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Sample records for hairless micropig skin

  1. Hairless micropig skin. A novel model for studies of cutaneous biology.

    PubMed Central

    Lavker, R. M.; Dong, G.; Zheng, P. S.; Murphy, G. F.

    1991-01-01

    Reported here is the structural and immunohistochemical similarities between the Yucatan hairless micropig (HMP) skin and that of humans. Hairless micropig skin surface was composed of complex intersecting furrows that created geometric patterns remarkably similar to human skin surface glyphics. The dermal--epidermal interface consisted of undulant downgrowths that interdigitated with dermal papillae. Hairless micropig epidermis contained two morphologically distinct populations of basal keratinocytes (serrated and nonserrated). Similar heterogeneity has been seen only in human epidermis and primate palmar epidermis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the HMP epidermis is reactive with monoclonal and polyclonal antisera to keratin proteins. Melanocytes reactive with antisera to S-100 protein, as in human skin, also were observed in HMP epidermis. Organization of dermal extracellular matrix, including collagen and elastic fibers, and the organization and reactivity of the microvasculature with antisera to factor VIII, were consistent with human skin. The costicosteroid-induced atrophy and subsequent rebound phenomenon after withdrawal of steroid observed in HMP skin was similar with that observed in humans. It is concluded that HMP skin approximates human skin significantly more precisely than most existing species and is an excellent model for studies of cutaneous physiology and pharmacology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2000942

  2. The hairless mouse in skin research

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Fernando; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; VanBuskirk, Anne M.; Reeve, Vivienne E.; Kusewitt, Donna F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The hairless (Hr) gene encodes a transcriptional co-repressor highly expressed in the mammalian skin. In the mouse, several null and hypomorphic Hr alleles have been identified resulting in hairlessness in homozygous animals, characterized by alopecia developing after a single cycle of relatively normal hair growth. Mutations in the human ortholog have also been associated with congenital alopecia. Although a variety of hairless strains have been developed, outbred SKH1 mice are the most widely used in dermatologic research. These unpigmented and immunocompetent mice allow for ready manipulation of the skin, application of topical agents, and exposure to UVR, as well as easy visualization of the cutaneous response. Wound healing, acute photobiologic responses, and skin carcinogenesis have been extensively studied in SKH1 mice and are well characterized. In addition, tumors induced in these mice resemble, both at the morphologic and molecular levels, UVR-induced skin malignancies in man. Two limitations of the SKH1 mouse in dermatologic research are the relatively uncharacterized genetic background and its outbred status, which precludes inter-individual transplantation studies. PMID:18938063

  3. Transcutaneous pneumatic injection of glucose solution: a morphometric evaluation of in vivo micropig skin and tissue-mimicking phantom.

    PubMed

    Cho, S B; Kwon, T R; Yoo, K H; Oh, C T; Choi, E J; Kim, B J

    2017-02-01

    Needle-free, transcutaneous pneumatic injection systems can be used to deliver therapeutic solutions to targeted layers of skin in a minimally invasive manner. To evaluate jet infiltration patterns and tissue reactions, 5% isotonic and 20% hypertonic glucose solutions were pneumatically injected into in vivo micropig skin. Gelatin TM phantom was additionally prepared to analyze penetration and dispersion patterns for different experimental settings. As immediate tissue reactions in the in vivo micropig skin, distinct pneumatic injection injury zones (PIIZs) in the dermis, extending from the papillary dermis deep into the dermo-subcutaneous junction, were generated with the 5% and 20% glucose solutions and with pneumatic pressures of 4.64 and 5.7 bars, respectively. PIIZs markedly decreased in appearance at 1 day after treatment, accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration, and disappeared at 7 days post-treatment with increased collagen and elastin production. In TM phantom study, the PIIZs created by 20% glucose mainly comprised a single, homogenous, round to oval zone, whereas those created by 5% glucose were irregular and multi-lobular. The present study suggests that transcutaneous pneumatic injection therapy may exert mechanical stimulatory effects, immediate tissue shrinkage via hypertonic solutions, and late tissue regeneration effects during wound healing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. In vivo skin penetration of salicylic compounds in hairless rats.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lene; Petersen, Mads B; Groth, Lotte

    2002-10-01

    The in vivo skin penetration of four salicylic compounds was investigated using a hairless rat model, which allowed for non-occluded, finite dose application, and free mobility of the rats throughout the test period. The model compounds were applied in equimolal concentrations of 0.4 mmol/g dimethyl isosorbide. At certain times (0.5-24 h) the rats were killed, and the amount of test compound on the skin surface, in the stratum corneum, and in the deeper viable skin layers was determined. Significant different skin concentrations were found with the following ranking: [(14)C]diethylamine salicylate>[(14)C]salicylic acid>[(14)C]salicylamide>[(14)C]butyl salicylate. In addition, the in vivo percutaneous rate of absorption was in the following order: [(14)C]butyl salicylate>[(14)C]salicylic acid> or =[(14)C]salicylamide>[(14)C]diethylamine salicylate. [(14)C]Butyl salicylate was rapidly absorbed and completely depleted from the surface 3 h post application. In comparison with [(14)C]salicylic acid, the ionic [(14)C]diethylamine salicylate had larger surface depots and penetrated the skin at a lower rate. The relatively hydrophilic [(14)C]salicylamide also had larger surface depots but much lower skin levels. For comparison, the in vitro permeation of the formulations was studied through freshly excised hairless rat skin using Franz diffusions cells, and an agreement between the techniques was found.

  5. Photodynamic therapy improves the ultraviolet-irradiated hairless mice skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, Ana Elisa S.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) sunlight causes premature skin aging. In light of this fact, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging modality for treating cancer and other skin conditions, however its response on photoaged skin has not been fully illustrated by means of histopathology. For this reason, the aim of this study was analyze whether PDT can play a role on a mouse model of photoaging. Hence, SKH-1 hairless mice were randomly allocated in two groups, UV and UV/PDT. The mice were daily exposed to an UV light source (280-400 nm: peak at 350 nm) for 8 weeks followed by a single PDT session using 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) topically. After the proper photosensitizer accumulation within the tissue, a non-coherent red (635 nm) light was performed and, after 14 days, skin samples were excised and processed for light microscopy, and their sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Masson's Trichrome. As a result, we observed a substantial epidermal thickening and an improvement in dermal collagen density by deposition of new collagen fibers on UV/PDT group. These findings strongly indicate epidermal and dermal restoration, and consequently skin restoration. In conclusion, this study provides suitable evidences that PDT improves the UV-irradiated hairless mice skin, supporting this technique as an efficient treatment for photoaged skin.

  6. Hairless is a nuclear receptor corepressor essential for skin function

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    The activity of nuclear receptors is modulated by numerous coregulatory factors. Corepressors can either mediate the ability of nuclear receptors to repress transcription, or can inhibit transactivation by nuclear receptors. As we learn more about the mechanisms of transcriptional repression, the importance of repression by nuclear receptors in development and disease has become clear. The protein encoded by the mammalian Hairless (Hr) gene was shown to be a corepressor by virtue of its functional similarity to the well-established corepressors N-CoR and SMRT. Mutation of the Hr gene results in congenital hair loss in both mice and men. Investigation of Hairless function both in vitro and in mouse models in vivo has revealed a critical role in maintaining skin and hair by regulating the differentiation of epithelial stem cells, as well as a putative role in regulating gene expression via chromatin remodeling. PMID:20087431

  7. Diffusion of (2-/sup 14/C)diazepam across hairless mouse skin and human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, R.L.; Palicharla, P.; Groves, M.J.

    1987-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the absorption of diazepam applied topically to the hairless mouse in vivo and to determine the diffusion of diazepam across isolated hairless mouse skin and human skin. (/sup 14/C)Diazepam was readily absorbed after topical administration to the intact hairless mouse, a total of 75.8% of the /sup 14/C-label applied being recovered in urine and feces. Diazepam was found to diffuse across human and hairless mouse skin unchanged in experiments with twin-chambered diffusion cells. The variation in diffusion rate or the flux for both human and mouse tissues was greater among specimens than between duplicate or triplicate trials for a single specimen. Fluxes for mouse skin (stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) were greater than for human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis): 0.35-0.61 microgram/cm2/h for mouse skin vs 0.24-0.42 microgram/cm2/h for human skin. The permeability coefficients for mouse skin ranged from 1.4-2.4 X 10(-2)cm/h compared with 0.8-1.4 X 10(-2)cm/h for human skin. Although human stratum corneum is almost twice the thickness of that of the hairless mouse, the diffusion coefficients for human skin were 3-12 times greater (0.76-3.31 X 10(-6) cm2/h for human skin vs 0.12-0.27 X 10(-6) cm2/h for hairless mouse) because of a shorter lag time for diffusion across human skin. These differences between the diffusion coefficients and diffusion rates (or permeability coefficients) suggest that the presence of the dermis may present some barrier properties. In vitro the dermis may require complete saturation before the diazepam can be detected in the receiving chamber.

  8. Evaluation of seven sunscreens on hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of seven sunscreens to protect against ultraviolet (UV)--induced inhibition of epidermal DNA synthesis was evaluated in vivo using a hairless mouse model. There were statistically significant differences among sunscreens in their ability to prevent UV-B (290 to 320 nm) inhibition of DNA synthesis. The protective factor (PF) of a sunscreen was arbitrarily defined as the ratio of the dose required to inhibit DNA synthesis by 50% with and without a sunscreen. The following PF values were determined: Coppertone 4, 4.4; Sundown Extra Protection, 8.4; Supershade 15, 21.0; Eclipse 15, 22.2; Blockout 15, 22.4; and Bain de Soleil 15, 27.6. Zinc oxide ointment protected against any significant suppression of DNA synthesis at all UV-B doses used. There was a relatively good correlation between the PF and the sun protection factor (SPF) claimed for each sunscreen by the manufacturer. However, the PF values determined in mouse skin were generally higher than the SPF values measured in human skin. Further studies are needed to determine if sunscreen substantivity (resistance to removal by water) can be evaluated by this technique.

  9. Iontophoretic transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Al-Khalili, Mohammad; Meidan, Victor M; Michniak, Bozena B

    2003-01-01

    The transdermal delivery of buspirone hydrochloride across hairless mouse skin and the combined effect of iontophoresis and terpene enhancers were evaluated in vitro using Franz diffusion cells. Iontophoretic delivery was optimized by evaluating the effect of drug concentration, current density, and pH of the vehicle solution. Increasing the current density from 0.05 to 0.1 mA/cm2 resulted in doubling of the iontophoretic flux of buspirone hydrochloride, while increasing drug concentration from 1% to 2% had no effect on flux. Using phosphate buffer to adjust the pH of the drug solution decreased the buspirone hydrochloride iontophoretic flux relative to water solutions. Incorporating buspirone hydrochloride into ethanol:water (50:50 vol/vol) based gel formulations using carboxymethylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose had no effect on iontophoretic delivery. Incorporation of three terpene enhancers (menthol, cineole, and terpineol) into the gel resulted in a synergistic effect when combined with iontophoresis. Menthol was the most active enhancer, and when combined with iontophoresis it was possible to deliver 10 mg/cm2/day of buspirone hydrochloride.

  10. Transdermal iontophoresis of hydromorphone across hairless rat skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Maansi G; Lin, Senshang

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of delivering hydromorphone by transdermal iontophoresis to obtain therapeutically effective analgesic concentrations for the management of cancer-related pain was evaluated. Anodal iontophoresis was performed, and the effect of current strength, current duration, solution pH, presence of buffer ions, and drug concentration on the transdermal permeation of hydromorphone was investigated in vitro. Freshly excised full-thickness hairless rat skin and side-by-side permeation cells connected to the Phoresor II with Ag/AgCl electrodes was used. The flux of hydromorphone was observed to significantly increase (P < 0.05) from 72.04-280.30 microg/cm(2)/h with increase in current strength from 0.10-0.50 mA. A linear relationship was obtained between hydromorphone flux and current strength. Furthermore, the flux of hydromorphone was influenced by solution pH and presence of buffer ions. Also, the in vitro permeation flux of hydromorphone was observed to significantly increase (P < 0.05) with a 10-fold increase in hydromorphone hydrochloride concentration from 0.01-0.10 M. However, with further increase to 0.50 M, there was no significant difference in flux. These results show that by manipulating electronic and formulation variables, the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of hydromorphone can be controlled, and therapeutically effective concentrations of hydromorphone for the management of cancer-related pain can be obtained.

  11. Chronic heat treatment causes skin wrinkle formation and oxidative damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Hee; Seo, Jo-Eun; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Kyu Han; Chung, Jin Ho

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that heat shock could induce expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in skin cells. These results implicated that chronic heat treatment may cause skin wrinkles. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic heat treatment (43 °C, 30 min, 3 times/week, 6 weeks) on wrinkle formation in skin of hairless mice. We found that repetitive heat treatment induced skin wrinkles after a period of 6 weeks in skin of hairless mice. Histologically, heat treatment resulted in increased thickness of the epidermis and dermis. And repetitive heat treatment resulted in significantly increased expression of MMP-13 protein and mRNA, but not MMP-2 and -9, in skin of hairless mice. We also demonstrated that activities of antioxidant enzymes, catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were reduced by chronic heat treatment. In addition, oxidative damage was increased in skin of mice after chronic exposure to heat shock. Taken together, our results suggested that chronic exposure of the skin to heat can cause skin wrinkling. And, increase of MMP-13, decrease of antioxidant enzymes activity, and consequent oxidative damage by chronic heat treatment may play an important role in development of skin aging in hairless mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of the absorption of hypericin into the skin of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kamuhabwa, A R; Geboes, K R; de Witte, P A

    2000-05-01

    The skin absorption of hypericin was evaluated in hairless mice to develop an optimised hypericin topical formulation that could be used in the clinical study of psoriasis. Hypericin (0.01-1.0%) in Beeler basis, polyethylene glycol ointment, carbopol gel, cetomacrogol cream, petrolatum or emulsifying ointment, with and without skin-absorption enhancers (isopropylidene glycerol and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether), was tested in-vivo on hairless mice skin. Using a skin-stripping technique and the intrinsic fluorescence of hypericin under standardised UV365 irradiation, it was demonstrated that the absorption of hypericin very much depended on the vehicle used. The concentrations of hypericin in the skin were then estimated by HPLC analysis. For this purpose, two vehicles were employed, with which hypericin penetrated the skin of hairless mice well (emulsifying ointment with isopropylidene glycerol) or very poorly (polyethylene glycol ointment). In the case of emulsifying ointment with isopropylidene glycerol (0.05% hypericin), a substantial concentration of hypericin (8.6+/-3.2 microg g(-1)) (mean +/- s.d., n = 5) was found in the skin. With polyethylene glycol ointment, however, only a limited hypericin skin concentration (0.38+/-0-34 microg g(-1), n = 5) was achieved. These results show that emulsifying ointment with polyethylene glycol holds promise as an effective topical vehicle for the treatment of skin diseases, such as psoriasis, with hypericin.

  13. Organization of the sympathetic innervation supplying the hairless skin of the cat's paw.

    PubMed

    Jänig, W; Kümmel, H

    1981-04-01

    The sympathetic outflow supplying the hairless skin of the cat's hind paw has been analyzed in brain-intact and chronic low spinal animals. For this purpose the activity of postganglionic axons in fascicles of the medial plantar nerve which innervate the central pad and the respective responses of the target organs (transient skin potentials, skin temperature) have been recorded. (1) Blood vessels and sweat glands in the hairless skin of the cat's hind paw are under efferent control of vasoconstrictor neurons, sudomotor neurons, and possibly vasodilatator neurons. (2) Vasoconstrictor neurons are largely under inhibitory control of various afferent input systems from the body surface and from the internal milieu, and sudomotor neurons under excitatory control in brain-intact as well as in chronic spinal cats. (3) The basic neuronal network or "machinery" for the this reciprocal organization is probably located in the spinal cord. (4) Effects of anesthetics on the sudomotor reflexes indicate that this spinal neuronal organization is controlled in a complex manner by descending spinal systems from the brain stem. (5) The existence of vasodilatator neurons, a third efferent control system supplying the hairless skin, which can only be activated by spinal cord warming in brain-intact as well as in chronic spinal cats is not very well established. Neurons with this property are rare and it is unclear whether they course through the sympathetic trunk or dorsal roots or through both. The axons of these neurons are unmyelinated. (6) The organization of the neuronal control of vessels and sweat glands in the hairless skin may be a paradigmatic model for studying the respective neuronal organization in the spinal cord and its descending control.

  14. Protective effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Bae, Eun Young; Choi, Goya; Hyun, Jin Won; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Hye Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2013-04-01

    Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose extracts have been described as an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Skin aging is a consequence of chronic sun exposure to the sun and therefore ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Naturally occurring antioxidants are known to reduce skin aging. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of mango extract against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. HR-1 hairless male mice (6 weeks old) were divided into three groups: control (n = 5), UVB-treated vehicle (n = 5), and UVB-treated mango extract (n = 5) groups. UVB-irradiated mice from the mango extract group were orally administered 0.1 ml of water containing 100 mg of mango extract/kg body weight per day. The inhibitory activity of mango extract on wrinkle formation was determined by the analysis of the skin replica, epidermal thickness based on histological examination, and damage to collagen fiber. The mean length of wrinkles in UVB-treated vehicle group significantly improved after the oral administration of mango extract, which significantly inhibited the increase in epidermal thickness and epidermal hypertrophy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundles was observed in the UVB-treated group after the administration of mango extract by Masson's trichrome staining. These results indicate that mango extract showed anti-photoaging activity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Far-infrared suppresses skin photoaging in ultraviolet B-exposed fibroblasts and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Jie; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) induces skin photoaging, which is characterized by thickening, wrinkling, pigmentation, and dryness. Collagen, which is one of the main building blocks of human skin, is regulated by collagen synthesis and collagen breakdown. Autophagy was found to block the epidermal hyperproliferative response to UVB and may play a crucial role in preventing skin photoaging. In the present study, we investigated whether far-infrared (FIR) therapy can inhibit skin photoaging via UVB irradiation in NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and SKH-1 hairless mice. We found that FIR treatment significantly increased procollagen type I through the induction of the TGF-β/Smad axis. Furthermore, UVB significantly enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-9. FIR inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-9. Treatment with FIR reversed UVB-decreased type I collagen. In addition, FIR induced autophagy by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In UVB-induced skin photoaging in a hairless mouse model, FIR treatment resulted in decreased skin thickness in UVB irradiated mice and inhibited the degradation of collagen fibers. Moreover, FIR can increase procollagen type I via the inhibition of MMP-9 and induction of TGF-β in skin tissues. Therefore, our study provides evidence for the beneficial effects of FIR exposure in a model of skin photoaging. PMID:28301572

  16. Oral Administration of Fermented Soymilk Products Protects the Skin of Hairless Mice against Ultraviolet Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kubota, Norihiro; Masuoka, Norie; Hori, Tetsuji; Miyazaki, Kouji; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu

    2016-01-01

    The protective effect of isoflavones on skin damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their bioavailability were investigated in ovariectomized hairless mice fed diets composed of fermented soymilk containing aglycone forms of isoflavones or control soymilk containing glucose-conjugated forms of isoflavones. The erythema intensity of dorsal skin was significantly higher in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated mice (p < 0.05). The erythema intensity and epidermal thickness of dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control diet group (each p < 0.05). Levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in dorsal skin were significantly lower in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum and dorsal skin isoflavone concentrations were significantly higher in the fermented soymilk diet group than in the soymilk diet group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oral administration of a fermented soymilk diet increases isoflavone concentrations in the blood and skin, effectively scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by UV irradiation and exerting an estrogen-like activity, with a consequent protective effect on skin photodamage in hairless mice. PMID:27556484

  17. Intraperitoneally administered biliverdin protects against UVB-induced skin photo-damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bingxue; Liu, Yingdi; You, Yan; Li, Yuzhen; Ma, Liangjuan

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress is shown to be responsible for ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced skin cancer and premature aging. Biliverdin (BVD), a product of heme oxygenase-1, has strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BVD on UVB-induced skin photo-damage in hairless mice. Mice were divided into three groups: control group, UVB group (only UVB irradiation) and BVD+UVB group (mice were intraperitoneally injected with BVD before each UVB irradiation). Intraperitoneal BVD injection resulted in a significant photoprotective effect by reducing morphological and histopathological changes to the skin. BVD also exhibited a significant antioxidant effect by increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and decreasing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the control group. In addition, BVD activated biliverdin reductase (BVR) expression and inhibited the UVB-induced increase of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation (p-p38MAPK), MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-1 and MMP-3 expression (p<0.05). It also significantly decreased the interleukin (IL)-6 level compared with the UVB group (p<0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that the intraperitoneally administered BVD can prevent UVB irradiation-induced skin photo-damage in hairless mice and that this is likely mediated by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and cell signal regulatory action.

  18. Effect of Sulfur Mustard on Mast Cells in Hairless Guinea Pig Skin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    AD-P008 756 EFFECT OF SULFUR MUSTARD ON MAST CELLS IN HAIRLESS GUINEA PIG SKIN JOHN S. GRAHAM, MARK A . BRYANT and ERNEST H. BRAUE U.S. Army Medical...with their granules of vasoactive histamine, mast cells might be expected to play a role in HD-induced injury. Changes in mast cells exposed to low...histopathology 94-07918 Best Available Copy C0t PONENT PART NOTICE THIS PAPER IS A CCWPOWENT PART OF THE FOLLOWING COIPILATION REPORT: TITLE: Proceedins of the

  19. Pharmacokinetics of niacinamide in blood and skin of hairless guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Bongiovannieier, R.; Koplovitz, I.; Shulz, S.; Lieb, J.; Railer, R.

    1993-05-13

    Niacinamide (NA) has been reported to be effective in reducing the development of microblisters caused by sulfur mustard (HD) vapor exposure in the Hairless guinea pig when given as a single bolus pretreatment 30 min prior to HD vapor exposure (Yourick et al.). The purpose of these experiments was to establish the pharmacokinetics of NA in the hairless guinea pig to optimize the evaluation of NA against HD cutaneous injury. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the quantitation of NA in blood and skin. The method was linear (corr coeff r = 0.998) and sensitive with a working range from 50 microns/ml to 2000 microns/ml. The NA Tl/2 was measured after a bolus injection of 750 and 375 mg/kg via IP and IV routes, respectively. The Tl/2 was 2.8 + or - 0.3 hr for both routes. Drug concentrations in blood, during multiple dosing (5 IP) of a fixed dose (375 mg/kg, i.p.) given every 2.8 hr, were within 15% of the theoretical values calculated using a computer model (Principle of Superposition). NA serum levels ranged from 325 microns/mL to 1404 microns/mL (n = 12). The corresponding skin levels were within 93% of the blood levels. The elimination of NA from the skin paralleled its elimination from the blood. The results of these studies will aid in the future evaluation of NA as a pretreatment/treatment for HD injury.

  20. Circadian rhythms on skin function of hairless rats: light and thermic influences.

    PubMed

    Flo, Ana; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Calpena, Ana C; Cambras, Trinitat

    2014-03-01

    Circadian rhythms are present in most functions of living beings. We have demonstrated the presence of circadian rhythms in skin variables (transepidermal water loss, TEWL; stratum corneum hydration, SCH; and skin temperature) in hairless rats under different environmental conditions of light and temperature. Circadian rhythms in TEWL and SCH showed mean amplitudes of about 20% and 14% around the mean, respectively, and appeared under light-dark cycles as well as under constant darkness. Environmental temperature was able to override TEWL, but not SCH rhythm, evidencing the dependency of TEWL on the temperature. Mean daily values of TEWL and SCH, and also the amplitude of TEWL rhythm, increased with the age of the animal. Under constant light, situation that induces arrhythmicity in rats, SCH and TEWL were inversely correlated. The results suggest the importance to take into account the functional skin rhythms in research in dermatological sciences.

  1. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function.

  2. Effect of sulfur mustard on mast cells in hairless guinea pig skin

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.S.; Bryant, M.A.; Braue, E.H.

    1993-05-13

    The skin of 24 anesthetized hairless guinea pigs was exposed to saturated sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide; HD) for 5 and 7 minutes using 14-mm diameter vapor cups. Animals were euthanatized 24 hours after exposure and skin specimens taken for morphometric evaluation of granulated mast cells with an image analysis system (IAS). Tissue specimens were processed in paraffin, sectioned at 5 microns and stained with Unna's stain for mast cells. The number of granulated mast cells and the area occupied by mast cell granules was determined. There were significantly fewer mast cells (p < 0.05) in either HD exposure group than in sham-exposed animals, with significantly fewer mast cells in the 7-minute than the 5-minute HD group. There were also significantly smaller areas occupied by granules in either HD exposure group than in sham-exposed animals. HD-induced lesions in the hairless guinea pig have shown signs of an inflammatory response, and with their granules of vasoactive histamine, mast cells might be expected to play a role in HD-induced injury. Changes in mast cells exposed to low sulfur mustard levels, as detected by an IAS, may serve as an early marker for cutaneous damage, which might not be as easily determined with routine light microscopy.

  3. Collagen metabolism in ultraviolet irradiated hairless mouse skin and its correlation to histochemical observations.

    PubMed

    Kligman, L H; Gebre, M; Alper, R; Kefalides, N A

    1989-08-01

    Early biochemical studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated human skin reported a loss of insoluble collagen with a concomitant increase in the soluble fraction. Recent work has described an early increase in type III collagen during chronic irradiation of hairless mice as determined by cyanogen bromide digests of whole skin. In order to understand the correlation of these events and those seen with histochemistry, in the present study we irradiated hairless mice for up to 24 weeks with approximately 4 minimal erythema doses (MEDs) of UVB thrice weekly with Westinghouse FS-40 bulbs. Skin samples were taken at 4-week intervals from irradiated and age-matched control mice. Collagen was isolated from other skin proteins by acid extraction, pepsin digestion, and salt precipitation. Estimates of types I and III collagen were made by interrupted polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and densitometric scanning. Compared with unirradiated controls, there was a small increase in the ratio of type III to total collagen after 8 weeks of UV. There were no significant increases at later time points until after 24 weeks of radiation. Total collagen in normal mouse skin, determined by hydroxyproline content, remained constant over the 24 weeks, while UV radiation produced significant increases at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, returning to control levels at week 20. There was no change in the degree of hydroxylation at any time point in either group. Thus, chronic UV exposure resulted in increased collagen synthesis until late in the course of irradiation. Because there is a lack of consistent change in the ratio of type III to total collagen, the early increases in collagen content may represent both types I and III, synthesized in relatively unchanging proportions.

  4. Sunless skin tanning with dihydroxyacetone delays broad-spectrum ultraviolet photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Anita B; Na, Renhua; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2003-12-09

    Sunless tanning with dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is not considered to be a sunscreen although it does absorb parts of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. We investigated the protection with topical application of DHA against solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in lightly pigmented hairless hr/hr C3H/Tif mice. Broad-spectrum UV radiation, simulating the UV part of the solar spectrum was obtained from one Philips TL12 and five Bellarium-S SA-1-12 tubes. Three groups of mice were UV-exposed four times a week to a dose-equivalent of four times the standard erythema dose (SED), without or with application of 5 or 20% DHA only twice a week. Similarly, three groups of mice were treated with DHA and irradiated with a high UV dose (8 SED), simulating a skin burn. Two groups (controls) were not irradiated, but either left untreated or treated with 20% DHA alone. The UV-induced skin pigmentation by melanogenesis could easily be distinguished from DHA-induced browning and was measured by a non-invasive, semi-quantitative method. Application of 20% DHA reduced by 63% the pigmentation produced by 4 SED, however, only by 28% the pigmentation produced by 8 SED. Furthermore, topical application of 20% DHA significantly delayed the time to appearance of the first tumor >or=1mm (P=0.0012) and the time to appearance of the third tumor (P=2 x 10(-6)) in mice irradiated with 4 SED. However, 20% DHA did not delay tumor development in mice irradiated with 8 SED. Application of 5% DHA did not influence pigmentation or photocarcinogenesis. In conclusion, this is the first study to show that the superficial skin coloring generated by frequent topical application of DHA in high concentrations may delay skin cancer development in hairless mice irradiated with moderate UV doses.

  5. Naringenin Inhibits UVB Irradiation-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in the Skin of Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Barbosa, Décio S; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-24

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause inflammation- and oxidative-stress-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Naringenin (1) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress are still not known. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the potential of naringenin to mitigate UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative damage in the skin of hairless mice. Skin edema, myeloperoxidase (neutrophil marker) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, and cytokine production were measured after UVB irradiation. Oxidative stress was evaluated by 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reduced glutathione levels, catalase activity, lipid peroxidation products, superoxide anion production, and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression by quantitative PCR. The intraperitoneal treatment with naringenin reduced skin inflammation by inhibiting skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, MMP-9 activity, and pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23) and anti-inflammatory (TGF-β and IL-10) cytokines. Naringenin also inhibited oxidative stress by reducing superoxide anion production and the mRNA expression of gp91phox. Therefore, naringenin inhibits UVB irradiation-induced skin damage and may be a promising therapeutic approach to control skin disease.

  6. Changes in arachidonic acid metabolism in UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, T.; Walter, J.F.; Printz, M.P.

    1983-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the metabolism of arachidonic acid in the skin of hairless mice exposed to UVA, PUVA, UVB, and UVC irradiation. The main products of arachidonic acid in the epidermis were hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), PGE2, and PGD2. Dermis displayed a lower lipoxygenase activity (expressed as HETE production) than the epidermis and showed no detectable cyclooxygenase activity, i.e., no prostaglandin production. The main changes observed in UV-induced inflammatory reactions were as follows. 1. A 5-fold increase in dermal HETE production in PUVA-treated animals and a 29% reduction in epidermal HETE formation after UVC treatment. 2. A marked decrease of PGD2 and a marked increase of PGE2 formation due to alterations of PGH2 metabolism in the UVB-treated group; however, cyclooxygenase activity was unchanged. These changes in arachidonic acid metabolism in the skin may be of pathophysiologic importance in UV-induced inflammatory reaction.

  7. Iontophoresis itself on hairless mouse skin induces the loss of the epidermal calcium gradient without skin barrier impairment.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Choi, E H; Feingold, K R; Jiang, S; Ahn, S K

    1998-07-01

    Iontophoresis increases the delivery of drugs across the stratum corneum, but the pathway by which ionized drugs transit the stratum corneum is unknown. In this study we examined the effect of iontophoresis on the skin barrier and the epidermal calcium gradient. Hairless mice were subjected to iontophoresis for 5-120 min and skin specimens were prepared for electron microscopy. Neither positive nor negative iontophoresis affected transepidermal water loss. Lacunar dilatation and partial distention of the intercellular layers of the stratum corneum were observed in rough proportion to applied time in iontophoresis skin as well as control skin. Additionally, using calcium capture cytochemistry, we demonstrated that both positive and negative iontophoresis caused the disappearance of the epidermal calcium gradient with marked decrease in calcium content in the upper epidermis. Positive iontophoresis was associated with increased calcium in the stratum basale and dermis, whereas negative iontophoresis increased calcium in the stratum corneum. Moreover, as previously shown after barrier disruption and sonophoresis, the decrease in calcium content in the upper epidermis was associated with an increase in lamellar body secretion and the build up of lamellar material at the stratum corneum-stratum granulosum interface. In conclusion, iontophoresis on the skin of hairless mice may induce the change of ionized molecules in the epidermis, as the loss of the calcium gradient, which causes the decrease of skin impedence, gives charged drugs the ability to cross the skin more easily. Also, the structural changes, such as lacunar dilatation, whether they result from hydration or occlusion, may help the transport of charged drugs across the stratum corneum.

  8. Herb extracts and collagen hydrolysate improve skin damage resulting from ultraviolet-induced aging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Jimbo, Nozomi; Kawada, Chinatsu; Nomura, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of the daily ingestion of herb extract from Eucommia ulmoides leaves and Korean ginseng on skin damage induced by repeated UV irradiation of hairless mice. The herb extract was orally administered to mice at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day. The hydration of mice dorsal skin decreased significantly with repeated UV irradiation, but did not decrease when the herb extract was administered for seven weeks. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increased with UV irradiation, but decreased with the administration of dietary herb extract. These effects were more pronounced when combined with the administration of collagen hydrolysate. Geniposidic acid from E. ulmoides leaves and ginsenoside Rg1 from Korean ginseng reduced TEWL and increased the skin moisture content of UV-damaged skin on hairless mice, respectively. We concluded that this dietary herb extract reduced the skin damage caused by UV-induced aging, with geniposidic acid and ginsenoside Rg1 detected in the blood.

  9. Photodynamic therapy induces epidermal thickening in hairless mice skin: an optical coherence tomography assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, Ana Elisa S.; Campos, Carolina P.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) promotes skin improvement according to many practitioners, however the immediately in vivo assessment of its response remains clinically inaccessible. As a non-invasive modality, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been shown a feasible optical diagnostic technique that provides images in real time, avoiding tissue biopsies. For this reason, our investigation focused on evaluates the PDT effect on a rodent model by means of OCT. Therefore, a normal hairless mouse skin has undergone a single-session PDT, which was performed with topical 5- aminolevulinic acid (ALA) cream using a red (630 nm) light emitting diode (LED) which reached the light dose of 75 J/cm2. As the optical imaging tool, an OCT (930 nm) with axial resolution of 6.0 microns in air was used, generating images with contact to the mouse skin before, immediately after, 24 hours, and 2 weeks after the correspondent procedure. Our result demonstrates that, within 24 hours after ALA-PDT, the mouse skin from the PDT group has shown epidermal thickness (ET), which has substantially increased after 2 weeks from the treatment day. Moreover, the skin surface has become evener after ALA-PDT. Concluding, this investigation demonstrates that the OCT is a feasible and reliable technique that allows real-time cross-sectional imaging of skin, which can quantify an outcome and predict whether the PDT reaches its goal.

  10. Topical tretinoin increases the tropoelastin and fibronectin content of photoaged hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, E; Kligman, L H

    1995-04-01

    Topical tretinoin treatment of photoaged hairless mice has been shown in previous studies to stimulate formation of a subepidermal zone of new connective tissue characterized by enhanced collagen synthesis. The aims of this study were to localize and/or quantify elastin, fibronectin, and glycosaminoglycans in the same model. Hairless mice (Skh-1) were irradiated thrice weekly for 10 weeks with gradually increasing doses of ultraviolet (up to 4.5 minimal erythema doses per exposure) from Westinghouse FS-40 bulbs. Mice were then treated five times a week with either 0.05% tretinoin, the ethanol:propylene glycol vehicle, or nothing for another 10 weeks. Controls included mice sacrificed after 10 weeks of ultraviolet treatment and age-matched untreated animals. The distribution of elastin and fibronectin was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, which revealed fine fibrils in the subepidermal zone in tretinoin-treated skin. A quantitative slot-blot immunobinding assay showed that tretinoin induced a threefold higher amount of tropoelastin compared with controls. Insoluble elastin content (desmosine levels) was similar in all groups. Although fibronectin content was increased by ultraviolet radiation, tretinoin treatment induced the largest increase. In contrast, the amount of glycosaminoglycans, although increased by UVB radiation, was reduced by tretinoin treatment.

  11. Effect of microplasma irradiation on skin barrier function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kazuo; Tran, An N.; Blajan, Marius

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the feasibility of atmospheric-pressure argon microplasma irradiation (AAMI) to promote percutaneous absorption. A hairless Yucatan micropig skin was used for this ex vivo study. After AAMI, the disturbance in the stratum corneum (SC) lipids was observed using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also, an increase in transepidermal water loss and no physical damage on pig skins were confirmed by microscopic observation. These results of AAMI were compared with those of a plasma jet irradiation (PJI) and a tape stripping test (TST) leading to the conclusion that AAMI reduces the barrier function of the skin and could also enhance the transdermal absorption of drugs.

  12. Thread Embedding Acupuncture Inhibits Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Ha-Neui; Shin, Mi-Sook; Choi, Byung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Thread embedding acupuncture (TEA) is an acupuncture treatment applied to many diseases in Korean medical clinics because of its therapeutic effects by continuous stimulation to tissues. It has recently been used to enhance facial skin appearance and antiaging, but data from evidence-based medicine are limited. To investigate whether TEA therapy can inhibit skin photoaging by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, we performed analyses for histology, histopathology, in situ zymography and western blot analysis in HR-1 hairless mice. TEA treatment resulted in decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness (Epidermis; P = 0.001 versus UV) in UVB irradiated mice and also inhibited degradation of collagen fibers (P = 0.010 versus normal) by inhibiting proteolytic activity of gelatinase matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Western blot data showed that activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) induced by UVB (P = 0.002 versus normal group) was significantly inhibited by TEA treatment (P = 0.005 versus UV) with subsequent alleviation of MMP-9 activation (P = 0.048 versus UV). These results suggest that TEA treatment can have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced skin damage by maintenance of collagen density through regulation of expression of MMP-9 and related JNK signaling. Therefore, TEA therapy may have potential roles as an alternative treatment for protection against skin damage from aging. PMID:26185518

  13. Laser-induced enhancement of transdermal drug delivery for lidocaine through hairless mouse skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchizono, Takeyuki; Awazu, Kunio

    2006-02-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS), which is one of drug delivery system (DDS) for increasing the effectiveness of drugs, is enhanced absorption of drugs by laser irradiation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimum laser parameter for enhancing TDD and to examine the mechanism of TDD enhancement. In this study, hairless mouse skins (in vitro) were irradiated with Er:YAG laser, Nd:YAG laser and free electron laser (FEL), which were set up energy density of 0.5 J/cm2/pulse and exposure time of 5 second. We examined the flux (μg/cm2/h) of lidocaine (C 14H 22N IIO, FW: 234.38) through the skins using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), observed cross section of the irradiated samples using light microscope, and measured electrical resistance of the surface of skins. The HPLC results demonstrated that the TDD of the irradiated samples was enhanced 200-350 times faster than it of the non-irradiated samples. It of Nd:YAG laser, however, had no enhancement. The observation of cross section and the electrical resistance of skins were found to not remove the stratum corneum (SC), completely. These results show that laser irradiations, which has the strong absorption to skins, enhance TDD dramatically with low invasive.

  14. The protective effect of Kaempferia parviflora extract on UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Eun; Pyun, Hee-Bong; Woo, Seon Wook; Jeong, Jae-Hong; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2014-10-01

    Chronic skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stimulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) through c-Jun and c-Fos activation. These signaling cascades induce the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, resulting in photoaging. This study evaluated the preventive effect of the ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker (black ginger) on UVB-induced photoaging in vivo. To investigate the antiphotoaging effect of K. parviflora extract (KPE), UVB-irradiated hairless mice administered oral doses of KPE (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) for 13 weeks. In comparison to the UVB control group, KPE significantly prevented wrinkle formation and the loss of collagen fibers with increased type I, III, and VII collagen genes (COL1A1, COL3A1, and COL7A1). The decrease in wrinkle formation was associated with a significant reduction in the UVB-induced expression of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 via the suppression of c-Jun and c-Fos activity. KPE also increased the expression of catalase, which acts as an antioxidant enzyme in skin. In addition, expression of inflammatory mediators, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), was significantly reduced by KPE treatment. The results show that oral administration of KPE significantly prevents UVB-induced photoaging in hairless mice, suggesting its potential as a natural antiphotoaging material. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Codiffusion of propylene glycol and dimethyl isosorbide in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Squillante, E; Needham, T; Maniar, A; Kislalioglu, S; Zia, H

    1998-11-01

    The in vitro percutaneous fluxes of propylene glycol (PG), cis-oleic acid (OA) and dimethyl isosorbide (DI) were determined and their effect on nifedipine (N) flux and lag time evaluated. PG, OA and DI flux through hairless mouse (HM) skin was measured in vitro by beta-scintigraphy and N permeation was measured by HPLC under finite and infinite dose conditions. Evaluation of each of the solvents separately showed that pure DI possessed the inherent ability to traverse the skin (12% in 24 h). For the tested formulation after 24 h, 57% of the PG and 40% of the DI had permeated across the skin with nearly linear permeation between 4 and 18 h and the relative order of permeation was PG > DI > N. DI permeation was further aided in the presence of PG and OA. N flux was dependent on concomitant solvent permeation. Over a 24-h test period a dose dependent response was observed for N, with 4.9-15.6 mg of N delivered from the lowest and highest doses, respectively, and the highest dose yielding zero-order flux of 146 (g/h per cm2).

  16. Preventive effect of dietary astaxanthin on UVA-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Suguru; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found mainly in seafood, has potential clinical applications due to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis on skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated hairless mice by assessing various parameters of photoaging. After chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and wrinkle formation in the dorsal skin caused by UVA was observed, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these photoaging features. We found that the mRNA expression of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, steroid sulfatase, and aquaporin 3 in the epidermis was significantly increased by UVA irradiation for 70 days, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these increases in mRNA expression to be comparable to control levels. In the dermis, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 13 was increased by UVA irradiation and significantly suppressed by dietary astaxanthin. In addition, HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed that dietary astaxanthin reached not only the dermis but also the epidermis. Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis.

  17. Ultrastructural demonstration of chemical modification of melanogenesis in hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, M.; Gellin, G.A.; Hoshino, S.; Epstein, J.H.; Epstein, W.L.; Fukuyama, K.

    1982-02-01

    We investigated chemical and physical modifications of the genetically determined ultrastructure of melanosomes. The flank skin of hairless mice was treated with ultraviolet energy (UV) shorter than 320 nm or with a combination of a photosensitizer and UV (PUVA treatment). All melanosomes in the induced melanocytes and those in resident melanocytes in the ear skin showed eumelanogenesis, although the degree of melanin deposition differed considerably according to the induction process. Eumelanogenesis was most advanced in the resident melanocytes while PUVA-induced melanocytes showed more immature premelanosomes. We then topically applied 4-tertiary butyl catechol on the skin. The depigmenting agent caused an appearance of pheomelanosomes. The alteration in melanogenesis was seen most distinctly in premelanosomes of the PUVA-induced cells. Altered ultrastructure was also observed in matured melanosomes; this change was most apparent in the resident melanocytes. These findings indicate that cells with eumelanogenesis may undergo pheomelanogenesis. The present study demonstrated effects of chemicals on genetically determined function of melanocytes by quantitative analysis of melanosome ultrastructure.

  18. Preventive effect of dietary astaxanthin on UVA-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Suguru; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found mainly in seafood, has potential clinical applications due to its antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis on skin photoaging in UVA-irradiated hairless mice by assessing various parameters of photoaging. After chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure, a significant increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and wrinkle formation in the dorsal skin caused by UVA was observed, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these photoaging features. We found that the mRNA expression of lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, steroid sulfatase, and aquaporin 3 in the epidermis was significantly increased by UVA irradiation for 70 days, and dietary astaxanthin significantly suppressed these increases in mRNA expression to be comparable to control levels. In the dermis, the mRNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 13 was increased by UVA irradiation and significantly suppressed by dietary astaxanthin. In addition, HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed that dietary astaxanthin reached not only the dermis but also the epidermis. Our results indicate that dietary astaxanthin accumulates in the skin and appears to prevent the effects of UVA irradiation on filaggrin metabolism and desquamation in the epidermis and the extracellular matrix in the dermis. PMID:28170435

  19. Effects of Porcine Placenta Extract Ingestion on Ultraviolet B-induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the potential benefits of an oral supplement containing porcine placenta extract (PPE) on skin parameters related to cutaneous physiology and aging. PPEs were administered orally to hairless mice for 12 wk. The effects of oral PPE administration on skin water-holding capacity and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) were similar to those of oral collagen (HYCPU2) administered as a positive control. Magnified photographs and replica images showed a reduction in UVB-induced wrinkle formation after collagen and PPE treatments. PPE treatments ameliorated the thicker skin surface that results from UVB exposure, based on a histological examination of skin tissue. The groups that were orally administered PPE (0.05%, OL; 0.1%, OH group) showed significantly reduced Matrix Metaloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression levels compared with the UVB control (Con), by 33.5% and 35.2%, respectively. The mRNA expression of another collagen-degrading protein, MMP-9, was also significantly lower in the groups that received oral administration of PPE (especially in the OH group) than in the control group. Additionally, oral administration of PPE significantly upregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and -2 mRNA expression levels compared with expression levels in the control group (p<0.05). This indicates that orally administered PPE activated the expression of Timp-1 and -2, inhibitors of MMP, which is responsible for collagen degradation in skin. Taken together, we propose that long-term oral administration of PPE might have a beneficial effect with respect to skin photo-aging. PMID:26761856

  20. Dietary glucoraphanin-rich broccoli sprout extracts protect against UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Benedict, Andrea L.; Jenkins, Stephanie N.; Ye, Lingxiang; Wehage, Scott L.; Talalay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Feeding broccoli sprout extracts providing daily doses of 10 μmol of glucoraphanin to SKH-1 hairless mice with prior chronic exposure to UV radiation (30 mJ cm-2 of UVB, twice a week, for 17 weeks) inhibited the development of skin tumors during the subsequent 13 weeks; compared to the controls, tumor incidence, multiplicity, and volume were reduced by 25, 47, and 70%, respectively, in the animals that received the protective agent. PMID:20354656

  1. Comparison of fixation and processing methods for hairless guinea pig skin following sulfur mustard exposure. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.A.; Braue Jr, E.H.

    1992-12-31

    Ten anesthetized hairless guinea pigs Crl:IAF(HA)BR were exposed to 10 pi of neat sulfur mustard (HD) in a vapor cup on their skin for 7 min. At 24 h postexposure, the guinea pigs were euthanatized and skin sections taken for histologic evaluation. The skin was fixed using either 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF), McDowell Trump fixative (4CF-IG), Zenker`s formol-saline (Helly`s fluid), or Zenker`s fluid. Fixed skin sections were cut in half: one half was embedded in paraffin and the other half in plastic (glycol methacrylate). Paraffin-embedded tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin; plastic-embedded tissue was stained with Lee`s methylene blue basic fuchsin. Skin was also frozen unfixed, sectioned by cryostat, and stained with pinacyanole. HD-exposed skin was evaluated histologically for the presence of epidermal and follicular necrosis, microblister formation, epidermitis, and intracellular edema to determine the optimal fixation and embedding method for lesion preservation. The percentage of histologic sections with lesions varied little between fixatives and was similar for both paraffin and plastic embedding material. Plastic-embedded sections were thinner, allowing better histologic evaluation, but were more difficult to stain. Plastic embedding material did not infiltrate tissue fixed in Zenker`s fluid or Zenker`s formol-saline. Frozen tissue sections were prepared in the least processing time and lesion preservation was comparable to fixed tissue. It was concluded that standard histologic processing using formalin fixation and paraffin embedding is adequate for routine histopathological evaluation of HD skin lesions in the hairless guinea pig.... Sulfur mustard, Vesicating agents, Pathology, Hairless guinea pig model, Fixation.

  2. SKHIN/Sprd, a new genetically defined inbred hairless mouse strain for UV-induced skin carcinogenesis studies

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Carlos; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Mikulec, Carol; Kusewitt, Donna F.; Fischer, Susan M.; DiGiovanni, John; Conti, Claudio J.; Benavides, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Strains of mice vary in their susceptibility to ultra-violet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumors. Some strains of hairless mice (homozygous for the spontaneous Hrhr mutation) are particularly susceptible to these tumors. The skin tumors that develop in hairless mice resemble, both at the morphologic and molecular levels, UV-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and their precursors in human. The most commonly employed hairless mice belong to the SKH1 stock. However, these mice are outbred and their genetic background is not characterized, which makes them a poor model for genetic studies. We have developed a new inbred strain from outbred SKH1 mice that we named SKHIN/Sprd (now at generation F31). In order to characterize the genetic background of this new strain, we genotyped a cohort of mice at F30 with 92 microsatellites and 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) evenly distributed throughout the mouse genome. We also exposed SKHIN/Sprd mice to chronic UV irradiation and showed that they are as susceptible to UV-induced skin carcinogenesis as outbred SKH1 mice. In addition, we proved that, albeit with low efficiency, inbred SKHIN/Sprd mice are suitable for transgenic production by classical pronuclear microinjection. This new inbred strain will be useful for the development of transgenic and congenic strains on a hairless inbred background as well as the establishment of syngeneic tumor cell lines. These new tools can potentially help elucidate a number of features of the cutaneous response to UV irradiation in humans, including the effect of genetic background and modifier genes. PMID:22379968

  3. Antiinflammatory and Antiphotodamaging Effects of Ergostatrien-3β-ol, Isolated from Antrodia camphorata, on Hairless Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Tzu-Yu; You, Ya-Jhen; Wen, Kuo-Ching; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-09-10

    Ergostatrien-3β-ol (EK100), isolated from the submerged whole broth of Antrodia camphorata, has antidiabetic, hyperlipidemic, and hepatoprotective activities. However, the antiphotodamage activity of EK100 has still not been revealed. Inflammation and collagen degradation contribute to skin photodamage and premature aging. In the present study, in vivo experiments were designed to investigate the antiinflammatory and antiphotodamaging activities of EK100 in hairless mice by physiological and histological analysis of the skin. Results indicated that topical application of EK100 (25 and 100 μM) for 10 weeks efficiently inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced wrinkle formation, erythema, and epidermal thickness in the mice skin. EK100 also restored UVB-induced collagen content reduction in hairless mice skin. In addition, the immunohistochemistry results indicated that EK100 significantly inhibited the UVB-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in the mouse skin. The expression of these proteins was similar to the Normal group after 100 μM EK100 treatment. EK100 inhibited collagen degradation in the skin through MMP-1 inhibition and antiinflammation. EK100 significantly reduced the transepidermal water loss (TEWL), indicating that EK100 protected skin from UVB-induced damage. Our findings strongly suggest that EK100 has significant beneficial antiinflammatory and antiphotoaging activities and that EK100 can be developed as an antiphotodamaging agent.

  4. A novel mechanism for improvement of dry skin by dietary milk phospholipids: Effect on epidermal covalently bound ceramides and skin inflammation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Morifuji, Masashi; Oba, Chisato; Ichikawa, Satomi; Ito, Kyoko; Kawahata, Keiko; Asami, Yukio; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-06-01

    Dietary milk phospholipids (MPLs) increase hydration of the stratum corneum and reduced transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in hairless mice fed a standard diet. However, the mechanism by which MPLs improve skin barrier functions has yet to be established. This study was designed to examine the mechanism by which MPLs may affect covalently bound ceramides and markers of skin inflammation and improve the skin barrier defect in hairless mice fed a magnesium-deficient (HR-AD) diet. Four-week-old female hairless mice were randomized into four groups (n=10/group), and fed a standard (control) diet, the HR-AD diet, the HR-AD diet supplemented with either 7.0 g/kg MPLs (low [L]-MPL) or 41.0 g/kg MPLs (high [H]-MPL). Dietary MPLs improved the dry skin condition of hairless mice fed the HR-AD diet. MPLs significantly increased the percentage of covalently bound ω-hydroxy ceramides in the epidermis, and significantly decreased both thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) mRNA and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) mRNA levels in skin, compared with the HR-AD diet. Furthermore, the MPL diets significantly decreased serum concentrations of immunoglobulin-E, TARC, TSLP, and soluble P-selectin versus the HR-AD diet. Our study showed for the first time that dietary MPLs may modulate epidermal covalently bound ceramides associated with formation of lamellar structures and suppress skin inflammation, resulting in improved skin barrier function. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of neutrophil infiltration into hairless guinea pig skin treated with 2,2' -dichlorodiethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Bongiovanni, R.; Millard, C.B.; Schulz, S.M.; Romano, J.M.

    1993-05-13

    Despite growing acceptance of the hairless guinea pig (HPG) for evaluating sulfur mustard (2,2'dichlorodiethylsulfide, HD) skin injury, there are presently few antivesicant drug assessment endpoints validated in vivo for this model. We measured the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) to characterize the dose- and time-dependence of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration during development of the HD lesion. Biopsies were obtained from the dorsal thoracic-lumbar area of HGPs at successive 3 hr time intervals for up to 24 hrs following controlled exposure to either 5, 7, 8 or 10 min HD vapor. The presence of PMNs, as judged by MPO levels, peaked at 9 hrs irrespective of total HD vapor dose. The maximum response was a 20-fold increase compared to unexposed control sites at 9 hrs following 10 min HD vapor. This time period coincides with epidermal detachment characterized previously by electron microscopy in the HGP. By 24 hrs post-exposure, the MPO levels subsided markedly (2-fold compared to controls). These results suggest that PMNs participate in the HGP cutaneous inflammatory response following exposure to HD and that MPO may be a useful biological marker for evaluating putative antivesicants.

  6. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Juice Intake Suppresses UVB-Induced Skin Pigmentation in SMP30/GNL Knockout Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yasunori; Uchida, Eriko; Aoki, Hitoshi; Hanamura, Takayuki; Nagamine, Kenichi; Kato, Hisanori; Koizumi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a fruit that is known to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (AA) and various phytochemicals. We have previously reported that AA deficiency leads to ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin pigmentation in senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) hairless mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of acerola juice (AJ) intake on the skin of UVB-irradiated SMP30/GNL KO mice. Research design/Principal findings Five-week old hairless mice were given drinking water containing physiologically sufficient AA (1.5 g/L) [AA (+)], no AA [AA (-)] or 1.67% acerola juice [AJ]. All mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 6 weeks. UVB irradiation was performed three times per week. The dorsal skin color and stratum corneum water content were measured every weekly, and finally, the AA contents of the skin was determined. The skin AA and stratum corneum water content was similar between the AA (+) and AJ groups. The L* value of the AA (+) group was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation, whereas AJ intake suppressed the decrease in the L* value throughout the experiment. Moreover, in the AJ group, there was a significant decrease in the expression level of dopachrome tautomerase, an enzyme that is involved in melanin biosynthesis. Conclusion These results indicate that AJ intake is effective in suppressing UVB-induced skin pigmentation by inhibiting melanogenesis-related genes. PMID:28114343

  7. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Juice Intake Suppresses UVB-Induced Skin Pigmentation in SMP30/GNL Knockout Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasunori; Uchida, Eriko; Aoki, Hitoshi; Hanamura, Takayuki; Nagamine, Kenichi; Kato, Hisanori; Koizumi, Takeshi; Ishigami, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a fruit that is known to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (AA) and various phytochemicals. We have previously reported that AA deficiency leads to ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin pigmentation in senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) hairless mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of acerola juice (AJ) intake on the skin of UVB-irradiated SMP30/GNL KO mice. Five-week old hairless mice were given drinking water containing physiologically sufficient AA (1.5 g/L) [AA (+)], no AA [AA (-)] or 1.67% acerola juice [AJ]. All mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 6 weeks. UVB irradiation was performed three times per week. The dorsal skin color and stratum corneum water content were measured every weekly, and finally, the AA contents of the skin was determined. The skin AA and stratum corneum water content was similar between the AA (+) and AJ groups. The L* value of the AA (+) group was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation, whereas AJ intake suppressed the decrease in the L* value throughout the experiment. Moreover, in the AJ group, there was a significant decrease in the expression level of dopachrome tautomerase, an enzyme that is involved in melanin biosynthesis. These results indicate that AJ intake is effective in suppressing UVB-induced skin pigmentation by inhibiting melanogenesis-related genes.

  8. Intragenic deletion in the Desmoglein 4 gene underlies the skin phenotype in the Iffa Credo "hairless" rat.

    PubMed

    Bazzi, Hisham; Kljuic, Ana; Christiano, Angela M; Christiano, Angela M; Panteleyev, Andrey A

    2004-10-01

    The Iffa Credo (IC) "hairless" rat is an autosomal recessive hypotrichotic animal model actively used in pharmacological and dermatological studies. Although the molecular basis of the IC rat phenotype was never defined, the designation "hr/hr" (hairless) has been used for this rat mutation. Despite the observation that IC rats share many phenotypic similarities with Charles River (CR) 'hairless rats', crossbreeding between CR and IC rats indicated that these mutations are not allelic, and moreover, genetic analysis of both CR and IC hairless mutant rats showed no mutations in the hr gene. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the skin phenotype in the IC rat. While the initial stages of hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis reveal no significant abnormalities, the subsequent processes of inner root sheath and hair shaft formation are severely disturbed due to impaired proliferation in the hair matrix and abnormal differentiation in the precortex zone. This results in significant reduction of hair bulb volume, and the formation of dysmorphic "blebbed" hair shafts lacking medullar structure and resembling "lanceolate" hairs. Based on the presence of lance-head hairs typical of rodent lanceolate mutants, we performed molecular analysis of the desmoglein 4 gene and found a large intragenic deletion encompassing nine exons of the gene. This finding, together with specific morphological features of skin and hairs, confirms that the IC rat is allelic with the lanceolate hair (lah) mutations in mice and rats. Our results elucidate the genetic and morphological basis of the IC rat mutation, thus providing a new model to study molecular mechanisms of hair growth control.

  9. Transdermal prodrug concepts: permeation of buprenorphine and its alkyl esters through hairless mouse skin and influence of vehicles.

    PubMed

    Imoto, H; Zhou, Z; Stinchcomb, A L; Flynn, G L

    1996-02-01

    In vitro skin permeation of buprenorphine (BUP) and three of its alkyl ester prodrugs was evaluated using hairless mouse skin. The three esters selected were the acetyl ester (Ac-BUP), butyl ester (Bu-BUP), and isobutyl ester (Isb-BUP). These drugs were applied on the skin as saturated slurries in three vehicles commonly used to formulate agents for transdermal purposes: propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), and light mineral oil. Unique solubilities were found for each drug on each vehicle. Fluxes through hairless mouse skin were evaluated for each combination of drug and vehicle using Franz diffusion cells. From PEG 400 formulations, the skin fluxes of BUP, Ac-BUP, Bu-BUP, and Isb-BUP were 0.47 +/- 0.08, 1.64 +/- 0.31, 0.33 +/- 0.05, 0.75 +/- 0.20 micrograms/cm2/h, respectively. Thus, among the three potential prodrugs chosen, only Ac-BUP showed significantly higher skin flux than BUP. There were no inter-vehicle differences in the fluxes from saturated slurries between the vehicles. Moreover, all the esters were detected substantially in the form of regenerated parent drug (BUP) in the receptor compartment. Indeed, only Ac-BUP exited the skin in a measurably intact form, but the fraction escaping metabolism in transit was small (approximately 2%). However, based on drug dispositions in the skin, the regeneration of buprenorphine seems to depend on the alkyl chain length of the ester moiety. The molar percentages of regenerated parent drug in whole drug collected from the skin following the permeation experiments were: Ac-BUP, 9.2%; Bu-BUP, 40.7%; Isb-BUP, 9.6%, respectively. Thus, only Ac-BUP appears promising as a prodrug of buprenorphine, because it is not overly hydrophilic for skin permeation and is also highly metabolized to the parent compound while in the skin.

  10. Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morifuji, Masashi; Kitade, Masami; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2017-01-01

    Background: We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. Methods: Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days. Seven days after fermented milk or EPS administration began, the dorsal skin of the mice was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm2). Results: Ingestion of either fermented milk or EPS significantly attenuated UV-B-induced erythema formation, dryness and epidermal proliferation in mouse skin. Both fermented milk and EPS were associated with a significant decrease in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and upregulated mRNA levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA), which is involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, administration of either fermented milk or EPS significantly suppressed increases in the ratio of interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12a and IL-10/interferon-gamma mRNA levels. Conclusion: Together, these results indicate that EPS isolated from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria enhanced DNA repair mechanisms and modulated skin immunity to protect skin against UV damage. PMID:28098755

  11. Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Morifuji, Masashi; Kitade, Masami; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2017-01-13

    We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days. Seven days after fermented milk or EPS administration began, the dorsal skin of the mice was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm²). Ingestion of either fermented milk or EPS significantly attenuated UV-B-induced erythema formation, dryness and epidermal proliferation in mouse skin. Both fermented milk and EPS were associated with a significant decrease in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and upregulated mRNA levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA), which is involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, administration of either fermented milk or EPS significantly suppressed increases in the ratio of interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12a and IL-10/interferon-gamma mRNA levels. Together, these results indicate that EPS isolated from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria enhanced DNA repair mechanisms and modulated skin immunity to protect skin against UV damage.

  12. Injury thresholds for topical-cream-coated skin of hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Zohner, Justin J.; Stolarski, David J.; Buchanan, Kelvin C.; Jindra, Nichole M.; Figueroa, Manuel A.; Chavey, Lucas J.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2006-02-01

    The reflectance and absorption of the skin plays a vital role in determining how much radiation will be absorbed by human tissue. Any substance covering the skin would change the way radiation is reflected and absorbed and thus the extent of thermal injury. Hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in vivo were used to evaluate how the minimum visible lesion threshold for single-pulse laser exposure is changed with a topical agent applied to the skin. The ED 50 for visible lesions due to an Er: glass laser at 1540-nm with a pulse width of 50-ns was determined, and the results were compared with model predictions using a skin thermal model. The ED50 is compared with the damage threshold of skin coated with a highly absorbing topical cream at 1540 nm to determine its effect on damage pathology and threshold. The ED 50 for the guinea pig was then compared to similar studies using Yucatan minipigs and Yorkshire pigs at 1540-nm and nanosecond pulse duration. 1,2 The damage threshold at 24-hours of a Yorkshire pig for a 2.5-3.5-mm diameter beam for 100 ns was 3.2 Jcm -2; very similar to our ED 50 of 3.00 Jcm -2 for the hairless guinea pigs.

  13. Dietary Milk Sphingomyelin Prevents Disruption of Skin Barrier Function in Hairless Mice after UV-B Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Oba, Chisato; Morifuji, Masashi; Ichikawa, Satomi; Ito, Kyoko; Kawahata, Keiko; Yamaji, Taketo; Asami, Yukio; Itou, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiation causes skin barrier defects. Based on earlier findings that milk phospholipids containing high amounts of sphingomyelin (SM) improved the water content of the stratum corneum (SC) in normal mice, here we investigated the effects of dietary milk SM on skin barrier defects induced by a single dose of UV-B irradiation in hairless mice. Nine week old hairless mice were orally administrated SM (146 mg/kg BW/day) for a total of ten days. After seven days of SM administration, the dorsal skin was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm2). Administration of SM significantly suppressed an increase in transepidermal water loss and a decrease in SC water content induced by UV-B irradiation. SM supplementation significantly maintained covalently-bound ω-hydroxy ceramide levels and down-regulated mRNA levels of acute inflammation-associated genes, including thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of loricrin and transglutaminase-3 mRNA were observed in the SM group. Our study shows for the first time that dietary SM modulates epidermal structures, and can help prevent disruption of skin barrier function after UV-B irradiation.

  14. Involvement of skin barrier dysfunction in itch-related scratching in special diet-fed hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Nabe, Takeshi; Tomozawa, Junko; Kohno, Shigekatsu

    2006-01-13

    HR-1 hairless mice fed with a special diet develop atopic-like dry skin, characterized by increased transepidermal water loss, and prolonged bouts of spontaneous scratching. In this study, the role of the skin barrier dysfunction in the prolongation of scratching was evaluated. Although the prolonged scratching was dose-dependently inhibited by opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, neither H(1) receptor antagonist, mepyramine, nor 5-HT(1/2) receptor antagonist, methysergide, affected it. Thus, the prolonged scratching could be itch-related response independent of histamine and serotonin. The application of petrolatum ointment on the skin temporarily alleviated the increase of transepidermal water loss for 60 min after treatment. Due to this alleviation in barrier dysfunction, the prolongation of scratching was significantly suppressed. However, when the barrier dysfunction relapsed, the scratching worsened. Taken together, a skin barrier dysfunction is associated with the itch-related response.

  15. Oral Administration of Glycine and Leucine Dipeptides Improves Skin Hydration and Elasticity in UVB-Irradiated Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Hyun Jun; Song, Soonran; Lee, Won Kyung; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2017-09-01

    Placenta is a special organ that contains many nutrients such as growth factors, minerals, and bioactive peptides. Dipeptides of glycine and leucine are major components of porcine placenta extracts (PPE) that has been used as an alternative of human placenta extracts. In this study, we investigated whether major peptides of PPE, Glycyl-L-Leucine (Gly-Leu), L-Leucyl-Glycine (Leu-Gly), and L-Leucyl-L-Leucine (Leu-Leu), affect skin hydration and elasticity in vitro and in vivo. We found that Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly dipeptides induced the expression of transglutaminase 1 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) whereas Leu-Leu dipeptides did not. Treatment with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly significantly increased hyaluronan (HA) synthesis in NHEKs and the upregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNA level was confirmed. In addition, elastase activity was inhibited in NHEKs treated with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides. Oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides increased skin hydration and elasticity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. The significant upregulation of HA in UVB-irradiated hairless mice was observed in response to oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly. These results suggest that the major dipeptides of porcine placenta, Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly, are potentially active ingredients for skin moisturization formulations.

  16. Oral Administration of Glycine and Leucine Dipeptides Improves Skin Hydration and Elasticity in UVB-Irradiated Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Hyun Jun; Song, Soonran; Lee, Won Kyung; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2017-01-01

    Placenta is a special organ that contains many nutrients such as growth factors, minerals, and bioactive peptides. Dipeptides of glycine and leucine are major components of porcine placenta extracts (PPE) that has been used as an alternative of human placenta extracts. In this study, we investigated whether major peptides of PPE, Glycyl-L-Leucine (Gly-Leu), L-Leucyl-Glycine (Leu-Gly), and L-Leucyl-L-Leucine (Leu-Leu), affect skin hydration and elasticity in vitro and in vivo. We found that Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly dipeptides induced the expression of transglutaminase 1 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) whereas Leu-Leu dipeptides did not. Treatment with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly significantly increased hyaluronan (HA) synthesis in NHEKs and the upregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNA level was confirmed. In addition, elastase activity was inhibited in NHEKs treated with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides. Oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides increased skin hydration and elasticity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. The significant upregulation of HA in UVB-irradiated hairless mice was observed in response to oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly. These results suggest that the major dipeptides of porcine placenta, Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly, are potentially active ingredients for skin moisturization formulations. PMID:28655072

  17. Protective Effect of Fermented Soybean Dried Extracts against TPA-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hairless Mice Skin

    PubMed Central

    Georgetti, Sandra R.; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T. M. C.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Fonseca, Maria J. V.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms. PMID:24073399

  18. Protective effect of fermented soybean dried extracts against TPA-induced oxidative stress in hairless mice skin.

    PubMed

    Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Baracat, Marcela M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms.

