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Sample records for halitosis bad breath

  1. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Nwhator, S O; Isiekwe, G I; Soroye, M O; Agbaje, M O

    2015-01-01

    To provide baseline data about bad-breath perception and misconceptions among Nigerian adults. Multi-center cross-sectional study of individuals aged 18-64 years using examiner-administered questionnaires. Age comparisons were based on the model of emerging adults versus full adults. Data were recoded for statistical analyses and univariate and secondary log-linear statistics applied. Participants had lopsided perceptions about bad-breath. While 730 (90.8%) identified the dentist as the expert on halitosis and 719 (89.4%) knew that bad-breath is not contagious, only 4.4% and 2.5% associated bad-breath with tooth decay and gum disease respectively. There were no significant sex differences but the older adults showed better knowledge in a few instances. Most respondents (747, 92.9%) would tell a spouse about their bad-breath and 683 (85%) would tell a friend. Participants had lop-sided knowledge and perceptions about bad-breath. Most Nigerian adults are their "brothers' keepers" who would tell a spouse or friend about their halitosis so they could seek treatment.

  2. Halitosis: the multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Curd M L; Beikler, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Halitosis, bad breath or oral malodour are all synonyms for the same pathology. Halitosis has a large social and economic impact. For the majority of patients suffering from bad breath, it causes embarrassment and affects their social communication and life. Moreover,halitosis can be indicative of underlying diseases. Only a limited number of scientific publications were presented in this field until 1995. Ever since, a large amount of research is published, often with lack of evidence. In general, intraoral conditions, like insufficient dental hygiene, periodontitis or tongue coating are considered to be the most important cause (85%) for halitosis. Therefore, dentists and periodontologists are the first-line professionals to be confronted with this problem. They should be well aware of the origin, the detection and especially of the treatment of this pathology. In addition, ear-nose-throat-associated (10%) or gastrointestinal/endocrinological (5%) disorders may contribute to the problem. In the case of halitophobia, psychiatrical or psychological problems may be present. Bad breath needs a multidisciplinary team approach: dentists, periodontologists, specialists in family medicine, ear-nose-throat surgeons, internal medicine and psychiatry need to be updated in this field, which still is surrounded by a large taboo.Multidisciplinary bad breath clinics offer the best environment to examine and treat this pathology that affects around 25% of the whole population. This article describes the origin, detection and treatment of halitosis, regarded from the different etiological origins.

  3. [Clinical importance and diagnosis of halitosis].

    PubMed

    Nagy, Akos; Brugoviczky, Zsolt; Novák, Péter; Nagy, Gábor

    2012-09-01

    The origin of halitosis comes from the Latin word "halitus" meaning 'breath, exhaled air', and in the Hungarian terminology it means bad and smelly breath. The human body emits a number of volatile molecules, which have a peculiar odour. Their presence is influenced by several factors, such as genetic, nutritional and psychological factors. Since bad breath belongs to taboo subjects, halitosis can often lead to social isolation. To determine the incidence of halitosis, an exact diagnosis is needed which sometimes predestinates the possible treatment as well. Investigators estimate the incidence about 50% in the whole population. The male/female ratio is the same and the incidence is growing with age. The diagnosis can be genuine halitosis, pseudo halitosis and halitophobia. We can divide the genuine type into physiological and pathophysiological subtypes. The cause of the halitosis usually can be found in the oral cavity. The volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) produced by some of the oral bacteria are responsible for its development. Only 10% of the causes are extraoral, mostly inflammation of airways or gastrointestinal disorders. The judgment of halitosis is based on three objective methods: the organoleptic, the sulphide monitoring and the gas cromatography methods. Since the origin of the halitosis is mainly the oral cavity, dentists should treat them. Beyond the dental treatments the enhancement of the oral hygiene, the continuous motivation and monitoring are also very important, such as the use of tongue cleansing and special anti-malodour rinses.

  4. How to deal with morning bad breath: A randomized, crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Neto, Jeronimo M; Sato, Sandra; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

    2013-11-01

    The absence of a protocol for the treatment of halitosis has led us to compare mouthrinses with mechanical oral hygiene procedures for treating morning breath by employing a hand-held sulfide monitor. To compare the efficacy of five modalities of treatment for controlling morning halitosis in subjects with no dental or periodontal disease. This is a five-period, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to the trial. Testing involved the use of a conventional tongue scraper, a tongue scraper joined to the back of a toothbrush's head, two mouthrinses (0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate) and a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste for practicing oral hygiene. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 for Windows and NCSS 2007 software (P < 0.05). The products and the periods were compared with each other using the Friedman's test. When significant differences (P < 0.05) were determined, the products and periods were compared in pairs by using the Wilcoxon's test and by adjusting the original significance level (0.05) for multiple comparisons by using the Bonferroni's method. The toothbrush's tongue scraper was able to significantly reduce bad breath for up to 2 h. Chlorhexidine reduced bad breath only at the end of the second hour, an effect that lasted for 3 h. Mechanical tongue cleaning was able to immediately reduce bad breath for a short period, whereas chlorhexidine and mechanical oral hygiene reduced bad breath for longer periods, achieving the best results against morning breath.

  5. How to deal with morning bad breath: A randomized, crossover clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Neto, Jeronimo M.; Sato, Sandra; Pedrazzi, Vinícius

    2013-01-01

    Context: The absence of a protocol for the treatment of halitosis has led us to compare mouthrinses with mechanical oral hygiene procedures for treating morning breath by employing a hand-held sulfide monitor. Aims: To compare the efficacy of five modalities of treatment for controlling morning halitosis in subjects with no dental or periodontal disease. Settings and Design: This is a five-period, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to the trial. Testing involved the use of a conventional tongue scraper, a tongue scraper joined to the back of a toothbrush's head, two mouthrinses (0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate) and a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste for practicing oral hygiene. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 for Windows and NCSS 2007 software (P < 0.05). The products and the periods were compared with each other using the Friedman's test. When significant differences (P < 0.05) were determined, the products and periods were compared in pairs by using the Wilcoxon's test and by adjusting the original significance level (0.05) for multiple comparisons by using the Bonferroni's method. Results: The toothbrush's tongue scraper was able to significantly reduce bad breath for up to 2 h. Chlorhexidine reduced bad breath only at the end of the second hour, an effect that lasted for 3 h. Conclusions: Mechanical tongue cleaning was able to immediately reduce bad breath for a short period, whereas chlorhexidine and mechanical oral hygiene reduced bad breath for longer periods, achieving the best results against morning breath. PMID:24554886

  6. [Bad breath--etiological, diagnostic and therapeutic problems].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    2000-01-01

    Oral malodor has many etiologies and is a clinical problem for many people. This paper reviews the causes and management of oral malador. In the majority of cases the problem has been shown to originate in the oral cavity. Oral malodor, a generic descriptor term for foul smells emanating from the mouth, encompasses ozostomia, stomatodysodia, halitosis (both pathological halitosis and physiological halitosis) and fetor oris or fetor ex ore. These latter terms, in turn, denote different sources of oral malodor. All conditions that favour the retention of anaerobic, mainly gram-negative, bacteria will predispose for the development of bad breath. In addition to periodontal pockets, the most important retention site is the dorsum of the tongue with its numerous papillae. During the night and between meals the conditions are optimal for odour production. Systemic pathological states, such as diabetes mellitus, uremia and hepatic diseases, induce metabolic products that are detectable as oral smells. It is always easy to recognize halitosis, but identifying the exact cause is more complex. The clinical labelling and interpretation of different oral malodors both contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of underlying disease. Treatment is directed at the underlying cause.

  7. Self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students

    PubMed Central

    Bin Mubayrik, Azizah; Al Hamdan, Rana; Al Hadlaq, Emad M; AlBagieh, Hamad; AlAhmed, Dan; Jaddoh, Hend; Demyati, Mawadh; Abu Shryei, Rawan

    2017-01-01

    Background Halitosis or oral malodor is defined as an unpleasant breath odor. It can become a serious problem affecting individuals’ social communication and self-confidence. Furthermore, it is a discomforting issue for the people around the person affected, because they consider it embarrassing to inform the person of the problem. Aim This study was designed to measure self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was implemented with 392 volunteer participants who responded to a questionnaire on their self-perception, knowledge, and awareness of halitosis. Results The response rate was 89.1% (392/440). Self-perception of halitosis was low (21.4%), whereas a larger percentage (78.1%) indicated noticing people with bad breath. Most participants (80.4%) thought that the gastrointestinal tract is the primary source of halitosis. Seventy-seven percent preferred using personal methods such as mouthwash and chewing gum to treat oral malodor. According to 82.1% of respondents, a dentist is the most appropriate professional to treat halitosis. Conclusion The investigation revealed low self-perception and limited knowledge regarding halitosis. Therefore, the role of dentists in informing and educating their patients concerning oral malodor should be enhanced. Public education about the causes of and possible ways of managing bad breath should be increased. PMID:28603430

  8. Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students.

    PubMed

    Setia, Saniya; Pannu, Parampreet; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Galhotra, Virat; Ahluwalia, Pooja; Sofat, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlating the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodour. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 277 male and female students. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, caries and bleeding gums, dryness of the mouth, smoking and tongue coating. The results indicate female students had better oral hygiene practices. Significantly less self-reported oral bad breath (P = 0.007) was found in female dental students (40%) as compared to their male counterparts (58%). It was found that smoking and dryness of mouth had statistically significant correlation with halitosis (P = 0.026, P = 0.001). Presence of other oral conditions such as tongue coating and dental caries and bleeding gums also showed higher prevalence of halitosis in dental students. A direct correlation exists between oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions with halitosis. Females exhibited better oral hygiene practices and less prevalence of halitosis as compared to male students.

  9. Oral and non oral diseases and conditions associated with bad breath.

    PubMed

    Migliario, M; Rimondini, L

    2011-03-01

    The causes of bad breath are numerous and related to conditions dependent or not on oral and general health. The aim of our observational study is the assessment of the simultaneous relationships between halitosis, oral and/or nonoral diseases, and lifestyles using the principal components analysis of categorical data (CATPCA) to identify the main components involved in the detection of the symptom. A sample of 192 patients, who requested general dental examination at the Dental Clinic, participated at the study. Alimentary and voluptuary habits, general health information, drugs assumption, the status of teeth and intraoral medical devices including fillers, lesions of the oral mucosa, tongue coating score (TCS), plaque index (PI), probing bleeding index (PBI) and organoleptic tests were all evaluated. Data were analysed using CATPCA model. A strong relationship between halitosis and plaque, probing bleeding and tongue coating indexes was observed, whereas incongruous fillers, prostheses, systemic pathologies or diet were not clearly associated with halitosis probably because their effects on breath were clinically sheltered by the periodontal condition. The data of our observational study confirm that halitosis is more indicative of tongue coating and periodontal disease, rather than other oral and non oral associated conditions, like systemic pathologies or specific habits of life.

  10. Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Saniya; Pannu, Parampreet; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Galhotra, Virat; Ahluwalia, Pooja; Sofat, Anjali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of oral hygiene practices, smoking habits and halitosis among undergraduate dental students and correlating the oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions to the prevalence of self perceived oral malodour. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 277 male and female students. A questionnaire was developed to assess the self-reported perception of oral breath, awareness of bad breath, timing of bad breath, oral hygiene practices, caries and bleeding gums, dryness of the mouth, smoking and tongue coating. Results: The results indicate female students had better oral hygiene practices. Significantly less self-reported oral bad breath (P = 0.007) was found in female dental students (40%) as compared to their male counterparts (58%). It was found that smoking and dryness of mouth had statistically significant correlation with halitosis (P = 0.026, P = 0.001). Presence of other oral conditions such as tongue coating and dental caries and bleeding gums also showed higher prevalence of halitosis in dental students. Conclusion: A direct correlation exists between oral hygiene practices and oral health conditions with halitosis. Females exhibited better oral hygiene practices and less prevalence of halitosis as compared to male students. PMID:24678201

  11. [Halitosis: a multidisciplinary problem].

    PubMed

    Bollen, C M; Rompen, E H; Demanez, J P

    1999-01-01

    Bad breath, or halitosis, affects between 50 and 65% of the population. Despite its frequency, this problem is often unaccepted and declared taboo. In about 8% of the cases, bad breath is related to an ENT pathology (sinusitis, tonsillitis, ...). More rarely it is caused by a metabolic (diabetes, trimethylaminuremia, ...) or gastric dysfunction. Ninety percent of the cases however, are associated to an oral disease: either gingivitis due to an inadequate removal of dental plaque, especially from interdental spaces, or periodontitis (alveolar bone destruction), or bacterial accumulation on the dorsum of the tongue. In most cases, an intensive disinfection of the mouth by scaling and root planing and/or instruction of a perfect oral hygiene will be sufficient to solve the problem. Perfumed mouthwashes or toothpastes will only give a short-term masking effect. An effective collaboration between a dentist or a periodontist and an ENT specialist is of great importance to dealt with bad breath.

  12. Detection of halitosis in breath: Between the past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Nakhleh, M K; Quatredeniers, M; Haick, H

    2017-06-16

    To develop a new generation of diagnostics for halitosis, replacing the subjective organoleptic assessment, a series of exhaled breath analyzers has been developed and assessed. All three devices rely on the assessment of exhaled volatile sulfuric compounds (VSCs), which are mainly generated in and emitted from the oral cavity, contributing to the malodor. Portable, on-site and easy to use, these devices have potential for non-invasive diagnosis of halitosis. However, global assessment of exhaled VSCs alone has two main drawbacks: (i) the absence of VSCs does not rule out halitosis; (ii) non-sulfuric volatile compounds that could be biomarkers of systemic diseases, found in up to 15% of halitosis cases, are neglected. In this article, we review and discuss progress to date in the field of oral/exhaled volatile compounds as potential non-invasive diagnostics for halitosis. We will briefly describe the generation of these compounds both from local (oral) and distal (extra-oral) sources. In addition, we debate the different analytical approaches in use and discuss the potential value of bio-inspired artificially intelligent olfaction in diagnosing and classifying oral and systemic diseases by analyzing exhaled breath. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality and readability of internet-based information on halitosis.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jung Hwan; Kim, Eui Joo; Kim, Ji Rak; Kim, Moon Jong; Chung, Jin Woo; Park, Ji Woon

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate quality and readability of Internet-based information on halitosis. An Internet search through 3 engines (Google, Yahoo, and Bing) was done with the terms ("bad breath," "halitosis," "oral malodor," "foul breath," "mouth malodor," "breath malodor," "fetor ex ore," "fetor oris," "ozostomia," and "stomatodysodia"). The first 50 websites from each engine resulting from each search term were screened. Included websites were evaluated using Health on the Net (HON) criteria, Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks, DISCERN, Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP), Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) score, and Flesch-Kincaid Grade level. A total of 101 websites were included. HON, DISCERN, EQIP, and FRE score were 42.9%, 37.6%, 37.4%, and 51.9% of the maximum score, respectively. Fewer than 50% of sites displayed attribution, disclosure, and currency according to JAMA benchmarks. HON score, DISCERN score, and EQIP score had significant correlation with each other and were significantly higher in sites displaying the HON seal. The current quality and readability of informative websites on halitosis are generally low and poorly organized. Clinicians should be able to assess the Internet-based information on halitosis, as well as give accurate advice and guide patients concerning this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  15. [Effect of chewing gum on halitosis].

    PubMed

    De Luca-Monasterios, Fiorella; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; López-López, José

    2014-07-22

    This study aims to estimate the prevalence of oral halitosis in a young population and show the effect of chewing gum on their breath. Prospective, descriptive correlational cross section study. We selected a convenience sample of 121 young individuals and 98 completed the study. It was carried out at the University Dental Hospital-University of Barcelona. The protocol consisted of: questionnaire, oral clinical evaluation, organoleptic tests (OT) and measurement of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) with sulphide monitoring before and after chewing gum during 15 min, with 2 calibrated investigators. A percentage of 87.8 had adequate oral hygiene, 17.3% reported bad breath and 29.6% had xerostomia. Forty-four subjects had a OT grade ≥2; the agreement of examiners was 75%. The VSC in 53 individuals were ≤100 parts per billion (ppb) and in 45 subjects, it was>100 ppb. A post-reduction of VSC of 17.34% was obtained with a mean decrease of 1.8-9.0 ppb (P=.003). The prevalence of halitosis was 36.7%. The use of chewing gum as an adjunct in cases of halitosis decreases the VSC, improving the perception of others and the patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot, you may need to visit your dentist or doctor . What Causes Bad Breath? Here are ... particles wedged between your teeth. Also, visit your dentist twice a year for regular checkups and cleanings. ...

  17. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  18. [Halitosis in 1999].

    PubMed

    Meningaud, J P; Bado, F; Favre, E; Bertrand, J C; Guilbert, F

    1999-10-01

    Bad breath is a major concern to the general population and a source of an important profit industry world wide. Between 50 and 60 per cent of the population suffer from chronic halitosis. This can have consequences for private or professional life. Reasons can imply many specialities: ENT, gastro-enterology, pneumology, hepatology, genetics and psychiatry (a high percentage of the patients who come to the clinic with a primary complaint of halitosis do not have a detectable problem). Nevertheless, 85% are stomatological and are explained by the release of volatile sulfur compounds. These substances have a very offensive odor in very low concentrations. A specialized device called a halimeter is available to measure the volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air but in practice the objective assessment of malodor is still best performed by the organoleptic method. A careful examination can determine the patient's problem in most cases. Initial treatment strategy should focus on the exact cause and on oral hygiene. In addition to the usual recommendations, the daily use of tongue cleaners is very beneficial. Other than etiologic therapy, masking can be achieved by oral care products (mouth rinses, toothpastes, chewing gums) which contain metal ions, especially zinc, that inhibit odor formation because of its affinity to sulphur compounds.

  19. [Importance of halitosis. A survey of adolescents and young adults].

    PubMed

    Bigler, Thomas; Filippi, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, halitosis has become an increasingly important issue for dentists and their patients. For this study, a questionnaire was distributed in four different vocational/vocational-technical schools in Zurich to find out more about the personal oral hygiene and general knowledge of halitosis of 888 young women and 921 young men between the ages of 15 and 25. The factors of gender, education, professional customer contact, age and size of the residential community were taken into account. Findings were presented on the basis of a visual analogue scale. The survey results showed women to have a more intensive oral hygiene regimen and more frequent check-ups than their male counterparts (p < 0.001). Bad breath was also seen to be a more important issue to women who took more measures against it (p < 0.001). Education and customer contact both had an influence on the perceived importance of halitosis, as well as on the knowledge of possible measures against it (p < 0.001). However, the age of those surveyed and the size of their respective communities did not seem to have an impact (p > 0.05). The analysis showed that halitosis is an important issue for young people, and that a large part of the young population sees tongue cleaning as a part of oral hygiene and intraoral change as a cause of halitosis.

  20. Halitosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... can also affect your breath. Common examples of foods and beverages that may cause bad breath include onions, garlic, ... and vegetables every day. Eat less meat. Avoid foods that cause you to have bad breath. Also try to avoid alcoholic beverages, which often cause bad breath. Avoid using tobacco ...

  1. Optical bio-sniffer for methyl mercaptan in halitosis.

    PubMed

    Mitsubayashi, Kohji; Minamide, Takeshi; Otsuka, Kimio; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hirokazu

    2006-07-28

    An optical bio-sniffer for methyl mercaptan (MM) one of major odorous chemicals in halitosis (bad breath) was constructed by immobilizing monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) onto a tip of a fiber optic oxygen sensor (od: 1.59 mm) with an oxygen sensitive ruthenium organic complex (excitation: 470 nm, fluorescent: 600 nm). A flow cell for circulating buffer solution was applied to rinse and clean the tip of the device like nasal mucosa. In order to amplify the bio-sniffer output, a substrate regeneration cycle caused by coupling MAO-A with l-ascorbic acid (AsA) as reducing reaction with reagent system was applied to the sensor system. After evaluating the sensor characteristics using a gas flow measurement system with a gas generator, the optical bio-sniffer was applied to expired gases from healthy male volunteers for halitosis analysis as a physiological application. The optical bio-sniffer was applied to detect the oxygen consumption induced by MAO-A enzymatic reaction (and AsA chemical reduction) with gaseous MM application. The bio-sniffer was calibrated against MM vapor from 8.7 to 11500 ppb with correlation coefficient of 0.977, including a MM threshold (200 ppb) of pathologic halitosis and the human sense of smell level 3.5 (10.0 ppb), with good gas-selectivity based on the MAO-A substrate specificity. As the result of the physiological application, the optical bio-sniffer could successfully monitor the MM level change in breath samples during daytime, which is consistent with the previously reported results.

  2. Effects of the medicinal plants Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis on halitosis control.

    PubMed

    Farina, Vitor Hugo; Lima, Ana Paula de; Balducci, Ivan; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

    2012-01-01

    Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) are the gases mainly responsible for halitosis (bad breath). The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of medicinal plants on halitosis control. Two commonly used plants were tested: Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis (green tea). These plants were prepared as an aqueous solution and used as mouthwashes, compared with a standard mouthwash of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate and a placebo (water). The experiment was conducted with 30 volunteers from the School of Dentistry of São Jose dos Campos, Univ. Estadual Paulista - UNESP, SP, Brazil. Each volunteer tested the four mouthwashes. The Cysteine Challenge Method, modified for this study, was used for initial breath standardization. Four breath assessments were conducted after volunteers rinsed orally with acetylcysteine: one before the test mouthwash was used; the second, one minute after its use; a third 90 minutes later; and the last 180 minutes later. The results showed that chlorhexidine gluconate lowered VSC production immediately, and that this effect lasted up to 3 hours, while the tested plants had immediate inhibitory effects but no residual inhibitory effects on VSC. We concluded that Curcuma zedoaria and Camellia sinensis, prepared as infusions and used as mouthwashes, did not have a residual neutralizing effect on VSC.

  3. Bad Breath - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Bad Breath - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese, Traditional ( ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 23 May 2018

  4. [The relationship of halitosis and Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Tao, Dan-ying; Li, Qing; Feng, Xi-ping

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection in stomach. Fifty subjects without periodontal diseases and systematic disease (exclude gastrointestinal diseases) were included. Infection of H.pylori was diagnosed by biopsy and (14)C-urea breath test. SPSS11.5 software package was used to analyze the data. All the subjects were periodontal healthy according to the periodontal index. The prevalence of H.pylori infection in halitosis subjects was significantly higher than that in the normal subjects (57.1% VS 18.2%, P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that H.pylori was the only significant variable in the equation(P<0.05). H.pylori in stomach may be involved in the presence of halitosis in periodontal healthy subjects.

  5. Attitudes towards individuals with halitosis: an online cross sectional survey of the Dutch general population.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, A; van Wijk, A J; Horstman, M; de Baat, C

    2014-02-01

    To derive an estimate of encounters with halitosis and to assess the impact of halitosis on their psychosocial interactions with halitosis patients. Participants were 1,006 members of an online panel, being representative of the population of the Netherlands with regard to gender, age, family situation, education level and labour participation. They were invited to participate in a survey using an online questionnaire with four questions on becoming faced with people having halitosis. Almost 90% of the participants indicated being faced with a person having halitosis regularly, 40% at least once a week, and men significantly more frequently than women. Halitosis was reported to be a strong 'downer' when meeting a person for the first time. Whether one would draw a person's attention to his breath malodour proved to be related to the kind of person involved and appeared to decrease with the increase of the social distance to the person. Drawing a person's attention to his breath malodour would virtually always be performed personally. Halitosis is considered to be one of the most unattractive aspects of social interactions and has potentially damaging effects on psychosocial interactions and relationships.

  6. Clinical efficacy of a new tooth and tongue gel applied with a tongue cleaner in reducing oral halitosis.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Dorothea; Himmelmann, Agnes; Axmann, Eva-Maria; Wilhelm, Klaus-Peter

    2012-09-01

    The short-term and overnight effect of three treatment regimens on oral halitosis were investigated: toothbrushing with a reference toothpaste, toothbrushing with reference toothpaste and tongue cleaning, and toothbrushing and tongue cleaning with a tooth-and-tongue gel. Fifty-four subjects meeting the inclusion criteria for bad breath were enrolled in the study. All subjects received each of the three treatment regimens in a balanced design. Efficacy was assessed by organoleptic ratings and volatile sulfur compound (VSC) measurements 5 and 60 minutes after first application and overnight after 7 days of repeated use. The combination of toothbrushing and tongue cleaning with tooth-and-tongue gel provided the best results in terms of organoleptic ratings and VSC measurements at all time points compared to the other treatment regimens. The use of tooth and tongue gel for both toothbrushing and tongue cleaning showed a positive short-term and overnight effects after 7 days of use. This treatment regimen is a promising approach to control halitosis.

  7. Association between oral malodour and psychological characteristics in subjects with neurotic tendencies complaining of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Naito, Toru; Inamitsu, Tetsuaki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Okada, Ichizo; Hatano, Yuko; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Masuo, Yosuke; Fuijimoto, Akie; Hirofuji, Takao

    2011-04-01

      To assess the psychosomatically subjective symptoms of subjects with neurotic tendencies complaining of halitosis.   Breath malodour was measured in 368 patients using organoleptic test and gas chromatography. Neurotic tendency and subjective symptoms were assessed using the Cornell Medical Index (CMI).   Of the 79 subjects who met the criteria for neurotic tendencies according to CMI scores, 58 (73.4%) had oral malodour, whereas 21 (26.6%) did not. Coated tongue, periodontal pocket, and daily drinking were significantly more common in subjects with oral malodour. On the CMI questionnaire, subjects with no oral malodour more frequently responded 'yes' to questions about fatigue and psychological problems in their families. Additionally, many answered that they had perceived their own bad breath.   Difficulties experienced by subjects with neurotic tendencies and oral malodour may manifest primarily in oral conditions, whereas those experienced by individuals with neurotic tendencies and no oral malodour may manifest primarily in psychosomatic symptoms. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  8. Short term clinical efficacy of new meridol HALITOSIS tooth & tongue gel in combination with a tongue cleaner to reduce oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, D; Himmelmann, A; Krause, C; Wilhelm, K-P

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the short term efficacy of tongue cleaning with meridol HALITOSIS tooth & tongue gel in comparison to mechanical tongue cleaning alone and untreated after five and 60 minutes in patients with an oral cause of bad breath. Fifty-four male and female subjects with an intra-oral cause of halitosis (organoleptic ratings > or = 2 and volatile sulphur compounds > or = 50 ppb) participated in this crossover study and were assigned to six different treatment sequences (ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, CBA) with no treatment (A), mechanical tongue cleaning alone (B), and tongue cleaning with tooth & tongue gel applied to the tongue cleaner (C). Efficacy was assessed by organoleptic ratings and volatile sulphur compound measurements five and 60 minutes after treatment Cleaning the tongue with tooth & tongue gel applied onto the tongue cleaner resulted in significantly reduced organoleptic ratings (p < 0.001 for the five-minute assessment; p = 0.001 for the 60-minute assessment) and volatile sulphur compounds (H2S + CH3SH: p = 0.005 for the five-minute assessment; p = 0.003 for the 60-minute assessment) compared to no treatment at the five- and 60-minute assessment time points, while mechanical tongue cleaning alone was less effective in reducing organoleptic ratings (p = 0.008 for the five-minute assessment; p = 0.144 for the 60-minute assessment) and volatile sulphur compounds (H2S + CH3SH: p = 0.261 for the five-minute assessment; p = 0.365 for the 60-minute assessment). Single tongue cleaning with meridol HALITOSIS tooth & tongue gel had a positive effect on halitosis five and 60 minutes after treatment. Tongue cleaning with tooth & tongue gel in combination with other oral hygiene procedures is a promising approach to control halitosis.

  9. Anti-Halitosis Effect of Toothpaste Supplemented with Alkaline Extract of the Leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Sheng, Hong; Ono, Koki; Komine, Yusuke; Miyadai, Tomoharu; Terada, Yuji; Nakada, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shoji; Matsumoto, Masaru; Yasui, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Koichi; Junye, Jia; Natori, Takenori; Suguro-Kitajima, Madoka; Oizumi, Hiroshi; Oizumi, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown activity against viruses, bacteria, inflammation and oral lichenoid dysplasia of alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder (SE), suggesting its possible application to oral diseases. In the present study, we performed a small-scale clinical test to investigate whether SE is effective against halitosis and in oral bacterial reduction. A total of 12 volunteers participated in this study. They brushed their teeth immediately after meals three times each day with SE-containing toothpaste (SETP) or placebo toothpaste. Halitosis in the breath and bacterial number on the tongue were measured by commercially available portable apparatuses at a specified time in the morning. Some relationship was observed between halitosis and bacterial number from each individual, especially when those with severe halitosis were included. Repeated experiments demonstrated that SETP significantly reduced halitosis but not the bacterial number on the tongue. The present study provides for the first time the basis for anti-halitosis activity of SE. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Associated with Halitosis in White-Collar Employees in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hai-Xia; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors associated with halitosis in Chinese white-collar employees. Materials and Methods Subjects in three randomly selected office buildings in Shanghai, China, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling. Oral malodor was assessed by measuring volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) with a portable sulfide monitor. Subjects’ oral health, including dental caries, periodontal status, and tongue coating, was evaluated clinically. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about participants’ demographic characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and health behaviors. Results Of the 805 subjects invited to participate in this study, 720 were enrolled (89.4% response rate). Data from these subjects were used for statistical analyses. The prevalence of halitosis was 33.2%. In the final regression model, halitosis was significantly related to tongue coating thickness, periodontal pocket depth, no food consumption within 2 hours prior to oral examination, and less intake frequency of sweet foods. Conclusions In this Chinese white-collar population, tongue coating and periodontal disease were associated with halitosis. Oral hygiene education should be provided at the population level to encourage the maintenance of oral health and fresh breath. Consumption of sweet foods may reduce VSC production, although this finding requires further investigation. PMID:27186878

  11. [A PhD completed. Prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases and bad breath].

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, E; Slot, D E; van der Weijden, G A

    2018-01-01

    Rinsing the mouth with water, or brushing with a dry toothbrush, does not contribute to an improvement in plaque removal during toothbrushing, nor does brushing according to a specific brushing regimen. Rinsing with water or drinking water has an immediate effect on bad morning breath. The combination of toothbrushing, tongue cleaning and a mouthwash has an effect on bad morning breath after 24 hours, in contrast with brushing with toothpaste only. The use of mouthwash with the specific ingredients chlorhexidine and essential oils has a positive effect on the reduction of gingivitis. The use of similar mouthwashes as a cooling solution in an ultrasonic device has no added effect on treatment results among periodontal patients. Water is an effective cooling solution.

  12. Levels of salivary stress markers in patients with anxiety about halitosis.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Makoto; Hinode, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Yoshioka, Masami; Kataoka, Kosuke; Ito, Hiro-O

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between salivary stress markers and mental stress states in patients complaining of oral malodour. The utility of the salivary stress markers in assessment of mental conditions of those patients was also investigated. The study population included 74 patients, aged 20-59 years, who complained of oral malodour and were referred to the Breath Odor Clinic at Tokushima University Hospital. Patients were classified into two groups, genuine halitosis (GH) and psychosomatic halitosis (PH), according to the results of organoleptic rating measurement. All patients were subjected to examination by the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) Health Questionnaire. Resting saliva was collected and levels of salivary IgA, cortisol and chromogranin A were determined by ELISA. Twenty-three volunteers not complaining of halitosis were included as the control group. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney's U-test were used for statistical analysis. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of salivary cortisol in the PH group as compared with GH and control groups (p<0.05). Concentrations of IgA and chromogranin A in saliva were not significantly different among the three groups. In addition, higher salivary cortisol concentrations were found in CMI scale III and IV (tendency towards neurosis) than in scale I and II (normal) (p<0.05). Since salivary cortisol reflects a status of chronic stress condition, psychosomatic halitosis might be closely related to this state of chronic stress. Determination of cortisol levels in saliva may provide useful information for evaluating the mental status of patients complaining of halitosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral hygiene practices, periodontal conditions, dentition status and self-reported bad mouth breath among young mothers, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mumghamba, E G S; Manji, K P; Michael, J

    2006-11-01

    To determine the oral hygiene practices, periodontal conditions, dentition status and self-reported bad mouth breath (S-BMB) among young mothers. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 302 postpartum mothers, aged 14-44 years, were interviewed on oral hygiene practices and S-BMB using structured questionnaire. Oral hygiene, dentition and periodontal status were assessed using the Community Periodontal Index probe and gingival recessions (GR) using Williams Periodontal probe. Tooth brushing practice was 99%; tongue brushing (95%), plastic toothbrush users (96%), chewing stick (1%), wooden toothpicks (76%), dental floss (<1%); and toothpaste (93%). The prevalence of plaque and gingival bleeding on probing was 100%, gum bleeding during tooth brushing (33%), calculus (99%), probing periodontal pocket depth (PPD) 4-5 mm (27%), PPD 6+ mm (3%), GR 1+ mm (27%) and tooth decay (55%). The prevalence of S-BMB was 14%; the S-BMB had higher mean number of sites with plaque compared to the no S-BMB group (P=0.04). Factors associated with S-BMB were gum bleeding on tooth brushing (OR=2.4) and PPD 6+ mm (OR=5.4). Self-reported bad mouth breath is a cause of concern among young mothers, and associated significant factors were gum bleeding on tooth brushing and deep periodontal pockets of 6+ mm. Further research involving clinical diagnosis of bad mouth breath and intervention through oral health promotion and periodontal therapy are recommended. This study provides baseline information on oral health status and the complaint on bad mouth breath which necessitates in the future need for objective assessment, diagnosis and management of bad mouth breath for enhanced social and professional interaction without embarrassment.

  14. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark essential oil on the halitosis-associated bacterium Solobacterium moorei and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    LeBel, Geneviève; Haas, Bruno; Adam, Andrée-Ann; Veilleux, Marie-Pier; Lagha, Amel Ben; Grenier, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Halitosis, also known as bad breath or oral malodour, is a condition affecting a large proportion of the population. Solobacterium moorei is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has been specifically associated with halitosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of essential oils, more particularly cinnamon bark oil, on growth, biofilm formation, eradication and killing, as well as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) production by S. moorei. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils. Biofilm formation was assessed by a crystal violet staining assay and scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm of S. moorei was characterized by enzymatic treatments. Biofilm killing was determined by a luminescence assay monitoring ATP production. H 2 S production was quantified with a colorimetric assay. The biocompatibility of cinnamon oil was investigated using a gingival keratinocyte cell line. Among the ten essential oils tested, cinnamon oil was found to be the most powerful against S. moorei with MIC and MBC values of 0.039% and 0.156%, respectively. The biofilm formed by S. moorei was then characterized. The fact that DNase I and to a lesser extent proteinase K significantly reduced biofilm formation by S. moorei and induced its eradication suggests that the extracellular matrix of S. moorei biofilm may be mainly containing a DNA backbone associated with proteins. At concentrations below the MIC, cinnamon oil reduced S. moorei biofilm formation that resulted from an attenuation of bacterial growth. It was also found that treatment of a pre-formed biofilm of S. moorei with cinnamon oil significantly decreased its viability although it did not cause its eradication. Cinnamon oil had an inhibitory effect on the production of H 2 S by S. moorei. Lastly, it was found that at concentrations effective against S. moorei, no significant loss of viability in gingival keratinocytes occurred after a 1-h exposure. Our study brought

  15. Use of traditional plants in management of halitosis in a Moroccan population

    PubMed Central

    Akkaoui, Sanae; Ennibi, Oum keltoum

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The use of medicinal plants was a very spread therapeutic way. At present, several studies are moving toward this ancestral option, seen the emergence of several bacterial resistance and for the large number of side effects of some synthetic drugs. Objective: The objective of this study was to collect and evaluate information on medicinal plants commonly used in five Moroccan cities: Rabat, Salé, Témara, Khémisset, and Tiflet for the management of halitosis. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey; conducted among 171 herbalists. The tool of the study was a questionnaire filled by herbalists. SPSS in its version 13 was used for statistical calculations. Quantitative variables were expressed as a mean and standard deviation. Categorical variables were expressed as numbers and percentage. Results: Analysis of the results of this study identified 23 plants that are used the most. The herbal knowledge herbalists prescribed on the toxicity of plants and their side effects were appreciated. Conclusions: Preliminary results presented in this work allow knowing the plants used by this population. This data could be the basis for experimental and clinical studies to promote the use of natural agents in the treatment of bad breath. PMID:28894624

  16. An evaluation of microbial profile in halitosis with tongue coating using PCR (polymerase chain reaction)- a clinical and microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj R, Dinesh; Bhushan, Kala S; K L, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Medline search using key words halitosis, tongue coating, polymerase chain reaction, microbial profile did not reveal any study. Hence, the purpose of the present investigation was to assess the malodor using the organoleptic method and tanita device; to quantify odoriferous microorganisms using Polymerase Chain Reaction technique in chronic periodontitis patients. The study included 30 chronic periodontitis patients. Halitosis was detected using organoleptic assessment & tanita breath alert. Microbial analysis of Pg, Tf & Fn was done using PCR. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. The maximum score of 3 for tongue coating was found in 60% of selected subjects. The tanita breath alert measured VSC level of score 2 in 60% of selected subjects while organoleptic score of 4 was found in 50% of subjects. The maximum mean value of 31.1±36.5 was found to be of F. nucleatum (Fn) followed by P. gingivalis (Pg) (13±13.3) & T. forsythia (Tf) (7.16±8.68) in tongue samples of selected patients. A weak positive correlation was found between VSC levels (tanita score & organoleptic score) and clinical parameters. The halitosis assessment by measuring VSC levels using organoleptic method and tanita breath alert are clinically feasible. Maximum tongue coating was found in 60% of patients. Fn was found comparatively more than the Pg & Tf. A weak positive correlation was found between VSC levels and clinical parameters such as PI, GI & GBI. Thus,the dentist/ periodontist should emphasise on tongue cleaning measures that would reduce the odoriferous microbial load.

  17. An Evaluation of Microbial Profile in Halitosis with Tongue Coating Using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)- A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj R., Dinesh; Bhushan, Kala S.; K.L., Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medline search using key words halitosis, tongue coating, polymerase chain reaction, microbial profile did not reveal any study. Hence, the purpose of the present investigation was to assess the malodor using the organoleptic method and tanita device; to quantify odoriferous microorganisms using Polymerase Chain Reaction technique in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: The study included 30 chronic periodontitis patients. Halitosis was detected using organoleptic assessment & tanita breath alert. Microbial analysis of Pg, Tf & Fn was done using PCR. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. Result: The maximum score of 3 for tongue coating was found in 60% of selected subjects. The tanita breath alert measured VSC level of score 2 in 60% of selected subjects while organoleptic score of 4 was found in 50% of subjects. The maximum mean value of 31.1±36.5 was found to be of F. nucleatum (Fn) followed by P. gingivalis (Pg) (13±13.3) & T. forsythia (Tf) (7.16±8.68) in tongue samples of selected patients. A weak positive correlation was found between VSC levels (tanita score & organoleptic score) and clinical parameters. Conclusion: The halitosis assessment by measuring VSC levels using organoleptic method and tanita breath alert are clinically feasible. Maximum tongue coating was found in 60% of patients. Fn was found comparatively more than the Pg & Tf. A weak positive correlation was found between VSC levels and clinical parameters such as PI, GI & GBI. Thus,the dentist/ periodontist should emphasise on tongue cleaning measures that would reduce the odoriferous microbial load. PMID:24596791

  18. Clinical examination of subjects with halitosis.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, A C; Riggio, M P; Rolph, H J; Bagg, J; Hodge, P J

    2007-01-01

    To develop and apply a detailed clinical protocol for screening and assessing subjects with a complaint of halitosis. Cross-sectional. Several methods were used to recruit subjects with a complaint of halitosis, including a newspaper advertisement. A definition of halitosis arising from within the oral cavity, which is not related to generalized chronic gingivitis, chronic periodontitis or pathology of the oral mucosa was used. An extensive list of exclusion criteria was applied at the initial visit. Eligible subjects were asked to follow strict instructions and complete a questionnaire prior to their second visit for data collection. The clinical examination consisted of an organoleptic assessment, Halimeter reading and periodontal examination. The best method of recruiting subjects was advertising. Of 66 individuals recruited, four failed to attend the screening visit and 25 were excluded. The main reasons for exclusion were poor oral hygiene and existing periodontal disease. Thirty-seven completed the full protocol, resulting in identification of 18 with halitosis and 19 controls. Application of the exclusion criteria resulted in significant attrition of eligible participants. Our results suggest that organoleptic assessment should be regarded as a useful standard for defining subjects with halitosis.

  19. Photodynamic therapy as a novel treatment for halitosis in adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Rubia Garcia; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Deana, Alessandro Melo; de Santi, Maria Eugenia Simões Onofre; Prates, Renato Araujo; França, Cristiane Miranda; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2014-11-14

    results of this trial will determine the efficacy of using photodynamic therapy alone or in combination with a tongue scraper to treat bad breath in adolescents. The protocol for this study was registered with Clinical Trials (registration number NCT02007993) on 10 December 2013.

  20. Halitosis: a new definition and classification.

    PubMed

    Aydin, M; Harvey-Woodworth, C N

    2014-07-11

    There is no universally accepted, precise definition, nor standardisation in terminology and classification of halitosis. To propose a new definition, free from subjective descriptions (faecal, fish odour, etc), one-time sulphide detector readings and organoleptic estimation of odour levels, and excludes temporary exogenous odours (for example, from dietary sources). Some terms previously used in the literature are revised. A new aetiologic classification is proposed, dividing pathologic halitosis into Type 1 (oral), Type 2 (airway), Type 3 (gastroesophageal), Type 4 (blood-borne) and Type 5 (subjective). In reality, any halitosis complaint is potentially the sum of these types in any combination, superimposed on the Type 0 (physiologic odour) present in health. This system allows for multiple diagnoses in the same patient, reflecting the multifactorial nature of the complaint. It represents the most accurate model to understand halitosis and forms an efficient and logical basis for clinical management of the complaint.

