell proliferation. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in melanocytes, gray hair develops, as melanosomes differentiate but fail to grow, resulting in organelle miniaturization. We conclude that Bmpr2 and Acvr2a normally play cell-type-specific, necessary roles in organelle biogenesis and the shutdown of developmental programs and cell division. PMID:22611050

  2. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  3. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal.

  4. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  5. Nutrition and hair: deficiencies and supplements.

    PubMed

    Finner, Andreas M

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle cells have a high turnover. A caloric deprivation or deficiency of several components, such as proteins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and vitamins, caused by inborn errors or reduced uptake, can lead to structural abnormalities, pigmentation changes, or hair loss, although exact data are often lacking. The diagnosis is established through a careful history, clinical examination of hair loss activity, and hair quality and confirmed through targeted laboratory tests. Examples of genetic hair disorders caused by reduced nutritional components are zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica and copper deficiency in Menkes kinky hair syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological concentrations of anabolic steroids in human hair.

    PubMed

    Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Baohua; Bu, Jun; Wang, Mengye

    2009-01-30

    Doping with endogenous anabolic steroids is one of the most serious issues in sports today. The measurement of anabolic steroid levels in human hair is necessary in order to distinguish between pharmaceutical steroids and natural steroids. This is the first investigation into the physiological concentrations of anabolic steroids in human hair in Chinese subjects. A gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of five endogenous anabolic steroids (testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone) in hair. After basic hydrolysis, hair samples were extracted with diethyl ether, derivatized and then detected using GC/MS/MS in the multiple-reaction monitoring mode (MRM). The one precursor/two product ion transitions for each anabolic steroid were monitored. The limits of detection for the five endogenous anabolic steroids were in the 0.1-0.2 pg/mg range. All analytes showed good linearity and the extraction recoveries were 74.6-104.5%. Within-day and between-day precisions were less than 20%. This method was applied to the analysis of testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, and dehydroepiandrosterone in human hair. Full-length hair samples were taken at the skin surface from the vertex of 39 males, 30 females and 11 children from China. None of the subjects were professional athletes. Testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone were detected in all the hair segments. The physiological concentrations of testosterone were in the range 0.8-24.2 pg/mg, 0.1-16.8 pg/mg and 0.2-11.5 pg/mg in males, females and children, respectively, however, the mean values of dehydroepiandrosterone were much higher than the concentrations of testosterone. These data are suitable reference values and are the basis for the interpretation of results from investigations into the abuse of endogenous anabolic steroids.

  7. Influence of Th2 cells on hair cycle/growth after repeated cutaneous application of hapten.

    PubMed

    Sugita, K; Nomura, T; Ikenouchi-Sugita, A; Ito, T; Nakamura, M; Miyachi, Y; Tokura, Y; Kabashima, K

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to contact allergens in order to produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) seems to induce hair cycle/growth, but the mechanism of this remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated this mechanism and found that repeated application of hapten induced production of interleukin (IL)-4 in lymph-node immune cells. In addition, hair growth was induced in mice after the adoptive transfer of T-helper (Th)2 cells that had been purified from mice exposed to repeated cutaneous application of hapten. These findings lead us to speculate that Th2 cells that are repeatedly hapten-sensitized are recruited to hapten-challenged skin areas, and thus stimulate the production of IL-4 in the vicinity of the hair follicles, which influences hair cycle/growth. Our results may provide fundamental insights into the mechanism of contact hypersensitivity-induced hair cycle/growth. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of non-allowed substances in cosmetic products for preventing hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases.

    PubMed

    De Orsi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Mattioli, Donatella; Marchei, Emilia; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2008-11-04

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection has been developed for the determination of minoxidil, progesterone, estrone, spironolactone, canrenone, hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetic products. The presence of these substances in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited. The compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography with water (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile gradient elution and detected by UV-DAD at 230, 254 and 280 nm and by ESI-MS positive ionisation mode. Benzoic acid was used as internal standard. Linearity was studied with UV-DAD detection from 1.50 to 1,000 microg/ml or mug/g range, depending on the different compounds and type of cosmetic preparation and with ESI-MS in the 50-1,000 ng/ml or ng/g range. Good determination coefficients (r(2)>or=0.99) were found in both UV and ESI-MS. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of both UV-DAD and ESI-MS assay, mean recoveries were always higher than 90% for the different analytes. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of substances under investigations illegally added in cosmetic cream and lotions, sold on internet web sites to prevent hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases, like acne and hirsutism.

  9. 21 CFR 358.650 - Labeling of pediculicide drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hair at a time [bullet] unlike dandruff which moves when touched, nits stick to the hair [bullet] if... products “Treat [in bold type] [bullet] apply thoroughly to (optional, may add “dry”) hair or other... [bullet] for head lice, towel dry hair and comb out tangles”. (ii) For nonshampoo products “Treat [in bold...

  10. 21 CFR 358.650 - Labeling of pediculicide drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hair at a time [bullet] unlike dandruff which moves when touched, nits stick to the hair [bullet] if... products “Treat [in bold type] [bullet] apply thoroughly to (optional, may add “dry”) hair or other... [bullet] for head lice, towel dry hair and comb out tangles”. (ii) For nonshampoo products “Treat [in bold...

  11. 21 CFR 358.650 - Labeling of pediculicide drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hair at a time [bullet] unlike dandruff which moves when touched, nits stick to the hair [bullet] if... products “Treat [in bold type] [bullet] apply thoroughly to (optional, may add “dry”) hair or other... [bullet] for head lice, towel dry hair and comb out tangles”. (ii) For nonshampoo products “Treat [in bold...

  12. 21 CFR 358.650 - Labeling of pediculicide drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hair at a time [bullet] unlike dandruff which moves when touched, nits stick to the hair [bullet] if... products “Treat [in bold type] [bullet] apply thoroughly to (optional, may add “dry”) hair or other... [bullet] for head lice, towel dry hair and comb out tangles”. (ii) For nonshampoo products “Treat [in bold...

  13. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  14. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection.

  16. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to West African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Gordon L.; Ilori, Moses Babatunde; Hanotte, Olivier; Kim, Eui-Soo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Burke, Joan M.; Morgan, James L. M.; Notter, David R.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.

    2017-01-01

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Their lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust production performance even in the presence of drug-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes, a rising concern to the industry. Despite the growing importance of hair sheep in the Americas their genetic origins have remained speculative. Prior to this report no genetic studies were able to identify a unique geographical origin of hair sheep in the New World. Our study clarifies the African and European ancestry of Caribbean hair sheep. Whole-genome structural analysis was conducted on four established breeds of hair sheep from the Caribbean region. Using breeds representing Africa and Europe we establish an objective measure indicating Caribbean hair sheep are derived from Iberian and West African origins. Caribbean hair sheep result from West African introgression into established ecotypes of Iberian descent. Genotypes from 47,750 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 290 animals were used to characterize the population structure of the St. Croix, Barbados Blackbelly, Morada Nova, and Santa Ines. Principal components, admixture, and phylogenetic analyses results correlate with historical patterns of colonization and trade. These patterns support co-migration of these sheep with humans. PMID:28662044

  17. Coenzyme Q10 protects hair cells against aminoglycoside.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Kazuma; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Mikuriya, Takefumi; Hashimoto, Makoto; Kanagawa, Eiju; Hara, Hirotaka; Shimogori, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the production of free radicals is associated with sensory cell death induced by an aminoglycoside. Many researchers have reported that antioxidant reagents protect sensory cells in the inner ear, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that is consumed as a health food in many countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of CoQ10 in mammalian vestibular hair cell death induced by aminoglycoside. Cultured utricles of CBA/CaN mice were divided into three groups (control group, neomycin group, and neomycin + CoQ10 group). In the neomycin group, utricles were cultured with neomycin (1 mM) to induce hair cell death. In the neomycin + CoQ10 group, utricles were cultured with neomycin and water-soluble CoQ10 (30-0.3 µM). Twenty-four hours after exposure to neomycin, the cultured tissues were fixed, and vestibular hair cells were labeled using an anti-calmodulin antibody. Significantly more hair cells survived in the neomycin + CoQ10 group than in the neomycin group. These data indicate that CoQ10 protects sensory hair cells against neomycin-induced death in the mammalian vestibular epithelium; therefore, CoQ10 may be useful as a protective drug in the inner ear.

  18. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Removing Pubic Hair Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 March 2017. + ... Twitter email Print Some guys trim their pubic hair, others prefer to shave or wax, and most ...

  19. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000611.htm Skin and hair changes during pregnancy To use the sharing features ... women are left with freckles. Your Nails and Hair You may notice changes in the texture and ...

  20. Solubility of structurally complicated materials: 3. Hair.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Ari L

    2009-04-27

    Hair is composed of proteins, lipids, water, and small amounts of trace elements. All proteins in animal and human bodies are built from permutations of amino acid molecules in a polypeptide string. The polypeptide chains of protein keratin are organized into filaments in hair cells. Hair is one of the most difficult proteins to digest or solubilize. Among the most common dissolving procedures for hair are acidic, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolysis. For the analysis of hair, the solid samples are transferred by solubilization via digestion into a liquid phase. Small molecular solvents and molecules with hydrophobic groups appear to have higher affinity for hair. A good solvent attacks the disulfide bonds between cystine molecules and hydrates the hair shaft. Consequently, the hair becomes a jelly-like mass.

  1. Solubility of Structurally Complicated Materials: 3. Hair

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Ari L.

    2009-01-01

    Hair is composed of proteins, lipids, water, and small amounts of trace elements. All proteins in animal and human bodies are built from permutations of amino acid molecules in a polypeptide string. The polypeptide chains of protein keratin are organized into filaments in hair cells. Hair is one of the most difficult proteins to digest or solubilize. Among the most common dissolving procedures for hair are acidic, alkaline, and enzymatic hydrolysis. For the analysis of hair, the solid samples are transferred by solubilization via digestion into a liquid phase. Small molecular solvents and molecules with hydrophobic groups appear to have higher affinity for hair. A good solvent attacks the disulfide bonds between cystine molecules and hydrates the hair shaft. Consequently, the hair becomes a jelly-like mass. PMID:19412554

  2. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For test... to welding shall not throw the finished test plate out of line by an angle of over 5°. (c) Where the welding has warped the test plates, the plates shall be straightened before being stress-relieved. The...

  3. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For test... to welding shall not throw the finished test plate out of line by an angle of over 5°. (c) Where the welding has warped the test plates, the plates shall be straightened before being stress-relieved. The...

  4. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For test... to welding shall not throw the finished test plate out of line by an angle of over 5°. (c) Where the welding has warped the test plates, the plates shall be straightened before being stress-relieved. The...

  5. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For test... to welding shall not throw the finished test plate out of line by an angle of over 5°. (c) Where the welding has warped the test plates, the plates shall be straightened before being stress-relieved. The...

  6. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-4 Production testing specimen requirements. (a) For test... to welding shall not throw the finished test plate out of line by an angle of over 5°. (c) Where the welding has warped the test plates, the plates shall be straightened before being stress-relieved. The...

  7. ``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-12-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

  8. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Can stress cause hair loss? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Yes, stress and hair loss ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/expert-answers/stress-and-hair-loss/faq-20057820 . ...

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  10. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate...

  11. Tani trims his hair in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-10

    S122-E-007645 (10 Feb. 2008) --- Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, trims his hair in the Harmony node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Atlantis is docked with the station. Tani used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  12. Tani trims his hair in Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-10

    S122-E-007643 (10 Feb. 2008) --- Astronaut Daniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, trims his hair in the Harmony node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Atlantis is docked with the station. Tani used hair clippers fashioned with a vacuum device to garner freshly cut hair.

  13. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The...

  14. Membrane Electromechanics at Hair-Cell Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, W. E.; Farrell, B.; Raphael, R. M.

    2003-02-01

    Both outer hair cell electromotility and neurotransmission at the inner hair cell synapse are rapid mechanical events that are synchronized to the hair-cell receptor potential. We analyze whether the forces and potentials resulting from membrane flexoelectricity could affect synaptic vesicle fusion. The results suggest that the coupling of membrane curvature with membrane potential is of sufficient magnitude to influence neurotransmitter release.

  15. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  16. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and... in OTC drug products for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. There is a lack of...

  17. The current status of microscopical hair comparisons.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W F

    2001-12-08

    Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation) leads to three conclusions: (1) microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2) the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3) forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court's Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

  18. The biology, structure, and function of eyebrow hair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jennifer V

    2014-01-01

    Eyebrow hair serves many important biologic and aesthetic functions. This article reviews the structure and function of the hair follicle, as well as hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. Eyebrow hair follicles share the same basic structure as hair follicles elsewhere on the body, but are distinguished by their shorter anagen (growing) phase. Knowledge of the hair follicle structure and cycle is important for understanding the pathophysiology of alopecia, as diseases affecting the stem cell portion of the hair follicle in the bulge region may cause permanent hair loss. Furthermore, therapeutic agents that target distinct phases and hormones involved in the hair cycle may be useful for promoting hair growth.

  19. Sonic hedgehog initiates cochlear hair cell regeneration through downregulation of retinoblastoma protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Na; Department of Otolaryngology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114; Chen, Yan

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh activation in neonatal cochleae enhances sensory cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating supporting cells can transdifferentiate into hair cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh promotes proliferation by transiently modulating pRb activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh inhibits pRb by inhibiting transcription and increasing phosphorylation of pRb. -- Abstract: Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We showmore » that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration.« less

  20. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  1. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  2. Co-composting of hair waste from the tanning industry with de-inking and municipal wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Barrena, Raquel; Pagans, Estel la; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    Production of waste hair in the leather manufacturing industry is increasing every year due to the adoption of hair-save unhairing techniques, leaving the tanners with the problem of coping with yet another solid by-product. Numerous potential strategies for hair utilisation have been proposed. However, the use of hair waste as agricultural fertiliser is one of its most promising applications due to the high nitrogen content of hair. Agricultural value of hair can be increased by composting. This paper deals with the composting of hair from the unhairing of bovine hide. Results indicated that hair cannot be either composted on its own or co-composted with de-inking sludge, a chemical complementary co-substrate. However, good results were obtained when co-composted with raw sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant at hair:raw sludge weight ratios 1:1, 1:2 and, 1:4 in lab scale and pilot plant scale composters. In all cases, a more stable product was achieved at the end of the process. Composting in the pilot plant composter was effectively monitored using Static Respiration Indices determined at process temperature at sampling (SRI(T)) and at 37 degrees C (SRI(37)). Notably, SRI(T) values were more sensitive to changes in the biological activity. In contrast, Respiratory Quotient (RQ) values were not adequate to follow the development of the process.

  3. Disruption of the hedgehog signaling pathway contributes to the hair follicle cycling deficiency in Vdr knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Arnaud; Elalieh, Hashem; Bikle, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Mice null for the Vitamin D receptor (VdrKO) have a disrupted first hair follicle cycle and aborted subsequent hair follicle cycling. We examined the expression of different markers and mediators of hair follicle cycling in the hair follicle of the VdrKO mouse during days 13-22 when the hair follicle normally initiates and completes the first catagen. We compared the expression of those genes in mice with a nonsense mutation in hairless (Rhino), which have a similar alopecia phenotype, and to Cyp27b1 null mice which are deficient in the production of 1,25(OH)2D3, the Vdr ligand, but display normal hair follicle cycling. Our results demonstrate the down regulation of hair follicle markers and the alteration of expression of hedgehog (Hh), Wnt, Fgf, and Tgfbeta pathways in VdrKO and Rhino mice, but not in Cyp27b1KO mice. Treatment of VdrKO mice with an agonist to the Hh pathway partially restored hair follicle cycling, suggesting a role of this pathway in the regulation of hair follicle cycling by VDR. These results suggest that Vdr regulates directly or indirectly the expression of genes required for hair follicle cycling, including Hh signaling, independent of 1,25(OH)2D3. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The nail and hair in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Daniel, C Ralph; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2004-02-01

    Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the hair or nail symptoms. Drugs and toxins that can be detected in hair and nails are reviewed and the application of hair/nail analysis in general and in forensic medicine is discussed.