  19. Perilla frutescens leaves extract ameliorates ultraviolet radiation-induced extracellular matrix damage in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice skin.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung-Soo; Han, Mira; Shin, Hee Soon; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2017-01-04

    Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional herb that is consumed in East Asian countries as a traditional medicine. This traditional herb has been documented for centuries to treat various diseases such as depression, allergies, inflammation and asthma. However, the effect of Perilla frutescens on skin has not been characterized well. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Perilla frutescens leaves extract (PLE) on ultraviolet radiation-induced extracellular matrix damage in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice skin. Human dermal fibroblasts and Skh-1 hairless mice were irradiated with UV and treated with PLE. Protein and mRNA levels of various target molecules were analyzed by western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Histological changes of mouse skin were analyzed by H&E staining. To elucidate underlying mechanism of PLE, activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding assay and the measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed. PLE significantly inhibited basal and UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression dose-dependently, and also decreased UV-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and c-Jun N-terminal kinases. This inhibitory effects of PLE on MMP-1 and MMP-3 were mediated by reduction of ROS generation and AP-1 DNA binding activity induced by UV. Furthermore, PLE promoted type I procollagen production irrespective of UV irradiation. In the UV-irradiated animal model, PLE significantly reduced epidermal skin thickness and MMP-13 expression induced by UV. Our results demonstrate that PLE has the protective effect against UV-induced dermal matrix damage. Therefore, we suggest that PLE can be a potential agent for prevention of skin aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve attenuates UV-induced barrier perturbation and oxidative stress in hairless mice skin.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yuki; Sugimoto, Saho; Izawa, Naoki; Sone, Toshiro; Chiba, Katsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Kouji

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that some probiotics affect not only the gut but also the skin. However, the effects of probiotics on ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin damage are poorly understood. In this study, we aim to examine whether oral administration of live Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BBY), a typical probiotic, can attenuate skin barrier perturbation caused by UV and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hairless mice. The mice were orally supplemented with a vehicle only or BBY once a day for nine successive days. Mouse dorsal skin was irradiated with UV from days 6 to 9. The day after the final irradiation, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, and oxidation-related factors of the skin were evaluated. We elucidated that BBY prevented the UV-induced increase in TEWL and decrease in stratum corneum hydration. In addition, BBY significantly suppressed the UV-induced increase in hydrogen peroxide levels, oxidation of proteins and lipids, and xanthine oxidase activity in the skin. Conversely, antioxidant capacity did not change regardless of whether BBY was administered or not. In parameters we evaluated, there was a positive correlation between the increase in TEWL and the oxidation levels of proteins and lipids. Our results suggest that oral administration of BBY attenuates UV-induced barrier perturbation and oxidative stress of the skin, and this antioxidative effect is not attributed to enhancement of antioxidant capacity but to the prevention of ROS generation.

  1. Inhibition of UVB-induced skin damage by exopolymers from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hu; Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Young Joon; Lee, Ji Eun; Song, Chang Hyun; Choi, Seong Hun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kang, Su Jin

    2015-02-01

    Because antioxidants from natural sources may be an effective approach to the treatment and prevention of UV radiation-induced skin damage, the effects of purified exopolymers from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 ('E-AP-SM2001') were evaluated in UVB-induced hairless mice. E-AP-SM2001 consists of 1.7% β-1,3/1,6-glucan, fibrous polysaccharides and other organic materials, such as amino acids, and mono- and di-unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) and shows anti-osteoporotic and immunomodulatory effects, through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Hairless mice were treated topically with vehicle, E-AP-SM2001 stock and two and four times diluted solutions once per day for 15 weeks against UVB irradiation (three times per week at 0.18 J/cm(2) ). The following parameters were evaluated in skin samples: myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, cytokine levels [interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10], endogenous antioxidant content (glutathione, GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide anion production; matrix metalloproteases (MMP-1, -9 and -13), GSH reductase and Nox2 (gp91phox) mRNA levels, and immunoreactivity for nitrotyrosine (NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), caspase-3, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Photoageing was induced by UVB irradiation through ROS-mediated inflammation, which was related to the depletion of endogenous antioxidants, activation of MMPs and keratinocyte apoptosis. Topical treatment with all three doses of E-AP-SM2001 and 5 nm myricetin attenuated the UV-induced depletion of GSH, activation of MMPs, production of IL-1β, the decrease in IL-10 and keratinocyte apoptosis. In this study, E-AP-SM2001 showed potent inhibitory effects against UVB-induced skin photoageing. Thus, E-AP-SM2001 may be useful as a functional ingredient in cosmetics, especially as a protective agent against UVB-induced skin photoageing.

  2. Fluorescence spectroscopy in the visible range for the assessment of UVB radiation effects in hairless mice skin.

    PubMed

    de Paula Campos, Carolina; de Paula D'Almeida, Camila; Nogueira, Marcelo Saito; Moriyama, Lilian Tan; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Kurachi, Cristina

    2017-08-28

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation may induce skin alterations as observed in photoaging. Some recognized modifications are epidermal hyperplasia, amorphous deposition of degraded elastic fibers and reduction in the number of collagen fibers. They alter the tissue biochemical properties that can be interrogated by steady state fluorescence spectroscopy (SSFS). In this study, we monitored the changes in endogenous fluorescence emission from hairless mice skin during a protocol of photoaging using UVB irradiation. To perform the fluorescence spectroscopy, it was used a violet laser (408nm) to induce the native fluorescence that is emitted in the visible range. Under 408nm excitation, the emission spectrum showed bands with peaks centered around 510, 633 and 668nm for irradiated and control groups. A relative increase of the fluorescence at 633nm emission on the flank was observed with time when compared to the ventral skin at the same animal and the non-irradiated control group. We correlated the emission at 633nm with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), and our hypothesis is that the PpIX metabolism in the photoaged and aged skin are different. PpIX fluorescence intensity in the photoaged skin is higher and more heterogeneous than in the aged skin. Notwithstanding, more spectroscopic and biochemistry studies investigating the 510 and 633nm emission are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Kwang Yong

    2017-01-01

    As fullerene-based compound applications have been rapidly increasing in the health industry, the need of biomedical research is urgently in demand. While shungite is regarded as a natural source of fullerene, it remains poorly documented. Here, we explored the in vivo effects of shungite against ultraviolet B- (UVB-) induced skin damage by investigating the physiological skin parameters, immune-redox profiling, and oxidative stress molecular signaling. Toward this, mice were UVB-irradiated with 0.75 mW/cm2 for two consecutive days. Consecutively, shungite was topically applied on the dorsal side of the mice for 7 days. First, we found significant improvements in the skin parameters of the shungite-treated groups revealed by the reduction in roughness, pigmentation, and wrinkle measurement. Second, the immunokine profiling in mouse serum and skin lysates showed a reduction in the proinflammatory response in the shungite-treated groups. Accordingly, the redox profile of shungite-treated groups showed counterbalance of ROS/RNS and superoxide levels in serum and skin lysates. Last, we have confirmed the involvement of Nrf2- and MAPK-mediated oxidative stress pathways in the antioxidant mechanism of shungite. Collectively, the results clearly show that shungite has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice. PMID:28894510

  4. Lower limb direct skeletal attachment. A Yucatan micropig pilot study.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Marnie M; Brecht, J Stephen; Verstraete, Mary C; Kay, David B; Njus, Glen O

    2012-12-01

    Regardless of the type of prosthetic lower limb, successful ambulation requires proper prosthetic attachment. To help alleviate many of the problems associated with prosthetic attachment, direct skeletal attachment (DSA) has been proposed as an alternative to conventional sockets. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of lower limb DSA in a micropig model and to develop a systematic approach to the development and analysis of DSA systems. The DSA device consisted of two stages. The load-carrying stage embedded in the bone canal was designed using bone remodeling theory in conjunction with finite element analysis to approximate implant-induced remodeling and stabilization out to 36 months postimplantation. The skin-interfacing stage was designed to maintain an immutable infection barrier where the prosthesis exited the body. Following successful design, fabrication, and benchtop evaluation, the device was surgically implanted in a Yucatan micropig. The animal trial was successful out to 10 weeks and revealed potential flaws in the surgical protocol related to thermal necrosis. However, no signs of infection were present at the time of implant retrieval. While results of this pilot study support the feasibility of a DSA approach to prosthetic limb attachment, additional animal trials are necessary to prove long-term viability.

  5. Development of an in vivo animal model for skin penetration in hairless rats assessed by mass balance.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lene; Petersen, Mads B; Benfeldt, Eva; Serup, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop an in vivo animal model for studies of the penetration of topically applied drugs into the skin of hairless rats. Protective appliances were designed for non-occluded and finite-dose application of topical formulations. The design allowed 2 test sites for each rat and free mobility throughout the test period. By consecutive tape stripping, monitored by measurements of transepidermal water loss and confirmed by histological examination of skin biopsies, 10 tape strippings were found to remove the stratum corneum completely. For assessment of the model, (14)C-salicylic acid and (14)C-butyl salicylate were topically applied. Rapid and differentiated percutaneous absorption of both compounds were shown by urinary excretion data. For (14)C-salicylic acid the amount on the skin surface, in the stratum corneum and in the viable skin was determined. Total mass balance on the applied radioactivity was performed and a recovery of 90 +/- 2% was achieved. The radioactivity found in the protective appliances (<10%) was explained by lateral skin diffusion of the model compounds into the dressings.

  6. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate inhibits UVB-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in hairless mice and exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Ana L M; Campanini, Marcela Z; Martinez, Renata M; Ferreira, Vitor S; Steffen, Vinicius S; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Vilela, Fernanda M P; Martins, Frederico S; Zarpelon, Ana C; Cunha, Thiago M; Fonseca, Maria J V; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rúbia

    2014-09-05

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation may cause oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent skin cancer and premature aging. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is an antioxidant and inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. In the present study, the mechanisms of PDTC were investigated in cell free oxidant/antioxidant assays, in vivo UVB irradiation in hairless mice and UVB-induced NFκB activation in keratinocytes. PDTC presented the ability to scavenge 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical (OH); and also efficiently inhibited iron-dependent and -independent lipid peroxidation as well as chelated iron. In vivo, PDTC treatment significantly decreased UVB-induced skin edema, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and antioxidant capacity of the skin tested by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ABTS assays. PDTC also reduced UVB-induced IκB degradation in keratinocytes. These results demonstrate that PDTC presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, which line up well with the PDTC inhibition of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. These data suggest that treatment with PDTC may be a promising approach to reduce UVB irradiation-induced skin damages and merits further pre-clinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Moisturizing lotions can increase transdermal absorption of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxacetic acid across hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Brand, R M; Charron, A R; Sandler, V L; Jendrzejewski, J L

    2007-01-01

    Moisturizing lotions can be an effective treatment for occupationally induced dry skin. These compounds are designed to be hygroscopic and retain water to keep the stratum corneum hydrated, while at the same time enhancing the horny layer to prevent increases in transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Skin hydration levels, however, are known to influence barrier properties. The purpose of this work was to compare skin moisture levels induced by four commercially available moisturizing lotions with their capacity as transdermal penetration enhancers using the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a model chemical. Further, the effect of moisturizing the skin after washing with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on transdermal absorption was determined. Skin moisture levels were also measured noninvasively and were correlated to penetration enhancement. Hairless mouse skin was pretreated with commercially available moisturizing lotions either with or without SLS washing and in vitro permeability studies were performed with the herbicide 2,4-D. The data demonstrate that pretreatment with three of the four lotions tested increased the transdermal absorption of 2,4-D as evidenced by cumulative penetration or faster lag times (p < 0.05). Skin moisture levels correlated with the penetration enhancement capabilities of the lotion. Washing the skin with 5% SDS increased the transdermal absorption of 2,4-D (p < 0.05) and application of moisturizing lotions increased the absorption further. In summary moisturizing lotions may influence transdermal penetration of the skin, with the more effective moisturizers having a greater effect on 2,4-D absorption.

  8. Impact of ultraviolet radiation and ozone on the transepidermal water loss as a function of skin temperature in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Thiele, J J; Dreher, F; Maibach, H I; Packer, L

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation or ozone leads to skin damage including oxidation of skin biomolecules, as well as to depletion of constitutive antioxidants. The highly organized stratum corneum forming the main barrier against most xenobiotics is particularly susceptible to such damage and possible barrier perturbation may be the consequence. Whereas ample evidence exists for an increased permeability for different solutes including water after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, such an effect has not yet been reported for ozone. This study reports on the effect of such oxidative stressors using the hairless mouse as the skin model and measuring temperature-controlled transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as an indicator for skin barrier integrity. First, a strong dependency of the TEWL on skin temperature was observed, an effect that was clearly more pronounced than that found in man. Given this temperature dependency in untreated animals, we proceeded to determine the effects of both ultraviolet radiation and ozone on TEWL over a relevant physiological skin temperature range. Solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (0.75-3 minimal erythemal dose) resulted in a delayed and dose-dependent skin barrier disruption over the entire temperature range investigated. Conversely, daily ozone exposure at 2 ppm for 1 week, however, did not significantly alter TEWL up to 72 h after the last exposure. The results demonstrate a differential response of the epidermis to two environmental stressors associated with oxidative damage; they suggest that chronic ozone exposure at relevant environmental levels does not lead to a detectable skin barrier defect, while solar UV exposure was demonstrated to increase epidermal water loss. Furthermore, experimental evidence clearly suggests that future studies applying TEWL measurements in animal models should be performed under carefully controlled skin temperature conditions.

  9. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Boudry, Isabelle

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin damage.

  10. Photoprotective effects of sulindac against ultraviolet B-induced phototoxicity in the skin of SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Athar, Mohammad; An, Kathy P; Tang, Xiuwei; Morel, Kimberly D; Kim, Arianna L; Kopelovich, Levy; Bickers, David R

    2004-03-15

    Sulindac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with demonstrated potency as a chemopreventive agent in animal models of carcinogenesis and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Because tumor promotion is generally associated with exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli, it is likely that anti-inflammatory agents may have potent antitumor effects. In human skin, sulindac reduces bradykinin-induced edema. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor sulindac can protect against ultraviolet (UVB)-induced injury that is crucial for the induction of cancer. Exposure of SKH-1 hairless mice to two consecutive doses of UVB (230 mJ/cm2) induces various inflammatory responses including erythema, edema, epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, etc. Topical application of sulindac (1.25-5.0 mg/0.2 ml acetone) to the dorsal skin of SKH-1 hairless mice either 1 h before or immediately after UVB exposure substantially inhibited these inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of sulindac in drinking water (160 ppm) for 15 days before and during UVB irradiation similarly reduced these inflammatory responses. These potent anti-inflammatory effects of sulindac suggested the possibility that the drug could inhibit signaling processes that relate to carcinogenic insult by UVB. Accordingly, studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of sulindac in attenuating the expression of UVB-induced early surrogate molecular markers of photodamage and carcinogenesis. UVB exposure enhanced the expression of p53, c-fos, cyclins D1 and A, and PCNA 24 h after irradiation. Treatment of animals with either topical or oral administration of sulindac largely abrogated the expression of these UVB-induced surrogate markers. These results indicate that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor sulindac is effective in reducing UVB-induced events relevant to carcinogenesis and that this category of topically applied or

  11. Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodard, C.L.

    1993-05-13

    Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 0.4 LD50 HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding undecontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or HD-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

  12. Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodward, C.L.

    1994-12-31

    Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.4 LD%) HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with nothing or one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding non-decontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing of HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or ND-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

  13. Use of fractional CO2 laser decreases the risk of skin cancer development during ultraviolet exposure in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Gye, Jiwon; Ahn, Sung Ku; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Hong, Seung-Phil

    2015-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers are caused mainly by prolonged ultraviolet (UV) exposure. There is a growing interest in the prevention of skin cancer and antiaging treatment because of aging of the population. Currently, ablative fractional photothermolysis (FP) laser treatment is actively being performed for facial rejuvenation. The objective of this study was to prove the suppressive effect of CO2 fractional laser (FL) on skin cancer development. Two groups of hairless mice were treated with either CO2 FL or nothing at 3-week intervals during the 20 weeks of UV exposure period. The number of tumors was subsequently counted every 2 weeks over the 30-week period to the termination of the experiment. At 30 weeks, representative tumors were evaluated for tumor type. The authors also determined the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of the matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) and Type 1 procollagen. At 30 weeks, the UV- and FL-treated group showed a significantly lower tumor occurrence rate and a more benign progression of tumors than the UV-only treated group. The UV- and FL-treated group presented a higher mRNA level of Type 1 procollagen and a lower level of MMP-13 than the UV-only treated group. The occurrence of UV-induced skin tumors can be decreased by multiple sessions of ablative FP with CO2 laser.

  14. Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) of keratinocytes, blood vessels and nerves in hairless mouse skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    BUSSAU, L. J.; VO, L. T.; DELANEY, P. M.; PAPWORTH, G. D.; BARKLA, D. H.; KING, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) enabled subsurface fluorescence microscopy of the skin of hairless mice in vivo. Application of acridine orange enabled imaging of the layers of the epidermis. The corneocytes of the stratum corneum, the keratinocytes in the basal layers and redundant hair follicles were visualised at depths greater than 100 μm. Cellular and nuclear membranes of keratinocytes of the skin were visualised by the use of acridine orange and DIOC5(3). Imaging of the skin after injection of FITC-dextran revealed an extensive network of blood vessels with a size range up to 20 μm. Blood cells could be seen moving through dermal vessels and the blood circulation through the dermal vascular bed was video-taped. The fluorescent dye 4-di-2-ASP showed the presence of nerves fibres around the hair follicles and subsurface blood vessels. Comparison was made between images obtained in vivo using FOCI and in vitro scanning electron microscopy and conventional histology. FOCI offers the potential to study dynamic events in vivo, such as blood flow, skin growth, nerve regeneration and many pathological processes, in ways which have not previously been possible. PMID:9643419

  15. Skin permeation and distribution of two sunscreens: a comparison between reconstituted human skin and hairless rat skin.

    PubMed

    Monti, D; Brini, I; Tampucci, S; Chetoni, P; Burgalassi, S; Paganuzzi, D; Ghirardini, A

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this work were (a) to develop a simple and reproducible procedure for percutaneous absorption and distribution tests of sunscreens using one human skin culture model (Epiderm 606; reconstructed epidermis, RE), (b) to compare the said model with rat skin (RS) in vitro and (c) to evaluate the effect of different formulations. The cutaneous permeation and distribution of two UV filters, ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate (MC80) and ethylhexyltriazone (T150), using 3 different vehicles were investigated. The permeation studies demonstrated that neither MC80 nor T150 permeated through both RS and RE in spite of different thicknesses of the 2 substrates. Distribution studies demonstrated that sectioning by cryomicrotome to obtain horizontal skin layers was suitable for both RS and RE (apart from its small thickness) with a good reproducibility of data. The amounts of sunscreens retained in the 2 substrates were in the same order of magnitude for all formulations with a greater depot in RS. Different distribution profiles of the tested formulations could be ascribed to the different lipid compositions of RE and RS. Since the physicochemical characteristics of RE are closer to those of human skin, the results obtained with reconstructed human skin models could be suitable to replace human skin in 'in vitro testing'.

  16. Influence of sleep deprivation and morphine on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in skin of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Egydio, Flavia; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Noguti, Juliana; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2012-10-01

    Skin performs a host of primordial functions that keep the body alive. Morphine is a drug with immunosuppressant properties whose chronic use may lead to increased infection and delayed wound healing. Sleep is a fundamental biological phenomenon that promotes the integrity of several bodily functions. Sleep deprivation adversely affects several systems, particularly the immune system. The aim of this study was to perform an immunohistochemical evaluation on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in skin of sleep-deprived mice and mice chronically treated with morphine. Adult hairless male mice were distributed into the following groups: Control, morphine, sleep-deprived, and morphine + SD. Morphine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous) was injected every 12 h for 9 days. Morphine induced immunoexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase. Sleep deprivation did not modulate outcomes induced by morphine. Morphine, not sleep loss, induces cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase immunoexpression in the skin of hairless mice.

  17. Effect of vehicles and penetration enhancers on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of tenoxicam through hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Hye Sun; Chun, In Koo

    2002-04-02

    The effects of vehicles and penetration enhancers on the in vitro permeation of tenoxicam from saturated solutions through dorsal hairless mouse skin were investigated. Various types of vehicles, including ester-, alcohol-, and ether-types and their mixtures, were used as vehicles, and then a series of fatty acids and amines were employed as enhancers, respectively. Even though the fluxes of tenoxicam from saturated pure vehicles were generally low (0.1-1.1 microg/cm2 per h), the skin permeability of tenoxicam was significantly increased by the combination of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) and propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) or propylene glycol monocaprylate (PGMC); the highest fluxes were achieved at 40% of DGME in both of the two cosolvents. The marked synergistic enhancement was also obtained by using propylene glycol (PG)-oleyl alcohol (OAl) cosolvent. The greatest flux was attained by the addition of unsaturated fatty acids at 3% concentration to PG. But saturated fatty acids failed to show a significant enhancing effect. The enhancement factors with the addition of oleic acid (OA) or linoleic acid (LOA) to PG were 348 and 238, respectively. Tromethamine (TM) showed an enhancing effect by the increased solubility; however, triethanolamine (TEA) did not show a significant enhancing effect. Rather, it decreased the fluxes of tenoxicam when added to PG with fatty acids. The above results indicate that the combinations of lipophilic vehicles like OA, LOA or OAl and hydrophilic vehicles like PG can be used for enhancing the skin permeation of tenoxicam.

  18. Beneficial effects of dried pomegranate juice concentrated powder on ultraviolet B-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su-Jin; Choi, Beom-Rak; Kim, Seung-Hee; Yi, Hae-Yeon; Park, Hye-Rim; Song, Chang-Hyun; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, Young-Joon

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the anti-aging effects of pomegranate juice concentrated powder (PCP) in hairless mice following 15 weeks of UVB irradiation (three times a week; 0.18 J/cm2). Skin moisturizing effects were evaluated through skin water, collagen type I and hyaluronan contents, as well as collagen type I and hyaluronan synthesis-related transcript levels. Wrinkle formation and edema scores (skin weights) were also assessed, along with skin matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-9 and MMP-13 transcript levels. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of PCP, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 contents were observed. Caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were used as an apoptotic index in epidermal keratinocytes. To determine the anti-oxidative effects of PCP, nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal immunoreactive cells were detected and glutathione (GSH) content, malondialdehyde levels, superoxide anion production, Nox2, and GSH reductase mRNA expression were all measured. The results indicated that skin wrinkles induced by photoaging were significantly reduced by PCP, whereas skin water contents, collagen type I and hyaluronan contents all increased. Furthermore, IL-1β levels in the PCP-treated groups were lower than those in the UVB-exposed control group. UVB-induced GSH depletion was also inhibited by PCP. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that PCP has favorable protective effects against UVB-induced photoaging through anti-apoptotic effects, MMP activity inhibition and ECM (COL1 and hyaluronan) synthesis-related moisturizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. PMID:28810554

  19. Oral nanotherapeutics: Redox nanoparticles attenuate ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin inflammatory disorders in Kud:Hr- hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Chitho P; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2017-10-01

    The active participation of an anti-inflammatory drug in the biological pathways of inflammation is crucial for the achievement of beneficial and therapeutic effects. This study demonstrated the development of redox nanoparticles that can circulate in the blood at significantly high levels, thus increasing their efficacy as an oral treatment against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an in vivo inflammatory skin model. To confirm the blood bioavailability of the nanoparticles, mice were injected with the nanoparticles solution (RNP(N)) via oral gavage. Using electron spin resonance and radioactive labeling techniques, the blood circulation of the redox polymer that forms the nanoparticles was confirmed 24 h after oral administration. This contrasted with its low molecular weight counterpart (NH2-TEMPO), which peaked 15 min post injection and was found to be cleared rapidly within minutes after the peak. We then tested its efficacy in the inflammatory skin model. Kud:Hr-hairless mice were irradiated with UVB (302 nm) to induce skin damage and inflammation. Throughout the entire period of UVB irradiation, RNP(N) was administered to mice by free drinking. NH2-TEMPO was used as the control. The results showed that oral supplementation of RNP(N) significantly improved the therapeutic effects of the core nitroxide radical compared with its low molecular weight counterpart. Furthermore, RNP(N) significantly reduced UVB-induced skin aging, epidermal thickening, edema, erythema, skin lesions, and various pathological skin inflammatory disorders in vivo. From the obtained data, we concluded that the use of long-circulating redox nanoparticles (RNP(N)) provided an effective treatment against the damaging effects of excessive ROS in the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicity and penetration of TiO2 nanoparticles in hairless mice and porcine skin after subchronic dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhong; Liu, Wei; Xue, Chenbing; Zhou, Shunchang; Lan, Fengli; Bi, Lei; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang; Zeng, Fan-Dian

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigated the penetration and potential toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles following its dermal exposure in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, after exposure to isolated porcine skin for 24h, titanium dioxide nanoparticles of carious sizes cannot penetrate through stratum corneum. Interestingly, when studied in vivo, quite different results were obtained. After topically applied on pig ear for 30 days, TiO(2) nanomaterials (4 nm and 60 nm) can penetrate through horny layer, and be located in deep layer of epidermis. Furthermore, after 60 days dermal exposure in hairless mice, nano-TiO(2) particles can penetrate through the skin, reach different tissues and induce diverse pathological lesions in several major organs. Notably, P25 (21 nm) TiO(2) nanomaterials shows a wider tissue distribution, and can even be found in the brain without inducing any pathological changes. Among all of the organs examined, the skin and liver displayed the most severe pathological changes that correspond to the significant changes in SOD and MDA levels. These results suggest that the pathological lesions are likely to be mediated through the oxidative stress induced by the deposited nanoparticles. Accordingly, the collagen content expressed as HYP content are also significantly reduced in mouse skin samples, indicating that topically applied nano-TiO(2) in skin for a prolonged time can induce skin aging. Altogether, the present study indicates that nanosize TiO(2) may pose a health risk to human after dermal exposure over a relative long time period.

  1. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Boudry, Isabelle

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex differences in skin carotenoid deposition and acute UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice after consumption of tangerine tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Schick, Jonathan; Tober, Kathleen L.; Riedl, Ken M.; Francis, David M.; Young, Gregory S.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.

    2015-01-01

    Scope UVB exposure, a major factor in the development of skin cancer, has differential sex effects. Tomato product consumption reduces the intensity of UVB-induced erythema in humans, but the mechanisms are unknown. Methods and results Four week old SKH-1 hairless mice (40 females, 40 males) were divided into two feeding groups (control or with 10% tangerine tomatoes naturally rich in UV-absorbing phytoene and phytofluene) and two UV exposure groups (with or without UV). After 10 weeks of feeding, the UV group was exposed to a single UV dose and sacrificed 48 hours later. Blood and dorsal skin samples were taken for carotenoid analysis. Dorsal skin was harvested to assess sex and UV effects on carotenoid deposition, inflammation (skinfold thickness, myeloperoxidase levels) and DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, p53). Females had significantly higher levels of both skin and blood carotenoids relative to males. UV exposure significantly reduced skin carotenoid levels in females but not males. Tomato consumption attenuated acute UV-induced increases in CPD in both sexes, and reduced myeloperoxidase activity and % p53 positive epidermal cells in males. Conclusion Tangerine tomatoes mediate acute UV-induced skin damage in SKH-1 mice via reduced DNA damage in both sexes, and through reduced inflammation in males. PMID:26394800

  3. Sex differences in skin carotenoid deposition and acute UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice after consumption of tangerine tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Rachel E; Schick, Jonathan; Tober, Kathleen L; Riedl, Ken M; Francis, David M; Young, Gregory S; Schwartz, Steven J; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2015-12-01

    UVB exposure, a major factor in the development of skin cancer, has differential sex effects. Tomato product consumption reduces the intensity of UVB-induced erythema in humans, but the mechanisms are unknown. Four-week-old SKH-1 hairless mice (40 females, 40 males) were divided into two feeding groups (control or with 10% tangerine tomatoes naturally rich in UV-absorbing phytoene and phytofluene) and two UV exposure groups (with or without UV). After 10 weeks of feeding, the UV group was exposed to a single UV dose and sacrificed 48 h later. Blood and dorsal skin samples were taken for carotenoid analysis. Dorsal skin was harvested to assess sex and UV effects on carotenoid deposition, inflammation (skinfold thickness, myeloperoxidase levels), and DNA damage (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, p53). Females had significantly higher levels of both skin and blood carotenoids relative to males. UV exposure significantly reduced skin carotenoid levels in females but not males. Tomato consumption attenuated acute UV-induced increases in CPD in both sexes, and reduced myeloperoxidase activity and percent p53 positive epidermal cells in males. Tangerine tomatoes mediate acute UV-induced skin damage in SKH-1 mice via reduced DNA damage in both sexes, and through reduced inflammation in males. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Protective Effect of Dermal Brimonidine Applications Against UV Radiation-induced Skin Tumors, Epidermal Hyperplasia and Cell Proliferation in the Skin of Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Guy; Learn, Douglas B; Nonne, Christelle; Feraille, Gérard; Vial, Emmanuel; Ruty, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Brimonidine at 0.18%, 1% and 2% concentrations applied topically in hairless mice significantly decreased tumor burden and incidences of erythema, flaking, wrinkling and skin thickening induced by UVR. The unbiased median week to tumor ≥1 mm was increased by the 1% and 2% concentrations. The tumor yield was reduced by all concentrations at week 40 for all tumor sizes but the ≥4 mm tumors with the 0.18% concentration. At week 52, the tumor yield was reduced for all tumor sizes and all brimonidine concentrations. The tumor incidence was reduced by all concentrations at week 40 for all tumor sizes, but the ≥4 mm tumor with the 0.18% concentration and at week 52 for all tumor sizes with the 1% and 2% concentrations and with the 0.18% concentration only for the ≥4 mm tumors. Reductions in ≥4 mm tumor incidences compared to the vehicle control group were 54%, 91% and 86% by week 52 for the 0.18%, 1% and 2% concentrations, respectively. Brimonidine at 2% applied 1 h before or just after UVB irradiation on hairless mice decreased epidermal hyperplasia by 23% and 32% and epithelial cell proliferation by 59% and 64%, respectively, similar to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor.

  5. A paired comparison between human skin and hairless guinea pig skin in vitro permeability and lag time measurements for 6 industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Frasch, H Frederick; Barbero, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to measure and compare permeability coefficients (k(p)) and lag times (tau) in human skin and hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. Paired experiments employed heat-separated epidermal membranes from human and HGP sources mounted on static in vitro diffusion cells. Infinite-dose, saturated aqueous solutions of 6 industrial chemicals were used as donors: aniline, benzene, 1,2- dichloroethane, diethyl phthalate, naphthalene, and tetrachloroethylene. No significant differences were found between human and HGP skin for either k(p) or tau for any of these chemicals (p >or= .24). HGP vs. human k(p) measurements, and HGP vs. human tau measurements, were highly correlated. For k(p), the slope of the linear correlation was close to unity (1.080 +/- 0.182) and the intercept close to 0 (0.015 +/- 0. 029 cm/h), with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) = 0.898. For tau, the slope was also close to unity (0.818 +/- 0.030) and the intercept close to 0 (-0.014 +/- 0.023 h), with r(2) = 0.994. These results suggest that HGP skin may serve as an excellent surrogate for human skin in in vitro dermal penetration studies.

  6. Topical glycerol monooleate/propylene glycol formulations enhance 5-aminolevulinic acid in vitro skin delivery and in vivo protophorphyrin IX accumulation in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Steluti, Regilene; De Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Collett, John; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a potential therapy for cancer treatment, utilizes exogenously applied or endogenously formed photosensitizers, further activated by light in an appropriate wavelength and dose to induce cell death through free radical formation. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a pro-drug which can be converted to the effective photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). However, the use of 5-ALA in PDT is limited by the low penetration capacity of this highly hydrophilic molecule into appropriate skin layers. In the present study, we propose to increase 5-ALA penetration by using formulations containing glycerol monooleate (GMO), an interesting and useful component of pharmaceutical formulations. Propylene glycol solutions containing different concentrations of GMO significantly increased the in vitro skin permeation/retention of 5-ALA in comparison to control solutions. In vivo studies also showed increased PpIX accumulation in mouse hairless skin, after the use of topical 5-ALA formulations containing GMO in a concentration-dependent manner. The results show that skin 5-ALA penetration and PpIX accumulation, important factors for the success of topical 5-ALA-PDT in skin cancer, are optimized by GMO/propylene glycol formulations.

  7. Protective effect of hochuekkito, a Kampo prescription, against ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shigeto; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Tamiya, Hisashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Okano, Yuri; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Masaki, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takaaki; Hasegawa, Seiji; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Ishii, Masamitsu

    2013-03-01

    A Kampo prescriptions, hochuekkito (HET) has been utilized for treating functional conditions such as general fatigue, compromised state and gastrointestinal motility disorder. Recently, HET has attracted the attention of dermatologists because of its clinically positive effects in atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment. To explain this positive effect of HET, we examined its protective ability against oxidative skin stress using a murine model. The dorsal region of 8-week-old male HR-1 hairless mice, which were raised on a HET (0%, 2% and 10%) mixed diet, was irradiated once with 70 mJ/cm(2) of ultraviolet (UV)-B light. After 4 days, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum water content (SCWC), were determined as a measure of degree of skin dysfunction. To estimate the amount of active oxygen generated, the stratum corneum catalase activity (SCCA) and stratum corneum carbonylated protein (SCCP) content in the tape-stripped stratum corneum samples were measured. We also measured the H(2) O(2) scavenging ability of HET, and analyzed the changes in the expression levels of several inflammation and oxidative stress-related genes in the skin of HET-fed mice. In control mice, exposure to UV-B led to significant increases in TEWL and SCCP and significant decreases in SCWC and SCCA. These UV-B-induced changes were reduced in mice administrated HET, and the reduction was HET dose-dependent. Our results suggested that HET offered a protective effect against UV-B-induced skin damage. We also found that HET had relatively low ability to scavenge H(2) O(2) , and expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA decreased in HET-fed mouse.

  8. Permeation and distribution of ferulic acid and its α-cyclodextrin complex from different formulations in hairless rat skin.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Chetoni, Patrizia; Burgalassi, Susi; Saino, Veronica; Centini, Marisanna; Staltari, Lucia; Anselmi, Cecilia

    2011-06-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a natural product that occurs in seeds of many plants where it is generally located in the bran. This compound is a multifunctional ingredient endowed with antioxidative, radical scavenging, sunscreening and antibacterial actions. The aim of this study was to analyse the ferulic acid cutaneous permeation and distribution, through and into the skin layers, from different cosmetic vehicles, an O/W emulsion (pH 6.0) and two gel-type formulations at different pH levels (6.0 and 7.4), containing FA alone or an inclusion complex with α-cyclodextrin (CD-FA). In vitro permeation studies were performed in vertical diffusion cells using hairless rat excised skin. At appropriate intervals of time, the amount of permeated sunscreen/radical scavenger was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At the end of experiments, treated skin samples were sectioned with a cryomicrotome and the FA content of the individual slices was analysed by HPLC. FA-containing formulations, O/W emulsion, gels A and B, originated FA fluxes of 8.48 ± 2.31, 8.38 ± 0.89 and 5.72 ± 0.50 μg/cm(2) h, respectively, thus suggesting the pH influence on FA percutaneous permeation. The use of the inclusion complex, CD-FA, determined in all cases a decrease of FA transdermal permeation while no influence of pH was observed. Gel-type formulations containing FA ensured higher sunscreen storage in the superficial layers if compared with O/W emulsion. When FA was included in α-cyclodextrin, FA amount retained into skin layers decreased markedly.

  9. Effects of nociceptin and nocistatin on antidromic vasodilatation in hairless skin of the rat hindlimb in vivo.

    PubMed

    Häbler, H; Timmermann, L; Stegmann, J; Jänig, W

    1999-08-01

    1. We tested whether nociceptin (NCE), the endogenous ligand of the opioid receptor-like 1 (ORL1) receptor, and nocistatin (NST), which reverses central NCE effects when applied intrathecally (i.t.), affect small-diameter afferent fibre-mediated vasodilatation in rat hairless skin. 2. Female Wistar rats were vagotomized. Ongoing sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity was abolished by bilateral section of the lumbar sympathetic trunk between ganglia L2 and L3. Sensory axons were selectively stimulated in the dorsal root L5 by 20 electrical impulses supramaximal for activating C-fibres at 1 Hz. Blood flow was measured on the plantar skin of the left hind paw in the L5 dermatome using laser Doppler flowmetry. 3. NCE injected intravenously (i.v.) as single boluses (1, 10 and 100 nmol kg(-1) 7 - 8 min before dorsal root stimulation (n=6) dose-dependently decreased blood pressure and local vascular resistance and suppressed antidromic vasodilatation maximally by 47% (P<0.01). When NCE was injected 2 min before stimulation (n=3), antidromic vasodilatation was reduced by 64% after NCE (1 nmol kg-1) and totally, or almost totally, abolished after the two higher doses. 4. NST (1 - 100 nmol kg(-1) i.v., n=6) was without significant effect on blood pressure and cutaneous vascular resistance. Applied 5 (n=6) or 2 min (n=3) before stimulation it also did not affect antidromic vasodilatation. NST (100 nmol kg(-1) i.v.) applied shortly before an equimolar dose of NCE did not antagonize NCE effects on vascular resistance, blood pressure and antidromic vasodilatation (n=4). 5. In conclusion, NCE inhibits antidromic vasodilatation, a component of neurogenic inflammation, in rat skin while NST is without effect. NST, at the small-diameter sensory ending, is not an effective antagonist of NCE.

  10. Phytosphingosine Stimulates the Differentiation of Human Keratinocytes and Inhibits TPA-Induced Inflammatory Epidermal Hyperplasia in Hairless Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujong; Hong, Il; Hwang, Jung Sun; Choi, Jin Kyu; Rho, Ho Sik; Kim, Duck Hee; Chang, Ihseop; Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, Mi-Ock; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2006-01-01

    The binding of sphingoid bases to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been detected in a solid-phase binding assay. However, sphingoid base–induced changes in PPAR transactivation activity have not been examined. In this report, we show by reporter gene analyses that phytosphingosine (PS), a natural sphingoid base, activates the transcriptional activity of PPARs in the immortalized human keratinocyte, HaCaT. Real-time PCR analyses showed that the mRNA level of PPARγ was increased after PS treatment in HaCaT cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Because PPARs play important roles in skin barrier homeostasis by regulating epidermal cell growth, terminal differentiation, and inflammatory response, we examined the effect of PS on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and mouse skin. PS increased the production of cornified envelope in NHEKs by approximately 1.8-fold compared with controls. Epidermal differentiation marker proteins such as involucrin, loricrin, and keratin1 were also increased in PS-treated NHEKs, by ELISA or Western blotting analysis. A [3H]thymidine incorporation assay showed that PS inhibited DNA synthesis in NHEKs to 20% compared with controls. The antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of PS were examined in a mouse model of irritant contact dermatitis produced by topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). PS blocked epidermal thickening and edema and the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis in the skin of TPA-treated hairless mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of PS were confirmed by the observation that PS blocked the TPA-induced generation of prostaglandin E2 in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes. Taken together, our results provide an insight into the multiple regulatory roles of PS in epidermal homeostasis, and furthermore point to the potential use of PS as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory and proliferative cutaneous diseases. PMID:16838068

  11. Phytosphingosine stimulates the differentiation of human keratinocytes and inhibits TPA-induced inflammatory epidermal hyperplasia in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujong; Hong, Il; Hwang, Jung Sun; Choi, Jin Kyu; Rho, Ho Sik; Kim, Duck Hee; Chang, Ihseop; Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, Mi-Ock; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2006-01-01

    The binding of sphingoid bases to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been detected in a solid-phase binding assay. However, sphingoid base-induced changes in PPAR transactivation activity have not been examined. In this report, we show by reporter gene analyses that phytosphingosine (PS), a natural sphingoid base, activates the transcriptional activity of PPARs in the immortalized human keratinocyte, HaCaT. Real-time PCR analyses showed that the mRNA level of PPARgamma was increased after PS treatment in HaCaT cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Because PPARs play important roles in skin barrier homeostasis by regulating epidermal cell growth, terminal differentiation, and inflammatory response, we examined the effect of PS on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and mouse skin. PS increased the production of cornified envelope in NHEKs by approximately 1.8-fold compared with controls. Epidermal differentiation marker proteins such as involucrin, loricrin, and keratin1 were also increased in PS-treated NHEKs, by ELISA or Western blotting analysis. A [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay showed that PS inhibited DNA synthesis in NHEKs to 20% compared with controls. The antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of PS were examined in a mouse model of irritant contact dermatitis produced by topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). PS blocked epidermal thickening and edema and the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the dermis in the skin of TPA-treated hairless mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of PS were confirmed by the observation that PS blocked the TPA-induced generation of prostaglandin E(2) in peripheral mononuclear leukocytes. Taken together, our results provide an insight into the multiple regulatory roles of PS in epidermal homeostasis, and furthermore point to the potential use of PS as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory and proliferative cutaneous diseases.

  12. Effect of menthol and related terpenes on the percutaneous absorption of propranolol across excised hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Kunta, J R; Goskonda, V R; Brotherton, H O; Khan, M A; Reddy, I K

    1997-12-01

    The potential use of terpenes/terpenoids as penetration enhancers in the transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride (PL) was investigated. PL was chosen for the reasons of its extensive first-pass metabolism and short elimination half-life. The terpenes studied included L-menthol, (+)-limonene, (+/-)-linalool, and carvacrol at 1%, 5%, and 10% w/v concentrations. The diffusion of PL across excised hairless mouse skin was determined using side-by-side diffusion cells. Flux, permeability coefficient (Pm), and lag time (tL) were calculated. PL showed comparable lag times with menthol at all three concentration levels. At a 1% level of carvacrol, PL exhibited a 2.4- and 2.2-fold increase in lag time compared with 5 and 10% levels of enhancer, respectively. In the presence of limonene, PL had shown maximum lag time (between 3.0 and 3.3 h) at all three levels. In the case of linalool, the lag times for PL with 5 and 10% levels of enhancer were 7.0- and 5.2-fold less compared with 1% level. A significant (p < 0.05) concentration effect was observed only with linalool. Hydrogel-based patches were formulated with or without menthol as enhancer. Release profiles from the hydrogel formulations obeyed zero-order kinetics. The permeability of propranolol was significantly higher (p < 0.05) from the test patch than the control (no enhancer) patch across the mouse skin. The mechanism of permeation enhancement of menthol could involve its distribution preferentially into the intercellular spaces of stratum corneum and the possible reversible disruption of the intercellular lipid domain. The results suggest the potential use of menthol as effective penetration enhancer in the delivery of significant amounts of PL through skin.

  13. In vitro percutaneous absorption of tenoxicam from pressure-sensitive adhesive matrices across the hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Gwak, H S; Chun, I K

    2001-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of developing a new tenoxicam plaster, the effects of vehicles and penetration enhancers on the in vitro permeation of tenoxicam from a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) matrices across the dorsal hairless mouse skin were studied. Vehicles employed in this study were propylene glycol (PG)-oleyl alcohol (OAI), PG-oleic acid (OA), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME)-propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) cosolvents with/without fatty acids. In this study, amines such as triethanolamine (TEA) and tromethamine (TM) were additionally used as a solubilizer. Among PSAs used, Duro-Tak 87-2510 showed much higher release rate than either Duro-Tak 87-2100 or Duro-Tak 87-2196. The relatively high flux rate was obtained with the formulation of DGME-PGML (40:60, v/v) with 3% OA and 5% TM, and the flux increased as a function of the dose; the initial flux up to 12 h was 4.98 +/- 1.38 microg/cm2/h at the tenoxicam dose of 50 mg/70 cm2. This flux was much higher than that of a commercial piroxicam patch (Trast) (1.24 +/- 0.73 microg/ cm2/hr) with almost only one-third that of the commercial patch. Therefore, these observations indicated that these composition of tenoxicam plaster may be practically applicable.

  14. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel powder prevents UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity via suppression of overexpression of MMPs in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yao, Ruiquing; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Kouji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the effects of oral Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing Aloe sterols on skin elasticity and the extracellular matrix in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated hairless mice. Ten-week-old hairless mice were fed diets containing 0.3% AVGP for 8 weeks and irradiated UVB for 6 weeks. Mice treated with AVGP showed significant prevention of the UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity. To investigate the mechanism underlying this suppression of skin elasticity loss, we measured the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and -13. AVGP prevented both the UVB-induced increases in MMPs expressions. Moreover, we investigated hyaluronic acid (HA) content of mice dorsal skin and gene expression of HA synthase-2 (Has2). In the results, AVGP oral administration prevented UVB-induced decreasing in skin HA content and Has2 expression and attenuates the UVB-induced decrease in serum adiponectin, which promotes Has2 expression. These results suggested that AVGP has the ability to prevent the skin photoaging.

  15. Whey peptides prevent chronic ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin aging in melanin-possessing male hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Whey proteins or peptides exhibit various actions, including an antioxidant action, an anticancer action, and a protective action against childhood asthma and atopic syndrome. The effects of orally administered whey peptides (WPs) on chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced cutaneous changes, including changes in cutaneous thickness, elasticity, wrinkle formation, etc., have not been examined. In this study, we studied the preventive effects of WPs on cutaneous aging induced by chronic UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing male hairless mice (HRM). UVB (36-180 mJ/cm(2)) was irradiated to the dorsal area for 17 wk in HRM, and the measurements of cutaneous thickness and elasticity in UVB irradiated mice were performed every week. WPs (200 and 400 mg/kg, twice daily) were administered orally for 17 wk. WPs inhibited the increase in cutaneous thickness, wrinkle formation, and melanin granules and the reduction in cutaneous elasticity associated with photoaging. Furthermore, it has been reported that UVB irradiation-induced skin aging is closely associated with the increase in expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells. WPs also prevented increases in the expression of MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9, VEGF, and Ki-67- and 8-OHdG-positive cells induced by chronic UVB irradiation. It was found that WPs prevent type IV collagen degradation, angiogenesis, proliferation, and DNA damage caused by UVB irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrate the considerable benefit of WPs for protection against solar UV-irradiated skin aging as a supplemental nutrient.

  16. Studies on the relationship between epidermal cell turnover kinetics and permeability of hairless mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to develop non-invasive, physical means to quantitatively assess the epidermal turnover kinetics and barrier properties of the skin and relate these to the cutaneous irritation which results from ultraviolet light irradiation and mold thermal burns. After systematically injecting radiolabeled glycine, the appearance of radioactivity at the skin's surface indicated the transit time of radiolabeled cells through the skin. By plotting the data as the cumulative specific activity against time and then fitting them with a third order polynomial equation, it is possible to estimate the turnover time of the stratum corneum. The skin turnover was coordinated with non-invasive transepidermal water loss (TEWL) studies determined with an evaporimeter. In vitro diffusion studies of the permeability of hydrocortisone through UVB irradiated and thermally burned skin were also performed. The studies indicated that irritated skin offers a relatively low diffusional resistance to hydrocortisone. Depending on the severity of the trauma, the increases in hydrocortisone's permeability coefficient through irritated skin ranged from a low of about 2 times normal to a high of about 210 times normal. Trauma-induced changes in hydrocortisone permeability parallel changes in TEWL, proving that the barrier deficient state resulting from rapid epidermal turnover is a general phenomenon.

  17. Involvement of neurokinins in antidromic vasodilatation in hairy and hairless skin of the rat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Häbler, H J; Timmermann, L; Stegmann, J U; Jänig, W

    1999-01-01

    By intravenous application of the specific neurokininl receptor antagonist SR 140333 and the specific calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist CGRP8-37 we tested to what extent neurokinins (substance P, neurokinin A) and calcitonin gene-related peptide are involved in mediating antidromic vasodilatation in skin of anaesthetized Wistar rats. The lumbar sympathetic chain was sectioned bilaterally between ganglia L2 and L3 to remove ongoing vasoconstrictor activity to the hindquarter. The left dorsal root L5 was stimulated electrically at 1 Hz with 20 pulses supramaximal for activating C-fibres to evoke antidromic vasodilatation which was measured with laser Doppler flowmetry on the glabrous plantar skin and the hairy skin of the lower hindlimb within the left L5 territory. Stimulation-induced vasodilatation was tested after applying SR 140333 (0.1 mg/kg) and CGRP8-37 (0.3 mg/kg) alone or in combination. SR 140333 delayed the onset of the vasodilatation, but did not change its amplitude. CGRP8-37 reduced the amplitude and duration of the vasodilatation, but did not affect the latency of its onset. In combination, SR 140333 potentiated the effect of CGRP8-37 on the amplitude of the vasodilatation in glabrous but not in hairy skin and CGRP8-37 potentiated the delayed onset produced by SR 140333 in both cutaneous tissues. Antidromic vasodilatation in glabrous skin was almost totally blocked by SR 140333 (0.1 mg/kg) in combination with CGRP8-37 (0.45 mg/kg), but a substantial dilatation remained in hairy skin. It is concluded that in rat glabrous skin the vasodilatation evoked by a low level of activity in small-diameter primary afferents is likely to result from the release and synergistic action of neurokinins (substance P and/or neurokinin A) and calcitonin gene-related peptide, while in hairy skin neurokinins are involved to a minor extent only.

  18. Dietary chromium and nickel enhance UV-carcinogenesis in skin of hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Ahmed N.; Burns, Fredric J.; Rossman, Toby G.; Chen, Haobin; Kluz, Thomas; Costa, Max . E-mail: costam01@nyu.edu

    2007-06-15

    The skin cancer enhancing effect of chromium (in male mice) and nickel in UVR-irradiated female Skh1 mice was investigated. The dietary vitamin E and selenomethionine were tested for prevention of chromium-enhanced skin carcinogenesis. The mice were exposed to UVR (1.0 kJ/m{sup 2} 3x weekly) for 26 weeks either alone, or combined with 2.5 or 5.0 ppm potassium chromate, or with 20, 100 or 500 ppm nickel chloride in drinking water. Vitamin E or selenomethionine was added to the lab chow for 29 weeks beginning 3 weeks before the start of UVR exposure. Both chromium and nickel significantly increased the UVR-induced skin cancer yield in mice. In male Skh1 mice, UVR alone induced 1.9 {+-} 0.4 cancers/mouse, and 2.5 or 5.0 ppm potassium chromate added to drinking water increased the yields to 5.9 {+-} 0.8 and 8.6 {+-} 0.9 cancers/mouse, respectively. In female Skh1 mice, UVR alone induced 1.7 {+-} 0.4 cancers/mouse, and the addition of 20, 100 or 500 ppm nickel chloride increased the yields to 2.8 {+-} 0.9, 5.6 {+-} 0.7 and 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cancers/mouse, respectively. Neither vitamin E nor selenomethionine reduced the cancer yield enhancement by chromium. These results confirm that chromium and nickel, while not good skin carcinogens per se, are enhancers of UVR-induced skin cancers in Skh1 mice. Data also suggest that the enhancement of UVR-induced skin cancers by chromate may not be oxidatively mediated since the antioxidant vitamin E as well as selenomethionine, found to prevent arsenite-enhanced skin carcinogenesis, failed to suppress enhancement by chromate.

  19. Comparison of Fixation and Processing Methods for Hairless Guinea Pig Skin Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    neutral buffered formalin (NBF), McDowell Trump fixative (4CF-IG). Zenker’s formol -saline (Helly’s fluid), or Zenker’s fluid. Fixed skin sections were...had some variation in the percentages of lesions present, % hereas all lesions were 100 ’ present in the Zenker’s formol -saline- fixed. paraffin...range of fixatives. Based on this, we attempted to embed Zenker’s and Zenker’s formol -saline-tlxed tissue with plastic. However, our skin sections fixed

  20. Rutin inhibits UVB radiation-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS in hairless mouse skin: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential targets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Na, Hye-Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, a complete environmental carcinogen, induces oxidative and inflammatory skin damage, thereby increasing the risk of skin carcinogenesis. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a wide variety of plant polyphenols have been reported. Rutin (3-rhamnosyl-glucosylquercetin), a polyphenol present in many edible plants, possesses diverse pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anticancer activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of rutin on UVB-induced inflammation in mouse skin in vivo. Topical application of rutin onto the dorsal skin of female HR-1 hairless mice 30 min prior to UVB irradiation diminished epidermal hyperplasia and the levels of proteins modified by 4-hydroxynonenal, which is a biochemical hallmark of lipid peroxidation. Topical application of rutin also significantly inhibited UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), two representative inflammatory enzymes, in hairless mouse skin. Rutin inhibited the DNA binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) in mouse skin exposed to UVB. Moreover, rutin attenuated UVB-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAP kinase and JNK decreased UVB-induced expression of COX-2 in mouse skin. Taken together, these findings suggest that rutin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in UVB-irradiated mouse skin by inhibiting expression of COX-2 and iNOS, which is attributable to its suppression of p38 MAP kinase and JNK signaling responsible for AP-1 activation.

  1. Trans-chalcone added in topical formulation inhibits skin inflammation and oxidative stress in a model of ultraviolet B radiation skin damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Vale, David L; Steffen, Vinicius S; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Vignoli, Josiane A; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2017-06-01

    Trans-chalcone (TC) is a common precursor of flavonoids. However, the pharmacological properties of TC remain to be fully understood. The present study investigated whether topical formulation containing TC (TFcTC) presents therapeutic effect in UVB radiation-induced skin damage using disease, enzyme activity, antioxidant activity, protein and mRNA parameters. Control topical formulation (CTF) and TFcTC were applied in hairless mice before and after exposure to UVB radiation. Dorsal skin samples were collected after UVB exposure to evaluate: i) skin edema (weight) was measured by punch biopsy; ii) spectrophotometric assays were used to measure myeloperoxidase (MPO) and catalase activities, ferric (FRAP) and ABTS cation reducing antioxidant power, superoxide anion production and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH); iii) enzymography was used to measure matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity; iv) chemiluminescence was used to measure the lipid peroxidation (LPO); v) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels; vi) reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to measure cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), gp91(phox) (NADPH oxidase sub-unity), glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1), glutathione reductase (Gr), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expression. TFcTC inhibited UVB-induced skin edema, MPO activity, MMP-9 activity, TNF-α production, and COX-2 mRNA expression. TFcTC inhibited UVB-induced LPO, down-regulated superoxide anion levels and gp91(phox) mRNA expression, and improved antioxidant potential and GSH skin levels. The mRNA expression of detoxification systems such as Nrf2, HO-1, Gpx1 and Gr, and catalase activity were also enhanced by treatment with TFcTC. In conclusion, TFcTC protects mice skin from UVB radiation by inhibiting inflammation, and improving antioxidant and detoxification systems. Therefore, topical treatment with TC is a novel

  2. Histomorphological and angiogenic analyzes of skin epithelium after low laser irradiation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Leão, Juliane Caroline; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Pitol, Dimitrius Leonardo; Rizzi, Ellen Camargo; Dias, Fernando José; Siéssere, Selma; Regalo, Simone Cecílio Hallak; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

    2011-09-01

    It is not well-understood how low-laser therapy affects the skin of the applied area. This study analyzes skin of the masseteric region of mice from the HRS/J strain after three different application regimens (three, six or ten applications per regimen) of low intensity laser at 20 J/cm(2) and 40 mW for 20 sec on alternate days. Three experimental groups according to the number of laser applications (three, six or ten) and three control groups (N = 5 animals for each group) were used. On the third day after the last irradiation, all animals were sacrificed and the skin was removed and processed to analyze the relative occupation of the test area by each epithelial layer and the aspects of neovascularization. Data were submitted to statistical analyzes. The irradiated groups compared to their respective controls at each period of time, showed no significant difference in relative occupation of the test area by the layers and epithelium areas for three and six applications, but for ten applications, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the basal and granulosum layers, and epithelium areas were found. From the comparisons of the three irradiated groups together, the group with six laser applications showed statistical difference (P < 0.05) in total epithelium and on the layers. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivities were similar for the control and irradiated groups. Results suggested a biostimulatory effect with low risks associated with superficial tissues, when the treatment aims the deeper layers after six applications.

  3. Acute exposure to solar simulated ultraviolet radiation affects oxidative stress-related biomarkers in skin, liver and blood of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Svobodová, Alena Rajnochová; Galandáková, Adéla; Sianská, Jarmila; Doležal, Dalibor; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vostálová, Jitka

    2011-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) region of solar radiation is a critical factor in the initiation and development of a number of skin diseases. However, it is not only skin which is directly exposed to solar light that is affected by UV radiation, through low molecular weight mediators, generated upon irradiation, "non-skin" tissues can also be affected. The aim of this study was to examine in detail, the acute effects of UVA and UVB wavebands on hairless mice. Female SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to a single dose of UVB (200, 800 mJ/cm(2)) or UVA (10, 20 J/cm(2)) using a solar simulator. The effects on haematological parameters, activity and/or expression of antioxidant enzymes, level of glutathione (GSH), markers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and carbonylated proteins) were analysed in erythrocytes, plasma, liver and whole skin homogenates. No macroscopic changes were observed either 4 or 24 h after UVA/UVB exposure. The blood count showed a significant increase in leukocyte number and reduction of platelets 4 h following UVA and UVB irradiation, which disappeared 24 h after irradiation except for the higher UVA dose. Changes in oxidative stress-related parameters, particularly activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and level of GSH and lipid peroxidation products, were found in skin, erythrocytes and liver. The expression of several enzymes (CAT, SOD, glutathione transferase (GST), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and hem oxygenase-1 (HO-1)) in skin was affected following UVA and UVB radiation. Increase in carbonylated proteins was found in plasma and skin samples.

  4. Dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of sarcophine-diol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Guillermo, Ruth F; Zhang, Xiaoying; Kaushik, Radhey S; Zeman, David; Ahmed, Safwat A; Khalifa, Sherief; Fahmy, Hesham; Dwivedi, Chandradhar

    2012-09-01

    Sarcophine-diol (SD) is a lactone ring-opened analogue of sarcophine. It has shown chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin tumor development in female CD-1 mice, as well as in a UVB-induced skin tumor development model in hairless SKH-1 mice at a dose of 30 μg SD applied topically and 180 mJ/cm(2) UVB. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of SD on SKH-1 hairless mice when exposed to a UVB radiation dose of 30 mJ/cm(2). This UVB dose better represents chronic human skin exposure to sunlight leading to skin cancer than previous studies applying much higher UVB doses. Carcinogenesis was initiated and promoted by UVB radiation. Female hairless SKH-1 mice were divided into five groups. The control group was topically treated with 200 μL of acetone (vehicle), and the SD treatment groups were topically treated with SD (30 μg, 45 μg, and 60 μg dissolved in 200 μL of acetone) 1 h before UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm(2)). The last group of animals received 60 μg SD/200 μL acetone without UVB exposure. These treatments were continued for 27 weeks. Tumor multiplicity and tumor volumes were recorded on a weekly basis for 27 weeks. Weight gain and any signs of toxicity were also closely monitored. Histological characteristics and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated in the mice skin collected at the end of the experiment. The dose-response study proved a modest increase in chemopreventive effects with the increase in SD dose. SD reduced the number of cells positively stained with PCNA proliferation marker in mice skin. The study also showed that SD application without UVB exposure has no effect on the structure of skin. The results from this study suggest that broader range doses of SD are necessary to improve the chemopreventive effects.

  5. Effects of a turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) on chronic ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    Turmeric (the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., Zingiberacease) is widely used as a dietary pigment and spice, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, skin wounds and hepatic disorders in Ayurvedic, Unani and Chinese medicine. Although the topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to improve skin trouble, there is no evidence to support this effect. The aim of this study was to clarify whether turmeric prevents chronic ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated skin damage. We examined the effects of a turmeric extract on skin damage including changes in skin thickness and elasticity, pigmentation and wrinkling caused by long-term, low-dose ultraviolet B irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The extract (at 300 or 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) prevented an increase in skin thickness and a reduction in skin elasticity induced by chronic UVB exposure. It also prevented the formation of wrinkles and melanin (at 1000 mg/kg, twice daily) as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels and in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Prevention of UVB-induced skin aging by turmeric may be due to the inhibition of increases in MMP-2 expression caused by chronic irradiation.

  6. Protective Effect of Inositol Hexaphosphate Against UVB Damage in HaCaT Cells and Skin Carcinogenesis in SKH1 Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kendra A; Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; DeTolla, Louis J; Vucenik, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    UVB radiation damages keratinocytes, potentially inducing chronic skin damage, cutaneous malignancy, and suppression of the immune system. Naturally occurring agents have been considered for prevention and treatment of various kinds of cancer, including skin cancer. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), an antioxidant, is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that has shown a strong anticancer activity in several experimental models. We assessed the protective effects of IP6 against UVB irradiation-induced injury and photocarcinogenesis by using HaCaT cells (human immortalized keratinocytes) and SKH1 hairless mice. We found that IP6 counteracts the harmful effects of UVB irradiation and increases the viability and survival of UVB-exposed cells. Treatment with IP6 after UVB irradiation (30 mJ/cm2) arrested cells in the G1 and G2M phases while decreasing the S phase of the cell cycle. Treatment with IP6 also decreased UVB-induced apoptosis and caspase 3 activation. Topical application of IP6 followed by exposure to UVB irradiation in SKH1 hairless mice decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity as compared with control mice. Our results suggest that IP6 protects HaCaT cells from UVB-induced apoptosis and mice from UVB-induced tumors. PMID:21819680

  7. Protective effect of inositol hexaphosphate against UVB damage in HaCaT cells and skin carcinogenesis in SKH1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kendra A; Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Detolla, Louis J; Vucenik, Ivana

    2011-02-01

    UVB radiation damages keratinocytes, potentially inducing chronic skin damage, cutaneous malignancy, and suppression of the immune system. Naturally occurring agents have been considered for prevention and treatment of various kinds of cancer, including skin cancer. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), an antioxidant, is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that has shown a strong anticancer activity in several experimental models. We assessed the protective effects of IP6 against UVB irradiationinduced injury and photocarcinogenesis by using HaCaT cells (human immortalized keratinocytes) and SKH1 hairless mice. We found that IP6 counteracts the harmful effects of UVB irradiation and increases the viability and survival of UVB-exposed cells. Treatment with IP6 after UVB irradiation (30 mJ/cm(2)) arrested cells in the G(1) and G(2) M phases while decreasing the S phase of the cell cycle. Treatment with IP6 also decreased UVB-induced apoptosis and caspase 3 activation. Topical application of IP6 followed by exposure to UVB irradiation in SKH1 hairless mice decreased tumor incidence and multiplicity as compared with control mice. Our results suggest that IP6 protects HaCaT cells from UVB-induced apoptosis and mice from UVB-induced tumors.

  8. [Postnatal development of sensory nerve endings in the hairless nose skin of the cat].

    PubMed

    Halata, Z

    1981-01-01

    The postnatal development of sensory nerve endings has been studied in the skin of the planum nasale of the cat. The Merkel nerve endings develop in the prenatal period; after birth some redundant axons perish. Up to the third postnatal day, sporadic Merkel cells and nerve terminals still can be observed in the stratum papillare of the dermis. The free nerve endings in the dermis appear before birth. In the postnatal period the nerve fibres as well as the nerve endings ramify. A few of them come into contact with the stratum basale of the epidermis, others may perish. Most of these nerve endings are located in the stratum papillare of the dermis. The simple encapsulated corpuscles with an inner core develop after birth. In the depth of the dermis, the corpuscles are arranged mainly in groups, in the stratum papillare, however, they are more isolated. The development of those corpuscles, located in the depth of the dermis, already begins before birth and finishes mostly about the 39th postnatal day. The development of the corpuscles in the stratum papillare starts later and ends between the 3rd and 4th month. The nerve terminal of the corpuscle changes only slightly during development. It elongates, becomes thicker, and the number of mitochondria increases. During all stages it sends cytoplasmic spines in between the lamellar system of the inner core. The inner core is formed by cytoplasmic lamellae of the peripheric glial cells. In the course of development the number of cytoplasmic lamellae increases, they become thinner and gradually each one will be covered by a basal lamina. A mature corpuscle possesses an inner core with one or two longitudinal clefts. These clefts occur more frequently in corpuscles with complete capsules. The connective tissue cells primarily form a primitive capsule around the inner core. During development the layers of the capsule increase in number. Mature corpuscles have a one- to four-layered capsule. The capsular cells are then

  9. Dietary, but not topical, alpha-linolenic acid suppresses UVB-induced skin injury in hairless mice when compared with linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Naoya; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ihara, Yuka; Ikemoto, Atsushi; Fujii, Yoichi; Okuyama, Harumi

    2002-12-01

    Peroxidizability of fatty acids in the air is roughly proportional to the number of double bonds, but in vivo peroxidation proceeds in a more complex manner. Here, we compared the effects of dietary and topically applied oils enriched with linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) or alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) on UV-induced skin injury in a strain of hairless mice. The UVB-induced erythema score was significantly lower in mice with topically applied creams containing LA and ALA than in mice with the basal cream; no significant increase in the score was detected in the ALA group compared with the LA group. However, dietary ALA inhibited the increase in erythema score after UVB irradiation compared with LA. The peroxidizability index of the skin total lipids was significantly higher, but UVB-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was significantly lower in the group fed an ALA-rich diet compared with the group fed an LA-rich diet. The levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, estimated in the presence of butylated hydroxytoluene in the assay mixture, were not affected by UVB treatment or by the dietary fatty acids, but the severity of the skin lesion was associated with PGE2 levels. These results indicate that the type of fatty acids, n-6 or n-3, is critical for the suppression of UVB-induced skin lesion when the skin fatty acids are modified by dietary manipulation. Anti-inflammatory activity of dietary flaxseed oil with relatively high ALA and low LA contents was demonstrated in UVB-irradiated hairless mice.