  1. Halitosis: Current concepts on etiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Uditi; Sharma, Gaurav; Juneja, Manish; Nagpal, Archna

    2016-01-01

    Halitosis or oral malodor is an offensive odor originating from the oral cavity, leading to anxiety and psychosocial embarrassment. A patient with halitosis is most likely to contact primary care practitioner for the diagnosis and management. With proper diagnosis, identification of the etiology and timely referrals certain steps are taken to create a successful individualized therapeutic approach for each patient seeking assistance. It is significant to highlight the necessity of an interdisciplinary method for the treatment of halitosis to prevent misdiagnosis or unnecessary treatment. The literature on halitosis, especially with randomized clinical trials, is scarce and additional studies are required. This article succinctly focuses on the development of a systematic flow of events to come to the best management of the halitosis from the primary care practitioner's point of view. PMID:27095913

  2. Halitosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Halitosis can be caused by oral disease or by respiratory tract conditions such as sinusitis, tonsillitis, and bronchiectasis, but an estimated 40% of affected individuals have no underlying organic disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with physiological halitosis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2013 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: artificial saliva; cleaning, brushing, or scraping the tongue; regular use of mouthwash; sugar-free chewing gums; and zinc toothpastes. PMID:25234037

  3. Halitosis amongst students in tertiary institutions in Lagos state.

    PubMed

    Arinola, J E; Olukoju, O O

    2012-12-01

    Halitosis is defined as a noticeable unpleasant odor from the mouth. It is a medico-social problem that affects a significant number of people around the world. Research reveals that nearly 50% of the adult population has halitosis. To determine level of awareness of halitosis and prevalence of the condition amongst students in tertiary institutions as a baseline survey. For this project, 100 students from three tertiary institutions in Lagos state were chosen: University of Lagos, Lagos State University, Ojo campus and Yaba College of Technology. A semi-structured questionnaire and practical testing/diagnostic tool were utilized. Data collected was collated and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS statistical software. Most of the respondents were single and Christian. Level of awareness of halitosis was high. Results showed that 15%, 2% and 22% from UNILAG, LASU and YCT respectively said they had halitosis. Using the diagnostic tool, 6%, 8% and 2% respectively were positive for halitosis. There is high level of awareness of halitosis among the respondents. The prevalence of the disorder is low, however, it is recommended that enlightenment campaigns be mounted in schools to improve level of awareness and treatment seeking.

  4. Halitosis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Halitosis can be caused by oral disease, or by respiratory tract conditions such as sinusitis, tonsillitis, and bronchiectasis, but an estimated 40% of affected individuals have no underlying organic disease. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with physiological halitosis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2008 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: artificial saliva; cleaning, brushing, or scraping the tongue; diet modification; regular or single use of mouthwash; sugar-free chewing gums; and zinc toothpastes. PMID:19445739

  5. Prevalence and awareness of halitosis in a sample of Jordanian population

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, Mohammad M.; Darwazeh, Azmi MG.; Al-Waeli, Haider; Tarakji, Bassel; Alhadithy, Teeb T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and awareness of halitosis among the subjects of a population, and also to compare the results of Halimeter® readings to self-estimation of halitosis and to assess the relationship between halitosis and oral health. Materials and Methods: A sample of 205 employees from the Jordan University for Science and Technology (JUST) were selected as study subjects. A standardized questionnaire focusing on dental hygiene, self-reported halitosis, and smoking was filled by all participants. In the clinical examination, the objective values for assessment of oral health and the presence of halitosis were gathered through an organoleptic test (OLT) and the measurement of volatile sulfur compound (VSC) level by Halimeter for each participant. Results: The prevalence of halitosis was 78%, with low rate of awareness (20.5%). The amount of TC played the most important role in increasing the concentration of VSCs in mouth air (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A statistically significant correlation was found between OLT and Halimeter values (P < 0.001). Subjective patients’ opinion did not correlate with the objective evaluation of halitosis. TC scores and smoking were the factors significantly associated to halitosis. The Halimeter showed promising characteristics regarding diagnosis of halitosis for clinical setting and field surveys. PMID:25625076

  6. Historical and social aspects of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Marina Sá; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Buccal odors have always been a factor of concern for society. This study aims to investigate the historical and social base of halitosis, through systematized research in the database BVS (biblioteca virtual em saúde - virtual library in health) and also in books. Lack of knowledge on how to prevent halitosis allows for its occurrence, limiting quality of life. As social relationships are one of the pillars of the quality of life concept, halitosis needs to be considered a factor of negative interference. Education in health should be accomplished with a view to a dynamic balance, involving human beings' physical and psychological aspects, as well as their social interactions, so that individuals do not become jigsaw puzzles of sick parts.

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis.

  9. Estimated prevalence of halitosis: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Manuela F; Leite, Fábio R M; Ferreira, Larissa B; Pola, Natália M; Scannapieco, Frank A; Demarco, Flávio F; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to conduct a systematic review to determine the prevalence of halitosis in adolescents and adults. Electronic searches were performed using four different databases without restrictions: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and SciELO. Population-based observational studies that provided data about the prevalence of halitosis in adolescents and adults were included. Additionally, meta-analyses, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to synthesize the evidence. A total of 584 articles were initially found and considered for title and abstract evaluation. Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria. The combined prevalence of halitosis was found to be 31.8% (95% CI 24.6-39.0%). Methodological aspects such as the year of publication and the socioeconomic status of the country where the study was conducted seemed to influence the prevalence of halitosis. Our results demonstrated that the estimated prevalence of halitosis was 31.8%, with high heterogeneity between studies. The results suggest a worldwide trend towards a rise in halitosis prevalence. Given the high prevalence of halitosis and its complex etiology, dental professionals should be aware of their roles in halitosis prevention and treatment.

  10. Oral Malodor and Related Factors in Japanese Senior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Sayaka; Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oral malodor (halitosis or bad breath) might be an important motivation tool for improving oral health in adolescents. There are few studies that report the epidemiology of oral malodor in high school students and the relationships with lifestyle and oral health status. This research was conducted to obtain underlying data for…

  11. Flavoring agents present in a dentifrice can modify volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) formation in morning bad breath.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Salvador, Sérgio Luis; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; Nogueira-Filho, Getúlio da Rocha

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a flavor-containing dentifrice on the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in morning bad breath. A two-step, blinded, crossover, randomized study was carried out in 50 dental students with a healthy periodontium divided into two experimental groups: flavor-containing dentifrice (test) and non-flavor-containing dentifrice (control). The volunteers received the designated dentifrice and a new toothbrush for a 3 X/day brushing regimen for 2 periods of 30 days. A seven-day washout interval was used between the periods. The assessed parameters were: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), organoleptic breath scores (ORG), VSC levels (as measured by a portable sulphide monitor) before (H1) and after (H2) cleaning of the tongue, tongue coating (TC) wet weight and BANA test from TC samples. The intra-group analysis showed a decrease in ORG, from 3 to 2, after 30 days for the test group (p < 0.05). The inter-group analysis showed lower values in ORG, H1 and H2 for the test group (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the amount of TC between groups and the presence of flavor also did not interfere in the BANA results between groups (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that a flavor-containing dentifrice seems to prevent VSCs formation in morning bad breath regardless of the amount of TC in periodontally healthy subjects.

  12. Relationships between pathologic subjective halitosis, olfactory reference syndrome, and social anxiety in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Miho; Takahashi, Toru; Tokunaga, Miki; Iwasaki, Masanori; Kataoka, Shota; Kakuta, Satoko; Soh, Inho; Awano, Shuji; Hirata, Hiromi; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2017-03-14

    Pathologic subjective halitosis is known as a halitosis complaint without objective confirmation of halitosis by others or by halitometer measurements; it has been reported to be associated with social anxiety disorder. Olfactory reference syndrome is a preoccupation with the false belief that one emits a foul and offensive body odor. Generally, patients with olfactory reference syndrome are concerned with multiple body parts. However, the mouth is known to be the most common source of body odor for those with olfactory reference syndrome, which could imply that the two conditions share similar features. Therefore, we investigated potential causal relationships among pathologic subjective halitosis, olfactory reference syndrome, social anxiety, and preoccupations with body part odors. A total of 1360 female students (mean age 19.6 ± 1.1 years) answered a self-administered questionnaire regarding pathologic subjective halitosis, olfactory reference syndrome, social anxiety, and preoccupation with odors of body parts such as mouth, body, armpits, and feet. The scale for pathologic subjective halitosis followed that developed by Tsunoda et al.; participants were divided into three groups based on their scores (i.e., levels of pathologic subjective halitosis). A Bayesian network was used to analyze causal relationships between pathologic subjective halitosis, olfactory reference syndrome, social anxiety, and preoccupations with body part odors. We found statistically significant differences in the results for olfactory reference syndrome and social anxiety among the various levels of pathologic subjective halitosis (P < 0.001). Residual analyses indicated that students with severe levels of pathologic subjective halitosis showed greater preoccupations with mouth and body odors (P < 0.05). Bayesian network analysis showed that social anxiety directly influenced pathologic subjective halitosis and olfactory reference syndrome. Preoccupations with mouth and

  13. Association among bad breath, body mass index, and alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M; Knaan, T; Cohen, D

    2007-10-01

    Bad breath is a common condition, difficult to assess in the general population. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a self-administered questionnaire can help identify factors associated with greater risk of oral malodor. Persons (n = 88) undergoing routine medical check-ups completed a questionnaire including 38 questions on general and oral health, dietary habits, and their own oral malodor levels. Oral malodor assessments included odor judge scores, volatile sulfide levels (via a Halimeter, Interscan Corp.), and salivary beta-galactosidase. Among the questionnaire results, 9 responses were significantly associated with odor judge scores (p < 0.05, unpaired t test), including questions on alcohol intake and body mass index (BMI). Predictions of odor judge scores based on these 9 questions (linear multiple regression analysis) yielded R = 0.601; when introduced together with Halimeter and beta-galactosidase scores, the correlation rose to R = 0.843. The results suggest that alcohol intake and BMI may be factors that help predict oral malodor.

  14. Halitosis associated volatile sulphur compound levels in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    PubMed

    Avincsal, Mehmet Ozgur; Altundag, Aytug; Ulusoy, Seckin; Dinc, Mehmet Emre; Dalgic, Abdullah; Topak, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Previous reports have suggested that laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) may cause halitosis. However, it remains unclear if LPR is a risk factor for halitosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients diagnosed with LPR have an increased probability of halitosis compared to a normal population. Fifty-eight patients complaining of LPR symptoms and 35 healthy subjects were included in the study. A LPR diagnosis was made using an ambulatory 24-h double pH-probe monitor, which is the gold standard diagnostic tool for LPR. Additionally, halitosis was evaluated by measuring the levels of volatile sulphur compounds using OralChroma™ and an organoleptic test score. The result of the final diagnosis of the 58 patients after the 24 h ambulatory pH monitoring was that 42 patients had LPR. Significant correlations were observed between the organoleptic test score and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) levels. These were also significantly correlated with LPR. We found a strong positive association between LPR and volatile sulphur compound levels. The H2S and CH3SH levels differed significantly between the LPR and control groups (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Halitosis was significantly associated with the occurrence and severity of LPR. The present study provides clear evidence for an association between halitosis and LPR. Halitosis has a high frequency in patients with LPR and reflux characteristics are directly related to their severity and therefore could be considered as a manifestation of LPR.

  15. A Current Approach to Halitosis and Oral Malodor- A Mini Review.

    PubMed

    Bicak, Damla Aksit

    2018-01-01

    Halitosis, in other words, oral malodor is an important multifactorial health problem affecting the psychological and social life of individuals and is the most common reason for referral to dentists after dental caries and periodontal diseases. The objective of this review was to present and discuss conventional and recently introduced information about the types, causes, detection and treatment methods of halitosis. An expanded literature review was conducted which targeted all articles published in peer-reviewed journals relating to the topic of halitosis. Only articles written in Turkish and English languages were considered. The review itself began with a search of relevant subject headings such as 'halitosis, oral malodor, volatile sulfur compounds in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar and Tubitak Ulakbim databases. A hand search of references was also performed. When search results are combined, the total number of relevant literature was found to be 4646 abstracts and 978 full-text articles. Abstracts, editorial letters were not included and about half of full-text articles were not related to dental practice. Among the remaining 124 full-text articles, duplicated articles and articles written other than Turkish and English languages were removed and 54 full-text articles were used for this review. According to the reviewed articles, both conventional and new methods were introduced in the management of halitosis. However, conventional methods seem to be more effective and widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of halitosis. As being first line professionals, dentists must analyze and treat oral problems which may be responsible for the patient's malodor, and should inform the patient about halitosis causes and oral hygiene procedures (tooth flossing, tongue cleaning, appropriate mouthwash and toothpaste selection and use) and if the problem persists, they should consult to a medical specialist.

  16. Relationship between halitosis and periodontal disease - associated oral bacteria in tongue coatings.

    PubMed

    Amou, T; Hinode, D; Yoshioka, M; Grenier, D

    2014-05-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between halitosis and oral bacteria in tongue coating (TC) and saliva samples from patients with halitosis, and to evaluate the effect of tongue cleaning on halitosis. Ninety-four participants complaining of oral malodour were included in the study. Organoleptic (OR) values, volatile sulphur compound (VSC) concentrations determined by gas chromatography and TC scores were used as clinical parameters of halitosis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were used to determine the numbers of periodontal disease-associated oral bacteria. There was a significant correlation between TC scores and OR values, methylmercaptan (CH3 SH) concentrations and VSC concentrations (Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient test, P < 0.01). There was also a positive correlation between the clinical parameters of halitosis and total bacterial numbers and Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Campylobacter rectus concentrations in the TC samples. However, there was no similar correlation with respect to the saliva samples. The participants were sub-divided into two groups based on whether they had the habit of tongue cleaning or not. The participants with the habit of tongue cleaning had significantly lower OR scores, VSC concentrations and P. intermedia, F. nucleatum and C. rectus levels than the other participants (Mann-Whitney U-test, P < 0.05). These results suggested that periodontal disease-associated oral bacteria in TCs are closely related to halitosis and that tongue cleaning may be an effective method for improving halitosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Human breath odors and their use in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Chris L; Fakharzadeh, Steven; Eades, Jason; Preti, George

    2007-03-01

    Humans emit a complex array of volatile and nonvolatile molecules that are influenced by an individual's genetics, health, diet, and stress. Olfaction is the most ancient of our distal senses and may be used to evaluate food and environmental toxins as well as recognize kin and potential predators. Many body odors evolved to be olfactory messengers, which convey information between individuals. Consequently, those practicing the healing arts have used olfaction to aid in their diagnosis of disease since the dawn of medical practice. Studies using modern instrumental analyses have focused upon analysis of breath volatiles for biomarkers of internal diseases. In these studies, a subject's oral health status appears to seldom be considered. However, saliva and properly collected alveolar air samples must pass over or come in contact with the posterior dorsal surface of the tongue, a site of bacterial plaque development and source of halitosis-related volatiles. Because of our basic research into the nature of human body odors, our lab has received referrals of people with idiopathic malodor production, from either the oral cavity or body. We developed a protocol to help differentiate individuals with chronic halitosis from those with the genetic, odor-producing metabolic disorder trimethylaminuria (TMAU). In our referred population, TMAU is the largest cause of undiagnosed body odor. Many TMAU-positive individuals present with oral symptoms of dysguesia and halitosis as well as body odor. We present data regarding the presentation of our referred subjects as well as the analytical results from a small number of these subjects regarding their oral levels of halitosis-related malodorants and trimethylamine.

  18. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide mouthwash against halitosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestari, M. D.; Sunarto, H.; Kemal, Y.

    2017-08-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of using chlorine dioxide mouthwash in addressing halitosis. Forty people were divided equally into the test group (required to gargle with mouthwash containing chlorine dioxide) and the control group (required to gargle with aquadest). The volatile sulfur compound (VSC) and organoleptic scores were measured before gargling and 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h after. The Wilcoxon test analysis showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean value of VSC scores between the test group and the control group in four testing periods after gargling. Chlorine dioxide mouthwash is effective in addressing halitosis.

  19. Molecular identification of bacteria on the tongue dorsum of subjects with and without halitosis.

    PubMed

    Riggio, M P; Lennon, A; Rolph, H J; Hodge, P J; Donaldson, A; Maxwell, A J; Bagg, J

    2008-04-01

    Compare the microbial profiles on the tongue dorsum in patients with halitosis and control subjects in a UK population using culture-independent techniques. Halitosis patients were screened according to our recently developed recruitment protocol. Scrapings from the tongue dorsum were obtained for 12 control subjects and 20 halitosis patients. Bacteria were identified by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The predominant species found in the control samples were Lysobacter-type species, Streptococcus salivarius, Veillonella dispar, unidentified oral bacterium, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Atopobium parvulum and Veillonella atypica. In the halitosis samples, Lysobacter-type species, S. salivarius, Prevotella melaninogenica, unidentified oral bacterium, Prevotella veroralis and Prevotella pallens were the most commonly found species. For the control samples, 13-16 (4.7-5.8%) of 276 clones represented uncultured species, whereas in the halitosis samples, this proportion increased to 6.5-9.6% (36-53 of 553 clones). In the control samples, 22 (8.0%) of 276 clones represented potentially novel phylotypes, and in the halitosis samples, this figure was 39 (7.1%) of 553 clones. The microflora associated with the tongue dorsum is complex in both the control and halitosis groups, but several key species predominate in both groups.

  20. Association between oral habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, C; Paolantonio, E G; Antonini, G; Saulle, R; La Torre, G; Deli, R

    2016-10-01

    The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion. The results showed that an increase in the degree of the index increases the prevalence of bad habits and mouth breathing, meaning that these factors are associated with more severe malocclusions. Moreover, we found a significant association of bad habits with increased overjet and openbite, while no association was found with crossbite. Additionally, we found that mouth breathing is closely related to increased overjet, reduced overjet, anterior or posterior crossbite, openbite and displacement of contact points. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene early on these aetiological factors of malocclusion to prevent its development or worsening and, if already developed, correct it by early orthodontic treatment to promote eugnatic skeletal growth. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  1. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1997-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor.

  2. Korea red ginseng on Helicobacter pylori-induced halitosis: newer therapeutic strategy and a plausible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Sang; Kwon, Kwang An; Jung, Hyeon Sik; Kim, Joo Hyeon; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2009-01-01

    Gas chromatographic documentation of volatile sulfur compounds in Helicobacter pylori cultures and the amelioration of halitosis after eradication suggested a causal link between H. pylori infection and halitosis. We hypothesized that Korea red ginseng can relieve H. pylori-associated halitosis based on their anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions in H. pylori-associated gastritis. Eighty-eight functional dyspepsia patients presenting with either subjective halitosis or objective halimeter levels >100 ppb were recruited, on whom tests were repeated after 10 weeks of red ginseng administration. The expressions of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), cystathionine beta-synthetase (CBS), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1beta mRNA were compared in H. pylori-infected or NaHS-treated gastric epithelial cells according to red ginseng treatment. After 10 weeks of red ginseng administration, 38 patients out of 68 H. pylori-positive cases became 'free of halitosis' accompanied with halimeter levels <50 ppb accordant with the subjective resolution of halitosis. Among the remaining 30 patients, 15 cases administered with both eradication regimen and red ginseng supplement showed either higher eradication rates (93.3%) or were found to be completely free of halitosis in comparison to the other 15 patients who were only administered the eradication regimen. Among 20 H. pylori-negative patients, 13 patients became 'free of halitosis' with 10 weeks of red ginseng treatment alone. Red ginseng extracts significantly decreased H. pylori- or NaHS-induced CSE expressions concomitant with attenuated levels of IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1beta mRNA. The strategy consisting of Korea red ginseng supplementation after the successful eradication of H. pylori could be an effective way to fight troublesome halitosis. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. A novel vaccine targeting Fusobacterium nucleatum against abscesses and halitosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Haake, Susan Kinder; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2011-01-01

    An abscess in a gum pocket, resulting from bacterial infection, is a common source of chronic halitosis. Although antibiotics are generally prescribed for abscesses, they require multiple treatments with risks of creating resistant bacterial strains. Here we develop a novel vaccine using ultraviolet-inactivated Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), a representative oral bacterium for halitosis. A gum pocket model, established by continuous inoculation of F. nucleatum, was employed to validate the vaccine potency. Mice immunized with inactivated F. nucleatum effectively minimized the progression of abscesses, measured by swollen tissues of gum pockets. Most notably, the immunized mice were capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies against the production of volatile sulfur compounds of F. nucleatum. The novel vaccine inducing protective immunity provides an alternative option to conventional antibiotic treatments for chronic halitosis associated with abscesses. PMID:19162109

  4. Tongue scraping for treating halitosis.

    PubMed

    Outhouse, T L; Al-Alawi, R; Fedorowicz, Z; Keenan, J V

    2006-04-19

    Halitosis is used to describe any disagreeable odour of expired air regardless of its origin. Mouthwashes which disguise oral malodor are more socially acceptable and generally more popular than tongue scrapers. To provide reliable evidence regarding the effectiveness of tongue scraping versus other interventions (including mouthwashes) to control halitosis. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 15th September 2005); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3 2005); MEDLINE 1966 to September Week 1 2005; EMBASE 1974 to September 2005 (searched September 19th 2005). Randomized controlled trials comparing different methods of tongue cleaning to reduce mouth odour in adults with halitosis. Clinical heterogeneity between the two included trials precluded pooling of data, therefore a descriptive summary is presented. This review included two trials involving 40 participants. Both trials were methodologically sound but included no data for the primary outcomes specified in this review. Secondary outcomes expressed as volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels were assessed by a portable sulfide monitor in both trials. One trial showed reductions of VSC levels of 42% with the tongue cleaner, 40% with the tongue scraper and 33% with the toothbrush. Reduced VSC levels persisted longer with the tongue cleaner than the toothbrush and could not be detected for more than 30 minutes after the intervention in any of the groups. Differences were assessed by the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests with the level of significance set at P < 0.05. The second trial, in which differences in totaled rank values between groups were compared by the Dunn method alpha = 0.01, showed a reduction of VSC levels compared with baseline measurements of 75% with the tongue scraper and 45% with the toothbrush. Adverse effects in one trial were nausea (60%) and trauma (10%) with the toothbrush and all participants

  5. [Effects on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elders after oral function improvement exercises].

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Park, Kyung Min

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elderly people. The participants in the study were 48 female community-dwelling elders in D city. The Oral Function Improvement Exercises were given 3 times a week, for a total of 24 times from August to October 2011. Spitting method, Visual Analogue Scale, and halimeter (mBA-21) were used to evaluate the effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia, and halitosis. The data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program. The experimental group had significantly better salivation, and less xerostomia and halitosis than the control group. The results indicate that Oral Function Improvement Exercises were effective for salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in the elders. Therefore, it was suggested that Oral Function Improvement Exercise are applicable in a community nursing intervention program to improve the quality of life for elders.

  6. Antimicrobial effects of a new therapeutic liquid dentifrice formulation on oral bacteria including odorigenic species.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, P K; Furgang, D; Zhang, Y; DeVizio, W; Fine, D H

    2005-03-01

    The control of oral malodor is well-recognized in efforts to improve oral health. Antimicrobial formulations can mitigate oral malodor, however, procedures to assess effects on oral bacteria including those implicated in halitosis are unavailable. This investigation examined the antimicrobial effects of a new liquid triclosan/copolymer dentifrice (test) formulation that demonstrated significant inhibition of oral malodor in previous organoleptic clinical studies. Procedures compared antimicrobial effects of the test and control formulations on a range of oral micro-organisms including members implicated in halitosis, substantive antimicrobial effects of formulations with hydroxyapatite as a surrogate for human teeth and ex vivo effects on oral bacteria from human volunteers. With Actinomyces viscosus, as a model system, the test formulation demonstrated a dose-dependent effect. At these concentrations the test formulation provided significant antimicrobial effects on 13 strains of oral bacteria including those implicated in bad breath at selected posttreatment time points. Treatment of hydroxyapatite by the test dentifrice resulted in a significant and substantive antimicrobial effect vs. controls. Oral bacteria from subjects treated ex vivo with the test dentifrice resulted in significant reductions in cultivable oral bacteria and odorigenic bacteria producing hydrogen sulfide. In summary, microbiological methods adapted to study odorigenic bacteria demonstrate the significant antimicrobial effects of the test (triclosan/copolymer) dentifrice with laboratory and clinical strains of oral bacteria implicated in bad breath.

  7. Social relations and breath odour.

    PubMed

    McKeown, L

    2003-11-01

    In this retrospective qualitative study, the researcher reviewed 55 client records of The Breath Odour Clinic. The purpose was to determine if individuals attended a clinic specialised in treating oral malodour for medical or social reasons. The study focused on the psychosocial and breath odour history. Clients had agreed to the use of information for research purposes. Society uses odour as a means to define and interact with the world. The olfactory, smelling experience is intimate, emotionally charged and connects us with the world. It follows that the smell from mouth breath odour can connect or disconnect a person from their social environment and intimate relationships. How one experiences one's own body is very personal and private but also very public. Breath odour is public as it occurs within a social and cultural context and personal as it affects one's body image and self-confidence. Body image, self-image and social relations mesh, interact and impact upon each other. Breath odour is a dynamic and interactive aspect of the self-image. In addition, breath odour may be value-coded as 'bad'. In 75% of the cases reviewed, decreased self-confidence and insecurity in social and intimate relations led clients to seek treatment at the specialised breath odour clinic. Their doctor, dental hygienist or dentist had treated medical and oral conditions but not resolved their breath odour problem. When a person perceives a constant bad breath problem, she/he uses defence techniques, and may avoid social situations and social relations. This affects a person's well-being.

  8. The effect of periodontal therapy on intra-oral halitosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Erovic Ademovski, Seida; Mårtensson, Carina; Persson, G Rutger; Renvert, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on intra-oral halitosis 3 months after therapy. Sixty-eight adults with intra-oral halitosis were included in a case series. Intra-oral halitosis was evaluated at baseline, and at 3 months after treatment using the organoleptic scores (OLS), Halimeter ® , and a gas chromatograph. Significant reductions for OLS (p < 0.01), total sum of volatile sulphur compounds (T-VSC) (p < 0.01) and methyl mercaptan (MM) (p < 0.05) values were found after treatment. Hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) levels were not significantly reduced. The numbers of probing pockets 4 mm, 5 mm and 6 mm were significantly reduced as a result of therapy (p < 0.001). Bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001). For the 34 individuals with successful periodontal treatment (BOP<20% and a ≥50% reduction of total pocket depth) reductions in OLS (p < 0.01) and T-VSC scores (p < 0.01) were found. Eleven individuals were considered effectively treated for intra-oral halitosis presenting with a T-VSC value <160 ppb, a H 2 S value <112 ppb and a MM value <26 ppb. Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in reduction of OLS, MM and T-VSC values 3 months after therapy. Few individuals were considered as effectively treated for intra-oral halitosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Halitosis as a product of hepatic disease.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, M; Beushausen, M; Feng, C; Beech, A; Baur, D

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated halitosis in patients suffering from hepatic disease. Twenty-five patients (12 males and 13 females) aged between 16 and 73 years who had undergone treatment for liver disease were included in this study. Three halimeter recordings were performed to measure methyl mercarptan and hydrogen sulphite. Mean values were calculated and compared with normal values (75-120 ppb). The level of significance was set at P < .05. Results: Thirteen of the 25 subjects (52%) had normal Volatile Sulphur Compound (VSC) values (75-120 ppb). Twelve subjects (48%) recorded values ranging from 132 to 1112 ppb. There was no correlation between hepatic pathology and halitosis. Fifty-two percent of all subjects had poor oral hygiene, strongly correlated with high VSC values (P<0.05) whereas the remaining 48% with good hygiene had normal levels of VSC. Within the limitations of this study, high values of VSC were not associated with the presence of hepatic disease.

  10. The impact of chewing gum on halitosis parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes; Friedrich, Stephanie Anagnostopoulos; Silveira, Carina Folgearini; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2017-02-17

    This study aimed to analyze the impact of chewing gum on halitosis parameters. Three databases were searched with the following focused question: 'Can chewing gum additionally reduce halitosis parameters, such as organoleptic scores and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), when compared to a control treatment'? Controlled clinical trials presenting at least two halitosis measurements (organoleptic scores and/or VSC) were included. Ten studies were included, and different active ingredients were used. One study was performed using a chewing gum without any active ingredient. Chewing gum containing probiotic bacterium was shown to significantly reduce the organoleptic scores. Chewing gums containing zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract as well as allylisothiocyanate (AITC) with zinc lactate significantly reduced the levels of VSC in comparison to a placebo chewing gum. Furthermore, a sodium bicarbonate-containing chewing gum significantly reduced the VSC levels in comparison to rinsing with water. Furthermore, eucalyptus-extract chewing gum showed significant reductions in both organoleptic scores and VSC when compared with a control chewing gum. Chewing gum containing sucrose was able to reduce the VSC levels, in comparison to xylitol and zinc citrate chewing gum, but only for 5 min. It was concluded that chewing gums containing probiotics Lactobaccilus, zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract, eucalyptus-extract, and AITC with zinc lactate may be suitable for halitosis management. However, the low number of included studies and the high heterogeneity among the selected studies may limit the clinical applications of these findings.

  11. [Significance of bad habits in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Tarján, Ildikó

    2002-08-01

    The author is concerned with the etiological role of bad habits in the development. Disturbances caused by pacifier habits, finger sucking, various forms of swallowing habits and their therapeutical possibilities are discussed. The role of mouth breathing, nail biting, bruxism and self-mutilation in development of anomalies and their therapy are also mentioned. The attention is called to the fact that dentists have responsibility and task to diagnose as early as can be the oral bad habits and that the adequate therapy in time in co-operation with other specialists helping the child get out of bad habits, preventing the development of severe anomaly.

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux, dental erosion, and halitosis in epidemiological surveys: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Juliane A; de Moura-Grec, Patrícia G; Bonato, Rafaela C S; Sales-Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    In published studies, it has been suggested that dental wear is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This systematic review was carried out to evaluate the association of GERD, dental erosion, and halitosis and to compare the indices adopted in epidemiological surveys. The Medline database (until October, 2011) was searched systematically to identify studies evaluating the prevalence of oral alterations, such as dental erosion and halitosis, in patients with GERD symptoms. Two reviewers analyzed all reports and the selected studies were evaluated according to the quality of evidence, using the validated Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Full-text copies of a total of 32 publications were obtained in duplicate. Sixteen publications were identified among the citations in the Bibliographic lists of studies that fulfilled the exclusion/inclusion criteria and quality of evidence. The relationship between dental erosion and GERD patients was significant in only seven studies. According to three studies, halitosis could be one of several extraesophageal symptoms or manifestations in GERD patients. In one study, it was found that the mucosa of GERD patients was significantly more acidic in comparison with that of the control group. This systematic review showed that there is a relationship between GERD and oral diseases (dental erosion and halitosis). The epidemiological surveys used different indices to analyze GERD and dental erosion. Further research could investigate the best method for assessing the two diseases.

  13. Systemic effects of H2S inhalation at human equivalent dose of pathologic halitosis on rats.

    PubMed

    Yalçın Yeler, Defne; Aydin, Murat; Gül, Mehmet; Hocaoğlu, Turgay; Özdemir, Hakan; Koraltan, Melike

    2017-10-01

    Halitosis is composed by hundreds of toxic gases. It is still not clear whether halitosis gases self-inhaled by halitosis patients cause side effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of H 2 S inhalation at a low concentration (human equivalent dose of pathologic halitosis) on rats. The threshold level of pathologic halitosis perceived by humans at 250 ppb of H 2 S was converted to rat equivalent concentration (4.15 ppm). In the experimental group, 8 rats were exposed to H 2 S via continuous inhalation but not the control rats. After 50 days, blood parameters were measured and tissue samples were obtained from the brain, kidney and liver and examined histopathologically to determine any systemic effect. While aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase levels were found to be significantly elevated, carbondioxide and alkaline phosphatase were decreased in experimental rats. Other blood parameters were not changed significantly. Experimental rats lost weight and became anxious. Histopathological examination showed mononuclear inflammatory cell invasion in the portal areas, nuclear glycogen vacuoles in the parenchymal area, single-cell necrosis in a few foci, clear expansion in the central hepatic vein and sinusoids, hyperplasia in Kupffer cells and potential fibrous tissue expansion in the portal areas in the experimental rats. However, no considerable histologic damage was observed in the brain and kidney specimens. It can be concluded that H 2 S inhalation equivalent to pathologic halitosis producing level in humans may lead to systemic effects, particularly heart or liver damage in rats.

  14. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  15. The effect of different mouth rinse products on intra-oral halitosis.

    PubMed

    Erovic Ademovski, S; Lingström, P; Renvert, S

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of different mouth rinses 12 h after rinsing on genuine intra-oral halitosis. Twenty-four adults with halitosis were included in a double-blind, crossover, randomized clinical trial. Halitosis was evaluated 12 h after rinsing with placebo and five mouth rinse products containing zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate; zinc lactate, chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride; zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate with reduced amounts of mint and menthol; zinc chloride and essential oil; and chlorine dioxide using the organoleptic method and a gas chromatograph. Test periods were separated by 1 week. Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and the organoleptic scores (OLS) were significantly reduced 12 h following rinsing with all substances compared to placebo (P < 0.05). H2 S was more effectively reduced after rinsing with zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate and zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate with reduced amounts of mint and menthol compared to rinsing with zinc chloride and essential oil (P < 0.05), and significantly lower values of MM were obtained after rinsing with zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate compared to zinc lactate, chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride (P < 0.05). The percentage effectively treated individuals (H2 S (<112 ppb), MM (<26 ppb) and OLS score <2) varied from 58% percentage (zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate) to 26% (zinc chloride and essential oil). All treatments resulted in reduction in halitosis 12 h after rinsing compared to placebo. H2 S and MM were most effectively reduced by zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The short-term treatment effects on the microbiota at the dorsum of the tongue in intra-oral halitosis patients--a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ademovski, Seida Erovic; Persson, G Rutger; Winkel, Edwin; Tangerman, Albert; Lingström, Peter; Renvert, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of rinsing with zinc- and chlorhexidine-containing mouth rinse with or without adjunct tongue scraping on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in breath air, and the microbiota at the dorsum of the tongue. A randomized single-masked controlled clinical trial with a cross-over study design over 14 days including 21 subjects was performed. Bacterial samples from the dorsum of the tongue were assayed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. No halitosis (identified by VSC assessments) at day 14 was identified in 12/21 subjects with active rinse alone, in 10/21 with adjunct use of tongue scraper, in 1/21 for negative control rinse alone, and in 3/21 in the control and tongue scraping sequence. At day 14, significantly lower counts were identified only in the active rinse sequence (p < 0.001) for 15/78 species including, Fusobacterium sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Tannerella forsythia. A decrease in bacteria from baseline to day 14 was found in successfully treated subjects for 9/74 species including: P. gingivalis, Prevotella melaninogenica, S. aureus, and Treponema denticola. Baseline VSC scores were correlated with several bacterial species. The use of a tongue scraper combined with active rinse did not change the levels of VSC compared to rinsing alone. VSC scores were not associated with bacterial counts in samples taken from the dorsum of the tongue. The active rinse alone containing zinc and chlorhexidine had effects on intra-oral halitosis and reduced bacterial counts of species associated with malodor. Tongue scraping provided no beneficial effects on the microbiota studied. Periodontally healthy subjects with intra-oral halitosis benefit from daily rinsing with zinc- and chlorhexidine-containing mouth rinse.

  17. Effects of self-ligating and conventional brackets on halitosis and periodontal conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaygisiz, Emine; Uzuner, Fatma Deniz; Yuksel, Sema; Taner, Levent; Çulhaoğlu, Rana; Sezgin, Yasemin; Ateş, Can

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of fixed orthodontic treatment with steel-ligated conventional brackets and self-ligating brackets on halitosis and periodontal health. Sixty patients, at the permanent dentition stage aged 12 to 18 years, who had Angle Class I malocclusion with mild-to-moderate crowding were randomly selected. Inclusion criteria were nonsmokers, without systematic disease, and no use of antibiotics and oral mouth rinses during the 2-month period before the study. The patients were subdivided into three groups randomly: the group treated with conventional brackets (group 1, n  =  20) ligated with steel ligature wires, the group treated with self-ligating brackets (group 2, n  =  20), and the control group (group 3, n  =  20). The periodontal records were obtained 1 week before bonding (T1), immediately before bonding (T2), 1 week after bonding (T3), 4 weeks after bonding (T4), and 8 weeks after bonding (T5). Measurements of the control group were repeated within the same periods. The volatile sulfur components determining halitosis were measured with the Halimeter at T2, T3, T4, and T5. A two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the groups statistically. No statistically significant group × time interactions were found for plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, bleeding on probing, and halitosis, which means three independent groups change like each other by time. The risk of tongue coating index (TCI) being 2 was 10.2 times higher at T1 than at T5 (P < .001). Therefore, the probability of higher TCI was decreased by time in all groups. The self-ligating brackets do not have an advantage over conventional brackets with respect to periodontal status and halitosis.

  18. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended.

  19. The long-term effect of a zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate containing mouth rinse on intra-oral halitosis-A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Erovic Ademovski, Seida; Mårtensson, Carina; Persson, Gösta Rutger; Renvert, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of a zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate mouth rinse (Zn/CHX) on intra-oral halitosis. Forty-six adults with intra-oral halitosis were randomized into a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. The presence of intra-oral halitosis was evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6 months after treatment by assessment of organoleptic score (OLS) and by total volatile sulphur compounds (T-VSC), hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) and methyl mercaptan (MM) concentrations in exhaled air. A Zn/CHX mouth rinse provided significantly better control of intra-oral halitosis than a placebo mouth rinse. At 3 and 6 months, individuals rinsing with the Zn/CHX rinse presented with reductions of the OLS, T-VSC (p < .01, respectively), H 2 S (p < .001), and MM (p < .01) in subjects' exhaled air. At 6 months, 68.2% of individuals using the Zn/CHX rinse experienced a 1 or 2 category improvement in OLS compared with 19.1% of placebo-treated subjects. 91% of subjects in the Zn/CHX group were categorized as being effectively treated for intra-oral halitosis (i.e. H 2 S < 112 ppb), compared to 43% in the placebo group. Zn/CHX mouth rinse provides effective long-term efficacy against intra-oral halitosis, assessed both objectively and subjectively. With regular rinsing, the effect was sustained for 6 months. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Association between the organoleptic scores, oral condition and salivary β-galactosidases in children affected by halitosis.

    PubMed

    Petrini, M; Costacurta, M; Ferrante, M; Trentini, P; Docimo, R; Spoto, G

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate the association between organoleptic scores, oral condition and salivary β-galactosidases, to facilitate the differential diagnosis of halitosis in children. Fifty systemically healthy children with a primary complaint of oral malodour were included in this cross-sectional study. The organoleptic evaluation was carried out by two judges, evaluating the intensity of malodour of the air exhaled 5 s through the mouth of the patients, at a distance of approximately 10 cm from their noses; the level of salivary β-galactosidases was quantified spectrophotometrically after a chromatic reaction between a salivary sample of each patient and a specific chromatic substrate of the enzyme. Clinical conditions, such as visible plaque and gingival bleeding index, tongue coating score, localized food stagnation and other oral parameters, were evaluated by qualified dentists through an oral check-up. The β-galactosidase level was significantly related to the organoleptic scores and clinical parameters, such as the tongue coating score and the visible plaque index. Stratifying results with respect to the different phase of the day at which parents complained halitosis in their children, statistical analysis showed that the organoleptic scores and the level of β-galactosidases were significantly higher in children who suffered of halitosis during the whole day, A = 40%, with respect to those without this problem, N = 20% (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). Certain oral parameters such as halitosis during the whole day, high tongue coating score and high visible plaque index were particularly associated with an increase in the salivary β-galactosidase level. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), present in dentifrice, on volatile sulphur compound (VSC) formation in morning bad breath.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Daiane Cristina; Salvador, Sérgio Luis; Sallum, Antonio Wilson; da Nogueira-Filho, Getúlio Rocha

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), present in a commercial dentifrice, on the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) and tongue coating in a panel of periodontally healthy subjects. A two-step blinded, crossover, randomized study was carried out in 25 dental students with healthy periodontium; these were divided into two experimental groups: SLS (dentifrice with SLS) and WSLS (dentifrice without SLS). The volunteers received the designated dentifrice and a new toothbrush for a 3x/day brushing regimen for 2 periods of 30 days. A seven-day washout interval was used between the periods. The assessed parameters were: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), organoleptic breath (ORG), VSC levels by portable sulphide monitor before (H1) and after (H2) cleaning of the tongue, tongue coating wet weight (TC) and benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA) test from tongue coating samples. The intra-group analysis showed a decrease in the median of organoleptic scores from 3 to 2 after 30 days for the SLS group (p < 0.05). The inter-group analysis showed lower values in ORG and H1 for the SLS group (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the amount of TC in SLS and WSLS groups. In the BANA test, the presence of SLS did not affect the BANA number of +/- results (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), present in dentifrice, appears to prevent VSC formation in morning bad breath regardless of the amount of tongue coating in periodontally healthy subjects.