  5. Ecabet sodium alleviates neomycin-induced hair cell damage.

    PubMed

    Rah, Yoon Chan; Choi, June; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Yum, Gunhwee; Park, Saemi; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Suhyun; Park, Hae-Chul

    2015-12-01

    Ecabet sodium (ES) is currently applied to some clinical gastrointestinal disease primarily by the inhibition of the ROS production. In this study, the protective role of ES was evaluated against the neomycin-induced hair cell loss using zebrafish experimental animal model. Zebrafish larvae (5-7 dpf), were treated with each of the following concentrations of ES: 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL for 1 h, followed by 125 μM neomycin for 1h. The positive control group was established by 125 μM neomycin-only treatment (1h) and the negative control group with no additional chemicals was also established. Hair cells inside four neuromasts ( SO1, SO2, O1, OC1) were assessed using fluorescence microscopy (n = 10). Hair cell survival was calculated as the mean number of viable hair cells for each group. Apoptosis and mitochondrial damage were investigated using special staining (TUNEL and DASPEI assay, respectively), and compared among groups. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Pre-treatment group with ES increased the mean number of viable hair cells as a dose-dependent manner achieving almost same number of viable hair cells with 40 μM/ml ES treatment (12.98 ± 2.59 cells) comparing to that of the negative control group (14.15 ± 1.39 cells, p = 0.72) and significantly more number of viable hair cells than that of the positive control group (7.45 ± 0.91 cells, p < 0.01). The production of reactive oxygen species significantly increased by 183% with 125 μM neomycin treatment than the negative control group and significantly decreased down to 105% with the pre-treatment with 40 μM/ml ES (n = 40, p = 0.04). A significantly less number of TUNEL-positive cells (reflecting apoptosis, p < 0.01) and a significantly increased DASPEI reactivity (reflecting viable mitochondria, p < 0.01) were observed in 40 μM/ml ES pre-treatment group. Our data suggest that ES could protect against neomycin-induced hair cell loss possibly by reducing

  6. The environmental injustice of beauty: framing chemical exposures from beauty products as a health disparities concern.

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Shamasunder, Bhavna

    2017-10-01

    The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent. Compared with white women, women of color have higher levels of beauty product-related environmental chemicals in their bodies, independent of socioeconomic status. Even small exposures to toxic chemicals during critical periods of development (such as pregnancy) can trigger adverse health consequences (such as impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer). In this commentary, we seek to highlight the connections between environmental justice and beauty product-related chemical exposures. We describe racial/ethnic differences in beauty product use (such as skin lighteners, hair straighteners, and feminine hygiene products) and the potential chemical exposures and health risks that are associated with these products. We also discuss how targeted advertising can take advantage of mainstream beauty norms to influence the use of these products. Reproductive health professionals can use this information to advance environmental justice by being prepared to counsel patients who have questions about toxic environmental exposures from beauty care products and other sources. Researchers and healthcare providers can also promote health-protective policies such as improved ingredient testing and disclosure for the beauty product industry. Future clinical and public health research should consider beauty

  7. A Six-Month, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of a Nutraceutical Supplement for Promoting Hair Growth in Women With Self-Perceived Thinning Hair.

    PubMed

    Ablon, Glynis; Kogan, Sophia

    2018-05-01

    Hair loss is a complex problem that generates significant concern for those who are affected. Patients seeking medical treatments have limited options, and are increasingly turning to natural therapies. A novel nutraceutical product containing a proprietary Synergen Complex® composed of standardized, active botanicals with potent anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic (anti-stress), antioxidant, and dihydrotestosterone-inhibiting properties has been developed to improve hair growth and hair quality. The objective of this 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess the ability of this oral supplement (Nutrafol® Women's Capsules) to strengthen and promote the growth of hair in adult women with self-perceived thinning. Enrolled subjects were randomized to receive active treatment (n=26) or placebo (n=14). The primary endpoint in this study was a statistically significant increase in the number of terminal and vellus hairs based on phototrichograms obtained through macrophotography analysis. Daily intake of the nutraceutical supplement resulted in a significant increase in the number of terminal and vellus hairs in the target area at day 90 and day 180 vs placebo (P less than 0.009). Blinded Investigator Global Hair Assessments revealed significant improvements in hair growth (P equals 0.016) and overall hair quality (P equals 0.005). A significant percentage of subjects receiving active treatment also reported improvement in hair growth, volume, thickness, and hair growth rate, as well as decreased anxiety and other wellness parameters. There were no reported adverse events. This nutraceutical supplement safely and effectively promoted hair growth in women with self-perceived thinning. It provides a multi-targeted therapeutic approach to hair loss by addressing micro-inflammation, stress, and oxidative damage with clinically tested, standardized, and bio-optimized phytoactive ingredients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03206567 J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(5):558-565.

  8. Megasessions for Robotic Hair Restoration.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joa O Carlos; Pereira Filho, Joa O Carlos; Cabrera Pereira, Joa O Pedro

    2016-11-01

    A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue. Stereoscopic cameras controlled by image processing software allow the system to identify the angle and direction of hair growth. The physician and one assistant control the harvesting with a hand-held remote control and computer monitor while the patient is positioned in an adjustable chair. When the robot has harvested all the FUs they are removed by technicians with small forceps. Hairline design, creation of recipient sites, and graft placement are performed manually by the physician. Clinical photographs before and after surgery show that patients experience excellent outcomes with the robotic megasession. Phy- sician fatigue during graft extraction is reduced because the robot performs the repetitive movements without fatigue. Variability of graft extraction is minimized because the robot's optical system can be programmed to choose the best FUs. The transection rate is reduced because the robot's graft extraction system uses two needles, a sharp one to piece the skin and a blunt needle to dissect the root without trauma. A robotic megasession for hair restoration is minimally invasive, does not result in linear scars in the donor area, and is associated with minimal fatigue and discomfort for both patient and physician. Healing is rapid and patients experience a high level of satisfaction with the results. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1407-1412..

  9. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  10. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system, the calming ingredient bisabolol, and

  11. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. Methods The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers’ self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Conclusion Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system

  12. A boy with oral hair: case report.

    PubMed

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Etesam, Farideh; Rohani, Bita

    2007-09-01

    In personal communication we have never seen or heard of hair being detected in the oral cavity. Even Julia Pastrana, the famous "Bearded Lady" of the 1800's, had no record of oral hair, although her entire body was covered with hair. Extensive records of her oral condition, including plaster models of her teeth have been preserved in the Odontological Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London city. She suffered from excessive gingival hyperplasia, but apparently no hair existed within the mouth. Some rodents have oral hair as a normal occurrence, but the condition is apparently limited in the animal kingdom. A case of hair occurring naturally in the mouth has been reported only twice previously. A third case of this rare anomaly is reported here. In this case, multiple hairs were found at the gingival sulcus in the labial, buccal, lingual and palatal tooth surfaces in an 11-year-old boy.

  13. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C.; Morrison, Sean J.; Le, Lu Q.

    2017-01-01

    Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20+ cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix progenitors that regulate hair growth and pigmentation, partly by creating an SCF-dependent niche for follicular melanocytes. PMID:28465357

  14. Effects of gamma rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Kimihiko

    2017-09-01

    This review evaluates the effects of γ-rays on the regeneration of murine hair follicles in the natural hair cycle. A series of studies were performed to investigate this issue, in which the whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1st telogen phase of the hair cycle were irradiated with γ-rays. The dermis of the irradiated skin showed a decrease in hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles along with the presence of white hairs and hypopigmented hair bulbs in the 2nd and 3rd anagen phases. An increased frequency of hypopigmented hair bulbs was still observed in the later hair cycle at postnatal day 200. There was no significant difference in the number of stem cells in the hair bulge region between control and irradiated skin. These results show that the effects of γ-rays on the pigmentation of murine hair follicles are persistently carried over to later hair cycles, although those on the number and structure of hair follicles appear to be hidden by the effects of aging. Our findings may be important for understanding the mechanisms of the actions of stem cells on hair regeneration in connection with age-related phenotypes.

  15. Hair follicle stem cell proliferation, Akt and Wnt signaling activation in TPA-induced hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Zhou, Ling; Bai, Xiufeng; Lai, Xiangdong; Yu, Yu; Yang, Tian; Lian, Xiaohua

    2017-06-01

    Regeneration of hair follicles relies on activation of hair follicle stem cells during telogen to anagen transition process in hair cycle. This process is rigorously controlled by intrinsic and environmental factors. 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor promoter, accelerates reentry of hair follicles into anagen phase. However, it is unclear that how TPA promotes the hair regeneration. In the present study, we topically applied TPA onto the dorsal skin of 2-month-old C57BL/6 female mice to examine the activity of hair follicle stem cells and alteration of signaling pathways during hair regeneration. We found that refractory telogen hair follicles entered anagen prematurely after TPA treatment, with the enhanced proliferation of CD34-positive hair follicle stem cells. Meanwhile, we observed Akt signaling was activated in epidermis, hair infundibulum, bulge and hair bulb, and Wnt signaling was also activated after hair follicle stem cells proliferation. Importantly, after overexpression of DKK1, a specific Wnt signaling inhibitor, the accelerated reentry of hair follicles into anagen induced by TPA was abolished. Our data indicated that TPA-induced hair follicle regeneration is associated with activation of Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  16. A Study on Scalp Hair Health and Hair Care Practices among Malaysian Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B Satheesha; Ann, Chua Yuet; Azhar, Azeldeen Bin; Ling, Emily Chan Su; Yen, Wong Hui; Aithal, P Ashwini

    2017-01-01

    Scalp care is essential because it determines the health and condition of the hair and prevents the diseases of scalp and hair. The objectives of our study were to correlate race and hair types, to determine the awareness of hair care among Malaysian medical students, and to distinguish the factors that affect the health of hair and scalp. It was a cross-sectional study wherein validated questionnaires were given to 240 medical undergraduate students who belonged to three ethnic races of Malaysia, i.e., Chinese, Malay, and Malaysian Indians after their informed consent. The results were then analyzed using percentage statistics. Chinese students had comparatively healthier scalp without dandruff. Most Chinese and Indians had silky type of hair while Malay had dry, rough hair. Chinese and Indians colored their hair and used various styling methods; while among the Malays, this percentage was very less. Regarding hair care practices, males used only shampoo and females used shampoo and conditioner for hair wash. Students also faced dietary and examination-related stress. Results indicate that there exist morphological differences in hair among the studied population. Since most students color their hair and employ various hairstyling methods, they should be educated regarding best hair care practices to improve their scalp hair condition and health.

  17. Nanotribological effects of silicone type, silicone deposition level, and surfactant type on human hair using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2006-01-01

    The atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM) has recently become an important tool for studying the micro/nanoscale structure and tribological properties of human hair. Of particular interest to hair and beauty care science is how common hair-care materials, such as conditioner, deposit onto and change hair's tribological properties, since these properties are closely tied to product performance. Since a conditioner is a complex network of many different ingredients (including silicones for lubrication and cationic surfactants for static control and gel network formulation), studying the effects of these individual components can give insight into the significance each has on hair properties. In this study, AFM/FFM is used to conduct nanotribological studies of surface roughness, friction force, and adhesive forces as a function of silicone type, silicone deposition level, and cationic surfactant type. Changes in the coefficient of friction as a result of soaking hair in de-ionized water are also discussed.

  18. Nanometre-scale investigations by atomic force microscopy into the effect of different treatments on the surface structure of hair.

    PubMed

    Durkan, C; Wang, N

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of different washing regimes on the surface of human hair at the nanometre scale - comparable to the size of typical deposits left behind by commercial products. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related techniques. It can be directly seen that washing hair using commercial hair care products removes deposits that naturally form on the shaft, revealing the underlying structure of the hair, whereas in many cases leaving new deposits behind. The spatial distribution of these deposits is explored and quantified. The spatial distribution of the surface charge of pristine hair is mapped, and the electrical screening effect of deposits is directly observed. We also show that the roughness of the treated hair depends directly on the type of product used, with a marked difference between shampoo and conditioner. Some products leave isolated deposits behind, whereas others leave layers of material behind which wet the hair surface. Atomic force microscopy and the related techniques we have employed in a forensic approach is able to distinguish between different hair care products on the basis of the deposits they leave behind. This opens up the capability of further analysis tools to complement already existing techniques. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Root hairs increase root exudation and rhizosphere extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebandanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carmintati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase their access to limited soil resources. An example of such strategies is the production of root hairs. Root hairs extend the root surface and therefore increase the access to nutrients. Additionally, carbon release from root hairs might facilitate nutrient uptake by spreading of carbon in the rhizosphere and enhancing microbial activity. The aim of this study was to test: i) how root hairs change the allocation of carbon in the soil-plant system; ii) whether root hairs exude carbon into the soil and iii) how differences in C release between plants with and without root hairs affect rhizosphere extension. We grew barley plants with and without root hairs (wild type: WT, bald root barley: brb) in rhizoboxes filled with a sandy soil. Root elongation was monitored over time. After 4 weeks of growth, plants were labelled with 14CO2. A filter paper was placed on the soil surface before labelling and was removed after 36 h. 14C imaging of the soil surface and of the filter paper was used to quantify the allocation of 14C into the roots and the exudation of 14C, respectively. Plants were sampled destructively one day after labeling to quantify 14C in the plant-soil system. 14CO2 release from soil over time (17 d) was quantified by trapping CO2 in NaOH with an additional subset of plants. WT and brb plants had a similar aboveground biomass and allocated similar amounts of 14C into shoots (170 KBq for WT; 152 KBq for brb) and roots one day after labelling. Biomass of root, rhizosphere soil as well as root elongation were lower for brb compared to the wild type. WT plants transported more C from the shoots to the roots (22.8% for WT; 13.8% for brb) and from the root into the rhizosphere (8.8% for WT 3.5% for brb). Yet lower amounts of 14CO2 were released from soil over time for WT. Radial and longitudinal rhizosphere extension was increased for WT compared to brb (4.7 vs. 2.6 mm; 5.6 vs. 3.1 cm). The total exudation which was

  20. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship

  1. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  2. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

  3. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, José; Comtet, Jean; de Langre, Emmanuel; Hosoi, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    We are `hairy' on the inside: beds of passive fibres anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. These hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Yet fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem that is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear-driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model that accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers towards the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter that controls nonlinear behaviour. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps.

  4. Nonlinear flow response of soft hair beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, José

    2017-11-01

    We are hairy inside: beds of passive fibers anchored to a surface and immersed in fluids are prevalent in many biological systems, including intestines, tongues, and blood vessels. Such hairs are soft enough to deform in response to stresses from fluid flows. Fluid stresses are in turn affected by hair deformation, leading to a coupled elastoviscous problem which is poorly understood. Here we investigate a biomimetic model system of elastomer hair beds subject to shear- driven Stokes flows. We characterize this system with a theoretical model which accounts for the large-deformation flow response of hair beds. Hair bending results in a drag-reducing nonlinearity because the hair tip lowers toward the base, widening the gap through which fluid flows. When hairs are cantilevered at an angle subnormal to the surface, flow against the grain bends hairs away from the base, narrowing the gap. The flow response of angled hair beds is axially asymmetric and amounts to a rectification nonlinearity. We identify an elastoviscous parameter which controls nonlinear behavior. Our study raises the hypothesis that biological hairy surfaces function to reduce fluid drag. Furthermore, angled hairs may be incorporated in the design of integrated microfluidic components, such as diodes and pumps. J.A. acknowledges support the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF-14-1-0396.