  10. Inhibitory effect of glycolic acid on ultraviolet-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice and its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Hong, J T; Kim, E J; Ahn, K S; Jung, K M; Yun, Y P; Park, Y K; Lee, S H

    2001-07-01

    Glycolic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from fruit and milk sugars, has been used commonly as a cosmetic ingredient since it was discovered to have photoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant effects on ultraviolet (UV)B-irradiated skin. Little is known, however, about the functional role of glycolic acid on UV-induced skin tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the effect of glycolic acid on UV (UVA + UVB)-induced skin tumorigenesis and assessed several significant contributing factors in SKH-1 hairless mice. Inbred hairless female mice (15 animals/group) were irradiated for 5 d/wk at a total dose of 74.85 J/cm(2) UVA and 2.44 J/cm(2) UVB for 22 wk. Glycolic acid was applied topically twice a week at a dose of 8 mg/cm(2) immediately after UV irradiation. Glycolic acid reduced UV-induced skin tumor development. The protective effect of glycolic acid was a 20% reduction of skin tumor incidence, a 55% reduction of tumor multiplicity (average number of tumors/mouse), and a 47% decrease in the number of large tumors (larger than 2 mm). Glycolic acid also delayed the first appearance of tumor formation by about 3 wk. The inhibitory effect of glycolic acid on UV-induced tumor development was accompanied by decreased expression of the following UV-induced cell-cycle regulatory proteins: proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, cyclin E, and the associated subunits cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) and cdk4. In addition, the expression of p38 kinase, jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) also was lower in UV + glycolic acid-treated skin compared with expression in UV-irradiated skin. Moreover, transcription factors activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation was significantly lower in UV + glycolic acid-treated skin compared with activation in UV-irradiated skin. These results show that glycolic acid reduced UV-induced skin tumor development. The decreased

  11. French maritime pine bark (Pinus maritima Lam.) extract (Flavangenol) prevents chronic UVB radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

    2010-01-01

    A French maritime pine bark extract, Flavangenol, is widely used as a nutritional supplement for protection against atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, etc. Chronic exposure to solar UV radiation damages skin, increasing cutaneous thickness, wrinkling and pigmentation, as well as reducing elasticity, and causes skin cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of flavangenol on skin damage and the incidence of skin tumors caused by long-term UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The oral administration of flavangenol (60, 200 or 600 mg kg(-1), twice daily) significantly inhibited increases in skin thickness, and the formation of wrinkles and melanin granules, as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels. Furthermore, it prevented increases in numbers of apoptotic, Ki-67-positive and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells, and the expression of skin vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by chronic UVB irradiation. The effect on these biomarkers was associated with a reduction in the incidence of tumors in mice. The antiphotoaging and anticarcinogenetic activities of flavangenol may be due to inhibition of the expression of Ki-67, 8-OHdG and VEGF through a scavenging effect on reactive oxygen species.

  12. The effect of local UVB skin irradiation on the rate of formazan deposition in the epidermis of hairless mice studied by means of a tetrazolium-reduction method.

    PubMed

    Fosså, J; Iversen, O H; Thune, P O

    1980-01-01

    One-hundred-and-twenty hairless mice were irradiated with UVB (310 nm, exposure 60 mJ/cm2) on a limited area of the dorsal skin. At different time intervals after irradiation, the rate of endogenous dehydrogenase activity per mg dry epidermis was measured by the tetrazolium reduction method. The amount of formazan deposited remained normal for 18 h, and then increased, reaching a peak significantly higher than normal at 24 h, and thereafter returned to normal. At day 8 there was a new, probably significant peak. The reaction was followed for 14 days. It was concluded that UVB irradiation provokes a period of increased formazan deposition in the epidermis, similar to what has been observed after ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens. The validity of the tetrazolium test for skin carcinogenic irritaments was thus also confirmed.

  13. In vivo quantification of quantum dot systemic transport in C57BL/6 hairless mice following skin application post-ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Jatana, Samreen; Palmer, Brian C; Phelan, Sarah J; Gelein, Robert; DeLouise, Lisa A

    2017-04-14

    Previous work has demonstrated size, surface charge and skin barrier dependent penetration of nanoparticles into the viable layers of mouse skin. The goal of this work was to characterize the tissue distribution and mechanism of transport of nanoparticles beyond skin, with and without Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) induced skin barrier disruption. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to examine the effect of UVR dose (180 and 360 mJ/cm(2) UVB) on the skin penetration and systemic distribution of quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles topically applied at different time-points post UVR using a hairless C57BL/6 mouse model. Results indicate that QDs can penetrate mouse skin, regardless of UVR exposure, as evidenced by the increased cadmium in the local lymph nodes of all QD treated mice. The average % recovery for all treatment groups was 69.68% with ~66.84% of the applied dose recovered from the skin (both epicutaneous and intracutaneous). An average of 0.024% of the applied dose was recovered from the lymph nodes across various treatment groups. When QDs are applied 4 days post UV irradiation, at the peak of the skin barrier defect and LC migration to the local lymph node, there is an increased cellular presence of QD in the lymph node; however, AAS analysis of local lymph nodes display no difference in cadmium levels due to UVR treatment. Our data suggests that Langerhans cells (LCs) can engulf QDs in skin, but transport to the lymph node may occur by both cellular (dendritic and macrophage) and non-cellular mechanisms. It is interesting that these specific nanoparticles were retained in skin similarly regardless of UVR barrier disruption, but the observed skin immune cell interaction with nanoparticles suggest a potential for immunomodulation, which we are currently examining in a murine model of skin allergy.

  14. Conditioned medium from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes skin moisturization and effacement of wrinkles in UVB-irradiated SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Rin; Oh, Chang Taek; Choi, Eun Ja; Kim, Soon Re; Jang, Yu-Jin; Ko, Eun Jung; Yoo, Kwang Ho; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising therapeutic agents for various diseases. To investigate the effects of conditioned medium from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CdM) on pro-collagen production and wrinkle formation, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments. We assessed the effects of MSC-CdM on proliferation and photo-aging in human dermal fibroblasts after UVB exposure using enzyme activity assays for collagen type I secretion and MMP-1. To determine the effect of topically applied MSC-CdM on wrinkle formation, MSC-CdM (1% and 10%) and vehicle (propylene glycol: ethanol, 7 : 3) were applied to the dorsal skin of UVB-irradiated hairless mice for 8 weeks. We examined the effects on wrinkle formation by assessing visual skin grading, replica, tape stripping, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin hydration measurement. We also examined histology of the lesions using hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining. MSC-CdM markedly reduced UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression and increased pro-collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that MSC-CdM induces repair of dermal damage and effacement of wrinkles on UVB-irradiated hairless mice through protective effect of hydration. These results support an anti-wrinkle effect of MSC-CdM that involves increased collagen synthesis and suggest that MSC-CdM might be a potential candidate for preventing UV-induced skin damage. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection.

    PubMed

    Dorandeu, F; Taysse, L; Boudry, I; Foquin, A; Hérodin, F; Mathieu, J; Daulon, S; Cruz, C; Lallement, G

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to lethal chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is no longer only a military issue due to the terrorist threat. Among the CWAs of concern are the organophosphorus nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX) and the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM). Although efficient means of decontamination are available, most of them lose their efficacy when decontamination is delayed after exposure of the bare skin. Alternatively, CWA skin penetration can be prevented by topical skin protectants. Active research in skin protection and decontamination is thus paramount. In vivo screening of decontaminants or skin protectants is usually time consuming and may be expensive depending on the animal species used. We were thus looking for a suitable, scientifically sound and cost-effective model, which is easy to handle. The euthymic hairless mouse Crl: SKH-1 (hr/hr) BR is widely used in some skin studies and has previously been described to be suitable for some experiments involving SM or SM analogs. To evaluate the response of this species, we studied the consequences of exposing male anaesthetized SKH-1 mice to either liquid VX or to SM, the latter being used in liquid form or as saturated vapours. Long-term effects of SM burn were also evaluated. The model was then used in the companion paper (Taysse et al.(1)).

  16. Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by regulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice skin

    SciTech Connect

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Joseph, Binoy; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Yin, Yuanqin; Roy, Ram Vinod; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yitao; and others

    2014-10-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is present in various vegetables and fruits especially in edible berries, and displays potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we have assessed the in vivo effects of C3G on UVB irradiation induced chronic inflammatory responses in SKH-1 hairless mice, a well-established model for UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that C3G inhibited UVB-induced skin damage and inflammation in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our results indicate that C3G inhibited glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidation in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. C3G significantly decreased the production of UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, associated with cutaneous inflammation. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by C3G as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, C3G also decreased UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PGE{sub 2} and iNOS levels, which are well-known key mediators of inflammation and cancer. Treatment with C3G inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mice skin. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that topical application of C3G inhibited the expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 in chronic UVB exposed mouse skin. Collectively, these data indicates that C3G can provide substantial protection against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • C3G inhibited UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. • C3G inhibited UVB-induced COX-2, iNOS and PGE{sub 2} production. • C3G

  17. A Medical Research and Evaluation Facility and Studies Supporting the Medical Chemical Defense Program. Task 92-29: Efficacy Assessment of Topical Skin Protectants against Sulfur Mustard Vapors in Hairless Guinea Pigs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    hairless guinea pigs ( HGPs ) and the incidence of microblisters observed histologically. The dose-response curve was compared to results of similar work...performed at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD). The effects of ketamine hydrochloride anesthesia on HGP skin...reflectance were also examined. The exposure time needed to produce a 50 percent incidence of microblisters in HGP skin exposed to saturated HD vapors was

  18. Clinically-Relevant Cutaneous Lesions by Nitrogen Mustard: Useful Biomarkers of Vesicants Skin Injury in SKH-1 Hairless and C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K.; Inturi, Swetha; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of clinically applicable biomarkers to screen therapies in laboratory is a limitation in the development of countermeasures against cutaneous injuries by chemical weapon, sulfur mustard (SM), and its analog nitrogen mustard (NM). Consequently, we assessed NM-caused progression of clinical cutaneous lesions; notably, skin injury with NM is comparable to SM. Exposure of SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 (haired) mice to NM (3.2 mg) for 12–120 h caused clinical sequelae of toxicity, including microblister formation, edema, erythema, altered pigmentation, wounding, xerosis and scaly dry skin. These toxic effects of NM were similar in both mouse strains, except that wounding and altered pigmentation at 12–24 h and appearance of dry skin at 24 and 72 h post-NM exposure were more pronounced in C57BL/6 compared to SKH-1 mice. Conversely, edema, erythema and microblister formation were more prominent in SKH-1 than C57BL/6 mice at 24–72 h after NM exposure. In addition, 40–60% mortality was observed following 120 h of NM exposure in the both mouse strains. Overall, these toxic effects of NM are comparable to those reported in humans and other animal species with SM, and thus represent clinically-relevant cutaneous injury endpoints in screening and optimization of therapies for skin injuries by vesicating agents. PMID:23826320

  19. Peroxidized cholesterol-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation and its suppression by dietary beta-carotene in photoaging of hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yuko; Kawabata, Kyuichi; Kubo, Yoshiaki; Arase, Seiji; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Nikawa, Takeshi; Bando, Noriko; Kawai, Yoshichika; Terao, Junji

    2009-05-01

    The activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 leading to the formation of wrinkle and sagging of skin is an essential step in the skin photoaging on exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA). This study attempted to elucidate the role of peroxidized cholesterol including cholesterol hydroperoxides (Chol-OOHs), primary products of lipid peroxidation in biomembranes, in MMP-9 activation and the effect of dietary beta-carotene in MMP-9 activation. Hairless mice were subjected to periodic UVA irradiation for 8 weeks. The amount of peroxidized cholesterol detected as total hydroxycholesterol in the skin was increased significantly by the exposure. The activity and protein level of MMP-9 were elevated with wrinkling and sagging formation. MMP-9 activity was also enhanced by the intracutaneous injection of Chol-OOHs into the mouse skin. Adding beta-carotene to the diet of the mice during the period of irradiation suppressed the activity and expression of MMP-9 as well as the wrinkling and sagging formation. The amount of cholesterol 5alpha-hydroperoxide, a singlet molecular oxygen oxygenation-specific peroxidized cholesterol, was significantly lowered by the addition of beta-carotene to the diet. These results strongly suggest that Chol-OOHs formed on exposure to UVA contribute to the expression of MMP-9, resulting in photoaging. Dietary beta-carotene prevents the expression of MMP-9, at least partly, by inhibiting photodynamic action involved in the formation of Chol-OOHs.

  20. Fisetin Regulates Nrf2 Expression and the Inflammation-Related Signaling Pathway to Prevent UVB-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Yuan; Lyu, Jia-Ling; Liu, Yi-Jung; Chien, Ting-Yi; Hsu, Hao-Cheng; Wen, Kuo-Ching; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2017-10-10

    Chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure may cause skin damage, disrupt skin barrier function, and promote wrinkle formation. UV induces oxidative stress and inflammation, which results in extracellular matrix degradation in the dermis and epidermal hyperplasia. Our previous study demonstrated that fisetin exerts photoprotective activity by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein-1/matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation. In this study, fisetin was applied topically to investigate its antiphotodamage effects in hairless mice. The erythema index (a* values) and transepidermal water loss were evaluated to assess skin damage, and immunohistochemical staining was conducted to elucidate the photoprotective mechanism of fisetin. The results revealed that the topical application of fisetin reduced UVB-induced increase in the a* value and wrinkle formation. In addition, fisetin inhibited epidermal hyperplasia and increased the collagen content in the dermis. Fisetin exerted photoprotective activity by inhibiting the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, and cyclooxygenase-2 and increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor. Furthermore, fisetin increased the expression of filaggrin to prevent UVB-induced barrier function disruption. Altogether, the present results provide evidence of the effects and mechanisms of fisetin's antiphotodamage and antiphotoinflammation activities.

  1. Oral administration of Polypodium leucotomos delays skin tumor development and increases epidermal p53 expression and the anti-oxidant status of UV-irradiated hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Yanes, Esperanza; Cuevas, Jesús; González, Salvador; Mallol, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces skin tumors in hairless mice. Daily oral administration of a Polypodium leucotomos (PL) extract significantly delayed tumor development in PL-treated versus non-PL-treated mice. UVR and/or PL treatment modified several oxidative stress markers. In all irradiated mice, erythrocytic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content increased and in all PL-treated mice GSSG content decreased, specially in non-irradiated animals, and total plasma anti-oxidant capacity (ORAC) increased. In dorsolateral non-tumoral skin of all irradiated mice, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased and GSSG decreased in non-irradiated PL-treated animals. UVR induced a steep increase of p53 expression in epidermal cells. In non-tumoral skin, this increase was significantly higher in PL-treated animals than in non-treated mice and can contribute in delaying tumor development, either by repairing the damaged DNA or by increasing apoptosis. These results reinforce the usefulness of PL as systemic photoprotective agent, especially in patients highly sensitive to UVR.

  2. Determination of the maximal carcinoma/normal skin ratio after HpD or m-THPC administration in Hairless mice (SKH-1) by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bossu, E; Padilla-Ybarra, J J; Notter, D; Vigneron, C; Guillemin, F

    2000-02-01

    The two major steps in our study on the treatment of skin carcinomas by photochemotherapy (PCT) were the development of a skin tumor model in Hairless mice by a chemical carcinogenesis and the use of fluorescence spectroscopy, a semi-quantitative and non-invasive method, in order to determine the time after i.p. injection of photosensitizer when the tumor/normal skin ratio was the highest. A three-step carcinogenesis protocol provided mice bearing carcinomas and these were used to determine the tumor/normal skin ratios of two photosensitizers by fluorescence spectroscopy. Hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) (5 mg/kg body weight) and m-tetra(hydroxyphenyl) chlorine (m-THPC) (0.3 mg/kg body weight) were injected i.p., and fluorescence was measured at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after injection. The best carcinoma/normal skin ratio would be 3.2+/-1.4 for HpD and 2.7+/-2.1 for m-THPC, respectively. The delays required to reach these ratios were 72 h for HpD and 24 h for m-THPC. These results have to be considered with caution due to the high SEs and they must be confirmed by organic extraction. Photodynamic therapy with the same doses of HpD and m-THPC used in this pharmacokinetic study has to be carried out in order to compare the toxicities of the two photosensitizers and to determine which one is the best for this type of tumor.

  3. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  4. Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy: The Measurement of VX Depth Profiles in Hairless Guinea Pig Skin and the Evaluation of RSDL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    method used all Raman spectra that were recorded in the skin during the depth profile measurements ... method was their approach to determining the initial point at which measurements represented VX measurement in skin . The initial point posed a...surface of the skin and above the level of the first scan into the skin . Each of the three methods treated all subsequent incremental skin measurements

  5. Studies of in vitro skin permeation and retention of a leukotriene antagonist from topical vehicles with a hairless guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Malick, A W; Meltzer, N M; Mouskountakis, J D; Behl, C R

    1992-07-01

    A leukotriene antagonist [Ro 23-3544; 6-acetyl-7-[5-(4-acetyl-3-hydroxy-2-propylphenoxy)pentyloxy] -3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-2-carboxylic acid; 1] was studied in vitro for its permeation through and retention in hairless guinea pig skin from various topical vehicles. Both the free acid and the sodium salt forms of the drug were used. The vehicles evaluated were polyethylene glycol 400, propylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), C12-C15 alcohol lactates, dimethyl isosorbide, butyrolactone, methylpyrrolidone, hexyl laurate, isopropyl myristate, and caprylic/capric triglyceride (Neobee M5). For the salt form of the drug, the highest permeability coefficient and retention were obtained from DMSO and methylpyrrolidone, respectively. For the acid form, however, the highest permeability coefficient and retention were obtained from hexyl laurate and DMSO, respectively. The highest permeation and retention values were not obtained from the same vehicle for either the salt or the acid form of the drug. This observation questions the validity of using permeation (flux) measurements to screen topical drugs and formulations. Although the precise reasons for this lack of correlation between permeation and retention are not known at this time, this study has shown that the solubility parameters of the drug and the vehicles used may play an important role. It seems logical to conduct skin retention studies rather than flux measurements in evaluating drug delivery from dermatological products.

  6. Bathing Effects of Various Seawaters on Allergic (Atopic) Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong Gon; Kang, Meehye; Lee, Youn-Ho; Min, Won Gi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kang, Su Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Park, Ji Ha; Han, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effects of four types of seawater collected in Republic of Korea on hairless mice with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced allergic/atopic dermatitis (AD). The anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by measuring tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and interleukins (ILs). Glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effects. Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed to measure the antiapoptotic effects; matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 levels were also evaluated. Mice with AD had markedly higher clinical skin severity scores and scratching behaviors; higher TNF-α and ILs (1β, 10, 4, 5, and 13) levels; higher MDA, superoxide anion, caspase-3, PARP, and MMP-9 levels; and greater iNOS activity. However, the severity of AD was significantly decreased by bathing in seawaters, but it did not influence the dermal collagen depositions and skin tissue antioxidant defense systems. These results suggest that bathing in all four seawaters has protective effects against DNCB-induced AD through their favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective antiapoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of MMP activity and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. PMID:26221169

  7. Anti-Photoaging Effect of Jeju Putgyul (Unripe Citrus) Extracts on Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Ultraviolet B-induced Hairless Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Sun-Il; Jung, Tae-Dong; Cho, Bong-Yeon; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Yoon, Seon-A; Ham, Young-Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2017-09-25

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation stimulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory cytokines. These signaling pathways participate in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and induce inflammatory responses that lead to photoaging. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity and the effect on MMPs and procollagen of putgyul extract in vitro. The anti-photoaging activity of putgyul extracts was estimated in vivo using hairless mice (HR-1). The putgyul extracts reduced MMP-1 production and increased the content of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal peptide in human dermal fibroblasts. Ultravilot-B (UVB)-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and MMPs was detected in mice, and putgyul extracts suppressed the expression. These results suggest that putgyul extract inhibits photoaging by inhibiting the expression of MMPs that degrade collagen and inhibiting cytokines that induce inflammatory responses. The mouse model also demonstrated that oral administration of putgyul extracts decreased wrinkle depth, epidermal thickness, collagen degradation, and trans-epidermal water loss, and increased β-glucosidase activity on UVB exposed skin. Putgyul extract protects against UVB-induced damage of skin and could be valuable in the prevention of photoaging.

  8. In vitro and in vivo comparison of dermal irritancy of jet fuel exposure using EpiDerm (EPI-200) cultured human skin and hairless rats.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Babu, R Jayachandra; Klausner, M; Singh, Mandip

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate an in vitro EpiDerm human skin model (EPI-200) to study the irritation potential of jet fuels (JP-8 and JP-8+100). Parallel in vivo studies on hairless rats on the dermal irritancy of jet fuels were also conducted. Cytokines are an important part of an irritation and inflammatory cascade, which are expressed in upon dermal exposures of irritant chemicals even when there are no obvious visible marks of irritation on the skin. We have chosen two primary cytokines (IL-1alpha and TNF-1alpha) as markers of irritation response of jet fuels. Initially, the EPI-200 was treated with different quantities of JP-8 and JP-8+100 to determine quantities which did not cause significant cytotoxicity, as monitored using the MTT assay and paraffin embedded histological cross-sections. Volumes of 2.5-50 microl/tissue (approximately 4.0-78 microl/cm2) of JP-8 and JP-8+100 showed a dose dependent loss of tissue viability and morphological alterations of the tissue. At a quantity of 1.25 microl/tissue (approximately 2.0 microl/cm2), no significant change in tissue viability or morphology was observed for exposure time extending to 48 h. Nonetheless, this dose induced significant increase in IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha release versus non-treated controls after 24 and 48 h. In addition, IL-1alpha release for JP-8+100 was significantly higher than that observed for JP-8, but TNF-alpha release after 48 h exposure to these two jet fuels was the same. These findings parallel in vivo studies on hairless rats, which indicated higher irritation levels due to JP-8+100 versus JP-8. In vivo, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and IL-1alpha expression levels followed the order JP-8+100 > JP-8 > control. Further, in vivo TNF-alpha levels for JP-8 and JP-8+100 were also elevated but not significantly different from one another. In aggregate, these findings indicate that EPI-200 tissue model can be utilized as an alternative to the use of animals in evaluating dermal

  9. Daily Ingestion of Aloe Vera Gel Powder Containing Aloe Sterols Prevents Skin Photoaging in OVX Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ruiqing; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Saito, Marie; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-10-12

    Estrogen deficiencies associated with menopause accelerate spontaneous skin aging and stimulate the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced photoaging of skin. However, food compositions with the potential to ameliorate the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging with menopause have not yet been investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the ability of plant sterols derived from Aloe vera gel to prevent the UV irradiation-induced acceleration of skin aging in ovariectomized mice. Skin transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was significantly higher in the ovariectomy group than in the sham operation group following UVB irradiation, whereas skin elasticity was significantly lower. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced greater reductions in skin hyaluronic acid levels and more severe collagen fiber damage in the derims in the ovariectomy group than in the sham group. The intake of AVGP significantly ameliorated this acceleration in skin aging by reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and increasing that of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) in the skin. These results indicate that AVGP supplementation prevents skin damage induced by UVB irradiation and ovariectomy in part by inhibiting damage to the extracellular matrix.

  10. Fractionation of a tumor-initiating UV dose introduces DNA damage-retaining cells in hairless mouse skin and renders subsequent TPA-promoted tumors non-regressing.

    PubMed

    van de Glind, Gerline; Rebel, Heggert; van Kempen, Marika; Tensen, Kees; de Gruijl, Frank

    2016-02-16

    Sunburns and especially sub-sunburn chronic UV exposure are associated with increased risk of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here we focus on a possible difference in tumor initiation from a single severe-sunburn dose (on day 1, 21 hairless mice) and from an equal dose fractionated into very low sub-sunburn doses not causing any (growth-promoting) epidermal hyperplasia (40 days daily exposure, n=20). From day 47 all mice received 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) applications (2x/wk) for 20 weeks to promote tumor development within the lifetime of the animals. After the sub-sunburn regimen sparse DNA damage-retaining basal cells (quiescent stem cells, QSCs) remained in the non-hyperplastic epidermis. These cells were forced to divide by TPA. After discontinuation of TPA tumors regressed and disappeared in the 'sunburn group' but persisted and grew in the 'sub-sunburn group' (0.06 vs 2.50 SCCs and precursors ≥4 mm/mouse after 280 days, p=0.03). As the tumors carried no mutations in p53, H/K/N-Ras and Notch1/2, these 'usual suspects' were not involved in the UV-driven tumor initiation. Although we could not selectively eliminate QSCs (unknown phenotype) to establish causality, our data suggest that forcing specifically DNA damage-retaining QSCs to divide--with high mutagenic risk--gives rise to persisting (mainly 'in situ') skin carcinomas.

  11. Intraepidermal free nerve fiber endings in the hairless skin of the rat as revealed by the zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide technique.

    PubMed

    Müller, T

    2000-04-01

    The nerve fiber distribution in the epidermis of the hairless rat skin was studied light microscopically by means of zinc iodide-osmium tetroxide staining. Two different morphological types of free nerve fiber endings could be detected: clusters of relatively thick nerve fibers stretched up through the spinous layer up to the granular layer sending off terminal branches. In addition, many solitary thin varicose nerve fibers were seen within the epidermis. The observed discrepancies in nerve fiber diameters appeared to be larger than those reported for human intraepidermal nerve fibers in recent immunohistochemical studies. Moreover, dendritic cells, most probably representing Langerhans cells, could be selectively stained. These cells appeared to be in a close location to thin varicose nerve fibers. Both types of demonstrated free nerve endings have to be functionally connected with different sensoric functions. Possibly, a subpopulation of the thin nerve fibers might possess primarily a nociceptive task, whereas the thick ones have most probably to be regarded as mechanoreceptive. The nerve fibers innervating dendritic cells appear to be identical to the peptidergic ones which may regulate the antigen-presenting capacity of these cells. Due to its selectivity for intraepidermal nerve fibers, the used method might supplement immunohistochemical procedures in a helpful manner.

  12. Fractionation of a tumor-initiating UV dose introduces DNA damage-retaining cells in hairless mouse skin and renders subsequent TPA-promoted tumors non-regressing

    PubMed Central

    van de Glind, Gerline; Rebel, Heggert; van Kempen, Marika; Tensen, Kees; de Gruijl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Sunburns and especially sub-sunburn chronic UV exposure are associated with increased risk of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Here we focus on a possible difference in tumor initiation from a single severe-sunburn dose (on day 1, 21 hairless mice) and from an equal dose fractionated into very low sub-sunburn doses not causing any (growth-promoting) epidermal hyperplasia (40 days daily exposure, n=20). From day 47 all mice received 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) applications (2x/wk) for 20 weeks to promote tumor development within the lifetime of the animals. After the sub-sunburn regimen sparse DNA damage-retaining basal cells (quiescent stem cells, QSCs) remained in the non-hyperplastic epidermis. These cells were forced to divide by TPA. After discontinuation of TPA tumors regressed and disappeared in the ‘sunburn group’ but persisted and grew in the ‘sub-sunburn group’ (0.06 vs 2.50 SCCs and precursors ≥4mm/mouse after 280 days, p=0.03). As the tumors carried no mutations in p53, H/K/N-Ras and Notch1/2, these ‘usual suspects' were not involved in the UV-driven tumor initiation. Although we could not selectively eliminate QSCs (unknown phenotype) to establish causality, our data suggest that forcing specifically DNA damage-retaining QSCs to divide – with high mutagenic risk - gives rise to persisting (mainly ‘in situ’) skin carcinomas. PMID:26797757

  13. Protective effects of the antioxidant extract collected from Styela clava tunics on UV radiation‑induced skin aging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Ji Eun; Go, Jun; Song, Sung Hwa; Sung, Ji Eun; Son, Hong Joo; Jung, Young Jin; Kim, Bae Hwan; Jung, Young Suk; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2016-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is considered a primary cause of skin damage, which is characterized by deep wrinkles, roughness, laxity and pigmentation through oxidative stress and oxidative photodamage. To examine the therapeutic effects of ethanol extract of Styela clava tunics (EtSCT) on UV radiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice, alterations in skin phenotype, histological structures, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative conditions and toxicity were investigated during 13 weeks of UV irradiation and topical application of EtSCT. EtSCT showed high reducing power (3.1%), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (92.7%) and NO scavenging activity (15.6%) due to its high total flavonoids (15.3 mg/ml) and total phenolics (36.8 mg/ml). The topical application of EtSCT suppressed photoaging of the skin of UV-irradiated mice, and this was demonstrated by the inhibition of wrinkle formation, the suppression of the erythema index as well as the prevention of transepidermal water loss. Additionally, the epidermal thickness and adipocytes number were recovered to a similar level as that in the no radiation group in the UV + EtSCT‑treated groups compared with the UV + vehicle‑treated group, and the expression of collagen I increased. The attenuation of mitogen‑activated protein kinase and ER stress signaling pathways activated by reactive oxygen species was also detected in the UV + EtSCT‑treated group. Inflammatory responses including the infiltration of mast cells, CD31 expression and interleukin-6 secretion were significantly lower in the UV + EtSCT-treated groups. Moreover, the concentration of malondialdehyde was reduced and the activity of superoxide dismutase was effectively recovered in the UV + EtSCT-treated groups compared with that in the vehicle-treated groups. Liver and kidney toxicity factors were maintained at a constant level. These results suggest that EtSCT has the potential for

  14. Elucidation of the transport pathway in hairless rat skin enhanced by low-frequency sonophoresis based on the solute-water transport relationship and confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasunori; Mutoh, Mizue; Ueda, Hideo; Fang, Liang; Hirayama, Kotaro; Atobe, Mahito; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2005-04-18

    In this study, we examined a relationship between hydrophilic solute and water (vehicle) transports in the excised hairless rat skin in the presence of ultrasound (41 kHz, 60-300 mW/cm2) irradiation and also conducted skin surface observation using confocal microscopy. When the applied intensity was increased stepwise over the rage of 60-300 mW/cm2, the transport of tritiated water (3H2O) was increased 140-fold in an intensity-dependent manner and this returned to normal on stopping the ultrasound application. The skin permeation clearance (mul/h) of model hydrophilic solutes, calcein (MW 623) and FITC-labeled dextrans [MW 4400 (FD-4) and MW 38000 (FD-40)], across the skin under the influence of ultrasound was plotted against the corresponding 3H2O flux (microl/h) to estimate the potential contribution of convective solvent flow, induced by the ultrasound application, to the solute transport. Good correlations were observed between the 3H2O flux and solute clearances and, unexpectedly, the slope values obtained from linear regression of the plots were consistent for all solutes examined (1.04+/-0.29 for calcein, 1.07+/-0.17 for FD-4, and 1.08+/-0.23 for FD-40, respectively). Transport of intact FD-4 and FD-40 was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography. When the skin surface and deeper regions of the skin after sonophoresis of FD-40 were observed using a confocal microscope, the fluorescence of FD-40 was uniformly distributed in the area under the ultrasound horn and also evident in crack-like structures in the boundary of the horn. On the other hand, a hexagonal structure of horny cells in the stratum corneum (SC) observed by post-staining with rhodamine B was fully conserved in the area under the horn. These findings suggest that 41 kHz ultrasound can increase the transdermal transport of hydrophilic solutes by inducing convective solvent flow probably via both corneocytes and SC lipids as well as newly developed routes. Our observation also suggests that 41 k

  15. Fractionated illumination after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid on normal skin of hairless mice: the influence of the dark interval.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, H S; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, A; Sterenborg, H J C M; Robinson, D J

    2006-12-01

    We have previously shown that light fractionation during topical aminolevulinic acid based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) with a dark interval of 2h leads to a significant increase in efficacy in both pre-clinical and clinical PDT. However this fractionated illumination scheme required an extended overall treatment time. Therefore we investigated the relationship between the dark interval and PDT response with the aim of reducing the overall treatment time without reducing the efficacy. Five groups of mice were treated with ALA-PDT using a single light fraction or the two-fold illumination scheme with a dark interval of 30 min, 1, 1.5 and 2h. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics were monitored during illumination. Visual skin response was monitored in the first seven days after PDT and assessed as PDT response. The PDT response decreases with decreasing length of the dark interval. Only the dark interval of 2h showed significantly more damage compared to all the other dark intervals investigated (P<0.05 compared to 1.5h and P<0.01 compared to 1h, 30 min and a single illumination). No relationship could be shown between the utilized PpIX fluorescence during the two-fold illumination and the PDT response. The rate of photobleaching was comparable for the first and the second light fraction and not dependent of the length of dark interval used. We conclude that in the skin of the hairless mouse the dark interval cannot be reduced below 2h without a significant reduction in PDT efficacy.

  16. Hypochlorite Solution as a Decontaminant in Sulfur Mustard Contaminated Skin Defects in the Euthymic Hairless Guinea Pig

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    AD-P008 792 Hyochlorte Solution as a Decossitamrsrl nan Sultur Mustard Contaminated Skin Defects in the Euthymesc Hailess Guinea Pig Mark B. Gol, OVM...soilutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topi.cally dft-ontaminaise intact skin . However, lb~w -studios havo exarn-ined the efficacy of...euthymic hairles guinea pigs (EHGP) (n--6) were exposed tn 0 4 LD50 HO in a hA-thickntss 8 mm surgical bmop~sy skin deflect (ioe wound) Each animal was

  17. Chemopreventive effects of Calluna vulgaris and Vitis vinifera extracts on UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Filip, A; Clichici, S; Daicoviciu, D; Catoi, C; Bolfa, P; Postescu, I D; Gal, A; Baldea, I; Gherman, C; Muresan, A

    2011-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a major cause of non-melanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy in the management of cutaneous neoplasia. The study investigated the protective activity of Calluna vulgaris (Cv) and red grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L, Burgund Mare variety) (BM) extracts in vivo on UVB-induced deleterious effects in SKH-1 mice skin. Forty SKH-1 mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10): control, UVB irradiated, Cv + UVB irradiated, BM+UVB irradiated. Both extracts were applied topically on the skin in a dose of 4 mg/40 μl/cm(2) before UVB exposure - single dose. The effects were evaluated in skin 24 hours after irradiation through the presence of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and sunburn cells, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 levels. The antioxidant activity of BM extract was higher than those of Cv extract as determined using stable free radical DPPH assay and ABTS test. One single dose of UVB generated formation of CPDs (p<0.0001) and sunburn cells (p<0.0002) and increased the cytokine levels in skin (p<0.0001). Twenty hours following irradiation BM extract inhibited UVB-induced sunburn cells (p<0.02) and CPDs formation (p<0.0001). Pretreatment with Cv and BM extracts resulted in significantly reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α compared with UVB alone (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that BM extracts might be a potential candidate in preventing the damages induced by UV in skin.

  18. Injury Thresholds for Topical-Cream-Coated Skin of Hairless Guinea Pigs (cavia porcellus) in the Near Infrared Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Oler, and T.E. Johnson, "Comparison of two porcine { Sus scrofa domestica) skin models for in vivo near-infrared laser exposure," Comp. Med., 50, 391...Characterization of Porcine ( Sus scrofa domestica) Dermal Lesions Induced by 1540-nm Laser Radiation Pulses," Comparative Medicine 50(6), 633 - 638 (2000

  19. Sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced skin injury involves DNA damage and induction of inflammatory mediators, in part via oxidative stress, in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Inturi, Swetha; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2011-09-10

    Bifunctional alkyalating agent, sulfur mustard (SM)-induced cutaneous injury is characterized by inflammation and delayed blistering. Our recent studies demonstrated that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM that can be used in laboratory settings, induces oxidative stress. This could be the major cause of the activation of Akt/MAP kinase and AP1/NF-κB pathways that are linked to the inflammation and microvesication, and histopathological alterations in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. To further establish a link between CEES-induced DNA damage and signaling pathways and inflammatory responses, skin samples from mice exposed to 2 mg or 4 mg CEES for 9-48 h were subjected to molecular analysis. Our results show a strong CEES-induced phosphorylation of H2A.X and an increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible NOS (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels, indicating the involvement of DNA damage and inflammation in CEES-induced skin injury in male and female mice. Since, our recent studies showed reduction in CEES-induced inflammatory responses by glutathione (GSH), we further assessed the role of oxidative stress in CEES-related DNA damage and the induction of inflammatory molecules. Oral GSH (300 mg/kg) administration 1h before CEES exposure attenuated the increase in both CEES-induced H2A.X phosphorylation (59%) as well as expression of COX-2 (68%), iNOS (53%) and MMP-9 (54%). Collectively, our results indicate that CEES-induced skin injury involves DNA damage and an induction of inflammatory mediators, at least in part via oxidative stress. This study could help in identifying countermeasures that alone or in combination, can target the unveiled pathways for reducing skin injury in humans by SM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of inositol hexaphosphate on the development of UVB-induced skin tumors in SKH1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Williams, Kendra A; Benazzi, Cinzia; Sarli, Giuseppe; McLeod, Charles G; Vucenik, Ivana; DeTolla, Louis J

    2009-04-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is abundant in many plants and in various high-fiber foods, such as cereals and legumes. IP6 has a striking, broad-spectrum anticancer activity in various in vitro and animal models, in which it interferes with key pathways in malignancy to inhibit cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis and to induce apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of IP6 in drinking water on the incidence of UVB-induced skin cancer in the SKH1 (Crl: SKH1-hr) mouse model. One group of 15 mice received 2% IP6 in drinking water and UVB exposure, and the other group (n = 15) received UVB exposure only. All mice in both groups were fed an IP6-deficient diet (AIN 76A). The treatment group started receiving 2% IP6 in the drinking water 3 d before irradiation. Mice were irradiated 3 times each week, starting at a dose of 1.5 kJ/m2, with weekly increases in increments of 1.5 kJ/m2 to a final dose of 7.5 kJ/m2. Tumor formation was monitored until the week 31. IP6 in drinking water significantly decreased tumor incidence by 5-fold and tumor multiplicity by 4-fold. These results show that IP6 has an antiphotocarcinogenic effect and can protect against UVB-induced tumor formation.

  1. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller's earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure.

    PubMed

    Taysse, L; Dorandeu, F; Daulon, S; Foquin, A; Perrier, N; Lallement, G; Breton, P

    2011-06-01

    Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper(1) the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller's earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to either 2 µL of neat sulphur mustard or 50 µg.kg(-1) of diluted VX, mice were decontaminated. Both systems were able to reduce blisters 3 days after SM exposure. However, RSDL was found to be more efficient than FE in reducing the necrosis of the epidermis and erosion. In the case of VX exposure, RSDL, whatever the ratio of decontaminant to toxicant used (RSDL 10, 20, 50), was not able to sufficiently prevent the inhibition of plasma cholinesterases taken as a surrogate marker of exposure and toxicity. Only FE reduced significantly the ChE inhibition. Some of these observations are different from our previous results obtained in domestic swine and these changes are thus discussed in the perspective of using SKH-1 hairless mice for the initial in vivo screening of decontaminants.

  2. Quantitative Determination of Skin Penetration of PEG-Coated CdSe Quantum Dots in Dermabraded but not Intact SKH-1 Hairless Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Gopee, Neera V.; Roberts, Dean W.; Webb, Peggy; Cozart, Christy R.; Siitonen, Paul H.; Latendresse, John R.; Warbitton, Alan R.; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Walker, Nigel J.; Howard, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Many cosmetics, sunscreens, and other consumer products are reported to contain nanoscale materials. The possible transdermal absorption of nanoscale materials and the long-term consequences of the absorption have not been determined. We used polyethylene glycol coated cadmium selenide (CdSe) core quantum dots (QD; 37 nm diameter) to evaluate the penetration of nanoscale material into intact, tape stripped, acetone treated, or dermabraded mouse skin. QD were suspended in an oil-in-water emulsion (approximately 9μM) and the emulsion was applied at 2 mg/cm2 to mouse dorsal skin pretreated as follows: intact; tape stripped to remove the stratum corneum; acetone pretreated; dermabraded to remove stratum corneum and epidermis. QD penetration into the skin was monitored in sentinel organs (liver and regional draining lymph nodes) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of cadmium (from the CdSe QD). No consistent cadmium elevation was detected in the sentinel organs of mice with intact, acetone pretreated, or tape-stripped skin at 24- and 48-h post-QD application; however, in dermabraded mice, cadmium elevations were detected in the lymph nodes and liver. QD accumulation (as cadmium) in the liver was approximately 2.0% of the applied dose. The passing of QD through the dermabraded skin was confirmed using confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results suggest that transdermal absorption of nanoscale materials depends on skin barrier quality, and that the lack of an epidermis provided access to QD penetration. Future dermal risk assessments of nanoscale materials should consider key barrier aspects of skin and its overall physiologic integrity. PMID:19574408

  3. Anti-wrinkle effects of Sargassum muticum ethyl acetate fraction on ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mouse skin and mechanistic evaluation in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Piao, Mei Jing; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoon, Weon Jong; Ko, Mi Hee; Lee, Nam Ho; Lee, Mi Young; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin damage and photoaging in a mouse model. HR-1 strain hairless male mice were divided into three groups: An untreated control group, a UVB-irradiated vehicle group and a UVB-irradiated SME group. The UVB-irradiated mice in the SME group were orally administered with SME (100 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 ml water per day) and then exposed to radiation at a dose of 60–120 mJ/cm2. Wrinkle formation and skin damage were evaluated by analysis of skin replicas, epidermal thickness and collagen fiber integrity in the dermal connective tissue. The mechanism underlying the action of SME was also investigated in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line following exposure of the cells to UVB at a dose of 30 mJ/cm2. The protein expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and the binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) to the MMP-1 promoter were assessed in the HaCaT cells using western blot analysis, an MMP-1 fluorescent assay and a chromatin immune-precipitation assay, respectively. The results showed that the mean length and depth of the wrinkles in the UVB-exposed hairless mice were significantly improved by oral administration of SME, which also prevented the increase in epidermal thickness triggered by UVB irradiation. Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundle formation was observed in the UVB-treated mice with SME administration. SME pretreatment also significantly inhibited the UVB-induced upregulation in the expression and activity of MMP-1 in the cultured HaCaT keratinocytes, and the UVB-enhanced association of AP-1 with the MMP-1 promoter. These results suggested that SME may be useful as an anti-photoaging resource for the skin. PMID:27573915

  4. Tattoo removal in micropigs with low-energy pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xin-Hua; Wooden, W. A.; Cariveau, Mickael J.; Fang, Qiyin; Bradfield, J. F.; Kalmus, Gerhard W.; Vore, S. J.; Sun, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Treatment of pigmented lesions in skin with visible or near- infrared nanosecond (ns) laser pulses often causes significant collateral tissue damage because the current approach uses pulses with energy of 300 mJ or larger. Additionally, this requires large Q-switched laser systems. To overcome these disadvantages, we have investigated a different approach in delivering ns laser pulses for cutaneous lesion treatment. Tattoo removal in an animal model with a focused laser beam from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been investigated in two Yucatan micropigs tattooed with blue, black, green and red pigments. The tattoos were treated with a focused beam of 12-ns pulses at 1064 nm, with different depth under the skin surface, while the micropig was translated to achieve an effect of single pulse per ablation site in the skin. With the pulse energy reduced to a range from 38 to 63 mJ, we found that nearly complete clearance was achieved for blue and black tattoos while clearance of red and green tattoos was incomplete. Analysis of the skin appearance suggested that the pulse energy can be decreased to below 20 mJ which may lead to further reduction of the collateral tissue damage and improve the clearance of red and green tattoos.

  5. UV radiation-induced skin aging in hairless mice is effectively prevented by oral intake of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit blend for 6 weeks through MMP suppression and increase of SOD activity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Il; Lee, Hye Ryun; Lee, Young Ju; Jang, Min Ju; Son, Hong Ju; Lee, Hee Seob; Oh, Chung Hun; Kim, Bae Hwan; Lee, Sang Hak; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress and oxidative photodamage induced by UV radiation can cause serious skin damage that is characterized by wrinkling, roughness, laxity and pigmentation. The effects of a sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) fruit blend (SFB) containing sea buckthorn fruit extract, blueberry extract and collagen on UV-induced skin aging were examined by treating hairless mice for 6 weeks with UV irradiation and SFB administered orally. The effects of SFB were measured in the skin of these mice by phenotypical and histological analysis and western blotting. According to wrinkle formation analysis, the oral intake of SFB induced a decrease in wrinkle formation in the damaged skin of UV-irradiated mice. The thickness of the epidermis and dermis in the vitamin extracts (Vit)- and SFB-treated group was lower than that in the vehicle-treated group, but the group treated with SFB50 was the most effective group. The mice treated with the Vit- or SFB solution maintained a normal moisture content through the inhibition of transdermal water loss (TEWL) and an increase in skin moisture content. Furthermore, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and collagen protein expression were assessed in five groups to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of SFB oral intake. The application of SFB induced a decrease in MMP-1 and -9 expression to the levels observed in the vehicle-treated group, but MMP-9 expression showed a much larger decrease than MMP-1. Furthermore, the expression of collagen-1 in the skin corresponded to MMP expression except for the SFB30-treated group, whereas the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased dramatically in the SFB50-treated group. These results suggest that SFB has potential as a protective and therapeutic drug candidate against skin aging that functions by regulating the moisture content, MMP expression levels and SOD activity.

  6. Anti-wrinkle effects of Sargassum muticum ethyl acetate fraction on ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mouse skin and mechanistic evaluation in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Hyoung; Piao, Mei Jing; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoon, Weon Jong; Ko, Mi Hee; Lee, Nam Ho; Lee, Mi Young; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of Sargassum muticum (SME) against ultraviolet B (UVB)‑induced skin damage and photoaging in a mouse model. HR‑1 strain hairless male mice were divided into three groups: An untreated control group, a UVB‑irradiated vehicle group and a UVB‑irradiated SME group. The UVB‑irradiated mice in the SME group were orally administered with SME (100 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 ml water per day) and then exposed to radiation at a dose of 60‑120 mJ/cm2. Wrinkle formation and skin damage were evaluated by analysis of skin replicas, epidermal thickness and collagen fiber integrity in the dermal connective tissue. The mechanism underlying the action of SME was also investigated in the human HaCaT keratinocyte cell line following exposure of the cells to UVB at a dose of 30 mJ/cm2. The protein expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase‑1 (MMP‑1), and the binding of activator protein‑1 (AP‑1) to the MMP‑1 promoter were assessed in the HaCaT cells using western blot analysis, an MMP‑1 fluorescent assay and a chromatin immune‑precipitation assay, respectively. The results showed that the mean length and depth of the wrinkles in the UVB‑exposed hairless mice were significantly improved by oral administration of SME, which also prevented the increase in epidermal thickness triggered by UVB irradiation. Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundle formation was observed in the UVB‑treated mice with SME administration. SME pretreatment also significantly inhibited the UVB‑induced upregulation in the expression and activity of MMP‑1 in the cultured HaCaT keratinocytes, and the UVB‑enhanced association of AP‑1 with the MMP‑1 promoter. These results suggested that SME may be useful as an anti-photoaging resource for the skin.

  7. Assessment of correlation between skin target site free drug concentration and the in vivo topical antiviral efficacy in hairless mice for (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and acyclovir formulations.

    PubMed

    Afouna, M I; Mehta, S C; Ghanem, A H; Higuchi, W I; Kern, E R; De Clercq, E; El-Shattawy, H H

    1998-08-01

    Recently, we reported that the in vivo efficacy of acyclovir (ACV) formulations was a single valued function of skin target site free drug concentration (C) irrespective of the formulation compositions. A long-term objective of this research has been to generalize the C concept using model drugs which are similar to as well as different from ACV in their mechanism of actions. (Bromovinyl)deoxyuridine (BVDU) was selected as a model drug based on the reported similarity in its mechanism of action with ACV. The relationship between the C predictions and the in vivo efficacies for some topical formulations containing different concentrations (0.05-10%) of either ACV or BVDU in 95% DMSO as a vehicle with or without 5% Azone as skin permeation enhancer was examined. Hairless mice infected cutaneously with HSV-1 were used to quantitatively estimate the in vivo topical antiviral efficacy. A finite dose of the test antiviral formulation was applied twice a day for 4 days, starting the day after virus inoculation. On the fifth day, the lesions were scored and the efficacy values were calculated. For each formulation, in vitro flux experiments were performed in an in vivo-in vitro experimental design that closely approximated the in vivo study protocol. As was previously shown, with all ACV formulations, a good correlation was found between the C predictions and the in vivo topical efficacy. With the BVDU formulations, on the other hand, this was found not to be the case. BVDU formulations with 5% Azone were generally much more effective than those without Azone at comparable C values. This finding is believed to be the first of its kind showing that skin "permeation enhancers" may enhance efficacy by more than simply increasing skin permeation rates.

  8. Impact of Cosmetic Lotions on Nanoparticle Penetration through ex vivo C57BL/6 Hairless Mouse and Human Skin: A Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Jatana, Samreen; Callahan, Linda M.; Pentland, Alice P.; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with skin is important from a consumer and occupational health and safety perspective, as well as for the design of effective NP-based transdermal therapeutics. Despite intense efforts to elucidate the conditions that permit NP penetration, there remains a lack of translatable results from animal models to human skin. The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of common skin lotions on NP penetration and to quantify penetration differences of quantum dot (QD) NPs between freshly excised human and mouse skin. QDs were mixed in 7 different vehicles, including 5 commercial skin lotions. These were topically applied to skin using two exposure methods; a petri dish protocol and a Franz diffusion cell protocol. QD presence in the skin was quantified using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Results show that the commercial vehicles can significantly impact QD penetration in both mouse and human skin. Lotions that contain alpha hydroxyl acids (AHA) facilitated NP penetration. Lower QD signal was observed in skin studied using a Franz cell. Freshly excised human skin was also studied immediately after the sub-cutaneous fat removal process, then after 24 hours rest ex vivo. Resting human skin 24 hours prior to QD exposure significantly reduced epidermal presence. This study exemplifies how application vehicles, skin processing and the exposure protocol can affect QD penetration results and the conclusions that maybe drawn between skin models. PMID:27453793

  9. The inheritance and breeding results of hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Ohshima, S; Doi, K

    1993-01-01

    The inheritance and breeding results of hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs (MHDs) were investigated. When the male hairless dogs were bred to female beagles, the birth ratio of hairless and haired dogs was 1:1. Mating between MHDs gave both hairless and haired pups. The results indicated that an autosomal dominant monogenic gene was responsible for their hairless characteristics. We propose the symbol Hm for this gene (hairless, Mexican type). The survival rate of hairless pups was markedly lower than that of haired ones. It was elevated to 50-90% by warming their cages to a minimum of 25 degrees C.

  10. Effect of Azone upon the in vivo antiviral efficacy of cidofovir or acyclovir topical formulations in treatment/prevention of cutaneous HSV-1 infections and its correlation with skin target site free drug concentration in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Afouna, Mohsen I; Fincher, Timothy K; Zaghloul, Abdel-Azim A; Reddy, Indra K

    2003-03-06

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of Azone upon the skin target site free drug concentration (C(*)) and its correlation with the in vivo antiviral efficacies of cidofovir (HPMPC) and acyclovir (ACV) against HSV-1 infections. Formulations of HPMPC and ACV with or without Azone were used. The in vitro skin flux experiments were performed and the C(*) values were calculated. For the in vivo efficacy studies, hairless mice cutaneously infected with HSV-1 were used and three different treatment protocols were carried out. The protocols were chosen based upon when therapy is initiated and terminated in such a way to assess the efficacy of the test drug to cure and/or prevent HSV-1 infections. A finite dose of the formulation was topically applied twice a day for the predetermined time course for each protocol and the lesions were scored on the fifth day. For ACV formulation with Azone, the C(*) values and hence the in vivo efficacy were much higher than those for that without Azone. In protocol #1, however, early treatment did not increase the in vivo efficacy of ACV when compared with the standard treatment protocol #3. In protocol #2 where the treatment was terminated on the day of virus inoculation, the efficacies for both ACV formulations were completely absent. Although the estimated C(*) values for HPMPC formulations with and without Azone were comparable, formulation with Azone was much more effective than that without Azone in all treatment protocols. HPMPC formulations with Azone at similar flux values were much more effective in "treating and preventing" HSV-1 infections than those without Azone. For ACV formulations, in contrast, addition of Azone has failed to show any effect on the preventive in vivo antiviral efficacy and the enhancement of ACV in vivo antiviral efficacy was merely the skin permeation enhancement effect of Azone.

  11. Histological and molecular analysis of the long-pulse 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the ultraviolet-damaged skin of hairless mice: In association with pulse duration change.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Do Young; Cho, Hong Il; Park, Gyeong-Hun; Moon, Hye-Rim; Chang, Sung Eun; Won, Chong Hyun; Jung, Joon Min; Park, Ki-Young; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Lee, Deug-Chan; Goo, Boncheol

    2016-01-01

    Nonablative lasers have been widely used to improve photodamaged skin, although the mechanism underlying dermal collagen remodeling remains unclear. To investigate the effects and the molecular mechanisms of long-pulse neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation on dermal collagen remodeling in association with different pulse durations. Five hairless mice were pretreated with ultraviolet B irradiation for 8 weeks. The dorsal quadrant of each mouse was then irradiated twice at 1-week intervals at a pulse duration of 1 ms, 12 ms, or 50 ms, and a constant fluence of 20 J/cm(2). The levels of dermal collagen, mRNAs of procollagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and various growth factors were analyzed after 4 weeks. Long-pulse Nd:YAG treatment increased the dermal collagen level. A substantial increase in the level of procollagens, MMPs, TIMPs, and various growth factors was also observed irrespective of pulse duration, with a trend toward maximal increase at a pulse duration of 12 ms. Long-pulse 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation promotes wound-healing process, which is characterized by the induction of growth factor expression and subsequent increase in MMPs and TIMPs, followed by matrix remodeling as confirmed by new procollagen production.

  12. Contact hypersensitivity to stainless steel cages (chromium metal) in hairless descendants of mexican hairless dogs.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tohru

    2007-04-01

    Canine allergic contact hypersensitivity is an uncommon skin disease as compared with human beings because hair coat is a good natural barrier to environmental contactants. In our colony of hairless dogs housed in stainless steel cages, we have encountered spontaneously occurring contact hypersensitivity. The author has attempted to study the toxicological effects of environmental sensitizing substances on the canine skin. The purpose of this study is to elucidate dermatological characteristics in canine species with contact hypersensitivity. This skin lesion was investigated by patch tests, macroscopic observations, and histopathological examinations. Patch tests exhibited positive reactions to potassium dichromate. Macroscopically, early lesions were macules and/or papules and they gradually progressed to severe inflammatory dermatitis over the dorsum. In the chronic phase, lichenification, kyperkeratosis, hyperpigmentation, dryness, scaliness, and fissuring were observed in the skin. Avoidance of contact with the stainless steel cages resulted in clinical improvement. Histopathologically, the epidermis apparently showed hyperkeratosis, thickening, hyperplasia, and rete ridge formation. Lichenified lesions had clumps of melanin granules in the stratum basale and spinosum. In the dermis, there was marked edema and dense mononuclear cell infiltration. Vasodilation, hemorrhage, and hyperplasia of sebaceous glands were also found. Both dermal mast cells and epidermal Langerhans cells significantly increased in the skin lesions, as compared with nonlesional sites. The present results revealed that constant contact with stainless steel cages (chromium metal) caused contact hypersensitivity in hairless dogs with very sparse hairs. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hairless cats in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hendy-Ibbs, P M

    1984-01-01

    Ten hairless kittens are known to have been born in Britain since 1978. Pedigree study supports the hypothesis of a monogenic, recessive mode of inheritance proposed in previous reports. A review of the literature suggests the possibility of at least two mutations giving rise to hairless cats, one of which has normal whiskers and the other attenuated whiskers. For these, the gene symbols hi, and hr, respectively, have been proposed.

  14. Ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancer in the Crl:SKH1:hr-BR hairless mouse: augmentation of tumor multiplicity by chlorophyllin and protection by indole-3-carbinol.

    PubMed

    Cope, R B; Loehr, C; Dashwood, R; Kerkvliet, N I

    2006-05-01

    Over 1 million new cases of ultraviolet radiation-induced non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) per year now occur in the USA and the incidence of these diseases continues to increase. New preventative strategies are required. The hypothesis tested was that dietary administration of the putative cancer chemopreventatives sodium-copper-chlorophyllin (Chlor) or indole-3-carbinol (I3C) would inhibit UV-induced skin carcinogenesis in the Crl:SKH1:hr-BR hairless mouse. Groups of 20 mice were pre-fed isocaloric/isonutritive 20% corn-oil AIN-76a based diets that contained either Chlor (1.52 g%), I3C (5.08 g%) or no chemopreventative (control) for 2 weeks followed by exposure of their dorsal skin to a 10 week incremental, sub-erythemal, carcinogenic simulated solar UV exposure regime. Feeding was continued for the duration of the experiment. Matched non-UV exposed dietary groups were also included in the experimental design. The diets had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on body weight, feed consumption, cutaneous methanol-extractable UV photoprotective substances or on cutaneous UV-reflective characteristics. By day 180, UV-irradiated mice fed the Chlor had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher tumor multiplicity (33.6 +/- 4.72; mean +/- SEM) than UV-irradiated control animals (22.8 +/- 4.25). UV-irradiated mice fed I3C had a significantly (p < 0.001) lower tumor multiplicity (13.0 +/- 2.42) than that of both the UV-irradiated control and UV-irradiated Chlor-fed mice. The Chlor or I3C diets did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect UV-induced systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses. These results demonstrate augmentation of the UV-induced cutaneous carcinogenic process by dietary chlorophyllin and protection from this carcinogenic process by indole-3-carbinol via mechanisms that do not involve changes in skin optical properties, modulation of photoimmunosuppression or caloric/nutrient effects.

  15. Silibinin inhibits ultraviolet B radiation-induced DNA-damage and apoptosis by enhancing interleukin-12 expression in JB6 cells and SKH-1 hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Narayanapillai, Sreekanth; Agarwal, Chapla; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated silibinin efficacy against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin carcinogenesis via different mechanisms in cell lines and animal models; however, its role in regulating interleukin-12 (IL-12), an immunomodulatory cytokine that reduces UVB-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, is not known. Here, we report that UVB irradiation causes caspase 3 and PARP cleavage and apoptosis, and addition of recombinant IL-12 or silibinin immediately after UVB significantly protects UVB-induced apoptosis in JB6 cells. IL-12 antibody-mediated blocking of IL-12 activity compromised the protective effects of both IL-12 and silibinin. Both silibinin and IL-12 also accelerated the repair of UVB-caused cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in JB6 cells. Additional studies confirmed that indeed silibinin causes a significant increase in IL-12 levels in UVB-irradiated JB6 cells as well as in mouse skin epidermis, and that similar to cell-culture findings, silibinin topical application immediately after UVB exposure causes a strong protection against UVB-induced TUNEL positive cells in epidermis possibly through a significantly accelerated repair of UVB-caused CPDs. Together, these findings for the first time provide an important insight regarding the pharmacological mechanism wherein silibinin induces endogenous IL-12 in its efficacy against UVB-caused skin damages. In view of the fact that an enhanced endogenous IL-12 level could effectively remove UVB-caused DNA damage and associated skin cancer, our findings suggest that the use of silibinin in UVB-damaged human skin would also be a practical and translational strategy to manage solar radiation-caused skin damages as well as skin cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Characterization of Motor and Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in the Yucatan Micropig Using Transcranial and Epidural Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Francisco D; Santamaria, Andrea J; Bodoukhin, Nikita; Guada, Luis G; Solano, Juan P; Guest, James D

    2016-11-28

    Yucatan micropigs have brain and spinal cord dimensions similar to humans and are useful for certain spinal cord injury (SCI) translational studies. Micropigs are readily trained in behavioral tasks, allowing consistent testing of locomotor loss and recovery. However, there has been little description of their motor and sensory pathway neurophysiology. We established methods to assess motor and sensory cortical evoked potentials in the anesthetized, uninjured state. We also evaluated epidurally evoked motor and sensory stimuli from the T6 and T9 levels, spanning the intended contusion injury epicenter. Response detection frequency, mean latency and amplitude values, and variability of evoked potentials were determined. Somatosensory evoked potentials were reliable and best detected during stimulation of peripheral nerve and epidural stimulation by referencing the lateral cortex to midline Fz. The most reliable hindlimb motor evoked potential (MEP) occurred in tibialis anterior. We found MEPs in forelimb muscles in response to thoracic epidural stimulation likely generated from propriospinal pathways. Cranially stimulated MEPs were easier to evoke in the upper limbs than in the hindlimbs. Autopsy studies revealed substantial variations in cortical morphology between animals. This electrophysiological study establishes that neurophysiological measures can be reliably obtained in micropigs in a time frame compatible with other experimental procedures, such as SCI and transplantation. It underscores the need to better understand the motor control pathways, including the corticospinal tract, to determine which therapeutics are suitable for testing in the pig model.

  17. Interactions of ethanol and folate deficiency in development of alcoholic liver disease in the micropig.

    PubMed Central

    Halsted, Charles H.; Villanueva, Jesus A.; Devlin, Angela M.; James, S. Jill

    2002-01-01

    Folate deficiency is present in most patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), whereas folate regulates and alcoholism perturbs intrahepatic methionine metabolism, and S-adenosyl-methionine prevents the development of experimental ALD. Our studies explored the hypothesis that abnormal methionine metabolism is exacerbated by folate deficiency and promotes the development of ALD in the setting of chronic ethanol exposure. Using the micropig animal model, dietary combinations of folate deficiency and a diet containing 40% of kcal as ethanol were followed by measurements of hepatic methionine metabolism and indices of ALD. Alcoholic liver injury, expressed as steatohepatitis in terminal 14 week liver specimens, was evident in micropigs fed the combined ethanol containing and folate deficient diet but not in micropigs fed each diet separately. Perturbations of methionine metabolism included decreased hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and glutathione with increased products of DNA and lipid oxidation. Thus, the development of ALD is linked to abnormal methionine metabolism and is accelerated in the presence of folate deficiency. PMID:12053707

  18. Recapitulation of the hairless mouse phenotype using catalytic oligonucleotides: implications for permanent hair removal.

    PubMed

    Cserhalmi-Friedman, Peter B; Panteleyev, Andrey A; Christiano, Angela M

    2004-03-01

    Ribozyme technology is widely used to target mRNA in a sequence-specific fashion and thus change the expression pattern of cells or tissues. While the goal of mRNA targeting is usually the cleavage of mutant mRNAs with the prospect of gene therapy for inherited diseases, in certain instances, targeting of wild-type genes can be used therapeutically. Lack of expression of the mouse hairless gene due to inherited mutations leads to the complete and irreversible loss of hair known as atrichia. We designed this study to recapitulate the hairless phenotype in a restricted manner by topical application of deoxyribozyme-targeting molecules to specifically cleave the mouse hairless mRNA. Histological samples taken from treated skin at different times demonstrated a decreased number of hair follicles, an involution of the remaining follicles, a separation of the dermal papillae, and the presence of dermal cysts, all characteristics of the hairless phenotype, but not normally present in the skin of C57Bl/6 J mice. In this study, we successfully recapitulated the hairless phenotype using topically applied target-specific catalytic oligonucleotides designed to cleave the mouse hairless mRNA. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using ribozyme technology to alter the gene expression in the skin via topical application and provide proof of principle for the development of this strategy for permanent hair removal.

  19. Bathing effects of east saline groundwater concentrates on allergic (atopic) dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong-Gon; Lee, Ji-Eun; Jeong, Da-Geum; Lee, Youn-Ho; Park, Sang-In; Lee, Dae-Geon; Han, Chang-Hyun; Kang, Su-Jin; Song, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Seong-Hun; Lee, Young-Joon; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, it was evaluated whether east saline groundwater concentration solution (ESGWc) exerted a favorable inhibitory effect on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced allergic/atopic-like dermatitis (AD). AD was induced and boosted by sensitization with DNCB via topical application on the dorsal back skins. Mice with DNCB-induced AD were bathed in 100-, 200- and 400-fold diluted ESGWc. After 6 weeks bathing, changes to body weight, clinical skin severity scores, scratching behavior, serum total immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels, submandibular lymph node and spleen weights, splenic cytokine levels, skin cytokine mRNA expressions, antioxidant defense systems and superoxide anion productions were recorded to determine the effects of bathing on the histopathology of dorsal back skin tissues. All DNCB-induced mice demonstrated that the induction of AD through IgE-mediated hypersensitivities, oxidative stresses, activation of MMP and apoptosis of keratinocytes resulted in no significant differences in body weight between the different groups at each time point following initial sensitization. However, markers of DNCB-induced AD were significantly inhibited (P<0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner following bathing in all concentrations of ESGWc. The results obtained in the present study suggest that bathing in ESGWc may have favorable protective effects against DNCB-induced AD due to favorable systemic and local immunomodulatory effects, active cytoprotective anti-apoptotic effects, inhibitory effects of matrix metalloproteinase activity, and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. PMID:28587425

  20. Topical Gene Electrotransfer to the Epidermis of Hairless Guinea Pig by Non-Invasive Multielectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Siqi; Israel, Annelise L.; Basu, Gaurav; Donate, Amy; Heller, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Topical gene delivery to the epidermis has the potential to be an effective therapy for skin disorders, cutaneous cancers, vaccinations and systemic metabolic diseases. Previously, we reported on a non-invasive multielectrode array (MEA) that efficiently delivered plasmid DNA and enhanced expression to the skin of several animal models by in vivo gene electrotransfer. Here, we characterized plasmid DNA delivery with the MEA in a hairless guinea pig model, which has a similar histology and structure to human skin. Significant elevation of gene expression up to 4 logs was achieved with intradermal DNA administration followed by topical non-invasive skin gene electrotransfer. This delivery produced gene expression in the skin of hairless guinea pig up to 12 to 15 days. Gene expression was observed exclusively in the epidermis. Skin gene electrotransfer with the MEA resulted in only minimal and mild skin changes. A low level of human Factor IX was detected in the plasma of hairless guinea pig after gene electrotransfer with the MEA, although a significant increase of Factor IX was obtained in the skin of animals. These results suggest gene electrotransfer with the MEA can be a safe, efficient, non-invasive skin delivery method for skin disorders, vaccinations and potential systemic diseases where low levels of gene products are sufficient. PMID:24015305

  1. Field melanin mapping of the hairless scalp.

    PubMed

    Piérard, Gérald E; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Quatresooz, Pascale

    2012-11-01

    Mottled subclinical melanoderma (MSM) is frequently seen on facial skin using the ultraviolet light enhanced visualization (ULEV) method. The corresponding aspect on the hairless scalp remains unknown. To explore the field distribution of melanin on the scalp of fair-skinned Caucasian subjects. The scalp was examined in 43 men with androgenic alopecia. The Visioscan(®) camera provided the ULEV pictures. Another optical (Visioface(®) Quick) device was used under white light illumination followed by colour contrast enhancement. This was reached after specific computer filtration of the cyan hue wavelengths. Under white light illumination, the scalp looked normal. MSM patterns were disclosed by both optical procedures as evenly scattered discrete patchy fields of hypermelanosis. The smaller rounded spots were restricted to the lips of the hair infundibula. Larger irregularly shaped spots predominated in the interfollicular areas. A few hypomelanotic spots were scattered over the scalp. The present observations based on dual optical methods possibly provide information about a patterned pathobiology of melanocytes on the scalp. The spotty MSM pattern looked similar to the reported aspects on the face. It somewhat resembled the widespread PUVA-induced lentiginosis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Induction of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of hairless mice by UVB: an action spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ley, R.D.; Peak, M.J.; Lyon, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    An action spectrum for the induction of pyrimidine dimers in the epidermis of hairless mice was determined between 288 and 307 nm. The presence of pyrimidine dimers in tritium-labeled DNA extracted from exposed SKH:hairless-1 mouse skin was determined using dimer-specific nucleases from Micrococcus luteus in conjunction with sedimentation of the irradiated DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients. The rate of induction of pyrimidine dimers was maximal at 293 nm. These values were used to propose a UVB transmission curve for mouse epidermis.