  2. The prevalence of halitosis (oral malodor) and associated factors among dental students and interns, Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Muhammad Ashraf; Almas, Khalid; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of halitosis and the factors associated with it among dental students and interns in Lahore, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study design was chosen, and a sample of dental students and interns was collected from seven dental colleges in Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 833 participants were approached in person as convenient sample population. A self-reported questionnaire was administered and informed consent was obtained. The associations between oral malodor and different variables of the study were explored using analytical statistics (Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis). Statistical significance was determined using a 95% confidence interval (CI). Six hundred and fifteen participants (aged 19-27 years) completed the survey with a response rate of 73.8%. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis was 75.1%. More female (51.4%) than male students (23.7%) reported oral malodor, and most participants (61%) reported early morning halitosis. Thirteen percent of respondents had examination for oral malodor by a dentist and 37.6% treated the condition with self-medication. Binary logistic regression model showed that male gender (odds ratio [OR] =0.44, CI = 0.22-0.87), daily use of dental floss (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.13-0.58), and drinking tea with mint (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.22-0.89) were significantly associated with oral malodor. The participants with tongue coating had higher odds (OR = 2.75, CI = 1.13-6.69) of having oral malodor than those without tongue coating, and the association was statistically significant. The study identified high prevalence of oral malodor among dental students and interns. They should receive appropriate diagnosis and management of the condition from dentist. The regular use of dental floss and removal of tongue coating can significantly reduce halitosis.

  3. Ask Your Dental Hygienist about Understanding and Eliminating Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... been linked to conditions such as by strong foods (such as onions or garlic), diabetes, stomach disorders or sinus infec- poor oral health ... www.adha. org. as essential for fresh loose food and debris during the breath as ... Eating a balanced diet. A vitamin deficiency may contribute to gum disease ...

  4. Reduction of oral levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) by professional toothcleaning and oral hygiene instruction in non-halitosis patients.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Rainer; Passek, Gregor; Bizhang, Mozhgan; Zimmer, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the longitudinal effect of an oral hygiene program on oral levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC). The study subjects were randomly selected from patients attending a student course in operative dentistry and from staff members of our dental clinic. The test group (n = 30) received an oral hygiene training including professional toothcleaning (PTC), oral hygiene instruction, and motivation. The control group (n = 10) received no particular treatment. None of the subjects suffered from bad breath nor performed regular tongue cleaning. At baseline, immediately after PTC, one week, and four weeks thereafter we measured the oral hygiene status by means of the papillary bleeding index (PBI) and the oral concentrations of VSC by using a portable sulfide monitor (Halimeter). Immediately after PTC, as well as one week, and four weeks after entering the program the PBI and the VSC-levels were significantly decreased as compared to the baseline values and the control group. VSCs were decreased by 34.9% (+/- 6.3) after PTC, 33.2% (+/- 7.1) one week, and 27.9% (+/- 5.8) four weeks thereafter. The present study shows that in a group of patients without bad breath, an oral hygiene training program including professional toothcleaning, motivation and instruction of self-applied oral hygiene procedures is capable of reducing both papillary bleeding and oral levels of VSC Halimeter readings over the observation period of four weeks.

  5. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma.

  6. Volatile Sulfur Compounds as a Predictor for Esophagogastroduodenal Mucosal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Hee; Jung, Hyeon Sik; Sohn, Wee Sik; Kim, Bong Hwan; Ku, Bon Ho; Kim, Young Saeng; Park, Sang Woon

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims Halitosis is a symptom that bothers patients more socially than medically and its pathogenic mechanisms are unclear and treatment armamenterium is limited. Clinicians generally ignored active interventions. Since halitosis is closely associated with volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), we used a Halimeter and gas chromatography to measure VSCs in patients with Helicobacter-pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastric diseases. Methods We categorized 72 patients with H. pylori infection into two groups based on their endoscopic findings: a non-erosive mucosal group (NE, n=24) and an erosive mucosal group (E, n=48). Halitosis was objectively assessed by applying either a Halimeter to breath air or gas chromatography to gastric juice. Simultaneously, the expression of VSC-generating enzyme was measured with reverse-transcriptase PCR using mRNA isolated from biopsy tissues. Results The levels of VSCs in exhaled breaths or aspirated gastric juices differed significantly between the NE and E groups (p<0.00001), suggesting that VSCs might reflect eroded epithelial damage induced by H. pylori infection. The expressions of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) were broadly consistent with the degree of mucosal injury. Conclusions Erosive changes in esophagogastroduodenal mucosa were strongly correlated with increased VSC levels, suggesting that halitosis might result from H. pylori-associated erosive lesions. PMID:20485620

  7. The relationship between volatile sulfur compounds and major halitosis-inducing factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae-Hoon; Kho, Hong-Seop; Chung, Sung-Chang; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kim, Young-Ku

    2003-01-01

    Although tongue coating and periodontal conditions have been reported to be major halitosis-inducing factors, the relationship between volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) and these 2 major factors is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of VSC concentrations to tongue coating and periodontal health. Forty subjects (mean age 33.3 years, range 14 to 64 years) were enrolled in this study. Gas chromatography was performed to analyze each VSC component from the mouth air sampled prior to tongue scraping, after tongue scraping, and after a subsequent prophylaxis on the interdental spaces. CH3SH was the most malodorous component among the 3 major VSC from the mouth air. The high CH3SH group showed a significantly higher organoleptic rating (P < 0.01), gingival index (P < 0.01), bleeding index (P < 0.01), probing depth (P < 0.05), and VSC concentrations prior to tongue scraping (P < 0.01), except for the amount of tongue coating, compared to the low CH3SH group. All VSC concentrations were vastly reduced by tongue scraping in both groups, and the remaining contents were nearly all removed by the subsequent prophylaxis. The VSC contents produced by the tongue coating played a major role [H2S: 76%; CH3SH: 52%; (CH3)2S: 55%] in the low CH3SH group. In the high CH3SH group which had poor periodontal health, the tongue coating still played a major role [H2S: 67%; CH3SH: 59%; (CH3)2S: 48%], but the interdental spaces also contributed to VSC production [H2S: 26%; CH3SH: 32%; (CH3)2S; 36%]. The tongue coating was demonstrated to be a primary halitosis-inducing factor. Periodontal health was also shown to contribute to VSC production.

  8. Self-Reported Halitosis in relation to Oral Hygiene Practices, Oral Health Status, General Health Problems, and Multifactorial Characteristics among Workers in Ilala and Temeke Municipals, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mumghamba, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH) 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH (P < 0.001). Higher occurrence of SRH was significantly related to low education and smoking. Conclusion. Self-reported halitosis was prevalent among workers and was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard dental deposits, mobile teeth, and smoking. All participants brushed their teeth and cleaned the tongue regularly but use of dental floss was extremely low. Oral health education and health promotion are recommended. PMID:28280509

  9. Self-Reported Halitosis in relation to Oral Hygiene Practices, Oral Health Status, General Health Problems, and Multifactorial Characteristics among Workers in Ilala and Temeke Municipals, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kayombo, C M; Mumghamba, E G

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH) 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH ( P < 0.001). Higher occurrence of SRH was significantly related to low education and smoking. Conclusion. Self-reported halitosis was prevalent among workers and was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard dental deposits, mobile teeth, and smoking. All participants brushed their teeth and cleaned the tongue regularly but use of dental floss was extremely low. Oral health education and health promotion are recommended.

  10. Comparative analysis of general characteristics of ischemic stroke of BAD and non-BAD CISS subtypes.

    PubMed

    Mei, Bin; Liu, Guang-zhi; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yu-min; Cao, Jiang-hui; Zhang, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on the recently proposed Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification (CISS) system, intracranial branch atheromatous disease (BAD) is divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and penetrating artery disease (PAD). In the current retrospective analysis, we compared the general characteristics of BAD-LAA with BAD-PAD, BAD-LAA with non-BAD-LAA and BAD-PAD with non-BAD-PAD. The study included a total of 80 cases, including 45 cases of BAD and 35 cases of non-BAD. Subjects were classified using CISS system: BAD-LAA, BAD-PAD, non-BAD-LAA and non-BAD-PAD. In addition to analysis of general characteristics, the correlation between the factors and the two subtypes of BAD was evaluated. The number of cases included in the analysis was: 32 cases of BAD-LAA, 13 cases of BAD-PAD, 21 cases of non-BAD-LAA, and 14 cases of non-BAD-PAD. Diabetes mellitus affected more non-BAD-LAA patients than BAD-LAA patients (P=0.035). In comparison with non-BAD-PAD, patients with BAD-PAD were younger (P=0.040), had higher initial NIHSS score (P<0.001) and morbidity of ischemic heart disease (P=0.033). Within patients with BAD, the PAD subtype was associated with smoking (OR=0.043; P=0.011), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR=5.339; P=0.029), ischemic heart disease (OR=9.383; P=0.047) and diabetes mellitus (OR=12.59; P=0.020). It was concluded that large artery atherosclerosis was the primary mechanism of BAD. The general characteristics showed no significant differences between the CISS subtypes of LAA and PAD within BAD, as well as between the BAD and non-BAD within LAA subtype. Several differences between PAD subtypes of BAD and non-BAD were revealed.

  11. A Response to Robert Maranto's Review of "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Robert Maranto's review of "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools". The author begins by thanking Professor Maranto for his thoughtful review of his "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools" (2010). Professor Maranto is the first professional educator to acknowledge the book's existence, a fact that says much about…

  12. Application of agglomerative clustering for analyzing phylogenetically on bacterium of saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamam, A.; Fitria, I.; Umam, K.

    2017-07-01

    Analyzing population of Streptococcus bacteria is important since these species can cause dental caries, periodontal, halitosis (bad breath) and more problems. This paper will discuss the phylogenetically relation between the bacterium Streptococcus in saliva using a phylogenetic tree of agglomerative clustering methods. Starting with the bacterium Streptococcus DNA sequence obtained from the GenBank, then performed characteristic extraction of DNA sequences. The characteristic extraction result is matrix form, then performed normalization using min-max normalization and calculate genetic distance using Manhattan distance. Agglomerative clustering technique consisting of single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage. In this agglomerative algorithm number of group is started with the number of individual species. The most similar species is grouped until the similarity decreases and then formed a single group. Results of grouping is a phylogenetic tree and branches that join an established level of distance, that the smaller the distance the more the similarity of the larger species implementation is using R, an open source program.

  13. TR-BREATH: Time-Reversal Breathing Rate Estimation and Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Han, Yi; Chen, Yan; Lai, Hung-Quoc; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Liu, K J Ray

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce TR-BREATH, a time-reversal (TR)-based contact-free breathing monitoring system. It is capable of breathing detection and multiperson breathing rate estimation within a short period of time using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. The proposed system exploits the channel state information (CSI) to capture the miniature variations in the environment caused by breathing. To magnify the CSI variations, TR-BREATH projects CSIs into the TR resonating strength (TRRS) feature space and analyzes the TRRS by the Root-MUSIC and affinity propagation algorithms. Extensive experiment results indoor demonstrate a perfect detection rate of breathing. With only 10 s of measurement, a mean accuracy of can be obtained for single-person breathing rate estimation under the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario. Furthermore, it achieves a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation for a dozen people under the line-of-sight scenario and a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation of nine people under the NLOS scenario, both with 63 s of measurement. Moreover, TR-BREATH can estimate the number of people with an error around 1. We also demonstrate that TR-BREATH is robust against packet loss and motions. With the prevailing of WiFi, TR-BREATH can be applied for in-home and real-time breathing monitoring.

  14. Debating Robert Weissberg: Why We Should Read but Not Accept "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maranto, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on Robert Weissberg's book titled "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools". The author argues that Weissberg's readable, controversial "Bad Students, Not Bad Schools" (2010) is funny, acerbic, bold, and slaughters more than a few sacred cows of what Weissberg calls the "failed educational industrial complex." As…

  15. Saliva and tongue coating pH before and after use of mouthwashes and relationship with parameters of halitosis

    PubMed Central

    TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; TARZIA, Olinda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this work was to evaluate saliva and tongue coating pH in oral healthy patients with morning bad breath before and after use of different oral mouthrinses. Material and Methods aliva and tongue coating pH of 50 patients allocated in 5 groups were measured respectively by a digital pHmeter and color pH indicators, before, immediately after and 30 min after rinsing 5 different mouthrinses: cetilpiridine chloride associated with sodium chloride, triclosan, enzymatic solution, essential oil and distilled water. Results Only triclosan and essential oil increased salivary pH immediately after rising. The enzymatic solution decreased salivary and tongue coating pH immediately after rinsing. Conclusion Salivary pH tended to be acidic while tongue coating pH tended to be alkaline, even after rising. Triclosan and essential oil mouthrinses increased salivary pH immediately after rinsing. Enzymatic solution decreased saliva and tongue coating pH immediately after rising. PMID:21552707

  16. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mandy; Harvey, Alex; Marston, Louise; O'Connell, Neil E

    2013-05-31

    Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tremor and paraesthesia. DB/HVS has an estimated prevalence of 9.5% in the general adult population, however, there is little consensus regarding the most effective management of this patient group. (1) To determine whether breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS have beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices (2) To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and four other databases. The latest search was in February 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which breathing exercises, or a combined intervention including breathing exercises as a key component, were compared with either no treatment or another therapy that did not include breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS. Observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion.We considered any type of breathing exercise for inclusion in this review, such as breathing control, diaphragmatic breathing, yoga breathing, Buteyko breathing, biofeedback-guided breathing modification, yawn/sigh suppression. Programs where exercises were either supervised or unsupervised were eligible as were relaxation techniques and acute-episode management, as long as it was clear that breathing exercises were a key component of the intervention.We excluded any intervention without breathing exercises or

  17. Occurrence of a 'bad' split and success of initial mandibular healing: a review of 524 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 262 patients.

    PubMed

    Posnick, J C; Choi, E; Liu, S

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of a 'bad' split after sagittal ramus osteotomies (SRO) and report the results of initial mandibular healing. A retrospective cohort study derived from patients treated by a single surgeon at one institution between 2004 and 2013 was performed. An index group consisting of a series of subjects with a spectrum of bimaxillary dentofacial deformities also involving the chin and symptomatic chronic obstructive nasal breathing was identified. The SRO design, bicortical screw fixation technique, and perioperative management were consistent. Outcome variables included the occurrence of a 'bad' split and the success of initial SRO healing. Two hundred sixty-two subjects undergoing 524 SROs met the inclusion criteria. Their average age was 25 years (range 13-63 years) and 134 were female (51%). Simultaneous removal of a third molar was performed during 209 of the SROs (40%). There were no 'bad' splits. All subjects achieved successful bone union, the planned occlusion, and return to a chewing diet and physical activities by 5 weeks after surgery. The presence of a third molar removed during SRO was not associated with an increased frequency of a 'bad' split or delayed mandibular healing. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. BadR and BadM Proteins Transcriptionally Regulate Two Operons Needed for Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Hirakawa, Yuko; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grows with the aromatic acid benzoate and the alicyclic acid cyclohexanecarboxylate (CHC) as sole carbon sources. The enzymatic steps in an oxygen-independent pathway for CHC degradation have been elucidated, but it was unknown how the CHC operon (badHI aliAB badK) encoding the enzymes for CHC degradation was regulated. aliA and aliB encode enzymes for the conversion of CHC to cyclohex-1-enecarboxyl–coenzyme A (CHene-CoA). At this point, the pathway for CHC degradation merges with the pathway for anaerobic benzoate degradation, as CHene-CoA is an intermediate in both degradation pathways. Three enzymes, encoded by badK, badH, and badI, prepare and cleave the alicyclic ring of CHene-CoA to yield pimelyl-CoA. Here, we show that the MarR transcription factor family member, BadR, represses transcription of the CHC operon by binding near the transcription start site of badH. 2-Ketocyclohexane-1-carboxyl–CoA, an intermediate of CHC and benzoate degradation, interacts with BadR to abrogate repression. We also present evidence that the transcription factor BadM binds to the promoter of the badDEFGAB (Bad) operon for the anaerobic conversion of benzoate to CHene-CoA to repress its expression. Contrary to previous reports, BadR does not appear to control expression of the Bad operon. These data enhance our view of the transcriptional regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by R. palustris. PMID:25888170

  19. Breath-collection device for delayed breath-alcohol analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-12-01

    The report includes the details of a study to develop, evaluate, and validate a breath collection device (BCD) for delayed breath-alcohol analysis. Primary applications of the BCD include collection of breath-alcohol samples for field surveys or for ...

  20. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; Chronic respiratory failure - pursed lip breathing ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  1. Displaying fairness while delivering bad news: Testing the effectiveness of organizational bad news training in the layoff context.

    PubMed

    Richter, Manuela; König, Cornelius J; Koppermann, Christopher; Schilling, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Although giving bad news at work is a stressful experience, managers are often underprepared for this challenging task. As a solution, we introduce organizational bad news training that integrates (a) principles of delivering bad news from the context of health care (i.e., bad news delivery component), and (b) principles of organizational justice theory (i.e., fairness component). We argue that both the formal and fair delivery of bad news at work can be enhanced with the help of training to mitigate distress both for the messenger and the recipient. We tested the effectiveness of training for the delivery of a layoff as a typical bad news event at work. In 2 studies, we compared the performance of a training group (receiving both components of training) with that of a control group (Study 1, Study 2) and a basics group (receiving the bad news delivery component only; Study 2) during a simulated dismissal notification meeting. In general, the results supported our hypotheses: Training improved the formal delivery of bad news and predicted indicators of procedural fairness during the conversation in both studies. In Study 2, we also considered layoff victims' negativity after the layoff and found that training significantly reduced negative responses. This relationship was fully mediated by layoff victims' fairness perceptions. Despite preparation, however, giving bad news remained a challenging task in both studies. In summary, we recommend that organizations provide managers with organizational bad news training in order to promote professional and fair bad news conversations at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. How Bad is That?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    This teaching technique asks students to evaluate the "badness" of 5-7 health-related behavioral statements of a specific health topic. Following the presentation of each statement, each students selects one of five choices: "Really Bad", "No Big Deal", "It Depends", "Go for It", or…

  3. Bad apples, bad cases, and bad barrels: meta-analytic evidence about sources of unethical decisions at work.

    PubMed

    Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J; Harrison, David A; Treviño, Linda Klebe

    2010-01-01

    As corporate scandals proliferate, practitioners and researchers alike need a cumulative, quantitative understanding of the antecedents associated with unethical decisions in organizations. In this meta-analysis, the authors draw from over 30 years of research and multiple literatures to examine individual ("bad apple"), moral issue ("bad case"), and organizational environment ("bad barrel") antecedents of unethical choice. Findings provide empirical support for several foundational theories and paint a clearer picture of relationships characterized by mixed results. Structural equation modeling revealed the complexity (multidetermined nature) of unethical choice, as well as a need for research that simultaneously examines different sets of antecedents. Moderator analyses unexpectedly uncovered better prediction of unethical behavior than of intention for several variables. This suggests a need to more strongly consider a new "ethical impulse" perspective in addition to the traditional "ethical calculus" perspective. Results serve as a data-based foundation and guide for future theoretical and empirical development in the domain of behavioral ethics. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535 Badly misshapen. “Badly misshapen...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535 Badly misshapen. “Badly misshapen...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535 Badly misshapen. “Badly misshapen...

  7. 26 CFR 1.166-1 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad debts. 1.166-1 Section 1.166-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-1 Bad debts. (a... shall be allowed in respect of bad debts owed to the taxpayer. For this purpose, bad debts shall...

  8. Breaking bad news in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  9. 42 CFR 413.178 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 413.178 Section 413.178 Public Health...) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.178 Bad debts. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49199, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) CMS will reimburse each facility its allowable Medicare bad debts, as defined in...

  10. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a breathing metabolic simulator (BMS) is reported. This BMS simulates all of the breathing and metabolic parameters required for complete evaluation and test of life support and resuscitation equipment. It is also useful for calibrating and validating mechanical and gaseous pulmonary function test procedures. Breathing rate, breathing depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide release are all variable over wide ranges simulating conditions from sleep to hard work with respiratory exchange ratios covering the range from hypoventilation. In addition, all of these parameters are remotely controllable to facilitate use of the device in hostile or remote environments. The exhaled breath is also maintained at body temperature and a high humidity. The simulation is accurate to the extent of having a variable functional residual capacity independent of other parameters.

  11. Human breath metabolomics using an optimized noninvasive exhaled breath condensate sampler

    PubMed Central

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O.; Aksenov, Alexander A.; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F.; Pettit, Dayna R.; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C.; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E.

    2017-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a developing field with tremendous promise to advance personalized, non-invasive health diagnostics as new analytical instrumentation platforms and detection methods are developed. Multiple commercially-available and researcher-built experimental samplers are reported in the literature. However, there is very limited information available to determine an effective breath sampling approach, especially regarding the dependence of breath sample metabolomic content on the collection device design and sampling methodology. This lack of an optimal standard procedure results in a range of reported results that are sometimes contradictory. Here, we present a design of a portable human EBC sampler optimized for collection and preservation of the rich metabolomic content of breath. The performance of the engineered device is compared to two commercially available breath collection devices: the RTube™ and TurboDECCS. A number of design and performance parameters are considered, including: condenser temperature stability during sampling, collection efficiency, condenser material choice, and saliva contamination in the collected breath samples. The significance of the biological content of breath samples, collected with each device, is evaluated with a set of mass spectrometry methods and was the primary factor for evaluating device performance. The design includes an adjustable mass-size threshold for aerodynamic filtering of saliva droplets from the breath flow. Engineering an inexpensive device that allows efficient collection of metalomic-rich breath samples is intended to aid further advancement in the field of breath analysis for non-invasive health diagnostic. EBC sampling from human volunteers was performed under UC Davis IRB protocol 63701-3 (09/30/2014-07/07/2017). PMID:28004639

  12. 48 CFR 31.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 31.205-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-3 Bad debts. Bad debts, including actual or estimated losses arising from uncollectible accounts receivable due...

  13. Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended. PMID:25068066

  14. Giving bad news: a qualitative research exploration.

    PubMed

    Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

    2014-06-01

    The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers' experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended.

  15. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  16. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a seal from the American Dental Association (ADA). When you're deciding which dental products to ... look for those that are accepted by the ADA. Also, ask your dentist for recommendations. Myth #2: ...

  17. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-11-01

    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (<1 min) and on site breath acetone measurement can be used for diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  18. Human breath metabolomics using an optimized non-invasive exhaled breath condensate sampler.

    PubMed

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Pettit, Dayna R; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E

    2016-12-22

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a developing field with tremendous promise to advance personalized, non-invasive health diagnostics as new analytical instrumentation platforms and detection methods are developed. Multiple commercially-available and researcher-built experimental samplers are reported in the literature. However, there is very limited information available to determine an effective breath sampling approach, especially regarding the dependence of breath sample metabolomic content on the collection device design and sampling methodology. This lack of an optimal standard procedure results in a range of reported results that are sometimes contradictory. Here, we present a design of a portable human EBC sampler optimized for collection and preservation of the rich metabolomic content of breath. The performance of the engineered device is compared to two commercially available breath collection devices: the RTube ™ and TurboDECCS. A number of design and performance parameters are considered, including: condenser temperature stability during sampling, collection efficiency, condenser material choice, and saliva contamination in the collected breath samples. The significance of the biological content of breath samples, collected with each device, is evaluated with a set of mass spectrometry methods and was the primary factor for evaluating device performance. The design includes an adjustable mass-size threshold for aerodynamic filtering of saliva droplets from the breath flow. Engineering an inexpensive device that allows efficient collection of metalomic-rich breath samples is intended to aid further advancement in the field of breath analysis for non-invasive health diagnostic. EBC sampling from human volunteers was performed under UC Davis IRB protocol 63701-3 (09/30/2014-07/07/2017).

  19. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  20. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bad Habits Breaking Bad Habits: Why It's So Hard to Change Past Issues / ... News in Health ( http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/ ) Break Bad Habits Avoid temptations. If you always stop for a ...

  1. Breaking bad news and personality assessment.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, A; Ezra, Y; Melamed, E

    2000-09-01

    Breaking bad news to seriously ill patients is an especially difficult and important part of patient education and counseling. Guidelines for breaking bad news have been previously presented, but this is the first report to address the personality of the patient in deciding how to break had news. A case study of a patient diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is presented. A psychiatric consultation assisted in assessing the patient's personality and thus preparing the medical staff for breaking the bad news to him. The patient was assessed as having an obsessive-compulsive personality, and consequently the staff was instructed to concentrate on facts and not on feelings when breaking the bad news to him. The patient coped adaptively with this procedure, as did the staff. This case report illustrates that personality assessment may be of benefit in breaking bad news to seriously ill patients. It remains to be seen whether this procedure can be successfully generalized to other patients and settings as well as to other domains of patient education and counseling, and if so--whether this will also prove to be cost-effective.

  2. Bad habits and bad genes: early 20th-century eugenic attempts to eliminate syphilis and associated "defects" from the United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Philip K

    2003-01-01

    American eugenists in the early 20th century distinguished "degenerates," including syphilitics, prostitutes, alcoholics and criminals, from the "normal" population by their particular bad habits. From eugenists' viewpoint, these bad habits were derived from bad character, a flaw that stemmed from an individual's bad genes. This essay explores how eugenists during this period characterized syphilitics and those with associated character "defects" in terms of heredity. Additionally, it examines the methods eugenists most frequently advocated to rectify these bad habits. These methods included marriage restriction, immigration control and reproductive sterilization. Overall, eugenists directed their efforts not so much at the "degenerate" as at his or her germ line.

  3. Antisocial features and "faking bad": A critical note.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Isabella J M; Nentjes, Lieke; Merckelbach, Harald; Bernstein, David P

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the literature on antisocial personality features and symptom fabrication (i.e., faking bad; e.g., malingering). A widespread assumption is that these constructs are intimately related. Some studies have, indeed, found that antisocial individuals score higher on instruments detecting faking bad, but others have been unable to replicate this pattern. In addition, studies exploring whether antisocial individuals are especially talented in faking bad have generally come up with null results. The notion of an intrinsic link between antisocial features and faking bad is difficult to test and research in this domain is sensitive to selection bias. We argue that research on faking bad would profit from further theoretical articulation. One topic that deserves scrutiny is how antisocial features affect the cognitive dissonance typically induced by faking bad. We illustrate our points with preliminary data and discuss their implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Health Information Doctors & Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ...

  5. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... and taking big breaths can be uncomfortable. A device called an incentive spirometer can help you take deep breaths correctly. If you do not have this device, you can still practice deep breathing on your ...

  6. The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing.

  7. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  8. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Breath-to-breath hypercapnic response in neonatal rats: temperature dependency of the chemoreflexes and potential implications for breathing stability.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kevin J; Frappell, Peter B

    2009-07-01

    The breathing of newborns is destabilized by warm temperatures. We hypothesized that in unanesthetized, intact newborn rats, body temperature (T(B)) influences the peripheral chemoreflex response (PCR response) to hypercapnia. To test this, we delivered square-wave challenges of 8% CO(2) in air to postnatal day 4-5 (P4-P5) rats held at a T(B) of 30 degrees C (Cold group, n = 11), 33 degrees C (Cool group, n = 10), and 35 degrees C thermoneutral zone group [thermoneutral zone (TNZ) group, n = 11], while measuring ventilation (Ve) directly with a pneumotach and mask. Cool animals were challenged with 8% CO(2) balanced in either air or hyperoxia (n = 10) to identify the PCR response. Breath-to-breath analysis was performed on 30 room air breaths and every breath of the 1-min CO(2) challenge. As expected, warmer T(B) was associated with an unstable breathing pattern in room air: TNZ animals had a coefficient of variation in Ve (Ve CV%) that was double that of animals held at cooler T(B) (P < 0.001). Hyperoxia markedly suppressed the hypercapnic ventilatory response over the first 10 breaths (or approximately 4 s), suggesting that this domain is dominated by the PCR response. The PCR response (P = 0.03) and total response (P = 0.04) were significantly greater in TNZ animals compared with hypothermic animals. The total response had a significant, negative relationship with Vco(2) (R(2) = 0.53; P < 0.001). Breathing stability was positively related to the total response (R(2) = 0.36; P < 0.001) and to a lesser extent, the PCR response (R(2) = 0.19; P = 0.01) and was negatively related to Vco(2) (R(2) = 0.34; P < 0.001). ANCOVA confirmed a significant effect of T(B) alone on breathing stability (P < 0.01), with no independent effects of Vco(2) (P = 0.41), the PCR response (P = 0.82), or the total Ve response (P = 0.08). Our data suggest that in early postnatal life, the chemoreflex responses to CO(2) are highly influenced by T(B), and while related to breathing stability

  10. Bad phosphorylation as a target of inhibition in oncology.

    PubMed

    Bui, Ngoc-Linh-Chi; Pandey, Vijay; Zhu, Tao; Ma, Lan; Basappa; Lobie, Peter E

    2018-02-28

    Bcl-2 agonist of cell death (BAD) is a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family which possesses important regulatory function in apoptosis. BAD has also been shown to possess many non-apoptotic functions closely linked to cancer including regulation of glycolysis, autophagy, cell cycle progression and immune system development. Interestingly, BAD can be either pro-apoptotic or pro-survival depending on the phosphorylation state of three specific serine residues (human S75, S99 and S118). Expression of BAD and BAD phosphorylation patterns have been shown to influence tumor initiation and progression and play a predictive role in disease prognosis, drug response and chemosensitivity in various cancers. This review aims to summarize the current evidence on the functional role of BAD phosphorylation in human cancer and evaluate the potential utility of modulating BAD phosphorylation in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  12. [Effects of breathing exercises on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion after gastroplasty].

    PubMed

    Tomich, Georgia Miranda; França, Danielle Corrêa; Diniz, Marco Túlio Costa; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Parreira, Verônica Franco

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion during breathing exercises. Twenty-four patients with class II or III obesity (18 women; 6 men) were studied on the second postoperative day after gastroplasty. The mean age was 37 +/- 11 years, and the mean BMI was 44 +/- 3 kg/m(2). Diaphragmatic breathing, incentive spirometry with a flow-oriented device and incentive spirometry with a volume-oriented device were performed in random order. Respiratory inductive plethysmography was used in order to measure respiratory variables and thoracoabdominal motion. Comparisons among the three exercises showed significant differences: tidal volume was higher during incentive spirometry (with the flow-oriented device or with the volume-oriented device) than during diaphragmatic breathing; the respiratory rate was lower during incentive spirometry with the volume-oriented device than during incentive spirometry with the flow-oriented device; and minute ventilation was higher during incentive spirometry (with the flow-oriented device or with the volume-oriented device) than during diaphragmatic breathing. Rib cage motion did not vary during breathing exercises, although there was an increase in thoracoabdominal asynchrony, especially during incentive spirometry with the flow-oriented device. Among the breathing exercises evaluated, incentive spirometry with the volume-oriented device provided the best results, because it allowed slower, deeper inhalation.

  13. Short-term effect of strontium- and zinc-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses on volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study.

    PubMed

    Soares, Léo G; Jonski, Grazyna; Tinoco, Eduardo M B; Young, Alix

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) reduces the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) associated with oral malodour. Although strontium (Sr) is included in some products for reducing dental hypersensitivity, it may also have anti-halitosis properties. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study compared the anti-VSC effect of brushing with commercial toothpastes and rinses containing Zn and Sr. The volunteers (n = 30) either brushed/rinsed with/without tongue brushing using Zn-containing toothpaste/rinse, Sr-containing toothpaste/rinse, or placebo (control). Volatile sulphur compounds [hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3 SH)] were measured, in morning breath, using gas chromatography. The anti-VSC effects of the test toothpastes and test rinses were significantly better than the anti-VSC effects of the respective controls. Toothbrushing with test toothpastes gave median reductions, compared with the control, of 70% for H2 S and 55-57% for CH3 SH. Rinsing with the Sr- and Zn-containing solutions had the same anti-VSC effect as toothbrushing and tooth- and tongue brushing with the Sr- and Zn-containing toothpastes. Zinc-containing rinse resulted in a significantly higher median salivary level of Zn compared with brushing with Zn-containing toothpaste, although this effect did not correlate with the anti-VSC effect. It can be concluded that the Sr- and Zn-containing toothpastes and the Zn- and Sr-containing rinses, when used in the evening, are equally effective in reducing morning-breath VSCs the following day. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. The impact of periodontal therapy and the adjunctive effect of antiseptics on breath odor-related outcome variables: a double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Quirynen, Marc; Zhao, Hong; Soers, Catherine; Dekeyser, Christel; Pauwels, Martine; Coucke, Wim; Steenberghe, Daniel van

    2005-05-01

    Bad breath is often caused by periodontitis and/or tongue coating. This study followed the impact of initial periodontal therapy on several halitosis-related outcome variables over a 6-month period. Organoleptic ratings are often uncomfortable for the patient and have several disadvantages. They are, for instance, influenced by external parameters (e.g., food intake and cosmetics) and need to be calibrated among researchers worldwide. A second aim was to evaluate the reliability of saliva incubation as an in vitro indirect test for breath recording. In this double-blind, randomized, medium-term, parallel study 45 moderate periodontitis patients without obvious tongue coating were enrolled. Besides a one-stage, full-mouth disinfection and oral hygiene improvement (including daily tongue scraping), patients were instructed to rinse daily for 6 months with one of the following products (randomly allocated): chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2% + alcohol, CHX 0.05% + cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) 0.05% without alcohol (a new formulation), or a placebo solution. At baseline and 3 and 6 months, a series of parameters were recorded including: concentration of volatile sulfide compounds (VSC), tongue coating, and an estimation of the microbial load (at anterior and posterior parts of the tongue, saliva, dental plaque). The intraoral VSC ratings were compared to in vitro VSC recordings and organoleptic evaluations of the headspace air from 1 and 2 hours incubated saliva (0.5 ml, 37 degrees C, anaerobic chamber). Even though the initial VSC values were not high (+/-90 ppb with only 18 patients revealing more than 100 ppb), significant (P <0.05) reductions could be achieved in the CHX and CHX + CPC group, and to a lower extent in the placebo group (P = 0.10). Tongue scraping resulted in a significant reduction (P < or =0.05) of the tongue coating up to month 6 in the placebo and CHX + CPC group, but not in the CHX group (confusion due to staining). The CHX and CHX + CPC group showed

  15. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  16. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  17. Hydrogen breath test in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Douwes, A C; Schaap, C; van der Klei-van Moorsel, J M

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of negative hydrogen breath tests due to colonic bacterial flora which are unable to produce hydrogen was determined after oral lactulose challenge in 98 healthy Dutch schoolchildren. There was a negative result in 9.2%. The probability of a false normal lactose breath test (1:77) was calculated from these results together with those from a separate group of children with lactose malabsorption (also determined by hydrogen breath test). A study of siblings and mothers of subjects with a negative breath test did not show familial clustering of this condition. Faecal incubation tests with various sugars showed an increase in breath hydrogen greater than 100 parts per million in those with a positive breath test while subjects with a negative breath test also had a negative faecal incubation test. The frequency of a false negative hydrogen breath test was higher than previously reported, but this does not affect the superiority of this method of testing over the conventional blood glucose determination. PMID:4004310

  18. Guiding curve based on the normal breathing as monitored by thermocouple for regular breathing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sangwook; Park, Sung Ho; Ahn, Seung Do; Suh, Yelin; Shin, Seong Soo; Lee, Sang-wook; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyoung; Yi, Byong Yong; Kwon, Soo Il; Kim, Sookil; Jeung, Tae Sig

    2007-11-01

    Adapting radiation fields to a moving target requires information continuously on the location of internal target by detecting it directly or indirectly. The aim of this study is to make the breathing regular effectively with minimizing stress to the patient. A system for regulating patient's breath consists of a respiratory monitoring mask (ReMM), a thermocouple module, a screen, inner earphones, and a personal computer. A ReMM with thermocouple was developed previously to measure the patient's respiration. A software was written in LabView 7.0 (National Instruments, TX), which acquires respiration signal and displays its pattern. Two curves are displayed on the screen: One is a curve indicating the patient's current breathing pattern; the other is a guiding curve, which is iterated with one period of the patient's normal breathing curve. The guiding curves were acquired for each volunteer before they breathed with guidance. Ten volunteers participated in this study to evaluate this system. A cycle of the representative guiding curve was acquired by monitoring each volunteer's free breathing with ReMM and was then generated iteratively. The regularity was compared between a free breath curve and a guided breath curve by measuring standard deviations of amplitudes and periods of two groups of breathing. When the breathing was guided, the standard deviation of amplitudes and periods on average were reduced from 0.0029 to 0.00139 (arbitrary units) and from 0.359 s to 0.202 s, respectively. And the correlation coefficients between breathing curves and guiding curves were greater than 0.99 for all volunteers. The regularity was improved statistically when the guiding curve was used.

  19. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  20. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  1. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  2. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  3. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing... the container. (d) Compressed breathing gas contained valves or a separate charging system or adapter...

  4. Effects of breathing exercises on breathing patterns in obese and non-obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Olsén, M F; Lönroth, H; Bake, B

    1999-05-01

    Chest physiotherapy in connection with abdominal surgery includes different deep-breathing exercises to prevent post-operative pulmonary complications. The therapy is effective in preventing pulmonary complications, especially in high-risk patients such as obese persons. The mechanisms behind the effect is unclear, but part of the effect may be explained by the changes in breathing patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to describe and to analyse the breathing patterns in obese and non-obese subjects during three different breathing techniques frequently used in the treatment of post-operative patients. Twenty-one severely obese [body mass index (BMI) > 40] and 21 non-obese (BMI 19-25) subjects were studied. All persons denied having any lung disease and were non-smokers. The breathing techniques investigated were: deep breaths without any resistance (DB), positive expiratory pressure (PEP) with an airway resistance of approximately +15 cmH2O (1.5 kPa) during expiration, inspiratory resistance positive expiratory pressure (IR-PEP) with a pressure of approximately -10 cmH2O (-1.0 kPa) during inspiration. Expiratory resistance as for PEP. Volume against time was monitored while the subjects were sitting in a body plethysmograph. Variables for volume and flow during the breathing cycle were determined. Tidal volume and alveolar ventilation were highest during DB, and peak inspiratory volume was significantly higher than during PEP and IR-PEP in the group of obese subjects. The breathing cycles were prolonged in all techniques but were most prolonged in PEP and IR-PEP. The functional residual capacity (FRC) was significantly lower during DB than during PEP and IR-PEP in the group of obese subjects. FRC as determined within 2 min of finishing each breathing technique was identical to before the breathing manoeuvres.

  5. Delivering bad news in emergency care medicine.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    Forecasting is a strategy for delivering bad news and is compared to two other strategies, stalling and being blunt. Forecasting provides some warning that bad news is forthcoming without keeping the recipient in a state of indefinite suspense (stalling) or conveying the news abruptly (being blunt). Forecasting appears to be more effective than stalling or being blunt in helping a recipient to "realize" the bad news because it involves the deliverer and recipient in a particular social relation. The deliverer of bad news initiates the telling by giving an advance indication of the bad news to come; this allows the recipient to calculate the news in advance of its final presentation, when the deliverer confirms what the recipient has been led to anticipate. Thus, realization of bad news emerges from intimate collaboration, whereas stalling and being blunt require recipients to apprehend the news in a social vacuum. Exacerbating disruption to recipients' everyday world, stalling and being blunt increase the probability of misapprehension (denying, blaming, taking the situation as a joke, etc.) and thereby inhibit rather than facilitate realization. Particular attention is paid to the "perspective display sequence", a particular forecasting strategy that enables both confirming the recipient's perspective and using that perspective to affirm the clinical news. An example from acute or emergency medicine is examined at the close of the paper.

  6. The efficacy of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride in the suppression of morning breath odour.

    PubMed

    Quirynen, Marc; Avontroodt, Pieter; Soers, Catherine; Zhao, Hong; Pauwels, Martine; Coucke, Wim; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2002-10-01

    Breath odour is a complaint encountered worldwide, often linked to microbial overload in the oral cavity. This double blind, crossover, randomised study assessed the efficacy of several antiseptic mouthrinses or slurry vs. a control solution in the prevention of morning bad breath during an experimental period of 7 days without mechanical plaque control. Sixteen dental students with a healthy periodontium abolished, after a thorough professional cleaning, all means of mechanical plaque control during five experimental periods of 7 days, interleaved by washout periods of at least 3 weeks. During each experimental period, as the only oral hygiene measure, the students rinsed twice a day with one of the following formulations (in a randomised order): a 0.2% chlorhexidine-alcohol mouthrinse (CHX-Alc), a 0.05% CHX + 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride + 0.14% zinc lactate mouthrinse (CHX-CPC-Zn), an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (125 ppm F-/125 ppm F-) containing mouthrinse (AmF/SnF2Mr), a slurry of a tooth paste (AmF/SnF2Sl) containing amine fluoride (350 ppm F-) and stannous fluoride (1050 ppm F-) and a placebo solution (placebo). At days 0, 3 and 7, morning breath was scored via VSC level measurements of the mouth air, and organoleptic ratings of the mouth air and tongue coating. At the same visits both the degree of gingival inflammation and the de novo plaque formation were rated. At the end of each period a questionnaire for subjective ratings was completed and microbiological samples were taken from the tongue dorsum, the saliva and the supragingival plaque for anaerobic and aerobic culturing. Although oral hygiene during the experimental periods was limited to rinsing, bad breath parameters systematically improved (P < 0.001) with the three mouthrinses (CHX-Alc, CHX-CPC-Zn, AmF/SnF2Mr), with a superiority of the CHX-CPC-Zn solution when only VSC values were considered (P < 0.003). The AmF/SnF2 slurry and the placebo solution showed only minor changes with time

  7. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Kraft M. Approach to the patient with respiratory disease. In: ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 83. McGee S. Respiratory rate and ...