  5. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  6. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    PubMed

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  7. Pubic hair and sexuality: a review.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Sara; Sweeney, Clare; Fraser, Michael; Oades, Gren

    2009-08-01

    Hair is a distinguishing feature of mammals, though the persistence of visible head, axillary, and pubic hair remains anthropologically unclear. Humans throughout the ages have modified their head and body hair, but aesthetic removal of pubic hair has become the "the ultimate barometer of how fashionable you really are" in the 21st century. The aim of the article is to examine the trends in pubic hair removal and its impact on health and sexuality. A literature search was performed, with a further search performed using an Internet-based search engine. For discussion, the results have been classified into the topics of "Development and anthropology","Cultural and artistic significance", "Medical implications", "Psychological and sexual significance and popular culture", "Impact of body hair loss on sexuality" and "Style and terminology." Pubic hair removal has been common since the ancient times. Pubic hair was rarely depicted in artistic representations of the nude until the late 19th century. It is postulated that the current trend of pubic hair removal may be related to the increased accessibility of Internet-based pornography. Anecdotally, pubic hair removal may carry benefits regarding increased sexual sensation and satisfaction though there is no quantative research in this field. There is a recognized morbidity to pubic hair removal, and also a lack of standardization of terms for styles adopted. We propose a definitive grading system for male and female body hair based on the widely used Tumor Node Metastasis staging system. Pubic hair removal appears to be an important aspect of expressing one's sexuality and participation in sexual activity. This practice has an interesting psychosexual basis which, to date, has not yet been fully explored in sexual medicine.

  8. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    SciTech Connect

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending onmore » location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.« less

  9. Modulating hair follicle size with Wnt10b-DKK1 pair during hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Mingxing; Guo, Haiying; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Yang, Tian; Widelitz, Randall B.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles have characteristic sizes corresponding to their cycle specific stage. However, how the anagen hair follicle specifies its size remains elusive. Here, we show that in response to prolonged ectopic Wnt10b-mediated β-catenin activation, regenerating anagen hair follicles grow larger in size. In particular, the hair bulb, dermal papilla and hair shaft become enlarged. While the formation of different hair types (Guard, Awl, Auchene, and Zigzag) is unaffected. Interestingly, we found the effect of exogenous WNT10b was mainly on Zigzag and less on the other kinds of hairs. We observed dramatically enhanced proliferation within the matrix, DP and hair shaft of the enlarged AdWnt10b-treated hair follicles compared with those of normal hair follicles at P98. Furthermore, expression of CD34, a specific hair stem cell marker, was increased in its number to the bulge region after AdWnt10b treatment. Ectopic expression of CD34 throughout the ORS region was also observed. Many CD34 positive hair stem cells were actively proliferating in AdWnt10b-induced hair follicles. Importantly, subsequent co-treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, DKK1, reduced hair follicle enlargement, decreased proliferation and maintained proper hair stem cell localization. Moreover, injection of DKK1 during early anagen significantly reduced the width of prospective hairs. Together, these findings strongly suggest that a balance of Wnt10b/DKK1 governs reciprocal signaling between cutaneous epithelium and mesenchyme to regulate proper hair follicle size. PMID:24750467

  10. Hair bundles of cochlear outer hair cells are shaped to minimize their fluid-dynamic resistance.

    PubMed

    Ciganović, Nikola; Wolde-Kidan, Amanuel; Reichenbach, Tobias

    2017-06-15

    The mammalian sense of hearing relies on two types of sensory cells: inner hair cells transmit the auditory stimulus to the brain, while outer hair cells mechanically modulate the stimulus through active feedback. Stimulation of a hair cell is mediated by displacements of its mechanosensitive hair bundle which protrudes from the apical surface of the cell into a narrow fluid-filled space between reticular lamina and tectorial membrane. While hair bundles of inner hair cells are of linear shape, those of outer hair cells exhibit a distinctive V-shape. The biophysical rationale behind this morphology, however, remains unknown. Here we use analytical and computational methods to study the fluid flow across rows of differently shaped hair bundles. We find that rows of V-shaped hair bundles have a considerably reduced resistance to crossflow, and that the biologically observed shapes of hair bundles of outer hair cells are near-optimal in this regard. This observation accords with the function of outer hair cells and lends support to the recent hypothesis that inner hair cells are stimulated by a net flow, in addition to the well-established shear flow that arises from shearing between the reticular lamina and the tectorial membrane.

  11. New Treatments for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Vañó-Galván, S; Camacho, F

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of hair loss is an important part of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of the problem and great impact on patients' quality of life. Many new treatments have been introduced in recent years. This review summarizes the main ones in 4 groups: a) For androgenetic alopecia, we discuss new excipients for oral minoxidil, dutasteride, and finasteride as well as new forms of topical application; prostaglandin agonists and antagonists; low-level laser therapy; and regenerative medicine with Wnt signaling activators and stem cell therapy. b) For alopecia areata, Janus kinase inhibitors are reviewed. c) For frontal fibrosing alopecia, we discuss the use of antiandrogens and, for some patients, pioglitazone. d) Finally, we mention new robotic devices for hair transplant procedures and techniques for optimal follicular unit extraction. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic actuation of hair cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, David; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo; Bozovic, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    The bullfrog sacculus contains mechanically sensitive hair cells whose stereociliary bundles oscillate spontaneously when decoupled from the overlying membrane. Steady-state offsets on the resting position of a hair bundle can suppress or modulate this native motility. To probe the dynamics of spontaneous oscillation in the proximity of the critical point, we describe here a method for mechanical actuation that avoids loading the bundles or contributing to the viscous drag. Magnetite beads were attached to the tips of the stereocilia, and a magnetic probe was used to impose deflections. This technique allowed us to observe the transition from multi-mode to single-mode state in freely oscillating bundles, as well as the crossover from the oscillatory to the quiescent state.

  13. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Expedition 33 Crew Hair Cut

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-21

    Expedition 33 Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy gets his hair cut at the Cosmonaut Hotel, on Sunday, October 21, 2012, at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket is scheduled for October 23 and will send Expedition 33/34 Flight Engineer Kevin Ford of NASA, Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin of ROSCOSMOS on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Natural Compounds as Occult Ototoxins? Ginkgo biloba Flavonoids Moderately Damage Lateral Line Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Neveux, Sarah; Smith, Nicole K; Roche, Anna; Blough, Bruce E; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Coffin, Allison B

    2017-04-01

    Several drugs, including aminoglycosides and platinum-based chemotherapy agents, are well known for their ototoxic properties. However, FDA-approved drugs are not routinely tested for ototoxicity, so their potential to affect hearing often goes unrecognized. This issue is further compounded for natural products, where there is a lack of FDA oversight and the manufacturer is solely responsible for ensuring the safety of their products. Natural products such as herbal supplements are easily accessible and commonly used in the practice of traditional eastern and alternative medicine. Using the zebrafish lateral line, we screened a natural products library to identify potential ototoxins. We found that the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, both from the Gingko biloba plant, demonstrated significant ototoxicity, killing up to 30 % of lateral line hair cells. We then examined a third Ginkgo flavonoid, isorhamnetin, and found similar levels of ototoxicity. After flavonoid treatment, surviving hair cells demonstrated reduced uptake of the vital dye FM 1-43FX, suggesting that the health of the remaining hair cells was compromised. We then asked if these flavonoids enter hair cells through the mechanotransduction channel, which is the site of entry for many known ototoxins. High extracellular calcium or the quinoline derivative E6 berbamine significantly protected hair cells from flavonoid damage, implicating the transduction channel as a site of flavonoid uptake. Since known ototoxins activate cellular stress responses, we asked if reactive oxygen species were necessary for flavonoid ototoxicity. Co-treatment with the antioxidant D-methionine significantly protected hair cells from each flavonoid, suggesting that antioxidant therapy could prevent hair cell loss. How these products affect mammalian hair cells is still an open question and will be the target of future experiments. However, this research demonstrates the potential for ototoxic damage caused by unregulated

  17. A novel LCD (coal tar) solution for psoriasis does not discolor naturally light or color-processed hair in an exaggerated exposure test model.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Colleen; Edison, Brenda; Brouda, Irina; Green, Barbara

    2009-09-01

    Scalp psoriasis is reported to occur in 50-80% of psoriasis sufferers. Treatment of scalp psoriasis requires special consideration of product esthetics and staining potential due to the presence of hair. To evaluate the potential of a new, marketed liquor carbonis distillate (LCD; coal tar) solution to discolor naturally light or color-processed hair under exaggerated exposure conditions. Samples of naturally light and color-processed hair from a single donor were exposed to LCD solution repeatedly over 14 days and via submergence for 24 h. Color of LCD-treated hair samples was compared with untreated control hair samples. LCD solution did not discolor naturally light or color-processed hair following repeated exposures and 24 h submergence. The marketed LCD solution does not appear to discolor naturally light or color-processed hair.

  18. Metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios in hair for the differentiation of tramadol intake from external contamination and passive exposure.

    PubMed

    Madry, Milena M; Rust, Kristina Y; Guglielmello, Rosetta; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2012-11-30

    Tramadol was found in a man's hair sample during an abstinence test necessary to regain his driving license. The suspect denied having taken tramadol claiming external contamination as the reason for the positive result, as he was working in a tramadol production company. Nevertheless, low concentrations of both major metabolites, N-desmethyltramadol (NDMT) and O-desmethyltramadol (ODMT), were found in hair (180 and 6 pg/mg hair, respectively). To assess this case, tramadol concentrations and metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios were determined in hair samples of 75 patients taking tramadol and of eight employees working in the production and laboratory site of the same company. Additionally, wash water used for decontaminating hair was analyzed for both groups, patients and employees. Analysis of hair sample extracts was performed by LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), information dependent acquisition (IDA) and enhanced product ion scan (EPI). High variations of metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios in hair samples of patients were observed. Differences in NDMT and ODMT to tramadol concentration ratios were found when comparing the cohort of patients to employees. The suspect could be included in the cohort of employees considering the ODMT to tramadol concentration ratio in hair and tramadol concentration ratio in wash water versus hair. Metabolite to parent drug concentration ratios of hair samples may represent a helpful tool for the differentiation of tramadol intake versus external contamination. Ratios of tramadol concentrations in wash water versus the subjects' hair may provide additional information for case assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  20. To grow or not to grow: hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Hair-care practices in African American women: potential for allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Alicia; Sood, Apra

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when the skin is re-exposed to a substance to which it was previously sensitized. One significant source of exposure to sensitizing chemicals is through personal grooming and beauty products. While the role of cosmetics and hair-care products in the development of ACD is well-documented, there has been very little literature that specifically addresses the role of hair-care practices of patients with tightly curled hair, such as in patients of African descent, in the development of ACD in this population. This review provides an integrated summary of the hair-care practices of female African American patients and the potential for exposure to sensitizing agents at each stage. This review will also discuss the challenges faced in recognizing and assessing ACD in these patients. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  2. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    PubMed

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts.

  3. Regulation and functional diversification of root hairs.

    PubMed

    Cui, Songkui; Suzaki, Takuya; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Yoshida, Satoko

    2017-10-13

    Root hairs result from the polar outgrowth of root epidermis cells in vascular plants. Root hair development processes are regulated by intrinsic genetic programs, which are flexibly modulated by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Basic programs for root hair development were present in early land plants. Subsequently, some plants developed the ability to utilize root hairs for specific functions, in particular, for interactions with other organisms, such as legume-rhizobia and host plants-parasites interactions. In this review, we summarize the molecular regulation of root hair development and the modulation of root hairs under limited nutrient supply and during interactions with other organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  5. Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expanded our understanding of the development, organization, and regeneration of hair follicle stem cells. At a basic level, this review is intended to help construct a reference point to integrate the surge of studies on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. PMID:22293183

  6. Cryopreservation of Hair-Follicle Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells Maintains Differentiation and Hair-Growth Potential.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Kajiura, Satoshi; Cao, Wenluo; Liu, Fang; Amoh, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C. After thawing and culture of the cryopreserved whisker follicles, growing HAP stem cells formed hair spheres. The hair spheres contained cells that differentiated to neurons, glial cells, and other cell types. The hair spheres derived from slow-cooling cryopreserved hair follicles were as pluripotent as hair spheres from fresh hair follicles. We have also previously demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair-growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the HAP stem cells, evidenced by P75 ntr expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair-shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. HAP stem cells can be used for nerve and spinal-cord repair. This biobanking of hair follicles can allow each patient the potential for their own stem cell use for regenerative medicine or hair transplantation.

  7. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

  8. Expression and localization of VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during induced hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian-Jie; Jing, Jing; Lu, Zhong-Fa; Zheng, Min

    2018-06-16

    Recently, VEGFR-2 has been detected not only in vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells but also in some non-vascular endothelial cells, particularly human hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands. In addition, VEGFR-2 has been confirmed to play direct roles in hair follicle keratinocyte regulation beyond simply angiogenesis. To elucidate whether VEGFR-2 activation plays a role in hair follicle cycling regulation, immunofluorescence of VEGFR-2 expression was performed during hair cycling of the dorsum of the mouse induced by hair plucking. We observed that staining for VEGFR-2 in hair follicles during anagen II and IV was much stronger than during anagen VI, catagen and telogen. During anagen II, intense staining for VEGFR-2 was observed on the keratinocyte strands of the hair follicle. Subsequently, we detected intense staining for VEGFR-2 in the ORS, IRS and hair bulb during anagen IV. Moderate staining for VEGFR-2 was detected in the ORS and hair bulb, but staining was most intense in IRS during anagen VI. During catagen, staining for VEGFR-2 in the IRS remained intense, while staining in the ORS and hair bulb was significantly weakened and was negative in the dermal papilla. During telogen, we detected VEGFR-2 in germ cells, cap, and club hair adjoining the epidermis. In conclusion, VEGFR-2 was expressed on the hair follicles of the dorsum of the mouse and varied in expression on the mouse hair follicles during hair cycling, suggesting that VEGFR-2 may exert roles in hair cycle regulation in hair follicles on the dorsum of mice.

  9. Human hair pigmentation--biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Tobin, D J

    2008-08-01

    Skin and hair colour contribute significantly to our overall visual appearance and to social/sexual communication. Despite their shared origins in the embryologic neural crest, the hair follicle and epidermal pigmentary units occupy distinct, although open, cutaneous compartments. They can be distinguished principally on the basis of the former's stringent coupling to the hair growth cycle compared with the latter's continuous melanogenesis. The biosynthesis of melanin and its subsequent transfer from melanocyte to hair bulb keratinocytes depend on the availability of melanin precursors and on a raft of signal transduction pathways that are both highly complex and commonly redundant. These signalling pathways can be both dependent and independent of receptors, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. Despite many shared features, follicular melanocytes appear to be more sensitive than epidermal melanocytes to ageing influences. This can be seen most dramatically in hair greying/canities and this is likely to reflect significant differences in the epidermal and follicular microenvironments. The hair follicle pigmentary unit may also serve as an important environmental sensor, whereby hair pigment contributes to the rapid excretion of heavy metals, chemicals and toxins from the body by their selective binding to melanin; rendering the hair fibre a useful barometer of exposures. The recent availability of advanced cell culture methodologies for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture should provide the research tools necessary to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. In the longer term, it may be feasible to develop hair colour modifiers of a biological nature to accompany those based on chemicals.

  10. [When hair starts to fall out].

    PubMed

    de Lorenzi, Caroline; Quenan, Sandrine

    2018-03-28

    Hair loss causes physical and psychological distress and represents a common motive of consultation both in general practice and dermatology. Causes of hair loss are highly diverse and can lead to a challenging diagnosis, which can delay its management. Knowledge of the main causes and their different mechanisms are thus necessary in order to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main causes of hair loss in order to improve its diagnosis and management.