  3. Psoralen-containing sunscreen is tumorigenic in hairless mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cartwright, L.E.; Walter, J.F.

    1983-06-01

    Sunscreens containing 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) are currently being marketed to promote tanning by inducing psoralen-mediated ultraviolet (UV) A (320-400 nm) melanogenesis. The rationale is that this may prevent UVB (290-320 nm) radiation-induced skin damage. However, mouse studies have shown that 5-MOP has the same cutaneous photocarcinogenic potential as 8-methoxypsoralen. In addition, the 5-MOP--containing sunscreen Sun System III (SS III), when combined with UVA, induces epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity, an enzyme associated with tumor promotion. Therefore, we investigated whether SS III had sufficient psoralen concentration to be tumorigenic in hairless mice exposed to chronic, intermittent UVA radiation. SS III was applied to hairless mice 5 days per week for 20 weeks. After each application the mice were exposed to 2.5 to 10 joules/cm2 UVA radiation. All test groups developed atypical squamous papillomas in direct proportion to the dosage of UVA radiation received. A shorter latency period for tumor development was seen with larger UVA doses. Test animals followed up to 1 year developed invasive squamous cell tumors. Control groups (SS III without UVA and UVA without SS III) remained free of tumors. Animals receiving SS III plus UVA developed persistent skin thickening and increased dermal cyst formation similar to that reported with chronic exposure to UVB, a known carcinogenic wavelength.

  4. Protective effect of polypeptide from Chlamys farreri on hairless mice damaged by ultraviolet A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Bo; Yao, Ru-Yong; Liu, Zhan-Tao; Zhong, Wei-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Yue-Jun

    2002-09-01

    To study the protective effect of the polypeptide isolated from Chlamys farreri (PCF) on hairless mice skin damaged by ultraviolet A. Enzymes and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by biochemical methods; the expressions of Bcl-2 protein and NOS protein were examined by immunohistochemical technique. The ultra-structure of the skin was observed through electronic microscope. PCF could enhance the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC). Also PCF could reduce the amount of MDA, increase the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and inhibit the expression of NOS protein. The ultra-structure of epidermis and fibroblasts remained normal in 20 % PCF groups; there were vacuoles in smooth endoplasm reticulum in epidermis of mice and the number of rough endoplasm reticulum in fibroblasts was decreased in model group. PCF had the protective effects on hairless mice skin damaged by ultraviolet A via its anti-oxidative mechanisms.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of diagnostic radiation on titanium dental implant osseointegration in the micropig.

    PubMed

    Basquill, P J; Steflik, D E; Brennan, W A; Horner, J; Van Dyke, T E

    1994-09-01

    The effect that diagnostic radiation may have on peri-implant supporting alveolar tissues is not well understood. Fifty-four (54) titanium dental implants were inserted into the posterior mandible of nine micropigs. At implant placement surgery, 18 implants were exposed to either 2 (diagnostic) or 10 (excessive) doses of diagnostic radiation; the remaining 36 implants served as controls. Fourteen weeks after implant placement, standardized clinical radiographs were taken, pigs were euthanized, and implants with supporting alveolar tissues were prepared and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ninety-seven sections were evaluated by SEM for morphometric and morphologic analyses. The mean percent of implant length in contact with bone was 47% for the controls and 53% for the implants receiving radiation. Five implants were lost during the initial healing phase and four implants were clinically mobile at time of euthanasia, giving a success rate of 83% (45/54). Correlative light microscopy of peri-implant supporting tissues revealed no distinct differences between the microvasculature of controls versus implants exposed to radiation. Standardized clinical radiographs revealed crestal saucerization in both control and radiated implants. This study revealed no statistically significant difference for the percent of implant length in contact with alveolar bone for controls or implants exposed to 2 or 10 doses of diagnostic radiation at implant placement time.

  6. 90-day dietary toxicity study with esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) in micropigs.

    PubMed

    Wedig, John; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    The subchronic (90-day) toxicity of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) was assessed in micropigs. Animals (5/sex/group) received feed containing 5%, 10%, and 17% EPG, mixed accordingly throughout the study to deliver 1.5, 3, and 5 g/kg bw/day of EPG, respectively. Corn oil served as the vehicle control (0 g/kg bw/day). Subsets of animals were evaluated at Week 6; the remainder between Weeks 12 and 14. With the exception of liver and serum vitamin levels, statistically significant difference between control and EPG groups were seen sporadically, and with no apparent connection to treatment and/or no consistency across time intervals. EPG intakes of 3 and 5 g/kg bw/day, but not at 1.5 g/kg bw/day were associated with significantly lower serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. Serum total vitamin D levels were significantly lower across all EPG groups. There were also trends toward lower levels of liver vitamins A and E among EPG-treated animals, but the effects were less consistent. The effects on vitamin levels observed in EPG-treated animals were not accompanied by any signs of vitamin deficiency (e.g., effects on growth, clinical signs, or clinical pathology), and might have been related to the larger mass of EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during transit in the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. In-air micro-PIGE measurement system for fluorine analysis of the tooth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, K.; Hai, V. H.; Nomachi, M.; Sugaya, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2007-07-01

    An in-air micro-PIGE and micro-PIXE measurement system for fluorine analysis of tooth have been developed at the Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center. A proton microbeam is extracted through a thin silicon nitride window into the air and used to irradiate a tooth sample mounted on a sample stage set in air. Gamma-rays from a 19F(p, αγ) 16O reaction and characteristic X-rays are detected with a BGO detector and a Ge X-ray detector, simultaneously. The sample stage and beam scanner allow us to analyze the tooth sample over a range of 20 mm at maximum. Spot sizes of a proton beams in air at an energy of 2.5 MeV was 4 μm, in the case of a distance between the silicon nitride window and the sample of 0.2 mm and 13 μm in the case of 1.7 mm. Fluorine analysis was performed over an area of about 3 mm × 3 mm of the tooth sample. One- and two-dimensional distributions of fluorine and calcium were obtained successfully. Quantitative analysis was also performed using data for measurements of reference materials Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2-2 xF 2 x.

  8. Connective tissue photodamage in the hairless mouse is partially reversible.

    PubMed

    Kligman, L H

    1987-03-01

    Photodamaged connective tissue in animal and human skin is characterized by excessive accumulations of elastic fibers, loss of mature collagen, concomitant overproduction of new collagen, and greatly increased levels of glycosaminoglycans. Formerly considered irreversible changes, we recently showed in hairless mice, post irradiation, that a band of normal connective tissue was laid down subepidermally. The present studies focused on 2 aspects of this repair: whether repair would occur if animals were protected by sunscreens after dermal damage was induced and irradiation continued; whether retinoic acid could enhance the repair process. To examine the first aspect, albino hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS 20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Sunscreens of high sun-protection factors were applied after 10 and 20 weeks. Not only was further damage prevented, but the damage incurred before sunscreen application was repaired. This appeared as subepidermal reconstruction zones containing normal, mature collagen and a network of fine elastic fibers. The second aspect was examined by applying 0.05% retinoic acid, topically, to animals preirradiated for 10 weeks. In contrast to controls treated with vehicle, the reconstruction zone was significantly wider in retinoic acid-treated mice. The enhanced repair was dose-related.

  9. Connective tissue photodamage in the hairless mouse is partially reversible

    SciTech Connect

    Kligman, L.H.

    1987-03-01

    Photodamaged connective tissue in animal and human skin is characterized by excessive accumulations of elastic fibers, loss of mature collagen, concomitant overproduction of new collagen, and greatly increased levels of glycosaminoglycans. Formerly considered irreversible changes, we recently showed in hairless mice, post irradiation, that a band of normal connective tissue was laid down subepidermally. The present studies focused on 2 aspects of this repair: whether repair would occur if animals were protected by sunscreens after dermal damage was induced and irradiation continued; whether retinoic acid could enhance the repair process. To examine the first aspect, albino hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS 20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Sunscreens of high sun-protection factors were applied after 10 and 20 weeks. Not only was further damage prevented, but the damage incurred before sunscreen application was repaired. This appeared as subepidermal reconstruction zones containing normal, mature collagen and a network of fine elastic fibers. The second aspect was examined by applying 0.05% retinoic acid, topically, to animals preirradiated for 10 weeks. In contrast to controls treated with vehicle, the reconstruction zone was significantly wider in retinoic acid-treated mice. The enhanced repair was dose-related.

  10. The thymus of the hairless rhino-j (hr/hr-j) mice

    PubMed Central

    SAN JOSE, I.; GARCÍA-SUÁREZ, O.; HANNESTAD, J.; CABO, R.; GAUNA, L.; REPRESA, J.; VEGA, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The hairless (hr) gene is expressed in a large number of tissues, primarily the skin, and a mutation in the hr gene is responsible for the typical cutaneous phenotype of hairless mice. Mutant hr mouse strains show immune defects involving especially T cells and macrophages, as well as an age-related immunodeficiency and an accelerated atrophy of the thymus. These data suggest that the hr mutation causes a defect of this organ, although hr transcripts have not been detected in fetal or adult mice thymus. The present study analyses the thymus of young (3 mo) and adult (9 mo) homozygous hr-rh-j mice (a strain of hairless mice) by means of structural techniques and immunohistochemistry to selectively identify thymic epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. There were structural alterations in the thymus of both young and adult rh-rh-j mice, which were more severe in older animals. These alterations consisted of relative cortical atrophy, enlargement of blood vessels, proliferation of perivascular connective tissue, and the appearance of cysts. hr-rh-j mice also showed a decrease in the number of epithelial and dendritic cells, and macrophages. Taken together, present results strongly suggest degeneration and accelerated age-dependent regression of the thymus in hr-rh-j mice, which could explain at least in part the immune defects reported in hairless mouse strains. PMID:11327202

  11. Effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 on epidermal hydration in ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jehyeon; Lee, Dong Eun; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Ku, Hyung Keun; Kim, Tae-Youl; Choi, Il-Dong; Jeung, Woonhee; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2014-12-28

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 on skin hydration in human dermal fibroblasts and in hairless mice. In Hs68 cells, L. plantarum HY7714 not only increased the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) mRNA level, but also decreased the ceramidase mRNA level. In order to confirm the hydrating effects of L. plantarum HY7714 in vivo, we orally administered vehicle or L. plantarum HY7714 at a dose of 1 × 10(9) CFU/day to hairless mice for 8 weeks. In hairless mice, L. plantarum HY7714 decreased UVB-induced epidermal thickness. In addition, we found that L. plantarum HY7714 administration suppressed the increase in transepidermal water loss and decrease in skin hydration, which reflects barrier function fluctuations following UV irradiation. In particular, L. plantarum HY7714 administration increased the ceramide level compared with that in the UVB group. In the experiment on SPT and ceramidase mRNA expressions, L. plantarum HY7714 administration improved the reduction in SPT mRNA levels and suppressed the increase in ceramidase mRNA levels caused by UVB in the hairless mice skins. Collectively, these results suggest that L. plantarum HY7714 can be a potential candidate for preserving skin hydration levels against UV irradiation.

  12. [Pathways of nociceptive information transmission from different parts of the skin on cat paws].

    PubMed

    Malysheva, G I; Zeveke, A V

    1987-01-01

    Nociceptive reactions for damage and week actions on hairless and hairy skin was studied in acute experiments on cats. The damage stimulation of the hairless skin did not result in nociceptive reflexes, and in the case of hairy skin it always did. Using a cross-correlation method, some quantitative characteristics of afferent impulse discharges in the nerve plantaris of the cat were obtained under exposure damage and weak stimuli on the hairy and hairless skin. The afferent flow from the hairy skin has the C-afferent activity whereas in the case of hairless skin this activity was not observed. Peripheral coding of nociceptive signals under the damage action on pads of the cat is, obviously, impossible due to the absence of the C-afferent system in this kind of the hairless skin.

  13. Safety evaluation of stamp type digital microneedle devices in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Kui Young; Jang, Woo Sun; Lim, Yun Young; Ahn, Joo Hee; Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Chan Woong; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2013-02-01

    Microneedles provide a minimally invasive means to transport molecules into the skin. A number of specific strategies have been employed to use microneedles for transdermal delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety of two new digital microneedle devices (Digital Hand® and Digital Pro®; Bomtech Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea) for the perforation of skin in skin-hairless-1 mice. This device replaces conventional needles and is designed specifically for intradermal delivery. We used two newly developed digital microneedle devices to perforate the skin of skin-hairless-1 mice. We conducted a comparative study of the two digital microneedle devices and DTS® (Disk type-microneedle Therapy System; DTS lab., Seoul, Korea). To evaluate skin stability, we performed visual and dermatoscopic inspections, measurements of transepidermal water loss, and biopsies. The two novel digital microneedle devices did not induce significant abnormalities of the skin on visual or dermatoscopic inspection, regardless of needle size (0.25~2.0 mm). No significant histopathological changes, such as inflammatory cell infiltration, desquamation of the stratum corneum, or disruption of the basal layer, were observed. The digital microneedle devices and microneedle therapy system produced similar results on measures of skin stability. These two novel digital microneedle devices are safe transdermal drug delivery systems.

  14. Arterial insulin resistance in Yucatan micropigs with diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Low Wang, Cecilia C.; Lu, Li; Leitner, J. Wayne; Sarraf, Mohammad; Gianani, Roberto; Draznin, Boris; Greyson, Clifford R.; Reusch, Jane E. B.; Schwartz, Gregory G.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Metabolic syndrome affects a large proportion of the population and increases cardiovascular disease risk. Because metabolic syndrome often co-exists clinically with atherosclerosis, it is difficult to distinguish their respective contributions to vascular abnormalities. Accordingly, we utilized a porcine dietary model of metabolic syndrome without atherosclerosis to investigate early abnormalities of vascular function and signaling. Methods Thirty-two Yucatan micropigs were fed either a high fat, high simple sugar, high calorie (HFHS) or standard chow diet (STD) for 6 months. Neither diet contained added cholesterol. Blood pressure and flow-mediated vasodilatation were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Aortas were harvested at 6 months to assess histology, insulin signaling, and endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) phosphorylation. Results HFHS pigs developed characteristic of metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but without histological evidence of atherosclerosis. Although arterial intima-media thickness did not differ between groups, vascular dysfunction in HFHS was manifest by increased blood pressure and impaired flow-mediated vasodilation of the femoral artery. Compared with STD, aortas from HFHS exhibited increased p85α expression and Ser307 IRS-1 phosphorylation, and blunted insulin-stimulated IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity. In the absence of insulin stimulation, aortic Akt Ser473-phosphorylation was greater in HFHS than in STD. With insulin stimulation, Akt phosphorylation increased in STD, but not HFHS. Insulin-induced Ser1177-phosphorylation of eNOS was decreased in HFHS, compared with STD. Conclusions Pigs with metabolic syndrome develop early vascular dysfunction and aortic insulin signaling abnormalities, and could be a useful model for early human vascular abnormalities in this condition. PMID:23558108

  15. Folate deficiency disturbs hepatic methionine metabolism and promotes liver injury in the ethanol-fed micropig.

    PubMed

    Halsted, Charles H; Villanueva, Jesus A; Devlin, Angela M; Niemelä, Onni; Parkkila, Seppo; Garrow, Timothy A; Wallock, Lynn M; Shigenaga, Mark K; Melnyk, Stepan; James, S Jill

    2002-07-23

    Alcoholic liver disease is associated with abnormal hepatic methionine metabolism and folate deficiency. Because folate is integral to the methionine cycle, its deficiency could promote alcoholic liver disease by enhancing ethanol-induced perturbations of hepatic methionine metabolism and DNA damage. We grouped 24 juvenile micropigs to receive folate-sufficient (FS) or folate-depleted (FD) diets or the same diets containing 40% of energy as ethanol (FSE and FDE) for 14 wk, and the significance of differences among the groups was determined by ANOVA. Plasma homocysteine levels were increased in all experimental groups from 6 wk onward and were greatest in FDE. Ethanol feeding reduced liver methionine synthase activity, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and glutathione, and elevated plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and alanine transaminase. Folate deficiency decreased liver folate levels and increased global DNA hypomethylation. Ethanol feeding and folate deficiency acted together to decrease the liver SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratio and to increase liver SAH, DNA strand breaks, urinary 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine [oxo(8)dG]/mg of creatinine, plasma homocysteine, and aspartate transaminase by more than 8-fold. Liver SAM correlated positively with glutathione, which correlated negatively with plasma MDA and urinary oxo(8)dG. Liver SAM/SAH correlated negatively with DNA strand breaks, which correlated with urinary oxo(8)dG. Livers from ethanol-fed animals showed increased centrilobular CYP2E1 and protein adducts with acetaldehyde and MDA. Steatohepatitis occurred in five of six pigs in FDE but not in the other groups. In summary, folate deficiency enhances perturbations in hepatic methionine metabolism and DNA damage while promoting alcoholic liver injury.

  16. Folate deficiency disturbs hepatic methionine metabolism and promotes liver injury in the ethanol-fed micropig

    PubMed Central

    Halsted, Charles H.; Villanueva, Jesus A.; Devlin, Angela M.; Niemelä, Onni; Parkkila, Seppo; Garrow, Timothy A.; Wallock, Lynn M.; Shigenaga, Mark K.; Melnyk, Stepan; James, S. Jill

    2002-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is associated with abnormal hepatic methionine metabolism and folate deficiency. Because folate is integral to the methionine cycle, its deficiency could promote alcoholic liver disease by enhancing ethanol-induced perturbations of hepatic methionine metabolism and DNA damage. We grouped 24 juvenile micropigs to receive folate-sufficient (FS) or folate-depleted (FD) diets or the same diets containing 40% of energy as ethanol (FSE and FDE) for 14 wk, and the significance of differences among the groups was determined by ANOVA. Plasma homocysteine levels were increased in all experimental groups from 6 wk onward and were greatest in FDE. Ethanol feeding reduced liver methionine synthase activity, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and glutathione, and elevated plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and alanine transaminase. Folate deficiency decreased liver folate levels and increased global DNA hypomethylation. Ethanol feeding and folate deficiency acted together to decrease the liver SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratio and to increase liver SAH, DNA strand breaks, urinary 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine [oxo(8)dG]/mg of creatinine, plasma homocysteine, and aspartate transaminase by more than 8-fold. Liver SAM correlated positively with glutathione, which correlated negatively with plasma MDA and urinary oxo(8)dG. Liver SAM/SAH correlated negatively with DNA strand breaks, which correlated with urinary oxo(8)dG. Livers from ethanol-fed animals showed increased centrilobular CYP2E1 and protein adducts with acetaldehyde and MDA. Steatohepatitis occurred in five of six pigs in FDE but not in the other groups. In summary, folate deficiency enhances perturbations in hepatic methionine metabolism and DNA damage while promoting alcoholic liver injury. PMID:12122204

  17. Micro-PIGE determination of fluorine distribution in developing hamster tooth germs

    SciTech Connect

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Lenglet, W.J.; Woeltgens, J.H.B.; Bronckers, A.L.

    1989-05-01

    A micro-PIGE (Proton-Induced gamma-ray Emission) technique based on the delayed 5/2+----1/2+ nuclear transition of fluorine (E gamma = 197 keV, t1/2 = 87 ns) emitted after /sup 19/F(p,p', gamma)/sup 19/F reaction was used to detect and study the distribution of fluorine in the developing enamel organ during pre-eruptive stages, i.e., the transitional to early maturation stages of enamel formation in neonatal hamsters administered a single IP dose of sodium fluoride (20 mg NaF/kg body weight). The aforementioned nuclear reaction is unique for fluorine, and therefore detection of gamma-rays emanating from this reaction in a biological specimen implies a positive identification of fluorine at that particular site. Calcium and phosphorus X-rays were also recorded and used as parameters for assessment of the relationship between the degree of mineralization and fluoride incorporation into the enamel organ. The highest fluorine concentration in the enamel organ was recorded in the dentin near the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). In the enamel, the highest concentration of fluorine was found to be associated with the more mature areas of the enamel near the DEJ, but gradually decreased in the direction of the enamel surface. Fluorine was not detected in the control germs. These results suggest that administration of fluoride in high doses during the pre-eruptive stages of enamel formation leads to incorporation of the ion into the forming dentin and enamel mineral, and that the enamel matrix does not seem to bind fluoride avidly.

  18. Micro-PIGE determination of fluorine distribution in developing hamster tooth germs.

    PubMed

    Lyaruu, D M; Lenglet, W J; Wöltgens, J H; Bronckers, A L

    1989-05-01

    A micro-PIGE (Proton-Induced gamma-ray Emission) technique based on the delayed 5/2+----1/2+ nuclear transition of fluorine (E gamma = 197 keV, t1/2 = 87 ns) emitted after 19F(p,p', gamma)19F reaction was used to detect and study the distribution of fluorine in the developing enamel organ during pre-eruptive stages, i.e., the transitional to early maturation stages of enamel formation in neonatal hamsters administered a single IP dose of sodium fluoride (20 mg NaF/kg body weight). The aforementioned nuclear reaction is unique for fluorine, and therefore detection of gamma-rays emanating from this reaction in a biological specimen implies a positive identification of fluorine at that particular site. Calcium and phosphorus X-rays were also recorded and used as parameters for assessment of the relationship between the degree of mineralization and fluoride incorporation into the enamel organ. The highest fluorine concentration in the enamel organ was recorded in the dentin near the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). In the enamel, the highest concentration of fluorine was found to be associated with the more mature areas of the enamel near the DEJ, but gradually decreased in the direction of the enamel surface. Fluorine was not detected in the control germs. These results suggest that administration of fluoride in high doses during the pre-eruptive stages of enamel formation leads to incorporation of the ion into the forming dentin and enamel mineral, and that the enamel matrix does not seem to bind fluoride avidly.

  19. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 protects hairless mouse against ultraviolet B-induced photoaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Mee; Lee, Dong Eun; Park, Soo Dong; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Yu Jin; Jeong, Ji Woong; Jang, Sung Sik; Ahn, Young-Tae; Sim, Jae-Hun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Chung, Dae Kyun; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2014-11-28

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation alters multiple molecular pathways in the skin, thereby inducing skin damage, including photoaging. In recent years, probiotics have gained interest due to their beneficial effects on skin health, such as inhibiting atopic dermatitis and improving skin immunity or inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of probiotics on UVBinduced photoaging. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 against UVB-induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice. The results showed that L. plantarum HY7714 treatment effectively rescued UVB-reduced procollagen expression through the inhibition of UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Data from a western blot showed that L. plantarum HY7714 inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase, thereby suppressing the UVB-induced phosphorylation and expression of c-Jun. Oral administration of L. plantarum HY7714 clearly inhibited the number, depth, and area of wrinkles in hairless mouse skin. Histological data showed that L. plantarum HY7714 significantly inhibited UVB-induced epidermal thickness in mice. Western blot and zymography data also revealed that L. plantarum HY7714 effectively inhibited MMP-13 expression as well as MMP-2 and -9 activities in dermal tissue. Collectively, these results provide further insight regarding the skin biological actions of L. plantarum HY7714, a potential skin anti-photoaging agent.

  20. X-rays and photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that excessive X-ray radiation can cause non-melanoma skin cancers. With the increased incidence of sun-related skin cancer there is a need to investigate the combination of sunlight and X-rays. Immunocompetent C3.Cg/TifBomTac mice (n = 298) were divided into 12 groups. Mice were irradiated with 12, 29 or 50 kV X-rays. The mice received a total dose of 45 Gy. They were irradiated with 3 SED simulated solar radiation (SSR) either before or after irradiation with X-rays. The groups irradiated with X-rays alone, 0, 3, 9 and 10 mice (0, 12, 29 and 50 kV, respectively) developed squamous cell carcinoma. In the groups irradiated with SSR after X-rays the development of tumours was significantly faster in the 50 kV group than in the corresponding control group (175 vs. 194 days, p < 0.001). In the groups irradiated with SSR prior to the X-ray radiation the development of tumours was significantly faster in the 29 and the 50 kV groups than in the corresponding control group (175 vs. 202 days, p < 0.001 and 158 vs. 202 days, p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, X-ray radiation alone is a weak carcinogen in hairless mice. There is an added carcinogenic effect if X-ray radiation is given on prior sun-exposed skin or if the skin is sun-exposed after X-rays. We still believe that X-ray radiation is a safe and effective therapy for various dermatological diseases but caution should be observed if a patient has severely sun-damaged skin or has a high-risk sun behaviour.

  1. Sulfur Mustard Induces Immune Sensitization in Hairless Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Neerad C.; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; March, Thomas; Weber, Waylon; Benson, Janet; Jaramillo, Richard; Seagrave, Jean-Clare; Schultz, Gregory; Grotendorst, Gary; Sopori, Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) is a well known chemical warfare agent that may cause long-term debilitating injury. Because of the ease of production and storage, it has a strong potential for chemical terrorism; however, the mechanism by which SM causes chronic tissue damage is essentially unknown. SM is a potent protein alkylating agent, and we tested the possibility that SM modifies cellular antigens, leading to an immunological response to “altered self” and a potential long-term injury. To that end, in this communication, we show that dermal exposure of euthymic hairless guinea pigs induced infiltration of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into the SM-exposed skin and strong upregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-8) in distal tissues such as the lung and the lymph nodes. Moreover, we present evidence for the first time that SM induces a specific delayed-type hypersensitivity response that is associated with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and proliferation of cells in these tissues. These results clearly suggest that dermal exposure to SM leads to immune activation, infiltration of T cells into the SM-exposed skin, delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and molecular imprints of inflammation in tissues distal from the site of SM exposure. These immunological responses may contribute to the long-term sequelae of SM toxicity. PMID:19887117

  2. Sulfur mustard induces immune sensitization in hairless guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neerad C; Rir-sima-ah, Jules; March, Thomas; Weber, Waylon; Benson, Janet; Jaramillo, Richard; Seagrave, Jean-Clare; Schultz, Gregory; Grotendorst, Gary; Sopori, Mohan

    2010-02-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) is a well known chemical warfare agent that may cause long-term debilitating injury. Because of the ease of production and storage, it has a strong potential for chemical terrorism; however, the mechanism by which SM causes chronic tissue damage is essentially unknown. SM is a potent protein alkylating agent, and we tested the possibility that SM modifies cellular antigens, leading to an immunological response to "altered self" and a potential long-term injury. To that end, in this communication, we show that dermal exposure of euthymic hairless guinea pigs induced infiltration of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells into the SM-exposed skin and strong upregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-8) in distal tissues such as the lung and the lymph nodes. Moreover, we present evidence for the first time that SM induces a specific delayed-type hypersensitivity response that is associated with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and proliferation of cells in these tissues. These results clearly suggest that dermal exposure to SM leads to immune activation, infiltration of T cells into the SM-exposed skin, delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and molecular imprints of inflammation in tissues distal from the site of SM exposure. These immunological responses may contribute to the long-term sequelae of SM toxicity.

  3. [Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of russian hairless cats].

    PubMed

    Zhigachev, A I; Vladimirova, M V; Katser, I Ia

    2000-04-01

    A novel mutation that causes the loss of hair was found in Russian cats. In contrast to hairless cats known in other countries (Sphinx cats of Canada, Great Britain, France, and Germany, etc.), in which the loss of hair is inherited as a monogenic recessive trait, in Russian hairless cats this trait is determined by a semidominant gene with the participation of other genes.

  4. The Potential Application of Hairless Guinea Pigs as a Replacement for the Yucatan Mini-pig in Animal Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    to normal biological processes like wound healing and toxicology 3,4,5 . Many of the papers stated that HGPs have similar skin properties as humans...albino HGP (genetically engineered by Canadian scientists for dermatological studies) and the normal haired variety. While not completely hairless, the...with HGP 8 DISTRIBUTION A, APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED blood. With the increased interest in proteomic studies, these

  5. The potential application of hairless guinea pigs as a replacement for the Yucatan mini-pig in animal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, Nichole M.; Imholte, Michelle L.

    2008-02-01

    The Yucatan mini-pig (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely used animal models for skin damage studies because it shares many of the same physical properties as human skin. While the Yucatan is ideal for laser exposure studies using a large spot size, its size and cost are excessive for projects using smaller beams. This experiment performed histological analysis of skin biopsies from pigmented Hairless Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) for epidermal thickness and melanin concentration. That data was then compared to similar information on the Yucatan.

  6. Efficacy of lidocaine lontophoresis using either alternating or direct current in hairless rats.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Atsushi; Wakita, Ryo; Haida, Haruka; Fukayama, Haruhisa

    2013-09-30

    The aim of this study was to determine transport of lidocaine ions through a hairless rat skin in vivo and to compare the efficacy of alternating current (AC) with that of direct current (DC) iontophoresis (IOP). We measured the concentration of lidocaine transported through a cellophane membrane or a hairless rat dorsal skin applying either AC-IOP or DC-IOP. The results revealed that lidocaine concentration increased in a time-dependent manner in vitro in both DC-IOP and AC-IOP. However, the in vivo study showed different tendencies in lidocaine concentration. In the DCIOP group, lidocaine concentration reached its maximum 20 min after current application and then decreased rapidly; the AC-IOP group showed an increase in lidocaine concentration in a time-dependent manner. There were no side effects such as electrical burns in the rats. In conclusion, AC can be applied for long periods and DC for short periods, or their application time can be appropriately scheduled. Our study also suggests the mechanism by which voltage waveforms affect the skin when applied by IOP. In the future, these findings will be a solid foundation for developing various kinds of medical equipment such as scheduled drug delivery system that can easily deliver various types of drug.

  7. Conservation of the Notch antagonist Hairless in arthropods: functional analysis of the crustacean Daphnia pulex Hairless gene.

    PubMed

    Zehender, Ariella; Bayer, Melanie; Bauer, Milena; Zeis, Bettina; Preiss, Anette; Maier, Dieter

    2017-08-31

    The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved in all animal metazoa: upon Notch receptor activation, transcription of Notch target genes is turned on by an activator complex that centers on the transcription factor CSL. In the absence of signal, CSL assembles transcriptional repression complexes that display remarkable evolutionary diversity. The major antagonist of Notch signaling in insects named Hairless was originally identified in Drosophila melanogaster. It binds to the Drosophila CSL homologue Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and recruits the two general co-repressors, Groucho and C-terminal binding protein. Whereas the majority of Notch signaling components is conserved between insects and vertebrates, Hairless is found only in insects. Here, we present the analysis of the Hairless gene from Daphnia pulex and, hence, for the first time from a crustacean. Daphnia and Drosophila Hairless protein sequences are highly diverged. Known functional domains, however, the Su(H), Groucho and the C-terminal binding protein interactions domains, are well conserved. Moreover, direct binding of the Daphnia Hairless protein and the respective Drosophila interaction partners was detected, demonstrating the conservation at the molecular level. In addition, interaction between Daphnia Hairless and Drosophila Su(H) was demonstrated in vivo, as co-overexpression of the respective genes during Drosophila development resulted in the expected downregulation of Notch activity in the fly. Structural models show that the Hairless-Su(H) repressor complexes from Daphnia and Drosophila are almost indistinguishable from one another. Amino acid residues in direct contact within the Hairless-Su(H) complex are at absolutely identical positions in the two homologues.

  8. Effects of a sunscreen formulation on albino hairless mice: a morphological approach.

    PubMed

    Hossy, Bryan Hudson; da Costa Leitão, Alvaro Augusto; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira; Allodi, Silvana; de Pádula, Marcelo; de Oliveira Miguel, Nádia Campos

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of a sunscreen formulation on the skin of albino hairless mice subjected to simulated solar light (SSL) in terms of morphological changes. Young adult albino hairless mice HRS/J (n = 36) were used as an experimental model for determining skin photoaging changes. Mice were irradiated with SSL, and the sunscreen (estimated SPF 30, PF-UVA) was obtained from the Pharmacy College/UFRJ, Brazil. The animals were divided into four groups: non-treated (G1), radiation only (G2), sunscreen-treated (G3) and vehicle + radiation (G4). Animals from groups G2, G3 and G4 were irradiated weekly (5 weeks), with no immobilization. One week after the final exposure, the dorsal skin was observed using a dermatoscopic camera. Biopsies were analyzed in order to quantify neovascularization and to evaluate histological aspects of the skin. Neovascularization was also evaluated with immunohistochemical reactions for the Von Willebrand factor. Animals from G2 displayed classical morphological changes denoting skin photoaging: thickening of the epidermis, increased dermal cellularity, follicular keratosis, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, and angiogenesis. Animals from groups G3 and G1 displayed similar morphological profiles, without these changes. Animals from group G4 showed more morphological changes than group G2, emphasizing the relative importance of the putative photosensitizing components present in the vehicle formulation. The extent of the morphological skin changes suggested that the sunscreen formulation was effective against SSL, and showed the importance of assessing the phototoxicity of vehicle formulations.

  9. Noncontrast and contrast enhanced MR imaging in the evaluation of partial ureteral obstruction: An experimental study in the micropig

    SciTech Connect

    Thurnher, S.; Tzika, A.A.; Hricak, H.; Mattei, P.; Aboseif, S.; Engelstad, B.; Price, D.C. )

    1989-07-01

    Twelve Yucatan micropigs (3 controls; 3 sham-operated; 6 with unilateral obstruction) were studied to assess the value of noncontrast and contrast-enhanced (Gadolinium-DTPA) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the evaluation of partial ureteral obstruction. MR findings were correlated with findings of quantitative (Tc-99m-DMSA) scintigraphy, and histology. On noncontrast T1-weighted images, the normal porcine kidney demonstrated good corticomedullary contrast (CMC = 16.8% +/- 5.0). Five minutes after administration of Gd-DTPA, there was enhancement of the renal cortex (+24.4%) and medulla (+46.2%), and CMC was no longer discernible. Enhancement of the urine within the collecting system (+119.1%) was also observed. The obstructed kidneys demonstrated marked thinning of the renal parenchyma and decreased signal intensity on noncontrast T1- and T2-weighted images (P less than 0.01). Urine in the dilated collecting system did not differ significantly from urine in controls except in the three animals with urinary tract infection (P less than 0.05). Five minutes following injection of Gd-DTPA, there was enhancement of the renal parenchyma in all kidneys. Excretion was seen in three pigs and no excretion in two. Thus, useful information can be obtained in partial ureteral obstruction from both pre-contrast and Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images of the kidney.

  10. Protective effects of Aloe sterols against UVB-induced photoaging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Saito, Marie; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yao, Ruiqing; Yamauchi, Kouji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2017-03-01

    Aloe vera is a traditional medical plant whose gel has been widely used in skin care. Previously, we have identified Aloe sterols from Aloe vera as active ingredients. This study investigated the protective effects of Aloe sterols without polysaccharides, against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin photoaging in mice using Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) obtained by supercritical fluid extraction. Aloe vera gel extract was supplemented in the diet (12 or 120 ppm), and HR-1 hairless mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 7 weeks. Skin measurements and histological and analytical studies were performed. Repeated UVB irradiation induced rough wrinkling of skin with water content reduction and hyperkeratosis. AVGE administration resulted in the significant improvement of UVB-induced skin dryness, epidermal thickness, and wrinkle formation. The AVGE group also suppressed the degenerations of dermal collagen fibers and the appearance of cutaneous apoptosis cells induced by UVB. Furthermore, AVGE administration reduced the excess elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, and MMP-13) in UVB-exposed skin. The dietary ingestion of Aloe sterols protected against chronic UVB damage in mouse skin, and our results suggest that Aloe sterols may prevent skin photoaging through the anti-inflammation and MMP regulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Chronic ethanol perturbs testicular folate metabolism and dietary folate deficiency reduces sex hormone levels in the Yucatan micropig.

    PubMed

    Wallock-Montelius, Lynn M; Villanueva, Jesus A; Chapin, Robert E; Conley, A J; Nguyen, Hung P; Ames, Bruce N; Halsted, Charles H

    2007-03-01

    Although alcoholism causes changes in hepatic folate metabolism that are aggravated by folate deficiency, male reproductive effects have never been studied. We evaluated changes in folate metabolism in the male reproductive system following chronic ethanol consumption and folate deficiency. Twenty-four juvenile micropigs received folate-sufficient (FS) or folate-depleted (FD) diets or the same diets containing 40% of energy as ethanol (FSE or FDE) for 14 wk, and the differences between the groups were determined by ANOVA. Chronic ethanol consumption (FSE and FDE compared with FS and FD groups) reduced testis and epididymis weights, testis sperm concentrations, and total sperm counts and circulating FSH levels. Folate deficiency (FD and FDE compared with FS and FSE groups) reduced circulating testosterone, estradiol and LH levels, and also testicular 17,20-lyase and aromatase activities. There was histological evidence of testicular lesions and incomplete progression of spermatogenesis in all treated groups relative to the FS control, with the FDE group being the most affected. Chronic ethanol consumption increased testis folate concentrations and decreased testis methionine synthase activity, whereas folate deficiency reduced total testis folate levels and increased methionine synthase activity. In all pigs combined, testicular methionine synthase activity was negatively associated with circulating estradiol, LH and FSH, and 17,20-lyase activity after controlling for ethanol, folate deficiency, and their interaction. Thus, while chronic ethanol consumption primarily impairs spermatogenesis, folate deficiency reduces sex hormones, and the two treatments have opposite effects on testicular folate metabolism. Furthermore, methionine synthase may influence the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis.

  12. Wound Healing Effect of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Cutaneous Wounds in Hairless Mice via Immune-Redox Modulation.

    PubMed

    You, Hae Sun; Fadriquela, Ailyn; Sajo, Ma Easter Joy; Bajgai, Johny; Ara, Jesmin; Kim, Cheol Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Oh, Jin Rok; Shim, Kwang Yong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2017-01-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water is an innovative sanitizer having a wide-spectrum of applications in food industry, and healthcare industry but little is known on its effect and mechanism in wound healing. The study was conducted to identify the effect and mechanism of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on cutaneous wounds in hairless mice. SAEW (pH: 5-6.5, oxidation reduction potential: 800 mV, chlorine concentration: 25 ppm) was prepared through electrolysis of water and was applied to the wounds of hairless mice three times a day for seven days. Wound size, immune response and oxidative stress were explored and compared to conventional agents such as Betadine and alcohol. We found that SAEW-treated group showed the highest wound reduction percentage (p<0.01). Antioxidant activities such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase and myeloperoxidase activities of SAEW group surpassed the total reactive oxygen species in skin. Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related-factor-2 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor were upregulated in SAEW group. Further, SAEW recruited the production of intracellular calcium and promoted its utilization for faster healing. In line, SAEW treatment decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant, and tumor necrosis factor-α] in serum. Other hallmarks of wound healing, matrixmetalloproteinases (MMP)1 and MMP9 were also upregulated. Collectively, our study indicates that SAEW is effective in wound healing of hairless mice via immune-redox modulation, and heals better/faster than conventional agents.

  13. Hairless and the polyamine putrescine form a negative regulatory loop in the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Luke, Courtney T; Casta, Alexandre; Kim, Hyunmi; Christiano, Angela M

    2013-10-01

    Hairless (HR) is a nuclear protein with corepressor activity that is highly expressed in the skin and hair follicle. Mutations in Hairless lead to hair loss accompanied by the appearance of papules (atrichia with papular lesions), and similar phenotypes appear when the key polyamine enzymes ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine/spermine N(1) -acetyltransferase (SSAT) are overexpressed. Both ODC and SSAT transgenic mice have elevated epidermal levels of putrescine, leading us to investigate the mechanistic link between putrescine and HR. We show here that HR and putrescine form a negative regulatory network, as epidermal ODC expression is elevated when HR is decreased and vice versa. We also show that the regulation of ODC by HR is dependent on the MYC superfamily of proteins, in particular MYC, MXI1 and MXD3. Furthermore, we found that elevated levels of putrescine lead to decreased HR expression, but that the SSAT-TG phenotype is distinct from that found when HR is mutated. Transcriptional microarray analysis of putrescine-treated primary human keratinocytes demonstrated differential regulation of genes involved in protein-protein interactions, nucleotide binding and transcription factor activity, suggesting that the putrescine-HR negative regulatory loop may have a large impact on epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle cycling.

  14. Cactus cladodes (Opuntia humifusa) extract minimizes the effects of UV irradiation on keratinocytes and hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungmi; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Hong, Yang Hee; Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2017-12-01

    Cactus cladodes [Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. (Cactaceae)] is one of the cactus genera, which has long been used as a folk medicine for skin disorders. This study investigated the skincare potential of cactus cladodes extract (OHE), including its ability to regulate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyaluronic acid (HA) production. Gene expression levels of hyaluronic acid synthases (HASs) and hyaluronidase (HYAL) were measured in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells with OHE treatment (10, 25, 50, 100 μg/mL) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The HA content was analyzed in hairless mice (SKH-1, male, 6 weeks old) treated with OHE for 10 weeks by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistological staining were performed to examine epidermal thickness and levels of CD44 and hyaluronic acid-binding protein (HABP). HA synthases (HAS,1 HAS2, HAS3) mRNA levels were increased by 1.9-, 2.2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, with OHE treatment (100 μg/mL), while UVB-induced increase of hyaluronidase mRNA significantly decreased by 35%. HA content in animal was decreased from 42.9 to 27.1 ng/mL by OHE treatment. HAS mRNA levels were decreased by 39%, but HYAL mRNA was increased by 50% in OHE group. CD44 and HABP levels, which were greatly increased by UVB-irradiation, were reduced by 64 and 60%, respectively. Epidermal thickness, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and erythema formation was also decreased by 45 (45.7 to 24.2 μm), 48 (48.8 to 25 g/h/m(2)) and 33%, respectively. OHE protects skin from UVB-induced skin degeneration in HaCaT cells and hairless mice.

  15. Hairless Streaks in Cattle Implicate TSR2 in Early Hair Follicle Formation

    PubMed Central

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Shirokova, Vera; Welle, Monika Maria; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Plattet, Philippe; Oevermann, Anna; Pienkowska-Schelling, Aldona; Gallo, Daniele; Gentile, Arcangelo; Mikkola, Marja; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Four related cows showed hairless streaks on various parts of the body with no correlation to the pigmentation pattern. The stripes occurred in a consistent pattern resembling the lines of Blaschko. The non-syndromic hairlessness phenotype observed occurred across three generations of a single family and was compatible with an X-linked mode of inheritance. Linkage analysis and subsequent whole genome sequencing of one affected female identified two perfectly associated non-synonymous sequence variants in the critical interval on bovine chromosome X. Both variants occurred in complete linkage disequilibrium and were absent in more than 3900 controls. An ERCC6L missense mutation was predicted to cause an amino acid substitution of a non-conserved residue. Analysis in mice showed no specific Ercc6l expression pattern related to hair follicle development and therefore ERCC6L was not considered as causative gene. A point mutation at the 5'-splice junction of exon 5 of the TSR2, 20S rRNA accumulation, homolog (S. cerevisiae), gene led to the production of two mutant transcripts, both of which contain a frameshift and generate a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 25% of the protein. Interestingly, in addition to the presence of both physiological TSR2 transcripts, the two mutant transcripts were predominantly detected in the hairless skin of the affected cows. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody against the N-terminal part of the bovine protein demonstrated the specific expression of the TSR2 protein in the skin and the hair of the affected and the control cows as well as in bovine fetal skin and hair. The RNA hybridization in situ showed that Tsr2 was expressed in pre- and post-natal phases of hair follicle development in mice. Mammalian TSR2 proteins are highly conserved and are known to be broadly expressed, but their precise in vivo functions are poorly understood. Thus, by dissecting a naturally occurring mutation in a domestic animal

  16. Hairless Streaks in Cattle Implicate TSR2 in Early Hair Follicle Formation.

    PubMed

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Shirokova, Vera; Welle, Monika Maria; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Plattet, Philippe; Oevermann, Anna; Pienkowska-Schelling, Aldona; Gallo, Daniele; Gentile, Arcangelo; Mikkola, Marja; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-07-01

    Four related cows showed hairless streaks on various parts of the body with no correlation to the pigmentation pattern. The stripes occurred in a consistent pattern resembling the lines of Blaschko. The non-syndromic hairlessness phenotype observed occurred across three generations of a single family and was compatible with an X-linked mode of inheritance. Linkage analysis and subsequent whole genome sequencing of one affected female identified two perfectly associated non-synonymous sequence variants in the critical interval on bovine chromosome X. Both variants occurred in complete linkage disequilibrium and were absent in more than 3900 controls. An ERCC6L missense mutation was predicted to cause an amino acid substitution of a non-conserved residue. Analysis in mice showed no specific Ercc6l expression pattern related to hair follicle development and therefore ERCC6L was not considered as causative gene. A point mutation at the 5'-splice junction of exon 5 of the TSR2, 20S rRNA accumulation, homolog (S. cerevisiae), gene led to the production of two mutant transcripts, both of which contain a frameshift and generate a premature stop codon predicted to truncate approximately 25% of the protein. Interestingly, in addition to the presence of both physiological TSR2 transcripts, the two mutant transcripts were predominantly detected in the hairless skin of the affected cows. Immunohistochemistry, using an antibody against the N-terminal part of the bovine protein demonstrated the specific expression of the TSR2 protein in the skin and the hair of the affected and the control cows as well as in bovine fetal skin and hair. The RNA hybridization in situ showed that Tsr2 was expressed in pre- and post-natal phases of hair follicle development in mice. Mammalian TSR2 proteins are highly conserved and are known to be broadly expressed, but their precise in vivo functions are poorly understood. Thus, by dissecting a naturally occurring mutation in a domestic animal

  17. Photoprotective effects of some quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Gali-Muhtasib, H U; Haddadin, M J; Nazer, M Z; Sodir, N M; Maalouf, S W

    1998-12-01

    2-benzoyl-3-phenylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide (BPQ) and other substituted quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides (QdO) were tested for their ability to inhibit the stimulations of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme activity and DNA synthesis, two biochemical markers linked to skin tumour promotion by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. Topical application of BPQ on the dorsal skin of hairless mice was found to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner UVB-induced ODC activity and DNA synthesis. When applied 20 min before UVB radiation, a dose of 17 mg BPQ applied in 0.4 ml of vehicle inhibited UVB-induced ODC activity and DNA synthesis by 95% and 85%, respectively. This inhibitory effect is dependent on the time of administration of BPQ relative to UVB radiation, with a generally greater inhibition observed when this compound is applied before rather than after UVB treatment. The inhibitory abilities of the other QdO on the ODC and DNA responses induced by UVB radiation greatly varied and appear to be dependent on the structure of the compounds and their metabolic activation in the skin following irradiation. The remarkable effectiveness of BPQ against the ODC and DNA markers of UVB promotion is also observed following multiple applications of this agent. These results suggest that QdO, in particular BPQ and certain derivatives of it, may be useful in protecting the skin against UVB-induced skin damage.

  18. Spent coffee ground extract suppresses ultraviolet B-induced photoaging in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Park, Eu Ddeum; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of spent coffee ground (SCG) ethanol extract on UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. An ethanol extract of SCG (ESCG) was prepared using the residue remaining after extraction of oil from roasted SCG. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the content of caffeine (41.58 ± 0.54 μg/mg) was higher than that of chlorogenic acid isomers (~9.17 μg/mg) in ESCG. ESCG significantly decreased the UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in HaCaT cells. UVB-induced wrinkle formation in mice dorsal skin was effectively reduced by ESCG administration; high dose of ESCG (5 g/L) caused the reduction of wrinkle area by 30% compared with UVB-treated control (UVBC). This result correlated with the ESCG-mediated decrease in epidermis thickness (25%). In addition, ESCG administration significantly reduced transdermal water loss (20%) and erythema formation (35%) derived from UVB exposure. Collagen type I (COL-1) level in dorsal skin was effectively recovered by ESCG administration. These results were supported by down-regulation of collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and 9 (MMP9) expressions. Our results indicate that ESCG protects mouse skin from UVB-induced photoaging by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Our study suggests that ESCG may be anti-photoaging agent.

  19. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  20. Identification of free and esterified hydroxyoctadecadienoates (HODEs) and linoleate-hydroxylating pathway in the epidermis of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Inokuchi, T; Hidaka, T; Noda, Y; Nishi, J; Kotegawa, M; Ogura, R

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal homogenates of hairless mice contained a large amount of lipid material showing a single peak on reverse phase (RP)-high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a maximum absorbance of 234 nm, which was different in retention time from arachidonate metabolites such as 12-HETE, 15-HETE and 5-HETE. The production of this material was dependent on exogenous linoleate concentration, protein concentration and buffer pH. This material was identified to be a mixture of 13-HODE and 9-HODE on the basis of UV absorbance spectra, retention times on RP-HPLC, straight phase (SP)-HPLC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and mass spectra obtained. As assessed by SP-HPLC after saponification, these two HODEs were found to exist primarily in esterified forms in the skin. Neither substance was produced following heat denaturation of the homogenate. These results indicate that 13- and 9-HODEs are produced from linoleate enzymatically at physiologically relevant levels in the epidermis of hairless mice. Thus, it is possible that these two materials may play some important role in pathophysiology of the skin.

  1. Effect of electrospun non-woven mats of dibutyryl chitin/poly(lactic acid) blends on wound healing in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seon Il; Mok, Ji Ye; Jeon, In Hwa; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thu; Park, Jun Seo; Hwang, Hee Min; Song, Mi-Sun; Lee, Duckhee; Chai, Kyu Yun

    2012-03-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the proliferative ability of dibutyryl chitin (DBC) on scratch wounds in HaCaT keratinocytes and to evaluate the effect of nanoporous non-woven mat (DBCNFM) on skin wound healing in hairless mice using the advantages of DBCNFM, such as high porosity and high surface area to volume. The cell spreading activity of DBC was verified through a cell spreading assay in scratched human HaCaT keratinocytes. Scratch wound experiments showed that DBC notably accelerates the spreading rate of HaCaT keratinocytes in a dose dependent manner. The molecular aspects of the healing process were also investigated by hematoxylin & eosin staining of the healed skin, displaying the degrees of reepithelialization and immunostaining on extracellular matrix synthesis and remodeling of the skin. Topical application of DBCNFM significantly reduced skin wound rank scores and increased the skin remodeling of the wounded hairless mice in a dose dependent way. Furthermore, DBCNFM notably increased the expression of the type 1 collagen and filaggrin. These results demonstrate that DBC efficiently accelerates the proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes and DBCNFM notably increases extracellular matrix synthesis on remodeling of the skin, and these materials are a good candidate for further evaluation as an effective wound healing agent.

  2. Comparison of the acute ultraviolet photoresponse in congenic albino hairless C57BL/6J mice relative to outbred SKH1 hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Konger, Raymond L.; Derr-Yellin, Ethel; Hojati, Delaram; Lutz, Cathleen; Sundberg, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Hairless albino Crl:SKH1-Hrhr mice are commonly utilized for studies in which hair or pigmentation would introduce an impediment to observational studies. Being an outbred strain, the SKH1 model suffers from key limitations that are not seen with congenic mouse strains. Inbred and congenic C57BL/6J mice are commonly utilized for modified genetic mouse models. We compare the acute UV-induced photoresponse between outbred SKH1 mice and an immune competent, hairless, albino C57BL/6J congenic mouse line [B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J]. Histologically, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J skin is indistinguishable from that of SKH1 mice. The skin of both SKH1 and B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice exhibited a reduction in hypodermal adipose tissue, the presence of utricles and dermal cystic structures, the presence of dermal granulomas, and epidermal thickening. In response to a single 1500 J/m2 UVB dose, the edema and apoptotic response was equivalent in both mouse strains. However, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice exhibited a more robust delayed sunburn reaction, with an increase in epidermal erosion, scab formation, and myeloperoxidase activity relative to SKH1 mice. Compared with SKH1 mice, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J also exhibited an aberrant proliferative response to this single UV exposure. Epidermal Ki67 immunopositivity was significantly suppressed in B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice at 24 hours post-UV. A smaller non-significant reduction in Ki67 labeling was observed in SKH1 mice. Finally, at 72 hours post-UV, SKH1 mice, but not B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice, exhibited a significant increase in Ki67 immunolabeling relative to non-irradiated controls. Thus, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice are suitable for photobiology experiments. PMID:27095432

  3. Delayed induction of pigmented spots on UVB-irradiated hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Naganumaa, M; Yagi, E; Fukuda, M

    2001-01-01

    Human skin exposed to solar radiation for a long time subsequently develops pigmented spots, which are named solar lentigines. Since no animal model of this process is currently available, we attempted to induce similar spots in pigmented hairless mice. The mice were irradiated at 38 or 94 mJ/cm(2) three times/week for various periods of time (1-8 weeks) under an ultraviolet light source (Toshiba FL-SE; UVB). Skin pigmentation of irradiated mice was visually observed and skin color was determined with a colorimeter for 78 weeks. Uniform pigmentation was induced, but persisted only during exposure, disappearing completely within 2 weeks after cessation of exposure. At about 28 weeks after the first exposure, pigmented spots suddenly began to appear. These pigmented spots were less than 2 mm in diameter and light brown in color. The length of the latent period until appearance and the extent of development of these spots were dependent on the exposure period. Histological examination revealed increased numbers of active melanocytes and melanin granules in the affected epidermis. These pigmented spots closely resemble solar lentigines in humans, and the mice should be useful as an animal model of solar lentigines.

  4. Effect of thermodynamic activity on skin permeation and skin concentration of triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Effects of thermodynamic activity and the state (solution/suspension) of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) on skin permeation and concentration were physicochemically and kinetically analyzed. Permeation of TA through a silicone membrane, hairless rat skin (full-thickness skin or stripped skin) or a three-dimensional cultured human skin model (LSE-high) was determined and a permeability coefficient (P), partition coefficient (K) , diffusion coefficient (D) and steady-state flux (J) were calculated. The resulting J values proportionally increased with an increase in the TA activity in the drug solution and similar P, K and D values were obtained independent of the TA state (solution/suspension) in all membranes except for full-thickness hairless rat skin. On the other hand, the TA permeation through full-thickness hairless rat skin with the 1000 microg/ml suspension was higher than that expected judging by the thermodynamic acidity of TA. Higher D and P values were also obtained in the skin permeation of TA from the 1000 microg/ml suspension. Morphological observation of the skin surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the presence of TA solids in the hair follicles after application of the TA suspension. These results suggest that dissolved TA may be permeated predominantly through the stratum corneum, but that solid TA may be passed through the hair follicles to enter the dermis. The present physicochemical and kinetic analysis provides useful information to develop topical steroid formulations.

  5. Cutaneous Injury-Related Structural Changes and Their Progression following Topical Nitrogen Mustard Exposure in Hairless and Haired Mice

    PubMed Central

    Orlicky, David J.; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To identify effective therapies against sulfur mustard (SM)-induced skin injuries, various animals have been used to assess the cutaneous pathology and related histopathological changes of SM injuries. However, these efforts to establish relevant skin injury endpoints for efficacy studies have been limited mainly due to the restricted assess of SM. Therefore, we employed the SM analog nitrogen mustard (NM), a primary vesicating and bifunctional alkylating agent, to establish relevant endpoints for efficient efficacy studies. Our published studies show that NM (3.2 mg) exposure for 12–120 h in both the hairless SKH-1 and haired C57BL/6 mice caused clinical sequelae of toxicity similar to SM exposure in humans. The NM-induced cutaneous pathology-related structural changes were further analyzed in this study and quantified morphometrically (as percent length or area of epidermis or dermis) of skin sections in mice showing these lesions. H&E stained skin sections of both hairless and haired mice showed that NM (12–120 h) exposure caused epidermal histopathological effects such as increased epidermal thickness, epidermal-dermal separation, necrotic/dead epidermis, epidermal denuding, scab formation, parakeratosis (24–120 h), hyperkeratosis (12–120 h), and acanthosis with hyperplasia (72–120 h). Similar NM exposure in both mice caused dermal changes including necrosis, edema, increase in inflammatory cells, and red blood cell extravasation. These NM-induced cutaneous histopathological features are comparable to the reported lesions from SM exposure in humans and animal models. This study advocates the usefulness of these histopathological parameters observed due to NM exposure in screening and optimization of rescue therapies against NM and SM skin injuries. PMID:24416404

  6. Cutaneous injury-related structural changes and their progression following topical nitrogen mustard exposure in hairless and haired mice.

    PubMed

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K; Orlicky, David J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To identify effective therapies against sulfur mustard (SM)-induced skin injuries, various animals have been used to assess the cutaneous pathology and related histopathological changes of SM injuries. However, these efforts to establish relevant skin injury endpoints for efficacy studies have been limited mainly due to the restricted assess of SM. Therefore, we employed the SM analog nitrogen mustard (NM), a primary vesicating and bifunctional alkylating agent, to establish relevant endpoints for efficient efficacy studies. Our published studies show that NM (3.2 mg) exposure for 12-120 h in both the hairless SKH-1 and haired C57BL/6 mice caused clinical sequelae of toxicity similar to SM exposure in humans. The NM-induced cutaneous pathology-related structural changes were further analyzed in this study and quantified morphometrically (as percent length or area of epidermis or dermis) of skin sections in mice showing these lesions. H&E stained skin sections of both hairless and haired mice showed that NM (12-120 h) exposure caused epidermal histopathological effects such as increased epidermal thickness, epidermal-dermal separation, necrotic/dead epidermis, epidermal denuding, scab formation, parakeratosis (24-120 h), hyperkeratosis (12-120 h), and acanthosis with hyperplasia (72-120 h). Similar NM exposure in both mice caused dermal changes including necrosis, edema, increase in inflammatory cells, and red blood cell extravasation. These NM-induced cutaneous histopathological features are comparable to the reported lesions from SM exposure in humans and animal models. This study advocates the usefulness of these histopathological parameters observed due to NM exposure in screening and optimization of rescue therapies against NM and SM skin injuries.

  7. Mutations in the hairless gene underlie APL in three families of Pakistani origin

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Liv; Wajid, Muhammad; Shimomura, Yutaka; Christiano, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Atrichia with papular lesions (APL) (OMIM#209500) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited form of irreversible alopecia characterized by papular lesions of keratin-filled cysts on various regions of the body. Males and females are equally affected and present with a distinct pattern of total hair loss on scalp, axilla and body. It begins shortly after birth with the development of hair loss, and patients are normally devoid of eyelashes and eyebrows. Mutations in the hairless (HR) gene have been previously shown to be responsible for APL. Objective In this study, we studied the molecular basis of APL in three unrelated families of Pakistani origin. Method Molecular analysis of the HR genes was performed on genomic DNA from probands and family members. Results DNA sequencing of the HR gene in family A revealed a novel homozygous 2 bp deletion in exon 6 leading to a frameshift and a downstream premature termination codon in exon 8 (1782-83delAG). In family B, we identified a novel homozygous deletion of a G nucleotide at the exon 15–intron 15 boundary, termed 3097delG. Family C carries a previously reported missense mutation consisting of an A-to-G transition at nucleotide 276 resulting in the mutation N970S in exon 14. Conclusion Two mutations identified in this study are novel mutations in the HR gene and extend the body of evidence implicating the hairless gene family in the pathogenesis of human skin disorders. The one previously reported mutation suggests it may represent a recurrent mutation, or alternatively, an allele that is widely dispersed around the world. PMID:18164595

  8. Effect of infrared radiation A on photoaged hairless mice harboring eumelanin and pheomelanin in the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shizuka; Funasaka, Yoko; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2015-04-01

    Infrared radiation A (IRA) is absorbed by melanin and generates heat. Therefore, the effect of IRA could be well analyzed using skin, which contains melanin in the epidermis. Hairless mice harboring epidermal melanocytes that produce eumelanin, pheomelanin, or non-melanin were generated by backcrossing K14-stem cell factor mice, recessive yellow mice, and then albino hairless mice. High-dose IRA was irradiated over 18 weeks after the establishment of photoaged mice by irradiation with ultraviolet B (UVB) three times a week for 14 weeks. Tumor formation was assessed every week. The formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and apoptotic cells by the irradiation of IRA and UVB was evaluated. Repetitive irradiation of IRA did not promote tumor formation in all types of mice. Pre-irradiation of IRA to UVB, but not post-irradiation, accelerated the elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and enhanced apoptosis; these effects were most obvious in eumelanin-producing mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed downregulation of FLICE (cellular caspase 8)-like inhibitory protein and B-cell lymphoma-extra large and upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein by UVB, but further enhancement of these molecules by pre-irradiation of IRA was not observed. These results indicate that IRA does not confer the promotion of UVB-induced carcinogenesis in photoaged mice harboring epidermal melanocytes and that photochemical reaction between IRA and melanin might be involved in the induction of apoptosis and the elimination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by UVB. The enhancement of apoptosis by pre-irradiation of IRA to UVB might be induced by mechanisms other than the modification of the mRNA expression of FLICE (cellular caspase 8)-like inhibitory protein, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and Bcl-2-associated X.

  9. Changes in the cerebellar cortex of hairless Rhino-J mice (hr-rh-j).

    PubMed

    García-Atares, N; San Jose, I; Cabo, R; Vega, J A; Represa, J

    1998-10-30

    A mutation in the hr gene is responsible for typical epithelium phenotype in hairless mice. As this gene is expressed at high levels not only in the skin but also in the brain, the aim of the study was to clarify its role in the central nervous system. We have analyzed by morphological and immunocytochemical methods (calbindin D-28k, phosphorylated and 200 kDa neurofilament protein) the cerebellum of a mutated mouse strain, the hairless (hr-rh-j) type carrying the homozygous hr gene rhino mutation. The cerebellar cortex was studied in young (3 months) and adult (9 months) wild type and mutated mice. No major structural change was found in any of the groups and neuronal density or neuronal arrangement were similar in mutated animals to their age-matched controls. Nevertheless there were changes in shape and size of the Purkinje neurons in the old mutated animals respect to their normal littermates, while the molecular and the granule cell layers were apparently invariable. Calbindin (CB) immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in the expression of this protein in the Purkinje cells of the aged mutated mice. Immunohistochemistry for a neurofilament protein (NFP) showed a reduction of staining in all the cerebellar cortex layers in the older animals, which was much more evident in the (hr-rh-j) mutated mice. These results suggest that hr gene is involved in the structural maintenance of the mature cerebellar cortex, rather than in the development. Our findings may also be consistent with an accelerated aging of the central nervous system in rh-rh-j mice.

  10. Topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus do not accelerate photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice after UVA or simulated solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2009-03-01

    Pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are topical calcineurin inhibitors developed specifically for the treatment of atopic eczema. Experience with long-term use of topical calcineurin inhibitors is limited and the risk of rare but serious adverse events remains a concern. We have previously demonstrated the absence of carcinogenic effect of tacrolimus alone and in combination with simulated solar radiation (SSR) on hairless mice. The aim of this study is to determine whether pimecrolimus accelerates photocarcinogenesis in combination with SSR or pimecrolimus and tacrolimus accelerate photocarcinogenesis in combination with UVA. We used 11 groups of 25 hairless female C3.Cg/TifBomTac immunocompetent mice (n = 275). Pimecrolimus cream or tacrolimus ointment was applied on their dorsal skin three times weekly followed by SSR (2, 4, or 6 standard erythema doses, SED) or UVA (25 J/cm(2)) 3-4 h later. This was done up to 365 days in the SSR-treated groups and up to 500 days in the UVA-treated groups. Pimecrolimus did not accelerate the time for development of the first, second or third tumor in any of the groups. Median time to the first tumor was 240 days for the control-2SED group compared with pimecrolimus-2SED group (233 days), control-4SED group (156 days) compared with pimecrolimus-4SED group (163 days) and control-6SED group (162 days) compared with pimecrolimus-6SED group (170 days). Only one mouse in each of the three UVA groups developed a tumor. We conclude that pimecrolimus in combination with SSR and both pimecrolimus and tacrolimus in combination with UVA do not accelerate photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice.

  11. Topical formulations containing finasteride. Part I: in vitro permeation/penetration study and in vivo pharmacokinetics in hairless rat.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Burgalassi, Susi; Chetoni, Patrizia; Lenzi, Carla; Pirone, Andrea; Mailland, Federico

    2014-08-01

    In hair follicle (Hf) cells, the type-2 5-α-reductase enzyme, implicated in androgenetic alopecia, is selectively inhibited by finasteride (FNS). Because an effective topical formulation to deliver FNS to Hf is currently unavailable, this investigation aimed at evaluating in vitro FNS skin permeation and retention through and into hairless rat and human abdominal skin. Four hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based formulations (P-08-012, P-08-016, P-08-063, and P-08-064) and one anhydrous formulation without HPCH (P-10-008) were tested. The pharmacokinetics in plasma and skin after application of P-08-016 or P-10-008 on dorsal rat skin with single and repeated doses was investigated. P-08-016 performed the best in driving FNS to the reticular dermis without producing a high transdermal flux. Neither the in vivo single nor the repeated dose experiments produced plasma levels of FNS and no differences were found between formulations concerning skin retention. No increase in the amount of drug retained in the skin was obtained with the repeated dose experiment. In conclusion, the HPCH-based formulation P-08-016 might represent an alternative to systemic therapy for its ability to promote a cutaneous depot of FNS in the region of hair bulbs, minimizing systemic absorption even after repeated treatments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. Enhanced efficacy of cidofovir combined with vaccinia immune globulin in treating progressive cutaneous vaccinia virus infections in immunosuppressed hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Smee, Donald F; Dagley, Ashley; Downs, Brittney; Hagloch, Joseph; Tarbet, E Bart

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of progressive vaccinia in individuals has involved antiviral drugs, such as cidofovir (CDV), brincidofovir, and/or tecovirimat, combined with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG). VIG is costly, and its supply is limited, so sparing the use of VIG during treatment is an important objective. VIG sparing was modeled in immunosuppressed mice by maximizing the treatment benefits of CDV combined with VIG to determine the effective treatments that delayed the time to death, reduced cutaneous lesion severity, and/or decreased tissue viral titers. SKH-1 hairless mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and hairless SCID mice (SHO strain) were infected cutaneously with vaccinia virus. Monotherapy, dual combinations (CDV plus VIG), or triple therapy (topical CDV, parenteral CDV, and VIG) were initiated 2 days postinfection and were given every 3 to 4 days through day 11. The efficacy assessment included survival rate, cutaneous lesion severity, and viral titers. Delays in the time to death and the reduction in lesion severity occurred in the following order of efficacy: triple therapy had greater efficacy than double combinations (CDV plus VIG or topical plus parenteral CDV), which had greater efficacy than VIG alone. Parenteral administration of CDV or VIG was necessary to suppress virus titers in internal organs (liver, lung, and spleen). The skin viral titers were significantly reduced by triple therapy only. The greatest efficacy was achieved by triple therapy. In humans, this regimen should translate to a faster cure rate, thus sparing the amount of VIG used for treatment.