  8. BAD phosphorylation determines ovarian cancer chemo-sensitivity and patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Marchion, Douglas C.; Cottrill, Hope M.; Xiong, Yin; Chen, Ning; Bicaku, Elona; Fulp, William J.; Bansal, Nisha; Chon, Hye Sook; Stickles, Xiaomang B.; Kamath, Siddharth G.; Hakam, Ardeshir; Li, Lihua; Su, Dan; Moreno, Carolina; Judson, Patricia L.; Berchuck, Andrew; Wenham, Robert M.; Apte, Sachin M.; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Bloom, Gregory C.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Sebti, Said; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Lancaster, Johnathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Despite initial sensitivity to chemotherapy, ovarian cancers (OVCA) often develop drug-resistance, which limits patient survival. Using specimens and/or genomic data from 289 patients and a panel of cancer cell lines, we explored genome-wide expression changes that underlie the evolution of OVCA chemo-resistance and characterized the BCL2 antagonist of cell death (BAD) apoptosis pathway as a determinant of chemo-sensitivity and patient survival. Experimental Design Serial OVCA cell cisplatin treatments were performed in parallel with measurements of genome-wide expression changes. Pathway analysis was performed on genes associated with increasing cisplatin-resistance (EC50). BAD-pathway expression and BAD-protein phosphorylation were evaluated in patient samples and cell lines as determinants of chemo-sensitivity and/or clinical outcome and as therapeutic targets. Results Induced in vitro OVCA cisplatin-resistance was associated with BAD-pathway expression (P < 0.001). In OVCA cell lines and primary specimens, BAD-protein phosphorylation was associated with platinum-resistance (n = 147, P < 0.0001) and also with overall patient survival (n = 134, P = 0.0007). Targeted modulation of BAD-phosphorylation levels influenced cisplatin sensitivity. A 47-gene BAD-pathway score was associated with in vitro phosphorylated-BAD levels and with survival in 142 patients with advanced-stage (III/IV) serous OVCA. Integration of BAD-phosphorylation or BAD-pathway score with OVCA surgical cytoreductive status was significantly associated with overall survival by log-rank test (P = 0.004 and <0.0001, respectively). Conclusion The BAD apoptosis pathway influences OVCA chemo-sensitivity and overall survival, likely via modulation of BAD-phosphorylation. The pathway has clinical relevance as a biomarker of therapeutic response, patient survival, and as a promising therapeutic target. PMID:21849418

  9. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. PMID:27542677

  10. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides Updated:May 3,2018 Cholesterol isn’ ... be measured by a blood test. LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is called “bad” cholesterol. Think of ...

  11. [Giving bad news in medicine: an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Bascuñán, M L; Roizblatt, A; Roizblatt, D

    2007-01-01

    Giving bad news is inherent to the practice of medicine. Development of guidelines for this task has great value, although the orientations are only general and should be adapted to each case, allowing for the cultural idiosyncrasy of the people involved. the present study aims to explore common practices of giving bad news in different hospital services in Santiago-Chile. a qualitative methodology was applied through three focus groups with a sample of 33 physicians from two hospitals in Santiago-Chile. giving bad news is a frequent practice for which no training is given. It generates preoccupation and interest among professionals. There is no agreed procedure to communicate bad news. Each professional has had to develop his/her own way from his/her experience and observing others. Informing the patient is seen as an ethical duty, but in many cases it is not easy because of family pressure. Comments are made on different types of bad news, strategies for this communicational process and facilitators and barriers for it. Doctors' own professional past experience is a central factor in the way bad news is given, and so self-development mechanisms constitute an important challenge.

  12. Recovery of Percent Vital Capacity by Breathing Training in Patients With Panic Disorder and Impaired Diaphragmatic Breathing.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tatsuji; Inoue, Akiomi; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji

    2017-09-01

    Slow diaphragmatic breathing is one of the therapeutic methods used in behavioral therapy for panic disorder. In practice, we have noticed that some of these patients could not perform diaphragmatic breathing and their percent vital capacity was initially reduced but could be recovered through breathing training. We conducted a comparative study with healthy controls to investigate the relationship between diaphragmatic breathing ability and percent vital capacity in patients with panic disorder. Our findings suggest that percent vital capacity in patients with impaired diaphragmatic breathing was significantly reduced compared with those with normal diaphragmatic breathing and that diaphragmatic breathing could be restored by breathing training. Percent vital capacity of the healthy controls was equivalent to that of the patients who had completed breathing training. This article provides preliminary findings regarding reduced vital capacity in relation to abnormal respiratory movements found in patients with panic disorder, potentially offering alternative perspectives for verifying the significance of breathing training for panic disorder.

  13. ‘BREAKS’ Protocol for Breaking Bad News

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-01-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one. PMID:21811349

  14. 25 CFR 11.421 - Bad checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad checks. 11.421 Section 11.421 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.421 Bad checks. (a) A person who issues or passes a check or similar sight order for..., and the issuer failed to make good within 10 days after receiving notice of that refusal. ...

  15. Breathing metabolic simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a device for simulation of the human breathing and metabolic parameters required for the evaluation of respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support and resuscitation equipment. The remotely controlled device allows wide variations in breathing rate and depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release to simulate conditions from sleep to hard work, with respiration exchange ratios ranging from hypoventilation to hyperventilation. It also reduces the cost of prolonged testing when simulation chambers with human subjects require three shifts of crews and standby physicians. Several block diagrams of the device and subsystems are given.

  16. Quantification of the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio for breathing motion modeling.

    PubMed

    White, Benjamin M; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Low, Daniel A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology to quantitatively measure the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio from a 4DCT dataset for breathing motion modeling and breathing motion studies. The thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio was quantified by measuring the rate of cross-sectional volume increase throughout the thorax and abdomen as a function of tidal volume. Twenty-six 16-slice 4DCT patient datasets were acquired during quiet respiration using a protocol that acquired 25 ciné scans at each couch position. Fifteen datasets included data from the neck through the pelvis. Tidal volume, measured using a spirometer and abdominal pneumatic bellows, was used as breathing-cycle surrogates. The cross-sectional volume encompassed by the skin contour when compared for each CT slice against the tidal volume exhibited a nearly linear relationship. A robust iteratively reweighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine η(i), defined as the amount of cross-sectional volume expansion at each slice i per unit tidal volume. The sum Ση(i) throughout all slices was predicted to be the ratio of the geometric expansion of the lung and the tidal volume; 1.11. The Xiphoid process was selected as the boundary between the thorax and abdomen. The Xiphoid process slice was identified in a scan acquired at mid-inhalation. The imaging protocol had not originally been designed for purposes of measuring the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio so the scans did not extend to the anatomy with η(i) = 0. Extrapolation of η(i)-η(i) = 0 was used to include the entire breathing volume. The thorax and abdomen regions were individually analyzed to determine the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratios. There were 11 image datasets that had been scanned only through the thorax. For these cases, the abdomen breathing component was equal to 1.11 - Ση(i) where the sum was taken throughout the thorax. The average Ση(i) for thorax and abdomen image datasets was found to be 1.20

  17. [Breaking bad news in oncology: the Belgian experience].

    PubMed

    Delevallez, F; Lienard, A; Gibon, A-S; Razavi, D

    2014-10-01

    Breaking bad news is a complex and frequent clinical task for physicians working in oncology. It can have a negative impact on patients and their relatives who are often present during breaking bad news consultations. Many factors influence how the delivery of bad news will be experienced especially the communication skills used by physicians. A three-phase process (post-delivery phase, delivery phase, pre-delivery phase) has been developed to help physician to handle this task more effectively. Communication skills and specific breaking bad news training programs are both necessary and effective. A recent study conducted in Belgium has shown their impact on the time allocated to each of the three phases of this process, on the communication skills used, on the inclusion of the relative in the consultation and on physicians' physiological arousal. These results underscore the importance of promoting intensive communication skills and breaking bad news training programs for health care professionals.

  18. PubMed Central

    Paolantonio, E.G.; Antonini, G.; Saulle, R.; La Torre, G.; Deli, R.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion. The results showed that an increase in the degree of the index increases the prevalence of bad habits and mouth breathing, meaning that these factors are associated with more severe malocclusions. Moreover, we found a significant association of bad habits with increased overjet and openbite, while no association was found with crossbite. Additionally, we found that mouth breathing is closely related to increased overjet, reduced overjet, anterior or posterior crossbite, openbite and displacement of contact points. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene early on these aetiological factors of malocclusion to prevent its development or worsening and, if already developed, correct it by early orthodontic treatment to promote eugnatic skeletal growth. PMID:27958599

  19. Whole-heart magnetic resonance coronary angiography with multiple breath-holds and automatic breathing-level tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhara, Shigehide; Ninomiya, Ayako; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanao, Shotaro; Kamae, Toshikazu; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-05-01

    Whole-heart (WH) magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA) studies are usually performed during free breathing while monitoring the position of the diaphragm with real-time motion correction. However, this results in a long scan time and the patient's breathing pattern may change, causing the study to be aborted. Alternatively, WH MRCA can be performed with multiple breath-holds (mBH). However, one problem in the mBH method is that patients cannot hold their breath at the same position every time, leading to image degradation. We have developed a new WH MRCA imaging method that employs both the mBH method and automatic breathing-level tracking to permit automatic tracking of the changes in breathing or breath-hold levels. Evaluation of its effects on WH MRCA image quality showed that this method can provide high-quality images within a shorter scan time. This proposed method is expected to be very useful in clinical WH MRCA studies.

  20. Influenza virus induces apoptosis via BAD-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh T; Cortens, John P; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Coombs, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.

  1. Influenza Virus Induces Apoptosis via BAD-Mediated Mitochondrial Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Anh T.; Cortens, John P.; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication. PMID:23135712

  2. Bad Luck or Bad Decisions: College Students' Perceptions of the Reasons for and Consequences of Their Alcohol Overdose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Reasons for and immediate consequences of an alcohol overdose were explored for 217 undergraduate students requiring a medical emergency transport because of excessive alcohol consumption. The sample was categorized into 26 students attributing their overdose solely to bad luck and 191 students citing bad decision making as an explanation. A…

  3. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    PubMed

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. 48 CFR 2131.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bad debts. 2131.205-3 Section 2131.205-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-3 Bad debts. Erroneous benefit...

  5. BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway is associated with human cancer development.

    PubMed

    Stickles, Xiaomang B; Marchion, Douglas C; Bicaku, Elona; Al Sawah, Entidhar; Abbasi, Forough; Xiong, Yin; Bou Zgheib, Nadim; Boac, Bernadette M; Orr, Brian C; Judson, Patricia L; Berry, Amy; Hakam, Ardeshir; Wenham, Robert M; Apte, Sachin M; Berglund, Anders E; Lancaster, Johnathan M

    2015-04-01

    The malignant transformation of normal cells is caused in part by aberrant gene expression disrupting the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, senescence and DNA repair. Evidence suggests that the Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (BAD)-mediated apoptotic pathway influences cancer chemoresistance. In the present study, we explored the role of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway in the development and progression of cancer. Using principal component analysis to derive a numeric score representing pathway expression, we evaluated clinico-genomic datasets (n=427) from corresponding normal, pre-invasive and invasive cancers of different types, such as ovarian, endometrial, breast and colon cancers in order to determine the associations between the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway and cancer development. Immunofluorescence was used to compare the expression levels of phosphorylated BAD [pBAD (serine-112, -136 and -155)] in immortalized normal and invasive ovarian, colon and breast cancer cells. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway phosphatase, PP2C, was evaluated by RT-qPCR in the normal and ovarian cancer tissue samples. The growth-promoting effects of pBAD protein levels in the immortalized normal and cancer cells were assessed using siRNA depletion experiments with MTS assays. The expression of the BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway was associated with the development and/or progression of ovarian (n=106, p<0.001), breast (n=185, p<0.0008; n=61, p=0.04), colon (n=22, p<0.001) and endometrial (n=33, p<0.001) cancers, as well as with ovarian endometriosis (n=20, p<0.001). Higher pBAD protein levels were observed in the cancer cells compared to the immortalized normal cells, whereas PP2C gene expression was lower in the cancer compared to the ovarian tumor tissue samples (n=76, p<0.001). The increased pBAD protein levels after the depletion of PP2C conferred a growth advantage to the immortalized normal and cancer cells. The BAD-mediated apoptotic pathway

  6. Paediatric SpRs' experiences of breaking bad news.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, N; Ellis, J

    2007-09-01

    To ascertain the level of support and training available to paediatric specialist registrars (SpRs) in breaking bad news and their self-reported confidence in this task. A questionnaire-based survey. Paediatric SpRs working in North Thames region. Specialist registrars (n = 206) were sent a questionnaire relating to the level of support and training available to them in breaking bad news and their attitudes to this task. A repeat questionnaire was sent out 2 weeks later. The response rate was 54.9%. The study sample included 78 females and 34 males. The median year of qualification was 1995 [interquartile range (IQR) 1993-1997] and the median year of Calman training was Year 3 (IQR 2-4). Only 15.9% of participants had guidelines where they worked and 91.2% had received training in breaking bad news. Median self-perceived confidence in breaking bad news was rated as 4 out of 5. Only 21.2% of all respondents had both disclosed a diagnosis of Down syndrome and received feedback on their performance from their seniors. Few SpRs were able to adhere to all evidence-based recommendations for breaking bad news. Most SpRs had received training in breaking bad news and self-reported confidence in this skill was high, although their hands-on experience was limited. Recent research shows, however, that parental dissatisfaction with the way in which bad news is broken remains high. The potential discrepancy between self-reported confidence and actual competence casts doubt on the value of self-evaluation.

  7. [Pediatrician's experience in announcing bad news].

    PubMed

    Crosnier-Schoedel, C; Trocmé, N; Carbajal, R; Leverger, G

    2018-02-01

    Few studies are available on pediatricians' experience with announcing bad news. Announcing bad news is an important component of medical practice and is even more complex in pediatrics because parents must be associated. We had 20 hospital pediatricians complete a questionnaire containing 30 questions about their own experience announcing bad news to a child or a teenager. In spite of their experience and the time they have spent practicing medicine, there are many limitations stemming from different factors concerning children, teenagers, their families, and themselves. The difficulties encountered by pediatricians are mainly related to the timing of the announcement, the location, the choice of the words used, and the poor understanding of children and families, due to intellectual, cultural, or psychological limitations. Pediatricians question their own capacity to make such an announcement, wondering if the information has actually been well understood. They indicate that they are themselves affected. Most of them develop and implement strategies to refute the emotional instability caused by the announcement of bad news. Yet many of them feel weak, even talking about a deep sense of loneliness and guilt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  9. Practice It: Deep Conscious Breathing Exercise

    Cancer.gov

    No time to sit and breathe? No problem; take your breathing practice with you! Deep conscious breathing can also be done with the eyes open wherever you happen to be—simply pause and take two to three full deep breaths (inhale deeply and exhale completely).

  10. Good IR duals of bad quiver theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Anindya; Koroteev, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The infrared dynamics of generic 3d N = 4 bad theories (as per the good-bad-ugly classification of Gaiotto and Witten) are poorly understood. Examples of such theories with a single unitary gauge group and fundamental flavors have been studied recently, and the low energy effective theory around some special point in the Coulomb branch was shown to have a description in terms of a good theory and a certain number of free hypermultiplets. A classification of possible infrared fixed points for bad theories by Bashkirov, based on unitarity constraints and superconformal symmetry, suggest a much richer set of possibilities for the IR behavior, although explicit examples were not known. In this note, we present a specific example of a bad quiver gauge theory which admits a good IR description on a sublocus of its Coulomb branch. The good description, in question, consists of two decoupled quiver gauge theories with no free hypermultiplets.

  11. Reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection.

    PubMed

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2017-02-01

    As it is standardly conceived, Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) is a form of ampliative inference in which one infers a hypothesis because it provides a better potential explanation of one's evidence than any other available, competing explanatory hypothesis. Bas van Fraassen famously objected to IBE thus formulated that we may have no reason to think that any of the available, competing explanatory hypotheses are true. While revisionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection concede that IBE needs to be reformulated in light of this problem, reactionary responses argue that the Bad Lot Objection is fallacious, incoherent, or misguided. This paper shows that the most influential reactionary responses to the Bad Lot Objection do nothing to undermine the original objection. This strongly suggests that proponents of IBE should focus their efforts on revisionary responses, i.e. on finding a more sophisticated characterization of IBE for which the Bad Lot Objection loses its bite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dosimetric comparison of moderate deep inspiration breath-hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chi, F; Wu, S; Zhou, J; Li, F; Sun, J; Lin, Q; Lin, H; Guan, X; He, Z

    2015-05-01

    This study determined the dosimetric comparison of moderate deep inspiration breath-hold using active breathing control and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after breast-conserving surgery for left-sided breast cancer. Thirty-one patients were enrolled. One free breathe and two moderate deep inspiration breath-hold images were obtained. A field-in-field-IMRT free-breathing plan and two field-in-field-IMRT moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans were compared in the dosimetry to target volume coverage of the glandular breast tissue and organs at risks for each patient. The breath-holding time under moderate deep inspiration extended significantly after breathing training (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the free-breathing and moderate deep inspiration breath-holding in the target volume coverage. The volume of the ipsilateral lung in the free-breathing technique were significantly smaller than the moderate deep inspiration breath-holding techniques (P<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the two moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans. There were no significant differences in target volume coverage between the three plans for the field-in-field-IMRT (all P>0.05). The dose to ipsilateral lung, coronary artery and heart in the field-in-field-IMRT were significantly lower for the free-breathing plan than for the two moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans (all P<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the two moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans. The whole-breast field-in-field-IMRT under moderate deep inspiration breath-hold with active breathing control after breast-conserving surgery in left-sided breast cancer can reduce the irradiation volume and dose to organs at risks. There are no significant differences between various moderate deep inspiration breath-holding states in the dosimetry of irradiation to the field-in-field-IMRT target volume

  13. Effect of oxygenation on breath-by-breath response of the genioglossus muscle during occlusion.

    PubMed

    Gauda, E B; Carroll, J L; McColley, S; Smith, P L

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different levels of O2 tension (hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia) on the breath-by-breath onset and peak electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during a five-breath end-expiratory tracheal occlusion of 20- to 30-s duration. GG and diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG activity were measured with needle electrodes in eight anesthetized tracheotomized adult cats. In response to occlusion, the increase in the number of animals with GG EMG activity was different during hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (P = 0.003, Friedman). During hypoxia, eight of eight of the animals had GG EMG activity by the third occluded effort. In contrast, during normoxia, only four of eight and, during hyperoxia, only three of eight animals had GG EMG activity throughout the entire five-breath occlusion. Similarly, at release of the occlusion, more animals had persistent GG EMG activity on the postocclusion breaths during hypoxia than during normoxia or hyperoxia. Breath-by-breath augmentation of peak amplitude of the GG and DIA EMGs on each occluded effort was accentuated during hypoxia (P less than 0.01) and abolished during hyperoxia (P = 0.10). These results suggest that hypoxemia is a major determinant of the rapidity of onset, magnitude, and sustained activity of upper airway muscles during airway occlusion.

  14. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  15. "Serving Time": The Relationship of Good and Bad Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The argument is that good and bad teaching are asymmetrical. Eradicating what is readily thought of as bad teaching does not leave behind the purse gold of good teaching. Good teaching is that which promotes student learning. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between bad teaching and good teaching in graduate…

  16. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuji; Sahay, Peeyush

    2009-01-01

    Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC) disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS), cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS), cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS). Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis. PMID:22408503

  17. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hyperventilation as well as factors like emotional stress, overexertion, habitual postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach pursed-lip breathing. This ...

  18. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific... allowable costs. (e) Criteria for allowable bad debt. A bad debt must meet the following criteria to be... amount of allowable bad debt (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section) is reduced: (i) For cost...

  19. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific... allowable costs. (e) Criteria for allowable bad debt. A bad debt must meet the following criteria to be... amount of allowable bad debt (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section) is reduced: (i) For cost...

  20. The good news about giving bad news to patients.

    PubMed

    Farber, Neil J; Urban, Susan Y; Collier, Virginia U; Weiner, Joan; Polite, Ronald G; Davis, Elizabeth B; Boyer, E Gil

    2002-12-01

    There are few data available on how physicians inform patients about bad news. We surveyed internists about how they convey this information. We surveyed internists about their activities in giving bad news to patients. One set of questions was about activities for the emotional support of the patient (11 items), and the other was about activities for creating a supportive environment for delivering bad news (9 items). The impact of demographic factors on the performance of emotionally supportive items, environmentally supportive items, and on the number of minutes reportedly spent delivering news was analyzed by analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. More than half of the internists reported that they always or frequently performed 10 of the 11 emotionally supportive items and 6 of the 9 environmentally supportive items while giving bad news to patients. The average time reportedly spent in giving bad news was 27 minutes. Although training in giving bad news had a significant impact on the number of emotionally supportive items reported (P <.05), only 25% of respondents had any previous training in this area. Being older, a woman, unmarried, and having a history of major illness were also associated with reporting a greater number of emotionally supportive activities. Internists report that they inform patients of bad news appropriately. Some deficiencies exist, specifically in discussing prognosis and referral of patients to support groups. Physician educational efforts should include discussion of prognosis with patients as well as the availability of support groups.

  1. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; Emphysema - travel ... you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath ... doctor if you plan to travel in a place at a high altitude (such ...

  2. Thematic and Content Analysis of Idiopathic Nightmares and Bad Dreams

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Design: Correlational and descriptive. Setting: Participants' homes. Participants: Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. Conclusions: The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer—and more severe—expression of the same basic phenomenon. Citation: Robert G; Zadra A. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams. SLEEP 2014;37(2):409-417. PMID:24497669

  3. [Bad habits and dysgnathia: epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Cordasco, G; Lo Giudice, G; Dolci, E; Romeo, U; Lafronte, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors refer about an epidemiological survey in 651 children in the school-age. The aim of study is to investigate about the frequency of the bad habits and the pathogenetic relations between these and the development of the dento-maxillo-facial deformities. They point out an incidence of these bad habits in the 35,48% with a predominance of mouth breathers (45,45%). After they discuss the necessity of an early detection of anomalous neuromuscular attitudes.

  4. Effect of a variety of Chinese herbs and an herb-containing dentifrice on volatile sulfur compounds associated with halitosis: An in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-ting

    2010-01-01

    Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro. Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of bacterial activity and VSC inhibition. Extracted substances from Chinese herbs were identified by VSC inhibition tests with a Halimeter and microbial sensitivity testing. The effectiveness on halitosis was compared between a dentifrice containing one of the effective Chinese herbs (ie, chrysanthemum flower [Chrysanthemum morifolium flos]), 4 commercially available antihalitosis dentifrices, and a positive control that received no treatment. Results: Ten volunteers provided saliva samples for VSC testing. Of the 40 herbs tested, 14 extracts had percent inhibition rates of VSCs >50%. Ten herbs showed greatest effect against all culturable microorganisms with bacterial inhibition >70%. There was a weak positive correlation between bacteriostasis and the anti-VSC activity of the herbs with a correlation coefficient of 0.2579 (Pearson). The mean (SD) values of the VSC testing were as follows: dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower, 55.91 (8.16) ppb; Crest Tea Refreshing Dentifrice®, 48.39 (7.48) ppb (P = NS); Cortex Phellodendri Dentifrice®, 139.90 (14.70) ppb (P < 0.01); Colgate Total Plus Whitening®, 120.94 (15.58) ppb (P < 0.01); Zhong Hua Chinese Herbs Dentifrice®, 136.96 (13.06) ppb (P < 0.01); and positive control, 312.38 (28.58) ppb (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Of 40 herbs tested, 14 Chinese herbs were found to be effective for VSC inhibition. A dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower reduced the formation of VSC in vitro, showing a significantly greater effect than the control group and 3 of 4 dentifrices already on the market. PMID:24683259

  5. Effect of a variety of Chinese herbs and an herb-containing dentifrice on volatile sulfur compounds associated with halitosis: An in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-Ting

    2010-04-01

    The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro. Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of bacterial activity and VSC inhibition. Extracted substances from Chinese herbs were identified by VSC inhibition tests with a Halimeter and microbial sensitivity testing. The effectiveness on halitosis was compared between a dentifrice containing one of the effective Chinese herbs (ie, chrysanthemum flower [Chrysanthemum morifolium flos]), 4 commercially available antihalitosis dentifrices, and a positive control that received no treatment. Ten volunteers provided saliva samples for VSC testing. Of the 40 herbs tested, 14 extracts had percent inhibition rates of VSCs >50%. Ten herbs showed greatest effect against all culturable microorganisms with bacterial inhibition >70%. There was a weak positive correlation between bacteriostasis and the anti-VSC activity of the herbs with a correlation coefficient of 0.2579 (Pearson). The mean (SD) values of the VSC testing were as follows: dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower, 55.91 (8.16) ppb; Crest Tea Refreshing Dentifrice®, 48.39 (7.48) ppb (P = NS); Cortex Phellodendri Dentifrice®, 139.90 (14.70) ppb (P < 0.01); Colgate Total Plus Whitening®, 120.94 (15.58) ppb (P < 0.01); Zhong Hua Chinese Herbs Dentifrice®, 136.96 (13.06) ppb (P < 0.01); and positive control, 312.38 (28.58) ppb (P < 0.01). Of 40 herbs tested, 14 Chinese herbs were found to be effective for VSC inhibition. A dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower reduced the formation of VSC in vitro, showing a significantly greater effect than the control group and 3 of 4 dentifrices already on the market.

  6. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K., E-mail: markus.krug@uni-graz.at; Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  7. Thematic and content analysis of idiopathic nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Robert, Geneviève; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    To conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of prospectively collected bad dream and nightmare reports using a broad range of dream content variables. Correlational and descriptive. Participants' homes. Three hundred thirty-one adult volunteers (55 men, 275 women, 1 not specified; mean age = 32.4 ± 14.8 y). N/A. Five hundred seventy-two participants kept a written record of all of their remembered dreams in a log for 2 to 5 consecutive weeks. A total of 9,796 dream reports were collected and the content of 253 nightmares and 431 bad dreams reported by 331 participants was investigated. Physical aggression was the most frequently reported theme in nightmares, whereas interpersonal conflicts predominated in bad dreams. Nightmares were rated by participants as being substantially more emotionally intense than were bad dreams. Thirty-five percent of nightmares and 55% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. When compared to bad dreams, nightmares were more bizarre and contained substantially more aggressions, failures, and unfortunate endings. The results have important implications on how nightmares are conceptualized and defined and support the view that when compared to bad dreams, nightmares represent a somewhat rarer-and more severe-expression of the same basic phenomenon.

  8. 42 CFR 413.89 - Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. 413.89... Categories of Costs § 413.89 Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49198, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) Principle. Bad debts, charity, and courtesy allowances are deductions...

  9. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  10. A Ringdown Breath Analyzer for Diabetes Monitoring: Breath Acetone in Diabetic Patients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuji; Mbi, Armstrong; Shepherd, Mark

    2008-03-01

    It is highly desirable for millions of diabetic patients to have a non-blood, non-invasive, point-of-care device for monitoring daily blood glucose (BG) levels and the adequacy of diabetic treatment and control. Cavity ringdown spectroscopy, due to its unique capability of high sensitivity, fast-response, and relatively low cost for instrumentation, has the potential for medical application through non-invasive analysis of breath biomarkers. We report the first ringdown acetone breath analyzer for clinic testing with diabetic outpatients. The instrument was set in a clinic center and 34 outpatients (24 T1D and 10 T2D) were tested during a four-day period. 10 T1D subjects and 15 nondiabetic persons were tested in our laboratory. Three juvenile-onset T1D subjects were selected for a 24-hr monitoring on the variations of breath acetone and simultaneous BG level. In this talk, we present our research findings including the correlations of breath acetone with BG level and A1C.

  11. The Good News About Giving Bad News to Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Neil J; Urban, Susan Y; Collier, Virginia U; Weiner, Joan; Polite, Ronald G; Davis, Elizabeth B; Boyer, E Gil

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are few data available on how physicians inform patients about bad news. We surveyed internists about how they convey this information. METHODS We surveyed internists about their activities in giving bad news to patients. One set of questions was about activities for the emotional support of the patient (11 items), and the other was about activities for creating a supportive environment for delivering bad news (9 items). The impact of demographic factors on the performance of emotionally supportive items, environmentally supportive items, and on the number of minutes reportedly spent delivering news was analyzed by analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS More than half of the internists reported that they always or frequently performed 10 of the 11 emotionally supportive items and 6 of the 9 environmentally supportive items while giving bad news to patients. The average time reportedly spent in giving bad news was 27 minutes. Although training in giving bad news had a significant impact on the number of emotionally supportive items reported (P < .05), only 25% of respondents had any previous training in this area. Being older, a woman, unmarried, and having a history of major illness were also associated with reporting a greater number of emotionally supportive activities. CONCLUSIONS Internists report that they inform patients of bad news appropriately. Some deficiencies exist, specifically in discussing prognosis and referral of patients to support groups. Physician educational efforts should include discussion of prognosis with patients as well as the availability of support groups. PMID:12472927

  12. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... and HDL (good) cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because ... cholesterol in your arteries. HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is called the "good" cholesterol because ...

  13. Morale Is Bad!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Jack

    Bad or low morale exists wherever people are dissatisfied with themselves in relation to their environment. In recent years, there is evidence that declining morale has become a problem of national proportions in education. Dwindling enrollments and funding, a changing student body, and curricular adjustments, compounded by the inability of…

  14. BAD and KATP channels regulate neuron excitability and epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fernández-Agüera, María Carmen; Nathwani, Nidhi; Lahmann, Carolina; Burnham, Veronica L; Danial, Nika N; Yellen, Gary

    2018-01-25

    Brain metabolism can profoundly influence neuronal excitability. Mice with genetic deletion or alteration of Bad ( B CL-2 a gonist of cell d eath) exhibit altered brain-cell fuel metabolism, accompanied by resistance to acutely induced epileptic seizures; this seizure protection is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels. Here we investigated the effect of BAD manipulation on K ATP channel activity and excitability in acute brain slices. We found that BAD's influence on neuronal K ATP channels was cell-autonomous and directly affected dentate granule neuron (DGN) excitability. To investigate the role of neuronal K ATP channels in the anticonvulsant effects of BAD, we imaged calcium during picrotoxin-induced epileptiform activity in entorhinal-hippocampal slices. BAD knockout reduced epileptiform activity, and this effect was lost upon knockout or pharmacological inhibition of K ATP channels. Targeted BAD knockout in DGNs alone was sufficient for the antiseizure effect in slices, consistent with a 'dentate gate' function that is reinforced by increased K ATP channel activity. © 2018, Martínez-François et al.

  15. NICMOS Focus and HST Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkov, A.; Hershey, J.

    1998-09-01

    The program 7608 monitored on a biweekly basis NICMOS camera foci from June 9, 1997, through February 18, 1998. Each of the biweekly observations included 17 measurements of focus position (focus sweeps), individually for each of the three cameras. The measurements for camera 1 and camera 3 foci covered one or two HST orbital periods. Comparison of these measurements with the predictions of the three OTA focus breathing models has shown the following. (1). Focus variations seen in NICMOS focus sweeps correlate well with the OTA focus thermal breathing as predicted by breathing models (“4- temperature”, “full-temperature”, and “attitude” models). Thus they can be attributed mostly to the HST orbital temperature variation. (2). The amount of breathing (breathing amplitude) has been found to be on average larger in the first orbit after a telescope slew to a new target. This is explained as being due to additional thermal perturbations caused by the change in the HST attitude as the telescope repoints to a new target. (3). In the first orbit, the amount of focus change predicted by the 4-temperature model is about the same as that seen in the focus sweeps data (breathing scale factor ~1). However the full-temperature model predicts a two times smaller breathing amplitude (breathing scale factor ~1.7). This suggests that the light shield temperatures are more responsive to the attitude change than temperatures from the other temperature sensors. The results of this study may help to better understand the HST thermal cycles and to improve the models describing the impact of those on both the OTA and NICMOS focus.

  16. Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

    2000-12-01

    Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

  17. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate acidity.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Barta, Imre; Antus, Balázs; Horváth, Ildikó

    2008-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a developing method for investigating airway pathology. Impact of food and drink on breath condensate composition has not been systematically addressed. The aim of the study was to follow exhaled breath condensate pH after drinking an acidic and a neutral beverage. Breath condensate, capillary blood, and urine of 12 healthy volunteers were collected before and after drinking either 1 l of coke or 1 l of mineral water. The pH of each sample was determined with a blood gas analyzer. The mean difference between the pH of two breath condensate samples collected within 15 min before drinking was 0.13+/-0.03. Condensate pH decreased significantly from 6.29+/-0.02 to 6.24+/-0.02 (p<0.03) after drinking coke and from 6.37+/-0.03 to 6.22+/-0.04 (p<0.003) after drinking water. Drinking coke induced significant changes in blood and urine pH as well. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate composition and may contribute to the variability of exhaled breath condensate pH.

  18. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, G; Yin, Y

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group,more » 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.« less

  19. Positive Organizational Behavior: A Buffer for Bad News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sandra L.; Holden, Tracey Quigley

    2012-01-01

    Most communication research on bad news messages focuses on crisis communication, where attention is often limited to image repair strategies. The authors argue that a key indicator of an organization's effectiveness in communicating "bad news" messages is its organizational culture. Developing an organizational culture that values positive…

  20. 48 CFR 1631.205-71 - FEHBP bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP bad debts. 1631.205-71 Section 1631.205-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-71 FEHBP bad debts. Erroneous benefit...

  1. HOW TO MANAGE DATA BADLY (PART 1 & 2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a landmark article in The American Statistician, Howard Wainer (1994) presented ideas for (a) "How to Display Data Badly," wherein good data are ruined by bad graphics. Wainer presumed too much. In this essay, I extend his concept by presenting ideas and examples of how scient...

  2. Attempts to avoid NEPA: Is it bad faith?

    SciTech Connect

    Tuckfield, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) imposes procedural requirements on federal agencies that undertake {open_quotes}major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.{close_quotes} Determining whether a project is a major federal action, subject to NEPA, is not always an easy task. When a determination is made that a project is not subject to NEPA, opponents of the project and environmental organizations occasionally cry foul. Often there are allegations that the federal agency of the project proponent (or both) acted in bad faith to avoid NEPA. The question of whether bad faith is relevant in NEPA inquiries has beenmore » the subject litigation for many of years. In that time, courts have addressed a number of bad faith questions. A common question is whether it is appropriate for a non-federal project proponent to structure a project to maintain eligibility for federal funding, but at the last minute withdraw the project from eligibility for the sole purpose of avoiding NEPA. More difficult questions arise when the federal government allocates some federal money to the project for preliminary design work before the project is withdrawn from eligibility for additional federal construction funds. Still other questions arise with respect to whether project proponents must reimburse the federal government for funds allocated to a project before the determination is made that it will not be a federal project. This paper will trace the evolution of the courts` struggle with bad faith NEPA claims. It will then show how courts have recently begun to develop a workable and appropriate test for determining when bad faith is an issue in NEPA litigation. This issue is important for project proponents and federal agency officials so they will not unwittingly take steps others might construe as bad faith. It is important for members of environmental organizations so they may recognize and properly assert bad faith claims when

  3. Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shangfu; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Proapoptotic BH-3-only protein Bad (Bcl-Xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, Bad) initiates apoptosis in human cells, and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistant in malignancies. This study explored association between the Bad expression level and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, a cohort of 88 resected primary NSCLC cases were collected and analyzed. Bad expression level was determined via immunohistochemical staining assay. The prognostic significances of Bad expression were evaluated with univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results showed that compared with normal lung tissues, Bad expression level significantly decreased in NSCLC (P < 0.05). Bad expression was associated with adjuvant therapy status. Loss of Bad independently predicted poor prognosis in whole NSCLC cohort and early stage subjects (T1 + T2 and N0 + N1) (all P < 0.05). Overall survival time was also drastically shortened for Bad negative phenotype in NSCLC patients with smoking history, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study provided clinical evidence that loss of Bad is an independent and powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in NSCLC. Bad protein could be a new biomarker for selecting individual therapy strategies and predicting therapeutic response in subjects with NSCLC.

  4. Optimising diffusion-weighted MR imaging for demonstrating pancreatic cancer: a comparison of respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques.

    PubMed

    Kartalis, Nikolaos; Loizou, Louiza; Edsborg, Nick; Segersvärd, Ralf; Albiin, Nils

    2012-10-01

    To compare respiratory-triggered, free-breathing, and breath-hold DWI techniques regarding (1) image quality, and (2) signal intensity (SI) and ADC measurements in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Fifteen patients with histopathologically proven PDAC underwent DWI prospectively at 1.5 T (b = 0, 50, 300, 600 and 1,000 s/mm(2)) with the three techniques. Two radiologists, independently and blindly, assigned total image quality scores [sum of rating diffusion images (lesion detection, anatomy, presence of artefacts) and ADC maps (lesion characterisation, overall image quality)] per technique and ranked them. The lesion SI, signal-to-noise ratio, mean ADC and coefficient of variation (CV) were compared. Total image quality scores for respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques were 17.9, 16.5 and 17.1 respectively (respiratory-triggered was significantly higher than free-breathing but not breath-hold). The respiratory-triggered technique had a significantly higher ranking. Lesion SI on all b-values and signal-to-noise ratio on b300 and b600 were significantly higher for the respiratory-triggered technique. For respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques the mean ADCs were 1.201, 1.132 and 1.253 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, and mean CVs were 8.9, 10.8 and 14.1 % respectively (respiratory-triggered and free-breathing techniques had a significantly lower mean CV than the breath-hold technique). In both analyses, respiratory-triggered DWI showed superiority and seems the optimal DWI technique for demonstrating PDAC. • Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used to detect pancreatic cancer • Images are acquired using various breathing techniques and multiple b-values • Breathing techniques used: respiratory-triggering, free-breathing and breath-hold • Respiratory-triggering seems the optimal breathing technique for demonstrating pancreatic cancer.

  5. When It Is Bad to Be Too Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappon, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Excessive "too-goodness" in a child can lead to obsessive neuroses which result in compulsions or ruminations. The only effective treatment is early prevention, culturally, socially, and behaviorally. Children must understand that all excesses are bad. Being bad is sometimes good. Being too good can be unhealthy. (Author/BEF)

  6. The prevalence of bad headaches including migraine in a multiethnic community.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A N; White, G E; West, R

    1993-11-10

    Overall and ethnic specific prevalences of bad headache including migraine, for the New Zealand population, are unknown. A study was carried out in South Auckland to estimate prevalence and to explore ethnic differences in doctor attendance for the diagnosis and management of bad headaches. Telephone interviews were administered to respondents selected by random digit dialing of households. 40.6% of the respondents suffered from bad headaches. 54.5% of these had the characteristics of bad headache with features symptomatic of migraine. Trends in the prevalence of bad headache with features symptomatic of common migraine, peaked between the ages of 30-49 years in both men and women. A difference was seen in the prevalence of bad headache with aura, with or without common migraine features, when ethnic groups and gender were examined. The difference in prevalence of aura was particularly noticeable between Pacific Island men and women. Although there was no difference between ethnic groups in doctor attendance, headaches were more likely to be labelled as migraine in Europeans than in the Polynesian groups. Ways in which people perceive and report their bad headaches have a bearing on management by general practitioners. Although no overall ethnic predominance was seen, there was a gender difference amongst Pacific Island people in reporting bad headaches with aura. The labelling process, and thus the management by general practitioners does demonstrate likely ethnic differences.

  7. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being placed...

  8. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  9. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Breath-Hold Diving.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled breathing protocols probe human autonomic cardiovascular rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W. H.; Cox, J. F.; Diedrich, A. M.; Taylor, J. A.; Beightol, L. A.; Ames, J. E. 4th; Hoag, J. B.; Seidel, H.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how breathing protocols requiring varying degrees of control affect cardiovascular dynamics. We measured inspiratory volume, end-tidal CO2, R-R interval, and arterial pressure spectral power in 10 volunteers who followed the following 5 breathing protocols: 1) uncontrolled breathing for 5 min; 2) stepwise frequency breathing (at 0.3, 0.25, 0.2, 0.15, 0.1, and 0.05 Hz for 2 min each); 3) stepwise frequency breathing as above, but with prescribed tidal volumes; 4) random-frequency breathing (approximately 0.5-0.05 Hz) for 6 min; and 5) fixed-frequency breathing (0.25 Hz) for 5 min. During stepwise breathing, R-R interval and arterial pressure spectral power increased as breathing frequency decreased. Control of inspired volume reduced R-R interval spectral power during 0.1 Hz breathing (P < 0.05). Stepwise and random-breathing protocols yielded comparable coherence and transfer functions between respiration and R-R intervals and systolic pressure and R-R intervals. Random- and fixed-frequency breathing reduced end-tidal CO2 modestly (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that stringent tidal volume control attenuates low-frequency R-R interval oscillations and that fixed- and random-rate breathing may decrease CO2 chemoreceptor stimulation. We conclude that autonomic rhythms measured during different breathing protocols have much in common but that a stepwise protocol without stringent control of inspired volume may allow for the most efficient assessment of short-term respiratory-mediated autonomic oscillations.

  12. Flood of July 2016 in northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Dantoin, Eric D.; Tillison, Naomi; Watson, Kara M.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Blount, James D.

    2017-06-06

    Heavy rain fell across northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation on July 11, 2016, as a result of several rounds of thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding in the Bad River Basin and nearby tributaries along the south shore of Lake Superior. Rainfall totals were 8–10 inches or more and most of the rain fell in an 8-hour period. A streamgage on the Bad River near Odanah, Wisconsin, rose from 300 cubic feet per second to a record peak streamflow of 40,000 cubic feet per second in only 15 hours. Following the storms and through September 2016, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey and Bad River Tribe Natural Resources Department recovered and documented 108 high-water marks near the Bad River Reservation. Many of these high-water marks were used to create three flood-inundation maps for the Bad River, Beartrap Creek, and Denomie Creek for the Bad River Reservation in the vicinity of the community of Odanah.

  13. Enforcing Academic Policies and Alleviating Student Bad Debt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, D. Tyson; Wesley, Homer

    1998-01-01

    It is more important than ever for colleges and universities to manage the resources they have and guard against unnecessary loss. Student bad debt is one loss that can be resolved. A study identified certain predictors of student bad debt, including academic indicators and student characteristics, and offers suggestions to institutions for…

  14. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  15. Reaction time following yoga bellows-type breathing and breath awareness.