  11. Sonic Hedgehog Initiates Cochlear Hair Cell Regeneration through Downregulation of Retinoblastoma Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Na; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zhengmin; Chen, Guoling; Lin, Qin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Li, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration. PMID:23211596

  12. A Clinical Trial to Investigate the Effect of Cynatine HNS on Hair and Nail Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Veghte, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n = 25) received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500 mg) plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n = 25) received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. Results. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Conclusion. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22. PMID:25386609

  13. Robotic hair harvesting system: a new proposal.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiang; Nakazawa, Toji; Yasuda, Ryuya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro; Liao, Hongen

    2011-01-01

    Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) has become a popular hair transplanting method for solving male-pattern baldness problem. Manually harvesting hairs one by one, however, is a tedious and time-consuming job to doctors. We design an accurate hair harvesting robot with a novel and efficient end-effector which consists of one digital microscope and a punch device. The microscope is first employed to automatically localize target hairs and then guides the punch device for harvesting after shifting. The end-effector shows average bias and precision of 0.014 mm by virtue of a rotary guidance design for the motorized shifting mechanism.

  14. Cross-reactions among hair dye allergens.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; English, John

    2009-01-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an important hair dye allergen, but there remains a reasonable suspicion that other hair dye chemicals may also be responsible for a proportion of the clinical burden of hair dye allergy. To assess to what extent presently assessed additional patch test agents contribute to the diagnosis of non-PPD hair dye allergy. A retrospective analysis was conducted of patch test results with hair dye allergens, focusing on the extent to which patients who were positive for allergic reactions to other hair dye allergens also had a concomitant positive reaction to PPD. For the hair dye allergens other than p-toluenediamine (PTD), reactions in the absence of a concomitant positive reaction to PPD were very rare. Positive reactors to PTD were also positive for reactions to PPD in 5 of every 6 cases. Pyrogallol positives often occurred in the absence of a PPD positive, but were never judged to be of clinical relevance. Hair dye chemicals other than PPD may be of importance, but the presently tested materials, with the possible exception of PTD, are normally positive only when a PPD-positive reaction is also present, suggesting that their use in patch testing in hair dye allergy is likely to be of limited value.

  15. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  16. Functional anatomy of the hair follicle: The Secondary Hair Germ.

    PubMed

    Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2018-07-01

    The secondary hair germ (SHG)-a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF)-is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signalling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen subphase. The SHG is comprised of two functionally distinct cell populations. Its lower portion (originating from lower HF cells that survived catagen) forms all ascending HF layers, while the upper SHG (formed by bulge-derived cells) builds up the ORS. The predetermination of SHG cells to a specific morphogenetic fate contradicts their attribution to the "stem cell" category and supports SHG designation as a "germinative" or a "founder" cell population. The mechanisms of this predetermination driving transition of the SHG from "refractory" to the "competent" state during the telogen remain unknown. Functionally, the SHG serves as a barrier, protecting the quiescent bulge stem cell niche from the extensive follicular papilla/SHG signalling milieu. The formation of the SHG is a prerequisite for efficient "precommitment" of these cells and provides for easier sensing and a faster response to anagen-inducing signals. In general, the formation of the SHG is an evolutionary adaptation, which allowed the ancestors of modern Muridae to acquire a specific, highly synchronized pattern of hair cycling. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Nemesia Root Hair Response to Paper Pulp Substrate for Micropropagation

    PubMed Central

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp. PMID:22312323

  18. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  19. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaluation Indicators of Aesthetic Effects on Hair Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Liu, Bing-Cheng; Fan, Zhe-Xiang; Hu, Zhi-Qi

    2016-02-01

    Hair transplantation involves the transplantation of hair, beard, eyebrows, eyelashes, and pubic hair. Based on our experience, the aesthetic result of hair transplantation mainly relies on 4 indicators, including selection of the donor site, direction and angle of grafted hairs, density, and survival rate of implanted hair follicles. We believe that good results can be achieved as long as attention is paid to the above 4 points.

  1. The color(s) of human hair--forensic hair analysis with SpectraCube.

    PubMed

    Birngruber, Christoph; Ramsthaler, Frank; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2009-03-10

    Human hair is among the most common kind of evidence secured at crime scenes. Although DNA analysis through STR-typing is possible in principle, it is not very promising for telogenic hair or single hairs. For the mixed traces frequently found in practice, composed of different hair from an unknown number of individuals, mtDNA sequencing of each individual hair seems to be the only possible, even if technically elaborate, solution. If it were possible to pool all hair belonging to an individual prior to DNA analysis, then this effort could not only be reduced, but the number of hair for an STR-approach could also be increased. Although it is possible to examine hair microscopically, this method must be considered unsuitable for pooling, since the results depend strongly on examiner experience, and the hair cannot always be correctly attributed to an individual. The goal of this study was to develop an objective non-DNA-contaminative pooling method for hair. To this end, the efficacy of spectral imaging as a method of obtaining information--beyond that obtained from a purely microscopic and morphological approach--for the identification of individuals was investigated. Three hairs each from 25 test persons (female: 18; male: 7) were examined with a SpectraCube-System and a light microscope. Six spectra were calculated for each hair, and the hairs from each individual were not only compared to each other, but also to those of the other individuals. From a forensic vantage, the examination showed, in particular, that individuals, whose hair could not be distinguished on the basis of morphology, could also not be accurately distinguished with the SpectraCube. The intra-individual differences were, in part, greater than the inter-individual differences. Altogether, the study shows that a person's hair color, as perceived, is composed of many naturally different, individual colors.

  2. Hair cortisol reflects socio-economic factors and hair zinc in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Vaghri, Ziba; Guhn, Martin; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E.; Yu, Wayne; Hertzman, Clyde

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study examined the relationship between children’s hair cortisol and socioeconomic status of the family, as measured by parental education and income. Low family socioeconomic status has traditionally been considered a long-term environmental stressor. Measurement of hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cumulative stress exposure across an extended period of time. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between hair cortisol and parental education as well as parental income in a representative sample of preschoolers. Data on hair cortisol, family income, and parental education were collected for a representative sample of 339 children (Mean age = 4.6 years; SD = .5 years) from across 23 neighbourhoods of the city of Vancouver, Canada. As maternal education was shown previously to be associated with hair zinc level, hair zinc measurements were included as well in order to explore potential relationships between hair zinc and hair cortisol. The relationship between hair cortisol and parental education was examined using hierarchical regression, with hair zinc, gender, age, and single parenthood included as covariates. Maternal and paternal education both were correlated significantly with hair cortisol (r = −0.18; p = .001). The relationship remained statistically significant even after controlling for all demographic covariates as well as for hair zinc and after taking the neighbourhood-level clustering of the data into account. Parental income, on the other hand, was not related significantly to children’s hair cortisol. This study provides evidence that lower maternal and paternal education are associated with higher hair cortisol levels. As hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cortisol exposure over an extended time period, these findings suggest a possibly stable influence of SES on the function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Cumulative exposure to cortisol during early childhood may

  3. Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.

    PubMed

    Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2014-08-01

    Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways

  4. The use of human hair as biodosimeter.

    PubMed

    Tepe Çam, S; Polat, M; Seyhan, N

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5-50Gy) and high doses (75-750Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021-2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (ΔHpp: 0.522-0.744mT). In all samples, the linear dose-response curves at low doses saturated after ~300Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44h in black hair, 41h in blonde and brown hairs, 35h in dyed black hair and in 17h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hair growth induction by substance P.

    PubMed

    Paus, R; Heinzelmann, T; Schultz, K D; Furkert, J; Fechner, K; Czarnetzki, B M

    1994-07-01

    In vitro, some neuropeptides, including the tachykinin, substance P (SP), act as growth factors. The cyclic growth of the richly innervated hair follicle offers a model for probing such functions in a complex, developmentally regulated tissue interaction system under physiologic conditions. Dissecting the role of neuropeptides in this system may also reveal as yet obscure neural mechanisms of hair growth control. The neuropeptide-releasing neurotoxin, capsaicin was injected intradermally, or SP slow-release formulations were implanted subcutaneously in the back skin of C57BL/6 mice with all follicles in the resting stage of the hair cycle (telogen) in order to see whether this induced hair growth (anagen). In addition, the endogenous SP skin concentration and the activity of the main SP-degrading enzyme, neutral endopeptidase, were determined during the induced murine hair cycle by high performance liquid chromatography-controlled radioimmuno-assay (SP) or by fluorometry (neutral endopeptidase). Both capsaicin and SP induced significant hair growth (anagen) in the back skin of telogen mice. This was associated with substantial mast cell degranulation. The endogenous SP skin concentration showed significant, hair cycle-dependent fluctuations during the induced murine hair cycle, which were largely independent of the activity of neutral endopeptidase. SP may play a role in the neural control of hair growth. Whereas this pilot study does not address the underlying mechanisms of action, it demonstrates that SP has potential as a hair growth-stimulatory agent in vivo, and serves as a basis for exploring the role of tachykinins in epithelial-mesenchymal-neuroectodermal interaction systems like the hair follicle.

  6. 77 FR 65856 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 93G-Oxford, NC; Notification of Proposed Production Activity Revlon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    .../26/06) for the production of certain cosmetics and personal care products (hair products, fragrances... the duty rate during customs entry procedures that applies to hair coloring products (duty-free) for...

  7. An ultrastructural study on corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mao; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lei, Song; Zhang, Chaoliang; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Hu, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to explain the formation mechanisms of corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis. In the present work, the ultrastructure of the involved hairs collected from a girl with tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM observation of the corkscrew hair revealed bent hair shaft and asymmetrically disrupted cuticle layer. TEM findings demonstrated the hair shaft became weak. The corkscrew hairs closely covered by scales on the scalp were observed under dermoscopy. We speculate that the formation of corkscrew hairs is a result of a combination of internal damage due to hair degradation by T. violaceum and external resistance due to scales covering the hair. SEM observation of the cigarette-ash-shaped hair revealed irregularly disrupted and incompact end, which might represent the stump of the broken corkscrew hair after treatment. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cockrell washs hair and face

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-12-16

    STS080-312-004 (19 Nov.-7 Dec. 1996) --- Astronaut Kenneth D. Cockrell, STS-80 mission commander, washes his hair on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Columbia. Displaying a sense of humor, the commander asked astronaut Story Musgrave, who is bald, to address this visual during a briefing with Johnson Space Center (JSC) employees on Jan. 14, 1997. Equal to the task, Musgrave cracked a number of bald jokes and remarked that it was much easier to polish a head in zero gravity than to wash one.

  9. Does D matter? The role of vitamin D in hair disorders and hair follicle cycling.

    PubMed

    Amor, Karrie T; Rashid, Rashid M; Mirmirani, Paradi

    2010-02-15

    The role of vitamin D in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes is well known within the field of dermatology. We sought to evaluate the role that vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor play in the hair cycle and assess how this can be clinically applied to the treatment of hair disorders. A MEDLINE search (1955-July 2009) was preformed to find relevant articles pertaining to vitamin D, the vitamin D receptor, and hair loss. The vitamin D receptor, independent of vitamin D, plays an important role in hair cycling, specifically anagen initiation. The role of vitamin D in hair follicle cycling is not as well understood. The review is broad and there are limited human studies available to date. Additional studies to evaluate the role of vitamin D in the hair cycle should be done. Treatments that up regulate the vitamin D receptor may be successful in treating hair disorders and are a potential area of further study.

  10. Platelet rich plasma for the management of hair loss: Better alone or in combination?

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Pino, Ander; Jaén, Pedro; Navarro, Mª Rogelia

    2018-06-14

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and autologous protein-based treatments have recently emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for hair loss-related disorders including androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. The safety and efficacy of repeated intradermal injections of PRP has proved to promote hair growth in a number of randomized clinical trials. Biologically active proteins and cytokines released upon platelet activation have shown to induce folliculogenesis and activate the anagen growing phase of dormant bulbs. Interestingly, further studies have revealed that combining PRP with other hair loss-related products may enhance the final performance of the treatment. These synergistic approaches include Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs such as finasteride or minoxidil, bioactive macromolecules and cell-based therapies. Here, recent research involving alone or combined therapy with platelet-rich plasma for the management of hair loss-related disorders are outlined and future prospects are discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mouse models for human hair loss disorders

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Rebecca M

    2003-01-01

    The outer surface of the hand, limb and body is covered by the epidermis, which is elaborated into a number of specialized appendages, evolved not only to protect and reinforce the skin but also for social signalling. The most prominent of these appendages is the hair follicle. Hair follicles are remarkable because of their prolific growth characteristics and their complexity of differentiation. After initial embryonic morphogenesis, the hair follicle undergoes repeated cycles of regression and regeneration throughout the lifetime of the organism. Studies of mouse mutants with hair loss phenotypes have suggested that the mechanisms controlling the hair cycle probably involve many of the major signalling molecules used elsewhere in development, although the complete pathway of hair follicle growth control is not yet understood. Mouse studies have also led to the discovery of genes underlying several human disorders. Future studies of mouse hair-loss mutants are likely to benefit the understanding of human hair loss as well as increasing our knowledge of mechanisms controlling morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. PMID:12587927

  12. Hair transplantation in burn scar alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Farjo, Bessam; Farjo, Nilofer; Williams, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Treating patients with burn alopecia or hair loss can often be a challenge to both the surgeon and the patient. As with other reconstructive procedures that are required in the post-burn phase, this is usually a multiple stage process often requiring surgery over several years. This is because graft take is not as reliable as in healthy non-scarred skin and may need repeating to achieve adequate density. Also, different areas of hair loss may need to be addressed in separate procedures. There are several limiting factors that will determine whether or not a patient is a candidate for hair restoration which includes but is not limited to the amount of hair loss and the availability of suitable donor hair. Here we discuss how the current surgical technique of hair transplant surgery by follicular unit extraction (FUE) or strip follicular unit transplant (FUT) has become the treatment of choice for alopecic areas that require a more refined aesthetic result. Eyebrow, eyelash, beard and scalp hair loss can all have a negative impact on a burn survivor’s self-esteem and even if surgery is not a possibility, there are non-surgical options available for hair restoration and these are also discussed. PMID:29799573

  13. The biology and genetics of curly hair.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Ginger, Rebecca S; Green, Martin R

    2017-06-01

    Hair fibres show wide diversity across and within all human populations, suggesting that hair fibre form and colour have been subject to much adaptive pressure over thousands of years. All human hair fibres typically have the same basic structure. However, the three-dimensional shape of the entire fibre varies considerably depending on ethnicity and geography, with examples from very straight hair with no rotational turn about the long axis, to the tightly sprung coils of African races. The creation of the highly complex biomaterials in hair follicle and how these confer mechanical functions on the fibre so formed is a topic that remains relatively unexplained thus far. We review the current understanding on how hair fibres are formed into a nonlinear coiled form and which genetic and biological factors are thought to be responsible for hair shape. We report on a new GWAS comparing low and high curl individuals in South Africa, revealing strong links to polymorphic variation in trichohyalin, a copper transporter protein CUTC and the inner root sheath component keratin 74. This builds onto the growing knowledge base describing the control of curly hair formation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 9 CFR 95.7 - Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; requirements for unrestricted entry. 95.7 Section 95.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  15. 9 CFR 95.8 - Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wool, hair, and bristles; importations permitted subject to restrictions. 95.8 Section 95.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL O...