  13. Enhanced Efficacy of Cidofovir Combined with Vaccinia Immune Globulin in Treating Progressive Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Infections in Immunosuppressed Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dagley, Ashley; Downs, Brittney; Hagloch, Joseph; Tarbet, E. Bart

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of progressive vaccinia in individuals has involved antiviral drugs, such as cidofovir (CDV), brincidofovir, and/or tecovirimat, combined with vaccinia immune globulin (VIG). VIG is costly, and its supply is limited, so sparing the use of VIG during treatment is an important objective. VIG sparing was modeled in immunosuppressed mice by maximizing the treatment benefits of CDV combined with VIG to determine the effective treatments that delayed the time to death, reduced cutaneous lesion severity, and/or decreased tissue viral titers. SKH-1 hairless mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and hairless SCID mice (SHO strain) were infected cutaneously with vaccinia virus. Monotherapy, dual combinations (CDV plus VIG), or triple therapy (topical CDV, parenteral CDV, and VIG) were initiated 2 days postinfection and were given every 3 to 4 days through day 11. The efficacy assessment included survival rate, cutaneous lesion severity, and viral titers. Delays in the time to death and the reduction in lesion severity occurred in the following order of efficacy: triple therapy had greater efficacy than double combinations (CDV plus VIG or topical plus parenteral CDV), which had greater efficacy than VIG alone. Parenteral administration of CDV or VIG was necessary to suppress virus titers in internal organs (liver, lung, and spleen). The skin viral titers were significantly reduced by triple therapy only. The greatest efficacy was achieved by triple therapy. In humans, this regimen should translate to a faster cure rate, thus sparing the amount of VIG used for treatment. PMID:25385098

  14. Dietary deficiencies of unsaturated fatty acids and starch cause atopic dermatitis-like pruritus in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masanori; Shimazaki, Yuki; Muto, Yoshiko; Kohno, Shigekatsu; Ohya, Susumu; Nabe, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    Hairless mice fed with a special diet (named HR-AD) show atopic dermatitis (AD)-like pruritic skin inflammation that is almost completely resolved with the supplementation of an unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), the linoleic acid (LA). This suggests that the dietary deficiency of LA is the key cause of this dermatitis. However, because there is no appropriate control diet for HR-AD, the involvement of other dietary ingredients cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, it has not yet been tested whether only UFA deficiency can cause such AD-like pruritus. In this study, using semi-purified custom diets, we attempted to reproduce this syndrome. Four-week-old hairless mice were maintained on a widely used standard diet American Institute of Nutrition-76A (AIN-76A), its modifications, or HR-AD. Several modifications of fat and carbohydrate components revealed that dietary deficiency of both UFAs and cornstarch was required to induce severe skin barrier dysfunction as typically occurred in HR-AD-fed mice. An UFA- and cornstarch-deficient diet caused severe AD-like pruritus comparable to HR-AD, despite weak Th2 immune responses and absence of immunoglobulin E production. On the other hand, a diet lacking UFAs but containing cornstarch significantly alleviated the development of pruritic dermatitis. Furthermore, the supplementation of wheat starch similarly improved skin barrier function. In conclusion, this study showed that a lack of certain starches might also be the cause of diet-induced AD. Our findings could help to reproduce the diet-induced AD itch model and also provide evidence that certain starches can have protective and ameliorative effects on AD-like pruritus.

  15. Inhibition of acyl-CoA cholesterol O-acyltransferase reduces the cholesteryl ester enrichment of atherosclerotic lesions in the Yucatan micropig.

    PubMed

    Bocan, T M; Mueller, S B; Uhlendorf, P D; Brown, E Q; Mazur, M J; Black, A E

    1993-03-01

    Atherosclerotic lesion development may be altered indirectly by regulating plasma cholesterol or directly by inhibition of acyl-CoA cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) within cells of the artery. Yucatan micropigs were meal-fed a 2% cholesterol, 8% peanut oil, 8% coconut oil purified diet for 1 month prior to administration of the potent, bioavailable ACAT inhibitor CI-976, and induction of atherosclerotic lesions by chronic endothelial damage. After 84-108 days of therapy, CI-976 decreased mean plasma VLDL-cholesterol 85-91% and cumulative VLDL-exposure (area under VLDL-time curve) by 65%. However, overall plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were unchanged. CI-976 decreased liver cholesteryl ester (CE) content 65% without significantly affecting adrenal CE content. The CE content of the injured left femoral, left iliac and abdominal aorta and uninjured right femoral and iliac arteries and thoracic aorta was reduced 62-78% by CI-976. Systemic plasma CI-976 levels measured 24 h post-dose ranged from 2.26 to 4.05 micrograms/ml and significantly correlated with the reduction in both VLDL and vessel CE content. Thus, we conclude that inhibition of ACAT can blunt the cholesteryl ester enrichment of developing atherosclerotic lesions by preventing reesterification and storage of lipoprotein cholesterol within vascular cells and by reducing the plasma level and delivery to the arterial wall of such atherogenic lipoproteins as VLDL.

  16. In vitro percutaneous absorption in mouse skin: influence of skin appendages

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.; Hall, J.; Helman, G.

    1988-06-15

    Skin appendages are often envisaged as channels that bypass the stratum corneum barrier and are generally thought to facilitate the dermal absorption of topical agents. However, the significance of this transappendageal pathway in percutaneous absorption remains to be assessed experimentally. With the use of a skin organ culture penetration chamber system, the influence of skin appendages on the in vitro permeation of topically applied benzo(a)pyrene and testosterone (5 micrograms/2 cm2) was examined in skin preparations from both haired and hairless mice. Haired mice examined included the C57BL6, C3H, DBA2, Balbc, and Sencar strains and the hairless mice were the HRS and SKH. In all mouse strains examined, the overall permeation of testosterone (greater than 65% of applied dose) 16 hr following in vitro topical application was greater than that of benzo(a)pyrene (less than 10%). No strain differences were observed with respect to the percutaneous permeation of testosterone; however, percutaneous permeation of benzo(a)pyrene in the haired mice (7-10% of applied dose) was higher than that in the hairless mice (2%). In an in-house derived mouse strain which showed three phenotypic variants due to hair densities, the permeability to both compounds was highest in the skin of the haired phenotype (testosterone 67%, benzo(a)pyrene 7%), lowest in the hairless phenotype (35 and 1%, respectively) and intermediate in the fuzzy-haired animal (57 and 3%, respectively). Examination by fluorescence microscopy of cryosections of skin, prepared 1 hr after topical benzo(a)pyrene, showed areas of intense fluorescence deep within the nonfluorescing dermis of skin from the haired phenotype. These fluorescent areas were correlated with follicular ducts and sebaceous glands.

  17. (Z)-5-(2,4-Dihydroxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione Prevents UVB-Induced Melanogenesis and Wrinkle Formation through Suppressing Oxidative Stress in HRM-2 Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bonggi; Moon, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Seong Jin; Kim, So Hee; Kim, Dae Hyun; An, Hye Jin; Jeong, Ji Won; Kim, Ye Ra; Son, Sujin; Kim, Min Jo; Chung, Ki Wung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Chun, Pusoon; Ha, Young Mi; Kim, Min-Sun; Mo, Sang Hyun; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Chung, Hae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background. Uncontrolled melanogenesis and wrinkle formation are an indication of photoaging. Our previous studies demonstrated that (Z)-5-(2,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (MHY498) inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis in vitro. Objective. To examine in vivo effects of MHY498 as an antiaging compound on UVB-induced melanogenesis and wrinkle formation, we topically applied MHY498 on dorsal skin of HRM-2 hairless mice. Methods. Using histological analysis, we evaluated effects of MHY498 on melanogenesis and wrinkle formation after UVB exposure. In addition, related molecular signaling pathways were examined using western blotting, fluorometric assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. MHY498 suppressed UVB-induced melanogenesis by inhibiting phosphorylation of CREB and translocation of MITF protein into the nucleus, which are key factors for tyrosinase expression. Consistently, tyrosinase protein levels were notably reduced in the dorsal skin of the hairless mice by MHY498 treatment. Furthermore, MHY498 inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation and collagen fiber destruction by increasing type 1 procollagen concentration and decreasing protein expression levels of MMPs, which play an essential role in collagen fiber degradation. As a mechanism, MHY498 notably ameliorated UVB-induced oxidative stress and NF-κB activation in the dermal skin of the hairless mice. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MHY498 can be used as a therapeutic or cosmetic agent for preventing uncontrolled melanogenesis and wrinkle formation. PMID:27242917

  18. Characteristics of the epidermis and stratum corneum of hairless mice with experimentally induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shingo; Endo, Yoko; Ozawa, Naoko; Sugawara, Tomoko; Kusaka, Ayumi; Sayo, Tetsuya; Tagami, Hachiro; Inoue, Shintaro

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus induces many pathophysiologic changes in the skin. Even so, dermatologists still lack an animal model of diabetes that enables the direct evaluation of the various functional properties of the skin. Our group induced two types of an experimental type 1 diabetes model in hairless mice by administering either streptozotocin or alloxan, in order to examine the properties of the stratum corneum and epidermis of these animals. The plasma glucose concentrations of the mice at 3 wk after their i.v. injection were significantly higher than those of control mice (streptozotocin, 3.2-fold; alloxan, 3.7-fold). The stratum corneum water content was significantly reduced in both types of diabetic mice, whereas the transepidermal water loss remained unchanged. The amino acid content with normal epidermal profilaggrin processing was either normal or elevated in the stratum corneum of the streptozotocin-treated mice. In contrast, the stratum corneum triglyceride content in the streptozotocin-treated mice was significantly lower than the control level, even though the levels of ceramides, cholesterols, and fatty acids in the stratum corneum were all higher than the control levels. The streptozotocin-treated group also exhibited decreases in basal cell proliferation and epidermal DNA content linked with an increase in the number of corneocyte layers in the stratum corneum, suggesting that the rates of epidermal and stratum corneum turnover were slower in the streptozotocin-treated animals than in the normal controls. In contrast, there were no remarkable changes in any of the epidermal differentiation marker proteins examined. This finding in diabetic mice, namely, reduction in both the epidermal proliferation and stratum corneum water content without any accompanying impairment in the stratum corneum barrier function, is similar to that found in aged human skin. Our new animal model of diabetes will be useful for the study of diabetic dermopathy as well as the

  19. Agents that cause enlargement of sebaceous glands in hairless mice. II. Ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Lesnik, R H; Kligman, L H; Kligman, A M

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a murine model to measure the effects on sebaceous glands of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS-40 tubes filtered to attenuate the radiation below 290 nm. Emission was mainly in the UVB range (peak, 313nm). Single and multiple exposures were given with fractions or multiples of one minimal erythemal dose (MED). Biopsies, fixed for light microscopy, were stained with H & E. Under high power, sebocytes of 30 glands per specimen were counted and the means determined. A single exposure of 1 MED caused a significant increase in sebocyte count, as did thrice-weekly exposures to 0.5 MED for 3 weeks. One 3-MED exposure produced sebocyte necrosis, yet 30 exposures at 4 MED failed to ablate the glands. In both cases there was rebound enlargement which had not returned to control levels by the end of the studies (24-30 weeks). Prolonged irradiation produced maximum enlargement in a few weeks. Thus, in a manner similar to other skin components, the response of sebaceous glands to UV radiation is one of hyperplasia.

  20. Modulation of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in hairless guinea pigs by peptides derived from enkephalin.

    PubMed

    Sizemore, Robert C; Piva, Marta; Moore, LeeTerry; Gordonov, Natalia; Heilman, Edward; Godfrey, Henry P

    2004-01-01

    Although opioid peptides such as methionine (met)-enkephalin have been previously shown to enhance or suppress immune responses, few studies in animal models have addressed the immunomodulatory activity of their metabolic derivatives. Hairless (IAF/HA-HO) guinea pigs immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis and repeatedly skin tested with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) display high levels of stable delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to PPD. Met-enkephalin (YGGFM) and two of its metabolites (YGG, YG) enhanced and accelerated PPD-elicited DTH inflammatory reactions when injected together with elicitor in these animals. At 24 h, 5 x 10(-3) pmol met-enkephalin significantly enhanced DTH responses by 30% over PPD alone, while 5 x 10(-5) pmol of YGG and 5 x 10(-9) pmol of YG significantly enhanced these responses by 62 and 32%, respectively. At much higher doses (5 x 10(3) pmol), met-enkephalin and its metabolites significantly suppressed DTH reactions by 25-32%. Tyrosine and glycine had no effect on PPD-elicited DTH. All DTH reactions (control, enhanced, suppressed) displayed typical perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates. We conclude that the immunoactivity of met-enkephalin resides in its first two amino acids and suggest that cleavage of enkephalin molecules to YG occurs in serum and/or on the cell surface. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Prevention of ultraviolet damage to the dermis of hairless mice by sunscreens

    SciTech Connect

    Kligman, L.H.; Akin, F.J.; Kligman, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the ability of sunscreens to protect connective tissue from actinic damage, hairless mice were irradiated with Westinghouse FS20 sunlamps thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Each exposure, consisting mainly of UV-B and the less energetic UV-A, was approximately 6 human minimal erythema doses under these lights. One group of animals received irradiation only. The other 2 groups were treated, prior to irradiation, with sunscreens of either low or high sun protection factors (SPF 2 and SPF 15, respectively). Skin biopsies were taken at 10-week intervals and were stained with various histochemical stains to reveal changes in the dermis. The unprotected, irradiated animals showed a great increase in the following: reticulin fibers, elastic fibers to the extent of elastosis, neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides and melanin production. The SPF 15 sunscreen completely prevented these changes. The SPF 2 sunscreen was less effective. These effects were substantiated by ultrastructural examination of the tissues by electron microscopy. A surprising histologic finding was the repair capability of the dermis in the post-irradiation period.

  2. In vivo optical coherence tomography of percutaneous implants in hairless mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, S.; Witte, F.; Bartsch, I.; Petraglia, F.; Massow, O.; Heidrich, M.; Lubatschowski, H.; Heisterkamp, A.; Krüger, A.

    2010-02-01

    Biocompatibility studies of percutanous implants in animal models usually involve numerous lethal biopsies for subsequent morphometric analysis of the implant-tissue interface. A common drawback of the study protocol is the restriction of the analysis to one final time point. In this study optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to visualize and enable quantification of the local skin anatomy in the vicinity of a percutaneous implant in an animal model using hairless mice. Non invasive in vivo optical biopsies were taken on predetermined time points after implantation and ex vivo in situ at the day of noticeable inflammation. The custom made Fourier-domain OCT system was programmed for imaging with different scanning schemes. A spoke-pattern of 72 cross-sectional scans which was centred at the midpoint of the circular shaped implants was acquired and worked best for the in-vivo situation. Motion-artefact-free three-dimensional tomograms were obtained from the implant site before excision and preparation for histology. Morphometric parameters such as epithelial downgrowth, distance to normal growth and tissue thickness were extracted from the images with a simple segmentation algorithm. Qualitatively, the OCT B-Scans are in good agreement with histological sections. Therefore, OCT can provide additional valuable information about the implant-tissue interface at freely selectable time points before the lethal biopsy. Locally confined quantitative assessments of tissue-implant interaction for in vivo postoperative monitoring can be carried out.

  3. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  4. Dietary feeding of Opuntia humifusa inhibits UVB radiation-induced carcinogenesis by reducing inflammation and proliferation in hairless mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Su-Gil; Park, Young-Seok; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2013-01-01

    It has been validated that ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced both squamous and basal cell carcinomas, as a tumor initiator and promoter. Opuntia humifusa is a member of the Cactaceae family which has been demonstrated in our previous study to have a chemopreventive effect in 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced skin carcinogenesis models. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the protective effects of O. humifusa against photocarcinogenesis. O. humifusa was administrated to mice as a dietary feeding, following exposure to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm(2)) twice a week of 30 weeks for skin tumor development in hairless mice. Dietary O. humifusa inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia, infiltration of leukocytes, level of myeloperoxidase and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in UVB exposed skin. Also, O. humifusa significantly inhibited both protein and mRNA expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 compared to the non-O. humifusa treated group. Collectively, these results suggest that O. humifusa could inhibit photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin and that protective effect is associated with the inhibition of not only UVB-induced inflammatory responses involving COX-2, iNOS and proinflammatory cytokines, but also the down-regulation of UVB-induced cellular proliferation. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. Repeated Treatments with Ingenol Mebutate Prevents Progression of UV-Induced Photodamage in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Bay, Christiane; Hald, Andreas; Skak, Kresten; Zibert, John Robert; Paasch, Uwe; Wulf, Hans Christian; Haedersdal, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Ingenol mebutate (IngMeb) is an effective treatment for actinic keratosis. In this study, we hypothesized that repeated treatments with IngMeb may prevent progression of UV-induced photodamage, and that concurrent application of a corticosteroid may reduce IngMeb-induced local skin responses (LSR). Methods Hairless mice (n = 60; 3 groups of 20 mice) were irradiated with solar simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) throughout the study. Five single treatments with IngMeb were given at 4-week intervals (Days 21, 49, 77, 105, and 133). Clobetasol propionate (CP) was applied once daily for 5 days prior to each IngMeb application, as well as 6 h and 1 day post treatment. One week after IngMeb treatment No. 1, 3, and 5 (Days 28, 84, and 140), biopsies from four mice in each group were collected for histological evaluation of UV-damage on a standardized UV-damage scale (0–12). LSR (0–24) were assessed once daily (Days 1–7) after each IngMeb treatment. Results IngMeb prevented progression of photodamage in terms of keratosis grade, epidermal hypertrophy, dysplasia, and dermal actinic damage with a lower composite UV-damage score on day 140 (UVR 10.25 vs. UVR+IngMeb 6.00, p = 0.002) compared to UVR alone. IngMeb induced LSR, including erythema, flaking, crusting, bleeding, vesiculation, and ulceration. Concurrent CP increased LSR (max LSR Tx 1–5: UVR+IngMeb+CP 3.6–5.5 vs. UVR+IngMeb 2.6–4.3) and provided better prevention of photodamage compared to IngMeb alone (Day 140: UVR+IngMeb 6.00 vs. UVR+IngMeb+CP 3.00 p < 0.001). Conclusion Repeated field-directed treatments with IngMeb prevent progression of cutaneous photodamage in hairless mice, while CP cannot be used to alleviate IngMeb-induced LSR. The findings suggest that IngMeb may potentially serve as a prophylactic treatment for UV-induced tumors. PMID:27636884

  6. Application of hairless mouse strain to bioluminescence imaging of Arc expression in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hironori; Ishimoto, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Mori, Hisashi

    2017-01-23

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is a powerful technique for monitoring the temporal and spatial dynamics of gene expression in the mouse brain. However, the black fur, skin pigmentation and hair regrowth after depilation of mouse interfere with BLI during developmental and daily examination. The aim of this study was to extend the application of Arc-Luc transgenic (Tg) mice to the BLI of neuronal activity in the mouse brain by introducing the hairless (HL) gene and to examine Arc-Luc expression at various developmental stages without interference from black fur, skin pigmentation, and hair regrowth. The Arc-Luc Tg HL mice were established by crossing the Tg C57BL/6 mouse strain with the HL mouse strain. Under physiological and pathological conditions, BLI was performed to detect the signal intensity changes at various developmental stages and at an interval of <7 days. The established Arc-Luc Tg HL mice exhibited clear and stable photon signals from the brain without interference during development. After surgical monocular deprivation during visual-critical period, large signal intensity changes in bioluminescence were observed in the mouse visual cortex. Exposure of mice to a novel object changed the photon distribution in the caudal and rostral cerebral areas. The temporal pattern of kainic-acid-induced Arc-Luc expression showed biphasic changes in signal intensity over 24 h. This study showed the advantages of using the mutant HL gene in BLI of Arc expression in the mouse brain at various developmental stages. Thus, the use of the Arc-Luc Tg HL mice enabled the tracking of neuronal-activity-dependent processes over a wide range from a focal area to the entire brain area with various time windows.

  7. Hematology and clinical chemistry values of normal and euthymic hairless adult male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Waner, Trevor; Avidar, Yaakov; Peh, Hao-Chang; Zass, Rosa; Bogin, Eitan

    1996-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry measurements were performed on blood specimens from 12 male Dunkin-Hartley hairless guinea pigs Crl:IAF(HA)BR and 10 haired Dunkin-Hartley male guinea pigs Crl:(HA)BR. Significantly higher activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, amylase, and creatine kinase were observed in the hairless guinea pigs as compared to the haired strain. Alkaline phosphatase activity was found to be lower in the hairless guinea pig. The hairless guinea pigs were found to have serum urea concentrations approximately 46% higher than the normal guinea pig strain. The erythrocytic mean cell volume of the hairless strain was found to be smaller, with a greater hemoglobin content. Hairless guinea pigs were found to have approximately 40% fewer leukocytes with a reversed lymphocyte:neutrophil ratio compared to the haired guinea pigs which had much higher lymphocyte counts.

  8. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-03-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.

  9. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-01-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior. PMID:27025807

  10. Standardized Kaempferia parviflora Extract Inhibits Intrinsic Aging Process in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Hairless Mice by Inhibiting Cellular Senescence and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic skin aging is a complex biological phenomenon mainly caused by cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of Kaempferia parviflora Wall ex. Baker ethanol extract (KPE) on H2O2-stimulated cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction both in vitro and in vivo. KPE significantly increased cell growth and suppressed senescence-associated β-galactosidase activation. KPE inhibited the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors (p53, p21, p16, and pRb) and stimulated the expression of cell-cycle activators (E2F1 and E2F2). H2O2-induced hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway was suppressed by KPE through regulated expression of forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). KPE attenuated inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) and increased the mRNA expression of PGC-1α, ERRα, NRF1, and Tfam, which modulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Consequently, reduced ATP levels and increased ROS level were also reversed by KPE treatment. In hairless mice, KPE inhibited wrinkle formation, skin atrophy, and loss of elasticity by increasing the collagen and elastic fibers. The results indicate that KPE prevents intrinsic aging process in hairless mice by inhibiting cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting its potential as a natural antiaging agent. PMID:28831286

  11. Standardized Kaempferia parviflora Extract Inhibits Intrinsic Aging Process in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Hairless Mice by Inhibiting Cellular Senescence and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Eun; Woo, Seon Wook; Kim, Mi-Bo; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic skin aging is a complex biological phenomenon mainly caused by cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of Kaempferia parviflora Wall ex. Baker ethanol extract (KPE) on H2O2-stimulated cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction both in vitro and in vivo. KPE significantly increased cell growth and suppressed senescence-associated β-galactosidase activation. KPE inhibited the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors (p53, p21, p16, and pRb) and stimulated the expression of cell-cycle activators (E2F1 and E2F2). H2O2-induced hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway was suppressed by KPE through regulated expression of forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). KPE attenuated inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) and increased the mRNA expression of PGC-1α, ERRα, NRF1, and Tfam, which modulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Consequently, reduced ATP levels and increased ROS level were also reversed by KPE treatment. In hairless mice, KPE inhibited wrinkle formation, skin atrophy, and loss of elasticity by increasing the collagen and elastic fibers. The results indicate that KPE prevents intrinsic aging process in hairless mice by inhibiting cellular senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting its potential as a natural antiaging agent.

  12. Lgr5+ stem cells and their progeny in mouse epidermis under regimens of exogenous skin carcinogenesis, and their absence in ensuing skin tumors

    PubMed Central

    van de Glind, Gerline C.; Out, Jacoba J.; Rebel, Heggert G.; Tensen, Cornelis P.; de Gruijl, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Actively proliferating Lgr5+ skin stem cells are found deep in the hair follicle (HF). These cells renew the HF and drive its expansion in anagen phase. Their long residence and continuous mitotic activity make them prime candidates to transform into skin tumor-initiating cells. This was investigated by subjecting Lgr5-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2/R26R-LacZ mice (haired and hairless) to chemical and UV carcinogenic regimens. In the course of these regimens Lgr5+ cells (EGFP+) remained exclusively located in HFs, and in deep-seated cysts of hairless skin. In haired mice, progeny of Lgr5+ stem cells (LacZ+ after a pulse of tamoxifen) appeared in the interfollicular epidermis upon UV-induced sunburn and in TPA-induced hyperplasia. In hairless mice the progeny remained located in deep-seated cysts and in HF remnants. Progeny in hairless skin was only detected interfollicularly at a late stage, in between outgrowing tumors. Lgr5+ stem cells were absent in the ultimate tumor masses, and no tumor appeared to be a (clonal) expansion of Lgr5+ cells (52 tumors with tamoxifen at the start of carcinogenesis, 42 tumors with tamoxifen late during tumor outgrowth). In contrast to CD34/K15+ quiescent bulge stem cells, actively proliferating Lgr5+ stem cells do therefore not appear to be tumor drivers in experimental skin carcinogenesis. PMID:27409834

  13. Permeation pathway of macromolecules and nanospheres through skin.

    PubMed

    Todo, Hiroaki; Kimura, Eriko; Yasuno, Hirotaka; Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Fumie; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The permeation pathway of macromolecules and nanospheres through skin was evaluated using fluorescent isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (average MW, 4 kDa) (FD-4) and nanospheres (500 nm in diameter) in hairless rat abdominal skin and porcine ear skin as well as a three-dimensional cultured human skin model (cultured skin model). A low molecular hydrophilic compound, sodium fluorescein (FL) (MW, 376 Da), was used for comparison. FL penetrated the stratum corneum and permeated the viable epidermis of hairless rat skin, whereas less permeation of FL was observed through the cultured skin model, suggesting that the primary permeation pathway for the hydrophilic material may be skin appendages through the rat skin. A macromolecular compound, FD-4, was distributed through the hair follicles of the rat skin. In addition, nanospheres were detected in the hair follicles of porcine skin, although no skin permeation was detected. These findings suggest that appendage routes such as hair follicles can be a penetration pathway of macromolecules and nanospheres through skin.

  14. Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Ko, Horng-Huey; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Lin, Chun-Ching; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM) in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05), but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways (p < 0.05) in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies. PMID:23403620

  15. Anti-photoaging properties of the phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol in ultraviolet B-irradiated hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Neui; Gil, Chan Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether cilostazol, an activator of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent intracellular signaling, could inhibit ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photoaging in HR-1 hairless mice. Cilostazol decreased wrinkle formation and skin thickness in UVB-irradiated mice, as well as increased staining of collagen fibers and inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the skin. Moreover, the proteolytic activities of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and collagenase MMP-3 were significantly decreased in UVB-irradiated mice treated with cilostazol. Western blotting showed that UVB-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB was significantly inhibited by cilostazol, whereas the activation of Akt was significantly enhanced by cilostazol. Confirmation of localized protein expression in the skin revealed marked p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation that was mainly detected in the dermis. Marked Akt activation was mainly detected in the epidermis. Our results suggest that cilostazol may have anti-photoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of ROS and related p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling, and subsequent down-regulation of MMPs. Therefore, cilostazol may protect against photoaging-induced wrinkle formation. PMID:27484958

  16. Orally administered betaine reduces photodamage caused by UVB irradiation through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Lee, Hee Jeong; Youn, Ui Joung; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    Betaine is widely distributed in plants, microorganisms, in several types of food and in medical herbs, including Lycium chinense. The administration of 100 mg betaine/kg body weight/day is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet irradiation‑induced skin damage. The present study aimed to determine the preventive effects of betaine on ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation‑induced skin damage in hairless mice. The mice were divided into three groups: Control (n=5), UVB‑treated vehicle (n=5) and UVB‑treated betaine (n=5) groups. The level of irradiation was progressively increased between 60 mJ/cm2 per exposure at week 1 (one minimal erythematous dose = 60 mJ/cm2) and 90 mJ/cm2 per exposure at week 7. The formation of wrinkles significantly increased following UVB exposure in the UVB‑treated vehicle group. However, treatment with betaine suppressed UVB‑induced wrinkle formation, as determined by the mean length, mean depth, number, epidermal thickness and collagen damage. Furthermore, oral administration of betaine also inhibited the UVB‑induced expression of mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK), and matrix metalloproteinase‑9 (MMP‑9). These findings suggested that betaine inhibits UVB‑induced skin damage by suppressing increased expression of MMP‑9 through the inhibition of MEK and ERK.

  17. Polypodium leucotomos decreases UV-induced epidermal cell proliferation and enhances p53 expression and plasma antioxidant capacity in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Yanes, Esperanza; Juarranz, Ángeles; Cuevas, Jesús; Gonzalez, Salvador; Mallol, Jordi

    2012-08-01

    A single dose of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces significant changes in blood and skin of hairless mice. Oral administration of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PL, 300 mg/kg during 5 days before UVR and for two additional days after irradiation) modulates some of the effects of UVR. Most significantly, PL administration reduced the number of proliferating cells by 13%, increased the number of p53(+) cells by 63%, enhanced the antioxidant plasma capacity (ORAC) by 30% and reinforced the network of dermal elastic fibres. Western blot analysis of skin antioxidant-related enzymes failed to demonstrate significant changes caused by PL. Thus, the beneficial effect of PL likely owes to its antioxidant and anti-ROS properties rather than its modulation of the expression of endogenous antioxidant systems. These data provide mechanistic clues for its efficacy as a systemic photoprotective agent with antioxidant and anti-photo-ageing properties.

  18. Sulfur mustard-induced microvesication in hairless guinea pigs: Effect of short-term niacinamide administration. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    It has been postulated that sulfur mustard (HD) damage may activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP), resulting in depletion of cellular NAD+. This biochemical alteration is postulated to result in blister (vesicle) formation. It has been previously demonstrated that niacinamide (NAM), an inhibitor of PADPRP and a precursor for NAD+ synthesis, may be useful as a pretreatment compound to reduce HD-induced microvesication. The present study was undertaken to determine whether niacinamide`s protective action could be extended beyond 24 hr and if the degree of microvesication is related to changes in skin NAD+ content. HD exposures were made by vapor cup to hairless guinea pigs. Niacinamide (750 mg/kg, ip) given as a 30-min pretreatment did not reduce the degree of microvesication 72 hr after HD compared to saline controls. However, niacinamide given as a 30-min pretreatment and at 6-, 24-, and 48-hr after HD, exhibited a 28% reduction in microvesication 72 hr after HD. Skin NAD+ content at 72 hr after HD was depleted by approximately 53% in the saline and NAM-treated groups. Skin NAD+ content was depleted despite NAM administration. Niacinamide did not reduce the degree of erythema at 48 or 72 hr. These results suggest that niacinamide`s protective effect against HD-induced microvesication may be extended for at least 72 hr, but NAM levels must be sustained during the post-HD period. The link between maintenance of skin NAD+ and reductions in microvesication is still uncertain.... Pretreatment, Niacinamide, Hairless guinea pig, Sulfur mustard microvesication.

  19. The bald and the beautiful: hairlessness in domestic dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Alexander; Dreger, Dayna L.; Davis, Brian W.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2017-01-01

    An extraordinary amount of genomic variation is contained within the chromosomes of domestic dogs, manifesting as dramatic differences in morphology, behaviour and disease susceptibility. Morphology, in particular, has been a topic of enormous interest as biologists struggle to understand the small window of dog domestication from wolves, and the division of dogs into pure breeding, closed populations termed breeds. Many traits related to morphology, including body size, leg length and skull shape, have been under selection as part of the standard descriptions for the nearly 400 breeds recognized worldwide. Just as important, however, are the minor traits that have undergone selection by fanciers and breeders to define dogs of a particular appearance, such as tail length, ear position, back arch and variation in fur (pelage) growth patterns. In this paper, we both review and present new data for traits associated with pelage including fur length, curl, growth, shedding and even the presence or absence of fur. Finally, we report the discovery of a new gene associated with the absence of coat in the American Hairless Terrier breed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994129

  20. Biosynthesis of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid in hairless mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    DeLapp, N W; Dieckman, D K

    1977-05-01

    [3H]Glutamic acid (PCA) was followed with time after a single subcutaneous injection. PCA specific activity increased slowly, reaching a peak at 3 to 4 days after injection of the labeled amino acid, after which it slowly decline. Incorporation of [3H]glutamic acid into epidermal PCA was markedly inhibited by a single topical application of cycloheximide. Topical application of cycloheximide 2 hr prior to [3H]glutamate injection caused a significantly greater reduction in PCA specific activity (determined 3 days after injection) than cycloheximide treatment 3 hr after administration of the labeled amino acid. Ninety-seven percent of the PCA content of hairless mouse epidermis was shown to reside in the stratum corneum. These observations indicate the involvement of protein synthesis in the formation of PCA from glutamic acid rather than a direct conversion of the amino acid. The high level of PCA in mammalian epidermis appears to be caused by its accumulation in the stratum corneum accompainied by a relatively slow rate of PCA turnover in comparison to other tissues.

  1. Generalized alopecic and cystic dermatosis in a cat: a counterpart to the hairless mouse phenotype or a unique congenital dermatosis?

    PubMed

    Neuber, Ariane E; Van Den Broek, Adri H M; Rhind, Susan M; Hill, Peter B; Thoday, Keith L

    2006-02-01

    A 2-year-old, male neutered, domestic semi-long-haired cat was presented with a 1.5-year history of progressive, initially nonpruritic alopecia and malodorous greasy exudate affecting the distal extremities, trunk and neck but sparing the head and tail. The extensive alopecia and 'seborrhoea' were associated with severe thickening of the skin and fold formation on the dorsal head and distal extremities as well as the lateral thorax and abdomen. The hair was easily epilated, numerous milia were seen on the ventral abdomen and the caudal and lateral thighs, and mild paronychia was present. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed marked cystic dilation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands with follicular hypoplasia, infundibular hyperkeratosis and variable associated inflammation. Systemic glucocorticoid therapy in combination with topical washes with chlorhexidine and miconazole resulted in a marked improvement and some hair regrowth, but the cat was subsequently lost to follow-up. The dermatosis resembles a number of conditions in other species, but it is not clear whether it is a counterpart to the hairless mutant mouse or is a unique dermatosis.

  2. Topical treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection in hairless mice with (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    de Clercq, E

    1984-01-01

    (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (bromovinyldeoxyuridine) was found to suppress the development of herpetic skin lesions and the paralysis and mortality associated therewith in hairless mice inoculated intracutaneously with herpes simplex virus type 1. This protective effect was achieved with bromovinyldeoxyuridine applied topically at 1, 3, or 10% in either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), Beeler base, Tween-glycerol-water, 5% Azone (1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one) in water, or 5% Azone in DMSO. The optimal vehicle was 5% Azone in DMSO, in which bromovinyldeoxyuridine was effective even at a concentration as low as 0.3%. In its protective activity against cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in hairless mice, bromovinyldeoxyuridine was clearly superior to other established antiherpes compounds such as 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine, 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine, arabinosyl thymine, and arabinosyl (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl) uracil when formulated at 10% in DMSO or Azone-DMSO. However, no activity was noted with any of these drug formulations against cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. In contrast, acycloguanosine (acyclovir) proved quite effective in the topical treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 2 infection when used at 10% in DMSO or at 5% in propylene glycol. PMID:6486759

  3. Development of In Vitro Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flaps for Study of Percutaneous Absorption of Xenobiotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    seen when rabbit, rat, cat , or human skin slices were incubated in vitro (63). However, poor P solubility in the reaction mixture, low tissue viability...Chellquist, E.M., Shipwash, E.A., Jederberg, W.W. and Krueger, G.G. (1984b). Percutaneous penetration in the hairless dog, weanling pig, and grafted

  4. Effects of Egg Shell Membrane Hydrolysates on UVB-radiation-induced Wrinkle Formation in SKH-1 Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jin Hee; Kim, Jong Keun; Yang, Hee Jin; Park, Ki Moon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of egg shell membrane hydrolysates (ESMH) on wrinkle, UV, and moisture protection for cosmetic use. ESMH were fragmented as whole ESMH (before fractioning), Fraction I (> 10 kDa), Fraction II (3-10 kDa), and Fraction III (< 3 kDa). In order to test whether fractionated ESMH can be used for functional cosmetic materials, we examined not only the level of hyaluronic acid and collagen production, but also the MMP-1 activity using a HaCaT and CCD-986Sk cell line. Our study treated each sample of fractionated ESMH with different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/mL). In our in vivo research, we used hairless mice that had been exposed to UV-B to induce wrinkles for 7 wk, then applied Fraction I to the treatment group for 5 wk and then tested skin thickness, minimum erythema dose and moisture content. In addition, Fraction I was high in collagen and HA biosynthesis and it was better than TGF-β in improving of the skin. When TNF-α caused MMP-1 activity in the CCD-986Sk cells, the whole ESMH and Fraction I proved to be effective in hindering the induction of collagenase depending on the concentration, and also showed outstanding effects in the suppression of skin aging. We found that the treatment group mice's UV-B radiation-induced skin damage was largely mitigated compared to that of the non-treatment group mice. Thus, we have concluded that EMSH helps to mitigate UV-B radiation-induced wrinkles, collagen, HA, MMP-1 activity and can be used for functional cosmetic materials.

  5. Efficacy of topical formulations containing Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Campanini, Marcela Z; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Ivan, Ana L M; Ferreira, Vitor S; Vilela, Fernanda M P; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Martinez, Renata M; Zarpelon, Ana C; Fonseca, Maria J V; Faria, Terezinha J; Baracat, Marcela M; Verri, Waldiceu A; Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rúbia

    2013-10-05

    Plants rich in antioxidant substances may be a promising strategy for preventing UV-induced oxidative and inflammatory damage of the skin. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus is native to Brazil and presents flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds in high concentration. Thus, the present study evaluated the possible effects of topical formulations containing P. pseudocaryophyllus ethanolic extract (PPE) at inhibiting UV-B irradiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. PPE was administered on the dorsal skin of hairless mice using two formulations: F1 (non-ionic emulsion with high lipid content) and F2 (anionic emulsion with low lipid content) before and after UV-B irradiation. The following parameters were evaluated in skin samples: edema, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokines levels, matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) secretion/activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide anion and lipid peroxidation levels, and mRNA expression for glutathione reductase and gp91phox. The UV-B irradiation increased all parameters, except for IL-10 levels and glutathione reductase mRNA expression, which were not altered, and GSH levels, which were reduced by exposure to UV-B light. Treatments with F1 and F2 containing PPE inhibited UV-B-induced edema formation (89% and 86%), myeloperoxidase activity (85% and 81%), IL-1β production (62% and 82%), MMP-9 activity (71% and 74%), GSH depletion (73% and 85%), superoxide anion (83% and 66%) and TBARS (100% and 100%) levels, increased glutathione reductase (2.54 and 2.55-fold) and reduced gp91phox (67% and 100%) mRNA expression, respectively. F2 containing PPE also increased IL-10 levels. Therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of topical formulations containing PPE in inhibiting UV-B irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Egg Shell Membrane Hydrolysates on UVB-radiation-induced Wrinkle Formation in SKH-1 Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Keun; Yang, Hee Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of egg shell membrane hydrolysates (ESMH) on wrinkle, UV, and moisture protection for cosmetic use. ESMH were fragmented as whole ESMH (before fractioning), Fraction I (> 10 kDa), Fraction II (3-10 kDa), and Fraction III (< 3 kDa). In order to test whether fractionated ESMH can be used for functional cosmetic materials, we examined not only the level of hyaluronic acid and collagen production, but also the MMP-1 activity using a HaCaT and CCD-986Sk cell line. Our study treated each sample of fractionated ESMH with different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/mL). In our in vivo research, we used hairless mice that had been exposed to UV-B to induce wrinkles for 7 wk, then applied Fraction I to the treatment group for 5 wk and then tested skin thickness, minimum erythema dose and moisture content. In addition, Fraction I was high in collagen and HA biosynthesis and it was better than TGF-β in improving of the skin. When TNF-α caused MMP-1 activity in the CCD-986Sk cells, the whole ESMH and Fraction I proved to be effective in hindering the induction of collagenase depending on the concentration, and also showed outstanding effects in the suppression of skin aging. We found that the treatment group mice’s UV-B radiation-induced skin damage was largely mitigated compared to that of the non-treatment group mice. Thus, we have concluded that EMSH helps to mitigate UV-B radiation-induced wrinkles, collagen, HA, MMP-1 activity and can be used for functional cosmetic materials. PMID:26761801

  7. Ergocalciferol promotes in vivo differentiation of keratinocytes and reduces photodamage caused by ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Hiroaki; Naru, Eiji; Yamashita, Mika; Arakane, Kumi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Imanari, Toshio

    2004-10-01

    Ergocalciferol (VD(2)) is usually administered orally and it is metabolized to produce its biologically active metabolites in the liver and kidney. Active vitamin D is a well-known potent regulator of cell growth and differentiation. Active vitamin D such as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)) prevents photodamage, including wrinkles and morphologic alterations. However, its clinical and cosmetic use is limited because of its potent, associated effect on calcium metabolism. We examined the efficacy of vitamin D analogues with few adverse effects for preventing skin photodamage. Topical application of VD(2) to hairless mouse dorsal skin, and exposure to solar-simulating ultraviolet (UV) radiation at a dose of 10.8 J/cm(2) (UVA) were performed for 15 weeks, five times a week on weekdays. At the end of the final irradiation, histological and analytical studies were performed. Topical application of VD(2) significantly prevented wrinkle formation and abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix components. In addition, VD(2) suppressed excessive secretion of IL-6 induced by UV irradiation in cultured human normal keratinocytes, in a dose-dependent manner. VD(2) promoted keratinocytes differentiation in the epidermis and showed diverse physiological effects, the same as the active form of VD(3). The results suggested that the suppression of skin photodamage involved the promotion of keratinocytes differentiation and suppression of IL-6 secretion induced by exposure to UV. Topical application of VD(2) may become an effective means to suppress solar UV-induced human skin damage.

  8. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of a novel phenotype in pigs characterized by juvenile hairlessness and age dependent emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bruun, Camilla S; Jørgensen, Claus B; Bay, Lene; Cirera, Susanna; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Páll S; Nielsen, Jens; Christensen, Knud; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    Background A pig phenotype characterized by juvenile hairlessness, thin skin and age dependent lung emphysema has been discovered in a Danish pig herd. The trait shows autosomal co-dominant inheritance with all three genotypes distinguishable. Since the phenotype shows resemblance to the integrin β6 -/- knockout phenotype seen in mice, the two genes encoding the two subunits of integrin αvβ6, i.e. ITGB6 and ITGAV, were considered candidate genes for this trait. Results The mutated pig phenotype is characterized by hairlessness until puberty, thin skin with few hair follicles and absence of musculi arrectores pili, and at puberty or later localized areas of emphysema are seen in the lungs. Comparative mapping predicted that the porcine ITGB6 andITGAV orthologs map to SSC15. In an experimental family (n = 113), showing segregation of the trait, the candidate region was confirmed by linkage analysis with four microsatellite markers. Mapping of the porcine ITGB6 and ITGAV in the IMpRH radiation hybrid panel confirmed the comparative mapping information. Sequencing of the ITGB6 and ITGAV coding sequences from affected and normal pigs revealed no evidence of a causative mutation, but alternative splicing of the ITGB6 pre-mRNA was detected. For both ITGB6 and ITGAV quantitative PCR revealed no significant difference in the expression levels in normal and affected animals. In a western blot, ITGB6 was detected in lung protein samples of all three genotypes. This result was supported by flow cytometric analyses which showed comparable reactions of kidney cells from affected and normal pigs with an integrin αvβ6 monoclonal antibody. Also, immunohistochemical staining of lung tissue with an integrin β6 antibody showed immunoreaction in both normal and affected pigs. Conclusion A phenotype resembling the integrin β6 -/- knockout phenotype seen in mice has been characterized in the pig. The candidate region on SSC15 has been confirmed by linkage analysis but molecular

  9. In vivo microdialysis for the investigation of drug levels in the dermis and the effect of barrier perturbation on cutaneous drug penetration. Studies in hairless rats and human subjects.

    PubMed

    Benfeldt, E

    1999-01-01

    The thesis opens with review chapters concerning theoretical and practical aspects of the investigation of drug contents in the skin. A discussion of the advantages and limitations of the established methods as well as the relatively new sampling method of microdialysis, which is employed in the experimental section, is given. Factors influencing the barrier function of the normal human skin are described as are the alterations in skin barrier function found in diseased and experimentally barrier perturbed skin. The microdialysis technique consists of introducing an ultra thin, semipermeable tube, a so-called probe, in the dermis. The tube is connected to a precision pump, which provides a steady flow of a tissue-compatible fluid through the probe at a very low flow. Smaller molecules in the tissue, among them the non-protein bound fraction of the drug content in the extracellular fluid, will passively diffuse across the surface of the membrane and thus enter the flow of the perfusate, which is sampled at regular intervals and analysed. Microdialysis is used for the determination of drug levels in the skin after topical as well as systemic drug delivery in the experimental part of the thesis. The method is not applicable to the investigation of all drugs or compounds, as we have shown that it is not feasible to sample highly protein-bound drugs or very lipophilic drugs by microdialysis without further development of the method. The investigation of topical drug administration consists of 2 studies of cutaneous penetration of a model drug, salicylic acid, initially investigated in hairless rats and subsequently in human volunteers. In both studies, barrier perturbation of the skin was undertaken by physical (removal of the stratum corneum by repeated tape stripping) or chemical (treatment with acetone) methods or by provocation of irritative dermatitis (by application of sodium lauryl sulphate, a detergent). Prior to the penetration experiment, the barrier damage

  10. [Macromutation and evolution: the fixation of Goldschmidt's macromutations as species and genus traits. Hairlessness mutations in mammals].

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, N N

    1988-06-01

    A brief survey of the development of concepts on the role of macromutations in evolution is given. Contrary to Iu. A. Filipchenko (1926, 1927), who introduced the "micro- and macromutation" terms and believed that regularities of macroevolution could not be reduced to microevolutionary processes, the majority of "synthetists" explained any form of evolution by changes in allele frequencies. From the studies of Drosophila homoeotic mutants R. Goldschmidt (1940) developed the concept of "hopeful monsters" and their role in macroevolution. However, the homoeotic mutants are of drastically reduced viability, which allows the gradualists to reject Goldschmidt's ideas. The distribution of hairlessness mutations (hairless, nude etc.) with the monogenic pattern of inheritance in mammals was studied. Hairless mutants are known in Peromyscus, Mus musculus, Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Canis familiaris, Ovis aries. Hairlessness as norm is found in 53 among contemporaneous 1037 mammalian genera. Part of these cases (hairlessness in all Cetacea and Sirenia) may be explained in terms of both macromutations and obligatory gradualism. There is no doubt as to the macromutational origin of hairlessness in the bat Cheiromeles and the rodent Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae); the genera systematically and ecologically close to these have normal pelage. It is quite possible that hairlessness of walrus (Odobenus) has the same origin. The appearance and fixation of single Goldschmidt's macromutation cannot yet be considered as a macroevolutionary process, though the possibility of fixation of a macromutation in nature as a species and genus character contradicts strongly the concept of obligatory gradualism of evolution.

  11. Study on penetration of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles into intact and damaged skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Senzui, Mika; Tamura, Toshiaki; Miura, Keiko; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Yoshiteru; Fujii, Makiko

    2010-02-01

    It is important for toxicological assessment of nanoparticles to determine the penetration of nanoparticle in skin qualitatively and quantitatively. Skin penetration of four different types of rutile titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) (T-35, 35 nm, non-coating; TC-35, 35 nm, with almina/silica/silicon coating; T-disp, 10 x 100 nm, mixture of almina coated and silicon coated particles, dispersed in cyclopentasiloxan; T-250, 250 nm, non-coating) was determined with in vitro intact, stripped, and hair-removed skin of Yucatan micropigs to study the effect of dispersion and skin conditions. The TiO(2) was suspended in a volatile silicone fluid used for cosmetics, cyclopentasiloxane, at a concentration of 10%. The suspension was applied at a dose 2 microl/cm(2) for 24 hr, followed by cyanoacrylate stripping. The Ti concentration in skin was determined by ICP-MS. T-35 and T-250 easily aggregated in suspension with a mean diameter greater than 1 microm. TC-35 and T-disp showed good dispersion properties with a mean diameter in suspension of approximately 100 nm. No penetration was observed regardless of TiO(2) type in intact and stripped skin. The concentration of Ti in skin was significantly higher when TC-35 was applied on hair-removed skin. SEM-EDS observation showed that Ti penetrated into vacant hair follicles (greater than 1 mm below the skin surface), however, it did not penetrate into dermis or viable epidermis.

  12. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary.

  13. Cutaneous Uptake of 14C-HD Vapor by the Hairless Guinea Pig.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    The hairless guinea pig ( HGP ) is used by our laboratory to model the human cutaneous response to sulfur mustard (HD) exposure. We have determined the...other aspects of the experimental model. These results contribute to a better understanding of the cutaneous response to HD in the HGP model.

  14. Programmable transdermal delivery of nicotine in hairless guinea pigs using carbon nanotube membrane pumps.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Kalpana S; Wu, Ji; Hinds, Bruce J; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2012-10-01

    A compact switchable transdermal nicotine patch device was demonstrated to be effective in vivo in a hairless guinea pig animal model. This required the development and validation of a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of cotinine and nicotine in hairless guinea pig plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nicotine metabolism in hairless guinea pigs is rapid and cotinine was found to be the viable nicotine marker. The portable carbon nanotube membrane device, powered by a 1.5 V watch battery, was demonstrated to be a power efficient method to pump nicotine at levels six to eight times that of passive diffusion. Cotinine blood plasma levels in hairless guinea pigs were seen to increase from 6 to 12 ng/mL when the patch was turned from passive diffusion to an active pumping state. These nicotine patch devices are highly promising for potential clinical applications, with programmed delivery based on remote counseling, in order to improve smoking cessation treatments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Niacinamide pretreatment reduces microvesicle formation in hairless guinea pigs cutaneously exposed to sulfur mustard. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, J.J.; Clark, C.R.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1991-12-31

    It has been proposed that sulfur mustard (HD) may indirectly activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP) by alkylating cellular DNA (Papirmeister et al., 1985). Activation of PADPRP results in the depletion of cellular NAD+ which initiates a series of biochemical processes that have been proposed to culminate in blister formation. Preventing PADPRP activation and NAD+ depletion should inhibit blister formation. Niacinamide is both an inhibitor of PADPRP and a precursor for NAD+ synthesis. The present study was undertaken to determine whether niacinamide can protect against HD-induced microvesication in cutaneously exposed hairless guinea pigs. Each site was exposed to HD for 8 min by means of a vapor cup. Niacinamide (750 mg/kg, ip) given as a 30-min pretreatment inhibited microvesicle formation by 50% after HD application. However, niacinamide given 2 hr after HD application did not reduce microvesicle formation. There was no benefit when niacinamide was given as both a pretreatment and treatment when compared to niacinamide given only as a pretreatment. The reduction in microvesication 24 hr after HD did not correlate with skin NAD+ content. Niacinamide did not reduce the degree of erythema or edema. Ballooning degeneration of basal epidermal cells was present in some niacinamide pretreated HD exposure sites.

  16. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive activities of glycyrrhizic acid against UVB-radiation-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Cherng, Jaw-Ming; Tsai, Kuen-Daw; Yu, Yu-Whay; Lin, Jung-Chung

    2011-08-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid has been shown to possess anti-inflammation, antiviral and chemoprotective activity against tumors. We evaluated the protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid in UVB-radiation-induced skin tumor formation in SKH-1 hairless mice and the early molecular biomarkers of these effects. Mice irradiated at 180 mJ/cm² twice per week showed 100% tumor incidence in 20 weeks. Feeding with glycyrrhizic acid prior to UVB irradiation caused delays in tumor appearance, multiplicity and size. Feeding with glycyrrhizic acid for 2 weeks before a single UVB irradiation (180 mJ/cm²) resulted in significant decrease in UVB-radiation-induced thymine dimer-positive cells, expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, and apoptotic sunburn cells together with an increase in p53- and p21/Cip1-positive cell populations in epidermis. Simultaneously, glycyrrhizic acid also significantly inhibited NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Thus glycyrrhizic acid ameliorates UVB-radiation-induced tumorigenesis via downregulation of cell proliferation controls involving thymine dimer, PCNA, apoptosis and transcription factor NF-κB and of inflammatory responses involving COX-2, PGE2 and NO while upregulating of p53 and p21/Cip1 to prevent DNA damage and facilitate DNA repair.

  17. Effect of microplasma irradiation on skin barrier function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kazuo; Tran, Nhat An; Blajan, Marius

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of atmospheric-pressure argon microplasma irradiation (AAMI) to promote drug delivery through skin. Yucatan micropig skin was used as a biological object for evaluation of in vitro percutaneous absorption. The changes in lipids, proteins and water content of the pig stratum corneum (SC) after AAMI were compared to those of a tape stripping test (TST) and plasma jet irradiation (PJI) using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The significant reduction in the methylene stretching modes absorbance resulted in the disturbance in the SC lipids caused by AAMI was observed at 2850 and 2920 cm-1. Moreover, as the result of TST, trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) after both AAMI and PJI were also increased, that could lead to a decrease of barrier function of SC, and could enhance the transdermal absorption of drugs. Under the conditions of this study, TEWL value of 5 minutes AAMI (35.92 +/- 3.48 g/m2h) was approximately the same as that value of 10 times TST (34.30 +/- 3.54 g/m2h), that makes the effect of these manipulations on the surfaces is considered to be at the same levels. Furthermore, unlike the obtained microscopic observation from PJI, there was no thermal damage observed on the skins after AAMI.

  18. Fisetin inhibits UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and activation of PI3K/AKT/NFκB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A; Afaq, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been shown to induce inflammation, DNA damage, p53 mutations and alterations in signaling pathways eventually leading to skin cancer. In this study, we investigated whether fisetin reduces inflammatory responses and modulates PI3K/AKT/NFκB cell survival signaling pathways in UVB-exposed SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Mice were exposed to 180 mJ cm(-2) of UVB radiation on alternate days for a total of seven exposures, and fisetin (250 and 500 nmol) was applied topically after 15 min of each UVB exposure. Fisetin treatment to UVB-exposed mice resulted in decreased hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Fisetin treatment also reduced inflammatory mediators such as COX-2, PGE2 as well as its receptors (EP1-EP4) and MPO activity. Furthermore, fisetin reduced the level of inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in UVB-exposed skin. Fisetin treatment also reduced cell proliferation markers as well as DNA damage as evidenced by increased expression of p53 and p21 proteins. Further studies revealed that fisetin inhibited UVB-induced expression of PI3K, phosphorylation of AKT and activation of the NFκB signaling pathway in mouse skin. Overall, these data suggest that fisetin may be useful against UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and DNA damage. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Fisetin inhibits UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and activation of PI3K/AKT/NFκB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice†

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Athar, Mohammad; Elmets, Craig A.; Afaq, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation has been shown to induce inflammation, DNA damage, p53 mutations, and alterations in signaling pathways eventually leading to skin cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether fisetin reduces inflammatory responses and modulates PI3K/AKT/NFκB cell survival signaling pathways in UVB exposed SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. Mice were exposed to 180 mJ/cm2 of UVB radiation on alternate days for a total of seven exposures, and fisetin (250 and 500 nmol) was applied topically after 15 min of each UVB exposure. Fisetin treatment to UVB exposed mice resulted in decreased hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Fisetin treatment also reduced inflammatory mediators such as COX-2, PGE2 as well as its receptors (EP1- EP4), and MPO activity. Furthermore, fisetin reduced the level of inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in UVB exposed skin. Fisetin treatment also reduced cell proliferation markers as well as DNA damage as evidenced by increased expression of p53 and p21 proteins. Further studies revealed that fisetin inhibited UVB-induced expression of PI3K, phosphorylation of AKT, and activation of the NFκB signaling pathway in mouse skin. Overall, these data suggest that fisetin may be useful against UVB-induced cutaneous inflammation and DNA damage. PMID:25169110

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Niacinamide in Blood and Skin of Hairless Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    d By for..... .. pubic e and sa i ts[ ist, 1tjC.- I dis tibution to unum . I Dlst ii eca T~rrAP, ,.. DI i- 0 Dl INTRODUCTION Niacin and niacinamide...hydrogen ion transport, ATP formation and in glycolysis’. As a member of the vitamin 8 complex, niacin also plays a role in human nutrition. An...inadequate dietary supply of niacin (normally about 10 mg per day) and/or its precursor tryptophan2 leads to pellagra in man and to similar deficiency

  1. Comparative Morphology of Sulfur Mustard Effects in the Hairless Guinea Pig and a Human Skin Equivalent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    intercellular spaces, disruption of desmosomal attachments, nuclear pyknosis, perinuclear blebbing and repositioning of cytoplasmic tonofilaments to a...intercellular spaces, disruption of desmosomal attachments, nuclear pyknosis, perinuclear blebbing and repositioning of I| cytoplasmic tonofilaments to a...of desmosomal mal junction have been morphologically characterized. attachment. However, primary or secondary effects on specific mor- pho-biochemical

  2. New Methods for Evaluating Skin Injury from Sulfur Mustard in the Hairless Guinea Pig

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    response curve for HD vapor doses of 2 to 4 min. This current study confirms that observation. ERYTHEMA RE’L.EC TANCE COLOR METER 0 MMI - 3 M I 5 M 1 7...essentially the same for the 5, 7, and 9 min doses. Previous work with the HGP demonstrated that the degree of erythema increased with a linear dose

  3. The Charles River "hairless" rat mutation maps to chromosome 1: allelic with fuzzy and a likely orthologue of mouse frizzy.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, K; Akkouris, G; Berry, P R; Chrissluis, R R; Crooks, I M; Dull, A K; Grable, S; Jeruzal, J; Lanza, J; Lavoie, C; Maloney, R A; Pitruzzello, M; Sharma, R; Stoklasek, T A; Tweeddale, J; King, T R

    2002-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that the recessive mutation affecting hypotrichosis in the Charles River (CR) "hairless" rat does not involve the hairless gene (hr) on rat chromosome 15. To determine if this mutation might be allelic (or orthologous) with any other previously mapped hypotrichosis-generating mutation in mammals, we have produced a panel of backcross rats segregating for the CR hairless rat mutation as well as numerous other markers from throughout the rat genome. Analysis of this panel has located the CR hairless rat's hypotrichosis-generating mutation on chromosome 1, near Myl2, where only the fuzzy mutation in rat (fz) and the frizzy mutation in mouse (fr) have been previously localized. Intercrossing fz/fz and CR hairless rats produced hybrid offspring with abnormal hair, showing that these two rat mutations are allelic. We suggest that the CR hairless rat mutation and fuzzy be renamed frizzy-Charles River (fr(CR)) and frizzy-Harlan (fr(H)), respectively, to reflect their likely orthology with the mouse fr mutation.

  4. Whorled hairless nevus of the scalp, linear hyperpigmentation, and telangiectatic nevi of the lower limbs: a novel variant of the "phacomatosis complex".

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Scarciolla, Oronzo; Morlino, Silvia; Manente, Liborio; Biscaglia, Assunta; Fragasso, Alberto; Grammatico, Paola

    2012-02-01

    The term "phacomatosis" refers to a growing number of sporadic genetic skin disorders characterized by the combination of two or more different nevi and possibly resulting from non-allelic twin spotting. While phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) and pigmentokeratotica represent the most common patterns, some patients do not fit with either condition and are temporarily classified as unique phenotypes. We report on an 8-year-old boy with striking right hemihypoplasia, resulting in limb asymmetry and fixed dislocation of right hip. Skin on the affected side showed three distinct nevi: (i) A whorled, hairless nevus of the scalp in close proximity with (ii) epidermal hyperpigmentation following lines of Blaschko on the neck and right upper limb, and (iii) multiple telangiectatic nevi of the right lower limb and hemiscrotum. Didymosis atricho-melanotica was proposed for the combination of adjacent patchy congenital alopecia and linear hyperpigmentation, while phacomatosis atricho-pigmento-vascularis appears to define the entire cutaneous phenotype, thus implying the involvement of three neighboring loci influencing the development of distinct constituents of the skin. Given the striking asymmetry of the observed phenotype, the effect of mosaicism (either genomic or functional) for a mutation in a single gene with pleiotropic action and influenced by the lateralization pattern of early development cannot be excluded.

  5. Changes in environmental humidity affect the water-holding property of the stratum corneum and its free amino acid content, and the expression of filaggrin in the epidermis of hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Chika; Sato, Junko; Nomura, Junko; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2003-02-01

    Seasonal changes affect the condition of skin and may trigger various cutaneous disorders. To clarify the effects of the environmental humidity on the skin pathology, we studied the effects of the humidity on a water-holding function of the stratum corneum. We evaluated the skin surface conductance, amino acid in the stratum corneum, and immunoreactivity of filaggrin of the epidermis of hairless mice kept in different environmental humidity. Skin surface conductance in the stratum corneum of hairless mice 3-7 days after transfer from a humid environment (>80% relative humidity) to a dry (<10% relative humidity) environment, was significantly lower than that of the mice transferred from a normal environment (relative humidity=40-70%) to a dry environment. The free amino acid content in the stratum corneum significantly decreased 24 h after we transferred the mice from a normal to a dry condition, then it recovered to the original level within 3 days, while the mice transferred from a humid to a dry condition showed a significantly lower amino acid content even 7 days after the transfer. No obvious change was observed in the relative composition of the major components of the free amino acids during the experiments. Immunoreactivity of filaggrin, which is the main precursor of free amino acids in the stratum corneum, also became faint in the epidermis of the mice transferred from a humid or normal to a dry environment. These results suggested that a drastic decrease in the environmental humidity reduced the total free amino acid generation and consequently induced skin surface dryness in the stratum corneum.

  6. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of nitrogen mustard-induced cutaneous effects in SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant warfare agent which causes severe skin injuries. Currently, we lack effective antidotes against SM-induced skin injuries, in part due to lack of appropriate animal model(s) that can be used for efficacy studies in laboratory settings to identify effective therapies. Therefore, to develop a relevant mouse skin injury model, we examined the effects of nitrogen mustard (NM), a primary vesicant and a bifunctional alkylating agent that induces toxic effects comparable to SM. Specifically, we conducted histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of several applicable cutaneous pathological lesions following skin NM (3.2mg) exposure for 12-120h in SKH-1 and C57BL/6 mice. NM caused a significant increase in epidermal thickness, incidence of microvesication, cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, inflammatory cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) and myleoperoxidase activity in the skin of both mouse strains. However, there was a more prominent NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, and macrophages and mast cell infiltration, in SKH-1 mice relative to what was seen in C57BL/6 mice. NM also caused collagen degradation and edema at early time points (12-24h); however, at later time points (72 and 120h), dense collagen staining was observed, indicating either water loss or start of integument repair in both the mouse strains. This study provides quantitative measurement of NM-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical cutaneous lesions in both hairless and haired mouse strains that could serve as useful tools for screening and identification of effective therapies for treatment of skin injuries due to NM and SM.

  7. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of nitrogen mustard-induced cutaneous effects in SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J.; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant warfare agent which causes severe skin injuries. Currently, we lack effective antidotes against SM-induced skin injuries, in part due to lack of appropriate animal model(s) that can be used for efficacy studies in laboratory settings to identify effective therapies. Therefore, to develop a relevant mouse skin injury model, we examined the effects of nitrogen mustard (NM), a primary vesicant and a bifunctional alkylating agent that induces toxic effects comparable to SM. Specifically, we conducted histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of several applicable cutaneous pathological lesions following skin NM (3.2 mg) exposure for 12–120 h in SKH-1 and C57BL/6 mice. NM caused a significant increase in epidermal thickness, incidence of microvesication, cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, inflammatory cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) and myleoperoxidase activity in the skin in both mouse strains. However, there was a more prominent NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, and macrophages and mast cell infiltration, in SKH-1 mice relative to what was seen in C57BL/6 mice. NM also caused collagen degradation and edema at early time points (12–24 h); however, at later time points (72 and 120 h), dense collagen staining was observed, indicating either water loss or start of integument repair in both mouse strains. This study provides quantitative measurement of NM-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical cutaneous lesions in both hairless and haired mouse strains that could serve as useful tools for screening and identification of effective therapies for treatment of skin injuries due to NM and SM. PMID:24373750

  8. Hairless controls hair fate decision via Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kuicheng; Xu, Cunshuan; Liu, Mengduan; Zhang, Jintao

    2017-09-23

    The hairless (Hr) gene plays a central role in the hair cycle, considering that mutations in the gene result in hair loss with the exception of a few vibrissae after the first hair growth cycle in both mice and humans. This study examinedthe uncommon phenotype and using microarray analyses and functional studies, we found that β-catenin was mediated by Hr. Progenitor keratinocytes from the bulge region differentiate into both epidermis and sebaceous glands, and fail to adopt the hair keratinocytes fate in the mutant scalp, due to the decreased Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the absence of the hairless protein. This may be attributed to the dysfunction of normal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the hair follicle (HF). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral feeding of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits early biomarkers of UVB radiation-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Afaq, Farrukh; Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Pomegranate from the plant Punica granatum L. possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, we have demonstrated that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibited UVB-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases pathways. Here, we evaluated the effect of PFE on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing SKH-1 hairless mice. PFE was provided in drinking water (0.2%, wt/vol) to SKH-1 hairless mice for 14 days before a single UVB (180 mJ cm(-2)) irradiation. We found that oral feeding of PFE inhibited UVB-induced: (1) skin edema; (2) hyperplasia; (3) infiltration of leukocytes; (4) lipid peroxidation; (5) hydrogen peroxide generation; (6) ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity; and (7) ODC, cyclooxygenase-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein expression. Oral feeding of PFE enhanced repair of UVB-mediated formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Importantly, PFE treatment further enhanced UVB-mediated increase in tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, oral feeding of PFE inhibited UVB-mediated: (1) nuclear translocation of NF-κB; (2) activation of IKKα; and (3) phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Taken together, we provide evidence that oral feeding of PFE to mice affords substantial protection from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis and provide suggestion for its photochemopreventive potential.