    PubMed

    Telles, Shirley; Yadav, Arti; Gupta, Ram Kumar; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2013-08-01

    The reaction time (RT) was assessed in two groups of healthy males, yoga group (M age = 29.0 yr.) and non-yoga or control group (M age = 29.0 yr.), with 35 participants each. The yoga group had an average experience of 6 months, while the control group was yoga-naïve. The yoga group was assessed in two sessions, (i) bhastrika pranayama or bellows breathing and (ii) breath awareness, while the control group had a single control session. The two experimental sessions, one with each type of breathing, and the control session consisted of pre- (5 min.), during (18 min.), and post-session epochs (5 min.). Assessments were made in the pre- and post-session epochs using a Multi-Operational Apparatus for Reaction Time. Following 18 min. of bhastrika pranayama there was a statistically significant reduction in number of anticipatory responses compared to before the practice. This suggests that the immediate effect of bhastrika pranayama is to inhibit unnecessary responding to stimuli.

  16. Delivering Bad News: Attitudes, Feelings, and Practice Characteristics Among Speech-Language Pathologists.

    PubMed

    Gold, Rinat; Gold, Azgad

    2018-02-06

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, feelings, and practice characteristics of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in Israel regarding the subject of delivering bad news. One hundred and seventy-three Israeli SLPs answered an online survey. Respondents represented SLPs in Israel in all stages of vocational experience, with varying academic degrees, from a variety of employment settings. The survey addressed emotions involved in the process of delivering bad news, training on this subject, and background information of the respondents. Frequency distributions of the responses of the participants were determined, and Pearson correlations were computed to determine the relation between years of occupational experience and the following variables: frequency of delivering bad news, opinions regarding training, and emotions experienced during the process of bad news delivery. Our survey showed that bad news delivery is a task that most participants are confronted with from the very beginning of their careers. Participants regarded training in the subject of delivering bad news as important but, at the same time, reported receiving relatively little training on this subject. In addition, our survey showed that negative emotions are involved in the process of delivering bad news. Training SLPs on specific techniques is required for successfully delivering bad news. The emotional burden associated with breaking bad news in the field of speech-language pathology should be noticed and addressed.

  17. Patients' Attitude toward Breaking Bad News; a Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber; Darzi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Delivering bad news is a stressful moment for both physicians and patients. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the patients' preferences and attitudes toward being informed about the bad news. This cross-sectional study was done on patients admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Sari, Iran, from September 2014 to February 2015. Patient attitude regarding breaking bad news was evaluated using a reliable and valid questionnaire. 130 patients were evaluated (61.5% male, mean age = 46.21 ± 12.1 years). 118 (90.76%) participants believed that the patient himself/herself should be informed about the disease's condition. 120 (92.30%) preferred to hear the news from a skillful physician and 105 (80.76%) believed that emergency department is not a proper place for breaking bad news. Based on the results of the present study, most participants believed that the most experienced and skillful physician should inform them completely regarding their medical condition. At the same time they declared that, it is best to hear bad news in a calm and suitable place and time rather than emergency department or hospital corridors during teaching rounds.

  18. Variety and intensity of emotions in nightmares and bad dreams.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu; Donderi, Don C

    2006-04-01

    Nightmares are usually defined as frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper. This study uses the waking criterion to distinguish between nightmares and bad dreams and investigated the variety and intensity of emotions reported in each form of disturbing dream. Ninety participants recorded their dreams for 4 consecutive weeks and, for each dream recalled, noted the emotions present and their intensities on a 9-point scale. Thirty-six participants reported at least one nightmare and one bad dream over the 4 weeks covered by the log, while 29 reported having had at least one bad dream but no nightmares. Nightmares were rated as being significantly (p < 0.001) more intense than bad dreams. Thirty percent of nightmares and 51% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. The findings support the claim that awakening can serve as an indirect measure of nightmare intensity and raise important implications for the operational definition of nightmares.

  19. BAD and KATP channels regulate neuron excitability and epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Agüera, María Carmen; Nathwani, Nidhi; Lahmann, Carolina; Burnham, Veronica L

    2018-01-01

    Brain metabolism can profoundly influence neuronal excitability. Mice with genetic deletion or alteration of Bad (BCL-2 agonist of cell death) exhibit altered brain-cell fuel metabolism, accompanied by resistance to acutely induced epileptic seizures; this seizure protection is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Here we investigated the effect of BAD manipulation on KATP channel activity and excitability in acute brain slices. We found that BAD’s influence on neuronal KATP channels was cell-autonomous and directly affected dentate granule neuron (DGN) excitability. To investigate the role of neuronal KATP channels in the anticonvulsant effects of BAD, we imaged calcium during picrotoxin-induced epileptiform activity in entorhinal-hippocampal slices. BAD knockout reduced epileptiform activity, and this effect was lost upon knockout or pharmacological inhibition of KATP channels. Targeted BAD knockout in DGNs alone was sufficient for the antiseizure effect in slices, consistent with a ‘dentate gate’ function that is reinforced by increased KATP channel activity. PMID:29368690

  20. Educating the delivery of bad news in medicine: Preceptorship versus simulation

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Andrew P; Adkins, Eric J; Knepel, Sheri; Boulger, Creagh; Miller, Jessica; Bahner, David P

    2011-01-01

    Simulation experiences have begun to replace traditional education models of teaching the skill of bad news delivery in medical education. The tiered apprenticeship model of medical education emphasizes experiential learning. Studies have described a lack of support in bad news delivery and inadequacy of training in this important clinical skill as well as poor familial comprehension and dissatisfaction on the part of physicians in training regarding the resident delivery of bad news. Many residency training programs lacked a formalized training curriculum in the delivery of bad news. Simulation teaching experiences may address these noted clinical deficits in the delivery of bad news to patients and their families. Unique experiences can be role-played with this educational technique to simulate perceived learner deficits. A variety of scenarios can be constructed within the framework of the simulation training method to address specific cultural and religious responses to bad news in the medical setting. Even potentially explosive and violent scenarios can be role-played in order to prepare physicians for these rare and difficult situations. While simulation experiences cannot supplant the model of positive, real-life clinical teaching in the delivery of bad news, simulation of clinical scenarios with scripting, self-reflection, and peer-to-peer feedback can be powerful educational tools. Simulation training can help to develop the skills needed to effectively and empathetically deliver bad news to patients and families in medical practice. PMID:22229135

  1. Educating the delivery of bad news in medicine: Preceptorship versus simulation.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Andrew P; Adkins, Eric J; Knepel, Sheri; Boulger, Creagh; Miller, Jessica; Bahner, David P

    2011-07-01

    Simulation experiences have begun to replace traditional education models of teaching the skill of bad news delivery in medical education. The tiered apprenticeship model of medical education emphasizes experiential learning. Studies have described a lack of support in bad news delivery and inadequacy of training in this important clinical skill as well as poor familial comprehension and dissatisfaction on the part of physicians in training regarding the resident delivery of bad news. Many residency training programs lacked a formalized training curriculum in the delivery of bad news. Simulation teaching experiences may address these noted clinical deficits in the delivery of bad news to patients and their families. Unique experiences can be role-played with this educational technique to simulate perceived learner deficits. A variety of scenarios can be constructed within the framework of the simulation training method to address specific cultural and religious responses to bad news in the medical setting. Even potentially explosive and violent scenarios can be role-played in order to prepare physicians for these rare and difficult situations. While simulation experiences cannot supplant the model of positive, real-life clinical teaching in the delivery of bad news, simulation of clinical scenarios with scripting, self-reflection, and peer-to-peer feedback can be powerful educational tools. Simulation training can help to develop the skills needed to effectively and empathetically deliver bad news to patients and families in medical practice.

  2. The role of arterial chemoreceptors in the breath-by-breath augmentation of inspiratory effort in rabbits during airway occlusion or elastic loading.

    PubMed

    Callanan, D; Read, D J

    1974-08-01

    1. The breath-by-breath augmentation of inspiratory effort in the five breaths following airway occlusion or elastic loading was assessed in anaesthetized rabbits from changes of airway pressure, diaphragm e.m.g. and lung volume.2. When the airway was occluded in animals breathing air, arterial O(2) tension fell by 20 mmHg and CO(2) tension rose by 7 mmHg within the time of the first five loaded breaths.3. Inhalation of 100% O(2) or carotid denervation markedly reduced the breath-by-breath progression but had little or no effect on the responses at the first loaded breath.4. These results indicate that the breath-by-breath augmentation of inspiratory effort following addition of a load is mainly due to asphyxial stimulation of the carotid bodies, rather than to the gradual emergence of a powerful load-compensating reflex originating in the chest-wall, as postulated by some workers.5. The small residual progression seen in animals breathing 100% O(2) or following carotid denervation was not eliminated (a) by combining these procedures or (b) by addition of gas to the lungs to prevent the progressive lung deflation which occurred during airway occlusion.6. Bilateral vagotomy, when combined with carotid denervation, abolished the residual breath-by-breath progression of inspiratory effort.

  3. BAD Modulates Counterregulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia and Protective Glucoprivic Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Osundiji, Mayowa A.; Godes, Marina L.; Evans, Mark L.; Danial, Nika N.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycemia or glucoprivation triggers protective hormonal counterregulatory and feeding responses to aid the restoration of normoglycemia. Increasing evidence suggests pertinent roles for the brain in sensing glucoprivation and mediating counterregulation, however, the precise nature of the metabolic signals and molecular mediators linking central glucose sensing to effector functions are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that protective hormonal and feeding responses to hypoglycemia are regulated by BAD, a BCL-2 family protein with dual functions in apoptosis and metabolism. BAD-deficient mice display impaired glycemic and hormonal counterregulatory responses to systemic glucoprivation induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose. BAD is also required for proper counterregulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia as evident from significantly higher glucose infusion rates and lower plasma epinephrine levels during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps. Importantly, RNA interference-mediated acute knockdown of Bad in the brain provided independent genetic evidence for its relevance in central glucose sensing and proper neurohumoral responses to glucoprivation. Moreover, BAD deficiency is associated with impaired glucoprivic feeding, suggesting that its role in adaptive responses to hypoglycemia extends beyond hormonal responses to regulation of feeding behavior. Together, these data indicate a previously unappreciated role for BAD in the control of central glucose sensing. PMID:22162752

  4. The badness of death and priorities in health.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Carl Tollef; Gamlund, Espen

    2016-04-14

    The state of the world is one with scarce medical resources where longevity is not equally distributed. Given such facts, setting priorities in health entails making difficult yet unavoidable decisions about which lives to save. The business of saving lives works on the assumption that longevity is valuable and that an early death is worse than a late death. There is a vast literature on health priorities and badness of death, separately. Surprisingly, there has been little cross-fertilisation between the academic fields of priority setting and badness of death. Our aim is to connect philosophical discussions on the badness of death to contemporary debates in health priorities. Two questions regarding death are especially relevant to health priorities. The first question is why death is bad. Death is clearly bad for others, such as family, friends and society. Many philosophers also argue that death can be bad for those who die. This distinction is important for health priorities, because it concerns our fundamental reasons for saving lives. The second question is, 'When is the worst time to die?' A premature death is commonly considered worse than a late death. Thus, the number of good life years lost seems to matter to the badness of death. Concerning young individuals, some think the death of infants is worse than the death of adolescents, while others have contrary intuitions. Our claim is that to prioritise between age groups, we must consider the question of when it is worst to die. Deprivationism provides a more plausible approach to health priorities than Epicureanism. If Deprivationism is accepted, we will have a firmer basis for claiming that individuals, in addition to having a health loss caused by morbidity, will have a loss of good life years due to mortality. Additionally, Deprivationism highlights the importance of age and values for health priorities. Regarding age, both variants of Deprivationism imply that stillbirths are included in the Global

  5. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  6. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  7. Numerical investigation for one bad-behaved flow in a Pelton turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X. Z.; Yang, K.; Wang, H. J.; Gong, R. Z.; Li, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The gas-liquid two-phase flow in pelton turbines is very complicated, there are many kinds of bad-behaved flow in pelton turbines. In this paper, CFD numerical simulation for the pelton turbine was conducted using VOF two-phase model. One kind of bad-behaved flow caused by the two jets was captured, and the bad-behaved flow was analysed by torque on buckets. It can be concluded that the angle between the two jets and the value of ratio of runner diameter and jet diameter are important parameters for the bad-behaved flow. Furthermore, the reason why the efficiency of some multi-jet type turbines is very low can be well explained by the analysis of bad-behaved flow. Finally, some suggestions for improvement were also provided in present paper.

  8. Biochemical and biophysical investigations of the interaction between human glucokinase and pro-apoptotic BAD.

    PubMed

    Rexford, Alix; Zorio, Diego A R; Miller, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD reportedly reside within a five-membered complex that localizes to the mitochondria of mammalian hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Photochemical crosslinking studies using a synthetic analog of BAD's BH3 domain and in vitro transcription/translation experiments support a direct interaction between BAD and GCK. To investigate the biochemical and biophysical consequences of the BAD:GCK interaction, we developed a method for the production of recombinant human BAD. Consistent with published reports, recombinant BAD displays high affinity for Bcl-xL (KD = 7 nM), and phosphorylation of BAD at S118, within the BH3 domain, abolishes this interaction. Unexpectedly, we do not detect association of recombinant, full-length BAD with recombinant human pancreatic GCK over a range of protein concentrations using various biochemical methods including size-exclusion chromatography, chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Furthermore, fluorescence polarization assays and isothermal titration calorimetry detect no direct interaction between GCK and BAD BH3 peptides. Kinetic characterization of GCK in the presence of high concentrations of recombinant BAD show modest (<15%) increases in GCK activity, observable only at glucose concentrations well below the K0.5 value. GCK activity is unaffected by BAD BH3 peptides. These results raise questions as to the mechanism of action of stapled peptide analogs modeled after the BAD BH3 domain, which reportedly enhance the Vmax value of GCK and stimulate insulin release in BAD-deficient islets. Based on our results, we postulate that the BAD:GCK interaction, and any resultant regulatory effect(s) upon GCK activity, requires the participation of additional members of the mitochondrial complex.

  9. Factors associated with patient preferences for communication of bad news.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Maiko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2017-06-01

    Communication based on patient preferences can alleviate their psychological distress and is an important part of patient-centered care for physicians who have the task of conveying bad news to cancer patients. The present study aimed to explore the demographic, medical, and psychological factors associated with patient preferences with regard to communication of bad news. Outpatients with a variety of cancers were consecutively invited to participate in our study after their follow-up medical visit. A questionnaire assessed their preferences regarding the communication of bad news, covering four factors-(1) how bad news is delivered, (2) reassurance and emotional support, (3) additional information, and (4) setting-as well as on demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors. A total of 529 outpatients with a variety of cancers completed the questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses indicated that patients who were younger, female, had greater faith in their physician, and were more highly educated placed more importance on "how bad news is delivered" than patients who were older, male, had less faith in their physician, and a lower level of education. Female patients and patients without an occupation placed more importance on "reassurance and emotional support." Younger, female, and more highly educated patients placed more importance on "additional information." Younger, female, and more highly educated patients, along with patients who weren't undergoing active treatment placed more importance on "setting." Patient preferences with regard to communication of bad news are associated with factors related to patient background. Physicians should consider these characteristics when delivering bad news and use an appropriate communication style tailored to each patient.

  10. 26 CFR 1.593-5 - Addition to reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Addition to reserves for bad debts. 1.593-5... bad debts. (a) Amount of addition. As an alternative to a deduction from gross income under section... a deduction under section 166(c) for a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts. In the case...

  11. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  12. Quiet breathing in hindlimb casted mice.

    PubMed

    Receno, Candace N; Roffo, Katelynn E; Mickey, Marisa C; DeRuisseau, Keith C; DeRuisseau, Lara R

    2018-06-07

    The hindlimb casting model was developed to study skeletal muscle reloading following a period of unloading. It is unknown if ventilation parameters of mice are affected by the casting model. We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb casted mice have similar ventilatory patterns compared to mice with the casts removed. Male CD-1 mice underwent 14 days of hindlimb immobilization via plaster casting. Breathing parameters were obtained utilizing unrestrained barometric plethysmography (UBP). Breathing traces were analyzed with Ponemah software for breathing frequency, tidal volume (TV), and minute ventilation (MV). Frequency, TV and MV did not show any differences in quiet breathing patterns during or post-casting in mice. Thus, the hindlimb casting model does not complicate breathing during and after casting and should not interfere with the unloading and reloading of skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of a new mixing chamber system for breath-by-breath indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yeon; Robergs, Robert Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Limited validation research exists for applications of breath-by-breath systems of expired gas analysis indirect calorimetry (EGAIC) during exercise. We developed improved hardware and software for breath-by-breath indirect calorimetry (NEW) and validated this system as well as a commercial system (COM) against 2 methods: (i) mechanical ventilation with known calibration gas, and (ii) human subjects testing for 5 min each at rest and cycle ergometer exercise at 100 and 175 W. Mechanical calibration consisted of medical grade and certified calibration gas ((4.95% CO(2), 12.01% O(2), balance N(2)), room air (20.95% O(2), 0.03% CO(2), balance N(2)), and 100% nitrogen), and an air flow turbine calibrated with a 3-L calibration syringe. Ventilation was mimicked manually using complete 3-L calibration syringe manouvers at a rate of 10·min(-1) from a Douglas bag reservoir of calibration gas. The testing of human subjects was completed in a counterbalanced sequence based on 5 repeated tests of all conditions for a single subject. Rest periods of 5 and 10 min followed the 100 and 175 W conditions, respectively. COM and NEW had similar accuracy when tested with known ventilation and gas fractions. However, during human subjects testing COM significantly under-measured carbon dioxide gas fractions, over-measured oxygen gas fractions and minute ventilation, and resulted in errors to each of oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, and respiratory exchange ratio. These discrepant findings reveal that controlled ventilation and gas fractions are insufficient to validate breath-by-breath, and perhaps even time-averaged, systems of EGAIC. The errors of the COM system reveal the need for concern over the validity of commercial systems of EGAIC.

  14. Breaking bad news: doctors' skills in communicating with patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silveira, Francisco José; Botelho, Camila Carvalho; Valadão, Carolina Cirino

    2017-01-01

    Breaking bad news is one of doctors' duties and it requires them to have some skills, given that this situation is difficult and distressful for patients and their families. Moreover, it is also an uncomfortable condition for doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate doctors' capacity to break bad news, ascertain which specialties are best prepared for doing this and assess the importance of including this topic within undergraduate courses. Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil. This study used a questionnaire based on the SPIKES protocol, which was answered by 121 doctors at this university hospital. This questionnaire investigated their attitudes, posture, behavior and fears relating to breaking bad news. The majority of the doctors did not have problems regarding the concept of bad news. Nevertheless, their abilities diverged depending on the stage of the protocol and on their specialty and length of time since graduation. Generally, doctors who had graduated more than ten years before this survey felt more comfortable and confident, and thus transmitted the bad news in a better conducted manner. Much needs to be improved regarding this technique. Therefore, inclusion of this topic in undergraduate courses is necessary and proposals should be put forward and verified.

  15. 26 CFR 1.593-7 - Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....593-10. (2) Bad debt losses. Any bad debt in respect of a nonqualifying loan shall be charged against the reserve for losses on nonqualifying loans, and any bad debt in respect of a qualifying real... option of the taxpayer, however, any bad debt in respect of either class of loans may be charged in whole...

  16. Bad Reaction to Cosmetics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Yourself Health Fraud Bad Reactions to Cosmetics? Tell FDA! Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act ...

  17. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Cekanova, Maria, E-mail: mcekanov@utk.edu; Fernando, Romaine I.; Siriwardhana, Nalin

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreasedmore » the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.« less

  18. Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

  19. Effect of breaking bad news on patients' perceptions of doctors

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Mandy M

    2002-01-01

    The breaking of bad news is a routine but difficult task for many health professionals. There are numerous anecdotes of insensitive practice but the subject has attracted little systematic research. We therefore interviewed 106 patients with advanced cancer (from an original sample of 195) to assess their perceptions of the doctors involved in their care. Aspects of the ‘breaking bad news’ event were recorded during discussion of the illness history and were subsequently rated. Participants were also asked to nominate doctors under the headings ‘most helpful’ and ‘less helpful’, and completed standardized psychological screening questionnaires. In 94 of the 106 cases the bad news had been given by a doctor, usually a surgeon. Of the 13 doctors categorized as ‘most helpful’ when breaking bad news, 8 were general practitioners; of the 7 categorized as ‘less helpful’ all were surgeons. 69% of patients were neutral or positive about the bad-news consultation, but 20% were negative and 6% very negative. Doctors in surgical specialties were significantly more likely to be rated poorly than non-surgical specialists or general practitioners. Surgeons were the group of doctors most likely to break bad news, but non-surgical doctors were rated more positively in performance of the task. This finding has implications for training. PMID:12091508

  20. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  1. New breathing functions for the transverse breathing crack of the cracked rotor system: Approach for critical and subcritical harmonic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shudeifat, Mohammad A.; Butcher, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The actual breathing mechanism of the transverse breathing crack in the cracked rotor system that appears due to the shaft weight is addressed here. As a result, the correct time-varying area moments of inertia for the cracked element cross-section during shaft rotation are also determined. Hence, two new breathing functions are identified to represent the actual breathing effect on the cracked element stiffness matrix. The new breathing functions are used in formulating the time-varying finite element stiffness matrix of the cracked element. The finite element equations of motion are then formulated for the cracked rotor system and solved via harmonic balance method for response, whirl orbits and the shift in the critical and subcritical speeds. The analytical results of this approach are compared with some previously published results obtained using approximate formulas for the breathing mechanism. The comparison shows that the previously used breathing function is a weak model for the breathing mechanism in the cracked rotor even for small crack depths. The new breathing functions give more accurate results for the dynamic behavior of the cracked rotor system for a wide range of the crack depths. The current approach is found to be efficient for crack detection since the critical and subcritical shaft speeds, the unique vibration signature in the neighborhood of the subcritical speeds and the sensitivity to the unbalance force direction all together can be utilized to detect the breathing crack before further damage occurs.

  2. A short guide to giving bad news.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2008-01-01

    Approaching an individual or a family with bad news, but without an appropriate plan to present the information in a structured manner, is almost a guarantee of greater emotional pain and disruption for the recipients of the news. Crisis interveners must develop a strategic plan for the announcement of bad news. That plan should entail a lead-up phase, a transmission phase, and a followup phase. The lead-up phase encompasses the gathering of accurate, verifiable information and the clear identification of the targets of the information. The transmission phase includes immediate preparation for the presentation of the information, the actual announcement, and the presentation of additional details as questions arise. The follow-up phase includes a range of supportive interventions to assist people in the immediate crisis reaction. It also includes a system of referrals for people who might benefit from additional professional care. This article provides practical guidelines for providing bad news to the loved ones of injured, ill, or deceased people.

  3. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Breaking Bad News to Togolese Patients.

    PubMed

    Kpanake, Lonzozou; Sorum, Paul Clay; Mullet, Etienne

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to map Togolese people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to elderly patients. Two hundred eleven participants who had in the past received bad medical news were presented with 72 vignettes depicting communication of bad news to elderly female patients and asked to indicate the acceptability of the physician's conduct in each case. The vignettes were all combinations of five factors: (a) the severity of the disease, (b) the patient's wishes about disclosure, (c) the level of social support during hospitalization, (d) the patient's psychological robustness, and (e) the physician's decision about how to communicate the bad news. Five qualitatively different positions were found. Two percent of the participants preferred that the physician always tell the full truth to both the patient and her relatives, 8% preferred that the truth be told depending on the physician's perception of the situation, 15% preferred that the physician tell the truth but understood that in some cases nondisclosure to the patient was not inappropriate, 33% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives but not as much information to the patient, and 42% preferred that the physician tell the full truth to the relatives only. These findings present a challenge to European physicians taking care of African patients living in Europe or working in African hospitals, and to African physicians trained in Europe and now working in their home countries. If these physicians respect the imperative of always telling the truth directly to their patients, their behavior may trigger anger and considerable misunderstanding among African patients and their families.

  5. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  6. Deliver a set of tools for resolving bad inductive loops and correcting bad data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-01

    This project prototyped and demonstrated procedures to find and mitigate loop detector errors, and to derive more valuable data from loops. Specifically, methods were developed to find and isolate out loop data which is "bad" or invalid, so that miti...

  7. Deliver a set of tools for resolving bad inductive loops and correcting bad data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-04-10

    This project prototyped and demonstrated procedures to find and mitigate loop detector errors, and to derive more valuable data from loops. Specifically, methods were developed to find and isolate out loop data which is "bad" or invalid, so that miti...

  8. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  10. Patients' experiences of breathing retraining for asthma: a qualitative process analysis of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial.

    PubMed

    Arden-Close, Emily; Yardley, Lucy; Kirby, Sarah; Thomas, Mike; Bruton, Anne

    2017-10-05

    Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retraining delivered by digital versatile disc (DVD) or face-to-face sessions with a respiratory physiotherapist) took part in semi-structured telephone interviews about their experiences. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Breathing retraining was perceived positively as a method of asthma management. Motivations for taking part included being asked, to enhance progress in research, to feel better/reduce symptoms, and to reduce medication. Participants were positive about the physiotherapist, liked having the materials tailored, found meetings motivational, and liked the DVD and booklet. The impact of breathing retraining following regular practice included increased awareness of breathing and development of new habits. Benefits of breathing retraining included increased control over breathing, reduced need for medication, feeling more relaxed, and improved health and quality of life. Problems included finding time to practice the exercises, and difficulty mastering techniques. Breathing retraining was acceptable and valued by almost all participants, and many reported improved wellbeing. Face to face physiotherapy was well received. However, some participants in the DVD group mentioned being unable to master techniques. PATIENTS RECEPTIVE TO BREATHING RETRAINING: Patients with asthma taught how to change their unconscious breathing patterns generally like non-pharmacological interventions. Researchers in the UK, led by Mike Thomas from the University of Southampton

  11. Breaking bad medical news in a dental care setting.

    PubMed

    Güneri, Pelin; Epstein, Joel; Botto, Ronald W

    2013-04-01

    Dental care providers may diagnose diseases and conditions that affect a patient's general health. The authors reviewed issues related to breaking bad medical news to dental practice patients and provide guidance to clinicians about how to do so. To help reduce the potentially negative effects associated with emotionally laden communication with patients about serious health care findings, the authors present suggestions for appropriately and sensitively delivering bad medical news to both patients and their families in a supportive fashion. Preparing to deliver bad news by means of education and practice is recommended to help prevent or reduce psychological distress. One form of communication guidance is the ABCDE model, which involves Advance preparation, Building a therapeutic relationship or environment, Communicating well, Dealing with patient and family reactions, and Encouraging and validating emotions. An alternative model is the six-step SPIKES sequence-Setting, Perception, Invitation or Information, Knowledge, Empathy, and Strategize and Summarize. Using either model can assist in sensitive and empathetic communication. For both practitioners' and patients' well-being, empathetic and effective delivery of bad medical news should be included in dental school curricula and continuing education courses. Dental care providers should be familiar with the oral manifestations of diseases and the care needed before the patient undergoes medical treatment and use effective communication necessary to share bad news with patients.

  12. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test

    PubMed Central

    YUASA, Hisashi; KUMITA, Mikio; HONDA, Takeshi; KIMURA, Kazushi; NOZAKI, Kosuke; EMI, Hitoshi; OTANI, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker’s respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns. PMID:25382381

  13. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.

  14. Influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers on tracheal climate and breathing pattern in laryngectomized individuals.

    PubMed

    Scheenstra, Renske J; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew; Sinaasappel, Michiel; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of breathing resistance of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) on endotracheal climate and breathing pattern. Endotracheal temperature and humidity and tidal volumes were measured in 11 laryngectomized patients with a regularly used HME with "standard" breathing resistance (Provox Normal HME; R-HME), a low breathing-resistance HME (Provox HiFlow HME; L-HME), and without HME. Both R-HME and L-HME increased end-inspiratory humidity (+5.8 and 4.7 mgH(2)O/L, respectively), decreased end-inspiratory temperature (-1.6 and -1.0 degrees C, respectively), and prolonged the exhalation breath length to approximately 0.5 seconds. The R-HME significantly enlarged tidal volumes (0.07 L; p < .05). Both HMEs significantly improve tracheal climate. The R-HME has better moistening properties and a small but significant positive effect on tidal volume. Therefore, if the higher resistance is tolerated, the R-HME is the preferred pulmonary rehabilitation device. The L-HME is indicated if lower breathing resistance is required. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2010.

  15. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Toruno, Cristhian; Carbonneau, Seth; Stewart, Rodney A; Jette, Cicely

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  16. A Gaussian method to improve work-of-breathing calculations.

    PubMed

    Petrini, M F; Evans, J N; Wall, M A; Norman, J R

    1995-01-01

    The work of breathing is a calculated index of pulmonary function in ventilated patients that may be useful in deciding when to wean and when to extubate. However, the accuracy of the calculated work of breathing of the patient (WOBp) can suffer from artifacts introduced by coughing, swallowing, and other non-breathing maneuvers. The WOBp in this case will include not only the usual work of inspiration, but also the work of performing these non-breathing maneuvers. The authors developed a method to objectively eliminate the calculated work of these movements from the work of breathing, based on fitting to a Gaussian curve the variable P, which is obtained from the difference between the esophageal pressure change and the airway pressure change during each breath. In spontaneously breathing adults the normal breaths fit the Gaussian curve, while breaths that contain non-breathing maneuvers do not. In this Gaussian breath-elimination method (GM), breaths that are two standard deviations from that mean obtained by the fit are eliminated. For normally breathing control adult subjects, GM had little effect on WOBp, reducing it from 0.49 to 0.47 J/L (n = 8), while there was a 40% reduction in the coefficient of variation. Non-breathing maneuvers were simulated by coughing, which increased WOBp to 0.88 (n = 6); with the GM correction, WOBp was 0.50 J/L, a value not significantly different from that of normal breathing. Occlusion also increased WOBp to 0.60 J/L, but GM-corrected WOBp was 0.51 J/L, a normal value. As predicted, doubling the respiratory rate did not change the WOBp before or after the GM correction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Mijacika, Tanja; Dujic, Zeljko

    2016-12-01

    The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition.According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  18. A pitfall of muting and removing bad traces in surface-wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yue; Xia, Jianghai; Mi, Binbin; Cheng, Feng; Shen, Chao

    2018-06-01

    Multi-channel analysis of surface/Love wave (MASW/MALW) has been widely used to construct the shallow shear (S)-wave velocity profile. The key step in surface-wave analysis is to generate accurate dispersion energy and pick the dispersive curves for inversion along the peaks of dispersion energy at different frequencies. In near-surface surface-wave acquisition, bad traces are very common and inevitable due to the imperfections in the recording instruments or others. The existence of bad traces will cause some artifacts in the dispersion energy image. To avoid the interference of bad traces on the surface-wave analysis, the bad traces should be alternatively muted (zeroed) or removed (deleted) from the raw surface-wave data before dispersion measurement. Most geophysicists and civil engineers, however, are not aware of the differences and implications between muting and removing of bad traces in surface-wave analysis. A synthetic test and a real-world example demonstrate the potential pitfalls of applying muting and removing on bad traces when using different dispersion-imaging methods. We implement muting and removing on bad traces respectively before dispersion measurement, and compare the influence of the two operations on three dispersion-imaging methods, high-resolution linear Radon transform (HRLRT), f-k transformation, and phase shift method. Results indicate that when using the HRLRT to generate the dispersive energy, muting bad traces will cause an even more complicated and discontinuous dispersive energy. When f-k transformation is utilized to conduct dispersive analysis, bad traces should be muted instead of removed to generate an accurate dispersion image to avoid the uneven sampling problem in the Fourier transform. As for the phase shift method, the difference between the two operations is slight, but we suggest that removal should be chosen because the integral for the phase-shift operator of the zeroed traces would bring in the sloped aliasing. This

  19. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air breathing...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  5. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a) Identification. A breathing (ventilatory) frequency monitor is a device intended to measure or monitor a patient...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  7. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research. PMID:23619467

  8. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  9. Breaking Bad News: An Evidence-Based Review of Communication Models for Oncology Nurses.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Meridith; Keefe, Joanna; Miller, Lindsay; Overcash, Janine

    2017-10-01

    A diagnosis of cancer is a stressful, difficult, and life-altering event. Breaking bad news is distressing to patients and families and is often uncomfortable for the nurse delivering it. Evidence-based communication models have been developed and adapted for use in clinical practice to assist nurses with breaking bad news.

. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on breaking bad news and to review the utility of the SPIKES and PEWTER evidence-based communication models for oncology nurses.
. Perceptions of breaking bad news from the nurse and patient perspectives, as well as barriers and consequences to effective communication, will be presented. Clinical examples of possible situations of breaking bad news will demonstrate how to use the SPIKES and PEWTER models of communication when disclosing bad news to patients and their families.
. By using the evidence-based communication strategies depicted in this article, oncology nurses can support the delivery of bad news and maintain communication with their patients and their patients' families in an effective and productive manner.

  10. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    PubMed

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  11. Breath analysis in disease diagnosis: methodological considerations and applications.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire

    2014-06-20

    Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. "Breath fingerprinting", indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles.

  12. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868.2375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a) Identification. A breathing (ventilatory)...

  13. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  14. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  15. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  16. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  17. Collaborative Practice Model: Improving the Delivery of Bad News.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Pamela N; Slusser, Kim; Allen, Deborah

    2018-02-01

    Ideal bad news delivery requires skilled communication and team support. The literature has primarily focused on patient preferences, impact on care decisions, healthcare roles, and communication styles, without addressing systematic implementation. This article describes how an interdisciplinary team, led by advanced practice nurses, developed and implemented a collaborative practice model to deliver bad news on a unit that had struggled with inconsistencies. Using evidence-based practices, the authors explored current processes, role perceptions and expectations, and perceived barriers to developing the model, which is now the standard of care and an example of interprofessional team collaboration across the healthcare system. This model for delivering bad news can be easily adapted to meet the needs of other clinical units.
.

  18. [Construction of BAD Lentivirus Vector and Its Effect on Proliferation in A549 Cell Lines].

    PubMed

    Huang, Na; He, Yan-qi; Zhu, Jing; Li, Wei-min

    2015-05-01

    To construct the recombinant lentivirus expressing vector BAD (Bcl-2-associated death protein) gene and to study its effect on A549 cell proliferation. The BAD gene was amplified from plasmid pAV-MCMV-BAD-GFP by PCR. The purified BAD gene fragment was inserted into a lentivirus vector (pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1), and the insertion was identified by PCR, restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA sequencing. A549 cells were then transfected with the packaged recombinant lentivirus, and resistant cell clones were selected with flow cytometry. The expression of BAD in A549 cell lines stably transduction with a lentivirus was examined using Western blot. The effect of BAD overexpression on proliferation of A549 cells was evaluated by using CCK-8 kit. Restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing showed that the full-length BAD gene (507 bp) had been successfully subcloned into the lentiviral vector to result in the recombinant vector pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen 1. Monoclonal cell lines BAD-A549 was produced after transfection with the recombinant lentivirus and selected with flow cytometry. Stable expression of BAD protein was verified by Western blot. In vitro, the OD value in BAD group was significantly lower than that of control groups from 120-144 h (P<0. 05). A549 cell lines stably transduced with a lentivirus expressing the BAD gene had been successfully generated. In vitro, BAD overexpression significantly inhibited A549 cells proliferation.

  19. A scoping research literature review to assess the state of existing evidence on the "bad" death.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donna M; Hewitt, Jessica A

    2018-02-01

    A scoping research literature review on "bad death" was undertaken to assess the overall state of the science on this topic and to determine what evidence exists on how often bad deaths occur, what contributes to or causes a bad death, and what the outcomes and consequences of bad deaths are. A search for English-language research articles was conducted in late 2016, with 25 articles identified and all retained for examination, as is expected with scoping reviews. Only 3 of the 25 articles provided incidence information, specifying that 7.8 to 23% of deaths were bad and that bad deaths were more likely to occur in hospitals than in community-care settings. Many different factors were associated with bad deaths, with unrelieved pain being the most commonly identified. Half of the studies provided information on the possible consequences or outcomes of bad deaths, such as palliative care not being initiated, interpersonal and team conflict, and long-lasting negative community effects. This review identified a relatively small number of research articles that focused in whole or in part on bad deaths. Although the reasons why people consider a death to be bad may be highly individualized and yet also socioculturally based, unrelieved pain is a commonly held reason for bad deaths. Although bad and good deaths may have some opposing causative factors, this literature review revealed some salient bad death attributes, ones that could be avoided to prevent bad deaths from occurring. A routine assessment to allow planning so as to avoid bad deaths and enhance the probability of good deaths is suggested.

  20. Reflections on "Bad Teachers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumashiro, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article is a version of a lecture given by the author at the University of California, Berkeley, in 2012. He reviews his book, "Bad Teacher!: How Blaming Teachers Distorts the Bigger Picture." He examines the issues within the school reform movement in American public education--focusing on what he calls the "bifurcation of…

  1. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  2. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P < .05) longer while breathing through the mouth. There was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate (%) for each chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P < .05) lower while breathing through the mouth. However, there was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate for 5-minute chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P < .05) lower during mouth breathing. It takes a longer amount of time to complete chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  3. Targeting proapoptotic protein BAD inhibits survival and self-renewal of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sastry, K S R; Al-Muftah, M A; Li, Pu; Al-Kowari, M K; Wang, E; Ismail Chouchane, A; Kizhakayil, D; Kulik, G; Marincola, F M; Haoudi, A; Chouchane, L

    2014-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the resistance of cancer stem cells (CSC) to many conventional therapies is one of the major limiting factors of cancer therapy efficacy. Identification of mechanisms responsible for survival and self-renewal of CSC will help design new therapeutic strategies that target and eliminate both differentiated cancer cells and CSC. Here we demonstrated the potential role of proapoptotic protein BAD in the biology of CSC in melanoma, prostate and breast cancers. We enriched CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells (CSC) by tumorosphere formation and purified this population by FACS. Both spheres and CSC exhibited increased potential for proliferation, migration, invasion, sphere formation, anchorage-independent growth, as well as upregulation of several stem cell-associated markers. We showed that the phosphorylation of BAD is essential for the survival of CSC. Conversely, ectopic expression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant BAD induced apoptosis in CSC. This effect was enhanced by treatment with a BH3-mimetic, ABT-737. Both pharmacological agents that inhibit survival kinases and growth factors that are involved in drug resistance delivered their respective cytotoxic and protective effects by modulating the BAD phosphorylation in CSC. Furthermore, the frequency and self-renewal capacity of CSC was significantly reduced by knocking down the BAD expression. Consistent with our in vitro results, significant phosphorylation of BAD was found in CD44(+) CSC of 83% breast tumor specimens. In addition, we also identified a positive correlation between BAD expression and disease stage in prostate cancer, suggesting a role of BAD in tumor advancement. Our studies unveil the role of BAD in the survival and self-renewal of CSC and propose BAD not only as an attractive target for cancer therapy but also as a marker of tumor progression.

  4. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... drain their stomach. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... Is there a specific odor (such as fish, ammonia, fruit, feces, or alcohol)? Have you recently eaten ...

  5. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  6. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  7. Breath condenser coatings affect measurement of biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Rosias, P P; Robroeks, C M; Niemarkt, H J; Kester, A D; Vernooy, J H; Suykerbuyk, J; Teunissen, J; Heynens, J; Hendriks, H J; Jöbsis, Q; Dompeling, E

    2006-11-01

    Exhaled breath condensate collection is not yet standardised and biomarker measurements are often close to lower detection limits. In the current study, it was hypothesised that adhesive properties of different condenser coatings interfere with measurements of eicosanoids and proteins in breath condensate. In vitro, condensate was derived from a collection model using two test solutions (8-isoprostane and albumin) and five condenser coatings (silicone, glass, aluminium, polypropylene and Teflon). In vivo, condensate was collected using these five coatings and the EcoScreen condenser to measure 8-isoprostane, and three coatings (silicone, glass, EcoScreen) to measure albumin. In vitro, silicone and glass coatings had significantly higher albumin recovery compared with the other coatings. A similar trend was observed for 8-isoprostane recovery. In vivo, median (interquartile range) 8-isoprostane concentrations were significantly higher using silicone (9.2 (18.8) pg.mL(-1)) or glass (3.0 (4.5) pg.mL(-1)) coating, compared with aluminium (0.5 (2.4) pg.mL(-1)), polypropylene (0.5 (0.5) pg.mL(-1)), Teflon (0.5 (0.0) pg.mL(-1)), and EcoScreen (0.5 (2.0) pg.mL(-1)). Albumin in vivo was mainly detectable using glass coating. In conclusion, a condenser with silicone or glass coating is more efficient for measurement of 8-isoprostane or albumin in exhaled breath condensate, than EcoScreen, aluminium, polypropylene or Teflon. Guidelines for exhaled breath condensate standardisation should include the most valid condenser coating to measure a specific biomarker.

  8. Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles. PMID:24957037

  9. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003075.htm Breathing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  10. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated with... Institute upon request. (d) The air within the bag(s) shall not contain more than 100 parts per million of... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public...