  16. DSC of human hair: a tool for claim support or incorrect data analysis?

    PubMed

    Popescu, C; Gummer, C

    2016-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data are increasingly used to substantiate product claims of hair repair. Decreasing peak temperatures may indicate structural changes and chemical damage. Increasing the DSC, wet peak temperature is, therefore, often considered as proof of hair repair. A detailed understanding of the technique and hair structure indicates that this may not be a sound approach. Surveying the rich literature on the use of dynamic thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the analyses of human hair and the effect of cosmetic treatments, we underline some of the problems of hair structure and data interpretation. To overcome some of the difficulties of data interpretation, we advise that DSC acquired data should be supported by other techniques when used for claim substantiation. In this way, one can provide meaningful interpretation of the hair science and robust data for product claims support. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Investigating the use of hair to assess polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure retrospectively.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Amanda; Aleksa, Katarina; Goodyer, Cynthia G; Koren, Gideon

    2014-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals that are added to a variety of consumer products as flame-retardants and have been classified as emerging endocrine disruptors. They are persistent and have been detected in humans. Previous studies have suggested that hair is a suitable matrix for examining human exposure to organic pollutants such as PBDEs. It is believed that the majority of exposure is from our indoor environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in PBDE patterns and levels along the hair shaft, by using segmental analysis to retrospectively assess long-term exposure over a 1-year period. Questionnaires and hair samples from 65 women were collected at the Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, as part of a larger study. To assess long-term stability, hair samples were separated into 4- and 3-cm segments representing a 1-year period. Hair segments were analyzed for levels of 8 PBDE congeners, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, and BDE-209 on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS). A Friedman test was used to detect the differences in exposure among segments, and factors such as dietary habits, hair care routine, and site of residence were investigated to determine if they might affect hair levels. A significant increase (P < 0.0001) in total PBDEs was seen among segments moving from proximal (root end) to distal along the hair shaft (median in pg/mg): first (33.3), second (43.0), third (61.6), and fourth (75.5) segments. Significantly lower levels of PBDEs were observed in artificially colored hair samples (P = 0.032), and a significant increase in PBDE levels was observed in women who consumed meat on a daily basis as opposed to weekly consumption (P = 0.040). The increase in PBDEs along the hair shaft suggests that hair PBDEs may be influenced by diet and artificial coloring. More work is needed to validate the use of PBDEs in hair as a biomarker of long-term exposure.

  18. Hair as an alternative matrix in bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Faria, Juliana; Carvalho, Félix; Pedro, Madalena; Queirós, Odília; Moreira, Roxana; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Alternative matrices are steadily gaining recognition as biological samples for toxicological analyses. Hair presents many advantages over traditional matrices, such as urine and blood, since it provides retrospective information regarding drug exposure, can distinguish between chronic and acute or recent drug use by segmental analysis, is easy to obtain, and has considerable stability for long periods of time. For this reason, it has been employed in a wide variety of contexts, namely to evaluate workplace drug exposure, drug-facilitated sexual assault, pre-natal drug exposure, anti-doping control, pharmacological monitoring and alcohol abuse. In this article, issues concerning hair structure, collection, storage and analysis are reviewed. The mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair are briefly discussed. Analytical techniques for simultaneous drug quantification in hair are addressed. Finally, representative examples of drug quantification using hair are summarized, emphasizing its potentialities and limitations as an alternative biological matrix for toxicological analyses.

  19. Hair follicle nevus - A dermoscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Okada, Junna; Moroi, Yoichi; Tsujita, Jun; Takahara, Masakazu; Urabe, Kazunori; Kiryu, Hiromaro; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 26-year-old man who presented with small soft nodules with tiny hairs that had been present on his nose since childhood. The nodules were initially diagnosed as melanocytic nevi. However, dermoscopy showed many uniform hair follicles and an interfollicular 'pseudo-pigment network' in the nodules. Histologically, many well-differentiated hair follicles and sebaceous glands were seen in the dermis. Serial sectioning revealed neither central cysts nor a central canal. We therefore diagnosed this case as hair follicle nevus. Dermoscopy is now widely used as a non-invasive, in vivo technique for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Hair follicle nevus is a very rare disease and this is the first report to demonstrate the manifestation of this clinical entity by dermoscopy.

  20. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p < .001 and p = .002, respectively). A positive correlation between hair cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  1. The Lore of the Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunes, Nicolas; Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo

    2016-03-01

    Stars can be hairy beasts, especially in theories that go beyond Einstein's. In the latter, a scalar field can be sourced and anchored to a neutron star, and if the later is in a binary system, the scalar field will emit dipole radiation. This radiation removes energy from the binary, forcing the orbit to adiabatically decay much more rapidly than due to the emission of gravitational waves as predicted in General Relativity. The detailed radio observation of binary pulsars has constrained the orbital decay of compact binaries stringently, so much so that theories that predict neutron stars with scalar hair are believed to be essentially ruled out. In this talk I will explain why this ``lore'' is actually incorrect, providing a counter-example in which scalar hair is sourced by neutron stars, yet dipole radiation is absent. I will then describe what binary systems need to be observed to constrain such theories with future astrophysical observations. I acknowledge support from NSF CAREER Grant PHY-1250636.

  2. Assessing chronic exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins: the use of hair as a suitable noninvasive matrix.

    PubMed

    Sewram, V; Nair, J J; Nieuwoudt, T W; Gelderblom, W C; Marasas, W F; Shephard, G S

    2001-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the accumulation of measurable levels of fumonisin mycotoxins in the hair of nonhuman primates (vervet monkeys, Cercopithecus aethiops) and rats exposed to contaminated feed. Hair was subjected to reflux with methanol, and the resulting extract was cleaned up on strong anion exchange (SAX) and C18 solid-phase sorbents. Fumonisins FB1, FB2, and FB3 as well as their hydrolysis products commonly known as aminopolyols, AP1 and AP2, were detected in monkey hair using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Despite matrix interferences, the two-stage mass spectrometric process (MS-MS) yielded product ion mass spectra, which served as diagnostic indicators thus providing unequivocal identification of FB1, FB2, and FB3 as well as AP1 and AP2. In vervet monkeys, the levels of exposure related well to the levels of toxin detected in hair, and levels as high as 5.98 mg FB1, 33.77 mg FB1, and 65.93 mg FB1/kg of hair were found in monkeys receiving control, low-dose, and high-dose contaminated diets, respectively. Hair was also analyzed from rats given either single gavage doses of 1 and 10 mg FB1/kg body weight or contaminated feed (50 mg FB1/kg), resulting in an exposure of approximately 4.25 mg FB1/kg body weight/day based on the measured daily feed intake. Analysis of rat hair over a four-week period indicated that mean levels up to 34.50 mg/kg and 42.20 mg/kg were detectable by the fourth week in the rats treated by gavage (10 mg FB1/kg body weight) and those receiving contaminated feed, respectively. This relationship indicates that hair can provide an easily applicable non-invasive matrix for assessing chronic exposure to fumonisin mycotoxins.

  3. The Molecular Mechanism of Ethylene-Mediated Root Hair Development Induced by Phosphate Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li; Yu, Haopeng; Dong, Jinsong; Liu, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced root hair production, which increases the root surface area for nutrient uptake, is a typical adaptive response of plants to phosphate (Pi) starvation. Although previous studies have shown that ethylene plays an important role in root hair development induced by Pi starvation, the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. In this work, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant, hps5, that displays constitutive ethylene responses and increased sensitivity to Pi starvation due to a mutation in the ethylene receptor ERS1. hps5 accumulates high levels of EIN3 protein, a key transcription factor involved in the ethylene signaling pathway, under both Pi sufficiency and deficiency. Pi starvation also increases the accumulation of EIN3 protein. Combined molecular, genetic, and genomic analyses identified a group of genes that affect root hair development by regulating cell wall modifications. The expression of these genes is induced by Pi starvation and is enhanced in the EIN3-overexpressing line. In contrast, the induction of these genes by Pi starvation is suppressed in ein3 and ein3eil1 mutants. EIN3 protein can directly bind to the promoter of these genes, some of which are also the immediate targets of RSL4, a key transcription factor that regulates root hair development. Based on these results, we propose that under normal growth conditions, the level of ethylene is low in root cells; a group of key transcription factors, including RSL4 and its homologs, trigger the transcription of their target genes to promote root hair development; Pi starvation increases the levels of the protein EIN3, which directly binds to the promoters of the genes targeted by RSL4 and its homologs and further increase their transcription, resulting in the enhanced production of root hairs. This model not only explains how ethylene mediates root hair responses to Pi starvation, but may provide a general mechanism for how ethylene regulates root hair development under both stress

  4. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-07-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice-carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), was present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice-producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity, and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth on the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and preventing them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S) compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as being the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  5. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-04-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide, respectively, suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), has been present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth at the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and to prevent them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S)-compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  6. What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2012-01-01

    The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

  7. Numerical modeling of gravel bed river response to meander straightening: The coupling between the evolution of bed pavement and long profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Tracey; Lapointe, Michel

    2002-06-01

    Artificial meander straightening (rectification) was conducted in the early 1960s along the Sainte-Marguerite River, Canada, in order to facilitate highway construction along the valley. Previous studies [Talbot and Lapointe, 2002] confirm that vertical reprofiling, coupled with pavement coarsening in the degrading reach, were the main responses counteracting the disequilibrium in gravel transport rates triggered at rectification of this system. Numerical simulations, using SEDROUT2.0, a one-dimensional hydraulic and sediment transport model, and validated against the observed channel response, show the important role played by an advancing wave of pavement coarsening down the rectified reach in modulating the bed degradation response. Simulations extending into the future reveal an asymptotically slowing approach to equilibrium in the middle of the 21st century, with a response half-time of the order of 10 years. In near-threshold gravel bed systems like the Sainte-Marguerite River, pavement coarsening after rectification buffers the system against extreme degradation. Most significantly for watershed management, this also appears to severely limit the extent of propagation of degradation upstream of the rectification.

  8. ß-Cyanoalanine Synthase Action in Root Hair Elongation is Exerted at Early Steps of the Root Hair Elongation Pathway and is Independent of Direct Cyanide Inactivation of NADPH Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Alfonseca, Lucía; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C; García, Irene

    2018-05-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis and is mainly detoxified by the ß-cyanoalanine synthase CAS-C1. In roots, CAS-C1 activity is essential to maintain a low level of cyanide for proper root hair development. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, and we have observed that CAS-C1 locates in mitochondria and accumulates in root hair tips during root hair elongation, as shown by observing the fluorescence in plants transformed with the translational construct ProC1:CASC1-GFP, containing the complete CAS-C1 gene fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Mutants in the SUPERCENTIPEDE (SCN1) gene, that regulate the NADPH oxidase gene ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2 (RHD2)/AtrbohC, are affected at the very early steps of the development of root hair that do not elongate and do not show a preferential localization of the GFP accumulation in the tips of the root hair primordia. Root hairs of mutants in CAS-C1 or RHD2/AtrbohC, whose protein product catalyzes the generation of ROS and the Ca2+ gradient, start to grow out correctly, but they do not elongate. Genetic crosses between the cas-c1 mutant and scn1 or rhd2 mutants were performed, and the detailed phenotypic and molecular characterization of the double mutants demonstrates that scn1 mutation is epistatic to cas-c1 and cas-c1 is epistatic to rhd2 mutation, indicating that CAS-C1 acts in early steps of the root hair development process. Moreover, our results show that the role of CAS-C1 in root hair elongation is independent of H2O2 production and of a direct NADPH oxidase inhibition by cyanide.

  9. AN ADENYLYL CYCLASE SIGNALING PATHWAY PREDICTS DIRECT DOPAMINERGIC INPUT TO VESTIBULAR HAIR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    DRESCHER, M. J.; CHO, W. J.; FOLBE, A. J.; SELVAKUMAR, D.; KEWSON, D. T.; ABU-HAMDAN, M. D.; OH, C. K.; RAMAKRISHNAN, N. A.; HATFIELD, J. S.; KHAN, K. M.; ANNE, S.; HARPOOL, E. C.; DRESCHER, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    Adenylyl cyclase signaling pathways have been identified in a model hair cell preparation from the trout saccule, for which the hair cell is the only intact cell type. The use of degenerate primers targeting cDNA sequence conserved across adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms, and RT-PCR, coupled with cloning of amplification products, indicated expression of AC9, AC7 and AC5/6, with cloning efficiencies of 11:5:2. AC9 and AC5/6 are inhibited by Ca2+, the former in conjunction with calcineurin, and message for calcineurin has also been identified in the trout saccular hair cell layer. AC7 is independent of Ca2+. Given the lack of detection of calcium/calmodulin-activated isoforms previously suggested to mediate adenylyl cyclase activation in the absence of Gαs in mammalian cochlear hair cells, the issue of hair-cell Gαs mRNA expression was re-examined in the teleost vestibular hair cell model. Two full-length coding sequences were obtained for Gαs/olf in the vestibular type II-like hair cells of the trout saccule. Two messages for Gαi have also been detected in the hair cell layer, one with homology to Gαi1 and the second with homology to Gαi3 of higher vertebrates. Both Gαs/olf protein and Gαi1/Gαi3 protein were immunolocalized to stereocilia and to the base of the hair cell, the latter consistent with sites of efferent input. While a signaling event coupling to Gαs/olf and Gαi1/Gαi3 in the stereocilia is currently unknown, signaling with Gαs/olf, Gαi3, and AC5/6 at the base of the hair cell would be consistent with transduction pathways activated by dopaminergic efferent input. mRNA for dopamine receptors D1A4 and five forms of dopamine D2 were found to be expressed in the teleost saccular hair cell layer, representing information on vestibular hair cell expression not directly available for higher vertebrates. Dopamine D1A receptor would couple to Gαolf and activation of AC5/6. Co-expression with dopamine D2 receptor, which itself couples to Gαi3 and AC

  10. An adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway predicts direct dopaminergic input to vestibular hair cells.

    PubMed

    Drescher, M J; Cho, W J; Folbe, A J; Selvakumar, D; Kewson, D T; Abu-Hamdan, M D; Oh, C K; Ramakrishnan, N A; Hatfield, J S; Khan, K M; Anne, S; Harpool, E C; Drescher, D G

    2010-12-29

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling pathways have been identified in a model hair cell preparation from the trout saccule, for which the hair cell is the only intact cell type. The use of degenerate primers targeting cDNA sequence conserved across AC isoforms, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with cloning of amplification products, indicated expression of AC9, AC7 and AC5/6, with cloning efficiencies of 11:5:2. AC9 and AC5/6 are inhibited by Ca(2+), the former in conjunction with calcineurin, and message for calcineurin has also been identified in the trout saccular hair cell layer. AC7 is independent of Ca(2+). Given the lack of detection of calcium/calmodulin-activated isoforms previously suggested to mediate AC activation in the absence of Gαs in mammalian cochlear hair cells, the issue of hair-cell Gαs mRNA expression was re-examined in the teleost vestibular hair cell model. Two full-length coding sequences were obtained for Gαs/olf in the vestibular type II-like hair cells of the trout saccule. Two messages for Gαi have also been detected in the hair cell layer, one with homology to Gαi1 and the second with homology to Gαi3 of higher vertebrates. Both Gαs/olf protein and Gαi1/Gαi3 protein were immunolocalized to stereocilia and to the base of the hair cell, the latter consistent with sites of efferent input. Although a signaling event coupling to Gαs/olf and Gαi1/Gαi3 in the stereocilia is currently unknown, signaling with Gαs/olf, Gαi3, and AC5/6 at the base of the hair cell would be consistent with transduction pathways activated by dopaminergic efferent input. mRNA for dopamine receptors D1A4 and five forms of dopamine D2 were found to be expressed in the teleost saccular hair cell layer, representing information on vestibular hair cell expression not directly available for higher vertebrates. Dopamine D1A receptor would couple to Gαolf and activation of AC5/6. Co-expression with dopamine D2 receptor, which

  11. Beyond generalized hair cells: Molecular cues for hair cell types

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti (OC) from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral, LOC and medial, MOC olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the OC. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

  12. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijender; Ali, Mohammed; Upadhyay, Sukirti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica) and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair PMID:26130937

  13. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively.