  10. Oral Feeding of Pomegranate Fruit Extract Inhibits Early Biomarkers of UVB Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Afaq, Farrukh; Khan, Naghma; Syed, Deeba N.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Pomegranate from the plant Punica granatum possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, we have demonstrated that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways. Here, we evaluated the effect of PFE on early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis employing SKH-1 hairless mice. PFE was provided in drinking water (0.2%, wt/vol) to SKH-1 hairless mice for 14 days before a single UVB (180 mJ/cm2) irradiation. We found that oral feeding of PFE inhibited UVB-induced: (i) skin edema, (ii) hyperplasia, (iii) infiltration of leukocytes, (iv) lipid peroxidation, (v) hydrogen peroxide generation, (vi) ODC activity, and (vii) ODC, COX-2 and PCNA protein expression. Oral feeding of PFE enhanced repair of UVB-mediated formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Importantly, PFE treatment further enhanced UVB-mediated increase in tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, oral feeding of PFE inhibited UVB-mediated: (i) nuclear translocation of NF-κB, (ii) activation of IKKα, and (iii) phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Taken together, we provide evidence that oral feeding of PFE to mice affords substantial protection from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation in early biomarkers of photocarcinogenesis and provide suggestion for its photochemopreventive potential. PMID:20946358

  11. The hairless (hr) gene is involved in the congenital hypotrichosis of Valle del Belice sheep.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Raffaella; Portolano, Baldassare; Damiani, Giuseppe; Caroli, Anna; Budelli, Elena; Bolla, Patrizia; Pagnacco, Giulio

    2003-01-01

    Congenital hypotrichosis in mammalian species consists of partial or complete absence of hair at birth. The hairless gene is often responsible for this disorder in men, mice and rats. Recent experimental data on Valle del Belice sheep reared in Sicily for milk production, support the genetic control of the ovine hypotrichosis as a Mendelian recessive trait. The ovine hairless gene was chosen as the candidate gene involved in this disorder. Blood samples were collected from Valle del Belice sheep with the normal and hypotrichotic phenotypes. Almost the entire hairless gene was successfully amplified using the long PCR technique. Unrelated sheep with differing phenotypes were randomly chosen for sequencing the amplified products. Different mutations related to the hypotrichotic phenotype were found in exon 3. In fact, sequencing revealed an A/T transversion at position 739, a G/A transition at position 823, and a C/T transition at position 1312. From these nucleotide exchanges, three substitutions of the processed mature protein were deduced at the amino acid positions 247 (Thr/Ser), 275 (Ala/Thr), and 438 (Gln/Stop). A PCR-SSCP based test was developed in order to detect the last mutation, which is responsible for the hypotrichotic phenotype.

  12. The hairless (hr) gene is involved in the congenital hypotrichosis of Valle del Belice sheep

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Congenital hypotrichosis in mammalian species consists of partial or complete absence of hair at birth. The hairless gene is often responsible for this disorder in men, mice and rats. Recent experimental data on Valle del Belice sheep reared in Sicily for milk production, support the genetic control of the ovine hypotrichosis as a Mendelian recessive trait. The ovine hairless gene was chosen as the candidate gene involved in this disorder. Blood samples were collected from Valle del Belice sheep with the normal and hypotrichotic phenotypes. Almost the entire hairless gene was successfully amplified using the long PCR technique. Unrelated sheep with differing phenotypes were randomly chosen for sequencing the amplified products. Different mutations related to the hypotrichotic phenotype were found in exon 3. In fact, sequencing revealed an A/T transversion at position 739, a G/A transition at position 823, and a C/T transition at position 1312. From these nucleotide exchanges, three substitutions of the processed mature protein were deduced at the amino acid positions 247 (Thr/Ser), 275 (Ala/Thr), and 438 (Gln/Stop). A PCR-SSCP based test was developed in order to detect the last mutation, which is responsible for the hypotrichotic phenotype. PMID:12927087

  13. Unsaturated glycerol monoethers as novel skin penetration enhancers.

    PubMed

    Loftsson, T; Petersen, D S; Le Goffic, F; Olafsson, J H

    1997-06-01

    A mixture of glycerol monoethers was extracted from the liver oil of deep sea shark (Centroporus squamosus). It consisted mainly of monoethers of glycerol and linear monounsaturated octadecanol, and glycerol and linear monounsaturated hexadecanol. Only about 11% of the extract consisted of glycerol monoethers derived from linear saturated fatty alcohols. The glycerol monoether extract was somewhat less effective as skin penetration enhancer than oleic acid and other potent fatty acid penetration enhancers, but it was still a very effective enhancer in the hairless mouse skin model used in this study.

  14. The near-naked hairless (Hr(N)) mutation disrupts hair formation but is not due to a mutation in the Hairless coding region.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yutao; Das, Suchita; Olszewski, Robert E; Carpenter, Donald A; Culiat, Cymbeline T; Sundberg, John P; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Liu, Xiaochen; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Michaud, Edward J; Voy, Brynn H

    2007-07-01

    Near-naked hairless (Hr(N)) is a semi-dominant, spontaneous mutation that was suggested by allelism testing to be allelic with mouse Hairless (Hr). Hr(N) mice differ from other Hr mutants in that hair loss appears as the postnatal coat begins to emerge, rather than as an inability to regrow hair after the first catagen and that the mutation displays semi-dominant inheritance. We sequenced the Hr cDNA in Hr(N)/Hr(N) mice and characterized the pathological and molecular phenotypes to identify the basis for hair loss in this model. Hr(N)/Hr(N) mice exhibit dystrophic hairs that are unable to emerge consistently from the hair follicle, whereas Hr(N)/+ mice display a sparse coat of hair and a milder degree of follicular dystrophy than their homozygous littermates. DNA microarray analysis of cutaneous gene expression demonstrates that numerous genes are downregulated in Hr(N)/Hr(N) mice, primarily genes important for hair structure. By contrast, Hr expression is significantly increased. Sequencing the Hr-coding region, intron-exon boundaries, 5'- and 3'-untranslated region, and immediate upstream region did not reveal the underlying mutation. Therefore, Hr(N) does not appear to be an allele of Hr but may result from a mutation in a closely linked gene or from a regulatory mutation in Hr.

  15. The Near Naked Hairless (HrN) Mutation Disrupts Hair Formation but is not Due to a Mutation in the Hairless Coding Region

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yutao; Das, Suchita; Olszewski, Robert Edward; Culiat, Cymbeline T; Carpenter, D A; Sundberg, John P; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Liu, Xiaochen; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Michaud III, Edward J; Voy, Brynn H

    2007-01-01

    Near naked hairless (HrN) is a semi-dominant mutation that arose spontaneously and was suggested by allelism testing to be an allele of mouse Hairless (Hr). HrN mice differ from other Hr mutants in that hair loss appears as the postnatal coat begins to emerge, as opposed to failure to initiate the first postnatal hair cycle, and that the mutation displays semi-dominant inheritance. We sequenced the Hr cDNA in HrN/HrN mice and characterized the pathological and molecular phenotypes to identify the basis for hair loss in this model. HrN/HrN mice exhibit dystrophic hairs that are unable to consistently emerge from the hair follicle, while HrN/+ mice display a sparse coat of hair and a milder degree of follicular dystrophy than their homozygous littermates. DNA microarray analysis of cutaneous gene expression demonstrates that numerous genes are downregulated in HrN/HrN mice, primarily genes important for hair structure. By contrast, Hr expression is significantly increased. Sequencing the Hr coding region, intron-exon boundaries, 5'- and 3'- UTR and immediate upstream region did not reveal the underlying mutation. Therefore HrN does not appear to be an allele of Hr but may result from a mutation in a closely linked gene or from a regulatory mutation in Hr.

  16. A Mixture of Extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora with PPAR α/γ Dual Agonistic Effects Prevents Photoaging in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyerin; Kim, Dong Hye; Nho, Youn-Hwa; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Eung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α/γ is known to inhibit the increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ultraviolet light (UV). Extracts of natural herbs, such as Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora, have a PPAR α/γ dual agonistic effect. Therefore, we investigated whether and how they have an antiaging effect on photoaging skin. Eighteen-week-old hairless mice were irradiated with UVA 14 J/cm2 and UVB 40 mJ/cm2 three times a week for 8 weeks. A mixture of extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora (KR) was topically applied on the dorsal skin of photoaging mice twice a day for 8 weeks. Tesaglitazar, a known PPAR α/γ agonist, and vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol = 7:3, v/v) were applied as positive and negative controls, respectively. Dermal effects (including dermal thickness, collagen density, dermal expression of procollagen 1 and collagenase 13) and epidermal effects (including skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation, and epidermal cytokines) were measured and compared. In photoaging murine skin, KR resulted in a significant recovery of dermal thickness as well as dermal fibroblasts, although it did not change dermal collagen density. KR increased the expression of dermal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The dermal effects of KR were explained by an increase in procollagen 1 expression, induced by TGF-β, and a decrease in MMP-13 expression. KR did not affect basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) or stratum corneum (SC) integrity, but did decrease SC hydration. It also did not affect epidermal proliferation or epidermal differentiation. KR decreased the expression of epidermal interleukin (IL)-1α. Collectively, KR showed possible utility as a therapeutic agent for photoaging skin, with few epidermal side effects such as epidermal hyperplasia or poor differentiation. PMID:27854351

  17. A Mixture of Extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora with PPAR α/γ Dual Agonistic Effects Prevents Photoaging in Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyerin; Kim, Dong Hye; Nho, Youn-Hwa; Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Su-Nam; Choi, Eung Ho

    2016-11-16

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α/γ is known to inhibit the increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by ultraviolet light (UV). Extracts of natural herbs, such as Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora, have a PPAR α/γ dual agonistic effect. Therefore, we investigated whether and how they have an antiaging effect on photoaging skin. Eighteen-week-old hairless mice were irradiated with UVA 14 J/cm² and UVB 40 mJ/cm² three times a week for 8 weeks. A mixture of extracts of Kochia scoparia and Rosa multiflora (KR) was topically applied on the dorsal skin of photoaging mice twice a day for 8 weeks. Tesaglitazar, a known PPAR α/γ agonist, and vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol = 7:3, v/v) were applied as positive and negative controls, respectively. Dermal effects (including dermal thickness, collagen density, dermal expression of procollagen 1 and collagenase 13) and epidermal effects (including skin barrier function, epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation, and epidermal cytokines) were measured and compared. In photoaging murine skin, KR resulted in a significant recovery of dermal thickness as well as dermal fibroblasts, although it did not change dermal collagen density. KR increased the expression of dermal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The dermal effects of KR were explained by an increase in procollagen 1 expression, induced by TGF-β, and a decrease in MMP-13 expression. KR did not affect basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) or stratum corneum (SC) integrity, but did decrease SC hydration. It also did not affect epidermal proliferation or epidermal differentiation. KR decreased the expression of epidermal interleukin (IL)-1α. Collectively, KR showed possible utility as a therapeutic agent for photoaging skin, with few epidermal side effects such as epidermal hyperplasia or poor differentiation.

  18. Dermal absorption and short-term biological impact in hairless mice from sunscreens containing zinc oxide nano- or larger particles

    PubMed Central

    Oytam, Yalchin; Kirby, Jason K.; Gomez-Fernandez, Laura; Baxter, Brent; McCall, Maxine J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown no, or very limited, skin penetration of metal oxide nanoparticles following topical application of sunscreens, yet concerns remain about their safety compared to larger particles. Here, we assessed the comparative dermal absorption of a traceable form of Zn (68Zn) from 68ZnO nano-sized and larger particles in sunscreens. Sunscreens were applied to the backs of virgin or pregnant hairless mice over four days. Control groups received topical applications of the sunscreen formulation containing no ZnO particles, or no treatment. Major organs were assessed for changes in 68Zn/64Zn ratios, 68Zn tracer and total Zn concentrations. Short-term biological impact was assessed by measuring levels of serum amyloid A in blood, and by performing whole-genome transcriptional profiling on livers from each group. Increased concentrations of 68Zn tracer were detected in internal organs of mice receiving topical applications of 68ZnO (nano-sized and larger particles), as well as in fetal livers from treated dams, compared with controls. Furthermore, concentrations of 68Zn in organs of virgin mice treated with sunscreen containing 68ZnO nanoparticles were found to be significantly higher than in mice treated with sunscreen containing larger 68ZnO particles. However, no ZnO-mediated change in total Zn concentration in any of the major organs was observed. Thus, despite 68Zn absorption, which may have been in the form of soluble 68Zn species or 68ZnO particles (not known), Zn homeostasis was largely maintained, and the presence of ZnO particles in sunscreen did not elicit an adverse biological response in the mice following short-term topical applications. PMID:24266363

  19. Topical hydrocortisone, clobetasol propionate, and calcipotriol do not increase photocarcinogenesis induced by simulated solar irradiation in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A; Poulsen, Thomas; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2010-11-01

    Topical corticosteroids such as hydrocortisone-17-butyrate (HCB) and clobetasol-17-propionate (CP) and vitamin D(3) derivatives such as calcipotriol (CAL) are widely used to treat psoriasis. The immunosuppressive effects of corticosteroids make their topical use a concern for skin carcinogenicity. Few studies have assessed the effect of topical corticosteroids and topical vitamin D(3) derivatives on photocarcinogenesis induced by ultraviolet radiation. We investigated whether HCB, CP, or CAL can accelerate photocarcinogenesis using simulated solar radiation (SSR). HCB, CP, or CAL was applied topically to the backs of hairless, female, C3.Cg/TifBomTac-immunocompetent mice in 16 groups of 25 mice each. The drugs were applied three times weekly followed by 0, 2, 4, or 6 standard erythema doses (SED) of SSR for 365 days or until death. No change was observed in the time required for tumor development in mice treated with HCB and 2 SED (HCB-2SED) and HCB-6SED. However, the time required for tumor development increased with HCB-4SED treatment. Treatment with CP-2SED did not change the time to onset of the first and second tumor, but all other CP treatments in combination with SSR increased the time. CAL-2SED decreased the time to onset of the first tumor but not of the second and third tumor. CAL-4SED and CAL-6 SED did not change or increased the time to tumor development. Our data indicated that topical administration of HCB and CAL did not alter the photocarcinogenesis of SSR and that topical CP administration had a photoprotective effect. Thus, HCB, CP, and CAL do not increase photocarcinogenesis induced by SSR.

  20. Effects of long-pulsed 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser on dermal collagen remodeling in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Bok; Kang, Na Hyeon; Eun, Young Sun; Cheon, Min Seok; Kim, Kyung Moon; Cho, Baik Kee; Park, Hyun Jeong

    2012-07-01

    Nonablative lasers are used for dermal collagen remodeling. Although clinical improvements have been reported using various laser devices, the mechanism of dermal collagen remodeling remains unknown. To investigate the effects of energy fluences of the long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) nonablative laser on dermal collagen remodeling and evaluate the dermal collagen remodeling mechanism. Hairless mice were pretreated with ultraviolet B irradiation to produce photo-damage. The laser treatment used a long-pulse 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser at energy fluences of 20, 40, and 60 J/cm(2) . The amount of dermal collagen and expressions of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) of laser treated skin were compared with those of nontreated control skin. The long-pulse Nd:YAG laser treatment increased dermal collagen and significantly increased TGF-β expression. The expression of MMP-1 decreased with low energy fluence. The expression of TIMP-1 was not significantly different. Long-pulsed 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser increases the dermal collagen in association with the increased expression of TGF-β. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Correlation of in vivo topical efficacies with in vitro predictions using acyclovir formulations in the treatment of cutaneous HSV-1 infections in hairless mice: an evaluation of the predictive value of the C* concept.

    PubMed

    Patel, P J; Ghanem, A H; Higuchi, W I; Srinivasan, V; Kern, E R

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out an extensive examination of the C* concept for prediction of the topical antiviral efficacies of acyclovir (ACV) formulations in a hairless mouse model for the treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infections. This method is based on estimation of the free drug concentration at the target site (C*), which is presumed to be the basal cell layer of the epidermis. Five different formulations (containing 5% ACV) were examined in a finite dose multiple dosing regimen (twice a day application) to simulate the clinical situation. For determination of C*, in vitro ACV fluxes across the hairless mouse skin were measured in an in vivo-in vitro experimental design that approximated the in vivo antiviral treatment protocol. Then, the in vivo antiviral efficacies were measured using a 1-day delayed (after HSV-1 virus inoculation) 4-day treatment protocol. 10 microL/cm2 dose of ACV formulation was applied every 12 h for 4 days after which the lesions were scored and efficacies were calculated. Our results indicate that, over a wide range of efficacies, the predictions based on C* (estimated from the experimental fluxes) are in good agreement with the in vivo antiviral efficacies. These studies, therefore, support the validity of the C* concept for various ACV formulations and suggest that the C* approach has potential for future practical situations.

  2. Water content and thickness of the stratum corneum contribute to skin surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Sato, J; Yanai, M; Hirao, T; Denda, M

    2000-08-01

    Skin surface morphology has long been recognized as reflecting skin pathology. In the present study, we evaluated skin surface morphology using hairless mice under contrasting conditions of humidity. The skin surface microrelief was recorded with opaque quick-drying silicone rubber, and examined under a microscope. A binary image was produced by density slicing. Within 3 days of exposure to dry conditions, skin roughness was significantly increased. The skin roughness was partially mitigated by topical application of an aqueous solution of glycerol or hydration by immersion in water. A significant correlation between skin roughness and stratum corneum thickness was also observed. These results suggest that skin surface morphology is associated with both water content and thickness of the stratum corneum.

  3. Phosphorylation of Suppressor of Hairless impedes its DNA-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Anja C; Auer, Jasmin S; Schulz, Adriana; Pfannstiel, Jens; Yuan, Zhenyu; Collins, Courtney E; Kovall, Rhett A; Preiss, Anette

    2017-09-19

    Notch signalling activity governs cellular differentiation in higher metazoa, where Notch signals are transduced by the transcription factor CSL, called Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] in Drosophila. Su(H) operates as molecular switch on Notch target genes: within activator complexes, including intracellular Notch, or within repressor complexes, including the antagonist Hairless. Mass spectrometry identified phosphorylation on Serine 269 in Su(H), potentially serving as a point of cross-regulation by other signalling pathways. To address the biological significance, we generated phospho-deficient [Su(H)(S269A)] and phospho-mimetic [Su(H)(S269D)] variants: the latter displayed reduced transcriptional activity despite unaltered protein interactions with co-activators and -repressors. Based on the Su(H) structure, Ser269 phosphorylation may interfere with DNA-binding, which we confirmed by electro-mobility shift assay and isothermal titration calorimetry. Overexpression of Su(H)(S269D) during fly development demonstrated reduced transcriptional regulatory activity, similar to the previously reported DNA-binding defective mutant Su(H)(R266H). As both are able to bind Hairless and Notch proteins, Su(H)(S269D) and Su(H)(R266H) provoked dominant negative effects upon overexpression. Our data imply that Ser269 phosphorylation impacts Notch signalling activity by inhibiting DNA-binding of Su(H), potentially affecting both activation and repression. Ser269 is highly conserved in vertebrate CSL homologues, opening the possibility of a general and novel mechanism of modulating Notch signalling activity.

  4. Development and validation of a new transgenic hairless albino mouse as a mutational model for potential assessment of photocarcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Shelton, Sharon D; Chen, Ying; Gaddameedhi, Shobhan; Howard, Paul C; Boudreau, Mary D

    2015-09-01

    Short-term phototoxicity testing is useful in selecting test agents for the longer and more expensive photocarcinogenesis safety tests; however, no validated short-term tests have been proven reliable in predicting the outcome of a photocarcinogenesis safety test. A transgenic, hairless, albino (THA) mouse model was developed that carries the gpt and red/gam [Spi(-)] genes from the gpt delta mouse background and the phenotypes from the SKH-1 mouse background to use as a short-term test in lieu of photocarcinogenesis safety tests. Validation of the THA mouse model was confirmed by exposing groups of male mice to sub-erythemal doses of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation for three consecutive days emitted from calibrated overhead, Kodacel-filtered fluorescent lamps and measuring the mutant frequencies (MFs) in the gpt and red/gam (Spi(-)) genes and types of mutations in the gpt gene. The doses or irradiation were monitored with broad-spectrum dosimeters that were calibrated to a NIST-traceable standard and cumulative CIE-weighted doses were 20.55 and 41.0mJ/cm(2) (effective). Mice were sacrificed 14 days after the final UVB exposure and MFs in both the gpt and red/gam genes were evaluated in the epidermis. The exposure of mice to UVB induced significant ten- to twelve-fold increases in the gpt MF and three- to five-fold increases in the Spi(-) MF over their respective background MF, 26±3×10(-6) and 9±1×10(-6). The gpt mutation spectra were significantly different between that of the UVB-irradiated and that of non-irradiated mice although the mutation spectra of both groups were dominated by C→T transitions (84% and 66%). In mice exposed to UVB, the C→T transitions occurred almost exclusively at dipyrimidine sites (92%), whereas in non-irradiated control mice, the C→T transitions occurred at CpG sites (86%). These results suggest that the newly developed THA mice are a useful and reliable model for testing UVB-induced mutagenicity in skin tissue. The application

  5. The effect of sunscreen on skin elastase activity induced by ultraviolet-A irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Kazue; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Yoriko; Sugawara, Satoshi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2005-12-01

    It has been reported that application of sunscreens prevents the photoaging of skin in animal models and in humans. We irradiated the dorsal skin of hairless mice with ultraviolet-A (UVA), and investigated the effects of sunscreens on skin elastase activity and on skin properties. Six-week-old female HR/ICR hairless mice were used in these experiments. After being treated with either a UVA sunscreen (also containing ultraviolet-B (UVB) sunscreen to eliminate any slight UVB in the UVA lamps; Protection Factor of UVA (PFA)=6, Sun Protection Factor (SPF)=20) or a vehicle, the dorsal skins of mice were irradiated with the UVA lamps at 22.3 J/cm(2)/d, 5 times a week. At the end of 15 weeks skin properties were evaluated and elastase activities were measured. In the vehicle control group, UVA irradiation increased the brightness and yellowing of the skin, decreased the water content of the stratum corneum, increased skin thickness, decreased skin elasticity, increased skin elastase activity, and decreased the ability of the skin to recover in a pinch test, as compared to an unirradiated group. All these differences were statistically significant. In the UVA sunscreen group, both the UVA induced skin damage and the increase in skin elastase activity were significantly inhibited, as compared to the vehicle group. However, as compared to the unirradiated group, skin elastase activity was significantly increased and immediate extensibility of skin (Ue) was significantly decreased, thereby indicating that the UVA sunscreen did not prevent photoaging to the same level as the unirradiated group. These results suggest the partial efficacy of the topical photoprotection from UVA by the sunscreen in inhibiting elastase activation, and also suggest the possibility of reducing photoaging.

  6. Photoaging and chronological aging profile: Understanding oxidation of the skin.

    PubMed

    Peres, P S; Terra, V A; Guarnier, F A; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2011-05-03

    The impact of chronological aging and photoaging on the skin is particularly concerning, especially when oxidative stress is involved. This article provides evidence of quantitative and qualitative differences in the oxidative stress generated by chronological aging and photoaging of the skin in HRS/J hairless mice. Analysis of the results revealed an increase in lipid peroxides as the skin gets older and in photoaged skin (10.086 ± 0.70 η MDA/mg and 14.303 ± 1.81 η MDA/mg protein, respectively), although protein oxidation was only verified in chronological aged skin (15.449 ± 0.99 η protein/mg protein). The difference between both skin types is the decay in the capacity of lipid membrane turnover revealed by the dislocation of older skin to the left in the chemiluminescence curve. Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidation processes was verified by the decrease in total antioxidant capacity of chronological and photoaged skins. Although superoxide dismutase remained unchanged, catalase increased in the 18 and 48-week-old skin groups and decreased in irradiated mice, demonstrating that neither enzyme is a good parameter to determine oxidative stress. The differences observed between chronological and photoaging skin represent a potential new approach to understanding the phenomenon of skin aging and a new target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Darling, Thomas N.; Meyerle, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices. PMID:24828202

  8. Alteration of skin properties with autologous dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Darling, Thomas N; Meyerle, Jon

    2014-05-13

    Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells found between the skin epidermis and subcutaneous tissue. They are primarily responsible for synthesizing collagen and glycosaminoglycans; components of extracellular matrix supporting the structural integrity of the skin. Dermal fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cutaneous wound healing and skin repair. Preclinical studies suggest wider applications of dermal fibroblasts ranging from skin based indications to non-skin tissue regeneration in tendon repair. One clinical application for autologous dermal fibroblasts has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) while others are in preclinical development or various stages of regulatory approval. In this context, we outline the role of fibroblasts in wound healing and discuss recent advances and the current development pipeline for cellular therapies using autologous dermal fibroblasts. The microanatomic and phenotypic differences of fibroblasts occupying particular locations within the skin are reviewed, emphasizing the therapeutic relevance of attributes exhibited by subpopulations of fibroblasts. Special focus is provided to fibroblast characteristics that define regional differences in skin, including the thick and hairless skin of the palms and soles as compared to hair-bearing skin. This regional specificity and functional identity of fibroblasts provides another platform for developing regional skin applications such as the induction of hair follicles in bald scalp or alteration of the phenotype of stump skin in amputees to better support their prosthetic devices.

  9. Topical photodynamic therapy of squamous cell carcinomas in a hairless mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Lv, Ting; Li, Jing-Jing; Tu, Qingfeng; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Xiu-Li

    2013-02-01

    Objectives: To examine therapeutic effects of 5-aminolevulinate (ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on UVB-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in a mouse model. Materials and methods: Cutaneous SCCs were established by UVB (280-320 nm) irradiation of hairless mice. In situ fluorescence measurement was used to monitor PpIX formation after the topical application of various concentrations of ALA cream to determine the optimal ALA dose. Therapeutic responses of SCCs to multiple sessions of ALA PDT were examined histologically and quantitatively. TUNEL staining was used to examine apoptosis caused by PDT. Results: After repeated exposure for 18 to 22 weeks (4-5 days/week), multiple nodular and verrucous hyperplasia lesions of various sizes developed at the exposed area. After four sessions of ALA PDT (8% ALA, 3 h incubation, 30 J/cm2 at 20 mW/cm2) a total of 84% of complete response was achieved for small SCCs (1-4 mm, thickness <2.5 mm). TUNEL staining showed that PDT-induced apoptotic cells were distributed evenly from the basal to stratum corneum layers. Conclusions: Topical ALA PDT can trigger apoptosis in SCCs, inhibit SCC growth, and reduce the size and number of tumors in the hairless mouse model. The true clinical value of ALA PDT for the treatment of cutaneous SCC deserves further investigation.

  10. Emerging models in the U.S.A.: swine, woodchucks, and the hairless guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Balk, M W

    1987-01-01

    Swine have been used in biomedical research for many years, but have generally been limited to those locations with personnel familiar with this species and with specially designed facilities and equipment. There is currently a growing trend in the United States for more swine, both miniature and domestic to be used as research models. Commercial availability, education through workshops and symposia, and specific research applicability in the areas such as: organ transplantation, cardiovascular surgery, nutrition, diabetes, dermatology, and renal physiology have all contributed to the increased usage of swine. Additionally, increasing costs and public concern about the use of random source dogs and cats have also resulted in a refocus on swine as a laboratory animal model. The woodchuck (Marmota monax) has recently gained a role as a laboratory animal model when it was discovered that woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is closely related to hepatitis B virus in humans (HBV). Chronic infections in woodchucks with WHV have shown protein particles in their blood which are similar to the Australian antigen found on the surface of HBV. There is also immunologic response similarities by the respective host to these viruses. These findings have resulted in a number of laboratories using the woodchuck in infectious disease comparative research studies. A euthymic hairless guinea pig has been described in Canada and recently been produced on a limited basis commercially in the United States. For dermatologic studies requiring an immunocompetent animal model the hairless guinea pig may prove useful. time to have the ability to add

  11. Evaluation of animal models for predicting skin penetration in man.

    PubMed

    Reifenrath, W G; Chellquist, E M; Shipwash, E A; Jederberg, W W

    1984-04-01

    The human skin grafted athymic nude mouse, pig skin grafted athymic nude mouse, hairless dog, and weanling Yorkshire pig were evaluated as models for predicting skin penetration in man. Nine radiolabeled compounds previously tested on man were applied topically (4 micrograms/cm2) to each animal. These compounds included caffeine, benzoic acid, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, three steroids, and three insecticides. To correct for incomplete excretion of the label following topical absorption, percentage penetration was calculated by dividing the percentage of the topically applied radioactive dose recovered in the excreta by the corresponding percentage after parenteral administration and multiplication by 100. In the case of the grafted athymic nude mouse, calculated values of percentage penetration were confirmed because significant correlations (r = 0.78 for the human skin grafted athymic nude mouse and r = 0.97 for the pig skin grafted athymic nude mouse) were found between the calculated values and percentage penetration determined by summing radioactivity recovered in the urine, feces, tissues, and carcass. The results revealed a significant correlation between human skin grafted athymic nude mouse values and human values (r = 0.74, p = 0.05), and between weanling Yorkshire pig values and human values (r = 0.83, p = 0.05). In contrast, no significant correlation existed between human values and those of the hairless dog and pig skin grafted athymic nude mouse. The disposition of radioactivity following topical application of the radiolabeled nerve agent analog ( diisopropylfluorophosphonate ) and simulant (diethyl malonate) was determined in the weanling pig and the human skin grafted athymic nude mouse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Structure and Function of the Su(H)-Hairless Repressor Complex, the Major Antagonist of Notch Signaling in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Torella, Rubben; Preiss, Anette; Maier, Dieter; Kovall, Rhett A.

    2016-01-01

    Notch is a conserved signaling pathway that specifies cell fates in metazoans. Receptor-ligand interactions induce changes in gene expression, which is regulated by the transcription factor CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1 (CSL). CSL interacts with coregulators to repress and activate transcription from Notch target genes. While the molecular details of the activator complex are relatively well understood, the structure-function of CSL-mediated repressor complexes is poorly defined. In Drosophila, the antagonist Hairless directly binds Su(H) (the fly CSL ortholog) to repress transcription from Notch targets. Here, we determine the X-ray structure of the Su(H)-Hairless complex bound to DNA. Hairless binding produces a large conformational change in Su(H) by interacting with residues in the hydrophobic core of Su(H), illustrating the structural plasticity of CSL molecules to interact with different binding partners. Based on the structure, we designed mutants in Hairless and Su(H) that affect binding, but do not affect formation of the activator complex. These mutants were validated in vitro by isothermal titration calorimetry and yeast two- and three-hybrid assays. Moreover, these mutants allowed us to solely characterize the repressor function of Su(H) in vivo. PMID:27404588

  13. Release of hairless kiwifruit ‘Eldorado’ and ‘Nugget’, and ‘Early Bird’ pollinizer for further evaluation.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    UC Davis is releasing two relatively hairless kiwifruit (Actnidia chinensis) cultivars, ‘Eldorado’ and ‘Nugget’, and an early blooming male pollinizer, ‘Early Bird’. The ‘Eldorado’ bears one to two fruits on the basal nodes similar to ‘Hayward’; ‘Nugget’ bears clusters of cordate fruits on basal nod...

  14. Ultraviolet B radiation increases hairless mouse mast cells in a dose-dependent manner and alters distribution of UV-induced mast cell growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kligman, L H; Murphy, G F

    1996-01-01

    In studies of the effects of chronic UVB irradiation on dermal connective tissue in the hairless mouse, we observed that the number and size of mast cells was increased. Because mast cells are known to be associated with connective tissue remodeling, we examined and quantified the effect of increasing UVB (290-320 nm) doses on this cell. Groups of mice were exposed to filtered FS-40 Westinghouse lamps (290-400 nm: peak irradiance 313 nm) for 1-5 minimal erythema doses (MED) thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Appropriate controls were included. Biopsies, processed for light microscopy, were stained with toluidine blue. Mast cells were counted in 15 high-magnification fields per specimen with upper and lower dermis scored separately. Significant increases in large densely granular mast cells occurred at 2 MED in the lower dermis, in association with a UVB-exacerbated granulomatous reaction. In the upper dermis, mast cells were significantly increased with 3 MED. These findings suggest that mast cells may play a dual role in UV-irradiated skin with those in the lower dermis related to inflammation processes and those in the upper dermis involved in connective tissue modeling. To gain understanding of the mechanism of mast cell recruitment and maturation, we examined the effect of UVB on mast cell growth factor expression. This was enhanced in the epidermis by UVB, with a shift from cytoplasmic staining to membrane-associated or intercellular staining at 2 MED and higher. Dermal dendritic and mononuclear cells also showed increased reactivity.

  15. Effects of maleimide-polyethylene glycol-modified human hemoglobin (MP4) on tissue necrosis in SKH1-hr hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Ole; Kirschner, M H; Lilienfein, H; Babilas, P; Steinau, H U; Andree, C; Daigeler, A; Stachon, A; Homann, H; Langer, S

    2009-03-17

    Tissue hypoxia after blood loss, replantation and flap reperfusion remains a challenging task in surgery. Normovolemic hemodilution improves hemorheologic properties without increasing oxygen carrying capacity. Red blood cell transfusion is the current standard of treatment with its attendant risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the chemically modified hemoglobin, MP4, to reduce skin flap necrosis and its effect on selected blood markers and kidneys. Tissue ischemia was induced in the ear of hairless mice (n=26). Hemodilution was performed by replacing one third of blood volume with the similar amount of MP4, dextran, or blood. The extent of non-perfused tissue was assessed by intravital fluorescent microscopy. Of all groups, MP4 showed the smallest area of no perfusion (in percentage of the ear +/- SEM: 16.3% +/- 2.4), the control group the largest (22.4% +/- 3.5). Leukocytes showed a significant increase in the MP4 and dextran group (from 8.7 to 13.6 respectively 15.4*109/l). On histology no changes of the kidneys could be observed. MP4 causes an increase of leukocytes, improves the oxygen supply of the tissue and shows no evidence of renal impairment.

  16. Effects of maleimide-polyethylene glycol-modified human hemoglobin (MP4) on tissue necrosis in SKH1-hr hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective Tissue hypoxia after blood loss, replantation and flap reperfusion remains a challenging task in surgery. Normovolemic hemodilution improves hemorheologic properties without increasing oxygen carrying capacity. Red blood cell transfusion is the current standard of treatment with its attendant risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of the chemically modified hemoglobin, MP4, to reduce skin flap necrosis and its effect on selected blood markers and kidneys. Materials and methods Tissue ischemia was induced in the ear of hairless mice (n = 26). Hemodilution was performed by replacing one third of blood volume with the similar amount of MP4, dextran, or blood. The extent of non-perfused tissue was assessed by intravital fluorescent microscopy. Results Of all groups, MP4 showed the smallest area of no perfusion (in percentage of the ear ± SEM: 16.3% ± 2.4), the control group the largest (22.4% ± 3.5). Leukocytes showed a significant increase in the MP4 and dextran group (from 8.7 to 13.6 respectively 15.4*109/l). On histology no changes of the kidneys could be observed. Conclusion MP4 causes an increase of leukocytes, improves the oxygen supply of the tissue and shows no evidence of renal impairment. PMID:19380283

  17. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  18. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is the most common type ... of approximately 9,480 Americans in 2013. Can Skin Cancer Be Treated? Most basal cell and squamous ...

  19. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and dryness. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. ( See "Skin and Sun—Not a Good Mix") . ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and Drug ...

  20. Singlet molecular oxygen-quenching activity of carotenoids: relevance to protection of the skin from photoaging

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Junji; Minami, Yuko; Bando, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are known to be potent quenchers of singlet molecular oxygen [O2 (1Δg)]. Solar light-induced photooxidative stress causes skin photoaging by accelerating the generation of reactive oxygen species via photodynamic actions in which O2 (1Δg) can be generated by energy transfer from excited sensitizers. Thus, dietary carotenoids seem to participate in the prevention of photooxidative stress by accumulating as antioxidants in the skin. An in vivo study using hairless mice clarified that a O2 (1Δg) oxygenation-specific peroxidation product of cholesterol, cholesterol 5α-hydroperoxide, accumulates in skin lipids due to ultraviolet-A exposure. Matrix metalloproteinase-9, a metalloproteinase family enzyme responsible for the formation of wrinkles and sagging, was enhanced in the skin of ultraviolet-A -irradiated hairless mice. The activation of metalloproteinase-9 and the accumulation of 5α-hydroperoxide, as well as formation of wrinkles and sagging, were lowered in mice fed a β-carotene diet. These results strongly suggest that dietary β-carotene prevents the expression of metalloproteinase-9 (at least in part), by inhibiting the photodynamic action involving the formation of 5α-hydroperoxide in the skin. Intake of β-Carotene therefore appears to be helpful in slowing down ultraviolet-A -induced photoaging in human skin by acting as a O2 (1Δg) quencher. PMID:21297913

  1. Long-term exposure to commercially available sunscreens containing nanoparticles of TiO2 and ZnO revealed no biological impact in a hairless mouse model.

    PubMed

    Osmond-McLeod, Megan J; Oytam, Yalchin; Rowe, Anthony; Sobhanmanesh, Fariborz; Greenoak, Gavin; Kirby, Jason; McInnes, Elizabeth F; McCall, Maxine J

    2016-08-17

    The application of sunscreen is a critical component of a sun-safe strategy, however the possibility of unexpected, adverse outcomes resulting from long-term use of sunscreens containing nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) has not yet been examined. Here, immune-competent hairless mice were exposed over a 36-week period to weekly topical applications of sunscreens containing nanoparticles of ZnO or TiO2, or no metal oxide nanoparticles, with or without subsequent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Control groups received no sunscreen applications, with or without UVR. Mice exposed to UVR in the absence of sunscreen developed statistically significant incidences of histologically-diagnosed malignant and benign skin neoplasms, whereas no statistically significant adverse biological outcomes were found in mice treated with the sunscreens containing ZnO or TiO2 nanoparticles. Elevated levels of Ti were detected in the livers of mice treated with sunscreen containing TiO2 nanoparticles compared to untreated control, but total Zn concentrations did not significantly alter in any major organs except for the skin of mice treated with ZnO sunscreen. Exposure to UVR did not have a significant impact on examined tissue concentrations of Zn or Ti. Few to no transcriptional changes were found in ZnO or TiO2-treated groups, but mice treated with the sunscreen containing only organic filters showed substantial gene disregulation. Taken together with previous work, this long-term study provided no basis to avoid the use of sunscreens containing metal oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Commentary on: Hairless and the polyamine putrescine form a negative regulatory loop in the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Vardy, Leah A

    2013-11-01

    Polyamines are cationic amines essential for cellular proliferation. Recently, their role in hair follicle (HF) growth has started to be explored, but their exact function is still obscure. In the October issue of Experimental Dermatology, Luke et al. follow the observation that putrescine overproducing mice and hairless (HR) mutant mice show a similar clinical phenotype of hair loss and dermal cyst formation. They show that HR and putrescine form a negative regulatory feedback mechanism, which might regulate hair cycling and therefore control hair growth. This study clearly demonstrates that a strong connection exists between HR and polyamines although there are probably additional molecular pathways involved in the polyamine regulation of hair growth which remain to be discovered.

  3. Identification of mutations in the human hairless gene in two new families with congenital atrichia.

    PubMed

    Betz, Regina C; Indelman, Margarita; Pforr, Jana; Schreiner, Felix; Bauer, Ralf; Bergman, Reuven; Lentze, Michael J; Nöthen, Markus M; Cichon, Sven; Sprecher, Eli

    2007-06-01

    Congenital atrichia (AUC) is a form of isolated alopecia with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Patients are born with normal hair but this is shed almost completely during the first weeks or months of life and never regrows. In many families the development of papular lesions is noted as an additional phenotypic feature, which defines a related phenotype designated as atrichia with papular lesions (APL). Using positional cloning strategies and the molecular findings in hairless recessive (hr/hr) mice, an animal model for AUC, mutations in the human hairless gene (HR) have been identified as a cause of AUC and APL. To date, more than 20 different mutations of the HR gene have been reported in AUC and APL including different mutation types scattered over the entire HR gene length. In this report, we describe two families of Saudi Arabian and Jewish Iranian origin comprising a number of individuals with clinical features suggestive of AUC. We therefore hypothesized that affected members may carry mutations in the HR gene. After sequencing the complete coding region of the HR gene in the Saudi Arabian family, we identified a homozygous insertion of a G (c.2661dupG; p.Thr888DfsX38) in exon 12, resulting in a premature stop codon. In a Jewish Iranian patient, we identified a homozygous splice site mutation c.1557-1G > T in intron 4. The latter mutation has been previously reported in a compound heterozygous state. In the present report, we describe the second exonic insertion mutation in the human HR gene and the first mutation in exon 12. Our study emphasizes the importance of sequencing the complete coding sequence and exon/intron junctions in the molecular diagnostics of AUC and APL.

  4. Did human hairlessness allow natural photobiomodulation 2 million years ago and enable photobiomodulation therapy today? This can explain the rapid expansion of our genus's brain.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Iain

    2015-05-01

    Present hypotheses to explain human hairlessness appear to be inadequate because hairlessness is not accompanied by any immediate benefit. A new, testable, hypothesis is advanced to explain our hairlessness based on photobiomodulation research, also known as low-level light therapy. This shows that red and near infrared radiation has a very beneficial effect on superficial tissues, including the brain. Random mutation/s resulting in complete hairlessness allowed early humans to receive daily doses of red and near infrared radiation at sunset. Photobiomodulation research shows this has a twofold effect: it results in increased mitochondrial respiratory chain activity with consequent ATP 'extrasynthesis' in all superficial tissues, including the brain. It also advantageously affects the expression of over 100 genes through the activation of transcription factor NFkB which results in cerebral metabolic and haemodynamic enhancement. It is also possible that melanin can supply electrons to the respiratory chain resulting in ATP extrasynthesis. These effects would start automatically as soon as hairlessness occurred resulting in a selective sweep of the mutation/s involved. This was followed by the very rapid brain evolution of the last 2 my which, it is suggested, was due to intelligence-led evolution based initially on the increased energy and adeptness of the newly hairless individuals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Exceptionally high protection of photocarcinogenesis by topical application of (--)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in hydrophilic cream in SKH-1 hairless mouse model: relationship to inhibition of UVB-induced global DNA hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Anshu; Piyathilake, Chandrika; Hara, Yukihiko; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2003-01-01

    (--)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to have potent antiphotocarcinogenic activity, but it was required to develop a cream-based formulation for topical application. For topical application, we tested hydrophilic cream as a vehicle for EGCG. Treatment with EGCG ( approximately 1 mg/cm(2) skin area) in hydrophilic cream resulted in exceptionally high protection against photocarcinogenesis when determined in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor size in a SKH-1 hairless mouse model. EGCG also inhibited malignant transformation of ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced papillomas to carcinomas. In order to determine the mechanism of prevention of photocarcinogenesis, we determined the effect of EGCG on global DNA methylation pattern using monoclonal antibodies against 5-methyl cytosine and DNA methyltransferase in the long-term UV-irradiated skin because altered DNA methylation silencing is recognized as a molecular hallmark of human cancer. We found that treatment with EGCG resulted in significant inhibition of UVB-induced global DNA hypomethylation pattern. Long-term application of EGCG did not show any apparent sign of toxicity in mice when determined in terms of skin appearance, lean mass, total bone mineral content, and total bone mineral density but showed reduction in fat mass when analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. These data suggest that hydrophilic cream could be a suitable vehicle for topical application of EGCG, and that EGCG is a promising candidate for future cancer therapies based on its influence on the epigenetic pathway.

  6. Efficient delivery and distribution in skin of chlorogenic acid and resveratrol induced by microemulsion using sucrose laurate.

    PubMed

    Yutani, Reiko; Kikuchi, Taketomo; Teraoka, Reiko; Kitagawa, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    To achieve efficient skin delivery of polyphenols, we prepared a novel oil-in-water (o/w)-type microemulsion (MESL) using sucrose laurate as a surfactant and ethanol, isopropyl myristate and water as other components. We examined its usefulness by in vitro studies on skin delivery of chlorogenic acid and resveratrol as hydrophilic and hydrophobic polyphenols using Yucatan micropig skin, and also examined the difference in the distribution of these polyphenols in skin. MESL significantly improved skin incorporation of these polyphenols at all time points examined (6, 20, 40 h) in the epidermis and at 20 and 40 h in the dermis, compared with the microemulsion using Tween 80 as a surfactant component (MEK), although the solubilization capacity of MESL was lower than that of MEK. Using MESL, the incorporation amount in the dermis of each polyphenol increased with time, while the amount in the epidermis was almost constant during the time examined. Incorporation efficiencies into skin of chlorogenic acid and resveratrol induced by MESL at 40 h after application were about 6-fold and 19-fold higher in the epidermis and 3.5-fold and 15-fold higher in the dermis, respectively, than those by MEK. The increase was more prominent for resveratrol. Hydrophilic chlorogenic acid was distributed slightly more in the epidermis, while hydrophobic and smaller-molecular-weight resveratrol was mainly distributed in the dermis. These findings suggest that MESL could be a promising vehicle for the efficient skin delivery of chlorogenic acid and resveratrol, especially for resveratrol to the dermis.

  7. Ultraviolet B-induced tumors in pigmented hairless mice, with an unsuccessful attempt to induce cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    van Weelden, H; van der Putte, S C; Toonstra, J; van der Leun, J C

    1990-04-01

    An animal experiment is presented in which pigmented hairless mice were exposed once per fortnight to high doses of ultraviolet B (UVB) to study tumorigenesis. The aim of the study was to confirm a causal relationship between cutaneous melanoma and UV radiation, and to find an animal model to study it. The experiment was based on the hypothesis that the risk of developing a melanoma is increased by a history of severe sunburns. Pigmented hairless mice, Skh-hr2, were exposed once every fortnight to high doses of UVB radiation from fluorescent sunlamps, Westinghouse FS40 T12. Heavy actinic damage was observed for several days after each exposure. Seventeen of the 24 animals eventually developed tumors. Histopathologically, 80% of the tumors were squamous cell carcinomas. Depositions of melanophages were observed, but no melanomas. In this mouse experiment no causal relationship between cutaneous melanomas and UV radiation could be established.

  8. Further evaluation of the skin micronucleus test: results obtained using 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Tsuneaki; Fukushima, Akira; Takagi, Yutaka

    2005-12-07

    The standard in vivo micronucleus (MN) test detects clastogenicity in hematopoietic cells and is not suitable for detecting chemicals that target the skin. Previously, we have developed an in vivo rodent skin MN test that is simple to perform and can be applied to several laboratory animals, including the hairless mouse-a species whose use simplifies the procedure of skin testing. In this paper, we report new data that confirms the predictive ability of the test. Following the application of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; 3-methylcholanthrene; benzo[a]pyrene; dibenz[a,h]anthracene; benz[a]anthracene; dibenz[a,c]anthracene; chrysene; benzo[e]pyrene; pyrene; anthracene) with various degrees of genotoxicity to the dorsal skin of hairless mice, we found that these compounds caused MN production that in general correlated with their reported carcinogenicity. We believe that this test will be useful in detecting skin clastogens that test negative when analyzed using the standard micronucleus test.

  9. Impaired skin barrier function in mice with colon carcinoma induced by azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that impaired skin barrier function was induced by small intestinal injury in mice. Therefore, we postulated that other intestinal diseases might also influence skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluated the skin barrier function of hairless mice with colon carcinoma that was induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In mice treated with these drugs, we observed elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced skin hydration levels, compared to those in the control mice. In addition, plasma nitrogen di/trioxide (NO2(-)/NO3(-)) levels were significantly elevated, and expression of type I collagen was significantly reduced in the treated mice, compared to those in control. These results suggest that impaired skin barrier function occurs in mice when colon carcinoma is present.

  10. Maintenance of the normal flora of human skin grafts transplanted to mice.

    PubMed

    Kearney, J N; Gowland, G; Holland, K T; Cunliffe, W J

    1982-10-01

    Full-thickness human cadaver skin was maintained on the dorso-lateral thoracic region of hairless mice whose immune rejection mechanism was suppressed using anti-mouse-thymocyte globulin. The bacterial profile of the pregrafted skin did not differ significantly from the normal human microflora. In contrast, the murine skin exhibited quantitative and qualitative differences from the human flora, in particular by the complete absence of Propionibacterium acnes, the dominant bacterium on sebum-rich areas of human skin. The normal microbial profile of the human grafts was maintained throughout the experimental period despite the novel environmental milieu. There was little contamination of the grafts from the normal murine flora. It was concluded that the grafted human skin would provide a realistic model for studying the ecology of human cutaneous micro-organisms.

  11. Vehicle influence on permeation through intact and compromised skin.

    PubMed

    Gujjar, Meera; Banga, Ajay K

    2014-09-10

    The purpose of this study was to compare the transdermal permeation of a model compound, diclofenac diethylamine, from a hydrophilic and lipophilic vehicle across in vitro models simulating compromised skin. Mineral oil served as a lipophilic vehicle while 10mM phosphate buffered saline served as a hydrophilic vehicle. Compromised skin was simulated by tape stripping, delipidization, or microneedle application and compared with intact skin as a control. Transepidermal water loss was measured to assess barrier function. Skin compromised with tape stripping and delipidization significantly (p<0.05) increased permeation of diclofenac diethylamine compared to intact and microneedle treated skin with phosphate buffered saline vehicle. A similar trend in permeation was observed with mineral oil as the vehicle. For both vehicles, permeation across skin increased in the same order and correlated with degree of barrier impairment as indicated by transepidermal water loss values: intacthairless rats comparing both vehicles found the same trend, with hydrophilic vehicle having greater delivery. In conclusion, phosphate buffered saline vehicle resulted in higher permeation into and across skin compared to mineral oil vehicle for all simulated models of compromised skin.

  12. Oral collagen-derived dipeptides, prolyl-hydroxyproline and hydroxyprolyl-glycine, ameliorate skin barrier dysfunction and alter gene expression profiles in the skin.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Jun; Asami, Naoto; Kataoka, Aya; Sugihara, Fumihito; Inoue, Naoki; Kimira, Yoshifumi; Wada, Masahiro; Mano, Hiroshi

    2015-01-09

    Oral supplementation with collagen hydrolysate (CH) has been shown to improve the condition of the skin in humans and experimental animals. Several hydroxyproline-containing oligo-peptides were previously detected in human peripheral blood after the ingestion of CH, and the two dipeptides, prolyl-hydroxyproline (PO) and hydroxyprolyl-glycine (OG), have been proposed to have beneficial effects on human health. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a HR-AD diet, which lacked magnesium and zinc, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) increased and water content of stratum corneum decreased. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary PO and OG on skin barrier dysfunction in HR-1 hairless mice. Mice were fed a HR-AD diet with or without PO (0.15%) and OG (0.15%) for 35 consecutive days. The administration of PO and OG significantly decreased TEWL, and significantly increased water content of stratum corneum. A DNA microarray analysis of the dorsal skin revealed differences in gene expression between the group administered PO and OG and the control group. We also identified muscle-related Gene Ontology as a result of analyzing the up-regulated genes. These results suggested that the administration of PO and OG improved skin barrier dysfunction and altered muscle-related gene expression.

  13. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  14. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  15. Effect of skin surface lipid on the skin permeation of lidocaine from pressure sensitive adhesives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y H; Hosoya, O; Sugibayashi, K; Morimoto, Y

    1994-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) tapes containing different concentrations of lidocaine were prepared by a general casting method using styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymer, and the in vitro skin permeation of lidocaine from each tape was evaluated using diffusion cell and excised hairless rat skin. The skin permeation was proportionally increased by up to 40% lidocaine in the PSA tape and did not change after this concentration. Although the bending point of the steady-state flux via skin concentration curve was found at 40%, saturated concentration or solubility of lidocaine in the tape was estimated to be about 20% by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement. In addition, the steady-state flux of lidocaine through skin from water or silicone fluid suspension (92 or 120 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively) was very similar to those of 40, 50 and 60% tapes (105, 101 and 112 micrograms/cm2.h, respectively). Decrease in the concentration in tapes during the permeation experiment explained only part of these phenomena. To analyze them further, the drug free PSA tape with or without (control) skin surface lipid was affixed to 50% lidocaine PSA tape for 48 h, and the amount of lidocaine crystal in the layered tapes was measured by DSC. The amount was found to be lower in the lipid-containing tape than in the lipid-free tape, suggesting that skin surface lipid can dissolve lidocaine crystal or solid in PSA tape to decrease its thermodynamic activity. Thus it is important to follow the concentration and thermodynamic activity of lidocaine in PSA tape, skin and the interface between the two layers to exactly assess its skin permeation flux.

  16. Mathematical model to predict skin concentration of drugs: toward utilization of silicone membrane to predict skin concentration of drugs as an animal testing alternative.

    PubMed

    Sugibayashi, Kenji; Todo, Hiroaki; Oshizaka, Takeshi; Owada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    To calculate the skin concentration of active ingredients in cosmetics and topical pharmaceuticals using silicone membrane permeation. A series of parabens were used as model ingredients. Skin concentration of parabens was calculated using silicone membrane permeability. Their partition coefficient from formulations to the silicone membrane was determined by the membrane permeation profiles, and used to calculate their silicone membrane concentration, under an assumption that the membrane is one homogenous diffusion layer. The same procedure was applied for hairless rat skin. The calculated concentration of parabens in silicone membrane was very close to their observed values. However, the skin concentration calculated by skin permeability was not similar to the observed concentration. Re-calculation was performed under the assumption that the skin consists of two diffusion layers. This modification using permeation data through full-thickness and stripped skin enabled precise prediction of the skin concentration of parabens. In addition, the partition coefficient to the silicone membrane was useful to estimate their skin concentration. Ingredient concentration in skin can be precisely predicted using diffusion equations and partition coefficients through permeation experiments using a silicone membrane. The calculated in-skin concentration is useful for formulation studies of cosmetics and topical pharmaceuticals.

  17. Nonsense mutations in the hairless gene underlie APL in five families of Pakistani origin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunmi; Wajid, Muhammad; Kraemer, Liv; Shimomura, Yutaka; Christiano, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    (1) Background Atrichia with papular lesions (APL) is a rare autosomal recessive form of inherited alopecia. Affected individuals present with a distinct pattern of total hair loss on the scalp, axilla and body shortly after birth and are essentially devoid of eyelashes and eyebrows. This form of hair loss is irreversible and the histology is consistent with an absence of mature hair follicles. In addition to total atrichia, APL patients also present with papules and follicular cysts filled with cornified material. Mutations in the Hairless (HR) gene have been shown to underlie APL. (2) Objective Here, we studied five unrelated large Pakistani families with clinical manifestations of APL. (3) Methods Based on previous reports of HR mutations in APL, we performed direct DNA sequencing analysis. (4) Results DNA sequencing of the HR gene in APL patients revealed three novel nonsense mutations in five unrelated families. All affected individuals were homozygous for a nonsense mutation due to C-to-T transitions at different positions in the amino acid sequence. Two families carry the mutation Q323X (CAG-TAG) in exon 3, two families harbor the mutation Q502X (CAG-TAG) in exon 6, and one family had a mutation at R940X (CGA-TGA) in exon 14. Haplotype analysis revealed that all affected individuals of both APL1 and APL16 families were homozygous for the same haplotype, and likewise, the mutation in families APL2 and APL19 was on the the same haplotype. (5) Conclusions We report three novel nonsense mutations in the HR gene in APL. Two of the newly identified mutations, Q323X and Q502X, were found to be shared between unrelated families and marker analysis confirmed an identical homozygous haplotype for APL1 and APL16, and for APL2 and APL19. These findings suggest that Q323X and Q502X did not arise independently, but instead appear to have been propagated in the population. Collectively, these findings contribute further evidence for the involvement of hairless mutations in

  18. Estimation of Neutrophil Infiltration into Hairless Guinea Pig Skin treated with 2,2’ -Dichlorodiethyl Sulfide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-13

    Biopsies were obtained from the dorsal thoracic-lumbar area of HGPs at successive 3 hr time intervals for up to 24 hrs following controlled exposure...detachment characterized previously by electron microscopy in the HGP . By 24 hrs post-exposure. the MPO levels subsided markedly (2-fold compared to...controls). These results suggest that PMNs participate in the HGP cutaneous inflammatory response following exposure to HO .ind that MPO may be a useful

  19. Injury Thresholds for Topical Cream-Coated Skin of Hairless Guinea Pigs (Cavia Procellus) in Near Infrared Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    five to six individual exposure locations denoted by 1 cm by 1 cm boxes using black ink marker. Surgical markers were found to smear and interfere with...shows the comparison. Table 2. Comoarison of ED50 values for 0-switched 1540 nm laser at various oulse widths and soots Experimental Setup MVL-ED50 (JcmŖ

  20. Cutaneous side effects from laser treatment of the skin: skin cancer, scars, wounds, pigmentary changes, and purpura--use of pulsed dye laser, copper vapor laser, and argon laser.

    PubMed

    Haedersdal, M

    1999-01-01

    It has been the intention of this thesis to increase the knowledge on the development of cutaneous side effects from treatment with the argon laser, the copper vapor laser, and the pulsed dye laser, which represent technical developments within laser systems used for treatment of vascular lesions. To reach that goal, the investigations focused on patient and lesional characteristics (skin pigmentation, skin redness, and epidermal thickness) and on the importance of UV irradiation before and after dermatological laser treatment. The aspect of UV irradiation was added because vascular lesions frequently involve the face and, therefore, may be exposed to sunlight in relation to laser treatment. Risk assessments were performed on clinically visible side effects in order to improve the preoperative information to the patients about their individual risks of obtaining side effects from dermatological laser treatment. The laser-induced side effects were evaluated by systematic clinical assessments, by histological and biochemical examinations, by skin reflectance measurements, optical profilometry, and ultrasonography. The term side effects is associated with both transient and permanent skin reactions such as purpura, wounds, textural changes, scars, pigmentary changes, and squamous cell carcinomas. Lightly pigmented, hairless hr/hr C3H/Tif mice, hairless, albino hr/hr MORO/Ibm mice, human, healthy volunteers, and children with port-wine stains were included in the studies. This thesis represents the first systematic and experimental approach to selected side effects from laser treatment of the skin. The argon laser (AL) and the copper vapor laser (CVL) The results from AL and CVL treatments are described together because these lasers are continuous/quasicontinuous lasers that do not meet the requirements for selective photothermolysis, which represents the most selective delivery of energy to cutaneous vessels. In normal-skinned human volunteers, the postoperative

  1. Potential for tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus as an effective component in moisturizing skin and anti-wrinkle products

    PubMed Central

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Hui Seong; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin damage. In the present study, a UVB-induced hairless mouse model of skin photoaging was developed to determine whether tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus was able to significantly enhance the repair of photodamaged skin. To evaluate the effects of tyndalized L. acidophilus on UVB-induced skin-wrinkle formation in vivo, HR-1 hairless male mice were exposed to UVB radiation and orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus. Compared with the control group, the UVB irradiation mice displayed a significant increase in transepidermal water loss and a reduction in skin hydration. In mice with UVB-induced photodamage, the effacement of the fine wrinkles by tyndalized L. acidophilus was correlated with dermal collagen synthesis, accompanied by histological changes. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to investigate the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Notably, orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus reduced the expression levels of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Based upon the aforementioned results, it was determined that tyndalized L. acidophilus effectively inhibited the wrinkle formation induced by UVB irradiation, and that this may be attributed to the downregulation of MMPs. Therefore, tyndalized L. acidophilus may be considered a potential agent for preventing skin photoaging and wrinkle formation. PMID:27446272

  2. Potential for tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus as an effective component in moisturizing skin and anti-wrinkle products.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Hui Seong; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-08-01

    It is widely accepted that ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin damage. In the present study, a UVB-induced hairless mouse model of skin photoaging was developed to determine whether tyndalized Lactobacillus acidophilus was able to significantly enhance the repair of photodamaged skin. To evaluate the effects of tyndalized L. acidophilus on UVB-induced skin-wrinkle formation in vivo, HR-1 hairless male mice were exposed to UVB radiation and orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus. Compared with the control group, the UVB irradiation mice displayed a significant increase in transepidermal water loss and a reduction in skin hydration. In mice with UVB-induced photodamage, the effacement of the fine wrinkles by tyndalized L. acidophilus was correlated with dermal collagen synthesis, accompanied by histological changes. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to investigate the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Notably, orally administered tyndalized L. acidophilus reduced the expression levels of MMP-1 and MMP-9. Based upon the aforementioned results, it was determined that tyndalized L. acidophilus effectively inhibited the wrinkle formation induced by UVB irradiation, and that this may be attributed to the downregulation of MMPs. Therefore, tyndalized L. acidophilus may be considered a potential agent for preventing skin photoaging and wrinkle formation.

  3. Hairless mutation: a driving force of humanization from a human–ape common ancestor by enforcing upright walking while holding a baby with both hands

    PubMed Central

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2012-01-01

    Three major characteristics distinguish humans from other primates: bipedality, practical nakedness, and the family as a social unit. A hairless mutation introduced into the chimpanzee/human last common ancestor (CLCA) 6 million years ago (Mya) diverged hairless human and hairy chimpanzee lineages. All primates except humans can carry their babies without using their hands. A hairless mother would be forced to stand and walk upright. Her activities would be markedly limited. The male partner would have to collect food and carry it to her by hand to keep her and their baby from starving; irresponsible and selfish males could not have left their offspring. The mother would have sexually accepted her partner at any time as a reward for food. Sexual relations irrespective of estrus cycles might have strengthened the pair bond. Molecular and paleontological dating indicates that CLCA existed 6 Mya, and early hominin fossils show that they were bipeds, indicating that humanization from CLCA occurred rapidly. A single mutation in animals with scalp hair is known to induce hairless phenotype (ectodermal dysplasia). Bipedalism and hairlessness are disadvantageous traits; only those who could survive trials and tribulations in cooperation with family members must have been able to evolve as humans. PMID:22404045

  4. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  5. Iontophoretic transport through porous membranes using scanning electrochemical microscopy: application to in vitro studies of ion fluxes through skin.

    PubMed

    Scott, E R; White, H S; Phipps, J B

    1993-06-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is used to map localized iontophoretic fluxes of electroactive species through porous membranes. A method is described that allows both the rate of transport of species from a microscopic pore and the pore's diameter to be measured. SECM images and analyses of synthetic porous membranes (track-etched polycarbonate and mica membranes) and hairless mouse skin are reported. Preliminary analysis of SECM images of the mouse skin indicates that a significant percentage of the iontophoretic flux occurs through pores associated with hair follicles.

  6. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2008-06-01

    Overexposure of the skin to UV radiation has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of skin cancers. There is a need to develop nutrition-based efficient chemopreventive strategies. The proanthocyanidins present in grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to have some biological effects, including prevention of photocarcinogenesis. The present communication discusses the in vitro and in vivo studies of the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) and the molecular mechanism for these effects. In SKH-1 hairless mice, dietary supplementation with GSPs is associated with a decrease of UVB-induced skin tumor development in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and a decrease in the malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinomas. It is suggested that the chemopreventive effects of dietary GSPs are mediated through the attenuation of UV-induced: (i) oxidative stress; (ii) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathways; and (iii) immunosuppression through alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines. Collectively, these studies indicate protective potential of GSPs against experimental photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice, and the possible mechanisms of action of GSPs, and suggest that dietary GSPs could be useful in the attenuation of the adverse UV-induced health effects in human skin.

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidines and skin cancer prevention: Inhibition of oxidative stress and protection of immune system

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2008-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a variety of adverse effects on human health, including the development of skin cancers. There is a need to develop nutrition-based efficient chemopreventive strategies. The proanthocyanidins present in grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) have been shown to have some biological effects, including prevention of photocarcinogenesis. The present communication discusses the in vitro and in vivo studies of the possible protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) and the molecular mechanism for these effects. In SKH-1 hairless mice, dietary supplementation with GSPs is associated with a decrease of UVB-induced skin tumor development in terms of tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and a decrease in the malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinomas. It is suggested that the chemopreventive effects of dietary GSPs are mediated through the attenuation of UV-induced: (a) oxidative stress; (b) activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways; and (c) immunosuppression through alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines. Collectively, these studies indicate protective potential of GSPs against experimental photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice, and the possible mechanisms of action of GSPs, and suggest that dietary GSPs could be useful in the attenuation of the adverse UV-induced health effects in human skin. PMID:18384090

  8. Presumed lupus erythematosus cells identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a Mexican Hairless dog.

    PubMed

    Black, Laura J; Hechler, Ashley C; Duffy, Maura E; Beatty, Sarah S K

    2017-06-01

    A neutered male Mexican Hairless dog was presented for generalized weight loss and weakness. Initial laboratory testing and diagnostic imaging revealed thrombocytopenia and an interstitial to miliary lung pattern affecting all lung fields. Mild joint effusion was found on physical examination affecting the stifle, tarsal, carpal, and elbow joints. Examination of synovial fluid demonstrated an inflammatory polyarthropathy in 3 joints. Cytocentrifuged and direct preparations of the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid sample were made and cells consistent with lupus erythematosus (LE) cells and ragocytes were found. Based on these findings, the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) titer was determined as 1:640. A clinical diagnosis of systemic LE was made based on the satisfaction of 2 major criteria (thrombocytopenia and inflammatory polyarthritis), 4 minor criteria (central nervous system signs, lymphadenopathy, fever of unknown origin, and pleuritis), positive ANA titer, and the identification of presumed LE cells in BAL fluid. This case report highlights a novel finding of LE cells in respiratory secretions and provides a review of diagnostic criteria of systemic LE. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Hematological profile of the euthymic hairless guinea pig following sulfur mustard vesicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Gold, M B; Scharf, B A

    1995-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) is a potent vesicating agent of military importance, with known radiomimetic properties. The euthymic hairless guinea pig (EHGP) (Cavia porcellus) is emerging as the animal model of choice for cutaneous HD study. With elucidation of the systemic effects, we may better utilize this animal for all HD toxicity work. To this end, studies were conducted to determine the definitive median lethal dose (MLD) of subcutaneously applied sulfur mustard (HD) in the EHGP, and to correlate the induced hematological changes. Eight groups of two animals each were dosed at 0.3 log intervals from an extrapolated expected dose, deriving a tentative mean around which five groups of six animals each were dosed at 0.1 log intervals, resulting in a definitive MLD of 48.17 mg kg(-1). Sulfur mustard was then administered to seven groups of six animals each at a dose of 30 mg kg(-1) and hematology performed. Significant leukocyte count suppression was found to occur on days 4, 5 and 6, following a leukocyte elevation on day 1 after exposure. Serum potassium levels were found to be elevated all 7 days after HD exposure. Establishing the MLD for subcutaneously applied HD and the pattern of induced leukocyte suppression allows for more definitive evaluation of successful toxicity counter-measures.