  11. The News Delivery Sequence: Bad News and Good News in Conversational Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Douglas W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the conditional nature of good and bad news while focusing on three topics: (1) the status of information as news according the participants in a conversation; (2) the valence of this information with regard to its perception as good or bad; and (3) the effect of news on individuals. Notes that good news is privileged over bad news in…

  12. Breaking Bad News in Oncology: A Metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Guilhem; Orri, Massimiliano; Winterman, Sabine; Brugière, Charlotte; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The delivery of bad news by oncologists to their patients is a key moment in the physician-patient relationship. We performed a systematic review of qualitative studies (a metasynthesis) that focused on the experiences and points of view of oncologists about breaking bad news to patients. We searched international publications to identify relevant qualitative research exploring oncologists' perspectives about this topic. Thematic analysis, which compensates for the potential lack of generalizability of the primary studies by their conjoint interpretation, was used to identify key themes and synthesize them. NVivo qualitative analysis software was used. We identified 40 articles (> 600 oncologists) from 12 countries and assessed their quality as good according to the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Two main themes emerged: the patient-oncologist encounter during the breaking of bad news, comprising essential aspects of the communication, including the process of dealing with emotions; and external factors shaping the patient-oncologist encounter, composed of factors that influence the announcement beyond the physician-patient relationship: the family, systemic and institutional factors, and cultural factors. Breaking bad news is a balancing act that requires oncologists to adapt continually to different factors: their individual relationships with the patient, the patient's family, the institutional and systemic environment, and the cultural milieu. Extending the development of the ability to personalize and adapt therapeutic treatment to this realm of communications would be a major step forward from the stereotyped way that oncologists are currently trained in communication skills. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis of Compromise Between Air-Breathing and Nutrient Uptake of Posterior Intestine in Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), an Air-Breathing Fish.

    PubMed

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang

    2016-08-01

    Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is an air-breathing fish species by using its posterior intestine to breathe on water surface. So far, the molecular mechanism about accessory air-breathing in fish is seldom addressed. Five cDNA libraries were constructed here for loach posterior intestines form T01 (the initial stage group), T02 (mid-stage of normal group), T03 (end stage of normal group), T04 (mid-stage of air-breathing inhibited group), and T05 (the end stage of air-breathing inhibited group) and subjected to perform RNA-seq to compare their transcriptomic profilings. A total of 92,962 unigenes were assembled, while 37,905 (40.77 %) unigenes were successfully annotated. 2298, 1091, and 3275 differentially expressed genes (fn1, ACE, EGFR, Pxdn, SDF, HIF, VEGF, SLC2A1, SLC5A8 etc.) were observed in T04/T02, T05/T03, and T05/T04, respectively. Expression levels of many genes associated with air-breathing and nutrient uptake varied significantly between normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group. Intraepithelial capillaries in posterior intestines of loaches from T05 were broken, while red blood cells were enriched at the surface of intestinal epithelial lining with 241 ± 39 cells per millimeter. There were periodic acid-schiff (PAS)-positive epithelial mucous cells in posterior intestines from both normal and air-breathing inhibited groups. Results obtained here suggested an overlap of air-breathing and nutrient uptake function of posterior intestine in loach. Intestinal air-breathing inhibition in loach would influence the posterior intestine's nutrient uptake ability and endothelial capillary structure stability. This study will contribute to our understanding on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of intestinal air-breathing in loach.

  14. 42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.70 Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. (a) Self-contained breathing apparatus, including all completely assembled, portable, self-contained devices designed for use...

  15. 42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. 84...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.70 Self-contained breathing apparatus; description. (a) Self-contained breathing apparatus, including all completely assembled, portable, self-contained devices designed for use...

  16. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Thalakkotur Lazar; Pownraj, Prabhahari; Abdulla, Sukhananazerin; Pullithadathil, Biji

    2015-01-01

    This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques. PMID:26854142

  17. Breathing Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequently during the night (insomnia) Difficulty lying flat ALS and your lungs Breathing in and out is ... improve effective coughing. Techniques are explained in The ALS Association’s Living with ALS manual #6 “Adapting to ...

  18. Cancer: Bad Luck or Punishment?

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, A V

    2017-01-01

    Contrasting opinions on the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in cancer etiology (Tomasetti, C., and Vogelstein, B. (2015) Science, 347, 78-81; Wu, S., et al. (2016) Nature, 529, 43-47) variously define priorities in the war on cancer. The correlation between the lifetime risk of several types of cancer and the total number of divisions of normal self-renewing cells revealed by the authors has given them grounds to put forward the "bad luck" hypothesis. It assumes that ~70% of cancer variability is attributed to random errors arising during DNA replication in normal, noncancerous stem cells, i.e. to internal factors, which is impossible either to expect or to prevent. This assumption caused many critical responses that emphasize, on the contrary, the defining role of extrinsic factors in cancer etiology. The analysis of epidemiological and genetic data presented in this work testifies in favor of the "bad luck" hypothesis.

  19. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p < 0.0001) and arterial beta-hydroxybutyrate (rs = 0.52, p < 0.0001) concentrations. Changes in breath acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  20. Breaking bad news: a communication competency for ophthalmology training programs

    PubMed Central

    Hilkert, Sarah M.; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A.; Benes, Susan C.; Robbins, Shira L.

    2016-01-01

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our non-ophthalmology colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explores current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study to teach breaking bad news to ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency. PMID:27134009

  1. Bad Kids and Bad Feelings: What Children's Literature Teaches about ADHD, Creativity, and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Clio

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from children's literature and classroom narratives to consider hyperactivity, inattention, and other non-normative behaviors in children. It encourages educational thinkers and childhood mental health professionals to take a historical perspective on children's badness rather than consigning it to the realm of pathology.…

  2. Dynamic model inversion techniques for breath-by-breath measurement of carbon dioxide from low bandwidth sensors.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Shyam; Rajamani, Rajesh; Johnson, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory CO(2) measurement (capnography) is an important diagnosis tool that lacks inexpensive and wearable sensors. This paper develops techniques to enable use of inexpensive but slow CO(2) sensors for breath-by-breath tracking of CO(2) concentration. This is achieved by mathematically modeling the dynamic response and using model-inversion techniques to predict input CO(2) concentration from the slow-varying output. Experiments are designed to identify model-dynamics and extract relevant model-parameters for a solidstate room monitoring CO(2) sensor. A second-order model that accounts for flow through the sensor's filter and casing is found to be accurate in describing the sensor's slow response. The resulting estimate is compared with a standard-of-care respiratory CO(2) analyzer and shown to effectively track variation in breath-by-breath CO(2) concentration. This methodology is potentially useful for measuring fast-varying inputs to any slow sensor.

  3. Climate sensitivity uncertainty: when is good news bad?

    PubMed

    Freeman, Mark C; Wagner, Gernot; Zeckhauser, Richard J

    2015-11-28

    Climate change is real and dangerous. Exactly how bad it will get, however, is uncertain. Uncertainty is particularly relevant for estimates of one of the key parameters: equilibrium climate sensitivity--how eventual temperatures will react as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations double. Despite significant advances in climate science and increased confidence in the accuracy of the range itself, the 'likely' range has been 1.5-4.5°C for over three decades. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) narrowed it to 2-4.5°C, only to reverse its decision in 2013, reinstating the prior range. In addition, the 2013 IPCC report removed prior mention of 3°C as the 'best estimate'. We interpret the implications of the 2013 IPCC decision to lower the bottom of the range and excise a best estimate. Intuitively, it might seem that a lower bottom would be good news. Here we ask: when might apparently good news about climate sensitivity in fact be bad news in the sense that it lowers societal well-being? The lowered bottom value also implies higher uncertainty about the temperature increase, definitely bad news. Under reasonable assumptions, both the lowering of the lower bound and the removal of the 'best estimate' may well be bad news. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. [Breaking bad news in the emergency room: Suggestions and future challenges].

    PubMed

    Landa-Ramírez, Edgar; López-Gómez, Antonio; Jiménez-Escobar, Irma; Sánchez-Sosa, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe educational programs that reportedly teach how to break bad news in the emergency department. We also suggest some recommendations on how to communicate bad news based on the research of evidence available in the field. The examined evidence points toward six major components with which physicians should familiarize when communicating bad news: 1) doctor-patient empathic communication, 2) establishing a proper space to give the news, 3) identifying characteristics of the person who receives the news, 4) essential aspects for communicating the news; 5) emotional support, and 6) medical and administrative aspects of the encounter. Finally, we point out several limitations in the studies in the field and future challenges identified in the communication of bad news in emergency room facilities.

  5. Sexual aggression: mad, bad, and mad.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Rovert F

    2003-06-01

    Legal institutions in the Western liberal tradition ordinarily rely primarily on the criminal justice system to address conduct by some individuals that deliberately harms other individuals. The mental health system provides an alternative institutional structure through which societies can address such harmful behavior. Those who deliberately engage in conduct that causes harm to others are traditionally addressed through either the criminal justice or mental health systems on the basis of their being categorized as either "bad or mad." This paper examines some of the relevant reasons for categorizing sexual aggression as bad or mad. It emphasizes the significance of such categorization for the broader set of legal institutions of coercive social control and for the manner in which we respond to persons within those institutions.

  6. Exhaled breath temperature in children: reproducibility and influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, S; Barreto, M; La Penna, F; Prete, A; Martella, S; Biagiarelli, F; Villa, M P

    2014-09-01

    This study will investigate the reproducibility and influencing factors of exhaled breath temperature measured with the tidal breathing technique in asthmatic patients and healthy children. Exhaled breath temperature, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and spirometry were assessed in 124 children (63 healthy and 61 asthmatic), aged 11.2 ± 2.5 year, M/F 73/51. A modified version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire on the child's present and past respiratory history was obtained from parents. Parents were also asked to provide detailed information on their child's medication use during the previous 4 weeks. Ear temperature, ambient temperature, and relative-ambient humidity were also recorded. Exhaled breath temperature measurements were highly reproducible; the second measurement was higher than the first measurement, consistent with a test-retest situation. In 13 subjects, between-session within-day reproducibility of exhaled breath temperature was still high. Exhaled breath temperature increased with age and relative-ambient humidity. Exhaled breath temperature was comparable in healthy and asthmatic children; when adjusted for potential confounders (i.e. ambient conditions and subject characteristics), thermal values of asthmatic patients exceeded those of the healthy children by 1.1 °C. Normalized exhaled breath temperature, by subtracting ambient temperature, was lower in asthmatic patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids than in those who were corticosteroid-naive. Measurements of exhaled breath temperature are highly reproducible, yet influenced by several factors. Corrected values, i.e. normalized exhaled breath temperature, could help us to assess the effect of therapy with inhaled corticosteroids. More studies are needed to improve the usefulness of the exhaled breath temperature measured with the tidal breathing technique in children.

  7. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  8. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  9. Breath-hold times in air compared to breath-hold times during cold water immersions.

    PubMed

    Taber, Michael J; MacKinnon, Scott N; Power, Jonathan; Walker, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Given the effects of cold water immersion on breath-hold (BH) capabilities, a practical training exercise was developed for military/paramilitary personnel completing a helicopter underwater egress training (HUET) program. The exercise was designed to provide firsth and experience of the effects of cold water exposure on BH time. After completing the required HUET, 47 subjects completed two BH testing sessions as well as a short questionnaire. The first BH was completed while standing on the pool deck. The second BH was completed while fully immersed (face down) in 2-3°C water. There were 40 of the volunteers who also breathed from an emergency breathing system (EBS) while in the cold water. Results demonstrated that BH capabilities in cold water were significantly lower than those in ambient air. A significant correlation was also found between BH in air and the difference in cold water vs. air BH capabilities, which suggests that subjects who can hold their breath the longest in air experienced the greatest decrease in BH when immersed. Results indicate that 92% of the subjects reported that the practical cold water immersion exercise had a high value. Finally, 58% of those who used the EBS reported that it was harder to breathe in cold water than while in the training pool (approximately 22°C). The BH times for this group were similar to those reported in previous cold water immersion studies. Based on the questionnaire results, it is possible, when carefully applied, to include a practical cold water immersion exercise into existing HUET programs.

  10. Upper airway sleep-disordered breathing in women.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, C; Stoohs, R; Kim, Y D; Chervin, R; Black, J; Clerk, A

    1995-04-01

    To investigate the various clinical presentations of sleep-disordered breathing in women. A retrospective case-control study. A sleep disorders clinic. 334 women, aged 18 years and older, seen between 1988 and 1993, who were diagnosed with upper airway sleep-disordered breathing. Controls were 60 women with insomnia and 100 men with sleep-disordered breathing. Clinical, anatomic, and polygraphic information. The mean lag time (+/- SD) in women between the appearance of symptoms and a positive diagnosis was 9.7 +/- 3.1 years; among participants 30 to 60 years of age, the duration of untreated symptoms differed (P < 0.001) between women and men. Sleep-disordered breathing was blamed for divorce or social isolation by 40% of the case patients. Abnormal maxillomandibular features were noted in 45% of the women with disordered breathing. Dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea (which disappeared after treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure) were reported in 43% of premenopausal women compared with 13% of persons in the control group of women with insomnia. Thirty-eight women (11.4%) with upper airway sleep-disordered breathing had a respiratory disturbance index of less than 5 and were significantly younger, had a smaller neck circumference, and had a lower body mass index than women with a respiratory disturbance index of 5 or more. Physicians should revise their understanding of upper airway sleep-disordered breathing so that they notice women with certain craniofacial features, a low body mass index, a small neck circumference, and a respiratory disturbance index of less than 5. These revisions may enable more rapid diagnosis and treatment of women with sleep-disordered breathing.

  11. Breath stacking in children with neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, H M; Stocki, A; Kriellaars, D; Pasterkamp, H

    2014-06-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness in neuromuscular disorders (NMD) can lead to shallow breathing and respiratory insufficiency over time. Children with NMD often cannot perform maneuvers to recruit lung volume. In adults, breath stacking with a mask and one-way valve can achieve significantly increased lung volumes. To evaluate involuntary breath stacking (IBS) in NMD, we studied 23 children of whom 15 were cognitively aware and able to communicate verbally. For IBS, a one-way valve and pneumotachograph were attached to a face mask. Tidal volumes (Vt) and minute ventilation (VE ) were calculated from airflow over 30 sec before and after 15 sec of expiratory valve closure. Six cooperative male subjects with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) participated in a subsequent comparison of IBS with voluntary breath stacking (VBS) and supported breath stacking (SBS). The average Vt in those studied with IBS was 277 ml (range 29-598 ml). The average increase in volume by stacking was 599 ml (range -140 to 2,916 ml) above Vt . The average number of stacked breaths was 4.5 (range 0-17). VE increased on average by 18% after stacking (P < 0.05, paired t-test). Oxygen saturation did not change after stacking. Four of the 23 children did not breath stack. Compared to IBS, VBS achieved similar volumes in the six subjects with DMD but SBS was more successful in those with greatest muscle weakness. IBS may achieve breath volumes of approximately three times Vt and may be particularly useful in non-cooperative subjects with milder degrees of respiratory muscle weakness. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section 78...

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section 78...

  14. Evidence of nonuniform phase-diffusion in a bad-cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kuppens, S.J.M.; Exter, M.P. van; Duin, M. van

    1995-07-01

    The quantum-limited linewidth of a short HeNe 3.39-{micro}m laser was measured and seen to increase with increasing nonuniformity of the intracavity intensity distribution. Experiments were done inside as well as outside the bad-cavity regime; in this regime the polarization of the gain medium can not be adiabatically eliminated but acts as a memory. Good quantitative agreement with theory is obtained inside as well as outside the bad-cavity regime. The effect of nonuniformity is well described by the longitudinal Petermann K-factor. The bad-cavity and nonuniformity effects can be separated from each other as predicted by theory.

  15. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  16. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    PubMed

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  17. Calculation algorithms for breath-by-breath alveolar gas exchange: the unknowns!

    PubMed

    Golja, Petra; Cettolo, Valentina; Francescato, Maria Pia

    2018-06-25

    Several papers (algorithm papers) describe computational algorithms that assess alveolar breath-by-breath gas exchange by accounting for changes in lung gas stores. It is unclear, however, if the effects of the latter are actually considered in literature. We evaluated dissemination of algorithm papers and the relevant provided information. The list of documents investigating exercise transients (in 1998-2017) was extracted from Scopus database. Documents citing the algorithm papers in the same period were analyzed in full text to check consistency of the relevant information provided. Less than 8% (121/1522) of documents dealing with exercise transients cited at least one algorithm paper; the paper of Beaver et al. (J Appl Physiol 51:1662-1675, 1981) was cited most often, with others being cited tenfold less. Among the documents citing the algorithm paper of Beaver et al. (J Appl Physiol 51:1662-1675, 1981) (N = 251), only 176 cited it for the application of their algorithm/s; in turn, 61% (107/176) of them stated the alveolar breath-by-breath gas exchange measurement, but only 1% (1/107) of the latter also reported the assessment of volunteers' functional residual capacity, a crucial parameter for the application of the algorithm. Information related to gas exchange was provided consistently in the methods and in the results in 1 of the 107 documents. Dissemination of algorithm papers in literature investigating exercise transients is by far narrower than expected. The information provided about the actual application of gas exchange algorithms is often inadequate and/or ambiguous. Some guidelines are provided that can help to improve the quality of future publications in the field.

  18. Oral breathing challenge in participants with vocal attrition.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V

    2003-12-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (Pth) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is more detrimental to phonation in healthy participants with a history of temporary vocal attrition. The effects of a 15-min oral or nasal breathing challenge on Pth and perceived expiratory vocal effort were compared for participants reporting symptoms of vocal attrition (N = 18, ages 19-38 years) and normal controls (N = 20, ages 19-33 years). Post-challenge-prechallenge differences in Pth (deltaPth) and effort (deltaEffort) revealed that oral breathing, but not nasal breathing, increased Pth (p < .001 ) and effort (p < .001) at low, comfortable, and high pitch. deltaPth was significantly greater in participants with vocal attrition than in normal controls (p < .001). Nasal breathing reduced Pth for all controls but not for all participants reporting vocal attrition. deltaPth was significantly and linearly correlated with deltaEffort (rvocal attrition = .81, p < .001; rcontrol = .84, p < .001). We speculate that the greater increases in Pth in participants reporting vocal attrition may result from delayed or inadequate compensatory response to superficial laryngeal dehydration. Obligatory oral breathing may place voice users at risk for exacerbating vocal attrition. That sol layer depletion by obligatory oral breathing increased Pth and vocal effort provides support for the role of superficial hydration in maintaining ease of phonation.

  19. 75 FR 61386 - Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...-0044, Notice No. 1] RIN 2130-AC14 Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards AGENCY: Federal... breathing apparatus (EEBA) to the members of the train crew and certain other employees while they are... EEBA--emergency escape breathing apparatus FRA--Federal Railroad Administration FRSA--the former...

  20. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer using exhaled breath

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao-An; Li, Mingxiao; Knipp, Ralph J; Nantz, Michael H; Bousamra, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is a key factor for increasing the survival rates of lung cancer patients. The analysis of exhaled breath is promising as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for diagnosis of lung cancer. We demonstrate the quantitative analysis of carbonyl volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and identification of lung cancer VOC markers in exhaled breath using unique silicon microreactor technology. The microreactor consists of thousands of micropillars coated with an ammonium aminooxy salt for capture of carbonyl VOCs in exhaled breath by means of oximation reactions. Captured aminooxy-VOC adducts are analyzed by nanoelectrospray Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS). The concentrations of 2-butanone, 2-hydroxyacetaldehyde, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) in the exhaled breath of lung cancer patients (n = 97) were significantly higher than in the exhaled breath of healthy smoker and nonsmoker controls (n = 88) and patients with benign pulmonary nodules (n = 32). The concentration of 2-butanone in exhaled breath of patients (n = 51) with stages II though IV non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was significantly higher than in exhaled breath of patients with stage I (n = 34). The carbonyl VOC profile in exhaled breath determined using this new silicon microreactor technology provides for the noninvasive detection of lung cancer. PMID:24402867

  1. Effects of "Good News" and "Bad News" on Newscast Image and Community Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galician, Mary-Lou; Vestre, Norris D.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates whether the relative amount of bad, neutral, and good news on television has corresponding effects on viewers' image of the community depicted and of the carrying newscast. Concludes that bad news creates a bad image for the community but that good news does not produce a more favorable image than neutral news. (MM)

  2. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  3. Autophagy postpones apoptotic cell death in PRRSV infection through Bad-Beclin1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ao; Li, Shuaifeng; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Zhang, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis play significant roles in PRRSV infection and replication. However, the interaction between these 2 processes in PRRSV replication is still far from been completely understood. In our studies, the exposure of MARC-145 cells to PRRSV confirmed the activation of autophagy and subsequent induction of apoptosis. The inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) caused a significant increase in PRRSV-induced apoptosis, showing a potential connection between both mechanisms. Moreover, we observed an increase in Bad expression (a pro-apoptotic protein) and Beclin1 (an autophagy regulator) in virus-infected cells up to 36h. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed the formation of Bad and Beclin1 complex in PRRSV infected cells. Accordingly, Bad co-localized with Beclin1 in MARC-145 infected cells. Knockdown of Beclin1 significantly decreased PRRSV replication and PRRSV-induced autophagy, while Bad silencing resulted in increased autophagy and enhanced viral replication. Furthermore, PRRSV infection phosphorylated Bad (Ser112) to promote cellular survival. These results demonstrate that autophagy can favor PRRSV replication by postponing apoptosis through the formation of a Bad-Beclin1 complex.

  4. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; De la Parra, Columba; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J; Wade, Paul A; Saxton, Arnold M; Donnell, Robert M; Pestell, Richard G; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie; Wimalasena, Jay

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108...

  6. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF CONTAINED... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108...

  7. Breathing Monitor Using Dye-Doped Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Shinzo; Fukasawa, Akihiko; Ogawa, Takayuki; Morisawa, Masayuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    1990-08-01

    A new monitoring system of human breathing using umbelliferon dye-doped plastic fiber has been studied. Under UV light pumping, the fiber which was used as a sensor head generates blue fluorescence depending on human expiration. By converting the light signal to electronic pulses, the counting of breathing and real-time monitoring of abnormal breathing such as a heavy cough or a cloggy sputum have easily been obtained.

  8. Leukotriene-B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate and lung function after thirty minutes of breathing technically dried compressed air.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Birger; Struck, Niclas; Mutzbauer, Till S; Schotte, Ulrich; Langfeldt, Norbert; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2002-01-01

    In previous studies it had been shown that leukotriene-B4 [LTB4] concentrations in the exhaled breath mirror the inflammatory activity of the airways if the respiratory tract has been exposed to occupational hazards. In diving the respiratory tract is exposed to cold and dry air and the nasopharynx, as the site of breathing-gas warming and humidification, is bypassed. The aim of the present study was to obtain LTB4-concentrations in the exhaled breath and spirometric data of 17 healthy subjects before and after thirty minutes of technically dried air breathing at normobar ambient pressure. The exhaled breath was collected non-invasively, via a permanently cooled expiration tube. The condensate was measured by a standard enzyme immunoassay for LTB4. Lung function values (FVC, FEV1, MEF 25, MEF 50) were simultaneously obtained by spirometry. The measured pre- and post-exposure LTB4- concentrations as well as the lung function values were in the normal range. The present data gave no evidence for any inflammatory activity in the subjects' airways after thirty minutes breathing technically dried air.

  9. Syllable-related breathing in infants in the second year of life.

    PubMed

    Parham, Douglas F; Buder, Eugene H; Oller, D Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A

    2011-08-01

    This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection protocol was used to identify analyzable breath cycles. Syllables were categorized on the basis of consensus coding. Inspiratory and expiratory durations, excursions, and slopes were calculated for the 3 breath cycle types and were normalized using mean tidal breath measures. Tidal breathing cycles were significantly different from syllable-related cycles on all breathing measures. There were no significant differences between unarticulated syllable cycles and canonical syllable cycles, even after controlling for utterance duration and sound pressure level. Infants in the 2nd year of life exhibit clear differences between tidal breathing and speech-related breathing, but categorically distinct breath support for syllable types with varying articulatory demands was not evident in the present findings. Speech development introduces increasingly complex utterances, so older infants may produce detectable articulation-related adaptations of breathing kinematics. For younger infants, breath support may vary systematically among utterance types, due more to phonatory variations than to articulatory demands.

  10. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the second year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of nine infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection protocol was used to identify analyzable breath cycles. Syllables were categorized based on consensus coding. Inspiratory and expiratory durations, excursions, and slopes were calculated for the three breath cycle types and normalized using mean tidal breath measures. Results Tidal breathing cycles were significantly different from syllable-related cycles on all breathing measures. There were no significant differences between unarticulated syllable cycles and canonical syllable cycles, even after controlling for utterance duration and sound pressure level. Conclusions Infants in the second year of life exhibit clear differences between tidal breathing and speech-related breathing, but categorically distinct breath support for syllable types with varying articulatory demands was not evident in the current findings. Speech development introduces increasingly complex utterances, so older infants may produce detectable articulation-related adaptations of breathing kinematics. For younger infants, breath support may vary systematically among utterance types, due more to phonatory variations than to articulatory demands. PMID:21173390

  11. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked “SELF-CONTAINED...

  12. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked “SELF-CONTAINED...

  13. Dirty breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisham, M.

    2017-12-01

    Breathing issues befall most asthmatics. However, the symptoms are not caused randomly. Particulate matter is a cause that has been collected and sampled at several bus stops. The following experiment provides the results of collected particulate matter in several locations around LSU.

  14. Breaking bad news: A communication competency for ophthalmology training programs.

    PubMed

    Hilkert, Sarah M; Cebulla, Colleen M; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A; Benes, Susan C; Robbins, Shira L

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explore current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study in breaking bad news for ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Learn good from bad: Effects of good and bad neighbors in spatial prisoners' dilemma games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Cooperation is vital for the human society and this study focuses on how to promote cooperation. In our stratification model, there exist three classes: two minorities are elites who are prone to cooperate and scoundrels who are born to defect; one majority is the class of common people. Agents of these three classes interact with each other on a square lattice. Commons' cooperation and its factors are investigated. Contradicting our common sense, it indicates that elites play a negative role while scoundrels play a positive one in promoting commons' cooperation. Besides, effects of good and bad neighbors vary with temptation. When the temptation is smaller the positive effect is able to overcome the negative effect, but the later prevails when the temptation is larger. It concludes that common people are more prone to cooperate in harsh environment with bad neighbors, and a better environment with good neighbors merely leads to laziness and free riding of commons.

  16. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing.

    PubMed

    Donaldsson, Snorri; Falk, Markus; Jonsson, Baldvin; Drevhammar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP) treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing. Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically. The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance. The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates.

  17. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  18. The effect of CO2 on ventilation and breath-holding during exercise and while breathing through an added resistance.

    PubMed

    Clark, T J; Godfrey, S

    1969-05-01

    1. Ventilation was measured while subjects were made to rebreathe from a bag containing CO(2) and O(2) in order to expose them to a steadily rising CO(2) tension (P(CO2)). The object of the experiments was to determine the effect of a variety of stimuli upon the increase in ventilation and fall in breath-holding time which occurs in response to the rising P(CO2).2. Steady-state exercise at 200 kg.m/min resulted in a small fall in the slope of the ventilation-CO(2) response curve (S(V)) and a small, though not statistically significant, fall in the P(CO2) at which ventilation would be zero by extrapolation (B(V)). There was a marked fall in the slope of the breath-holding-CO(2) response curve (S(BH)) and an increase in the P(CO2) at which breath-holding time became zero by extrapolation (B(BH)).3. These results have been interpreted with the aid of a model of the control of breath-holding and it is suggested that there is no change in CO(2) sensitivity on exercise, either during rebreathing or breath-holding.4. An increase in the resistance to breathing caused a marked reduction in S(V) and B(V), but no change in the breath-holding-CO(2) response curve. These findings suggest that the flattening of the ventilation-CO(2) response curve is mechanical in origin and acute airway obstruction produces no change in CO(2) sensitivity.5. On the basis of these results, we suggest that more information about CO(2) sensitivity can be obtained by a combination of ventilation and breath-holding-CO(2) response curves.

  19. Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

  20. Timing of the breath analyzer: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, C J

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine in an emergency room (ER) population the concordance of self-reports of no alcohol consumption prior to injury with breath-analyzer readings in two groups: (1) those patients from whom reports were obtained after they were breath analyzed compared to (2) patients from whom reports were obtained prior to obtaining the breath-analyzer reading. Data were collected on a probability sample of patients attending three health maintenance organization ERs. Among those sampled were 159 patients admitted for initial treatment of an injury, who were breath analyzed within 6 hours of the event and reported no drinking following the event that lead to injury. Of these, 119 were breath analyzed prior to the interview, and none who reported not drinking were positive on the breath analyzer, while of the 37 breath analyzed after the interview, only one was positive who had reported not drinking. Obtaining the breath-analyzer reading following the interview was not found to affect the rate of refusal to provide a breath-analyzer reading; however, it was found to adversely affect obtaining the breath-analyzer reading for other reasons. The data suggest that the concordance of negative self-reports of consumption with breath-analyzer readings remains high in ER populations regardless of when the breath-analyzer reading is obtained; however, it appears best to obtain the reading prior to interviewing the patient for reasons explained below.

  1. [Analysis of volatile sulfur compounds production of oral cavity in preschool children and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qun; Liu, Xue-nan; Chang, Qing; Ao, Shuang; Zheng, Shu-guo; Xu, Tao

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the prevalence of volatile sulfur compounds(VSC) in oral cavity of preschool children, and to analyze related factors, thus to provide scientific basis for the prediction and treatment of halitosis. The VSC content (hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide) of 170 preschool children (4 to 6 years old) was detected by a portable gas chromatograph OralChromaTM. The status of the oral health was evaluated. The living habits and other aspects were obtained through questionnaires from the children's parents. A soft package for social statistics version 13.0 (SPSS 13.0) was used in which univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were utilized to analyze the related factors of halitosis in children. In the study, 34.4% of the total subjects had excessive VSC. Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) [(1.59 ± 2.41) ng/10 mL] and total VSC concentration [(2.14 ± 4.42) ng/10 mL] in the girls were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in the boys. The tongue coating score had a significant positive correlation with H2S [tongue coating area (1.68 ± 2.48) ng/10 mL,tongue coating thickness (2.18 ± 2.69) ng/10 mL] and total VSC concentration [tongue coating area, (2.26 ± 4.31) ng/10 mL,tongue coating thickness (2.41 ± 3.02) ng/10 mL , P<0.01]. The site number of DI-S ≥ 2 had a significant positive correlation with methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) and dimethyl sulfide [(CH3)2S] concentration (P<0.01). The concentration of H₂S [(1.19 ± 1.62) ng/10 mL] in children, whose mother had a higher degree of education, was statistically lower (P<0.01). The children who took dessert or sweat drinks more frequently had lower H2S [(1.04 ± 1.55) ng/10 mL, P<0.05] concentration, while CH3SH and (CH3₂)S concentration [(0.29 ± 1.92) ng/10 mL, (0.37 ± 2.06) ng/10 mL, P<0.05) were higher in the children with mouth-breath habit. A high prevalence of halitosis was noted in preschool children. Gender, tongue coating index, debris index-simplified, status of the mother

  2. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  3. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section 108...

  4. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use as... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section 108...

  5. Acute Effects of Cannabis on Breath-Holding Duration

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Samantha G.; Metrik, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual’s perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a bio-behavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress post-cannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7–3.0 % delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath-holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were non-treatment seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed breath-holding task. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly lower breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration x frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may be exacerbating distress intolerance (via breath-holding duration). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis’ acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. PMID:27454678

  6. BreathDx - molecular analysis of exhaled breath as a diagnostic test for ventilator-associated pneumonia: protocol for a European multicentre observational study.

    PubMed

    van Oort, Pouline M P; Nijsen, Tamara; Weda, Hans; Knobel, Hugo; Dark, Paul; Felton, Timothy; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Lawal, Oluwasola; Ahmed, Waqar; Portsmouth, Craig; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Artigas, Antonio; Povoa, Pedro; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Fowler, Stephen J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2017-01-03

    The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains time-consuming and costly, the clinical tools lack specificity and a bedside test to exclude infection in suspected patients is unavailable. Breath contains hundreds to thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that result from host and microbial metabolism as well as the environment. The present study aims to use breath VOC analysis to develop a model that can discriminate between patients who have positive cultures and who have negative cultures with a high sensitivity. The Molecular Analysis of Exhaled Breath as Diagnostic Test for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (BreathDx) study is a multicentre observational study. Breath and bronchial lavage samples will be collected from 100 and 53 intubated and ventilated patients suspected of VAP. Breath will be analysed using Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The primary endpoint is the accuracy of cross-validated prediction for positive respiratory cultures in patients that are suspected of VAP, with a sensitivity of at least 99% (high negative predictive value). To our knowledge, BreathDx is the first study powered to investigate whether molecular analysis of breath can be used to classify suspected VAP patients with and without positive microbiological cultures with 99% sensitivity. UKCRN ID number 19086, registered May 2015; as well as registration at www.trialregister.nl under the acronym 'BreathDx' with trial ID number NTR 6114 (retrospectively registered on 28 October 2016).

  7. Affective brain areas and sleep disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The neural damage accompanying the hypoxia, reduced perfusion, and other consequences of sleep-disordered breathing found in obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure (HF), and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), appears in areas that serve multiple functions, including emotional drives to breathe, and involve systems that serve affective, cardiovascular, and breathing roles. The damage, assessed with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures, shows tissue loss or water content and diffusion changes indicative of injury, and impaired axonal integrity between structures; damage is preferentially unilateral. Functional MRI responses in affected areas also are time- or amplitude- distorted to ventilatory or autonomic challenges. Among the structures injured are the insular, cingulate, and ventral medial prefrontal cortices, as well as cerebellar deep nuclei and cortex, anterior hypothalamus, raphé, ventrolateral medulla, basal ganglia and, in CCHS, the locus coeruleus. Raphé and locus coeruleus injury may modify serotonergic and adrenergic modulation of upper airway and arousal characteristics. Since both axons and gray matter show injury, the consequences to function, especially to autonomic, cognitive, and mood regulation, are major. Several affected rostral sites, including the insular and cingulate cortices and hippocampus, mediate aspects of dyspnea, especially in CCHS, while others, including the anterior cingulate and thalamus, participate in initiation of inspiration after central breathing pauses, and the medullary injury can impair baroreflex and breathing control. The ancillary injury associated with sleep-disordered breathing to central structures can elicit multiple other distortions in cardiovascular, cognitive, and emotional functions in addition to effects on breathing regulation. PMID:24746053

  8. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569). PMID:25140632

  9. Afternoon serum-melatonin in sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Ulfberg, J; Micic, S; Strøm, J

    1998-08-01

    To study afternoon serum-melatonin values in patients with sleep disordered breathing. Melatonin has a strong circadian rhythm with high values during the night-time and low values in the afternoon. Sleep disordered breathing may change the circadian rhythm of melatonin which may have diagnostic implications. The Sleep Laboratory, The Department of Internal Medicine, Avesta Hospital, Sweden, and the Department of Anaesthesiology, Glostrup University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. We examined 60 consecutive patients admitted for sleep disordered breathing and 10 healthy non snoring controls. The patients underwent a sleep apnoea screening test having a specificity of 100% for the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) using a combination of static charge sensitive bed and oximetry. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was found in 49 patients, eight patients had borderline sleep disordered breathing (BSDB) and three patients were excluded due to interfering disease. Patients and controls had an afternoon determination of serum-melatonin. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to score day-time sleepiness. In comparison with normal controls patients suffering from OSAS had significantly higher serum-melatonin levels in the afternoon. However, as a diagnostic test for OSAS in patients with sleep disordered breathing serum-melatonin showed a low sensitivity but a high specificity. The results indicate that breathing disorders during sleep in general affect pineal function. Sleep disordered breathing seems to disturb pineal function. Determination of afternoon serum-melatonin alone or together with a scoring of daytime sleepiness does not identify OSAS-patients in a heterogeneous population of patients complaining of heavy snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness.

  10. The Effect of Breathing Exercises on the Nocturnal Enuresis in the Children with the Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Masjedi, Mohsen; Kelishadi, Roya

    2013-01-01

    Background The nocturnal enuresis is one of the most common complaints of childhood. Upper airway obstruction and nocturnal snoring affect the nocturnal enuresis in children. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of breathing exercises on the nocturnal enuresis in the children with the sleep-disordered breathing. Patients and Methods This study was conducted in year of 2011 by a semi-experimental design with the control group among 40 children, aged 6 - 12 years, who had the nocturnal enuresis. Participants were examined based on the criteria of nocturnal enuresis, oral breathing, and nocturnal snoring. Subsequently, they were randomly assigned to the case and control groups. In the case group, the breathing exercises were performed for 45 minutes, and were pursued for four weeks in the morning following and prior to sleeping, and subsequently the arterial blood gases were measured and the frequency of enuresis and the respiratory rates (RR) were recorded. Results After intervention the means of PaCO2 and RR in the control group were significantly higher than the case group (P < 0.0001). Likewise, O2sat, PaO2 in the case group were higher than the control group (P < 0.0001). The nocturnal enuresis decreased significantly in the case group, compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). Conclusions This study suggests that the breathing exercises may reduce the frequency of nocturnal enuresis in the patients with the oral breathing and nocturnal snore. The clinical implications of these findings should be verified in the future longitudinal studies. PMID:24719691

  11. Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish.

    PubMed

    Clement, Alice M; Long, John A

    2010-08-23

    Recent discoveries of tetrapod trackways in 395 Myr old tidal zone deposits of Poland (Niedźwiedzki et al. 2010 Nature 463, 43-48 (doi:10.1038/nature.08623)) indicate that vertebrates had already ventured out of the water and might already have developed some air-breathing capacity by the Middle Devonian. Air-breathing in lungfishes is not considered to be a shared specialization with tetrapods, but evolved independently. Air-breathing in lungfishes has been postulated as starting in Middle Devonian times (ca 385 Ma) in freshwater habitats, based on a set of skeletal characters involved in air-breathing in extant lungfishes. New discoveries described herein of the lungfish Rhinodipterus from marine limestones of Australia identifies the node in dipnoan phylogeny where air-breathing begins, and confirms that lungfishes living in marine habitats had also developed specializations to breathe air by the start of the Late Devonian (ca 375 Ma). While invasion of freshwater habitats from the marine realm was previously suggested to be the prime cause of aerial respiration developing in lungfishes, we believe that global decline in oxygen levels during the Middle Devonian combined with higher metabolic costs is a more likely driver of air-breathing ability, which developed in both marine and freshwater lungfishes and tetrapodomorph fishes such as Gogonasus.

  12. Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Alice M.; Long, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent discoveries of tetrapod trackways in 395 Myr old tidal zone deposits of Poland (Niedźwiedzki et al. 2010 Nature 463, 43–48 (doi:10.1038/nature.08623)) indicate that vertebrates had already ventured out of the water and might already have developed some air-breathing capacity by the Middle Devonian. Air-breathing in lungfishes is not considered to be a shared specialization with tetrapods, but evolved independently. Air-breathing in lungfishes has been postulated as starting in Middle Devonian times (ca 385 Ma) in freshwater habitats, based on a set of skeletal characters involved in air-breathing in extant lungfishes. New discoveries described herein of the lungfish Rhinodipterus from marine limestones of Australia identifies the node in dipnoan phylogeny where air-breathing begins, and confirms that lungfishes living in marine habitats had also developed specializations to breathe air by the start of the Late Devonian (ca 375 Ma). While invasion of freshwater habitats from the marine realm was previously suggested to be the prime cause of aerial respiration developing in lungfishes, we believe that global decline in oxygen levels during the Middle Devonian combined with higher metabolic costs is a more likely driver of air-breathing ability, which developed in both marine and freshwater lungfishes and tetrapodomorph fishes such as Gogonasus. PMID:20147310

  13. Breaking Bad News to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of breaking bad news to parents, whether the news pertains to center policy or a child's behavior. Provides strategies for presenting news and for helping parents to overcome difficult situations, including gathering facts in advance, arranging an appropriate time, and having resource materials available for parents. (MOK)

  14. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    PubMed

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Colostrum and ideas about bad milk: a case study from Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Gunnlaugsson, G; Einarsdóttir, J

    1993-02-01

    The study aims to explore ideas about bad milk found among women in Guinea-Bissau. Interviews were held with 20 elderly knowledgeable rural women. Interinformant agreement was high within each ethnic group studied. All the informants recognized colostrum but disliked its consistency. Depending on ethnical background, it was considered good, of no special value or harmful to the newborn baby. Further, all the informants held that mature breast milk could turn bad, e.g. in case of mother's sickness or adultery. Suspected bad milk can be diagnosed by putting an ant into it to observe if it dies. The condition of bad milk can be treated by various procedures. The findings are discussed in relation to similar ideas existing in other societies and to views on the quality of maternal milk held in the industrialized countries. It is proposed that the idea of producing bad milk may be an important determinant of breastfeeding performance generally. Restrictions imposed on the breastfeeding woman, with the intention of producing healthier breast milk, may actually contribute to a decline in breastfeeding.

  16. Toward Anatomical Simulation for Breath Training in Mind/Body Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Benjamin; Dilorenzo, Paul; Zordan, Victor; Bakal, Donald

    The use of breath in healing is poorly understood by patients and professionals alike. Dysfunctional breathing is a characteristic of many unexplained symptoms and mind/body medical professionals seek methods for breath training to alleviate such problems. Our approach is to re-purpose and evolve a recently developed anatomically inspired respiration simulation which was created for synthesizing motion in entertainment for the use of visualization in breath training. In mind/body medicine, problems are often created from patients being advised to breathe according to some standard based on pace or volume. However, a breathing pattern that is comfortable and effortless for one person may not have the same benefits for the next person. The breathing rhythm which is most effortless for each person needs to be dynamically identified. To this end, in this chapter, we employ optimization to modify a generic model of respiration to fit the breath patterns of specific individuals. In practice, the corresponding visualization which is specific to individual patients could be used to train proper breath behavior, both by showing specific (abnormal) practice and recommended modification(s).