  14. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  15. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE); comparative accumulation in human and guinea pig hair as a biomarker for prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Kulaga, Vivian; Caprara, Daniela; Iqbal, Umar; Kapur, Bhushan; Klein, Julia; Reynolds, James; Brien, James; Koren, Gideon

    2006-01-01

    To compare the incorporation rate (ICR) of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in hair between guinea pigs and humans, and to assess the relationship between ethanol exposure and FAEE concentrations in hair. Published data from pregnant guinea pigs, including maximum blood ethanol concentration (BEC), dosage regimen, and total hair FAEE concentration, were compared with published data from alcoholic patients, where dose of ethanol consumed and total hair FAEE concentration were reported. Mean values of ethanol Vmax for pregnant guinea pigs and humans were obtained from published data (26.2 and 24 mg/dl/h, respectively). Total and individual FAEE ICRs, defined as the ratio of hair FAEE to the area under the BEC-time curve (total systemic ethanol exposure), were found to be on average an order of magnitude lower in the guinea pig than in the human. The profiles of ester incorporation also differed slightly between species, with ethyl stearate being highly incorporated in guinea pig hair and less so in human hair. The results may reflect in the human greater FAEE production, greater FAEE deposition in hair, slower FAEE catabolism, differential sebum production and composition, or a combination thereof. Also, ethyl oleate was found to correlate with total systemic ethanol exposure for both guinea pigs and humans, correlation coefficients equalling 0.67 (P < 0.05) and 0.49 (P < 0.05), respectively. No other ethyl esters, nor total FAEE, were found to correlate with systemic ethanol exposure. When extrapolating FAEE concentrations in hair from guinea pigs to humans, an order of magnitude difference should be considered, with humans incorporating more FAEE per unit of ethanol exposure. Also, the results suggest caution should be taken when interpreting values of single esters because of their differential incorporation among species. Lastly, our findings suggest ethyl oleate may be of keen interest in FAEE hair analysis, particularly across species.

  16. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. © 2011 The Author. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Functional Utrastructure of Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) Digestive Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Płachno, Bartosz Jan; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Świątek, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Digestive structures of carnivorous plants produce external digestive enzymes, and play the main role in absorption. In Lentibulariaceae, the ultrastructure of digestive hairs has been examined in some detail in Pinguicula and Utricularia, but the sessile digestive hairs of Genlisea have received very little attention so far. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by expanding their morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization. Methods Several imaging techniques were used, including light, confocal and electron microscopy, to reveal the structure and function of the secretory hairs of Genlisea traps. This report demonstrates the application of cryo-SEM for fast imaging of whole, physically fixed plant secretory structures. Key Results and Conclusion The concentration of digestive hairs along vascular bundles in subgenus Genlisea is a primitive feature, indicating its basal position within the genus. Digestive hairs of Genlisea consist of three compartments with different ultrastructure and function. In subgenus Tayloria the terminal hair cells are transfer cells, but not in species of subgenus Genlisea. A digestive pool of viscous fluid occurs in Genlisea traps. In spite of their similar architecture, the digestive-absorptive hairs of Lentibulariaceae feature differences in morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:17550910

  18. Finasteride treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Vincenzi, Colombina; Voudouris, Stylianos; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of oral finasteride therapy associated with an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol in premenopausal women with female pattern hair loss. Outpatient consultation for hair disorders at the Department of Dermatology, University of Bologna. Thirty-seven women with female pattern hair loss were treated with oral finasteride, 2.5 mg/d, while taking an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. Treatment efficacy was evaluated using global photography and the hair density score from videodermoscopy. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess patient evaluation of treatment effectiveness. At 12-month follow-up, 23 of the 37 patients were rated as improved using global photography (12 were slightly improved, 8 were moderately improved, and 3 were greatly improved). No improvement was recorded in 13 patients. One patient experienced worsening of the condition. There was a statistically significant (P = .002) increase in the hair density score in 12 patients. No adverse reactions to the drug were reported. Sixty-two percent of the patients demonstrated some improvement of their hair loss with the use of finasteride, 2.5 mg/d, while taking the oral contraceptive. It is unclear whether the success was due to a higher dosage of finasteride (2.5 mg instead of 1 mg) or to its association with the oral contraceptive containing drospirenone, which has an antiandrogenic effect. Further studies are necessary to understand which patterns of female pattern hair loss respond better to this treatment.

  19. Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra.

    PubMed

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-10-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair.

  20. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal... modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are...

  1. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal... modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are...

  2. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal... modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are...

  3. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal... modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited. ...

  8. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Nuo, Mingtu; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts. PMID:26083021

  9. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Liang, Hao; Hou, Fang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Nuo, Mingtu; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed Tβ4 in the epidermis, as well as Tβ4 global knockout mice, to study the role of Tβ4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of Tβ4 on hair growth. To study Tβ4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of Tβ4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of Tβ4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that Tβ4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased Tβ4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in Tβ4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, Tβ4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. Tβ4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts.

  10. Auditory hair cell innervational patterns in lizards.

    PubMed

    Miller, M R; Beck, J

    1988-05-22

    The pattern of afferent and efferent innervation of two to four unidirectional (UHC) and two to nine bidirectional (BHC) hair cells of five different types of lizard auditory papillae was determined by reconstruction of serial TEM sections. The species studies were Crotaphytus wislizeni (iguanid), Podarcis (Lacerta) sicula and P. muralis (lacertids), Ameiva ameiva (teiid), Coleonyx variegatus (gekkonid), and Mabuya multifasciata (scincid). The main object was to determine in which species and in which hair cell types the nerve fibers were innervating only one (exclusive innervation), or two or more hair cells (nonexclusive innervation); how many nerve fibers were supplying each hair cell; how many synapses were made by the innervating fibers; and the total number of synapses on each hair cell. In the species studies, efferent innervation was limited to the UHC, and except for the iguanid, C. wislizeni, it was nonexclusive, each fiber supplying two or more hair cells. Afferent innervation varied both with the species and the hair cell types. In Crotaphytus, both the UHC and the BHC were exclusively innervated. In Podarcis and Ameiva, the UHC were innervated exclusively by some fibers but nonexclusively by others (mixed pattern). In Coleonyx, the UHC were exclusively innervated but the BHC were nonexclusively innervated. In Mabuya, both the UHC and BHC were nonexclusively innervated. The number of afferent nerve fibers and the number of afferent synapses were always larger in the UHC than in the BHC. In Ameiva, Podarcis, and Mabuya, groups of bidirectionally oriented hair cells occur in regions of cytologically distinct UHC, and in Ameiva, unidirectionally oriented hair cells occur in cytologically distinct BHC regions.

  11. Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

  12. Does the recipient site influence the hair growth characteristics in hair transplantation?

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sungjoo; Kim, Jung Chul; Ryu, Hyo Sub; Cha, Young Chang; Lee, Seok Jong; Na, Gun Yoen; Kim, Do Won

    2002-09-01

    Recently hair transplantation has been widely applied not only to correct androgenetic alopecia, but also to correct hair loss on other parts of the body such as the eyebrows and pubic area. It is believed that the transplanted hairs will maintain their integrity and characteristics after transplantation to new nonscalp sites. To evaluate whether the transplanted hairs maintain their hair growth characteristics after transplantation to a new anatomic site other than the scalp. Three study designs were used. Study I: Hair transplantation from the author's occipital scalp to his lower leg was performed and clinical evaluations were made at both 6 months and at 3 years after the transplantation. Study II: After finding changes in hair growth characteristics, transplanted hairs were harvested from the leg and retransplanted to the left side of the nape of the neck (group A). As a control study, occipital hairs were transplanted to the opposite side (group B). Observations were made at 6 months after the operation. Study III: An observational study was done in 12 patients with androgenetic alopecia about 1 year after transplantation of occipital hair to frontal scalp. At each step, survival rates were documented and the rate of growth and the diameter of the shafts were measured for both recipient and donor sites. Study I: Surviving hairs on the lower leg showed a lower growth rate (8.2 +/- 0.9 mm/month), but the same diameter (0.086 +/- 0.018 mm) compared with occipital hairs (16.0 +/- 1.1 mm/month, 0.088 +/- 0.016 mm). The survival rate 3 years after transplantation was 60.2%. Study II: There was no significant difference in the growth rate, shaft diameter, and survival rate between retransplanted hairs (group A) and controls (group B). Groups A and B showed a lower growth rate, but the same diameter, compared with occipital hairs. Study III: There was no significant difference in the growth rate and shaft diameter between the transplanted hairs on the frontal scalp

  13. A protocol to correct for intra- and interspecific variation in tail hair growth to align isotope signatures of segmentally cut tail hair to a common time line

    PubMed Central

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Reed, Dolores; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Sušnik, Stane; Haymerle, Agnes; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Rationale In recent years, segmental stable isotope analysis of hair has been a focus of research in animal dietary ecology and migration. To correctly assign tail hair segments to seasons or even Julian dates, information on tail hair growth rates is a key parameter, but is lacking for most species. Methods We (a) reviewed the literature on tail hair growth rates in mammals; b) made own measurements of three captive equid species; (c) measured δ2H, δ13C and δ15N values in sequentially cut tail hairs of three sympatric, free-ranging equids from the Mongolian Gobi, using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); and (d) collected environmental background data on seasonal variation by measuring δ2H values in precipitation by IRMS and by compiling pasture productivity measured by remote sensing via the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Results Tail hair growth rates showed significant inter- and intra-specific variation making temporal alignment problematic. In the Mongolian Gobi, high seasonal variation of δ2H values in precipitation results in winter lows and summer highs of δ2H values of available water sources. In water-dependent equids, this seasonality is reflected in the isotope signatures of sequentially cut tails hairs. Conclusions In regions which are subject to strong seasonal patterns we suggest identifying key isotopes which show strong seasonal variation in the environment and can be expected to be reflected in the animal tissue. The known interval between the maxima and minima of these isotope values can then be used to correctly temporally align the segmental stable isotope signature for each individual animal. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26044272

  14. A protocol to correct for intra- and interspecific variation in tail hair growth to align isotope signatures of segmentally cut tail hair to a common time line.

    PubMed

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Pukazhenthi, Budhan; Reed, Dolores; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Sušnik, Stane; Haymerle, Agnes; Voigt, Christian C; Kaczensky, Petra

    2015-06-15

    In recent years, segmental stable isotope analysis of hair has been a focus of research in animal dietary ecology and migration. To correctly assign tail hair segments to seasons or even Julian dates, information on tail hair growth rates is a key parameter, but is lacking for most species. We (a) reviewed the literature on tail hair growth rates in mammals; b) made own measurements of three captive equid species; (c) measured δ(2)H, δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in sequentially cut tail hairs of three sympatric, free-ranging equids from the Mongolian Gobi, using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); and (d) collected environmental background data on seasonal variation by measuring δ(2)H values in precipitation by IRMS and by compiling pasture productivity measured by remote sensing via the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Tail hair growth rates showed significant inter- and intra-specific variation making temporal alignment problematic. In the Mongolian Gobi, high seasonal variation of δ(2)H values in precipitation results in winter lows and summer highs of δ(2)H values of available water sources. In water-dependent equids, this seasonality is reflected in the isotope signatures of sequentially cut tails hairs. In regions which are subject to strong seasonal patterns we suggest identifying key isotopes which show strong seasonal variation in the environment and can be expected to be reflected in the animal tissue. The known interval between the maxima and minima of these isotope values can then be used to correctly temporally align the segmental stable isotope signature for each individual animal. © 2015 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Recent negative life events increase hair cortisol concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Koenders, Manja A; Giltay, Erik J; Elzinga, Bernet M; Manenschijn, Laura; Hoencamp, Erik; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Spijker, Anne T

    2014-12-01

    Life events induce stress, which is considered to negatively impact the course of disease in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), its effects being predominantly mediated by cortisol. Cortisol in scalp hair has been identified as a biomarker for assessing long-term cortisol levels, and allows clarifying the relation between life events, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC), and clinical course over time. In 71 BD patients, we analyzed the proximal 3 cm of hair, reflecting 3 months of cortisol production, and investigated the association between HCC, the number of life events, the amount of social support, and mood in the 3 months prior to the hair assessment and between HCC and mood in the subsequent 3 months. Although the total number of life events was not associated with HCC (p > 0.05), the number of negative life events was associated with increased HCC (r(2)( )= 0.04, p = 0.02). Social support showed an inverse association with HCC in patients reporting negative life events (r(2)( )= 0.07, p = 0.03). HCC and mood were not associated in the 3 months prior to hair sampling or in the subsequent 3 months. This study indicates that patients who experienced recent negative life events have increased hair cortisol levels, which seem to be attenuated by social support.

  16. A review of adipocyte lineage cells and dermal papilla cells in hair follicle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peipei; Kling, Russell E; Ravuri, Sudheer K; Kokai, Lauren E; Rubin, J Peter; Chai, Jia-ke

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is an exceedingly prevalent problem effecting men and women of all ages. The standard of care for alopecia involves either transplanting existing hair follicles to bald areas or attempting to stimulate existing follicles with topical and/or oral medication. Yet, these treatment options are fraught with problems of cost, side effects, and, most importantly, inadequate long-term hair coverage. Innovative cell-based therapies have focused on the dermal papilla cell as a way to grow new hair in previously bald areas. However, despite this attention, many obstacles exist, including retention of dermal papilla inducing ability and maintenance of dermal papilla productivity after several passages of culture. The use of adipocyte lineage cells, including adipose-derived stem cells, has shown promise as a cell-based solution to regulate hair regeneration and may help in maintaining or increasing dermal papilla cells inducing hair ability. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the cellular contribution and regulation of dermal papilla cells and summarize adipocyte lineage cells in hair regeneration. PMID:25383178

  17. Critical comparison of mass analyzers for forensic hair analysis by ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-11-15

    Recently, several direct and/or ambient mass spectrometry (MS) approaches have been suggested for drugs of abuse imaging in hair. The use of mass spectrometers with insufficient selectivity could result in false-positive measurements due to isobaric interferences. Different mass analyzers have been evaluated regarding their selectivity and sensitivity for the detection of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from intact hair samples using direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization. Four different mass analyzers, namely (1) an orbitrap, (2) a quadrupole orbitrap, (3) a triple quadrupole, and (4) a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF), were evaluated. Selectivity and sensitivity were assessed by analyzing secondary THC standard dilutions on stainless steel mesh screens and blank hair samples, and by the analysis of authentic cannabis user hair samples. Additionally, separation of isobaric ions by use of travelling wave ion mobility (TWIM) was investigated. The use of a triple quadrupole instrument resulted in the highest sensitivity; however, transitions used for multiple reaction monitoring were only found to be specific when using high mass resolution product ion measurements. A mass resolution of at least 30,000 FWHM at m/z 315 was necessary to avoid overlap of THC with isobaric ions originating from the hair matrix. Even though selectivity was enhanced by use of TWIM, the QTOF instrument in resolution mode could not indisputably differentiate THC from endogenous isobaric ions in drug user hair samples. Only the high resolution of the (quadrupole) orbitrap instruments and the QTOF instrument in high-resolution mode distinguished THC in hair samples from endogenous isobaric interferences. As expected, enhanced selectivity compromises sensitivity and THC was only detectable in hair from heavy users. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Penile hair tourniquet resulting in hypospadias failure

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Lisieux E.; Bragança, Jailma J.; Rocha, Julia M.; Dekermacher, Samuel; Anderson, Kleber M.

    2014-01-01

    Penile hair tourniquet (PHT) is a painless form of penile ischemia, typically seen in toddlers with long-haired mothers, caused by entanglement of hair on the balano-prepucial sulcus, normally associated with circumcision. Its association with hypospadias has been reported only once. A school-aged boy admitted for surgery to treat hypospadias failure was incidentally detected to have PHT and severe hourglass deformity of the penis. Urethral anastomosis and glanuloplasty were done after removal of the constricting ring, without complications. Normal erections were reported during follow up. Treatment may involve urethral reconstruction and penile reimplantation in extreme cases. PMID:25097325

  19. Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1987-01-01

    The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair.