  10. Subcellular localization of Suppressor of Hairless in Drosophila sense organ cells during Notch signalling.

    PubMed

    Gho, M; Lecourtois, M; Géraud, G; Posakony, J W; Schweisguth, F

    1996-06-01

    During imaginal development of Drosophila, Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)], an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that mediates intracellular signalling by the Notch (N) receptor, controls successive alternative cell fate decisions leading to the differentiation of multicellular sensory organs. We describe here the distribution of the Su(H) protein in the wing disc epithelium throughout development of adult sense organs. Su(H) was found to be evenly distributed in the nuclei of all imaginal disc cells during sensory organ precursor cells selection. Thus differential expression and/or subcellular localization of Su(H) is not essential for its function. Soon after division of the pIIa secondary precursor cell, Su(H) specifically accumulates in the nucleus of the future socket cell. At the onset of differentiation of the socket cell, Su(H) is also detected in the cytoplasm. In this differentiating cell, N and deltex participate in the cytoplasmic retention of Su(H). Still, Su(H) does not colocalize with N at the apical-lateral membranes. These observations suggest that N regulates in an indirect manner the cytoplasmic localization of Su(H) in the socket cell. Finally, the pIIb, shaft and socket cells are found to adopt invariant positions along the anteroposterior axis of the notum. This raises the possibility that tissue-polarity biases these N-mediated cell fate choices.

  11. In vivo analysis of internal ribosome entry at the Hairless locus by genome engineering in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Smylla, Thomas K; Preiss, Anette; Maier, Dieter

    2016-10-07

    Cell communication in metazoans requires the highly conserved Notch signaling pathway, which is subjected to strict regulation of both activation and silencing. In Drosophila melanogaster, silencing involves the assembly of a repressor complex by Hairless (H) on Notch target gene promoters. We previously found an in-frame internal ribosome entry site in the full length H transcript resulting in two H protein isoforms (H(p120) and H(p150)). Hence, H may repress Notch signalling activity in situations where cap-dependent translation is inhibited. Here we demonstrate the in vivo importance of both H isoforms for proper fly development. To this end, we replaced the endogenous H locus by constructs specifically affecting translation of either H(p150) or H(p120) isoforms using genome engineering. Our findings indicate the functional relevance of both H proteins. Based on bristle phenotypes, the predominant isoform H(p150) appears to be of particular importance. In contrast, growth regulation and venation of the wing require the concomitant activity of both isoforms. Finally, the IRES dependent production of H(p120) during mitosis was verified in vivo. Together our data confirm IRES mediated translation of H protein in vivo, supporting strict regulation of Notch in different cellular settings.

  12. Distortion of trichome morphology by the hairless mutation of tomato affects leaf surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Ho; Shi, Feng; Jones, A Daniel; Marks, M David; Howe, Gregg A

    2010-02-01

    Trichomes are specialized epidermal structures that function as physical and chemical deterrents against arthropod herbivores. Aerial tissues of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are populated by several morphologically distinct trichome types, the most abundant of which is the type VI glandular trichome that produces various specialized metabolites. Here, the effect of the hairless (hl) mutation on trichome density and morphology, chemical composition, and resistance to a natural insect herbivore of tomato was investigated. The results show that the major effect of hl on pubescence results from structural distortion (bending and swelling) of all trichome types in aerial tissues. Leaf surface extracts and isolated type VI glands from hl plants contained wild-type levels of monoterpenes, glycoalkaloids, and acyl sugars, but were deficient in sesquiterpene and polyphenolic compounds implicated in anti-insect defence. No-choice bioassays showed that hl plants are compromised in resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. These results establish a link between the morphology and chemical composition of glandular trichomes in cultivated tomato, and show that hl-mediated changes in these leaf surface traits correlate with decreased resistance to insect herbivory.

  13. An FTIR investigation of isocyanate skin absorption using in vitro guinea pig skin.

    PubMed

    Bello, Dhimiter; Smith, Thomas J; Woskie, Susan R; Streicher, Robert P; Boeniger, Mark F; Redlich, Carrie A; Liu, Youcheng

    2006-05-01

    Isocyanates may cause contact dermatitis, sensitization and asthma. Dermal exposure to aliphatic and aromatic isocyanates can occur in various exposure settings. The fate of isocyanates on skin is an important unanswered question. Do they react and bind to the outer layer of skin or do they penetrate through the epidermis as unreacted compounds? Knowing the kinetics of these processes is important in developing dermal exposure sampling or decontamination strategies, as well as understanding potential health implications such exposure may have. In this paper the residence time of model isocyanates on hairless guinea pig skin was investigated in vitro using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry. Model isocyanates tested were octyl isocyanate, polymeric hexamethylene diisocyanate isocyanurate (pHDI), polymeric isophorone diisocyanate isocyanurate (pIPDI) and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). Isocyanates in ethyl acetate (30 microL) were spiked directly on the skin to give 0.2-1.8 micromol NCO cm(-2) (NCO = -N=C=O), and absorbance of the isocyanate group and other chemical groups of the molecule were monitored over time. The ATR-FTIR findings showed that polymeric isocyanates pHDI and pIPDI may remain on the skin as unreacted species for many hours, with only 15-20% of the total isocyanate group disappearing in one hour, while smaller compounds octyl isocyanate and MDI rapidly disappear from the skin surface (80+% in 30 min). Isocyanates most likely leave the skin surface by diffusion predominantly, with minimal reaction with surface proteins. The significance of these findings and their implications for dermal exposure sampling and isocyanate skin decontamination are discussed.

  14. Is lack of sleep capable of inducing DNA damage in aged skin?

    PubMed

    Kahan, V; Ribeiro, D A; Egydio, F; Barros, L A; Tomimori, J; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2014-01-01

    Skin naturally changes with age, becoming more fragile. Various stimuli can alter skin integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether sleep deprivation affects the integrity of DNA in skin and exacerbates the effects of aging. Fifteen-month old female Hairless mice underwent 72 h of paradoxical sleep deprivation or 15 days of chronic sleep restriction. Punch biopsies of the skin were taken to evaluate DNA damage by single cell gel (comet) assay. Neither paradoxical sleep deprivation nor sleep restriction increased genetic damage, measured by tail movement and tail intensity values. Taken together, the findings are consistent with the notion that aging overrides the effect of sleep loss on the genetic damage in elderly mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Assessment of the skin photoprotective capacities of an organo-mineral broad-spectrum sunblock on two ex vivo skin models.

    PubMed

    Gélis, Christelle; Girard, Stéphanie; Mavon, Alain; Delverdier, Maxence; Paillous, Nicole; Vicendo, Patricia

    2003-10-01

    UV irradiation can cause cutaneous damage that may be specific according to the wavelength of UV rays. For example, damage from UVB irradiation manifests itself in the form of sunburn cells and enhancement of the expression of p53, while damage from UVA exposure results in an increase in the expression of vimentin. These reactions to UV irradiation were used in this work to evaluate the photoprotective capacities of two sunblock preparations that were applied to the surface of the skin. One sunblock preparation is a UVB absorber containing zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium oxide (TiO2) exclusively. The other sunblock preparation is a new organo-mineral sunblock containing Tinosorb M, OCM, ZnO and TiO2. Evaluation of the photoprotective capacities of both preparations on hairless rat skin and on in vitro reconstructed human epidermis revealed that they were effective in preventing UVB-induced damage. In contrast, only the organo-mineral sunblock was effective in the prevention of UVA-specific damage such as dermal alterations characterized by the expression of vimentin. Furthermore, our data support the fact that hairless rat skin and in vitro reconstructed human epidermis are a reliable basis for the evaluation of the photoprotective capacities of various sunscreens against UVB and UVA damage.

  16. Increased in vivo skin penetration of quantum dots with UVR and in vitro quantum dot cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Luke; Zheng, Hong; Faulknor, Renea; De Benedetto, Anna; Beck, Lisa; DeLouise, Lisa A.

    2009-02-01

    The growing presence of quantum dots (QD) in a variety of biological, medical, and electronics applications means an increased risk of human exposure in manufacturing, research, and consumer use. However, very few studies have investigated the susceptibility of skin to penetration of QD - the most common exposure route- and the results of those that exist are conflicting. This suggests that a technique allowing determination of skin barrier status and prediction of skin permeability to QD would be of crucial interest as recent findings have provided evidence of in vitro cytotoxicity and long-term in vivo retention in the body for most QD surface chemistries. Our research focuses on barrier status of the skin (intact and with ultraviolet radiation induced barrier defect) and its impact on QD skin penetration. These model studies are particularly relevant to the common application condition of NP containing sunscreen and SPF cosmetics to UV exposed skin. Herein we present our initial efforts to develop an in vivo model of nanoparticle skin penetration using the SKH-1 hairless mouse with transepidermal water loss (TEWL) to evaluate skin barrier status and determine its ability to predict QD penetration. Our results show that ultraviolet radiation increases both TEWL and skin penetration of QD. Additionally, we demonstrate cytotoxic potential of QD to skin cells using a metastatic melanoma cell line. Our research suggests future work in specific targeting of nanoparticles, to prevent or enhance penetration. This knowledge will be used to develop powerful therapeutic agents, decreased penetration cosmetic nanoparticles, and precise skin cancer imaging modalities.

  17. Macromolecular delivery into skin using a hollow microneedle.

    PubMed

    Wonglertnirant, Nanthida; Todo, Hiroaki; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to obtain information to develop an effective delivery device regarding a sophisticated hollow microneedle array-patch system. Thus, the potential of hollow microneedles was investigated for enhancing the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic large molecular compounds, and the effect of variable parameters on drug release behavior was determined from skin. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4.3 kDa), FD-4, was used as the main model compound, and it was successfully loaded into the lower epidermis as well as the superficial dermis of the skin in hairless rats by a hollow microneedle. The higher the volume of FD-4 solution injected, the faster the FD-4 release rate from skin. In addition, release rate tended to increase when FD-4 was administered dividedly by multiple injections. These release profiles of FD-4 were expressed by Fick's law of diffusion. Furthermore, a combination of the formulation strategy and hollow microneedle-assisted delivery was useful for controlling the drug release rate from skin. Release profiles from drug-loaded skin were also compared by changing the molecular weights of model compounds. The larger molecular size of compounds caused a lower release rate from skin. These results suggest the utilization of hollow microneedle to enhance transdermal delivery of large molecular compounds and provide useful information for designing an effective hollow microneedle system.

  18. Naked but not Hairless: the pitfalls of analyses of molecular adaptation based on few genome sequence comparisons.

    PubMed

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Tilak, Marie-Ka

    2015-02-20

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is the only rodent species that naturally lacks fur. Genome sequencing of this atypical rodent species recently shed light on a number of its morphological and physiological adaptations. More specifically, its hairless phenotype has been traced back to a single amino acid change (C397W) in the hair growth associated (HR) protein (or Hairless). By considering the available species diversity, we show that this specific position is in fact variable across mammals, including in the horse that was misleadingly reported to have the ancestral Cysteine. Moreover, by sequencing the corresponding HR exon in additional rodent species, we demonstrate that the C397W substitution is actually not a peculiarity of the naked mole-rat. Instead, this specific amino acid substitution is present in all hystricognath rodents investigated, which are all fully furred, including the naked mole-rat closest relative, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Overall, we found no statistical correlation between amino acid changes at position 397 of the HR protein and reduced pilosity across the mammalian phylogeny. This demonstrates that this single amino acid change does not explain the naked mole-rat hairless phenotype. Our case study calls for caution before making strong claims regarding the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptation based on the screening of specific amino acid substitutions using only few model species in genome sequence comparisons. It also exposes the more general problem of the dilution of essential information in the supplementary material of genome papers thereby increasing the probability that misleading results will escape the scrutiny of editors, reviewers, and ultimately readers.

  19. Naked but Not Hairless: The Pitfalls of Analyses of Molecular Adaptation Based on Few Genome Sequence Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Tilak, Marie-Ka

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is the only rodent species that naturally lacks fur. Genome sequencing of this atypical rodent species recently shed light on a number of its morphological and physiological adaptations. More specifically, its hairless phenotype has been traced back to a single amino acid change (C397W) in the hair growth associated (HR) protein (or Hairless). By considering the available species diversity, we show that this specific position is in fact variable across mammals, including in the horse that was misleadingly reported to have the ancestral Cysteine. Moreover, by sequencing the corresponding HR exon in additional rodent species, we demonstrate that the C397W substitution is actually not a peculiarity of the naked mole-rat. Instead, this specific amino acid substitution is present in all hystricognath rodents investigated, which are all fully furred, including the naked mole-rat closest relative, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Overall, we found no statistical correlation between amino acid changes at position 397 of the HR protein and reduced pilosity across the mammalian phylogeny. This demonstrates that this single amino acid change does not explain the naked mole-rat hairless phenotype. Our case study calls for caution before making strong claims regarding the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptation based on the screening of specific amino acid substitutions using only few model species in genome sequence comparisons. It also exposes the more general problem of the dilution of essential information in the supplementary material of genome papers thereby increasing the probability that misleading results will escape the scrutiny of editors, reviewers, and ultimately readers. PMID:25714745

  20. The sunburn cell in hairless mouse epidermis: quantitative studies with UV-A radiation and mono- and bifunctional psoralens

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.R.; Magnus, I.A.

    1982-10-01

    The production of the sunburn cell by UV-A radiation and topical psoralens in hairless mouse epidermis has been studied. It has been shown that the appearance of this cell is dependent on the dose of both UV-A radiation and of the psoralen. The time-course with 8-methoxypsoralen has peak sunburn cell numbers at 28 hr postirradiation. A comparison of 2 bifunctional (8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen) and 2 monofunctional (angelicin and 3-carbethoxypsoralen) psoralens showed the former are more potent. This suggests that DNA crosslink lesions may play a rle in sunburn cell production.

  1. Toxicokinetics of the nerve agent (+/-)-VX in anesthetized and atropinized hairless guinea pigs and marmosets after intravenous and percutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    van der Schans, Marcel J; Lander, Brenda J; van der Wiel, Herma; Langenberg, Jan P; Benschop, Hendrik P

    2003-08-15

    In continuation of our investigations on the toxicokinetics of the volatile nerve agents C(+/-)P(+/-)-soman and (+/-)-sarin, we now report on the toxicokinetics of the rather nonvolatile agent (+/-)-VX. A validated method was developed to determine blood levels of (+/-)-VX by means of achiral gas chromatography at blood levels > or =10 pg/ml. The ratio of the two enantiomers of VX in blood could be measured at levels > or =1 ng/ml by using chiral HPLC in combination with off-line gas chromatographic analysis. In order to obtain basic information on the toxicokinetics of (+/-)-VX, i.e., under conditions of 100% bioavailability, the blood levels of this agent were measured in hairless guinea pigs at iv doses corresponding with 1 and 2 LD50. The derived AUCs indicate a reasonable linearity of the toxicokinetics with dose. Also, the toxicokinetics in marmoset primates was studied at an absolute iv dose corresponding with 1 LD50 in the hairless guinea pig which led to approximately the same levels of (+/-)-VX in blood as observed at 2 LD50 in the hairless guinea pig. Finally, the toxicokinetics of (+/-)-VX were measured in hairless guinea pigs via the most relevant porte d' entrée for this agent, which is the percutaneous route at a dose corresponding with 1 LD50 (pc). Large variations were observed between individual animals in the rate of penetration of (+/-)-VX and in concomitant progression of AChE inhibition in blood of these animals. Blood levels of (+/-)-VX increased gradually over a 6-h period of time. After a 7-h penetration period, the total AUC corresponded with 2.5% bioavailability relative to iv administration. In contrast with the G-agents C(+/-)P(+/-)-soman and (+/-)-sarin, stereospecificity in the sequestration of the two enantiomers of (+/-)-VX is not a prominent phenomenon. It appears that (+/-)-VX is substantially more persistent in vivo than the two G-agents. This persistence may undermine the efficacy of pretreatment with carbamates of percutaneous

  2. Combined effects of iontophoretic and chemical enhancement on drug delivery. II. Transport across human and murine skin.

    PubMed

    Nolan, L M A; Corish, J; Corrigan, O I; Fitzpatrick, D

    2007-08-16

    This paper reports measurements of the release characteristics of the model drug salbutamol from a liquid crystalline vehicle across both human and hairless murine skin in vitro. The use of oleic acid and iontophoresis as penetration enhancement techniques, used separately and simultaneously, was also investigated. Over a period of 12h, salbutamol base did not diffuse from the vehicle across excised human skin while, in contrast, over a period of 2h, the drug passively transported across hairless murine skin. The diffusion co-efficient for the drug in this tissue was estimated to be 4.54+/-0.60x10(-9)cm(2)s(-1) with a permeability co-efficient of 7.03+/-0.83x10(-7)cms(-1). A current of density of 0.39mAcm(-2) facilitated a significant transport of salbutamol from the liquid crystalline vehicle across excised human skin but with a small (<0.1) transport number. The quantity of salbutamol transported across excised hairless murine skin under the same conditions was significantly greater with a transport number of 0.68. The alteration of the permeability of the tissue was less than that of the human skin and a full recovery of the pre-iontophoretic permeability of murine skin was consistently observed. The incorporation of either oleic or lauric acid into the monoglyceride component of the vehicle at a concentration of 0.1M had a marked effect on the transport of salbutamol across both human and murine skin. The initial passive permeation of the drug across the skin was not affected but the rate of drug delivery during iontophoresis was typically observed to increase by a factor greater than two. The post-iontophoretic transport of salbutamol across either tissue was also substantially enhanced in the presence of the fatty acid. The analogous use of stearic acid did not significantly influence the iontophoretic or the post-iontophoretic transport of salbutamol across excised human skin. The investigation also revealed a synergistic combination of the fatty acid and

  3. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that is tender to the touch may occur in an area of a scratch or cut redness often spreads rapidly over the skin's surface ...

  4. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and Drug ...

  5. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Better Breakfast Ensure a healthy start to your day with this guide. » « Connect With Us Register for ...

  6. Arsine toxicity is induced by inhalation but not by percutaneous exposure in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koichi; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Shimoda, Yasuyo; Yamano, Yuko; Nagano, Kasuke; Hata, Akihisa; Endo, Yoko; Tachikawa, Mariko; Endo, Ginji

    2014-04-01

    Arsine (AsH₃) is used in many industries, but there is insufficient knowledge about the potential for percutaneous absorption. In order to examine possible percutaneous absorption of arsine, we conducted inhalation studies. Arsine was generated by reducing arsenic trioxide with NaBH₄. Male 5-week-old Hos:HR-1 hairless mice were subjected to a single percutaneous exposure or whole-body inhalation exposure of ca. 300 ppm arsine for 5 min. The examination was performed 0-6 hr after the exposure. Total arsenic in whole blood and hematocrit (Ht) values were measured. Generation of an arsenic-hemoglobin (As-Hb) adduct in the blood was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-ICP-MS). Ht values in the inhalation group significantly decreased after 3 hr, but those in the percutaneous exposure group did not. Total arsenic in the inhalation group was 9.0-14.2 mg/l, which was significantly higher than that in the percutaneous group. The As-Hb adduct was detected only in mice in the inhalation group. Histopathological changes were noted only in the inhalation group, with marked deposition of eosinophilic globules in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys, the Kupffer cells of the liver, and the red pulp in the spleen, but not in the lungs. Immunohistochemically, these eosinophilic globules were stained positively by hemoglobin (Hb) antibody. In the present study, arsine-induced hemolysis and deposition of Hb occurred in the kidney via the inhalation route but not via percutaneous exposure. The presence of As-Hb adduct may be a useful indicator for confirming arsine poisoning.

  7. Evaluation of Imiquimod for Topical Treatment of Vaccinia Virus Cutaneous Infections in Immunosuppressed Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tarbet, E. Bart; Larson, Deanna; Anderson, Bentley J.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Wong, Min-Hui; Smee, Donald F.

    2011-01-01

    Imiquimod is an immune response modifier prescribed as a topical medication for a number of viral and neoplastic conditions. We evaluated the antiviral activity of imiquimod against vaccinia virus (WR strain) cutaneous infections in immunosuppressed (with cyclophosphamide) hairless mice when administered after virus exposure. Primary lesions progressed in severity, satellite lesions developed, and infection eventually killed the mice. Once daily topical treatment with 1% imiquimod cream for three, four, or five days were compared to twice daily topical treatment with 1% cidofovir cream for seven days. Survival time of mice in all treated groups was significantly prolonged compared to placebo controls. The mean day of death for the placebo group, three-day imiquimod, four day imiquimod, five-day imiquimod, and cidofovir groups were 15.5, 20.0, 20.5, 19.5, and 20.5 days post-infection, respectively. All treatment groups showed significant reductions in primary lesion size and in the number of satellite lesions. The cidofovir and 4-day imiquimod treatments delayed the appearance of lung virus titers by 3 and 6 days, respectively, although cutaneous lesion and snout virus titers were not as affected by treatment. Benefits in survival and lesion reduction were observed when imiquimod treatment was delayed from 24, 48 and 72 hours post-infection. However, increasing the treatment dose of imiquimod from 1% to 5% led to a significant decrease in antiviral efficacy. These results demonstrate the protective effects of topically administered imiquimod against a disseminated vaccinia virus infection in this mouse model. PMID:21439326

  8. Characteristics of a root hair-less line of Arabidopsis thaliana under physiological stresses

    PubMed Central

    Maeshima, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane-associated Ca2+-binding protein-2 of Arabidopsis thaliana is involved in the growth of root hair tips. Several transgenic lines that overexpress the 23 residue N-terminal domain of this protein under the control of the root hair-specific EXPANSIN A7 promoter lack root hairs completely. The role of root hairs under normal and stress conditions was examined in one of these root hair-less lines (NR23). Compared with the wild type, NR23 showed a 47% reduction in water absorption, decreased drought tolerance, and a lower ability to adapt to heat. Growth of NR23 was suppressed in media deficient in phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc, copper, or potassium. Also, the content of an individual mineral in NR23 grown in normal medium, or in medium lacking a specific mineral, was relatively low. In wild-type plants, the primary and lateral roots produce numerous root hairs that become elongated under phosphate-deficient conditions; NR23 did not produce root hairs. Although several isoforms of the plasma membrane phosphate transporters including PHT1;1–PHT1;6 were markedly induced after growth in phosphate-deficient medium, the levels induced in NR23 were less than half those observed in the wild type. In phosphate-deficient medium, the amounts of acid phosphatase, malate, and citrate secreted from NR23 roots were 38, 9, and 16% of the levels secreted from wild-type roots. The present results suggest that root hairs play significant roles in the absorption of water and several minerals, secretion of acid phosphatase(s) and organic acids, and in penetration of the primary roots into gels. PMID:24501179

  9. TRPV1 antagonist can suppress the atopic dermatitis-like symptoms by accelerating skin barrier recovery.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jun-Won; Seo, Jung A; Jeong, Yeon Su; Bae, Il-Hong; Jang, Won-Hee; Lee, Jihae; Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Song-Seok; Woo, Byoung-Young; Lee, Ki-Wha; Lim, Kyung-Min; Park, Young-Ho

    2011-04-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a cation channel activated by diverse obnoxious stimuli like capsaicin, low pH or heat. Recently, it was revealed that TRPV1 might be deeply associated with skin permeability barrier function, suggesting that modulation of TRPV1 might be beneficial for the skin disorders with barrier damages. We aimed to investigate whether the blockade of TRPV1 activation might accelerate skin barrier recovery and alleviate atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms, employing a novel TRPV1 antagonist, PAC-14028. TRPV1 antagonistic effects of PAC-14028 in human keratinocytes and skin were confirmed through capsaicin-evoked calcium influx assay and capsaicin-induced blood perfusion increase. Effects of PAC-14028 on skin barrier recovery were examined in vivo tape-stripping-induced barrier disruption in hairless mice. To determine the effects of PAC-14028 on AD, Dermatophagoides farina (Df)- and oxazolone (OXZ)-induced AD models were employed. PAC-14028 could inhibit capsaicin-evoked calcium influx in keratinocytes at sub-micromolar concentrations. This potent TRPV1 antagonistic activity in keratinocytes was manifested in vivo as the blockade of capsaicin-induced blood perfusion increase, and the accelerated barrier recovery from tape-stripping-induced barrier damages in hairless mice. PAC-14028 could also attenuate dermatitis-associated barrier damages in Df and OXZ models as determined by lower TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss), reformation of neutral lipid layer and reversion of changes in loricrin and filaggrin expression. Importantly, along with accelerated recovery of skin barrier function, PAC-14028 alleviated the general AD-like symptoms, including serum IgE increase, mast cell degranulation, scratching behavior and clinical severity of dermatitis. These results reflect that the blockade of TRPV1 activation can suppress the atopic dermatitis-like symptoms by accelerating skin barrier recovery. Copyright © 2010 Japanese

  10. Effect of vehicles and enhancers on the in vitro skin penetration of aspalatone and its enzymatic degradation across rat skins.

    PubMed

    Gwak, H S; Chun, I K

    2001-12-01

    The feasibility of skin penetration was studied for aspalatone (AM, acetylsalicylic acid maltol ester), a novel antithrombotic agent. In this study, hairless mouse dorsal skins were used as a model to select composition of vehicle and AM. Based on measurements of solubility and partition coefficient, the concentration of PG that showed the highest flux for AM across the hairless mouse skin was found to be 40%. The cumulative amount permeated at 48 h, however, appear inadequate, even when the PG concentration was employed. To identify a suitable absorption enhancer and its optimal concentration for AM, a number of absorption enhancers and a variety of concentration were screened for the increase in transdermal flux of AM. Amongst these, linoleic acid (LOA) at the concentration of 5% was found to have the largest enhancement factor (i.e., 132). However, a further increase in AM flux was not found in the fatty acid concentration greater than 5%, indicating the enhancement effect is in a bell-shaped curve. In a study of the effect of AM concentration on the permeation, there was no difference in the permeation rate between 0.5 and 1% for AM, below its saturated concentration. At the donor concentration of 2%, over the saturated condition, the flux of AM was markedly increased. A considerable degradation of AM was found during permeation studies, and the extent was correlated with protein concentrations in the epidermal and serosal extracts, and skin homogenates. In rat dorsal skins, the protein concentration decreased in the rank order of skin homogenate > serosal extract > epidermal extract. Estimated first order degradation rate constants were 6.1 5 +/- 0.14, 0.57 +/- 0.02 and 0.011 +/- 0.004 h(-1) for skin homogenate, serosal extract and epidermal extract, respectively. Therefore, it appeared that AM was hydrolyzed to some extent into salicylmaltol by esterases in the dermal and subcutaneous tissues of skin. Taken together, our data indicated that transdermal

  11. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin.

  12. Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit UVB-induced oxidative stress and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB signaling in in vivo SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Som D; Meeran, Syed M; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2007-03-01

    We have shown previously that dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) inhibit UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis in mice. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and oxidative stress-mediated signaling has been implicated in photocarcinogenesis, this study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary GSPs on UVB-induced oxidative stress in in vivo SKH-1 hairless mice. Here, we report that provision of dietary GSPs (0.2 and 0.5%, w/w) to mice exposed to either acute UVB irradiation (120 mJ/cm(2)) or chronic irradiation of UVB inhibited depletion of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione, and inhibited UVB-induced H(2)O(2), lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and nitric oxide in mouse skin. As UV-induced oxidative stress mediates activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathways, we determined the effect of dietary GSPs on these pathways. We observed that dietary GSPs inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun-NH(2)-kinase, and p38 proteins of MAPK family, which seems to be mediated through reactivation of MAPK phosphatases. GSPs inhibited UVB-induced activation of NF-kappaB/p65 through inhibition of degradation of IkappaBalpha and activation of IkappaB kinase alpha (IKKalpha). As NF-kappaB-targeted genes play critical roles in inflammation and cellular proliferation, we assessed the effect of GSPs on proteins encoded by these genes. Dietary GSPs resulted in inhibition of the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in the skin. Collectively, our data show that GSPs have the ability to protect the skin from the adverse effects of UVB radiation via modulation of the MAPK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways and provide a molecular basis for the photoprotective effects of GSPs in an in vivo animal model.

  13. Effects of Food-Derived Collagen Peptides on the Expression of Keratin and Keratin-Associated Protein Genes in the Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Le Vu, Phuong; Takatori, Ryo; Iwamoto, Taku; Akagi, Yutaka; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Chida, Kazuhiro; Sato, Kenji; Shimizu, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Oral ingestion of collagen peptides (CP) has long been suggested to exert beneficial effects on the skin, but the molecular events induced by CP on the skin remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of oral CP administration on gene expression in hairless mouse skin and of prolyl-hydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp), a collagen-derived dipeptide, on gene expression in a coculture of mouse skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Using microarray analysis, we found that oral administration of CP to hairless mice for 6 weeks induced increased expression of Krtap and Krt genes in the skin. Annotation analysis using DAVID revealed that a group of the up-regulated genes, Gprc5d, Sprr2a1, Krt27 and Krtap16-7, is associated with the development of the epidermis and the hair cycle. In addition, the presence of Pro-Hyp (200 μM) induced an increase in the expression of Krtap16-7, Krtap15, Krtap14 and Krtap8-2 in keratinocytes in coculture, partially resembling the in vivo result. The Pro-Hyp-induced up-regulation of these genes was not observed when keratinocytes were cultured without fibroblasts, suggesting that the presence of fibroblasts is essential for the effects of Pro-Hyp. Our study presents new insights into the effects of CP on the skin, which might link to the hair cycle. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Mechanisms of synergistic skin penetration by sonophoresis and iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hikima, Tomohiro; Ohsumi, Shinya; Shirouzu, Kenta; Tojo, Kakuji

    2009-05-01

    The mechanism of skin penetration enhancement by ultrasound under sonophoresis (US) or by an electrical field under iontophoresis (IP) was investigated using hairless mouse skin in vitro. The seven model chemicals with different molecular weights (122-1485) were dissolved in a hydrophilic gel. Donor gel with the chemicals was loaded on the skin surface and then the skin was treated with US (300 kHz, 5.2 W/cm(2), 5.4% duty-cycle) and IP (0.32+/-0.03 mA/cm(2)) individually or with US and IP in combination (US+IP). The penetration profiles of the chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 500 were influenced by the presence of an electric charge, the profiles of ionized chemicals for US+IP were the same as profiles for IP, while the penetration flux of a non-ionized chemical synergistically increased with US+IP compared with the individual flux of US and IP. The chemicals with molecular weight of more than 1000 showed synergistic effects with US+IP. The mathematical simulation assuming a bilayer skin model revealed that the synergistic effects were mainly influenced by electroosmosis in the stratum corneum (SC). Therefore the synergistic effects of US+IP was mainly caused by the SC diffusivity of chemicals increased by US and the electroosmotic water flow by IP application.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Histological Results of Visible Lesion Thresholds for Thermal and LIB Induced Skin Damage at 1.3 microns and 1.5 microns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    L.J. Chavey, M.L Imholte, R.J. Thomas, and B.A. Rockwell, "Injury thresholds for topical-cream- coated skin of hairless guinea pigs ( cavia porcellus ...safety, LIB I. INTRODUCTION Recent technical developments in solid state and chemical lasers have facilitated the growing use of pulsed, high-peak- power ...mechanism of surface LIB plasma damage on skin from nanosecond pulses in the NIR. Due to the proliferation of high-peak- power systems in the NIR for

  16. Time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy for the assessment of skin photoaging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D´Almeida, Camila de Paula; Campos, Carolina; Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    pathology. The optical properties of these intrinsic fluorophores respond to the microenvironment and the metabolic status, thus making fluorescence spectroscopy a valuable tool to study the conditions of biological tissues. The purpose of this study is to investigate the hairless mice skin metabolic changes during the photoaging process through lifetime and fluorescence measurements targeting NADH and FAD. Two lasers centered at 378 nm and 445 nm, respectively, perform excitation of NADH and FAD. The fluorescence acquisition is carried out at mice dorsal and ventral regions throughout the photoaging protocol and aging process. Differences in fluorescence and lifetime data between young and photoaged mice measurements were observed. The endogenous fluorescence spectrum of photoaged dorsal skin showed an increase compared to young and aged skin. Lifetime of bound NADH and free FAD presented an increase in the first week that continued until the end of the protocol. Aging process is being investigated to complement the information obtained from fluorescence data and lifetime of photoaging process.

  17. Vestibuloplasty with Retroauricular Skin Grafts for Dental Implant Rehabilitation in Vascularized Fibula Grafts: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Sencimen, Metin; Gulses, Aydin; Varol, Altan; Ayna, Mustafa; Ozen, Jölide; Dogan, Necdet; Açil, Yahya

    The aim of this study was to present the use of retroauricular full-thickness skin grafts in vestibuloplasty surgeries for dental implant rehabilitation in vascularized fibula grafts. Two patients underwent mandibular reconstruction with vascularized fibula grafts due to mandibular gunshot injuries. Inadequate sulcus gaps secondary to mandibular soft tissue deficiencies were managed by full-thickness autologous skin grafts harvested from the retroauricular region. Dental rehabilitation was achieved by implants placed in free fibula grafts. In both cases, complete graft survival was achieved. Cosmetic and functional outcomes were satisfactory. Owing to its high resiliency and elasticity and its thin and hairless structure, full-thickness retroauricular skin graft is an effective treatment modality in the management of intraoral soft tissue deficiencies. Patients with gunshot injuries present great functional and esthetic demands, and every report presenting new treatment modalities is helpful in the management of the condition.

  18. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth.

  19. Commonly Employed African Neonatal Skin Care Products Compromise Epidermal Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Sun, Richard; Man, George; Lee, Dale; Hill, Zelee; Elias, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal mortality is much higher in the developing world than in developed countries. Infections are a major cause of neonatal death, particularly in preterm infants, in whom defective epidermal permeability barrier function facilitates transcutaneous pathogen invasion. The objective was to determine whether neonatal skin care products commonly used in Africa benefit or compromise epidermal functions in murine skin. After twice-daily treatment of 6- to 8-week-old hairless mice with each skin care product for 3 days, epidermal permeability barrier function, skin surface pH, stratum corneum hydration, and barrier recovery were measured using a multiprobe adapter system physiology monitor. For products showing some benefits in these initial tests, the epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis was assessed 1 and 5 hours after a single application to acutely disrupted skin. All of the skin care products compromised basal permeability barrier function and barrier repair kinetics. Moreover, after 3 days of treatment, most of the products also reduced stratum corneum hydration while elevating skin surface pH to abnormal levels. Some neonatal skin care products that are widely used in Africa perturb important epidermal functions, including permeability barrier homeostasis in mice. Should these products have similar effects on newborn human skin, they could cause a defective epidermal permeability barrier, which can increase body fluid loss, impair thermoregulation, and contribute to the high rates of neonatal morbidity and mortality seen in Africa. Accordingly, alternative products that enhance permeability barrier function should be identified, particularly for use in preterm infants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of feeding restriction on growth and dressing percentages in Mexican hairless pig.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, L A; Trejo-Lizama, W; Santos-Ricalde, R H

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-four male Mexican hairless pigs, weighing 16 ± 1.12 kg, were used to evaluate growth performance and carcass yield in pigs fed 2 (L), 3 (M) and 4 (H) times the Metabolizable Energy (ME) required for maintenance. The pigs were assigned randomly to two experimental rearing systems (indoors and outdoors). They were fed daily according to their respective feeding regimen (FR). The indoor pigs were fed ad libitum with chopped star grass forage (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The outdoor pigs had access during 16 h to a paddock of star grass. The pigs were slaughtered when they achieve 70 kg of live weight. No significant differences between indoors and outdoors were observed in any of the variables evaluated (P > 0.05). A significant reduction of daily live weight gain (P < 0.05) was observed conforming to FR reductions (0.501, 0.438 and 0.300 kg/day for H, M and L, respectively). Days to achieve 70 kg of live weight increase (P < 0.05) as FR reduces (110, 124 and 180 days for H, M and L, respectively) were recorded. Forage consumption in pigs reared indoors reduces (P < 0.05) conforming to FR increases (0.092, 0.121 and 0.307 kg DM/day for H, M and L respectively). Fat carcass yield reduces significantly (P < 0.05) according FR reductions (24.5, 22.8 y 18.9 kg, for H, M and L respectively). Also, carcass meat yield was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs from L regimen (25.0 kg) than in pigs from M and H regimen (22.0 and 22.8 kg, respectively). Results obtained indicate a reduction in daily live weight gain conforming to daily feed intake reductions; however, improvement in carcass meat yield, accompanied with a reduction in carcass fat yield, was observed.

  1. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  2. Dietary feeding of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds prevents photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice: relationship to decreased fat and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Anshu; Elmets, Craig A; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2003-08-01

    The use of dietary botanicals is receiving considerable interest in the protection of skin from the adverse biological effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Dietary feeding of proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds (GSP) (0.2 and 0.5%, w/w) in AIN76 control diet to SKH-1 hairless mice resulted in prevention of photocarcinogenesis in terms of tumor incidence (20-95%), tumor multiplicity (46-95%) and tumor size (29-94%) against UVB-induced complete (both initiation + promotion), initiation and promotion stages of photocarcinogenesis. Feeding of GSP (0.5%, w/w) also resulted in prevention of malignant transformation of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas in terms of carcinoma incidence (45%), carcinoma multiplicity (61%) and carcinoma size (75%) compared with non-GSP treated mice following UVB-induced complete carcinogenesis protocol at the end of 30 weeks. Biochemical analysis revealed that treatment of GSP in vivo and in vitro systems significantly inhibited UVB- or Fe3+-induced lipid peroxidation by 57-66% (P<0.01) and 41-77% (P< 0.05-0.001), respectively, thus suggesting the antioxidant mechanism of photoprotection by GSP. Long-term feeding of GSP did not show apparent signs of toxicity in mice when determined in terms of body weight, diet consumption and physical characteristics of internal body organs like spleen, liver and kidney. Feeding of GSP also did not show apparent signs of toxicity when determined in terms of total body mass (mass of lean + fat), total bone mineral density and total bone mineral content by employing dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). DXA analysis also revealed that feeding of GSP significantly decreased tissue fat level (24-27%, P<0.05) without changing the total body mass of the animals compared with non-GSP-fed animals. This can be attributed to increased lipolysis or decreased synthesis of fat due to administration of GSP. Together, it can be suggested that inhibition of photocarcinogenesis by GSP treatment may be

  3. Kinetics of epidermal cell proliferation in experimental skin carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Evensen, Arne

    1963-01-01

    It is well known that there exists a daily rhythm in the mitotic count in the epidermis of the mouse. It has also been emphasized that the mitotic rate cannot be estimated correctly from the mitotic count unless the mitotic duration is constant. In this paper it is shown that applications of 3-methylcholanthrene to the skin cause great variations in the mitotic duration of the epidermal cells. The Colcemid technique is used to study the mitotic duration in the untreated epidermis of hairless mice during a 24-hour interval, and it is shown that the diurnal and nocturnal variations in the mitotic count are the effect mainly of variations in the mitotic duration and not of variations in the mitotic rate. PMID:20604149

  4. Skin findings in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics; Neonatal care - skin ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  5. Association of Diet With Skin Histological Features in UV-B-Exposed Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan K; Hsia, Yvonne; Weeks, David M; Dixon, Tatiana K; Lepe, Jessica; Thomas, J Regan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term exposure to solar radiation produces deleterious photoaging of the skin. It is not known if diet can influence skin photoaging. To study the influence of a calorie-restricted diet and an obesity diet in mice exposed to long-term UV-B irradiation to assess if there is an association between diet and histopathological response to UV-B irradiation. In this animal model study in an academic setting, the dorsal skin of SKH1 hairless mice receiving normal, calorie-restricted, and obesity diets was exposed to UV-B irradiation 3 times a week for 10 weeks and were compared with corresponding controls. The mice were placed in the following groups, with 8 animals in each group: (1) intact control (C) with regular diet and no UV-B exposure, (2) intact control with UV-B exposure (CR), (3) calorie-restricted diet (CrC), (4) calorie-restricted diet with UV-B exposure (CrR), (5) obesity diet (OC), and (6) obesity diet with UV-B exposure (OR). The experiment was conducted during October through December 2013. Tissue processing and histological analysis were completed in 2016. Histomorphometric analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded skin sections stained by histological and immunohistochemical methods for estimation of epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, mast cells, dermal cellularity, and adipose layer ratio. Changes in wrinkles were noted. Hairless female mice (age range, 6-8 weeks) were obtained. With a normal diet, changes from UV-B irradiation occurred in epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, and mast cells, which were modestly influenced by an obesity diet. Calorie restriction influenced the skin in nonirradiated control animals, with higher values for most variables. After UV-B exposure in animals with calorie restriction, epidermal thickness was increased, but other variables were unaffected. Animals

  6. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can get infected by them. Some common types of skin infections are Bacterial: Cellulitis and impetigo. Staphylococcal infections can also affect the skin. Viral: Shingles, warts, and herpes simplex Fungal: Athlete's foot and yeast infections Parasitic: Body lice, head lice, and scabies ...

  7. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-09-06

    Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin.

  8. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  9. Why does a hydrophilic drug permeate skin, although it is not soluble in white petrolatum?

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Todo, Hiroaki; Terao, Akira; Hasegawa, Tetuya; Akimoto, Masayuki; Oshima, Kouichi; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    White petrolatum is broadly used as an ointment vehicle, although hydrophilic drugs cannot be easily dissolved in the vehicle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release and skin permeation profiles of a model hydrophilic agent, N1-[2-(4-guanidinophenyl)-1(S)-(N-methylcarbamoyl)ethyl]-N4-hydroxy-2(R)-iso-butyl-3(S)-(3-phenylpropyl)succinamide hydrochloride (FYK-1388b), from the ointment. The release rate of FYK-1388b was very low; however, high skin permeation and skin content of the drug were found. We supposed that this was due to endogenous lipids or sebum, because white petrolatum had a high affinity to these lipids. To evaluate the effect of lipids on the enhanced release and skin permeation of FYK-1388b, 'preapplied white petrolatum' was made by applying the drug-free white petrolatum on the hairless rat skin for 6 hours. Then the drug ointment was prepared using the 'preapplied white petrolatum'. The release rate of FYK-1388b was markedly increased from the 'preapplied ointment' compared with the 'original ointment'. In addition, much higher skin permeation was also obtained using the 'preapplied ointment'. Separately, cholesteryl oleate, cholesterol, and ceramides were found in the 'preapplied white petrolatum'. Thus, these endogenous lipids on the skin surface may enhance the release and skin permeation of FYK-1388b from white petrolatum ointment.

  10. Minoxidil-containing dosage forms: skin retention and after-rinsing hair-growth promotion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Chul; Lee, Min-Ho; Rang, Moon-Jeong

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of topical dosage forms of minoxidil (MXD), namely vesicles, double emulsions, and an inclusion complex with hydoxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD), were prepared. The skin retention of MXD in the preparations was evaluated in vitro using hairless mouse skins. After applying the preparations onto the skin and rinsing it, the amount of the drug left on the skin was determined using HPLC. Retention was the highest when the drug was encapsulated in cationic vesicles. Nonionic vehicle, the double emulsion, and HP-beta-CD left no significant amount of the drug after rinsing the skin. Thus, an ionic interaction between the cationic vehicle and negatively charged skin is likely responsible for the relatively high skin retention. In vivo hair growth-promotion effect of each dosage form was investigated, in which the sample application onto the clipped backs of female mice (C57BL6) and the subsequent rinsing of the backs were done once a day for 30 days. Only MXD in the cationic vesicles had hair growth promotion effect, possibly due to significant skin retention.

  11. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 functions as an efflux pump of xenobiotics in the skin.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Kato, Yukio; Sai, Yoshimichi; Imai, Teruko; Tsuji, Akira

    2005-06-01

    Recent research has identified gene expression of several types of xenobiotic transporters in the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) functions in the skin. The distribution of [14C]grepafloxacin in vivo and the transport of 1-[2-amino-5-(2,7-dichloro-6-hydroxy-3-oxo-9-xanthenyl)phenoxy]-2-(2-amino-5-methylphenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (fluo 3) were examined in the skin of Mrp1 knockout mice [FVB/Mrp1(-/-)] and normal mice [FVB/Mrp1(+/+)]. The tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio of [14C]grepafloxacin was higher in the skin of FVB/Mrp1(-/-) mice than that of FVB/Mrp1(+/+) mice. In skin slices of hairless mouse incubated with fluo 3 pentaacetoxymethyl ester, the accumulation of fluo 3 was significantly increased in the presence of probenecid (2 mM) and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (5 muM) in a time-dependent manner but did not change in the presence of tetraethylammonium (2 mM). In FVB/Mrp1(-/-) mouse skin, the accumulation of fluo 3 increased time-dependently, while no increase was observed in FVB/Mrp1(+/+) mouse skin. These findings suggest that Mrp1 is involved in the efflux of [14C]grepafloxacin and fluo 3 in the skin, possibly acting as part of a barrier system against xenobiotic compounds.

  12. Topical Delivery of Hyaluronic Acid into Skin using SPACE-peptide Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Gupta, Vivek; Anselmo, Aaron C.; Muraski, John A.; Mitragotri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Topical penetration of macromolecules into skin is limited by their low permeability. Here, we report the use of a skin penetrating peptide, SPACE peptide, to enhance topical delivery of a macromolecule, hyaluronic acid (HA, MW: 200–325 kDa). The peptide was conjugated to phospholipids and used to prepare an ethosomal carrier system (~110 nm diameter), encapsulating HA. The SPACE-ethosomal system (SES) enhanced HA penetration into porcine skin in vitro by 7.8+/−1.1-fold compared to PBS. The system also enhanced penetration of HA in human skin in vitro, penetrating deep into the epidermis and dermis in skin of both species. In vivo experiments performed using SKH1 hairless mice also confirmed increased dermal penetration of HA using the delivery system; a 5-fold enhancement in penetration was found compared to PBS control. Concentrations of HA in skin were about 1000-fold higher than those in blood; confirming the localized nature of HA delivery into skin. The SPACE-ethosomal delivery system provides a formulation for topical delivery of macromolecules that are otherwise difficult to deliver into skin. PMID:24129342

  13. Lonicera caerulea fruits reduce UVA-induced damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Vostálová, Jitka; Galandáková, Adéla; Palíková, Irena; Ulrichová, Jitka; Doležal, Dalibor; Lichnovská, Radka; Vrbková, Jana; Rajnochová Svobodová, Alena

    2013-11-05

    UVA photons are less energetic than UVB photons but they are more abundant in solar radiation. Modern tools have shown that UVA light has serious adverse effects on the skin. We investigated the effect of consuming Lonicera caerulea berries on UVA-induced damage in SKH-1 mice. The mice were fed a diet containing L. caerulea berries (10%, w/w) for 14 days before a single UVA (30 J/cm(2)) treatment. Effects on haematological and antioxidant parameters were evaluated 4 and 24h after irradiation. The bioavailability of L. caerulea phenolics was also assessed. Consuming the L. caerulea berry-enriched diet caused reduced malondialdehyde production and increased catalase activity and glutathione levels were found in skin and erythrocytes. UVA-induced NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and gamma-L-glutamate-L-cysteine ligase protein in skin were reduced in mice fed L. caerulea berries. Enhanced heme oxygenase-1 level in skin, interleukin-17 in plasma and reduced interleukin-12 levels in plasma were found in the mice on the experimental diet. Histological (pyknotic) changes in the nuclei of basal cells induced by UVA exposure were reduced in L. caerulea berry consuming animals. HLPC-MS analysis showed high concentrations of hippuric acid, one of the main metabolites of aromatic amino acids and phenolic compounds, in skin, liver, urine and faeces of mice consuming the berries. Taken together, consumption of L. caerulea berries affords protection from the adverse effects of a single UVA exposure mainly via modulation of antioxidant parameters.

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on Protective Action of N-Phenethyl Caffeamide against Photodamage of Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Wen; Chu, Yin; Lin, Ping; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, N-phenethyl caffeamide (K36) was proved to act as an antioxidant and an antiphotoaging agent by inhibiting type I procollagen degradation and stimulating collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanism of action and the antiinflammatory and antiphotoaging activity of K36. K36 reduced UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) expression by regulating IκB and p-IκB expression. K36 also inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Furthermore, the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by K36 was attributed to the downregulation of COX-2. Topically applying K36 led to efficient antiwrinkle formation and reduced UVB-induced erythema and thickness of epidermis in hairless mice. In addition, K36 penetrated into the skin of hairless mice. Our findings show that K36 has significant beneficial effects on antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiphotoaging activity and suggest that K36 can be developed as an antiaging agent for cosmetic and skin care products. PMID:26367260

  15. Effects of TLC-Ag dressings on skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Bouschbacher, Marielle; Thomassin, Laetitia

    2013-06-01

    The TLC-Ag dressings, a combination of technology lipido-colloid and silver salts, are used to promote healing in wounds with risks or signs of local infection, thanks to the antimicrobial properties of the silver salts. Nanocrystalline silver dressings containing nanocrystalline silver, also used to improve wound healing, present both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of TLC-Ag dressings in a model of chronic skin inflammation induced by repeated application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to the skin of hairless mice, in comparison with TLC dressing, Silcryst nanocrystalline dressing, desonide cream 0.05%, a corticoid cream used as positive control, and gauze. Daily treatments of the mice began 7 days after the start of induction of chronic skin inflammation and lasted for 7 days. A macroscopic score was performed daily during the treatment period until the mice killing on day 15 and skin samples were taken for histopathological analysis. TLC-Ag reduced significantly the macroscopic score of chronic skin inflammation from day 10 in comparison with gauze and TLC dressing, similarly to Silcryst nanocrystalline dressing and desonide cream, which presented the best anti-inflammatory effects. No significant differences were observed between TLC dressing and gauze. TLC-Ag reduced significantly the microscopic score of chronic skin inflammation in comparison with TLC dressing and gauze, similarly to Silcryst nanocrystalline dressing but significantly less than desonide cream. These results demonstrate that TLC-Ag dressings present significant anti-inflammatory effects on chronic skin inflammation. They can improve wound healing, due to both the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

  16. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  17. Skin abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... have methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or another staph infection, follow instructions for self-care at home.

  18. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... from getting burned by the sun's ultraviolet, or UV, rays. That's why your skin gets tan if ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  19. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. The infection ... Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge . Merck Manuals About Disclaimer Permissions Privacy Contributors Terms ...

  20. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... wear sunscreen and protective clothing, such as a hat, to prevent painful sunburns. Protecting your skin now ... happens in a split second, without you ever thinking about it. previous continue Dermis = Lots of Blood ...

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons.What ... the safe-sun guidelines.1. Avoid the sun.Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  2. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the touch may have yellow drainage Of cellulitis: a red, inflamed area on the skin that ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Erythema Multiforme Cellulitis Pityriasis Rosea Paronychia Molluscum Contagiosum Abscess Cellulitis Taking ...

  3. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  4. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin.

    PubMed

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Xin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-04-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm(2)) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicate that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  5. Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Liu, Lijia; Shin, Jun-Wan; Surh, Young-Joon

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone attenuates phosphorylation of IκBα and DNA binding of NF-κB in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone inhibits phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, JNK and Akt in mouse skin. •Thymoquinone induces the expression of cytoprotective proteins in mouse skin. -- Abstract: Thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of Nigella sativa, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of thymoquinone in mouse skin. Pretreatment of female HR-1 hairless mouse skin with TQ attenuated 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). TQ diminished nuclear translocation and the DNA binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) via the blockade of phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα in TPA-treated mouse skin. Pretreatment with TQ attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2. Moreover, topical application of TQ induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinoneoxidoreductase-1, glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase in mouse skin. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of TQ on TPA-induced COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation, and its ability to induce the expression of cytoprotective proteins provide a mechanistic basis of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of TQ in hairless mouse skin.

  6. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signalling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm2) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicates that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25680589

  7. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common forms of skin ... years. What are the most common forms of skin cancer? Three types of skin cancer are the most ...

  8. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril maleate) accelerates recovery of mouse skin from UVB-induced wrinkles

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura-Hachiya, Yuko; Arai, Koji Y.; Ozeki, Rieko; Kikuta, Ayako; Nishiyama, Toshio

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) increases in UVB-irradiated skin. •Administration of an ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced skin wrinkle. •ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced epidermal hypertrophy. •ACE inhibitor improved transepidermal water loss in the UVB-irradiated skin. -- Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II signaling regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue remodeling, as well as blood pressure, while in skin, angiotensin II signaling is involved in wound healing, inflammation, and pathological scar formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that angiotensin II is also involved in photoaging of skin. In this study, we examined the effect of enalapril maleate, an ACE inhibitor, on recovery of wrinkled skin of hairless mice exposed to long-term UVB irradiation. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that expression of ACE, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the skin was increased after UVB irradiation (3 times/week at increasing intensities for 8 weeks). Administration of enalapril maleate (5 times/week for 6 weeks, starting 1 week after 10-week irradiation) accelerated recovery from UVB-induced wrinkles, epidermal hyperplasia and epidermal barrier dysfunction, as compared with the vehicle control. Our results indicate that ACE and angiotensin II activity are involved in skin photoaging, and suggest that ACE inhibitor such as enalapril maleate may have potential for improvement of photoaged skin.

  9. Ultraviolet Light B-Mediated Inhibition of Skin Catalase Activity Promotes Gr-1+CD11b+ Myeloid Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Nicholas J.; Tober, Kathleen L.; Burns, Erin M.; Schick, Jonathan S.; Riggenbach, Judith A.; Mace, Thomas A.; Bill, Matthew A.; Young, Gregory S.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; Lesinski, Gregory B.

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer incidence and mortality are higher in men compared to women, but the causes of this sex discrepancy remain largely unknown. Ultraviolet light exposure induces cutaneous inflammation and neutralizes cutaneous antioxidants. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are heterogeneous bone marrow-derived cells that promote inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. Reduced activity of catalase, an antioxidant present within skin, has been associated with skin carcinogenesis. We utilized the outbred, immune competent Skh-1 hairless mouse model of ultraviolet light B (UVB)-induced inflammation and non-melanoma skin cancer to further define sex discrepancies in UVB-induced inflammation. Our results demonstrated that male skin had relatively lower baseline catalase activity, which was inhibited following acute UVB exposure in both sexes. Further analysis revealed that skin catalase activity inversely correlated with splenic Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cell percentage. Acute UVB exposure induced Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cell skin infiltration, which was inhibited to a greater extent in males by topical catalase treatment. In chronic UVB studies, we demonstrated that the percentage of splenic Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells was 55% higher in male tumor-bearing mice compared to their female counterparts. Together, our findings indicate that lower skin catalase activity in male mice may at least in part contribute to increased UVB-induced Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells and subsequent skin carcinogenesis. PMID:22030957

  10. The role of Syk kinase in ultraviolet-mediated skin damage.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, E; Huang, Z Y; Sunkari, C; Uitto, J

    2011-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the main cause of skin photodamage; the resulting modulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) leads to collagen degradation. There is no easily accessible molecular indicator of early skin UV damage. In this study, we investigated the effects of Syk kinase on MMP expression and evaluated the sensitivity and usefulness of Syk as an early indicator of skin UV damage. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) were transfected with Syk cDNA to overexpress Syk. MMP-1 expression and Syk activity were determined by Western blot after UV exposure. The effect of Syk on MMP-1 expression in HDFs was further explored by either Syk siRNA or a selective Syk inhibitor. Possible downstream molecules of Syk were also evaluated in HDFs upon UV exposure. The relationship between Syk and collagenase was further explored in vivo (MMP-13, hairless mice). Our studies in HDFs demonstrated that both a Syk inhibitor and Syk siRNA were able to inhibit MMP-1 expression in HDFs exposed to UV and that overexpression of Syk increased MMP-1 expression and the activity of JNK kinase, but not p38 or Erk1/2 MAP kinase. UV exposure enhanced both expression and activity of Syk in HDFs. Experiments with hairless mice suggested that Syk expression is an earlier indicator of UV exposure than MMP-13 expression. Our results demonstrate that Syk expression correlates well with increase of MMPs (MMP-1 in humans and MMP-13 in mice) in response to UV exposure. The findings suggest that Syk may be a novel target for the prevention and treatment of skin photodamage by modulating MMPs. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  11. The impact of skin decontamination on the time window for effective treatment of percutaneous VX exposure.

    PubMed

    Joosen, M J A; van den Berg, R M; de Jong, A L; van der Schans, M J; Noort, D; Langenberg, J P

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the present study was to obtain insight into depot formation and penetration following percutaneous VX poisoning, in order to identify an appropriate decontamination window that can enhance or support medical countermeasures. The study was executed in two phases, using the hairless guinea pig as an animal model. In the first phase the effect of various decontamination regimens on levels of free VX in skin and plasma were studied as well as on blood cholinesterase levels. Animals were exposed to 0.5 mg/kg VX and were not decontaminated (control), decontaminated with RSDL once at 15 or 90 min after exposure or three times at 15, 25 and 35 (10-min interval) or 15, 45 and 75 min after exposure (30-min interval). There was no significant effect of any of the decontamination regimens on the 6-h survival rate of the animals. However, all animals that had been decontaminated 15 min after exposure, showed a survival rate of more than 90%, compared to 50-60% in animals that were not decontaminated or decontaminated at 90 min after exposure. In the second phase of the study, hairless guinea pigs were exposed to 1 mg/kg VX on the shoulder, followed either by decontamination with RSDL (10 min interval), conventional treatment on indication of clinical signs or a combination thereof. It appeared that a thorough, repeated decontamination alone could not save the majority of the animals. A 100% survival rate was observed in the group that received a combination of decontamination and treatment. In conclusion, the effects of VX exposure could be influenced by various RSDL decontamination regimens. The results in freely moving animals showed that skin decontamination, although not fully effective in removing all VX from the skin and skin depot is crucial to support pharmacological intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Photoprotective effects of two natural products on ultraviolet B-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in SKH-1 mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Filip, Adriana; Daicoviciu, Doina; Clichici, Simona; Mocan, Teodora; Muresan, Adriana; Postescu, Ion Dan

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is the major cause of nonmelanoma skin cancer in humans. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. We studied the photoprotective activity of Calluna vulgaris and red grape seed (Vitis vinifera L, Burgund Mare variety [BM]) extracts in vivo in an SKH-1 hairless mice skin model. Fifty 8-week-old female SKH-1 hairless mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 10 each): controls, UVB-irradiated, C. vulgaris plus UVB-irradiated, BM plus UVB-irradiated, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) plus UVB-irradiated. A dose of 4 mg/mouse per cm² of skin area for both extracts was topically applied to the mice 30 minutes before a single-dose (240 mJ/cm²) UVB exposure. EGCG dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 6.6; 0.067 M) was administered at 2 mg/mouse per cm². Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase 3 activity were determined in skin homogenates 24 hours after irradiation. A single dose of UVB increased GSH levels and glutathione peroxidase activity in the exposed skin. C. vulgaris and BM pretreatment significantly decreased GSH formation and glutathione peroxidase activity (P < .001) and inhibited UVB-induced lipid peroxidation (P < .0001) and nitric oxide production (C. vulgaris: P < .06). Topical treatments with C. vulgaris and particularly BM extracts (P < .002) significantly reduced caspase 3 activity, indicating that the cells were protected against apoptosis. These results suggest that C. vulgaris and BM extracts might be chemopreventive candidates for reducing UV-induced risk for skin cancer.

  13. Vitamin D metabolism and function in the skin.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D

    2011-12-05

    The keratinocytes of the skin are unique in being not only the primary source of vitamin D for the body, but in possessing the enzymatic machinery to metabolize vitamin D to its active metabolite 1,25(OH)(2)D. Furthermore, these cells also express the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that enables them to respond to the 1,25(OH)(2)D they produce. Numerous functions of the skin are regulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D and/or its receptor. These include inhibition of proliferation, stimulation of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier, promotion of innate immunity, and promotion of the hair follicle cycle. Regulation of these actions is exerted by a number of different coregulators including the coactivators DRIP and SRC, the cosuppressor hairless (Hr), and β-catenin. This review will examine the regulation of vitamin D production and metabolism in the skin, and explore the various functions regulated by 1,25(OH)(2)D and its receptor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sunscreens for delay of ultraviolet induction of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, H.C.; Poulsen, T.; Brodthagen, H.; Hou-Jensen, K.

    1982-08-01

    Sunscreens with different sun protection factors (SPFs) have been tested for their capability of delaying or preventing actinic damage and skin cancer development in groups of hairless, pigmented mice exposed to artificial ultraviolet (UV) light of increasing intensity. The dose delivered was less than or equal to 1 minimal erythema dose (MED) in the group of untreated mice, so that the mice to which sunscreens were applied never obtained a sunburn after UV exposure. The quality of UV light was similar to bright midday sun at a latitude of 56 degrees (city of Copenhagen). Tumorigenesis was demonstrated to be delayed corresponding to the SPF claimed by the manufacturer, but almost all of the UV-irradiated mice developed skin tumors. Histologic examination revealed actinic degeneration and tumors of squamous cell type with marked variation in differentiation. Metastases to lymph nodes and lungs were found in only 10%. Toxic reactions, such as eczematous-like skin reactions, dark coloring, and amyloidosis, were observed predominantly in the group treated with the sunscreen of highest SPF value. Long-term investigations seem to be necessary to unveil these problems--in particular, the specific SPF value, in sunscreens, that should be recommended to the public for prevention or delay of actinic damage and/or cancer development.

  15. Effects of skin surface temperature on epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Denda, Mitsuhiro; Sokabe, Takaaki; Fukumi-Tominaga, Tomoko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2007-03-01

    Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family are temperature sensors, and TRPV1, V3, and V4 are expressed in epidermal keratinocytes. To evaluate the influence of these receptors on epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, we kept both hairless mouse skin and human skin at various temperatures immediately after tape stripping. At temperatures from 36 to 40 degrees C, barrier recovery was accelerated in both cases compared with the area at 34 degrees C. At 34 or 42 degrees C, barrier recovery was delayed compared with the un-occluded area. 4Alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanone, an activator of TRPV4, accelerated barrier recovery, whereas ruthenium red, a blocker of TRPV4, delayed barrier recovery. Capsaicin, an activator of TRPV1, delayed barrier recovery, whereas capsazepin, an antagonist of TRPV1, blocked this delay. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and camphor, TRPV3 activators, did not affect the barrier recovery rate. As TRPV4 is activated at about 35 degrees C and above, whereas TRPV1 is activated at about 42 degrees C and above, these results suggest that both TRPV1 and TRPV4 play important roles in skin permeability barrier homeostasis. Previous reports suggest the existence of a water flux sensor in the epidermis, and as TRPV4 is known to be activated by osmotic pressure, our results indicate that it might be this sensor.

  16. Vitamin D Metabolism and Function in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bikle, Daniel D

    2011-01-01

    The keratinocytes of the skin are unique in being not only the primary source of vitamin D for the body, but in possessing the enzymatic machinery to metabolize vitamin D to its active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D. Furthermore, these cells also express the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that enables them to respond to the 1,25(OH)2D they produce. Numerous functions of the skin are regulated by 1,25(OH)2D and/or its receptor. These include inhibition of proliferation, stimulation of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier, promotion of innate immunity, and promotion of the hair follicle cycle. Regulation of these actions is exerted by a number of different coregulators including the coactivators DRIP and SRC, the cosuppressor hairless (Hr), and β-catenin. This review will examine the regulation of vitamin D production and metabolism in the skin, and explore the various functions regulated by 1,25(OH)2D and its receptor. PMID:21664236

  17. Vitamin D and the skin: Physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D

    2012-03-01

    The keratinocytes of the skin are unique in being not only the primary source of vitamin D for the body, but in possessing both the enzymatic machinery to metabolize the vitamin D produced to active metabolites (in particular 1,25(OH)(2)D) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that enables the keratinocytes to respond to the 1,25(OH)(2)D thus generated. Numerous functions of the skin are regulated by vitamin D and/or its receptor. These include inhibition of proliferation, stimulation of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier, promotion of innate immunity, regulation of the hair follicle cycle, and suppression of tumor formation. Regulation of these actions is exerted by a number of different coregulator complexes including the coactivators vitamin D receptor interacting protein (DRIP) complex also known as Mediator and the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family (of which SRC 2 and 3 are found in keratincytes), the inhibitor hairless (Hr), and β-catenin whose impact on VDR function is complex. Different coregulators appear to be involved in different VDR regulated functions. This review will examine the various functions of vitamin D and its receptor in the skin, and explore the mechanisms by which these functions are regulated.

  18. Multimodal optical coherence/photoacoustic tomography of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Aneesh P.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Považay, Boris; Laufer, Jan; Hofer, Bernd; Glittenberg, Carl; Hermann, Boris; Beard, Paul C.; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    A novel non-invasive in vivo multimodal optical coherence tomography (OCT)/photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system capable of obtaining structural and functional information simultaneously has been demonstrated in skin. A 1060 nm OCT system acquiring 47k depth-scans/s with ~ 7 μm axial and ~ 20 μm transverse resolutions has been incorporated into a backward-mode PA system based on a planar, optically-transparent Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) sensor. In this study, the excitation wavelength was set to 670 nm and a focused laser beam at 1550 nm was used as the sensor interrogation beam. OCT and PAT images were obtained sequentially and the coregistered images were combined to form the final 3D image. OCT/PAT images obtained in vivo from the skin of a hairless mouse and human palmar skin demonstrated the ability of this multimodal imaging system to provide complementary structural and functional information from deeper depths with increased contrast.