  17. Autophagy postpones apoptotic cell death in PRRSV infection through Bad-Beclin1 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ao; Li, Shuaifeng; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Zhang, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy and apoptosis play significant roles in PRRSV infection and replication. However, the interaction between these 2 processes in PRRSV replication is still far from been completely understood. In our studies, the exposure of MARC-145 cells to PRRSV confirmed the activation of autophagy and subsequent induction of apoptosis. The inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) caused a significant increase in PRRSV-induced apoptosis, showing a potential connection between both mechanisms. Moreover, we observed an increase in Bad expression (a pro-apoptotic protein) and Beclin1 (an autophagy regulator) in virus-infected cells up to 36h. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed the formation of Bad and Beclin1 complex in PRRSV infected cells. Accordingly, Bad co-localized with Beclin1 in MARC-145 infected cells. Knockdown of Beclin1 significantly decreased PRRSV replication and PRRSV-induced autophagy, while Bad silencing resulted in increased autophagy and enhanced viral replication. Furthermore, PRRSV infection phosphorylated Bad (Ser112) to promote cellular survival. These results demonstrate that autophagy can favor PRRSV replication by postponing apoptosis through the formation of a Bad-Beclin1 complex. PMID:26670824

  18. Neural control of breathing and CO2 homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, P.G.; Bayliss, D.A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state-dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, “central command” and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation. PMID:26335642

  19. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP) treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing. Methods Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically. Results The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance. Conclusion The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates. PMID:26192188

  20. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they enter a patient's airway. The device may include a temperature controller. (b) Classification. Class II...

  1. 42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; required...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.71 Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components. (a) Each self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 84.70 shall, where its design requires, contain the following...

  2. 42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; required...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.71 Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components. (a) Each self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 84.70 shall, where its design requires, contain the following...

  3. Study of the detectability of controlled substances on breath

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-07-01

    The University of Missouri used high pressure liquid chromatography plus mass spectrometry for a quantitative analysis of marijuana metabolites in blood and breath. A breath collector was developed for road-side sampling of human breath and subsequen...

  4. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's tally...

  5. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reed, Suzanne; Kassis, Karyn; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Mahan, John D; Shell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Purpose Our objectives were to determine: 1) performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP) setting; and 2) the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Methods Forty first- year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol). Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI) as a measure of EI. Results Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. Conclusions We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  6. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reed, Suzanne; Kassis, Karyn; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Mahan, John D; Shell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Our objectives were to determine: 1) performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP) setting; and 2) the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Forty first-year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol). Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI) as a measure of EI. Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  7. Investigation of Exhaled Breath Samples from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and an Exhaled Breath Sensor System.

    PubMed

    Lau, Hui-Chong; Yu, Joon-Boo; Lee, Ho-Won; Huh, Jeung-Soo; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2017-08-03

    Exhaled breath is a body secretion, and the sampling process of this is simple and cost effective. It can be non-invasively collected for diagnostic procedures. Variations in the chemical composition of exhaled breath resulting from gaseous exchange in the extensive capillary network of the body are proposed to be associated with pathophysiological changes. In light of the foreseeable potential of exhaled breath as a diagnostic specimen, we used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to study the chemical compounds present in exhaled breath samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and from healthy individuals as a control group. In addition, we also designed and developed a chemical-based exhaled breath sensor system to examine the distribution pattern in the patient and control groups. The results of our study showed that several chemical compounds, such as 1-phenantherol and ethyl 3-cyano-2,3-bis (2,5,-dimethyl-3-thienyl)-acrylate, had a higher percentage area in the AD group than in the PD and control groups. These results may indicate an association of these chemical components in exhaled breath with the progression of disease. In addition, in-house fabricated exhaled breath sensor systems, containing several types of gas sensors, showed significant differences in terms of the normalized response of the sensitivity characteristics between the patient and control groups. A subsequent clustering analysis was able to distinguish between the AD patients, PD patients, and healthy individuals using principal component analysis, Sammon's mapping, and a combination of both methods, in particular when using the exhaled breath sensor array system A consisting of eight sensors. With this in mind, the exhaled breath sensor system could provide alternative option for diagnosis and be applied as a useful, effective tool for the screening and diagnosis of AD in the near future.

  8. Qualitative assessment of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using breath-hold and non-breath-hold techniques in the portal venous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Sun-Ju; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Kwang-Choul; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality in delineation of the portal venous systems with two different methods, breath-hold and non-breath-hold by using the 3D FLASH sequence. We used a 1.5 T system to obtain magnetic resonance(MR)images. Arterial and portal phase 3D FLASH images were obtained with breath-hold after a bolus injection of GD-DOTA. The detection of PVS on the MR angiograms was classified into three grades. First, the angiograms of the breath-hold method showed well the portal vein, the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein systems in 13 of 15 patients (86%) and the inferior mesenteric vein system in 6 of 15 patients (40%), Second, MR angiograms of the non-breath-hold method demonstrated the PVS and the SMV in 12 of 15 patients (80%) and the IMV in 5 of 15 patients (33%). Our study showed contrast-enhanced 3D FLASH MR angiography, together with the breath-hold technique, may provide reliable and accurate information on the portal venous system.

  9. Bad Science and Its Social Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Berson, Michael J.; Fogelman, Aimee L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates three types of bad science: (1) cultural prejudice based on scientific errors (polygenism, phrenology, reification through intelligence testing); (2) unethical science (Tuskegee syphilis experiments, tobacco companies and research); and (3) unwitting errors (pesticides, chlorofluorocarbons). (Contains 50 references.) (SK)

  10. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    PubMed

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  11. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  12. BAD-LAMP defines a subset of early endocytic organelles in subpopulations of cortical projection neurons.

    PubMed

    David, Alexandre; Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Defays, Axel; Beclin, Christophe; Camosseto, Voahirana; Gatti, Evelina; Cremer, Harold; Pierre, Philippe

    2007-01-15

    The brain-associated LAMP-like molecule (BAD-LAMP) is a new member of the family of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs). In contrast to other LAMPs, which show a widespread expression, BAD-LAMP expression in mice is confined to the postnatal brain and therein to neuronal subpopulations in layers II/III and V of the neocortex. Onset of expression strictly parallels cortical synaptogenesis. In cortical neurons, the protein is found in defined clustered vesicles, which accumulate along neurites where it localizes with phosphorylated epitopes of neurofilament H. In primary neurons, BAD-LAMP is endocytosed, but is not found in classical lysosomal/endosomal compartments. Modification of BAD-LAMP by addition of GFP revealed a cryptic lysosomal retention motif, suggesting that the cytoplasmic tail of BAD-LAMP is actively interacting with, or modified by, molecules that promote its sorting away from lysosomes. Analysis of BAD-LAMP endocytosis in transfected HeLa cells provided evidence that the protein recycles to the plasma membrane through a dynamin/AP2-dependent mechanism. Thus, BAD-LAMP is an unconventional LAMP-like molecule and defines a new endocytic compartment in specific subtypes of cortical projection neurons. The striking correlation between the appearance of BAD-LAMP and cortical synatogenesis points towards a physiological role of this vesicular determinant for neuronal function.

  13. Delivering and Receiving Bad News: What School Psychologists Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Megan; Rogers, Margaret R.; O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Perry, Kimberly Hill

    2010-01-01

    Delivering bad news to students, teachers, and parents is not an uncommon occurrence for school psychologists. Skillfully communicating bad news requires sensitivity, thoughtful wording, and an awareness of the potential effect on the recipients. Despite the importance of this skill, school psychology has devoted little attention to what is…

  14. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Driak, D; Dvorska, M; Bolehovska, P; Svandova, I; Novotny, J; Halaska, M

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignancies of the female genital tract are endometrial carcinomas, whose are generally proceeded by hyperplasia. The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is to great extent governed by apoptosis, whose defects can lead to the preneoplastic and/or cancerous changes. Endometrial apoptosis involves among others three groups of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. First group contains anti-apoptotic proteins (e. g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). The other two groups belong to the pro-apoptotic proteins with three (e. g. Bax, Bak) or one (e. g. Bad, Bid) so-called BH domains. Bad and Bid trigger the oligomerization of Bak and Bax protein, which permeabilize the outer mitochondrial wall. Unlike Bid, Bad cannot directly trigger apoptosis. Instead, Bad lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced, by binding anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. However, their mutual counterbalance or synergism in the human endometrium has not been reported yet.In this study, the levels of Bid and Bad were measured using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with specific antibodies, with the aim to analyse expression of Bid and Bad proteins in normal (NE), hyperplastic (HE) and cancerous (CE) endometrium. We demonstrated that Bid expression in CE reached only 47% and 50% of this observed in NE and HE. Conversely, Bad expression in HE reached only 40% and 36% of this observed in NE and CE, respectively. We detected no significant changes of Bid expression between HE and NE, and levels of Bad protein were not different between CE and NE.Trend of Bid and Bad protein expression is clearly opposite in HE and CE. We hypothesise that disrupted apoptotic program in CE seems to be reduced further by lowering levels of direct apoptotic trigger protein Bid. We suggest that the adenocarcinoma tissue of human endometrium thus tries to strengthen its apoptotic effort by lowering the apoptotic threshold via higher Bad levels.

  15. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I.; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; de la Parra, Columba; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J.; Wade, Paul A.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Donnell, Robert M.; Pestell, Richard G.; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie; Wimalasena, Jay

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 were regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. siRNA knockdown of BAD increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. PMID:25499972

  16. Breaking bad news in prenatal medicine: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Spitz, Elisabeth; Vieux, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    The diagnosis of a fetal anomaly in perinatal medicine forces expectant parents and healthcare providers to face the difficult process of breaking bad news. This exploratory literature review was aimed at providing a medical and psychological view of the psychological experience in expectant parents and physicians in the context of prenatal diagnosis of a fetal anomaly. An exploratory search of PubMed and PsycINFO/PsycARTICLES databases performed by an interdisciplinary team composed of a physician and psychologists. Search terms were: prenatal diagnosis AND bad news; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological consequences; prenatal diagnosis AND psychological sequelae; prenatal diagnosis AND fetal abnormality. The processing of selected articles followed a standardised five-step procedure. A total of 860 articles were screened of which 32 were retained for analysis. Four main themes emerged from the explanatory content analysis: (1) parents' subjective experience; (2) physicians' subjective experience; (3) encounters between expectant parents and professionals; and (4) ethical challenges in breaking bad news in prenatal medicine. Expectant parents go through a complex and multidimensional experience when the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly is disclosed. Simultaneously, physicians consider breaking bad news as a very stressful event and are poorly prepared in this regard. A better knowledge of factors underlying psychological adjustment of the parental dyad and on the subjective experience of physicians delivering these diagnoses could enable better adaptation for both patients and professionals.

  17. Breaking bad news-what patients want and what they get: evaluating the SPIKES protocol in Germany.

    PubMed

    Seifart, C; Hofmann, M; Bär, T; Riera Knorrenschild, J; Seifart, U; Rief, W

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of the SPIKES protocol, a recommended guideline for breaking bad news, is sparse, and information about patients' preferences for bad-news delivery in Germany is lacking. Being the first actual-theoretical comparison of a 'breaking bad news' guideline, the present study evaluates the recommended steps of the SPIKES protocol. Moreover, emotional consequences and quality of bad-news delivery are investigated. A total of 350 cancer patients answered the MABBAN (Marburg Breaking Bad News Scale), a questionnaire representing the six SPIKES subscales, asking for the procedure, perception and satisfaction of the first cancer disclosure and patient's assign to these items. Only 46.2% of the asked cancer patients are completely satisfied with how bad news had been broken to them. The overall quality is significantly related to the emotional state after receiving bad news (r = -0.261, P < 0.001). Patients' preferences differ highly significantly from the way bad news were delivered, and the resulting rang list of patients' preferences indicates that the SPIKES protocol do not fully meet the priorities of cancer patients in Germany. It could be postulated that the low satisfaction of patients observed in this study reflects the highly significant difference between patients' preferences and bad-news delivery. Therefore, some adjunctions to the SPIKES protocol should be considered, including a frequent reassurance of listeners' understanding, the perpetual possibility to ask question, respect for prearrangement needs and the conception of bad-news delivery in a two-step procedure.

  18. The Effects of Bad News and Good News on a Newspaper's Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jack B.; Miller, M. Mark

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that whether a newspaper carries mostly good news or mostly bad news affects the image of the paper, with bad news having negative effects and good news having positive effects on readers' perceptions of the newspaper. (FL)

  19. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion inmore » an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.« less

  20. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Suzanne; Kassis, Karyn; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Mahan, John D.; Shell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Purpose Our objectives were to determine: 1) performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP) setting; and 2) the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Methods Forty first- year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol). Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI) as a measure of EI. Results Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. Conclusions We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain. PMID:26286897

  1. How to Tell Bad News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Therapists, physicians, police officers, and emergency staff often are the messengers of bad news. They have to tell a patient, a parent, or a loved one about a death, an accident, a school shooting, a life-threatening diagnosis, a terrorist attack, or a suicide. Usually the messenger bears a heavy responsibility but has little training and seeks…

  2. Individuality of breathing during volitional moderate hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Besleaga, Tudor; Blum, Michaël; Briot, Raphaël; Vovc, Victor; Moldovanu, Ion; Calabrese, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the individuality of airflow shapes during volitional hyperventilation. Ventilation was recorded on 18 healthy subjects following two protocols: (1) spontaneous breathing (SP1) followed by a volitional hyperventilation at each subject's spontaneous (HVSP) breathing rate, (2) spontaneous breathing (SP2) followed by hyperventilation at 20/min (HV20). HVSP and HV20 were performed at the same level of hypocapnia: end tidal CO2 (FETCO2) was maintained at 1% below the spontaneous level. At each breath, the tidal volume (VT), the breath (TTOT), the inspiratory (TI) and expiratory durations, the minute ventilation, VT/TI, TI/TTOT and the airflow shape were quantified by harmonic analysis. Under different conditions of breathing, we test if the airflow profiles of the same individual are more similar than airflow profiles between individuals. Minute ventilation was not significantly different between SP1 (6.71 ± 1.64 l·min(-1)) and SP2 (6.57 ± 1.31 l·min(-1)) nor between HVSP (15.88 ± 4.92 l·min(-1)) and HV20 (15.87 ± 4.16 l·min(-1)). Similar results were obtained for FETCO2 between SP1 (5.06 ± 0.54 %) and SP2 (5.00 ± 0.51%), and HVSP (4.07 ± 0.51%) and HV20 (3.88 ± 0.42%). Only TI/TTOT remained unchanged in all four conditions. Airflow shapes were similar when comparing SP1-SP2, HVSP-HV20, and SP1-HVSP but not similar when comparing SP2-HV20. These results suggest the existence of an individuality of airflow shape during volitional hyperventilation. We conclude that volitional ventilation alike automatic breathing follows inherent properties of the ventilatory system. Registered by Pascale Calabrese on ClinicalTrials.gov, # NCT01881945.

  3. Expression and prognostic relevance of MET and phospho-BAD in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenze; Ai, Ting; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Yingbing; Cui, Jie; Song, Liping

    2013-01-01

    MET is involved in the progression of several types of human cancers, while phospho-BAD(Ser-136) is a key molecule in apoptosis and might be regulated by MET. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between altered expression of MET and phospho-BAD in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their association with clinicopathologic parameters and overall survival. MET and phospho-BAD(Ser-136) proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in 183 paraffin-embedded specimens and were also assessed by Western blotting analysis in 12 frozen tumor tissue samples, which were representative examples of immunohistochemical staining. Positive expression of MET and phospho-BAD(Ser-136) occurred in 67.2% and 49.2% of the 183 cases of NSCLC, respectively. However, neither MET expression nor phospho-BAD(Ser-136) expression was associated with any clinicopathologic parameter. A significant correlation was found between MET and phospho-BAD(Ser-136) expression levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry (r = 0.268, P < 0.001). Overexpression of MET was significantly associated with shortened overall survival in univariate analysis (P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with a MET+/phospho-BAD(Ser-136)+ phenotype had a poorer prognosis than others (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis confirmed that MET expression is a prognostic factor for NSCLC. MET expression might be correlated with phospho-BAD(Ser-136) expression, and may be an adverse predictor for NSCLC. Activation of the MET/phospho-BAD(Ser-136) signaling pathway might play a role in the development and progression of NSCLC.

  4. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clots in the legs or pelvis (deep venous thrombosis), debilitating medical conditions, immobility, or inherited ... it hard for a person to take a deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon ...

  5. Regulation of Hepatic Energy Metabolism and Gluconeogenesis by BAD

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Garcia-Haro, Luisa; Choi, Cheol Soo; Osundiji, Mayowa A.; Lane, Elizabeth; Huang, Hu; Yildirim, Muhammed A.; Szlyk, Benjamin; Fisher, Jill K.; Polak, Klaudia; Patton, Elaura; Wiwczar, Jessica; Godes, Marina; Lee, Dae Ho; Robertson, Kirsten; Kim, Sheene; Kulkarni, Ameya; Distefano, Alberto; Samuel, Varman; Cline, Gary; Kim, Young-Bum; Shulman, Gerald I.; Danial, Nika N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The homeostatic balance of hepatic glucose utilization, storage and production is exquisitely controlled by hormonal signals and hepatic carbon metabolism during fed and fasted states. How the liver senses extracellular glucose to cue glucose utilization versus production is not fully understood. Here, we show that the physiologic balance of hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is regulated by BAD, a dual function protein with roles in apoptosis and metabolism. BAD deficiency reprograms hepatic substrate and energy metabolism towards diminished glycolysis, excess fatty acid oxidation and exaggerated glucose production that escapes suppression by insulin. Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that BAD’s suppression of gluconeogenesis is actuated by phosphorylation of its BH3 domain and subsequent activation of glucokinase. The physiologic relevance of these findings is evident from the ability of a BAD phospho-mimic variant to counteract unrestrained gluconeogenesis and improve glycemia in leptin resistant and high-fat diet models of diabetes and insulin resistance. PMID:24506868

  6. Volatile Biomarkers in Breath Associated With Liver Cirrhosis — Comparisons of Pre- and Post-liver Transplant Breath Samples

    PubMed Central

    Fernández del Río, R.; O'Hara, M.E.; Holt, A.; Pemberton, P.; Shah, T.; Whitehouse, T.; Mayhew, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of liver disease in the UK has risen dramatically and there is a need for improved diagnostics. Aims To determine which breath volatiles are associated with the cirrhotic liver and hence diagnostically useful. Methods A two-stage biomarker discovery procedure was used. Alveolar breath samples of 31 patients with cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were mass spectrometrically analysed and compared (stage 1). 12 of these patients had their breath analysed after liver transplant (stage 2). Five patients were followed longitudinally as in-patients in the post-transplant period. Results Seven volatiles were elevated in the breath of patients versus controls. Of these, five showed statistically significant decrease post-transplant: limonene, methanol, 2-pentanone, 2-butanone and carbon disulfide. On an individual basis limonene has the best diagnostic capability (the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) is 0.91), but this is improved by combining methanol, 2-pentanone and limonene (AUROC curve 0.95). Following transplant, limonene shows wash-out characteristics. Conclusions Limonene, methanol and 2-pentanone are breath markers for a cirrhotic liver. This study raises the potential to investigate these volatiles as markers for early-stage liver disease. By monitoring the wash-out of limonene following transplant, graft liver function can be non-invasively assessed. PMID:26501124

  7. Breathing in Comfort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Showing up at school is critical to a student's success. Students with prolonged or chronic absences from the classroom are likely to fall behind in their studies, and schools with high absentee rates risk the erosion of badly needed funding. As such, it is vital for school and university learning spaces to be environments that do not jeopardize…

  8. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  9. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Breaking bad news–what patients want and what they get: evaluating the SPIKES protocol in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Seifart, C.; Hofmann, M.; Bär, T.; Riera Knorrenschild, J.; Seifart, U.; Rief, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the SPIKES protocol, a recommended guideline for breaking bad news, is sparse, and information about patients' preferences for bad-news delivery in Germany is lacking. Being the first actual–theoretical comparison of a ‘breaking bad news’ guideline, the present study evaluates the recommended steps of the SPIKES protocol. Moreover, emotional consequences and quality of bad-news delivery are investigated. Patients and methods A total of 350 cancer patients answered the MABBAN (Marburg Breaking Bad News Scale), a questionnaire representing the six SPIKES subscales, asking for the procedure, perception and satisfaction of the first cancer disclosure and patient’s assign to these items. Results Only 46.2% of the asked cancer patients are completely satisfied with how bad news had been broken to them. The overall quality is significantly related to the emotional state after receiving bad news (r = −0.261, P < 0.001). Patients’ preferences differ highly significantly from the way bad news were delivered, and the resulting rang list of patients’ preferences indicates that the SPIKES protocol do not fully meet the priorities of cancer patients in Germany. Conclusions It could be postulated that the low satisfaction of patients observed in this study reflects the highly significant difference between patients’ preferences and bad-news delivery. Therefore, some adjunctions to the SPIKES protocol should be considered, including a frequent reassurance of listeners’ understanding, the perpetual possibility to ask question, respect for prearrangement needs and the conception of bad-news delivery in a two-step procedure. PMID:24504443

  11. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  12. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  13. 46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for...

  14. 46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for...

  15. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for...

  16. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for...

  17. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  18. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  19. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  20. Control of Breathing During Mechanical Ventilation: Who Is the Boss?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kathleen; Hinojosa-Kurtzberg, Marina; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, concepts of control of breathing have increasingly moved from being theoretical concepts to “real world” applied science. The purpose of this review is to examine the basics of control of breathing, discuss the bidirectional relationship between control of breathing and mechanical ventilation, and critically assess the application of this knowledge at the patient’s bedside. The principles of control of breathing remain under-represented in the training curriculum of respiratory therapists and pulmonologists, whereas the day-to-day bedside application of the principles of control of breathing continues to suffer from a lack of outcomes-based research in the intensive care unit. In contrast, the bedside application of the principles of control of breathing to ambulatory subjects with sleep-disordered breathing has out-stripped that in critically ill patients. The evolution of newer technologies, faster real-time computing abilities, and miniaturization of ventilator technology can bring the concepts of control of breathing to the bedside and benefit the critically ill patient. However, market forces, lack of scientific data, lack of research funding, and regulatory obstacles need to be surmounted. PMID:21333174

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 97.37-20 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF...

  2. 46 CFR 97.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 97.37-20 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF...

  3. The effects of inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise on chronic stroke patients' respiratory muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Seo, KyoChul; Hwan, Park Seung; Park, KwangYong

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise on chronic stroke patients' respiratory muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] All experimental subjects performed exercises five times per week for four weeks. Thirty chronic stroke patients were randomly assign to an experimental group of 15 patients and a control group of 15 patients. The experimental group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and inspiratory diaphragm breathing exercise and expiratory pursed-lip breathing exercise for 15 minutes and the control group underwent exercises consisting of basic exercise treatment for 15 minutes and auto-med exercise for 15 minutes. The activation levels of respiratory muscles were measured before and after the experiment using MP 150WSW to obtain the results of the experiment. [Results] In the present study, when the pulmonary functions of the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment were compared, whereas the experimental group showed significant differences in all sections. In the verification of intergroup differences between the experimental group and the control group before and after the experiment. [Conclusion] The respiratory rehabilitation exercise is considered to be capable of inducing positive effects on stroke patients' respiratory muscles through diaphragm breathing exercise and lip puckering breathing exercise.

  4. Hyperbaric nitrogen prolongs breath-holding time in humans.

    PubMed

    Morooka, H; Wakasugi, Y; Shimamoto, H; Shibata, O; Sumikawa, K

    2000-09-01

    Either an increase in PaCO(2) or a decrease in PaO(2), can affect respiratory stimulation through respiratory centers, thus influencing breath-holding time (BHT). This study was designed to determine whether and how hyperbaric air could influence BHT in comparison with hyperbaric oxygen in humans. We studied 36 healthy volunteers in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber. BHT, pulse oximeter, and transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension were measured at 1 and 2.8 atmosphere absolute (ATA) in two groups. Group A (n = 20) breathed air. Group O (n = 16) breathed oxygen with a face mask (5 L/min). BHTs were 108 +/- 28 s at 1.0 ATA and 230 +/- 71 s at 2.8 ATA in Group A, and 137 +/- 48 s at 1.0 ATA and 180 +/- 52 s at 2.8 ATA in Group O. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension in Group A (59 +/- 2 mm Hg) was higher than that in Group O (54 +/- 2 mm Hg) at the end of maximal breath-holding at 2.8 ATA. The prolongation of BHT in hyperbaric air is significantly greater than that in hyperbaric oxygen. Breath-holding time is significantly prolonged in hyperbaric air than it is in hyperbaric oxygen. The mechanism involves the anesthetic effect of nitrogen suppressing the suffocating feeling during breath-holding.

  5. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  6. A New Efficient Algorithm for the All Sorting Reversals Problem with No Bad Components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The problem of finding all reversals that take a permutation one step closer to a target permutation is called the all sorting reversals problem (the ASR problem). For this problem, Siepel had an O(n (3))-time algorithm. Most complications of his algorithm stem from some peculiar structures called bad components. Since bad components are very rare in both real and simulated data, it is practical to study the ASR problem with no bad components. For the ASR problem with no bad components, Swenson et al. gave an O (n(2))-time algorithm. Very recently, Swenson found that their algorithm does not always work. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented for the ASR problem with no bad components. The time complexity is O(n(2)) in the worst case and is linear in the size of input and output in practice.

  7. Breaking bad news: Effects of forecasting diagnosis and framing prognosis.

    PubMed

    Porensky, Emily K; Carpenter, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Research to support guidelines for breaking bad news is lacking. This study used an experimental paradigm to test two communication strategies, forecasting bad news and framing prognosis, in the context of cancer. In a 2×2 design, 128 participants received bad news in a hypothetical consultation. A videotaped physician presented diagnostic and prognostic information, varying warning (warning shot vs. no warning), and framing (positive vs. negative). Effects on psychological distress, recall accuracy, and subjective interpretations of the news were assessed. Warning was not associated with lower psychological distress or improved recall. Individuals who heard a positively-framed prognosis had significantly less psychological distress, rated their prognosis better, and were more hopeful than those who heard a negatively-framed prognosis. However, they also showed a trend toward reduced accuracy in recalling prognostic statistics. Results contribute to a growing body of literature exploring optimal approaches for communicating bad news in health care. Although research in clinical settings is needed to bolster results, findings suggest that when providers use positive framing to reduce distress about prognosis, they should also consider ways to overcome potential reductions in recall accuracy, such as repeating statistical information or supplementing with written information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  9. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1535 - Badly misshapen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Badly misshapen. 51.1535 Section 51.1535 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1535...

  11. Does rhinoplasty improve nasal breathing?

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rui

    2010-08-01

    Rhinoplasty is a surgical procedure that aims to improve nasal aesthetics and nasal breathing. The aesthetic improvement of the nose is usually judged subjectively by the patient and the surgeon, but the degree of improvement of nasal obstruction is difficult to assess by clinical examination only. The measurement of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) is a reliable tool that has been shown to correlate with other objective methods of assessing nasal breathing and with patients' symptoms of nasal obstruction. Twenty-three consecutive patients undergoing rhinoplasty have been evaluated by measurement of PNIF before and after surgery. All but three patients had an increase in PNIF after surgery. The mean preoperative PNIF was 86.5 L/min and the mean postoperative PNIF was 123.0 L/min ( P < 0.001). Not surprisingly, the greatest improvement in PNIF was achieved when bilateral spreader grafts were used. This study suggests that rhinoplasty does improve nasal breathing. (c) Thieme Medical Publishers

  12. Effect of Time-of-Flight Information on PET/MR Reconstruction Artifacts: Comparison of Free-breathing versus Breath-hold MR-based Attenuation Correction.

    PubMed

    Delso, Gaspar; Khalighi, Mohammed; Ter Voert, Edwin; Barbosa, Felipe; Sekine, Tetsuro; Hüllner, Martin; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the magnitude and anatomic extent of the artifacts introduced on positron emission tomographic (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) images by respiratory state mismatch in the attenuation map. Materials and Methods The method was tested on 14 patients referred for an oncologic examination who underwent PET/MR imaging. The acquisition included standard PET and MR series for each patient, and an additional attenuation correction series was acquired by using breath hold. PET data were reconstructed with and without time-of-flight (TOF) information, first by using the standard free-breathing attenuation map and then again by using the additional breath-hold map. Two-tailed paired t testing and linear regression with 0 intercept was performed on TOF versus non-TOF and free-breathing versus breath-hold data for all detected lesions. Results Fluorodeoxyglucose-avid lesions were found in eight of the 14 patients included in the study. The uptake differences (maximum standardized uptake values) between PET reconstructions with free-breathing versus breath-hold attenuation ranged, for non-TOF reconstructions, from -18% to 26%. The corresponding TOF reconstructions yielded differences from -15% to 18%. Conclusion TOF information was shown to reduce the artifacts caused at PET/MR by respiratory mismatch between emission and attenuation data. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  13. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Opportunities Research Conference Recruit for Clinical Trials Research Publications Spinraza Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Care Packages Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home ...

  14. Breath test refusals

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-11-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has found that the percentage of people who refuse to provide breath samples when arrested for Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) varies considerably across States, and this creates a concern in the cri...

  15. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584

  16. Involvement of the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Learning Others' Bad Reputations and Indelible Distrust.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Ito, Yuichi; Kiyama, Sachiko; Kunimi, Mitsunobu; Ohira, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Jun; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    A bad reputation can persistently affect judgments of an individual even when it turns out to be invalid and ought to be disregarded. Such indelible distrust may reflect that the negative evaluation elicited by a bad reputation transfers to a person. Consequently, the person him/herself may come to activate this negative evaluation irrespective of the accuracy of the reputation. If this theoretical model is correct, an evaluation-related brain region will be activated when witnessing a person whose bad reputation one has learned about, regardless of whether the reputation is deemed valid or not. Here, we tested this neural hypothesis with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants memorized faces paired with either a good or a bad reputation. Next, they viewed the faces alone and inferred whether each person was likely to cooperate, first while retrieving the reputations, and then while trying to disregard them as false. A region of the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), which may be involved in negative evaluation, was activated by faces previously paired with bad reputations, irrespective of whether participants attempted to retrieve or disregard these reputations. Furthermore, participants showing greater activity of the left ventrolateral prefrontal region in response to the faces with bad reputations were more likely to infer that these individuals would not cooperate. Thus, once associated with a bad reputation, a person may elicit evaluation-related brain responses on their own, thereby evoking distrust independently of their reputation.

  17. The impact of delivery style on doctors' experience of stress during simulated bad news consultations.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joanne; Brown, Rhonda; Dunn, Stewart

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between doctors' bad news delivery style and their experience of physiological stress during simulated bad news consultations. 31 doctors participated in two simulated breaking bad news (BBN) consultations. Delivery style was categorized as either blunt, forecasting or stalling (i.e. avoidant), based on the time to deliver the bad news and qualitative analysis of the interaction content and doctor's language style. Doctors' heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded in consecutive 30s epochs. Doctors experienced a significant decrease in HR (F(1,36)=44.9, p<.0001) and SC (F(1,48)=5.6, p<.001) between the pre- and post-news delivery phases of the consultation. Between-group comparisons for the three delivery styles did not identify any significant differences in HR (F(2,36)=2.2, p>.05) or SC (F(2,48)=.66, p>.05). Doctors experience heightened stress in the pre-news delivery phase of breaking bad news interactions. Delaying the delivery of bad news exposes doctors to a longer period of increased stress.This suggests that medical students and doctors should be taught to deliver bad news without delay, to help mitigate their response to this stressful encounter. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Nurses' perspectives on breaking bad news to patients and their families: a qualitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Seyyedeh Roghayeh; Begjani, Jamal; Kaji, Mohammad Akbari; Dopolani, Fatemeh Nemati; Nejati, Amir; Mohammadnejad, Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Breaking bad news is quite often not done in an effective manner in clinical settings due to the medical staff lacking the skills necessary for speaking to patients and their families. Bad news is faced with similar reactions on the part of the news receiver in all cultures and nations. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of Iranian nurses on breaking bad news to patients and their families. In this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. In-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 nurses who had at least one year work experience in the ward, and content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Five major categories emerged from data analysis, including effective communication with patients and their families, preparing the ground for delivering bad news, minimizing the negativity associated with the disease, passing the duty to physicians, and helping patients and their families make logical treatment decisions. The results of this study show that according to the participants, it is the physicians' duty to give bad news, but nurses play an important role in delivering bad news to patients and their companions and should therefore be trained in clinical and communicative skills to be able to give bad news in an appropriate and effective manner.

  19. Good days and bad days in dementia: a qualitative chart review of variable symptom expression.

    PubMed

    Rockwood, Kenneth; Fay, Sherri; Hamilton, Laura; Ross, Elyse; Moorhouse, Paige

    2014-08-01

    Despite its importance in the lived experience of dementia, symptom fluctuation has been little studied outside Lewy body dementia. We aimed to characterize symptom fluctuation in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mixed dementia. A qualitative analysis of health records that included notations on good days and bad days yielded 52 community-dwelling patients (women, n = 30; aged 39-91 years; mild dementia, n = 26, chiefly AD, n = 36). Good days/bad days were most often described as changes in the same core set of symptoms (e.g. less/more verbal repetition). In other cases, only good or only bad days were described (e.g., no bad days, better sense of humor on good days). Good days were typically associated with improved global cognition, function, interest, and initiation. Bad days were associated with frequent verbal repetition, poor memory, increased agitation and other disruptive behaviors. Clinically important variability in symptoms appears common in AD and mixed dementia. Even so, what makes a day "good" is not simply more (or less) of what makes a day "bad". Further investigation of the factors that facilitate or encourage good days and mitigate bad days may help improve quality of life for patients and caregivers.

  20. Association of Pro-apoptotic Bad Gene Expression Changes with Benign Thyroid Nodules.

    PubMed

    Gül, Nurdan; Temel, Berna; Ustek, Duran; Sirma-Ekmekçi, Sema; Kapran, Yersu; Tunca, Fatih; Giles-Şenyürek, Yasemin; Özbek, Uğur; Alagöl, Faruk

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in benign thyroid nodules. Paired samples of nodular and normal tissues were collected from 26 patients with nodular goiters undergoing thyroidectomy. Variable expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Bad genes were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Expression level of Bad gene in nodules was found to be significantly decreased compared to normal tissues (p=0.049). A positive correlation was observed between nodule size and Bad expression levels (correlation coefficient=0.563, p=0.004); and this correlation was stronger in hot nodules (n=18, correlation coefficient=0.689, p=0.003). No significant difference was observed between nodular and normal tissue expressions of Bax and Bcl-2. These results suggest that Bad expression correlates with the size of benign thyroid nodules and also its relatively lower expression in nodules, warrant further investigation. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a...

  13. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  14. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  15. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  16. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  17. [Breaking Bad News to Cancer Patients: Content, Communication Preferences and Psychological Distress].

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Claudia; Gorba, Claudia; Oechsle, Karin; Vehling, Sigrun; Koch, Uwe; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Breaking bad news can be a very distressing situation for both patients and physicians. Physician communication behavior should therefore match patients' communication preferences. The aim of this study was to characterize the content of bad news from the patients' perspective. Patients' preferences for communication of bad news as well as the fit to communication behavior displayed by physicians were also investigated. Finally, consequences of a mismatch between patients' preferences and physician communication were investigated in relation to psychological distress in patients. Methods The sample consisted of N=270 cancer patients (mean age=56.8 years, 48% female) with various cancer entities and different stages of disease (n=115 patients with early stage of cancer, n=155 patients with advanced cancer). The content of bad news was assessed with a specifically developed list of questions. The Measure of Patients' Preferences Scale (MPP) was used to assess patients' preferences for communication of bad news. Patients further completed the NCCN Distress Thermometer (cancer specific distress), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS- anxiety and depression) and the Demoralization Scale (DS-Scale) to gain information about psychological distress. Results Patients with early stage breast cancer received bad news M=1.6 times (SD=1.1, range: 1-5), patients with advanced cancers M=2.1 times (SD=1.6, range: 1-12). For 77% of early stage cancer patients and 70% of advanced cancer patients, the subjectively worst consultation was receiving the diagnosis and discussing treatment options. Patients' most important communication preferences were physicians' clinical competence and patient-centered communication, clear and direct communication and asking about patients information preferences. Patients in advanced stages report significantly more (29%) unmet communication needs than patients' in early stages (20%; p<0.01). Breaking bad news without considering

  18. PKC-ι promotes glioblastoma cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting BAD through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Desai, S; Pillai, P; Win-Piazza, H; Acevedo-Duncan, M

    2011-06-01

    The focus of this research was to investigate the role of protein kinase C-iota (PKC-ι) in regulation of Bad, a pro-apoptotic BH3-only molecule of the Bcl-2 family in glioblastoma. Robust expression of PKC-ι is a hallmark of human glioma and benign and malignant meningiomas. The results were obtained from the two human glial tumor derived cell lines, T98G and U87MG. In these cells, PKC-ι co-localized and directly associated with Bad, as shown by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting. Furthermore, in-vitro kinase activity assay showed that PKC-ι directly phosphorylated Bad at phospho specific residues, Ser-112, Ser-136 and Ser-155 which in turn induced inactivation of Bad and disruption of Bad/Bcl-XL dimer. Knockdown of PKC-ι by siRNA exhibited a corresponding reduction in Bad phosphorylation suggesting that PKC-ι may be a Bad kinase. PKC-ι knockdown also induced apoptosis in both the cell lines. Since, PKC-ι is an essential downstream mediator of the PI (3)-kinase, we hypothesize that glioma cell survival is mediated via a PI (3)-kinase/PDK1/PKC-ι/Bad pathway. Treatment with PI (3)-kinase inhibitors Wortmannin and LY294002, as well as PDK1 siRNA, inhibited PKC-ι activity and subsequent phosphorylation of Bad suggesting that PKC-ι regulates the activity of Bad in a PI (3)-kinase dependent manner. Thus, our data suggest that glioma cell survival occurs through a novel PI (3)-kinase/PDK1/PKC-ι/BAD mediated pathway. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cholesterol: The Good, the Bad, and the Unhealthy | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Good, the Bad, and the Unhealthy Follow us Cholesterol: The Good, the Bad, and the Unhealthy We ... and Blood Institute and MedlinePlus. What is good cholesterol? There are two main types of cholesterol: “good” ...

  20. Usefulness of Guided Breathing for Dose Rate-Regulated Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Han-Oh, Sarah; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, MD; Yi, Byong Yong

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of guided breathing for dose rate-regulated tracking (DRRT), a new technique to compensate for intrafraction tumor motion. Methods and Materials: DRRT uses a preprogrammed multileaf collimator sequence that tracks the tumor motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography and the corresponding breathing signals measured before treatment. Because the multileaf collimator speed can be controlled by adjusting the dose rate, the multileaf collimator positions are adjusted in real time during treatment by dose rate regulation, thereby maintaining synchrony with the tumor motion. DRRT treatment was simulated with free, audio-guided, and audiovisual-guided breathing signals acquired from 23 lungmore » cancer patients. The tracking error and duty cycle for each patient were determined as a function of the system time delay (range, 0-1.0 s). Results: The tracking error and duty cycle averaged for all 23 patients was 1.9 {+-} 0.8 mm and 92% {+-} 5%, 1.9 {+-} 1.0 mm and 93% {+-} 6%, and 1.8 {+-} 0.7 mm and 92% {+-} 6% for the free, audio-guided, and audiovisual-guided breathing, respectively, for a time delay of 0.35 s. The small differences in both the tracking error and the duty cycle with guided breathing were not statistically significant. Conclusion: DRRT by its nature adapts well to variations in breathing frequency, which is also the motivation for guided-breathing techniques. Because of this redundancy, guided breathing does not result in significant improvements for either the tracking error or the duty cycle when DRRT is used for real-time tumor tracking.« less

  1. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…

  2. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... taken at the connection point to the distribution system— (1) Every 6 months; and (2) After every repair or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked before... commencement of diving operations, at the umbilical or underwater breathing apparatus connection point for the...

  3. Breathing efficiency during inspiratory threshold loading in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Baarends, E M; Schols, A M; Nusmeier, C M; van der Grinten, C P; Wouters, E F

    1998-05-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrate an increased oxygen cost of breathing. It is as yet unclear whether this is related to a decreased breathing efficiency. The aim of the present study was to compare breathing efficiency in 16 patients with COPD (11 men, five women) and 16 healthy elderly subjects (seven men, nine women), and to investigate a possible relationship between breathing efficiency and resting energy expenditure (REE). REE was measured using a ventilated hood system. Breathing efficiency was assessed by measuring oxygen consumption (V'O2), mean inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) and flow during breathing at rest and subsequently during breathing against an inspiratory threshold (40% of maximal inspiratory pressure). During loaded breathing there was a significant increase in V'O2, MIP, and external work of breathing compared with unloaded breathing in both groups. As intended, ventilation did not increase significantly during the breathing efficiency test in the patients with COPD. The breathing efficiency (median, range) of the patients with COPD was similar (3.7%, 1.4-8.7%) to that of the healthy elderly subjects (3.2%, 1.7-8.3%). Breathing efficiency was not correlated with REE in either group. In the present study, in which dynamic hyperinflation was probably prevented, no difference in breathing efficiency was found between healthy elderly subjects and COPD patients when breathing against an external inspiratory threshold. Furthermore, breathing efficiency was not related to REE in both groups.

  4. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Friday, June 29, 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... study in the September/October issue of General Dentistry, the Academy?xml:namespace> of General Dentistry?xml: ...