  20. Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

  1. Familial Uncombable Hair Syndrome: Ultrastructural Hair Study and Response to Biotin.

    PubMed

    Boccaletti, V; Zendri, E; Giordano, G; Gnetti, L; De Panfilis, G

    2007-01-01

    We report a family affected to the fourth generation by uncombable hair syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by unruly, dry, blond hair with a tangled appearance. The family pedigree strongly supports the hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance; some members of the family had, apart from uncombable hair, minor signs of atopy and ectodermal dysplasia, such as abnormalities of the nails. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of extensive scanning electron microscopy. A trial with oral biotin 5 mg/day was started on two young patients with excellent results as regards the hair appearance, although scanning electron microscopy did not show structural changes in the hair. After a 2-year-period of follow-up, hair normality was maintained without biotin, while nail fragility still required biotin supplementation for control.

  2. Hair today, gone tomorrow: a comparison of body hair removal practices in gay and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Martins, Yolanda; Tiggemann, Marika; Churchett, Libby

    2008-09-01

    Although hairlessness is rapidly becoming a component of the ideal male body, little research has examined men's concerns about their body hair or their hair removal practices. Samples of gay and heterosexual men completed questionnaires that assessed whether they had ever removed their back, buttock or pubic hair, the frequency with which they did so, the methods used and their self-reported reasons for removing this hair, as well as their level of appearance investment. Results indicated that many gay and heterosexual men remove their back, buttock and pubic hair regularly and that their primary reason for doing so is to maintain or improve their appearance. The frequency of hair removal was also associated with the motivational salience component of appearance investment. The findings offer further support to the premise that gay and heterosexual men exhibit similar body image concerns.

  3. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair.

  4. Hair and Salivary Testosterone, Hair Cortisol, and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grotzinger, Andrew D; Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2018-05-01

    Although testosterone is associated with aggression in the popular imagination, previous research on the links between testosterone and human aggression has been inconsistent. This inconsistency might be because testosterone's effects on aggression depend on other moderators. In a large adolescent sample ( N = 984, of whom 460 provided hair samples), we examined associations between aggression and salivary testosterone, hair testosterone, and hair cortisol. Callous-unemotional traits, parental monitoring, and peer environment were examined as potential moderators of hormone-behavior associations. Salivary testosterone was not associated with aggression. Hair testosterone significantly predicted increased aggression, particularly at low levels of hair cortisol (i.e., Testosterone × Cortisol interaction). This study is the first to examine the relationship between hair hormones and externalizing behaviors and adds to the growing literature that indicates that androgenic effects on human behavior are contingent on aspects of the broader endocrine environment-in particular, levels of cortisol.

  5. Comparative Transduction Mechanisms of Vestibular Otolith Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs regenerate following aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells in these organs are differentially sensitive to gentamicin, with saccular hair cells and hair cells in the utricular striola being damaged at lower gentamicin concentrations than hair cells in the utricular extrastriola. Regenerating hair cells in these organs have short hair bundles and can be classified into a number of phenotypes using the same morphological criteria used to identify their mature counterparts. Our studies suggest that some supporting cells can convert, or transdifferentiate,into hair cells without an intervening cell division. By stimulating these processes in humans, clinicians may be able to alleviate human deafness and peripheral vestibular disorders by regenerating and replacing lost hair cells. In vivo and in vitro studies were done on cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration.

  6. Body to Scalp: Evolving Trends in Body Hair Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Kuldeep; Savant, Sandeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular unit extraction (FUE) is becoming an increasingly popular method for hair restoration. As FUE leaves behind no linear scars, it is more suitable to harvest from various body areas including beard, chest, and extremities in hirsute individuals. Body hair characteristics such as thickness, length, and hair cycle may not completely match to that of the scalp hair. The techniques of harvesting body hairs are more time consuming, requiring higher degree of skill than regular scalp FUE. Body hair transplantation can be successfully used either alone or in combination with scalp hair in advanced grades of baldness, for improving the cosmetic appearance of hairlines and in scarring alopecia when there is paucity of donor scalp hair. Harvesting of body hairs opens up a new viable donor source for hair restoration surgeons, especially in cases of advanced Norwood grades five and above of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28584752

  7. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the

  8. A Review of Surgical Methods (Excluding Hair Transplantation) and Their Role in Hair Loss Management Today

    PubMed Central

    Sattur, Sandeep S

    2011-01-01

    There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today. PMID:21976899

  9. Red hair is the null phenotype of MC1R.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Kimberley A; Shekar, Sri N; Cook, Anthony L; Duffy, David L; Sturm, Richard A

    2008-08-01

    The Melanocortin-1 Receptor (MC1R) is a G-protein coupled receptor, which is responsible for production of the darker eumelanin pigment and the tanning response. The MC1R gene has many polymorphisms, some of which have been linked to variation in pigmentation phenotypes within human populations. In particular, the p.D84E, p.R151C, p.R160W and p.D294 H alleles have been strongly associated with red hair, fair skin and increased skin cancer risk. These red hair colour (RHC) variants are relatively well described and are thought to result in altered receptor function, while still retaining varying levels of signaling ability in vitro. The mouse Mc1r null phenotype is yellow fur colour, the p.R151C, p.R160W and p.D294 H alleles were able to partially rescue this phenotype, leading to the question of what the true null phenotype of MC1R would be in humans. Due to the rarity of MC1R null alleles in human populations, they have only been found in the heterozygous state until now. We report here the first case of a homozygous MC1R null individual, phenotypic analysis indicates that red hair and fair skin is found in the absence of MC1R function.

  10. The influence of hair bleach on the ultrastructure of human hair with special reference to hair damage.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takehito

    2011-05-01

    The influence of human hair bleaching agents with different bleaching strength on the ultrastructure of human hair was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with TEM (EDS-TEM). Two kinds of bleaching agents were used: a lightener agent with a weak bleaching effect and a powder-bleach with a stronger bleaching effect. From the comparison of the bleaching properties obtained by the electronic staining of black and white hair samples, it was suggested that the permeability of hair was increased by bleaching, and there was an increase of the stainability of hair subjected to electronic staining. The bleaching action provoked the decomposition of melanin granules and the flow out of granular contents into the intermacrofibrillar matrix. Some metal elements were detected in the melanin granular matrix by EDS-TEM. As a result, the diffusion of metal elements into the intermacrofibrillar matrix promoted further damage to the hair by catalytic action with the hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching agents outside the melanin granules. Further study will lead us to the edge of the development of a new bleaching agent, which reacts only with melanin granules and causes the minimum of damage to outside the melanin granules.

  11. Facial hair restoration: hair transplantation to eyebrows, beard, sideburns, and eyelashes.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey

    2013-08-01

    Refinements in hair transplantation techniques allow the experienced surgeon to create natural-appearing facial hair transplants. Restoring eyebrows, beards/goatees, and sideburns have all become popular procedures, and the results can be outstanding. This article provides a comprehensive review of hair grafting techniques to achieve the best results in restoring various hair-bearing areas of the face, including the eyebrows, beard/goatee, and sideburns, and repairing the alopecic scarring from prior facial plastic surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activating Hair Follicle Stem Cells via R-spondin2 to Stimulate Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew A; Li, Jingtao; Liu, Bo; Hunter, Daniel; Pyles, Malcolm; Gillette, Martin; Dhamdhere, Girija R; Abo, Arie; Oro, Anthony; Helms, Jill A

    2016-08-01

    Wnt signaling is required for the development of the hair follicle, and for inciting the growth (anagen) phase of the hair cycle. Most strategies to enhance Wnt signaling for hair growth create a state of constitutive Wnt activation, which leads to neoplastic transformation of the epithelial hair matrix. Using Axin2(LacZ/+) and Axin2(Cre/+)R26R(mTmG/+) reporter mice and RNA analyses, we show that Wnt signaling is elevated during anagen, is reduced at the onset of catagen, and can be reamplified in the skin and surrounding hair follicles via intradermal injection of recombinant R-spondin2 protein. Using Lgr5(LacZ/+) reporter mice, we demonstrate that this amplified Wnt environment leads to activation of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive stem cells in the hair follicle. The onset of catagen is repressed by R-spondin2 injection, and the anagen phase persists. As a consequence, hair shafts grow longer. We conclude that R-spondin2 treatment activates hair follicle stem cells and therefore may have therapeutic potential to promote hair growth. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of hair shaft progenitors that create a niche for hair pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chung-Ping; Booker, Reid C; Morrison, Sean J; Le, Lu Q

    2017-04-15

    Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20. Depletion of Krox20 lineage cells results in arrest of hair growth, confirming the critical role of KROX20 + cells as antecedents of structural cells found in hair. Expression of stem cell factor (SCF) by these cells is necessary for the maintenance of differentiated melanocytes and for hair pigmentation. Our findings reveal the identities of hair matrix progenitors that regulate hair growth and pigmentation, partly by creating an SCF-dependent niche for follicular melanocytes. © 2017 Liao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Splitting hairs: differentiating between entomological activity, taphonomy, and sharp force trauma on hair.

    PubMed

    Mazzarelli, Debora; Vanin, Stefano; Gibelli, Daniele; Maistrello, Lara; Porta, Davide; Rizzi, Agostino; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of hair can provide useful information for the correct evaluation of forensic cases, but studies of trauma on hair are extremely rare. Hair may present lesions caused by traumatic events or by animals: in fact, signs of sharp force weapons on hair may provide important information for the reconstruction of the manner of death, and, for example, may suggest fetishist practice. This study stemmed from a judicial case where it was fundamental to distinguish between sharp force lesions and insect activity on hair. In order to highlight differences between sharp force lesions and insect feeding activity, different experiments were performed with high power microscopy: hair samples were subjected to several lesions by blunt and sharp force trauma; then samples were used as pabulum for two taxa of insects: the common clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella Lepidoptera, Tineidae) and the carpet beetle (Anthrenus sp., Coleoptera, Dermestidae). Hairs were examined from a macroscopic and microscopic point of view by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM): the morphological characteristics of the lesions obtained from the different experimental samples were compared. Results show that sharp force trauma produces lesions with regular edges, whereas insects leave concave lesions caused by their "gnawing" activity. These two types of lesions are easily distinguishable from breaking and tearing using SEM. This study demonstrates that insect activity leaves very specific indications on hair and sheds some light on different hair lesions that may be found in forensic cases.

  15. What are the implications of variation in root hair length on tolerance to phosphorus deficiency in combination with water stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L.K.; George, T.S.; Thompson, J.A.; Wright, G.; Lyon, J.; Dupuy, L.; Hubbard, S.F.; White, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Phosphorus commonly limits crop yield and is frequently applied as fertilizer; however, supplies of quality rock phosphate for fertilizer production are diminishing. Plants have evolved many mechanisms to increase their P-fertilizer use efficiency, and an understanding of these traits could result in improved long-term sustainability of agriculture. Here a mutant population is utilized to assess the impact of root hair length on P acquisition and yield under P-deficient conditions alone or when combined with drought. Methods Mutants with various root hair phenotypes were grown in the glasshouse in pots filled with soil representing sufficient and deficient P treatments and, in one experiment, a range of water availability was also imposed. Plants were variously harvested at 7 d, 8 weeks and 14 weeks, and variables including root hair length, rhizosheath weight, biomass, P accumulation and yield were measured. Key Results The results confirmed the robustness of the root hair phenotypes in soils and their relationship to rhizosheath production. The data demonstrated that root hair length is important for shoot P accumulation and biomass, while only the presence of root hairs is critical for yield. Root hair presence was also critical for tolerance to extreme combined P deficit and drought stress, with genotypes with no root hairs suffering extreme growth retardation in comparison with those with root hairs. Conclusions The results suggest that although root hair length is not important for maintaining yield, the presence of root hairs is implicit to sustainable yield of barley under P-deficient conditions and when combined with extreme drought. Root hairs are a trait that should be maintained in future germplasm. PMID:22539540

  16. Using 13C in cattle hair to trace back the maize level in the feeding regime-A field test.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Verena; Nüsse, Olaf; Isselstein, Johannes; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Sections from cattle hair serve as an isotopic archive-they contain information on the cattle diet from different time periods. We tested the reliability of 13C signatures (δ13C) in cattle tail switch hair to retrospectively trace back the annual dietary proportion of maize of different production systems without having to sample and analyze the feed. Furthermore, we investigated if differences in dietary proportion of maize during summer and winter feeding can be detected in a single tail switch hair by sampling hair only once a year. We sampled hair and obtained information on management and annual composition of diets on 23 cattle farms in northern Germany. Farms differed in dietary proportions of maize, grass and concentrates as well as in grazing regime (year-round grazing, summer grazing, no grazing). We found that the annual mean δ13C values (δ13CY) of two hair sections that contain the isotopic information of summer and winter feeding is a robust indicator for the annual proportion of maize in cattle diet on a farm. The grazing regimes could clearly be distinguished by analyzing seasonal mean δ13C values (δ13CS). We could also demonstrate short term changes in the diet changes by means of δ13CS. We conclude that the method can be used in different cattle production systems to check on dietary proportions of maize for a period of one year before sampling of hair.

  17. A moat around castle walls. The role of axillary and facial hair in lymph node protection from mutagenic factors.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Svetlana V

    2006-01-01

    Axillary hair is a highly conserved phenotypical feature in humans, and as such deserves at least consideration of its functional significance. Protection from environmental factors is one of the main functions attributed to hair in furred vertebrates, but is believed to be inapplicable to humans. I considered the hypothesis that the phenotypic preservation of axillary hair is due to its unrecognized role in the organism protection. Two immediate questions arise--what exactly is being protected and what it is protected from. A large group of axillary lymph nodes represents a major difference between underarms and the adjacent areas of the trunk. The consideration of potential factors from which hair can offer protection identifies sunlight as the most likely candidate. Intense sweat production underarms may represent an independent defense mechanism, specifically protecting lymph nodes from overheating. Moreover, the pattern of facial hair growth in males strikingly overlaps with the distribution of superficial lymph nodes, suggesting potential role for facial hair in protection of lymph nodes, and possibly thymus and thyroid. The idea of lymph node protection from environmental mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation and heat, appears particularly important in light of wide association of lymph nodes with cancers. The position of contemporary fashion towards body hair is aggressively negative, including the social pressure for removal of axillary and bikini line hair for women, facial hair for men in many professional occupations, and even body hair for men. If this hypothesis is proven to be true, the implications will be significant for immunology (by providing new insights in lymph node physiology), health sciences (depilation is painful and therefore easily modifiable habit if proven to increase disease risk), as well as art, social fashion and economy.

  18. Hair cortisol and cortisone are decreased by natural sunlight.

    PubMed

    Wester, Vincent L; van der Wulp, Nils R P; Koper, Jan W; de Rijke, Yolanda B; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2016-10-01

    Hair glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone) are increasingly used as measures of long-term integrated exposure to glucocorticoid hormones. Glucocorticoids gradually disappear from the hair shaft, which may result from exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in natural sunlight. We aimed to study the influence of sun exposure on hair glucocorticoids. Scalp hair samples were obtained from nine volunteers (median age 33 [range 21-81], 7 females), and part of each hair sample was exposed to three experimental conditions: repeated exposure to natural sunlight for 40h (natural UV), exposure to a high amount of artificial UV radiation, and storage in the dark (control). Hair cortisol (HairF) and cortisone (HairE) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. When compared to control, HairF was decreased in 9 out of 9 hair samples after natural sunlight exposure (median decrease -3.1pg/mg or -54%, P<0.001) and artificial UV radiation (-4.7pg/mg or -75%, P=0.003). HairE decreased in 8 out of 9 samples, both after natural sunlight (-7.6pg/mg or -32%, P=0.012) and artificial UV (-10.7pg/mg or -52%, P=0.026). Exposure to natural sunlight decreases the glucocorticoid content of scalp hair, apparently through UV radiation, and is therefore an important confounder that should be considered in studies involving the measurement of hair glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unravelling hair follicle-adipocyte communication.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Barbara; Horsley, Valerie

    2012-11-01

    Here, we explore the established and potential roles for intradermal adipose tissue in communication with hair follicle biology. The hair follicle delves deep into the rich dermal macroenvironment as it grows to maturity where it is surrounded by large lipid-filled adipocytes. Intradermal adipocytes regenerate with faster kinetics than other adipose tissue depots and in parallel with the hair cycle, suggesting an interplay exists between hair follicle cells and adipocytes. While adipocytes have well-established roles in metabolism and energy storage, until recently, they were overlooked as niche cells that provide important growth signals to neighbouring skin cells. We discuss recent data supporting adipocytes as niche cells for the skin and skin pathologies that may be related to alterations in skin adipose tissue defects. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and...