  19. Selective uptake of dietary tocotrienols into rat skin.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, S; Niwa, T; Yamashita, K

    2000-06-01

    Using a vitamin E mixture extracted from palm oil, the tissue distribution of dietary tocotrienols and tocopherols was examined in rats and mice. Wistar rats (4-wk-old) were fed a diet containing 48.8 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol, 45.8 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol and 71.4 mg/kg gamma-tocotrienol for 8 wk. Nude mice (BALB/c Slc-nu, 8-wk-old) and hairless mice (SKH1, 8-wk-old) were fed the same diet for 4 wk. alpha-Tocopherol was abundantly retained in the skin, liver, kidney and plasma of rats and mice. alpha-Tocotrienol and gamma-tocotrienol were detected slightly in the liver, kidney and plasma, while substantial amounts of these tocotrienols were detected in the skin of both rats and mice. The present study suggests that the skin is a unique tissue in respect to its ability to discriminate between various vitamin E analogs.

  20. Effects of hypothalamic thermal stimuli on sympathetic neurones innervating skin and skeletal muscle of the cat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Grewe, W; Jänig, W; Kümmel, H

    1995-10-01

    1. Postganglionic neurones supplying hairless and hairy skin of the cat hindlimb were analysed for their responses to thermal stimuli applied to the anterior hypothalamus and spinal cord in anaesthetized and artificially ventilated cats. Activity was recorded from multi- and single-unit bundles which were isolated from peripheral nerves. The neurones were functionally identified as cutaneous vasoconstrictor (CVC) and muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) neurones. Activity in sudomotor (SM) neurones was either monitored indirectly by recording the phasic negative deflections of the skin potential from the surface of the hairless skin, or in some experiments additionally by recording activity directly from the SM axons. 2. The activity in forty-one out of forty-four multi-unit and six out of six single-unit CVC bundles was inhibited, in a graded manner, by hypothalamic warming. An increase in the temperature of the surface of hairless skin followed the decrease in activity of the CVC neurones supplying it. Large changes in skin temperature only followed decreases in CVC activity of more than 40%. Cooling of the hypothalamus had only weak transient effects on CVC neurones. 3. Simultaneous warming of hypothalamus and spinal cord had multiplicative effects on the activity in CVC neurones. Subthreshold warming of one structure increased the response to warming of the other one and reduced the threshold temperature. 4. SM neurones were not affected by hypothalamic warming, but activated during hypothalamic cooling. 5. MVC neurones were weakly activated during hypothalamic warming only if arterial blood pressure decreased, otherwise they were unaffected. It is likely that this activation was due to secondary unloading of arterial baroreceptors. 6. Two silent postganglionic neurones projecting to skin were activated during hypothalamic warming. These neurones may have had a vasodilatory function. 7. Rhythmicity of the activity in CVC neurones, related to the cycle of artificial

  1. Effects of hypothalamic thermal stimuli on sympathetic neurones innervating skin and skeletal muscle of the cat hindlimb.

    PubMed Central

    Grewe, W; Jänig, W; Kümmel, H

    1995-01-01

    1. Postganglionic neurones supplying hairless and hairy skin of the cat hindlimb were analysed for their responses to thermal stimuli applied to the anterior hypothalamus and spinal cord in anaesthetized and artificially ventilated cats. Activity was recorded from multi- and single-unit bundles which were isolated from peripheral nerves. The neurones were functionally identified as cutaneous vasoconstrictor (CVC) and muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) neurones. Activity in sudomotor (SM) neurones was either monitored indirectly by recording the phasic negative deflections of the skin potential from the surface of the hairless skin, or in some experiments additionally by recording activity directly from the SM axons. 2. The activity in forty-one out of forty-four multi-unit and six out of six single-unit CVC bundles was inhibited, in a graded manner, by hypothalamic warming. An increase in the temperature of the surface of hairless skin followed the decrease in activity of the CVC neurones supplying it. Large changes in skin temperature only followed decreases in CVC activity of more than 40%. Cooling of the hypothalamus had only weak transient effects on CVC neurones. 3. Simultaneous warming of hypothalamus and spinal cord had multiplicative effects on the activity in CVC neurones. Subthreshold warming of one structure increased the response to warming of the other one and reduced the threshold temperature. 4. SM neurones were not affected by hypothalamic warming, but activated during hypothalamic cooling. 5. MVC neurones were weakly activated during hypothalamic warming only if arterial blood pressure decreased, otherwise they were unaffected. It is likely that this activation was due to secondary unloading of arterial baroreceptors. 6. Two silent postganglionic neurones projecting to skin were activated during hypothalamic warming. These neurones may have had a vasodilatory function. 7. Rhythmicity of the activity in CVC neurones, related to the cycle of artificial

  2. Modifications of in vitro skin penetration under solar irradiation: evaluation on flow-through diffusion cells.

    PubMed

    Gélis, Christelle; Mavon, Alain; Delverdier, Maxence; Paillous, Nicole; Vicendo, Patricia

    2002-06-01

    The effect of solar irradiation on ex vivo dermatomed hairless rat skin samples maintained in culture on flow-through diffusion cells for at least 24 h was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and by histological observations. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements and kinetic analysis of the permeation of both tritiated water and 14C caffeine through the skin were performed after full-spectrum solar exposure involving the use of a xenon arc solar simulator. After a UV exposure of less than 420 mJ/cm2, skin integrity and permeation of both water and caffeine did not change significantly. In contrast, after a 420 mJ/cm2 UV exposure, the epidermis appeared more contracted, associated with an increase of 55% of TEWL and 220% of the skin permeation of tritiated water after 6 h. The data suggested a dramatic alteration of the skin barrier integrity. Moreover, the flux of 14C caffeine increased rapidly by 338% of the absorption of water 12 h after irradiation. These results reveal the presence of a threshold UV exposure that would not modify skin penetration.

  3. Evaluation of a human bio-engineered skin equivalent for drug permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Asbill, C; Kim, N; El-Kattan, A; Creek, K; Wertz, P; Michniak, B

    2000-09-01

    To test the barrier function of a bio-engineered human skin (BHS) using three model drugs (caffeine, hydrocortisone, and tamoxifen) in vitro. To investigate the lipid composition and microscopic structure of the BHS. The human skin substitute was composed of both epidermal and dermal layers, the latter having a bovine collagen matrix. The permeability of the BHS to three model drugs was compared to that obtained in other percutaneous testing models (human cadaver skin, hairless mouse skin, and EpiDerm). Lipid analysis of the BHS was performed by high performance thin layered chromatography. Histological evaluation of the BHS was performed using routine H&E staining. The BHS mimicked human skin in terms of lipid composition, gross ultrastructure, and the formation of a stratum corneum. However, the permeability of the BHS to caffeine, hydrocortisone, and tamoxifen was 3-4 fold higher than that of human cadaver skin. In summary, the results indicate that the BHS may be an acceptable in vitro model for drug permeability testing.

  4. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... DM. Dermal and subcutaneous tumors. In: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  5. Oily skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your health care provider may also recommend or prescribe creams to absorb or limit the production of oil ...

  6. NOVEL MECHANISMS FOR THE VITAMIN D RECEPTOR (VDR) IN THE SKIN AND IN SKIN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-Ling; Jiang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The VDR acting with or without its principal ligand 1,25(OH)2D regulates two central processes in the skin, interfollicular epidermal (IFE) differentiation and hair follicle cycling (HFC). Calcium is an important co-regulator with 1,25(OH)2 D at least of epidermal differentiation. Knockout of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in addition to VDR accelerates the development of skin cancer in mice on a low calcium diet. Coactivators such as Mediator 1 (aka DRIP205) and steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3) regulate VDR function at different stages of the differentiation process, with Med1 essential for hair follicle differentiation and early stages of epidermal differentiation and proliferation and SRC3 essential for the latter stages of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier and innate immunity. The corepressor of VDR, hairless (HR), is essential for hair follicle cycling, although its effect on epidermal differentiation in vivo is minimal. In its regulation of HFC and IFE VDR controls two pathways—wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog (Shh). In the absence of VDR these pathways are overexpressed leading to tumor formation. Whereas VDR binding to β-catenin may block its activation of TCF/LEF1 sites, β-catenin binding to VDR may enhance its activation of VDREs. 1,25(OH)2D promotes but may not be required for these interactions. Suppression of Shh expression by VDR, on the other hand, requires 1,25(OH)2D. The major point of emphasis is that the role of VDR in the skin involves a number of novel mechanisms, both 1,25(OH)2D dependent and independent, that when disrupted interfere with IFE differentiation and HFC, predisposing to cancer formation. PMID:25445917

  7. Novel mechanisms for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the skin and in skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D; Oda, Yuko; Tu, Chia-Ling; Jiang, Yan

    2015-04-01

    The VDR acting with or without its principal ligand 1,25(OH)2D regulates two central processes in the skin, interfollicular epidermal (IFE) differentiation and hair follicle cycling (HFC). Calcium is an important co-regulator with 1,25(OH)2D at least of epidermal differentiation. Knockout of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in addition to VDR accelerates the development of skin cancer in mice on a low calcium diet. Coactivators such as mediator 1 (aka DRIP205) and steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3) regulate VDR function at different stages of the differentiation process, with Med 1 essential for hair follicle differentiation and early stages of epidermal differentiation and proliferation and SRC3 essential for the latter stages of differentiation including formation of the permeability barrier and innate immunity. The corepressor of VDR, hairless (HR), is essential for hair follicle cycling, although its effect on epidermal differentiation in vivo is minimal. In its regulation of HFC and IFE VDR controls two pathways-wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog (SHH). In the absence of VDR these pathways are overexpressed leading to tumor formation. Whereas, VDR binding to β-catenin may block its activation of TCF/LEF1 sites, β-catenin binding to VDR may enhance its activation of VDREs. 1,25(OH)2D promotes but may not be required for these interactions. Suppression of SHH expression by VDR, on the other hand, requires 1,25(OH)2D. The major point of emphasis is that the role of VDR in the skin involves a number of novel mechanisms, both 1,25(OH)2D dependent and independent, that when disrupted interfere with IFE differentiation and HFC, predisposing to cancer formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel electronic skin patch for delivery and pharmacokinetic evaluation of donepezil following transdermal iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Sonal; Kasha, Purna C; Paturi, Jyotsna; Anderson, Carter; Morris, Russell; Banga, Ajay K

    2013-09-10

    The nature of Alzheimer's disease limits the effectiveness of available oral treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of transdermal iontophoretic delivery of donepezil in a hairless rat model as a potential treatment modality in Alzheimer's and to evaluate the effect of current densities on its pharmacokinetics. Donepezil loaded integrated Wearable Electronic Drug Delivery (WEDD(®)) patches supplied current levels of 0, 0.13, 0.26 and 0.39 mA. Plasma extracted donepezil was analyzed by HPLC. Noncompartmental analysis was used to characterize disposition of the drug. The amount delivered across hairless rat skin and areas under the curve (AUC) were found to rise in proportion to the current levels. Peak plasma levels of 0.094, 0.237 and 0.336 μg/ml were achieved at 0.13, 0.26 and 0.39 mA respectively. Time to peak plasma concentrations was after termination of current and same for all current levels. Transdermal elimination half-life was significantly increased from the true value of 3.2h due to depot formation, prolonging complete absorption of the drug. Donepezil was successfully delivered iontophoretically at levels sufficient to produce pharmacodymanic effect. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated linear kinetics at the current levels used and flip flop kinetics following iontophoretic administration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanomechanical characterization of skin and skin cream.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, B; Tang, W; Ge, S

    2010-11-01

    The mechanical properties of skin are an important characteristic of its resistance to damage and important indicators of pathological situations. Skin care products are the most common method to improve skin health and create a smooth, soft, and elastic perception by altering the mechanical properties of skin. It is of interest to study how skin cream affects the mechanical properties of skin. It also can help to quantify the effectiveness of cosmetic products. In this study, we present a systematic study of the mechanical properties of virgin skin and cream-treated skin. In nanoscratch measurements, the scratch wear tracks were generated at various loads using an atomic force microscope. Hardness and elastic moduli were measured using a nanoindenter. The in situ tensile properties of virgin skin and cream-treated skin were measured using a custom-built tensile stage that attaches to the atomic force microscope. Compared with virgin skin, cream-treated skin exhibits better scratch resistance up to a normal load of 15 μN. The indentation hardness and elastic modulus of cream-treated skin are lower than that of virgin skin, indicating that the skin cream moistens and softens the skin surface. In the stretching experiments, the elastic modulus is lower and ultimate strain is higher than that of virgin skin, indicating skin cream can improve the tensile response of skin. Mechanisms for the observed trends are discussed. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Change in epidermal transmission due to UV-induced hyperplasia in hairless mice: a first approximation of the action spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sterenborg, H J; van der Leun, J C

    1988-04-01

    UV-induced epidermal hyperplasia was investigated by measuring the optical transmission of the epidermis of hairless mice exposed daily to ultraviolet radiation. The effects of 2 different radiation sources were investigated: Philips TUV 40W, emitting mainly 254 nm radiation, and Philips TL01 40W, emitting radiation in a narrow band around 312 nm. With both lamps a number of groups of animals were used, each receiving a different daily dose. In the experiments with both types of lamps, hyperplasia appeared to be fully determined by the accumulated dose, irrespective of the daily dose administered. This implies reciprocity between the daily dose and the time elapsed since the first exposure. Moreover, the change of transmission with time and daily dose showed very characteristic behaviour. A simple mathematical model was used to describe these changes. In a previous study we used this model to describe the results of a similar experiment with Westinghouse FS40 sunlamps. The combined data from the present and the previous experiments were used to calculate a first approximation of the action spectrum for UV-induced hyperplasia. In addition, we calculated the dose-response relationship for UV-induced increase in tolerance against ultraviolet radiation for the 3 irradiation sources.

  11. Molecular basis for hair loss in mice carrying a novel nonsense mutation (Hrrh-R ) in the hairless gene (Hr).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Sundberg, J P; Das, S; Carpenter, D; Cain, K T; Michaud, E J; Voy, B H

    2010-01-01

    Animal models carrying mutations in the hairless (Hr) gene provide a rich resource for study of hair follicle biology. A spontaneous mouse mutant with a phenotype strikingly similar to rhino mutants of Hr arose spontaneously in the mouse facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Sequence analysis of Hr in these mutants uncovered a nonsense mutation in exon 12, designated as Hr(rh-R) (rhino, Oak Ridge). The mutation led to significant reduction in Hr mRNA levels, predicted to be due to nonsense-mediated decay. Histological analysis indicated dilated hair follicle infundibula at 14 days of age that rapidly became filled with cornified material. Microarray analyses revealed that expression levels of many genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation, epidermal regeneration, and wound healing were significantly upregulated before morphological detection of the phenotype, suggesting their role in onset of the Hr(rh-R) phenotype. Identification of this new Hr allele and the underlying molecular alterations allows further understanding of the role of Hr in hair follicle biology.

  12. Time course of lesion development in the hairless guinea-pig model of sulfur mustard-induced dermal injury

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janet M.; Seagrave, JeanClare; Weber, Waylon M.; Santistevan, Colleen D.; Grotendorst, Gary R.; Schultz, Gregory S.; March, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to provide detailed analyses of the time course of sulfur mustard (SM) vapor-induced clinical, histological, and biochemical changes following cutaneous exposure in hairless guinea-pigs. Three 6cm2 sites on the backs of each guinea-pig were exposed to SM vapor (314 mg3) for 6 minutes (low dose) or 12 minutes (high dose). Animals were killed at 6, 24, and 48 hours, or 2 weeks postexposure. Erythema, edema, histopathology, and analysis of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 content were evaluated. Erythema was observed by 6 hours, and edema by 24 hours postexposure. Vapor exposure caused epidermal necrosis with varying degrees of dermatitis, ulceration, hemorrhage, and separation of the dermis from the epidermis. Later changes included epidermal regeneration with hyperplasia and formation of granulation tissue in the dermis with loss of hair follicles and glandular structures. Relative amounts of pro and active MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly increased in the high-dose SM group at 2 weeks. Erythema, edema, and histologic changes are consistent with findings among human victims of SM attack. This model, with observations to 2 weeks, will be useful in assessing the efficacy of countermeasures against SM. PMID:21410818

  13. Combined effects of ethanol and L-menthol on hairless rat stratum corneum investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Obata, Yasuko; Hatta, Ichiro; Ohta, Noboru; Kunizawa, Naomi; Yagi, Naoto; Takayama, Kozo

    2006-10-27

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was employed to evaluate the effect of ethanol and l-menthol on lipid arrangements in the stratum corneum of hairless rats. Two sharp diffractions (S=2.40 and S=2.67, corresponding to spacing of 0.417 nm and 0.374 nm respectively) were observed on the broad hump peak derived from soft keratin. To assist in understanding the effects of treatment with ethanol and l-menthol, an abundance ration of lipid hydrocarbon chain packing index (R(H/O)) was defined as R(H/O)=(Peak area at S=2.40 nm(-1))/(Peak area at S=2.67 nm(-1)). When ethanol was applied to the stratum corneum the intensities of diffraction peaks declined slightly. The R(H/O) values observed were not affected by variations in ethanol concentrations in the range 0-40% (w/w). The R(H/O) values did not change even when treatment with ethanol (40%, w/w) was extended to 8 h. These results suggested that lipid arrangements in the stratum corneum were not affected by ethanol. On the other hand, exposure of the stratum corneum to 2% (w/w) L-menthol caused a significant decrease in R(H/O) value. It was shown that L-menthol was dispersed through the stratum corneum, intruded mainly into hexagonal hydrocarbon chain packing, and disrupted the regular organization of these structures.

  14. Endogenous Retinoic Acid Required to Maintain the Epidermis Following Ultraviolet Light Exposure in SKH-1 Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Gressel, Katherine L; Duncan, F Jason; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M; La Perle, Krista M; Everts, Helen B

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet light B (UVB) exposure induces cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), one of the most prevalent human cancers. Reoccurrence of cSCC in high-risk patients is prevented by oral retinoids. But oral retinoid treatment causes significant side effects; and patients develop retinoid resistance. Exactly how retinoids prevent UVB-induced cSCC is currently not well understood. Retinoid resistance blocks mechanistic studies in the leading mouse model of cSCC, the UVB-exposed SKH-1 hairless mouse. To begin to understand the role of retinoids in UVB-induced cSCC we first examined the localization pattern of key retinoid metabolism proteins by immunohistochemistry 48 h after UVB treatment of female SKH-1 mice. We next inhibited retinoic acid (RA) synthesis immediately after UVB exposure. Acute UVB increased RA synthesis, signaling and degradation proteins in the stratum granulosum. Some of these proteins changed their localization; while other proteins just increased in intensity. In contrast, acute UVB reduced the retinoid storage protein lectin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) in the epidermis. Inhibiting RA synthesis disrupted the epidermis and impaired differentiation. These data suggest that repair of the epidermis after acute UVB exposure requires endogenous RA synthesis. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Effect of sebum and ointment rubbing on the skin permeation of triamcinolone acetonide from white petrolatum ointment.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Effect of sebum and ointment rubbing was evaluated on the permeation of a model steroidal drug, triamcinolone acetonide (TA), from white petrolatum ointment through excised hairless rat skin. Two kinds of white petrolatum ointment containing TA at a concentration of 1.0% were made using a "pre-applied ointment," which was made by applying and recovering white petrolatum on and from the rat skin, respectively, and the "original ointment." Solubility and skin permeation of TA in and from both the ointments were measured and compared. TA solubility in the pre-applied ointment was about twice to that of the original ointment. Full-thickness skin and stripped skin permeabilities of TA from pre-applied ointment were about 2.3- and 1.5-times higher than those from the original ointment. In addition, the calculated partition coefficient of TA from pre-applied ointment to full-thickness skin was 2.7-times that of the original ointment. Next, the ointment-rubbing effect was determined. Skin permeation of TA from 1.0% TA original ointment with a 30 s-rubbing was 9-times higher than that after drug-free ointment-rubbing and application of 1.0% TA original ointment. The increase in solubility and skin permeation of TA due to pre-applied ointment is probably due to dissolution of TA by skin lipids extracted from the skin surface. Ointment rubbing increases the transient decrease in skin impedance and enhanced delivery of ointment base to the skin. These results are useful for development of ointment formulations and skin penetration mechanisms from an ointment base.

  16. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - ... You Need To Know About Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers: How To Check Your Skin. (NIH Publication No. ...

  17. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  18. The effect of topically applied salicylic compounds on serotonin-induced scratching behaviour in hairless rats.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J S; Simonsen, L; Benfeldt, E; Jensen, S B; Serup, J

    2002-08-01

    There is a strong need for antipruritic substances for treating itch in clinical dermatology. In one recent human study, topically applied acetylsalicylic acid has been described to rapidly decrease histamine-induced itch. We have established a model for periferally elicited pruritus by injecting serotonin into the rostral back area (neck) in rats. Using this model, we aimed to investigate the antipruritic potential of four different salicylic compounds, which all possess different skin penetration characteristics. Eighteen rats were studied for 6 weeks. Prior to serotonin injections (2 mg/ml, 50 micro l), 10 micro l of test substances was applied to a circular area 18 mm in diameter. The four substances were salicylic acid, butyl salicylate, diethylamine salicylate and salicylamide, all solubilized in dimethyl isosorbide to a concentration of 5% w/w. Diethylamine salicylate and salicylamide were previously shown to be slowly absorbed through rat skin in contrast to salicylic acid and butyl salicylate. After serotonin injections, scratching was monitored by video recording for 1.5 h. Compared with the vehicle, a lower number of scratch sequences were seen when diethylamine salicylate (P < 0.001) and salicylamide (P = 0.005) had been applied. The numbers of scratch sequences were lower with diethylamine salicylate and salicylamide than with the vehicle throughout the 1.5-h study period. We conclude that topical application of diethylamine salicylate and salicylamide could suppress serotonin-induced scratching in rats. The antipruritic effect seems to be related to the slow drug release of the two substances. The results may be clinically relevant as serotonin induces itch in humans.

  19. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide blocks ultraviolet B-induced photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiuwei; Kim, Arianna L; Kopelovich, Levy; Bickers, David R; Athar, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition can inhibit UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the skin. We have shown that COX-2 is overexpressed in UVB-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, blocks UVB-induced papillomas and carcinomas in murine skin. However, as COX-2 inhibitors of this type are associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, we decided to study nimesulide, a different class of COX-2 inhibitor, an N-arylmethanesulfonamide derivative not known to have these untoward effects. To assess the antitumor-promoting effects of nimesulide, 90 mice were equally divided into three groups. Group I animals received no test agent or UVB and served as age-matched controls; group II animals were irradiated with UVB (180 mJ cm(-2), twice weekly for 35 weeks) and group III animals received 300 p.p.m. nimesulide in drinking water and were irradiated with UVB as described for group-II. Nimesulide treatment reduced the growth of UVB-induced tumors both in terms of tumor number and tumor volume. By weeks 25, 30 and 35, the tumor numbers in the nimesulide-treated group were 79%, 49% and 53% less than the number occurring in UVB-treated animals whereas tumor volume was reduced 69%, 54% and 53%, respectively, compared to the UVB-irradiated control group. Nimesulide also inhibited the malignant progression of SCCs. The reduction in tumorigenesis was paralleled by a decrease in cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclins A, B1, D1, E, CDK2/4/6) and the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2); concomitantly there was an increase in proapoptotic markers, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. Nimesulide also decreased ornithine decarboxylase expression and the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B transcriptionally active protein complexes. These results show that alternative classes of COX-2 inhibitors may likely be efficacious as cancer chemopreventive agents and may have an improved therapeutic index.

  20. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  1. Effect of Enhancers on in vitro and in vivo Skin Permeation and Deposition of S-Methyl-L-Methionine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Taek; Kim, Ji Su; Kim, Min-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Lee, WooIn; Min, Kyung Kuk; Song, Min Gyu; Choi, Choon-Young; Kim, Won-Serk; Oh, Hee Kyung; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2017-03-10

    S-methyl-L-methionine (SMM), also known as vitamin U, is commercially available as skin care cosmetic products for its wound healing and photoprotective effects. However, the low skin permeation expected of SMM due to its hydrophilic nature with a log P value of -3.3, has not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of this study thus was to evaluate the effect of skin permeation enhancers on the skin permeation/deposition of SMM. Among the enhancers tested for the in vitro skin permeation and deposition of SMM, oleic acid showed the most significant enhancing effect. Moreover, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol further enhanced in vitro permeation and deposition of SMM through hairless mouse skin. Furthermore, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol significantly increased the in vivo deposition of SMM in the epidermis/dermis for 12 hr, which was high enough to exert a therapeutic effect. Therefore, based on the in vitro and in vivo studies, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol was shown to be effective in improving the topical skin delivery of SMM, which may be applied in the cosmetic production process for SMM.

  2. Effect of Enhancers on in vitro and in vivo Skin Permeation and Deposition of S-Methyl-l-Methionine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Taek; Kim, Ji Su; Kim, Min-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Young; Lee, WooIn; Min, Kyung Kuk; Song, Min Gyu; Choi, Choon-Young; Kim, Won-Serk; Oh, Hee Kyung; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2017-01-01

    S-methyl-l-methionine (SMM), also known as vitamin U, is commercially available as skin care cosmetic products for its wound healing and photoprotective effects. However, the low skin permeation expected of SMM due to its hydrophilic nature with a log P value of −3.3, has not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of this study thus was to evaluate the effect of skin permeation enhancers on the skin permeation/deposition of SMM. Among the enhancers tested for the in vitro skin permeation and deposition of SMM, oleic acid showed the most significant enhancing effect. Moreover, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol further enhanced in vitro permeation and deposition of SMM through hairless mouse skin. Furthermore, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol significantly increased the in vivo deposition of SMM in the epidermis/dermis for 12 hr, which was high enough to exert a therapeutic effect. Therefore, based on the in vitro and in vivo studies, the combination of oleic acid and ethanol was shown to be effective in improving the topical skin delivery of SMM, which may be applied in the cosmetic production process for SMM. PMID:28274096

  3. Chronic liver injury in mice promotes impairment of skin barrier function via tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is frequently used to induce chronic liver injury in laboratory animals. Alcohol causes oxidative stress in the liver and increases the expression of inflammatory mediators that cause hepatocellular damage. However, during chronic liver injury, it is unclear if/how these liver-derived factors affect distal tissues, such as the skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skin barrier function during chronic liver injury. Hairless mice were administered 5% or 10% ethanol for 8 weeks, and damages to the liver and skin were assessed using histological and protein-analysis methods, as well as by detecting inflammatory mediators in the plasma. After alcohol administration, the plasma concentration of the aspartate and alanine aminotransferases increased, while albumin levels decreased. In mice with alcohol-induced liver injury, transepidermal water loss was significantly increased, and skin hydration decreased concurrent with ceramide and type I collagen degradation. The plasma concentrations of [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in mice with induced liver injury. TNF receptor (TNFR) 2 expression was upregulated in the skin of alcohol-administered mice, while TNFR1 levels remained constant. Interestingly, the impairment of skin barrier function in mice administered with 10% ethanol was ameliorated by administering an anti-TNF-α antibody. We propose a novel mechanism whereby plasma TNF-α, via TNFR2 alone or with TNFR1, plays an important role in skin barrier function during chronic liver disease in these mouse models.

  4. Double-skin paddled superficial temporofascial flap for the reconstruction of full-thickness cheek defect.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Hidir; Geyik, Yilmaz; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    The most common causes of cheek defects include trauma, burn, and tumor resections. In the reconstruction of the defects in this region, it is essential to use similar or adjacent tissue considering the aesthetic and functional properties. For this purpose, numerous local, regional, or distant free flaps were described. The local flaps harvested from the head and neck region are the most frequent methods because of the similar skin color, texture, and compatibility with cheek.In this study, the reconstruction in a 29-year-old male patient who had a full-thickness cheek defect due to tumor resection on the left side was performed, wherein a hairless skin island was carried through the frontal branch of superficial temporal artery for oral mucosa, and a hairy skin island through the parietal branch of the same pedicle was carried for the bearded skin defect. No complication occurred postoperatively and both aesthetic and functional satisfactory results were obtained, providing the oral mucosal and natural beard integrity. Donor-site scarring and temporal alopecia were recorded as the disadvantages of this method.This technique is a useful method for the reconstruction of full-thickness cheek defects because of its advantages including compatibility of color and texture, reliable blood supply, requiring single-session procedure, and being able to carry 2 different skin islands on the same pedicle.

  5. Molecular charge mediated transport of a 13 kD protein across microporated skin.

    PubMed

    Katikaneni, Sahitya; Badkar, Advait; Nema, Sandeep; Banga, Ajay K

    2009-08-13

    Transport of proteins across the skin is highly limited owing to their hydrophilic nature and large molecular size. This study was conducted to assess the skin transport abilities of a model protein across hairless rat skin during iontophoresis alone and in combination with microneedles as a function of molecular charge. The effect of microneedle pretreatment on electroosmotic flow was also investigated. Skin permeation experiments were carried out in vitro using daniplestim (DP) (MW, 12.76 kD; isoelectric point, 6.2) as a model protein molecule. The effect of molecular charge on protein transport was evaluated by performing studies in two different buffers--TRIS (pH 7.5) and acetate (pH 4.0). Iontophoretic transport mechanisms of DP varied with respect to molecular charge on the protein. The combination approach (iontophoresis and microneedles) gave much higher flux values compared to iontophoresis alone at both pH 4.0 and pH 7.5, however, the delivery in this case was also found to be charge dependent. The findings of this study indicate that electroosmosis persisted upon microporation, thus retaining skin's permselective properties. This enables us to explore the combination of microneedles and iontophoresis as a potential approach for delivery of proteins.

  6. Gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric studies on glycerin-induced skin hydration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ae-Ri Cho; Moon, Hee Kyung

    2007-11-01

    A thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were carried out to characterize the water property and an alteration of lipid phase transition of stratum corneum (SC) by glycerin. In addition, the relationship between steady state skin permeation rate and skin hydration in various concentrations of glycerin was investigated. Water vapor absorption-desorption was studied in the hairless mouse stratum corneum. Dry SC samples were exposed to different conc. of glycerin (0-50%) followed by exposure to dry air and the change in weight property was monitored over time by use of TGA. In DSC study, significant decrease in DeltaH of the lipid transition in 10% glycerin and water treated sample: the heat of lipid transition of normal, water, 10% glycerin treated SC were 6.058, 4.412 and 4.316 mJ/mg, respectively. In 10% glycerin treated SCs, the Tc of water shifts around 129 degrees C, corresponding to the weakly bound secondary water. In 40% glycerin treated SC, the Tc of water shifts to 144 degrees C corresponding to strongly bound primary water. There was a good correlation between the hydration property of the skin and the steady state skin flux with the correlation coefficient (r2=0.94). As the hydration increased, the steady state flux increased. As glycerin concentration increased, hydration property decreased. High diffusivity induced by the hydration effect of glycerin and water could be the major contributing factor for the enhanced skin permeation of nicotinic acid (NA).

  7. Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981)--preclinical pharmacologic profile and skin selectivity.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, A; Grassberger, M; Meingassner, J G

    2001-12-01

    The ascomycin macrolactam derivative pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981; Novartis Pharma AG, Basel Switzerland) is a cell-selective inhibitor of inflammatory cytokines specifically developed for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and plaque-type psoriasis. It inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines in T cells and mast cells and prevents the release of preformed inflammatory mediators from mast cells. Topically administered pimecrolimus is as effective as the high-potency corticosteroid clobetasol-17-propionate in a pig model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Unlike clobetasol, however, it does not cause skin atrophy. Given orally, pimecrolimus is as potent or superior to tacrolimus (FK 506) in treating ACD in mice and rats. Pimecrolimus also effectively reduces skin inflammation and pruritus in hypomagnesemic hairless rats, a model that mimics acute signs of atopic dermatitis. Pimecrolimus shows only a low potential to impair systemic immune responses when compared with tacrolimus as shown in rats in (1) the localized graft-versus-host reaction, (2) the antibody formation to sheep red blood cells, and (3) kidney transplantation. Pimecrolimus permeates through pig skin in vitro at a 10-times lower rate than tacrolimus, indicating a lower potential for percutaneous absorption in vivo. The data suggest that pimecrolimus combines high anti-inflammatory activity in the skin with a low potential to impair systemic immune reactions.

  8. Effects of erythropoietin in skin wound healing are dose related.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Heiko; Krueger, Christian; Schulz, Torsten; Menger, Michael D; Schmitz, Frank; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2009-09-01

    The hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) attracts attention due to its all-tissue-protective pleiotropic properties. We studied the effect of EPO on dermal regeneration using intravital microscopy in a model of full dermal thickness wounds in the skin-fold chamber of hairless mice. Animals received repetitive low doses or high doses of EPO (RLD-EPO or RHD-EPO) or a single high dose of EPO (SHD-EPO). SHD-EPO accelerated wound epithelialization, reduced wound cellularity, and induced maturation of newly formed microvascular networks. In contrast, RHD-EPO impaired the healing process, as indicated by delayed epithelialization, high wound cellularity, and lack of maturation of microvascular networks. Also, RHD-EPO caused an excessive erythrocyte mass and rheological malfunction, further deteriorating vessel and tissue maturation. Moreover, RHD-EPO altered fibroblast and keratinocyte migration in vitro, while both cell types exposed to RLD-EPO, and, in particular, to SHD-EPO showed accelerated wound scratch closure. In summary, our data show that a single application of a high dose of EPO accelerates and improves skin wound healing.

  9. Bifidobacterium fermented milk and galacto-oligosaccharides lead to improved skin health by decreasing phenols production by gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, K; Masuoka, N; Kano, M; Iizuka, R

    2014-06-01

    A questionnaire survey found that women suffering from abnormal bowel movements have many skin problems such as a high frequency of dry skin. Although there are similarities between the structure and barrier function mechanism of the gut and skin, experimental data are insufficient to show an association between the intestinal environment and skin conditions. Phenols, for example phenol and p-cresol, as metabolites of aromatic amino acids produced by gut bacteria, are regarded as bioactive toxins and serum biomarkers of a disturbed gut environment. Recent studies have demonstrated that phenols disturb the differentiation of monolayer-cultured keratinocytes in vitro, and that phenols produced by gut bacteria accumulate in the skin via the circulation and disrupt keratinocyte differentiation in hairless mice. Human studies have demonstrated that restriction of probiotics elevated serum free p-cresol levels and harmed skin conditions (reduced skin hydration, disrupted keratinisation). In contrast, daily intake of the prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) restored serum free p-cresol levels and skin conditions in adult women. Moreover, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that the daily intake of fermented milk containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and prebiotic GOS reduced serum total phenol levels and prevented skin dryness and disruption of keratinisation in healthy adult women. It is concluded that phenols produced by gut bacteria are one of the causes of skin problems. Probiotics and/or prebiotics, such as B. breve strain Yakult and/or GOS, are expected to help maintain a healthy skin by decreasing phenols production by gut microbiota. These findings support the hypothesis that probiotics and prebiotics provide health benefits to the skin as well as the gut.

  10. Dual role of SIRT1 in UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, M; Soltani, K; Shea, C R; Li, X; He, Y Y

    2015-01-15

    The protein deacetylase SIRT1 regulates various pathways in metabolism, aging and cancer. However, the role of SIRT1 in skin cancer remains unclear. Here, using mice with targeted deletions of SIRT1 in their epidermis in both resistant B6 and sensitive SKH1 hairless backgrounds, we show that the role of SIRT1 in skin cancer development induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is dependent on its gene dose. Keratinocyte-specific heterozygous deletion of SIRT1 promotes UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis, whereas homozygous deletion of SIRT1 suppresses skin tumor development but sensitizes the B6 mice to chronic solar injury. In mouse skin, SIRT1 is haploinsufficient for UVB-induced DNA damage repair and expression of xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC), a protein critical for repairing UVB-induced DNA damage. As compared with normal human skin, downregulation of SIRT1 is in parallel with downregulation of XPC in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at both the protein and mRNA levels. In contrast, homozygous SIRT1 deletion in mouse skin augments p53 acetylation and expression of its transcriptional target Noxa, and sensitizes the epidermis to UVB-induced apoptosis in vivo, while heterozygous SIRT1 deletion has no such effect. The gene dosage-dependent function of SIRT1 in DNA repair and cell survival is consistent with the dual roles of SIRT1 in UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis. Our results reveal the gene dosage-dependent in vivo functions of SIRT1 in skin tumorigenesis and may shed light on the role of SIRT1 in epithelial cancer induced by DNA damage.

  11. Protective effects of adipose-derived stem cells against UVB-induced skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Kim, Deok-Woo; Kim, Min-Sook; Park, Seung-Ha; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Lee, Byung-Il; Hwang, Na-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Hyperpigmentation, mainly following UV-irradiation, can cause major cosmetic concerns. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been reported to serve as whitening agents through a paracrine effect. However, there have been few reports on the direct effects of ASCs on skin pigmentation following UVB-irradiation. To evaluate the effect of ASCs on UVB-irradiated mouse skin, UVB-irradiation alone was applied to one side of the backs of mice (melanin-processing hairless mouse, HRM-2) as a control, and UVB-irradiation plus injection of ASCs was applied to the contralateral side. Skin pigmentation and histology were evaluated and the number of DOPA-positive melanocytes in the mouse skin was counted. The absolute value of ΔL* via a colorimeter was measured to evaluate the degree of skin pigmentation. The effects of ASCs on the melanogenic activities of mouse skin were examined by measuring the tyrosinase activity and the melanin contents in the epidermis of the mouse skin. Skin pigmentation was suppressed in the ASC-injected side. Moreover, the change in skin thickness following UVB irradiation was reduced in the ASC-injected side. The number of DOPA-positive melanocytes in the ASC-injected side (139 ± 18 cells/mm(2)) was significantly lower than that in the control side (239 ± 48 cells/mm(2)). The tyrosinase activity (67.4 ± 9.8% of that of the control side) and melanin content (63.4 ± 5.7% of that of the control side) of the ASC-injected side were also significantly reduced. Collectively, these results suggest that ASCs injected subcutaneously into the backs of mice can attenuate tanning following UVB-irradiation, through suppression of tyrosinase activity.

  12. Effect of orally ingested diosgenin into diet on skin collagen content in a low collagen skin mouse model and its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Haratake, Akinori; Watase, Daisuke; Setoguchi, Shuichi; Nagata-Akaho, Nami; Matsunaga, Kazuhisa; Takata, Jiro

    2017-04-01

    Influence on collagen content with oral ingestion of diosgenin (Dios) was investigated in established low collagen skin mouse model. And its mechanism of action was investigated using primary cultured fibroblasts. Hairless mice were fed a low protein diet with Dios for 8weeks and the contents of collagen in skin were determined by measuring the content of hydroxyproline (Hyp). In primary cultured fibroblasts, the numbers of fibroblast were determined by incubating with Dios for 120h; the contents of Hyp were determined by incubating with Dios for 24 or 72h using fibroblasts of confluent state; the expressions of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) were determined by incubating with Dios for 24h. Oral ingestion of Dios in the diet for 8weeks led to a dose-dependent increase in the Hyp content as collagen content of skin. In proliferating of primary cultured fibroblasts, Dios treatment led to a decrease of adenosine 5'-triphosphate content indicating decrease of the cell number. In the cells reached to confluent, although increase of Hyp content in the control indicating progress of fibroblasts differentiation were observed, the content of Hyp remained unchanged with Dios treatment. Finally, addition of Dios led to a decrease the α-tubulin and c-fos mRNA expressions relating to the cell cycle. It is concluded that Dios can improve skin collagen content by shifting the dynamics of the fibroblasts from proliferation to differentiation via cell cycle arrest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Throughput Screening of Potential Skin Penetration-Enhancers Using Stratum Corneum Lipid Liposomes: Preliminary Evaluation for Different Concentrations of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Kitao, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a technique for high-throughput screening (HTS) of skin penetration-enhancers using stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs). A fluorescent marker, sodium fluorescein (FL), entrapped in SCLLs was prepared to provide a preliminary evaluation of the effect of different concentrations of ethanol on the disruption effect of SCLLs, which is an alternative for skin penetration-enhancing effects. In addition, SCLLs containing a fluorescent probe (DPH, TMA-DPH, or ANS) were also prepared and utilized to investigate SCLL fluidity. The results using SCLL-based techniques were compared with conventional skin permeation and skin impedance test using hairless rat skin. The obtained correlations were validated between FL leakage, SCLL fluidity with various probes, or skin impedance and increases in the skin permeation enhancement ratio (ER) of caffeine as a model penetrant. As a result, FL leakage and SCLL fluidity using ANS were considered to be good indices for the skin penetration-enhancing effect, suggesting that the action of ethanol on the SC lipid and penetration-enhancing is mainly on the polar head group of intercellular lipids. In addition, this screening method using SCLL could be utilized as an alternative HTS technique for conventional animal tests. Simultaneously, the method was found to be time-saving and sensitive compared with a direct assay using human and animal skins. PMID:28321359

  14. Management of skin-related adverse events during locomotor training with robotic-assisted body weight supported treadmill: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Carolyn P; Childress, Jason; Noser, Elizabeth A

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe attempts to prevent skin-related adverse events from occurring and protect the skin once breakdown occurred in a person with chronic stroke during locomotor training. There is scant literature in how to address skin during locomotor training with the Lokomat(®), particularly when a patient presents with sensory deficits and frail skin. The patient was a 75-year-old male survivor of stroke who participated in the Lokomat(®) group of a randomized clinical pilot study comparing locomotor training with the Lokomat(®) and conventional means. He had diminished sensation to light touch and proprioception on his left leg with skin on both lower legs presenting as thin, flaky, and virtually hairless. Although much effort was put towards prevention of skin breakdown, he developed numerous skin-related adverse events during his training. However, his skin healed completely with reduced training intensity and initiation of "pre-wrapping" his lower legs with Akton(®) viscoelastic polymer sheets and elastic bandages. Significant improvements were noted in his Functional Improvement Measure(™) locomotion score and Stroke Impact Scale domains of strength, participation/role function, and total recovery, though not in his 10-m walk test velocity or 6-min walk test. The Akton(®) sheets and team approach between study team, patient, and his wife allowed simultaneous safe continuation of locomotor training with the Lokomat(®) and healing of his skin breakdown.

  15. Topical AC-11 abates actinic keratoses and early squamous cell cancers in hairless mice exposed to Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation.

    PubMed

    Mentor, Julian M; Etemadi, Amir; Patta, Abrienne M; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2015-04-16

    AC-11 is an aqueous extract of the botanical, Uncaria tomentosa, which has a variety of effects that enhance DNA repair and down regulate inflammation. AC-11 is essentially free of oxindole alkaloids (< 0.05%, w/w) but contains more than 8% carboxy alkyl esters (CAEs) as their active ingredients. Three groups of 10 outbred SK-1 hairless or SK-II hairless strains of mice each were treated with AC-11 at 0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.0% in a non-irritating, dye-free, perfume-free, and fragrance-free vanishing cream vehicle. Ten mice used vehicle only and 10 were untreated. Each concentration of AC-11 and was applied daily to the backs of the mice prior to exposure to a 1,600-watt solar simulator used in this work (Solar Light Co. Philadelphia, PA) emitting (mainly Ultraviolet A (UVA) and B (UVB) radiation) duration of the experimental period with UVB wavelengths was filtered out with a 1.0 cm Schott WG 345 filter. AC-11 with a peak absorption at 200nm does act as a sun block. We tested for and focused on clinical appearance of mice and histological appearance of tumors in mice rather than metrics of radiation generated inflammation. Tumor progression scores were assigned as follows: 4+ = extensive tumor development; 3+ = early malignancies (raised palpable plaques)(early squamous cell cancers) 2+ = firm scaling, palpable keratosis (actinic keratoses); 1+ = light scaling with erythema. Following a total cumulative dose of 738 J/cm2, 85.7% all of the irradiated control animals, which did not receive AC-11 had precancerous actinic keratosis (AK)-type lesions (2+) (64.3% versus 42.9%) or early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3+) (21.4% vs. 4.8%), in comparison with 47.7 % of AC-11-treated animals. There were no significant differences between the AC-11 groups. Three months after cessation of exposure to UVA radiation, the lesions in all but three of the 14 animals which were treated with AC-11 that were still evaluable irradiated with UVA radiation progressed to papillomas and

  16. Seroprevalence and parasite load of Toxoplasma gondii in Mexican hairless pig (Sus scrofa) tissues from the Southeast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dzib-Paredes, G F; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Hernández-Cortázar, I B; Guzman-Marín, E; Jiménez-Coello, M

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and determine the parasite load of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in the heart and tongue tissues and the semimembranosus/gracilis muscles in a population of Mexican hairless pig (MHP). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 MHP, 9-12 weeks of age, from 10 municipalities in Yucatan, Mexico. The prevalence was estimated by the detection of T. gondii IgG antibodies via an indirect ELISA assay. The parasite burden was also determined by testing genomic DNA from sampled tissues using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), which amplified a 62bp product from the B1 gene of T. gondii. The seroprevalence was 53% (43/81), ranging from 0 to 100% seropositivity rate depending on the municipalitie of origin. The qPCR allowed detection of T. gondii in 5.3% (9/168) of the tissue samples, with an average of 2.5±2.71 parasites per gram (0.17±0.18 parasite equivalent) for the leg muscle tissue, 0.26±0.39 (0.01±0.02 parasite equivalent) for the heart tissue and 0.31±0.37 (0.021±0.025 parasite equivalent) for the tongue tissue. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the proportion and parasite burden among the different types of tissues evaluated. As shown by the ELISA, a high seroprevalence of T. gondii exists in MHP from the Yucatán Peninsula. The parasite burden found in the tissues showed similar tropism; therefore, the consumption of these tissues involves the same risk of acquiring infection if not properly cooked.

  17. Analysis of hairless corepressor mutants to characterize molecular cooperation with the vitamin D receptor in promoting the mammalian hair cycle.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jui-Cheng; Slater, Stephanie A; Whitfield, G Kerr; Dawson, Jamie L; Hsieh, Grace; Sheedy, Craig; Haussler, Carol A; Haussler, Mark R

    2010-06-01

    The mammalian hair cycle requires both the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the hairless (Hr) corepressor, each of which is expressed in the hair follicle. Hr interacts directly with VDR to repress VDR-targeted transcription. Herein, we further map the VDR-interaction domain to regions in the C-terminal half of Hr that contain two LXXLL-like pairs of motifs known to mediate contact of Hr with the RAR-related orphan receptor alpha and with the thyroid hormone receptor, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis indicates that all four hydrophobic motifs are required for VDR transrepression by Hr. Point mutation of rat Hr at conserved residues corresponding to natural mutants causing alopecia in mice (G985W and a C-terminal deletion DeltaAK) and in humans (P95S, C422Y, E611G, R640Q, C642G, N988S, D1030N, A1040T, V1074M, and V1154D), as well as alteration of residues in the C-terminal Jumonji C domain implicated in histone demethylation activity (C1025G/E1027G and H1143G) revealed that all Hr mutants retained VDR association, and that transrepressor activity was selectively abrogated in C642G, G985W, N988S, D1030N, V1074M, H1143G, and V1154D. Four of these latter Hr mutants (C642G, N988S, D1030N, and V1154D) were found to associate normally with histone deacetylase-3. Finally, we identified three regions of human VDR necessary for association with Hr, namely residues 109-111, 134-201, and 202-303. It is concluded that Hr and VDR interact via multiple protein-protein interfaces, with Hr recruiting histone deacetylases and possibly itself catalyzing histone demethylation to effect chromatin remodeling and repress the transcription of VDR target genes that control the hair cycle. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Characterization of hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes provides insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhengfei; Xu, Shixia; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2013-02-09

    Hair is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of mammals and it has many important biological functions. Cetaceans originated from terrestrial mammals and they have evolved a series of adaptations to aquatic environments, which are of evolutionary significance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their aquatic adaptations have not been well explored. This study provided insights into the evolution of hair loss during the transition from land to water by investigating and comparing two essential regulators of hair follicle development and hair follicle cycling, i.e., the Hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes, in representative cetaceans and their terrestrial relatives. The full open reading frame sequences of the Hr and FGF5 genes were characterized in seven cetaceans. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary analyses suggested the functional loss of the Hr gene in cetaceans, which supports the loss of hair during their full adaptation to aquatic habitats. By contrast, positive selection for the FGF5 gene was found in cetaceans where a series of positively selected amino acid residues were identified. This is the first study to investigate the molecular basis of the hair loss in cetaceans. Our investigation of Hr and FGF5, two indispensable regulators of the hair cycle, provide some new insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans. The results suggest that positive selection for the FGF5 gene might have promoted the termination of hair growth and early entry into the catagen stage of hair follicle cycling. Consequently, the hair follicle cycle was disrupted and the hair was lost completely due to the loss of the Hr gene function in cetaceans. This suggests that cetaceans have evolved an effective and complex mechanism for hair loss.

  19. Analysis of Hairless Corepressor Mutants to Characterize Molecular Cooperation with the Vitamin D Receptor in Promoting the Mammalian Hair Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jui-Cheng; Slater, Stephanie A.; Whitfield, G. Kerr; Dawson, Jamie L.; Hsieh, Grace; Sheedy, Craig; Haussler, Carol A.; Haussler, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian hair cycle requires both the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the hairless (Hr) corepressor, each of which is expressed in the hair follicle. Hr interacts directly with VDR to repress VDR-targeted transcription. Herein, we further map the VDR-interaction domain to regions in the C-terminal half of Hr that contain two LXXLL-like pairs of motifs known to mediate contact of Hr with the RAR-related orphan receptor alpha and with the thyroid hormone receptor, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis indicates that all four hydrophobic motifs are required for VDR transrepression by Hr. Point mutation of rat Hr at conserved residues corresponding to natural mutants causing alopecia in mice (G985W and a C-terminal deletion ΔAK) and in humans (P95S, C422Y, E611G, R640Q, C642G, N988S, D1030N, A1040T, V1074M and V1154D), as well as alteration of residues in the C-terminal Jumonji C domain implicated in histone demethylation activity (C1025G/E1027G and H1143G) revealed that all Hr mutants retained VDR association, and that transrepressor activity was selectively abrogated in C642G, G985W, N988S, D1030N, V1074M, H1143G and V1154D. Four of these latter Hr mutants (C642G, N988S, D1030N and V1154D) were found to associate normally with histone deacetylase-3. Finally, we identified three regions of human VDR necessary for association with Hr, namely residues 109–111, 134–201, and 202–303. It is concluded that Hr and VDR interact via multiple protein-protein interfaces, with Hr recruiting histone deacetylases and possibly itself catalyzing histone demethylation to effect chromatin remodeling and repress the transcription of VDR target genes that control the hair cycle. PMID:20512927

  20. Characterization of hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes provides insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hair is one of the main distinguishing characteristics of mammals and it has many important biological functions. Cetaceans originated from terrestrial mammals and they have evolved a series of adaptations to aquatic environments, which are of evolutionary significance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their aquatic adaptations have not been well explored. This study provided insights into the evolution of hair loss during the transition from land to water by investigating and comparing two essential regulators of hair follicle development and hair follicle cycling, i.e., the Hairless (Hr) and FGF5 genes, in representative cetaceans and their terrestrial relatives. Results The full open reading frame sequences of the Hr and FGF5 genes were characterized in seven cetaceans. The sequence characteristics and evolutionary analyses suggested the functional loss of the Hr gene in cetaceans, which supports the loss of hair during their full adaptation to aquatic habitats. By contrast, positive selection for the FGF5 gene was found in cetaceans where a series of positively selected amino acid residues were identified. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the molecular basis of the hair loss in cetaceans. Our investigation of Hr and FGF5, two indispensable regulators of the hair cycle, provide some new insights into the molecular basis of hair loss in cetaceans. The results suggest that positive selection for the FGF5 gene might have promoted the termination of hair growth and early entry into the catagen stage of hair follicle cycling. Consequently, the hair follicle cycle was disrupted and the hair was lost completely due to the loss of the Hr gene function in cetaceans. This suggests that cetaceans have evolved an effective and complex mechanism for hair loss. PMID:23394579

  1. Recent Southeast Asian domestication and Lapita dispersal of sacred male pseudohermaphroditic “tuskers” and hairless pigs of Vanuatu

    PubMed Central

    Lum, J. Koji; McIntyre, James K.; Greger, Douglas L.; Huffman, Kirk W.; Vilar, Miguel G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses of global pig populations revealed strict correlations between mtDNA phylogenies and geographic locations. An exception was the monophyletic “Pacific clade” (PC) of pigs not previously linked to any specific location. We examined mtDNA sequences of two varieties of Vanuatu sacred pigs, the male pseudohermaphroditic Narave from the island of Malo (n = 9) and the hairless Kapia from the island of Tanna (n = 9), as well as control pigs (n = 21) from the islands of Malo, Tanna, and Epi and compared them with GenBank sequences to determine (i) the distribution of PC and introduced domestic lineages within Vanuatu, (ii) relationship between the Narave and Kapia, and (iii) origin of the PC. All of the Narave share two PC mtDNA sequences, one of which matches the sequence of a Narave collected in 1927, consistent with an unbroken maternal descent of these intersex pigs from the original pigs brought to Vanuatu 3,200 years ago. One-third of the Kapia share a single PC lineage also found in the Narave. The remaining Kapia lineages are associated with recently introduced, globally distributed domestic breeds. The predominant Narave lineage is also shared with two wild boars from Vietnam. These data suggest that PC pigs were recently domesticated within Southeast Asia and dispersed during the human colonization of Remote Oceania associated with the Lapita cultural complex. More extensive sampling of Southeast Asian wild boar diversity may refine the location of Pacific pig domestication and potentially the proximate homeland of the Lapita cultural complex. PMID:17088556

  2. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  3. Skin Keratins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. UV decreases the synthesis of free fatty acids and triglycerides in the epidermis of human skin in vivo, contributing to development of skin photoaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ju; Jin, Xing-Ji; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Oh, In Kyung; Kim, Ji Eun; Park, Chi-Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2010-01-01

    Although fatty acids are known to be important in various skin functions, their roles on photoaging in human skin are poorly understood. We investigated the alteration of lipid metabolism in the epidermis by photoaging and acute UV irradiation in human skin. UV irradiated young volunteers (21-33 years, n=6) and elderly volunteers (70-75 years, n=7) skin samples were obtained by punch biopsy. Then the epidermis was separated from dermis and lipid metabolism was investigated. We observed that the amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) in the epidermis of photoaged or acutely UV irradiated human skin were significantly decreased. The expressions of genes related to lipid synthesis, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARgamma) were also markedly decreased. To elucidate the significance of these changes of epidermal lipids in human skin, we investigated the effects of TG or various inhibitors for the enzymes involved in TG synthesis on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. We demonstrated that triolein (TG) reduced basal and UV-induced MMP-1 mRNA expression. In addition, each inhibitor for various lipid synthesis enzymes, such as TOFA (ACC inhibitor), cerulenin (FAS inhibitor) and trans-10, cis-12-CLA (SCD inhibitor), increased the MMP-1 expression significantly in a dose-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that triolein could inhibit cerulenin-induced MMP-1 expression. Furthermore, topical application of triolein (10%) significantly prevented UV-induced MMP-13, COX-2, and IL-1beta expression in hairless mice. Our results suggest that TG and FFA may play important roles in photoaging of human skin. Copyright 2009 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Skin Condition Finder

    MedlinePlus

    SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS SKIN CONDITIONS HOME SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? Looking for self-care patient ...

  6. Evaluation of skin damage caused by percutaneous absorption enhancers using fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Obata, Y; Sesumi, T; Takayama, K; Isowa, K; Grosh, S; Wick, S; Sitz, R; Nagai, T

    2000-04-01

    Fractal analysis of the cross-sectional morphology of rat skin was conducted to evaluate pathologic changes evoked by percutaneous absorption enhancers. Male hairless rats (WBN/Ht-ILA), 8 weeks old, weighing 160 to 180 g were used. Under anesthetization, glass cells (10-mm inner diameter) were attached to the rats' abdomens, and test solutions containing various mixtures of the percutaneous absorption enhancers, sodium lauryl sulfate, isopropanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and sodium myristate were applied. Six hours after application, the solutions were removed and the abdominal skin was excised. Skin cross sections were analyzed with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Image data taken by the CCD camera were fed into a desktop digital computer; then the fractal dimension of each skin cross section was determined on the basis of the box-counting algorithm. A pathologic study was also performed on the skin treated with the test solution. All sections of skin were examined with an optical photo microscope. Pathologic findings were classified into five levels. The total irritation score (TIS) was defined as the summation of damage levels in all regions. Only with the administration of hydrogel containing 2-methyl-1-butanol or sodium lauryl sulfate were positive values of TIS observed. However, the TIS values were independent of the concentration of these components. The most severe skin damage was evoked by application of sodium lauryl sulfate. Noticeable skin damage was also seen with 2-methyl-1-butanol. No irritation to the skin resulted from treatment with isopropanol or sodium myristate. When test solution containing sodium lauryl sulfate was applied to the skin, a remarkable increment in fractal dimensions was noted. This may suggest that the structure of the skin was greatly compromised as a result of sodium lauryl sulfate application. Although no change in fractal dimension was observed as a result of application of the test solution containing only 25

  7. Oral chemoprevention of skin cancer in mice by benzophenone sunscreens dioxybenzone and octabenzone in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Subba; Tokuda, Harukuni; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Takasaki, Midori; Iida, Akira; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Konoshima, Takao; Kapadia, Govind J

    2013-06-01

    Sunscreen compounds with added benefit of skin cancer prevention have both public and commercial interests. Our earlier study using the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen in vitro assay reported on skin cancer chemoprevention potential of benzophenone sunscreens. We now report the in vivo antitumor activity of two of the benzophenone sunscreens which tested positively in the in vitro assay, octabenzone (UV-1) and dioxybenzone (UV-2), in the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model using (±)-(E)-4-methyl-2-[-(E)-hydroxyamino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexanamide (NOR-1) as inducer and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as promoter. Pathogen-free, female hairless mice of HOS:HR-1 strain, 15 animals per control and test groups, were used. Skin tumors were induced by a single dose of NOR-1 (390 nmol in 100 μl of acetone). One week later, TPA (1.7 nmol in 100 μl of acetone) was applied to skin twice weekly for 20 weeks as tumor a promoter. The test compounds UV-I or UV-2 were administered at 0.0025% to mice through drinking water ad libitum, starting one week prior to and stopping one week after tumor initiation. All animals were examined weekly for the development of skin papillomas. In both UV-1- and UV-2-treated mice, a two-week delay in tumor appearance, and significant inhibition (p<0.001) of tumor incidence (50% and 60%, respectively) and tumor burden (papilloma inhibition/mouse, 50% and 70%, respectively) were observed when compared to the positive control group. UV-2 (dihydroxy derivative) was a more potent inhibitor of skin tumor than UV-1 (monohydroxy derivative), which followed their antioxidant activity ranking. The results affirm the skin cancer chemoprevention potential of orally-ingested benzophenone sunscreens in mice and warrant studies in humans to validate synergistic protection achievable by complementation of oral and topical sunscreen usage.

  8. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J.; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  9. Skin Barrier Recovery by Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Antagonist Lobaric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Yeon Ah; Chung, Hyunjin; Yoon, Sohyun; Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Myung, Cheol Hwan; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) results from gene and environment interactions that lead to a range of immunological abnormalities and breakdown of the skin barrier. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) belongs to a family of G-protein coupled receptors and is expressed in suprabasal layers of the epidermis. PAR2 is activated by both trypsin and a specific agonist peptide, SLIGKV-NH2 and is involved in both epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and epithelial inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of lobaric acid on inflammation, keratinocyte differentiation, and recovery of the skin barrier in hairless mice. Lobaric acid blocked trypsin-induced and SLIGKV-NH2-induced PAR2 activation resulting in decreased mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in HaCaT keratinocytes. Lobaric acid reduced expression of interleukin-8 induced by SLIGKV-NH2 and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) induced by tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and IFN-γ in HaCaT keratinocytes. Lobaric acid also blocked SLIGKV-NH2-induced activation of ERK, which is a downstream signal of PAR2 in normal human keratinocytes (NHEKs). Treatment with SLIGKV-NH2 downregulated expression of involucrin, a differentiation marker protein in HaCaT keratinocytes, and upregulated expression of involucrin, transglutamase1 and filaggrin in NHEKs. However, lobaric acid antagonized the effect of SLIGKV-NH2 in HaCaT keratinocytes and NHEKs. Topical application of lobaric acid accelerated barrier recovery kinetics in a SKH-1 hairless mouse model. These results suggested that lobaric acid is a PAR2 antagonist and could be a possible therapeutic agent for atopic dermatitis. PMID:27169822

  10. Hesperidin methyl chalcone inhibits oxidative stress and inflammation in a mouse model of ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin damage.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Steffen, Vinicius S; Caviglione, Carla V; Vignoli, Josiane A; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2015-07-01

    Hesperidin methyl chalcone (HMC) is a safe flavonoid used to treat chronic venous diseases, but its effects and mechanisms on UVB irradiation-induced inflammation and oxidative stress have never been described in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of HMC in skin oxidative stress and inflammation induced by UVB irradiation. To induce skin damage, hairless mice were exposed to an acute UVB irradiation dose of 4.14 J/cm(2), and the dorsal skin samples were collected to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The intraperitoneal treatment with HMC at the dose of 300 mg/kg inhibited UVB irradiation-induced skin edema, neutrophil recruitment, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity. HMC also protected the skin from UVB irradiation-induced oxidative stress by maintaining ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical (ABTS) scavenging ability and antioxidant levels (reduced glutathione and catalase). Corroborating, HMC inhibited UVB irradiation-induced superoxide anion generation and gp91phox (NADPH oxidase subunit) mRNA expression. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of HMC resulted in lower production of inflammatory mediators, including lipid hydroperoxides and a wide range of cytokines. Taken together, these results unveil a novel applicability of HMC in the treatment of UVB irradiation-induced skin inflammation and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Se-Rah; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup; Lee, Dong Hun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin, and whether PPARα activation can modulate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and procollagen through catalase regulation. We found that PPARα mRNA level was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated skin. A PPARα activator, Wy14643, inhibited UV-induced increase of MMP-1 and decrease of procollagen expression and caused marked increase in catalase expression. Furthermore, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was suppressed by Wy14643 in UV-irradiated and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the PPARα activation-induced upregulation of catalase leads to scavenging of ROS produced due to UV irradiation or aging. PPARα knockdown decreased catalase expression and abolished the beneficial effects of Wy14643. Topical application of Wy14643 on hairless mice restored catalase activity and prevented MMP-13 and inflammatory responses in skin. Our findings indicate that PPARα activation triggers catalase expression and ROS scavenging, thereby protecting skin from UV-induced damage and intrinsic aging.

  12. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Se-Rah; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin, and whether PPARα activation can modulate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and procollagen through catalase regulation. We found that PPARα mRNA level was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated skin. A PPARα activator, Wy14643, inhibited UV-induced increase of MMP-1 and decrease of procollagen expression and caused marked increase in catalase expression. Furthermore, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was suppressed by Wy14643 in UV-irradiated and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the PPARα activation-induced upregulation of catalase leads to scavenging of ROS produced due to UV irradiation or aging. PPARα knockdown decreased catalase expression and abolished the beneficial effects of Wy14643. Topical application of Wy14643 on hairless mice restored catalase activity and prevented MMP-13 and inflammatory responses in skin. Our findings indicate that PPARα activation triggers catalase expression and ROS scavenging, thereby protecting skin from UV-induced damage and intrinsic aging. PMID:27611371

  13. Reduction of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive astrocytes in some brain areas of old hairless rhino-j mice (hr-rh-j).

    PubMed

    San Jose, I; García-Atares, N; Pelaez, B; Cabo, R; Esteban, I; Vega, J A; Represa, J

    2001-08-24

    Mutations in the hairless (hr) gene of mice result in hair follicle and other epithelial defects. The hr gene is expressed at high levels in the brain where it probably participates in the survival and maintenance of some neuronal populations, but whether it also supports glial populations of the central nervous system has been not investigated. To clarify this, quantitative immunohistochemistry for astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)) and microglial cells (CD11b macrophage antigen) was used in the brain of a mutant mouse strain, the hairless (hr-rh-j) type, which carries the homozygous hr gene rhino mutation. The glial cell density was assessed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebellum of young (3 months) and old (9 months) hr-rh-j mice. No significant differences were found between young wild-type and hr-rh-j mice. The density of GFAP immunoreactive astrocytes normally increased as a function of age, but in older hr-rh-j mice there was a severe reduction (P<0.01) in the striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. Conversely, the microglial cells were insensible to aging or to hr-rh-j mutation. These results suggest that the hr gene is involved in the maintenance of the GFAP immunoreactive cells in some cerebral areas. Nevertheless, because these animals do not show any neurological signs, the functional significance of the present findings remains to be established.

  14. Real-time monitoring of oxidative stress in live mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Alexander M; Nishimaki, Kiyomi; Kamimura, Naomi; Ohta, Shigeo

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in many age-associated diseases, as well as in the aging process itself. The development of interventions to reduce oxidative stress is hampered by the absence of sensitive detection methods that can be used in live animals. We generated transgenic mice expressing ratiometric redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) in the cytosol or mitochondria of several tissues, including skin epidermal keratinocytes. Crossbreeding into hairless albino mice allowed noninvasive optical measurement of skin oxidative state. Topical application of hydrogen peroxide emulsion shifted the keratinocyte redox state toward oxidation within minutes and could be observed in real time by fluorescence ratio imaging. Exposing skin to 365 nm UVA radiation oxidized roGFP localized in keratinocyte mitochondria, but not when roGFP was localized in the cytosol. This suggests that significant amounts of the endogenous photosensitizers that mediate UVA-induced oxidative stress are located in the mitochondria. UVR is the major environmental cause of skin aging and UVA-mediated oxidative stress has been associated with the development of wrinkles in humans. Direct measurements of redox state in defined cell compartments of live animals should be a powerful and convenient tool for evaluating treatments that aim to modulate oxidative stress.

  15. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  16. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin problems such as redness, peeling, irritation, and yeast infec