  5. [Construction and expression of recombinant lentiviral vectors of AKT2,PDK1 and BAD].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Chen, Bo-Jiang; Huang, Na; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-03-01

    To construct human protein kinase B (ATK2), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and bcl-2-associated death protein (BAD) lentiviral expression vector, and to determine their expressions in 293T cells. Total RNA was extracted from lung cancer tissues. The full-length coding regions of human ATK2, BAD and PDK1 cDNA were amplified via RT-PCR using specific primers, subcloned into PGEM-Teasy and then sequenced for confirmation. The full-length coding sequence was cut out with a specific restriction enzyme digest and subclone into pCDF1-MCS2-EF1-copGFP. The plasmids were transfected into 293T cells using the calcium phosphate method. The over expression of AKT2, BAD and PDK1 were detected by Western blot. AKT2, PDK1 and BAD were subcloned into pCDF1-MCS2-EF1-copGFP, with an efficiency of transfection of 100%, 95%, and 90% respectively. The virus titers were 6.7 x 10(6) PFU/mL in the supernatant. After infection, the proteins of AKT2, PDK1 and BAD were detected by Western blot. The lentivial vector pCDF1-MCS2-EF1-copGFP containing AKT2, BAD and PDK1 were successfully constructed and expressed in 293T cells.

  6. Role, perspective and knowledge of Iranian critical care nurses about breaking bad news.

    PubMed

    Imanipour, Masoomeh; Karim, Zahra; Bahrani, Naser

    2016-05-01

    Given the issue of caring critically ill patients, nurses are involved in the process of breaking bad news in critical care units, while little research has been conducted on this challenging issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the role, perspective and knowledge of Iranian critical care nurses regarding breaking bad news. This descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 160 nurses working in critical care units of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Stratified and quota sampling methods were used. The data collection tool was a four-part questionnaire with validity and reliability confirmed via content validity and test-retest, respectively. The study showed that most critical care nurses were involved in breaking bad news, with different roles. The majority of participants (91.2%) had a positive attitude towards involvement of nurses in breaking bad news. In this study, 78.8% of nurses had moderate knowledge about how to break bad news, and only a few had good level of knowledge (16.2%). According to the findings, while critical care nurses took different roles in the process of breaking bad news and they had positive attitude towards participation in this process, yet their knowledge about this process was inadequate. Thus, designing educational programmes to enhance critical care nurses' knowledge and skills in this area seems necessary. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sivathamboo, Shobi; Perucca, Piero; Velakoulis, Dennis; Jones, Nigel C; Goldin, Jeremy; Kwan, Patrick; O'Brien, Terence J

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is a group of neurological conditions in which there is a pathological and enduring predisposition to generate recurrent seizures. Evidence over the last few decades suggests that epilepsy may be associated with increased sleep-disordered breathing, which may contribute towards sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, reduced seizure control, and cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Chronic sleep-disordered breathing can result in loss of gray matter and cause deficits to memory and global cognitive function. Sleep-disordered breathing is a novel and independent predictor of sudden cardiac death and, as such, may be involved in the mechanisms leading to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Despite this, the long-term consequences of sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy remain unknown, and there are no guidelines for screening or treating this population. There is currently insufficient evidence to indicate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and recent evidence has failed to show any reduction of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints. Treatment of sleep-disordered breathing may potentially improve seizure control, daytime somnolence, and neurocognitive outcomes, but few studies have examined this relationship. In this review, we examine sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy, and discuss the potential effect of epilepsy treatments. We consider the role of CPAP and other interventions for sleep-disordered breathing and discuss their implications for epilepsy management.

  8. A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

  9. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  10. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... valves in an open position and reducing mechanical dead space and resistance in the breathing circuit. (b...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868.5250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... valves in an open position and reducing mechanical dead space and resistance in the breathing circuit. (b...

  12. Control of gill ventilation and air-breathing in the bowfin amia calva

    PubMed

    Hedrick; Jones

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of branchial and gas bladder reflex pathways in the control of gill ventilation and air-breathing in the bowfin Amia calva. We have previously determined that bowfin use two distinct air-breathing mechanisms to ventilate the gas bladder: type I air breaths are characterized by exhalation followed by inhalation, are stimulated by aquatic or aerial hypoxia and appear to regulate O2 gas exchange; type II air breaths are characterized by inhalation alone and possibly regulate gas bladder volume and buoyancy. In the present study, we test the hypotheses (1) that gill ventilation and type I air breaths are controlled by O2-sensitive chemoreceptors located in the branchial region, and (2) that type II air breaths are controlled by gas bladder mechanosensitive stretch receptors. Hypothesis 1 was tested by examining the effects of partial or complete branchial denervation of cranial nerves IX and X to the gill arches on gill ventilation frequency (fg) and the proportion of type I air breaths during normoxia and hypoxia; hypothesis II was tested by gas bladder inflation and deflation. Following complete bilateral branchial denervation, fg did not differ from that of sham-operated control fish; in addition, fg was not significantly affected by aquatic hypoxia in sham-operated or denervated fish. In sham-operated fish, aquatic hypoxia significantly increased overall air-breathing frequency (fab) and the percentage of type I breaths. In fish with complete IX-X branchial denervation, fab was also significantly increased during aquatic hypoxia, but there were equal percentages of type I and type II air breaths. Branchial denervation did not affect the frequency of type I air breaths during aquatic hypoxia. Gas bladder deflation via an indwelling catheter resulted in type II breaths almost exclusively; furthermore, fab was significantly correlated with the volume removed from the gas bladder, suggesting a volume

  13. Hollywood Science: Good for Hollywood, Bad for Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2009-03-01

    Like it or not, most science depicted in feature films is in the form of science fiction. This isn't likely to change any time soon, if only because science fiction films are huge moneymakers for Hollywood. But beyond that, these films are a powerful cultural force. They reach millions as they depict scientific ideas from DNA and cloning to space science, whether correctly or incorrectly; reflect contemporary issues of science and society like climate change, nuclear power and biowarfare; inspire young people to become scientists; and provide defining images -- or stereotypes -- of scientists for the majority of people who've never met a real one. Certainly, most scientists feel that screen depictions of science and scientists are badly distorted. Many are, but not always. In this talk, based on my book Hollywood Science [1], I'll show examples of good and bad screen treatments of science, scientists, and their impact on society. I'll also discuss efforts to improve how science is treated in film and ways to use even bad movie science to convey real science. [4pt] [1] Sidney Perkowitz, Hollywood Science: Movies, Science, and the End of the World (Columbia University Press, New York, 2007). ISBN: 978-0231142809

  14. The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Marc A.; Santarelli, Danielle M.; O’Rourke, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Slow breathing practices have been adopted in the modern world across the globe due to their claimed health benefits. This has piqued the interest of researchers and clinicians who have initiated investigations into the physiological (and psychological) effects of slow breathing techniques and attempted to uncover the underlying mechanisms. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of normal respiratory physiology and the documented physiological effects of slow breathing techniques according to research in healthy humans. The review focuses on the physiological implications to the respiratory, cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory and autonomic nervous systems, with particular focus on diaphragm activity, ventilation efficiency, haemodynamics, heart rate variability, cardiorespiratory coupling, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and sympathovagal balance. The review ends with a brief discussion of the potential clinical implications of slow breathing techniques. This is a topic that warrants further research, understanding and discussion. Key points Slow breathing practices have gained popularity in the western world due to their claimed health benefits, yet remain relatively untouched by the medical community. Investigations into the physiological effects of slow breathing have uncovered significant effects on the respiratory, cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory and autonomic nervous systems. Key findings include effects on respiratory muscle activity, ventilation efficiency, chemoreflex and baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, blood flow dynamics, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cardiorespiratory coupling, and sympathovagal balance. There appears to be potential for use of controlled slow breathing techniques as a means of optimising physiological parameters that appear to be associated with health and longevity, and that may extend to disease states; however, there is a dire need for further research into the area. Educational aims To provide

  15. Automatic bad channel detection in intracranial electroencephalographic recordings using ensemble machine learning.

    PubMed

    Tuyisenge, Viateur; Trebaul, Lena; Bhattacharjee, Manik; Chanteloup-Forêt, Blandine; Saubat-Guigui, Carole; Mîndruţă, Ioana; Rheims, Sylvain; Maillard, Louis; Kahane, Philippe; Taussig, Delphine; David, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings contain "bad channels", which show non-neuronal signals. Here, we developed a new method that automatically detects iEEG bad channels using machine learning of seven signal features. The features quantified signals' variance, spatial-temporal correlation and nonlinear properties. Because the number of bad channels is usually much lower than the number of good channels, we implemented an ensemble bagging classifier known to be optimal in terms of stability and predictive accuracy for datasets with imbalanced class distributions. This method was applied on stereo-electroencephalographic (SEEG) signals recording during low frequency stimulations performed in 206 patients from 5 clinical centers. We found that the classification accuracy was extremely good: It increased with the number of subjects used to train the classifier and reached a plateau at 99.77% for 110 subjects. The classification performance was thus not impacted by the multicentric nature of data. The proposed method to automatically detect bad channels demonstrated convincing results and can be envisaged to be used on larger datasets for automatic quality control of iEEG data. This is the first method proposed to classify bad channels in iEEG and should allow to improve the data selection when reviewing iEEG signals. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Are questionnaires reliable in diagnosing sleep-disordered breathing in university students?

    PubMed

    Migacz, E; Wichniak, A; Kukwa, W

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to screen young adults for sleep-disordered breathing, and compare those with high and low risk for sleep-disordered breathing. A survey based on the Berlin questionnaire was completed by 330 university students, and the results were used to divide them into sleep-disordered breathing positive and sleep-disordered breathing negative groups. A representative group was selected from each cohort (positive group, n = 16; negative group, n = 21), and assessed with sleep study, ENT examination, the Nose Obstruction Symptom Evaluation scale, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep-disordered breathing prevalence was 11.2 per cent in the questionnaire and 24 per cent according to the sleep study. The sleep-disordered breathing positive and negative groups significantly differed in terms of coexisting sleep-disordered breathing symptoms. There were no significant differences between the positive and negative groups with regard to sleep study parameters (apnoea/hypopnoea index, respiratory disturbance index, oxygen desaturation index, snoring intensity) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Subjective and objective diagnostic tools revealed that sleep-disordered breathing is a common problem among young adults.

  17. Active cycle of breathing technique for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mckoy, Naomi A; Wilson, Lisa M; Saldanha, Ian J; Odelola, Olaide A; Robinson, Karen A

    2016-07-05

    People with cystic fibrosis experience chronic airway infections as a result of mucus build up within the lungs. Repeated infections often cause lung damage and disease. Airway clearance therapies aim to improve mucus clearance, increase sputum production, and improve airway function. The active cycle of breathing technique (also known as ACBT) is an airway clearance method that uses a cycle of techniques to loosen airway secretions including breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises, and the forced expiration technique. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the clinical effectiveness of the active cycle of breathing technique with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 25 April 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled clinical studies, including cross-over studies, comparing the active cycle of breathing technique with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. Two review authors independently screened each article, abstracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each study. Our search identified 62 studies, of which 19 (440 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Five randomised controlled studies (192 participants) were included in the meta-analysis; three were of cross-over design. The 14 remaining studies were cross-over studies with inadequate reports for complete assessment. The study size ranged from seven to 65 participants. The age of the participants ranged from six to 63 years (mean age 22.33 years). In 13 studies, follow up lasted a single day. However, there were two long-term randomised controlled studies with follow up of one to three years. Most of the studies did not report on key quality items, and therefore, have an unclear risk of

  18. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Punjabi, Naresh M.; Caffo, Brian S.; Goodwin, James L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Newman, Anne B.; O'Connor, George T.; Rapoport, David M.; Redline, Susan; Resnick, Helaine E.; Robbins, John A.; Shahar, Eyal; Unruh, Mark L.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. Methods and Findings We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women) died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: <5 events/h), the fully adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in those with mild (AHI: 5.0–14.9 events/h), moderate (AHI: 15.0–29.9 events/h), and severe (AHI: ≥30.0 events/h) sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80–1.08), 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97–1.42), and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14–1.86), respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40–70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31–3.33). Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease–related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. Conclusions Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with

  19. BAD overexpression inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis via mitochondrial-dependent pathway in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Luo, Man; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zhang, Wen; Mai, Lin; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Na; Huang, Yi; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2013-06-01

    The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein BAD initiated apoptosis in human cells and has been identified as a prognostic marker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to explore the functions of BAD in NSCLC. Overexpression of BAD was performed by transfecting different NSCLC cell lines with wild-type BAD. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and invasion were characterized in vitro. Tumorigenicity was analyzed in vivo. Western blot was performed to determine the effects of BAD overexpression on the Bcl-2 family proteins and apoptosis-related proteins. Overexpression of BAD significantly inhibited cell proliferation in H1299, H292, and SPC-A1 but not in SK-MES-1 and H460 cell lines in vitro. BAD overexpression also reduced the tumorigenicity of H1299/SPC-A1 cell in vivo. However, no appreciable effects on cell cycle distribution and invasion were observed in all these cell lines. BAD overexpression also induced apoptosis in all cell types, in which process expression of mitochondrial cytochrom c (cyto-c) and caspase 3 were increased, whereas Bcl-xl, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 8 expressions did not changed. These findings indicated that a mitochondrial pathway, in which process cyto-c was released from mitochondrial to activate caspase 3, was involved in BAD overexpression-mediated apoptosis. Our data suggested that increased expression of BAD enhance apoptosis and has negative influence on cell proliferation and tumor growth in NSCLC. Bad is a new potential target for tumor interventions.

  20. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.450 Breathing gas tests. The diving...

  1. Effects of hypercapnia and hypoxemia on fetal breathing after decortication.

    PubMed

    Ioffe, S; Jansen, A H; Chernick, V

    1986-09-01

    The effects of hypercapnia and hypoxemia on breathing movements were studied in 12 chronically decorticated fetal sheep, 127-140 days gestation. The fetal state of consciousness was defined in terms of activity of the lateral rectus and nuchal muscles. Arterial blood pressure was monitored. Fetal breathing was determined by integrated diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMG) and analyzed in terms of inspiratory time (TI), expiratory time (TE), electrical equivalent of tidal volume (EVT), breath interval (TT), duty cycle (TI/TT), mean inspiratory flow equivalent (EVT/TI), and instantaneous ventilation equivalent (EVT/TT). Fetal breathing occurred only during episodes of rapid-eye movements, and the response to hypercapnia consisted of an increase in EVT, TI, EVE, and EVT/TI and a decrease in the coefficient of variation of all measured parameters. Induction of hypoxia during episodes of spontaneous fetal breathing produced a decrease in the rate of breathing and an increase in EVT and TI with no change in the variability of all parameters studied. Since similar responses to hypercapnia and hypoxemia are seen in the intact fetus, we conclude that the cerebral cortex has no obvious effect on the chemical control of fetal breathing.

  2. Breathing Mode in Complex Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, K.; Henning, C.; Ludwig, P.; Bonitz, M.; Melzer, A.; Vitkalov, S.

    2007-11-01

    The breathing mode is a fundamental normal mode present in Coulomb systems, and may have utility in identifying particle charge and the Debye length of certain systems. The question remains whether this mode can be extended to strongly coupled Yukawa balls [1]. These systems are characterized by particles confined within a parabolic potential well and interacting through a shielded Coulomb potential [2,3]. The breathing modes for a variety of systems in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions are computed by solving the eigenvalue problem given by the dynamical (Hesse) matrix. These results are compared to theoretical investigations that assume a strict definition for a breathing mode within the system, and an analysis is made of the most fitting model to utilize in the study of particular systems of complex plasmas [1,4]. References [1] T.E. Sheridan, Phys. of Plasmas. 13, 022106 (2006)[2] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 056403 (2006)[3] M. Bonitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006)[4] C. Henning et al., submitted for publication

  3. Outcome of breath tests in adult patients with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Johanna; Minaya, Maria Teresa; Monegro, Milka; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne K.; Green, Peter HR; Stenberg, Reidun

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate breath test outcomes in patients with suspected SIBO and indicative symptoms of SIBO, diagnosed by breath testing. Background: Breath testing is used to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by measuring hydrogen and methane produced by intestinal bacteria. Methods: This retrospective cross sectional study included 311 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who underwent the breath test for evaluation of SIBO at Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, New York, in 2014-2015. The patients were divided into two groups based on the physician’s choice: lactulose breath test group (72%) and glucose breath test group (28%). Among them, 38% had a history of celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Results: In total, 46% had a positive breath test: 18% were positive for methane, 24 % positive for hydrogen and 4% positive for both gases (p=0.014). Also, 50% had a positive lactulose breath result and 37% had a positive glucose breath result (p=0.036). The most common symptom for performing the breath test was bloating and the only clinical symptom that significantly showed a positive glucose breath test was increased gas (p=0.028). Conclusion: Lactulose breath test was more often positive than glucose breath test. Positivity for hydrogen was more common than methane. Bloating was the most frequently perceived symptom of the patients undergoing the breath test but the only statistically significant clinical symptom for a positive glucose breath test was increased gas. Furthermore, the results showed that there was no significant association between positive breath test result and gender, age, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or celiac disease. PMID:29118931

  4. The technology behind Colgate Total Advanced Fresh.

    PubMed

    Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    In the early 1990s, a breakthrough toothpaste, Colgate Total, was launched with documented long-lasting activity against plaque, gingivitis, calculus, tooth decay, and bad breath. The technology behind this toothpaste is the combination of triclosan, a polyvinylmethylether/maleic acid copolymer, and sodium fluoride. The copolymer ensures maximal oral retention and subsequent release of the antibacterial triclosan. Effective levels of triclosan have been observed in the oral cavity 12 hours after brushing the teeth, allowing prolonged control of oral bacteria that may cause the most common dental problems, including bad breath. Similarly, the enhanced retention of triclosan to oral surfaces after using this revolutionary toothpaste for up to 2 years has led to significantly reduced incremental coronal caries compared to an American Dental Association-Approved anticavity fluoride toothpaste. Furthermore, significantly less calcium remained in dental plaque after brushing the teeth with the triclosan/copolymer toothpaste, resulting in the formation of less tartar. In keeping with the multiple oral health benefits provided by Colgate Total, consumers are now offered a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, which provides the numerous therapeutic and esthetic benefits that are the hallmark of Colgate Total. The new dentifrice, which contains an impactful breath-freshening flavor, has been documented to provide sustained control of bad breath over 12 hours.

  5. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  6. Breath analysis with broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers.

    PubMed

    Wörle, Katharina; Seichter, Felicia; Wilk, Andreas; Armacost, Chris; Day, Tim; Godejohann, Matthias; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-05

    With the availability of broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs), particularly bright mid-infrared (MIR; 3-20 μm) light sources are available offering high spectral brightness along with an analytically relevant spectral tuning range of >2 μm. Accurate isotope ratio determination of (12)CO2 and (13)CO2 in exhaled breath is of critical importance in the field of breath analysis, which may be addressed via measurements in the MIR spectral regime. Here, we combine for the first time an EC-QCL tunable across the (12)CO2/(13)CO2 spectral band with a miniaturized hollow waveguide gas cell for quantitatively determining the (12)CO2/(13)CO2 ratio within the exhaled breath of mice. Due to partially overlapping spectral features, these studies are augmented by appropriate multivariate data evaluation and calibration techniques based on partial least-squares regression along with optimized data preprocessing. Highly accurate determinations of the isotope ratio within breath samples collected from a mouse intensive care unit validated via hyphenated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirm the viability of IR-HWG-EC-QCL sensing techniques for isotope-selective exhaled breath analysis.

  7. New optical analyzer for 13C-breath test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Dressler, Matthias; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich

    2008-04-01

    Medical breath tests are well established diagnostic tools, predominantly for gastroenterological inspections, but also for many other examinations. Since the composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflect the physical condition of a patient, a breath analysis allows one to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that is based on photoacoustic spectroscopy and uses a DFB diode laser at 2.744 μm. The concentration ratio of the CO II isotopologues is determined by measuring the absorption on a 13CO II line in comparison to a 12CO II line. In the specially selected spectral range the lines have similar strengths, although the concentrations differ by a factor of 90. Therefore, the signals are well comparable. Due to an excellent signal-noise-ratio isotope variations of less than 1% can be resolved as required for the breath test.

  8. A simple, remote, video based breathing monitor.

    PubMed

    Regev, Nir; Wulich, Dov

    2017-07-01

    Breathing monitors have become the all-important cornerstone of a wide variety of commercial and personal safety applications, ranging from elderly care to baby monitoring. Many such monitors exist in the market, some, with vital signs monitoring capabilities, but none remote. This paper presents a simple, yet efficient, real time method of extracting the subject's breathing sinus rhythm. Points of interest are detected on the subject's body, and the corresponding optical flow is estimated and tracked using the well known Lucas-Kanade algorithm on a frame by frame basis. A generalized likelihood ratio test is then utilized on each of the many interest points to detect which is moving in harmonic fashion. Finally, a spectral estimation algorithm based on Pisarenko harmonic decomposition tracks the harmonic frequency in real time, and a fusion maximum likelihood algorithm optimally estimates the breathing rate using all points considered. The results show a maximal error of 1 BPM between the true breathing rate and the algorithm's calculated rate, based on experiments on two babies and three adults.

  9. Changes in respiratory activity induced by mastication during oral breathing in humans.

    PubMed

    Daimon, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effect of oral breathing on respiratory movements, including the number of respirations and the movement of the thoracic wall at rest and while chewing gum. Forty normal nose breathers were selected by detecting expiratory airflow from the mouth using a CO2 sensor. Chest measurements were recorded using a Piezo respiratory belt transducer, and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and trapezius muscles were recorded at rest and while chewing gum during nasal or oral breathing. Oral breathing was introduced by completely occluding the nostrils with a nose clip. During oral breathing, the respiration rate was significantly lower while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). While chewing gum, the respiration rate was significantly lower during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). During oral breathing, thoracic movement was significantly higher while chewing gum than while at rest (P < 0.05). Thoracic movement was significantly greater during oral breathing than during nasal breathing (P < 0.05). The trapezius muscle exhibited significant EMG activity when chewing gum during oral breathing. The activity of the trapezius muscle coincided with increased movement of the thoracic wall. Chewing food while breathing through the mouth interferes with and decreases the respiratory cycle and promotes unusual respiratory movement of the thoracic wall, which is directed by the activity of accessory muscles of respiration. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Sex differences in sleep disordered breathing in adults.

    PubMed

    Lozo, Tijana; Komnenov, Dragana; Badr, M Safwan; Mateika, Jason H

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing is greater in men compared to women. This disparity could be due to sex differences in the diagnosis and presentation of sleep apnea, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that instigate this disorder. Women tend to report more non-typical symptoms of sleep apnea compared to men, and the presentation of apneic events are more prevalent in rapid compared to non-rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, there is evidence of sex differences in upper airway structure and mechanics and in neural mechanisms that impact on the control of breathing. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature that addresses sex differences in sleep-disordered breathing, and to discuss the influence that upper airway mechanics, chemoreflex properties, and sex hormones have in modulating breathing during sleep in men and women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Breathing multichimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yusuke; Okuda, Koji

    2018-04-01

    Chimera states for the one-dimensional array of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators in the continuum limit are assumed to be stationary states in most studies, but a few studies report the existence of breathing chimera states. We focus on multichimera states with two coherent and incoherent regions and numerically demonstrate that breathing multichimera states, whose global order parameter oscillates temporally, can appear. Moreover, we show that the system exhibits a Hopf bifurcation from a stationary multichimera to a breathing one by the linear stability analysis for the stationary multichimera.

  12. Spike-Timing of Orbitofrontal Neurons Is Synchronized With Breathing.

    PubMed

    Kőszeghy, Áron; Lasztóczi, Bálint; Forro, Thomas; Klausberger, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in a multiplicity of complex brain functions, including representations of expected outcome properties, post-decision confidence, momentary food-reward values, complex flavors and odors. As breathing rhythm has an influence on odor processing at primary olfactory areas, we tested the hypothesis that it may also influence neuronal activity in the OFC, a prefrontal area involved also in higher order processing of odors. We recorded spike timing of orbitofrontal neurons as well as local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice, together with the breathing rhythm. We observed that a large majority of orbitofrontal neurons showed robust phase-coupling to breathing during immobility and running. The phase coupling of action potentials to breathing was significantly stronger in orbitofrontal neurons compared to cells in the medial prefrontal cortex. The characteristic synchronization of orbitofrontal neurons with breathing might provide a temporal framework for multi-variable processing of olfactory, gustatory and reward-value relationships.

  13. Breaking Bad Habits: Teaching Effective PowerPoint Use to Working Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Gretchen N.

    2004-01-01

    One interesting aspect of teaching students to use PowerPoint and similar graphics packages effectively is that graduate students who are already in the workforce often have bad presentation habits that they need to break. In this article, the author discusses ways of breaking these bad habits. Using storyboards is one way to keep students from…

  14. When Good People Happen to Bad Things: Student Learning in Unfortunate Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shushok, Frank, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Everyone at some point has asked the question "Why do bad things happen to good people? Even while asking it, most know that finding an answer to this question is not likely in their future. People's best responsible action, then, is to manage their risks to prevent future bad things from occurring, to the greatest extent possible. Risk…

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Periodic Breathing and Very Long Apnea in Preterm Infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Mary A.

    Electronic signals from bedside monitors in University of Virginia's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are routinely collected and stored. The overall goal of our research is predictive monitoring: we seek patterns in signals that give early warning of impending pathology. This work focuses on apnea (pauses in regular respiration), and on periodic breathing (regular cycles of breathing and apnea). Our examination of apnea events revealed a disturbing number of cases in which the cessation of breathing lasted at least 60 seconds. These observations were validated, clinical correlations of these events were identified, and a theory was developed that partially explains how they occur. Periodic breathing in neonates is a normal developmental phenomenon. It arises when there is instability in the respiratory control system. A mathematical model of periodic breathing was developed to analyze the stability of the control system in infants. Periodic breathing has long been thought to be benign, however, exaggerated durations of periodic breathing may be an indicator of pathology. Characterization of periodic breathing has previously been limited to short monitoring times in small numbers of infants. An automated system for measurement and characterization of periodic breathing was developed and applied to 5 years of data from the NICU. The amount of periodic breathing that infants had was found to increase with gestational age (up to 32 weeks). Also, times of excessive periodic breathing were recorded and clinical correlations were sought. A significant increase in periodic breathing in the 24 hours before diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis was found.

  16. How bad is bile acid diarrhoea: an online survey of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bannaga, Ayman; Kelman, Lawrence; O'Connor, Michelle; Pitchford, Claire; Walters, Julian R F; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an underdiagnosed condition producing diarrhoea, urgency and fear of faecal incontinence. How patients experience these symptoms has not previously been studied. Bile Acid Malabsorption (BAM) Support UK was established in 2015 as a national charity with objectives including to provide details regarding how BAD affects patients, to improve earlier recognition and clinical management. Design, setting and main outcome A questionnaire was collected anonymously by BAM Support UK and the Bile Salt Malabsorption Facebook group over 4 weeks at the end of 2015. It comprised 56 questions and aimed to inform patients and clinicians about how BAD affects the respondents. Results The first 100 responses were analysed. 91% of the respondents reported a diagnosis of BAD. 58% of total respondents diagnosed following a Selenium-homocholic acid taurine scan, 69% were diagnosed by a gastroenterologist, with type 2 and 3 BAD comprising 38% and 37%, respectively, of total respondents. Symptoms had been experienced for more than 5 years before diagnosis in 44% of respondents. Following treatment, usually with bile acid sequestrants, 60% of participants reported improvement of diarrhoea and most reported their mental health has been positively impacted. Just over half of the cohort felt as though their symptoms had been dismissed during clinical consultations and 28% felt their GPs were unaware of BAD. Conclusions BAD requires more recognition by clinicians to address the current delays in diagnosis. Treatment improves physical and mental symptoms in the majority of participants. PMID:28123771

  17. How bad is bile acid diarrhoea: an online survey of patient-reported symptoms and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bannaga, Ayman; Kelman, Lawrence; O'Connor, Michelle; Pitchford, Claire; Walters, Julian R F; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P

    2017-01-01

    Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an underdiagnosed condition producing diarrhoea, urgency and fear of faecal incontinence. How patients experience these symptoms has not previously been studied. Bile Acid Malabsorption (BAM) Support UK was established in 2015 as a national charity with objectives including to provide details regarding how BAD affects patients, to improve earlier recognition and clinical management. A questionnaire was collected anonymously by BAM Support UK and the Bile Salt Malabsorption Facebook group over 4 weeks at the end of 2015. It comprised 56 questions and aimed to inform patients and clinicians about how BAD affects the respondents. The first 100 responses were analysed. 91% of the respondents reported a diagnosis of BAD. 58% of total respondents diagnosed following a Selenium-homocholic acid taurine scan, 69% were diagnosed by a gastroenterologist, with type 2 and 3 BAD comprising 38% and 37%, respectively, of total respondents. Symptoms had been experienced for more than 5 years before diagnosis in 44% of respondents. Following treatment, usually with bile acid sequestrants, 60% of participants reported improvement of diarrhoea and most reported their mental health has been positively impacted. Just over half of the cohort felt as though their symptoms had been dismissed during clinical consultations and 28% felt their GPs were unaware of BAD. BAD requires more recognition by clinicians to address the current delays in diagnosis. Treatment improves physical and mental symptoms in the majority of participants.

  18. 48 CFR 2131.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 2131.205-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-3 Bad debts. Erroneous benefit... the erroneous overpayment or it would not be cost effective to recover the erroneous overpayment. The...

  19. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  20. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  1. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  2. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  3. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  4. Impact of Breathing 100% Oxygen on Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Payne, Valerie; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Walb, Matthew C.; Munley, Michael T.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2015-01-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O2 for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O2) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O2 received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O2 was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. PMID:25338095

  5. Pigeons can discriminate "good" and "bad" paintings by children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Humans have the unique ability to create art, but non-human animals may be able to discriminate "good" art from "bad" art. In this study, I investigated whether pigeons could be trained to discriminate between paintings that had been judged by humans as either "bad" or "good". To do this, adult human observers first classified several children's paintings as either "good" (beautiful) or "bad" (ugly). Using operant conditioning procedures, pigeons were then reinforced for pecking at "good" paintings. After the pigeons learned the discrimination task, they were presented with novel pictures of both "good" and "bad" children's paintings to test whether they had successfully learned to discriminate between these two stimulus categories. The results showed that pigeons could discriminate novel "good" and "bad" paintings. Then, to determine which cues the subjects used for the discrimination, I conducted tests of the stimuli when the paintings were of reduced size or grayscale. In addition, I tested their ability to discriminate when the painting stimuli were mosaic and partial occluded. The pigeons maintained discrimination performance when the paintings were reduced in size. However, discrimination performance decreased when stimuli were presented as grayscale images or when a mosaic effect was applied to the original stimuli in order to disrupt spatial frequency. Thus, the pigeons used both color and pattern cues for their discrimination. The partial occlusion did not disrupt the discriminative behavior suggesting that the pigeons did not attend to particular parts, namely upper, lower, left or right half, of the paintings. These results suggest that the pigeons are capable of learning the concept of a stimulus class that humans name "good" pictures. The second experiment showed that pigeons learned to discriminate watercolor paintings from pastel paintings. The subjects showed generalization to novel paintings. Then, as the first experiment, size reduction test

  6. Effects of breathing pattern and inspired air conditions on breath condensate volume, pH, nitrite, and protein concentrations.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, J B; Bradshaw, T A; Tate, S; Greening, A P; Innes, J A

    2004-08-01

    The effects of breathing pattern and inspired air conditions on the volume and content of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were investigated. Total exhaled water (TEW), EBC volume, pH, nitrite and protein concentrations were measured in three groups of 10 healthy subjects breathing into a condenser at different target minute ventilations (Vm), tidal volumes (Vt), and inspired air conditions. The volumes of both TEW and EBC increased significantly with Vm. For Vm 7.5, 15 and 22.5 l/min, mean (SD) EBC was 627 (258) microl, 1019 (313) microl, and 1358 (364) microl, respectively (p<0.001) and TEW was 1879 (378) microl, 2986 (496) microl, and 4679 (700) microl, respectively (p<0.001). TEW was significantly higher than EBC, reflecting a condenser efficiency of 40% at a target Vm of 7.5 l/min which reduced to 29% at Vm 22.5 l/min. Lower Vt gave less TEW than higher Vt (26.6 v 30.7 microl/l, mean difference 4.1 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.6), p<0.001) and a smaller EBC volume (4.3 v 7.6 microl/l, mean difference 3.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.5), p<0.001). Cooler and drier inspired air yielded less water vapour and less breath condensate than standard conditions (p<0.05). Changes in the breathing pattern had no effect on EBC protein and nitrite concentrations and pH. These results show that condensate volume can be increased by using high Vt and increased Vm without compromising the dilution of the sample.

  7. Oral prophylaxis and its effects on halitosis-associated and inflammatory parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Guentsch, A; Pfister, W; Cachovan, G; Raschke, G; Kuepper, H; Schaefer, O; Eick, S

    2014-08-01

    A controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of oral prophylaxis on halitosis-associated, immunological and microbiological parameters. Thirty subjects were included in this controlled clinical trial (patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and controls without clinical attachment loss; each n = 15). Before oral prophylaxis and 14 days after (including tongue cleaning) volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), organoleptic scores and a tongue coating index were evaluated. The levels of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and MMP-8 were measured in GCF, and also major periodontal pathogens were detected. Data were statistically analysed using anova and paired t-test. Supragingival plaque and calculus removal with combined tongue cleaning was able to reduce significantly (P < 0.05) the VSC values in both groups (no significant differences between both groups). Two weeks after periodontal debridement, the VSC values were observed in the periodontitis group, but not in the control group, similar to the baseline values. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Only a repeated prophylaxis session in the periodontitis group was able to reduce VSC values significantly in comparison with baseline (P < 0.05). Organoleptic scores (10 and 30 cm) were significantly different (P < 0.05) between both groups before and after the treatment. Periodontal pathogens and host-derived markers were not significantly affected by a single prophylaxis session. Oral prophylaxis may result in a significant decrease in VSC values. However, in periodontal diseases, a more complex treatment seems to be necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Improved ROS defense in the swimbladder of a facultative air-breathing erythrinid fish, jeju, compared to a non-air-breathing close relative, traira.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2016-07-01

    The jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and the traira Hoplias malabaricus are two closely related erythrinid fish, both possessing a two-chambered physostomous swimbladder. In the jeju the anterior section of the posterior bladder is highly vascularized and the swimbladder is used for aerial respiration; the traira, in turn, is a water-breather that uses the swimbladder as a buoyancy organ and not for aerial oxygen uptake. Observation of the breathing behavior under different levels of water oxygenation revealed that the traira started aquatic surface respiration only under severe hypoxic conditions and did not breathe air. In the jeju air-breathing behavior was observed under normoxic conditions, and the frequency of air-breathing was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Unexpectedly, even under hyperoxic conditions (30 mg O2 L(-1)) the jeju continued to take air breaths, and compared with normoxic conditions the frequency was not reduced. Because the frequently air-exposed swimbladder tissue faces higher oxygen partial pressures than normally experienced by other fish tissues, it was hypothesized that in the facultative air-breathing jeju, swimbladder tissue would have a higher antioxidative capacity than the swimbladder tissue of the water breathing traira. Measurement of total glutathione (GSSG/GSH) concentration in anterior and posterior swimbladder tissue revealed a higher concentration of this antioxidant in swimbladder tissue as compared to muscle tissue in the jeju. Furthermore, the GSSG/GSH concentration in jeju tissues was significantly higher than in traira tissues. Similarly, activities of enzymes involved in the breakdown of reactive oxygen species were significantly higher in the jeju swimbladder as compared to the traira swimbladder. The results show that the jeju, using the swimbladder as an additional breathing organ, has an enhanced antioxidative capacity in the swimbladder as compared to the traira, using the swimbladder only as a

  9. U.S. Literacy Level Not Bad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Fred Hechinger, assistant editor of "The New York Times" editorial page, states that the teaching of literacy is not as bad as the media say, nor so good as the experts in English claim. Here he evaluates the importance of reading and writing and makes some suggestions for improving attitudes towards television. He also invites teachers to join in…

  10. A Bad Day for Sandy Dayton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duch, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    Presents a rear-end car accident scenario to teach about forces and kinetic energy in a problem-based learning format. Includes four parts: (1) "A Bad Day for Sandy Dayton"; (2) "The Emergency Room"; (3) "The Facts of the Case"; and (4) "Judgement Day". Discusses the major issues of the questions, introduces scientific concepts, and initiates…

  11. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO3 gas sensors

    PubMed Central

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel; Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO3 nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone (~20 ppb) with short response (10–15 s) and recovery times (35–70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80–90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques. PMID:22790702

  12. Breath-by-breath analysis of expiratory gas concentration in chickens.

    PubMed

    Itabisashi, T

    1981-01-01

    Expiratory oxygen and carbon-dioxide concentration were analysed breath by breath in order to examine their wave forms in adult awake hens restrained in various postural positions, including supine, prone and sitting positions. Expired gas was collected at the nostril in almost all the hens. In the sitting position free from vocalization, feeding, drinking, panting, and restlessness, hens showed various forms of stable pattern of oxygen-gas curves. These forms were classified into three types, or the ascending, flat and descending types, with respect to the plateau inclination. The waves of carbon-dioxide were not always a mirror image of those of oxygen. The rate of occurrence of each type varied with the hen's postural position. The wave form was altered with the experimental body-rotation of the hen. When placed between the deflections of stable pattern, the episodes of wave deformation resembling that seen at the time of uneven pulmonary ventilation in mammals could frequently be observed in any hen's posture examined. Cardiogenic oscillation appeared on the plateau of expired-gas curves.

  13. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  14. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  15. Breath measurement instrumentation as alcohol safety interlock systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-09-01

    This report describes the results of field tests of in-car instruments which measure alcohol on the driver's breath and prevent him from operating his vehicle if intoxicated. Two types of breath alcohol sensors were used for these tests; a fuel-cell ...

  16. Communicating Bad News to Patients

    PubMed Central

    Premi, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on doctor/patient communication, emphasizing the communication of bad news. Available information supports the view that patients want more information than they generally receive and that, contrary to popular belief, patients who are better informed benefit from the information they receive. Physicians are seen as taking a less professional approach to communication activities than to clinical problem solving. Some strategies for approaching the problems identified are outlined. PMID:11650449

  17. Solid-state gas sensors for breath analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Martinelli, Eugenio; Capuano, Rosamaria

    2014-05-08

    The analysis of volatile compounds is an efficient method to appraise information about the chemical composition of liquids and solids. This principle is applied to several practical applications, such as food analysis where many important features (e.g. freshness) can be directly inferred from the analysis of volatile compounds. The same approach can also be applied to a human body where the volatile compounds, collected from the skin, the breath or in the headspace of fluids, might contain information that could be used to diagnose several kinds of diseases. In particular, breath is widely studied and many diseases can be potentially detected from breath analysis. The most fascinating property of breath analysis is the non-invasiveness of the sample collection. Solid-state sensors are considered the natural complement to breath analysis, matching the non-invasiveness with typical sensor features such as low-cost, easiness of use, portability, and the integration with the information networks. Sensors based breath analysis is then expected to dramatically extend the diagnostic capabilities enabling the screening of large populations for the early diagnosis of pathologies. In the last years there has been an increased attention to the development of sensors specifically aimed to this purpose. These investigations involve both specific sensors designed to detect individual compounds and non-specific sensors, operated in array configurations, aimed at clustering subjects according to their health conditions. In this paper, the recent significant applications of these sensors to breath analysis are reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. When it can be good to feel bad and bad to feel good: Exploring asymmetries in workplace emotional outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lindebaum, Dirk; Jordan, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Within the field of Management and Organizational Studies, we have noted a tendency for researchers to explore symmetrical relationships between so-called positive discrete emotions or emotion-infused concepts and positive outcomes, and negative emotions or emotion-infused concepts and negative outcomes, respectively. In this Special Issue, we seek to problematize this assumption (without aiming to entirely discard it) by creating space for researchers to study what we term asymmetrical relationships. In particular, we explore the topic of when it can be good to feel bad and bad to feel good. The articles presented in this forum demonstrate both theoretically and empirically that appreciating these asymmetrical relationships holds considerable promise for enhanced understanding of a range of management and organizational phenomena, ranging from leadership and followership to emotional labor and dirty work. These unique theoretical and empirical insights have important relevance for organizational practice. PMID:25418996

  19. Using Bad Science to Teach Good Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the integration of topics dealing with "bad science"--pseudo, pathological, or deviant science--into introductory undergraduate courses in general and analytical chemistry, and provides extensive references for the chemistry instructor interested in these topics. The approach is to incorporate specific cases that address…

  20. Breath sulfides and pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kamboures, M A; Blake, D R; Cooper, D M; Newcomb, R L; Barker, M; Larson, J K; Meinardi, S; Nussbaum, E; Rowland, F S

    2005-11-01

    We have determined the concentrations of carbonyl sulfide (OCS), dimethylsulfide, and carbon disulfide (CS(2)) in the breath of a group of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and one of healthy controls. At the detection sensitivity in these experiments, room air always contained measurable quantities of these three gases. For each subject the inhaled room concentrations were subtracted from the time-coincident concentrations in exhaled breath air. The most significant differences between the CF and control cohorts in these breath-minus-room values were found for OCS. The control group demonstrated a net uptake of 250 +/- 20 parts-per-trillion-by-volume (pptv), whereas the CF cohort had a net uptake of 110 +/- 60 pptv (P = 0.00003). Three CF patients exhaled more OCS than they inhaled from the room. The OCS concentrations in the CF cohort were strongly correlated with pulmonary function. The dimethylsulfide concentrations in breath were greatly enhanced over ambient, but no significant difference was observed between the CF and healthy control groups. The net (breath minus room) CS(2) concentrations for individuals ranged between +180 and -100 pptv. They were slightly greater in the CF cohort (+26 +/- 38 pptv) vs. the control group (-17 +/- 15 pptv; P = 0.04). Lung disease in CF is accompanied by the subsistence of chronic bacterial infections. Sulfides are known to be produced by bacteria in various systems and were therefore the special target for this investigation. Our results suggest that breath sulfide content deserves attention as a noninvasive marker of respiratory colonization.