  1. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and...

  2. 21 CFR 310.527 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. 310.527... products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for external use as hair growers or for hair loss prevention. (a) Amino acids, aminobenzoic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, biotin and...

  3. Signal detection by active, noisy hair bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Salvi, Joshua D.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Vertebrate ears employ hair bundles to transduce mechanical movements into electrical signals, but their performance is limited by noise. Hair bundles are substantially more sensitive to periodic stimulation when they are mechanically active, however, than when they are passive. We developed a model of active hair-bundle mechanics that predicts the conditions under which a bundle is most sensitive to periodic stimulation. The model relies only on the existence of mechanotransduction channels and an active adaptation mechanism that recloses the channels. For a frequency-detuned stimulus, a noisy hair bundle's phase-locked response and degree of entrainment as well as its detection bandwidth are maximized when the bundle exhibits low-amplitude spontaneous oscillations. The phase-locked response and entrainment of a bundle are predicted to peak as functions of the noise level. We confirmed several of these predictions experimentally by periodically forcing hair bundles held near the onset of self-oscillation. A hair bundle's active process amplifies the stimulus preferentially over the noise, allowing the bundle to detect periodic forces less than 1 pN in amplitude. Moreover, the addition of noise can improve a bundle's ability to detect the stimulus. Although, mechanical activity has not yet been observed in mammalian hair bundles, a related model predicts that active but quiescent bundles can oscillate spontaneously when they are loaded by a sufficiently massive object such as the tectorial membrane. Overall, this work indicates that auditory systems rely on active elements, composed of hair cells and their mechanical environment, that operate on the brink of self-oscillation.

  4. Is Polar Bear Hair Fiber Optic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    1998-05-01

    New direct measurement of high optical attenuation rates in polar bear hairs 2 8 dB mm in the visible and reanalysis of the data of Tributsch et al . Sol. Energy Mater. 21, 219 (1990) seem to rule out the UV waveguiding proposed by Grojean et al . Appl. Opt. 19, 339 (1980) . The case against fiber-optic polar bear hairs is summarized, and four conditions are given that any variation of the model of Grojean et al . would have to satisfy.

  5. Cheyletiellosis in long-haired cats.

    PubMed

    Ottenschot, T R; Gil, D

    1978-10-15

    Among 41 catteries, the majority of which were investigated because of problems of chronic pruritus, 27 proved to be infected by Cheyletiella mites. The skin lesions consisted of small erythematous papules with crusts and some loose hairs. After removal of the loose hairs Cheyletiella mites could be collected with adhesive tape for microscopic examination. Human involvement (papular urticaria) was observed in 20% of the cases. Bathing with Lindane was an effective mode of treatment.

  6. Efficacy of antioxidants in human hair.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Martínez-Teipel, Blanca; Armengol, Ricard; Barba, Clara; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-12-05

    Hair is exposed every day to a range of harmful effects such as sunlight, pollution, cosmetic treatments, grooming practices and cleansing. The UV components of sunlight damage human hair, causing fibre degradation. UV-B attacks the melanin pigments and the protein fractions (keratin) of hair and UV-A produces free radical/reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the interaction of endogenous photosensitizers. Hair was dyed and the efficacy of two antioxidant formulations was demonstrated after UV exposure by evaluating, surface morphology, protein and amino acid degradation, lipidic peroxidation, colour and shine changes and strength/relaxation properties. UV treatment resulted in an increase in protein and lipid degradation, changes in colour and shine and in adverse consequences for the mechanical properties. Natural antioxidants obtained from artichoke and rice applied to pretreated hair improved mechanical properties and preserved colour and shine of fibres, coating them and protecting them against UV. Furthermore, the lipidic peroxidation of the protein degradation caused by UV was reduced for some treated fibres, suggesting an improvement in fibre integrity. This was more marked in the case of the fibres treated using the artichoke extract, whereas the rice extract was better preserving shine and colour of hair fibres. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. LSD in pubic hair in a fatality.

    PubMed

    Gaulier, Jean-michel; Maublanc, Julie; Lamballais, Florence; Bargel, Sophie; Lachâtre, Gérard

    2012-05-10

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogen, active at very low dosage and its determination in body fluids in a forensic context may present some difficulties, even more so in hair. A dedicated liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS/MS) assay in hair was used to document the case of a 24-year-old man found dead after a party. Briefly, after a decontamination step, a 50mg sample of the victim's pubic hair was cut into small pieces (<1mm length), and incubated overnight in 3mL of phosphate buffer pH 5 at room temperature. After a liquid-liquid extraction (dichloromethane/ether), the extract was analyzed using a LC-ES-MS/MS method exhibiting a limit of quantification of 0.5pg/mg for LSD. A LSD concentration of 0.66pg/mg of pubic hair was observed. However, this result remains difficult to interpret owing to the concomitant LSD presence in the victim's post mortem blood and urine, the lack of previously reported LSD concentrations in hair, and the absence of data about LSD incorporation and stability in pubic hair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pubic hair of infancy: endocrinopathy or enigma?

    PubMed

    Nebesio, Todd D; Eugster, Erica A

    2006-03-01

    Pubic hair of infancy is a rare condition that has not been well-characterized. A retrospective chart review of infants <12 months of age who presented to our pediatric endocrine clinics with isolated pubic hair over the last 5 years was performed. Eleven patients were identified (6 male and 5 female). The average age at diagnosis was 8.3 +/- 2.0 months. The majority of patients (73%) had pubic hair in an atypical location. Growth pattern, laboratory evaluation, and bone-age radiographs were unremarkable for all the infants. Of the infants that returned for follow-up, pubic hair resolved by the age of 11.0 +/- 1.5 months. From our experience and review of the literature, we suggest that isolated pubic hair of infancy is a benign entity. However, long-term follow-up needs to be done to determine if pubic hair of infancy is an atypical variant of premature adrenarche, which may place these patients at risk for later adult disease.

  9. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  10. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  11. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  12. Guidelines on Hair Restoration for East Asian Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Joon; Jung, Jae Heon; Lee, Young-Ran; Kim, Jung Chul; Hwang, Sungjoo Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In East Asian countries, hair transplantation is a quite common procedure for treating pattern hair loss, cosmetically correcting the hairline, and correcting eyebrow and pubic hair defects. Although there are general guidelines concerning hair transplantation, certain factors need to be addressed to make the guidelines more specific and suitable to East Asian requirements. To provide guidelines for hairline design, donor harvesting, graft preparation and placement, and medical treatment that are appropriate for hair transplantation in East Asian patients. Recommendations are based on the experience of the authors, surgeons who perform hair transplantation, and a comprehensive review of the available literature on hair transplantation in East Asians. Data on hair thickness and graft density, hairline design, and graft creation and placement techniques have been collaboratively evaluated and used to establish overall guidelines. The use of the proposed guidelines by surgeons will hopefully enhance outcomes and bring greater consistency to hair transplantation procedures for East Asian patients.

  13. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Huncharek, Michael; Kupelnick, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the methodology of observational studies that explored an association between personal use of hair dye products and the risk of bladder cancer. METHODS: Data were pooled from epidemiological studies using a general variance-based meta-analytic method that employed confidence intervals. The outcome of interest was a summary relative risk (RRs) reflecting the risk of bladder cancer development associated with use of hair dye products vs. non-use. Sensitivity analyses were performed to explain any observed statistical heterogeneity and to explore the influence of specific study characteristics of the summary estimate of effect. RESULTS: Initially combining homogenous data from six case-control and one cohort study yielded a non-significant RR of 1.01 (0.92, 1.11), suggesting no association between hair dye use and bladder cancer development. Sensitivity analyses examining the influence of hair dye type, color, and study design on this suspected association showed that uncontrolled confounding and design limitations contributed to a spurious non-significant summary RR. The sensitivity analyses yielded statistically significant RRs ranging from 1.22 (1.11, 1.51) to 1.50 (1.30, 1.98), indicating that personal use of hair dye products increases bladder cancer risk by 22% to 50% vs. non-use. CONCLUSION: The available epidemiological data suggest an association between personal use of hair dye products and increased risk of bladder cancer. PMID:15736329

  14. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Holly A.; Tran, Vy M.; Nguyen, Lynn Y.; Arungundram, Sailaja; Kalita, Mausam; Kuberan, Balagurunathan; Rabbitt, Richard D.

    2015-12-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observed around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear.

  15. Xyloside primed glycosaminoglycans alter hair bundle micromechanical coupling and synaptic transmission: Pharmacokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Holly A.; Nguyen, Lynn Y.; Tran, Vy M.

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitous in the inner ear, and disorders altering their structure or production often result in debilitating hearing and balance deficits. The specific mechanisms responsible for loss of hair-cell function are not well understood. We recently reported that introduction of a novel BODIPY conjugated xyloside (BX) into the endolymph primes fluorescent GAGs in vivo [6, 15]. Confocal and two-photon fluorescence imaging revealed rapid turnover and assembly of a glycocalyx enveloping the kinocilia and extending into the cupula, a structure that presumably serves as a mechanical link between the hair bundle and the cupula. Extracellular fluorescence was also observedmore » around the basolateral surface of hair cells and surrounding afferent nerve projections into the crista. Single unit afferent recordings during mechanical hair bundle stimulation revealed temporary interruption of synaptic transmission following BX administration followed by recovery, demonstrating an essential role for GAGs in function of the hair cell synapse. In the present work we present a pharmacokinetic model to quantify the time course of BX primed GAG production and turnover in the ear.« less

  16. Hair and bare skin discrimination for laser-assisted hair removal systems.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Sercan; Yetik, Imam Samil

    2017-07-01

    Laser-assisted hair removal devices aim to remove body hair permanently. In most cases, these devices irradiate the whole area of the skin with a homogenous power density. Thus, a significant portion of the skin, where hair is not present, is burnt unnecessarily causing health risks. Therefore, methods that can distinguish hair regions automatically would be very helpful avoiding these unnecessary applications of laser. This study proposes a new system of algorithms to detect hair regions with the help of a digital camera. Unlike previous limited number of studies, our methods are very fast allowing for real-time application. Proposed methods are based on certain features derived from histograms of hair and skin regions. We compare our algorithm with competing methods in terms of localization performance and computation time and show that a much faster real-time accurate localization of hair regions is possible with the proposed method. Our results show that the algorithm we have developed is extremely fast (around 45 milliseconds) allowing for real-time application with high accuracy hair localization ( 96.48 %).

  17. Optical coherence tomography using images of hair structure and dyes penetrating into the hair.

    PubMed

    Tsugita, Tetsuya; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Hair dyes are commonly evaluated by the appearance of the hair after dyeing. However, this approach cannot simultaneously assess how deep the dye has penetrated into hair. For simultaneous assessment of the appearance and the interior of hair, we developed a visible-range red, green, and blue (RGB) (three primary colors)-optical coherence tomography (OCT) using an RGB LED light source. We then evaluated a phantom model based on the assumption that the sample's absorbability in the vertical direction affects the tomographic imaging. Consistent with theory, our device showed higher resolution than conventional OCT with far-red light. In the experiment on the phantom model, we confirmed that the tomographic imaging is affected by absorbability unique to the sample. Furthermore, we verified that permeability can be estimated from this tomographic image. We also identified for the first time the relationship between penetration of the dye into hair and characteristics of wavelength by tomographic imaging of dyed hair. We successfully simultaneously assessed the appearance of dyed hair and inward penetration of the dye without preparing hair sections. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hair transplantation in patients with inadequate head donor supply using nonhead hair: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sanusi

    2011-10-01

    Follicular unit extraction is becoming an increasingly popular technique for hair transplantation, as it obviates the linear scarring associated with strip harvesting, and can provide highly presentable results. Using this technique, a few reports have described the small scale use of nonhead hair for head hair transplantation in men with inadequate head hair donor supply. In this report, 3 patients who were severely bald had hair transplanted from the chest, abdomen, legs, shoulders, or beard, as well as the head to achieve full coverage and excellent hairlines. Of the 3 cases, 2 had undergone previously unsuccessful hair transplant surgeries. Approximately 80% to 85% of the transplanted grafts survived. Although hair length and quality, surgery time, and the requirement for improved surgical skills remain challenges when using this technique, the sufficiently good outcomes from these selected candidates suggest that this technique may offer the possibility of restoring even severely bald states to normality in patients who would otherwise not be candidates for traditional hair transplantation surgery.

  19. (Un)targeted Scanning of Locks of Hair for Drugs of Abuse by Direct Analysis in Real Time-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Putten, Marc R; van Beek, Teris A; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-02-16

    Forensic hair evidence can be used to obtain retrospective timelines of drug use by analysis of hair segments. However, this is a laborious and time-consuming process, and mass spectrometric (MS) imaging techniques, which show great potential for single-hair targeted analysis, are less useful due to differences in hair growth rate between individual hairs. As an alternative, a fast untargeted analysis method was developed that uses direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry (DART-HRMS) to longitudinally scan intact locks of hair without extensive sample preparation or segmentation. The hair scan method was validated for cocaine against an accredited liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. The detection limit for cocaine in hair was found to comply with the cutoff value of 0.5 ng/mg recommended by the Society of Hair Testing; that is, the DART hair scan method is amenable to forensic cases. Under DART conditions, no significant thermal degradation of cocaine occurred. The standard DART spot size of 5.1 ± 1.1 mm could be improved to 3.3 ± 1.0 mm, corresponding to approximately 10 days of hair growth, by using a high spatial resolution exit cone. By use of data-dependent product ion scans, multiple drugs of abuse could be detected in a single drug user hair scan with confirmation of identity by both exact mass and MS/HRMS fragmentation patterns. Furthermore, full-scan high-resolution data were retrospectively interrogated versus a list of more than 100 compounds and revealed additional hits and temporal profiles in good correlation with reported drug use.

  20. The potential use of diisononyl phthalate metabolites hair as biomarkers to assess long-term exposure demonstrated by a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Yi; Ho, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a widely used industrial plasticizer. People come into contact with this chemical by using plastic products made with it. Human health can be adversely affected by long-term DINP exposure. However, because the body rapidly excretes DINP metabolites, the use of single-point urine analysis to assess long-term exposure may produce inconsistent results in epidemiologic studies. Hair analysis has a useful place in biomonitoring, particularly in estimating long-term or historical exposure for some chemicals. Several studies have reported using hair analysis to assess the concentrations of heavy metals, drugs and organic pollutants in humans. As a biomarker, DINP metabolites were measured in rat hair in animal experiments to evaluated long-term exposure to DINP. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of DINP metabolites in hair and in urine. The levels of DINP metabolites in rat hair were significantly higher in the exposure group, relative to the control group (p<0.05). DINP metabolites had a positive correlation with increasing administered dose. Significant positive correlations for MINP, MOINP and MHINP were found between hair and urine (r=0.86, r=0.79 and r=0.74, respectively, p<0.05). Several metabolites in urine showed earlier saturation than in hair. In this report, we detected eight metabolites in hair and demonstrate that hair analysis has potential applications in the assessment of long-term exposure to DINP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.