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Sample records for hallux varus deformity

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital hallux varus deformity associated with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9.

    PubMed

    Gürel, Sebahat Atar

    2015-04-01

    Congenital hallux varus is a rare deformity of the great toe characterized by adduction of the hallux and medial displacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital hallux varus is presented herein. A 32-year-old woman was referred to our unit due to significant deviation of the fetal right great toe at 22(+2) weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound examination revealed a thick and short great toe, which was significantly angulated medially on the right side. Amniocentesis was performed and the result was reported as inv(9) (p11;q12). After delivery, the clinical examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported prenatal diagnosis of an isolated congenital hallux varus. Congenital hallux varus can be diagnosed easily in the prenatal period by 2-D and 4-D ultrasonography. Prenatal karyotyping should be taken into consideration, especially in the presence of associated anomalies, such as polydactyly and clubfoot. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Traumatic hallux varus repair utilizing a soft-tissue anchor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Labovitz, J M; Kaczander, B I

    2000-01-01

    Hallux varus is usually iatrogenic in nature; however, congenital and acquired etiologies have been described in the literature. The authors present a case of traumatic hallux varus secondary to rupture of the adductor tendon. Surgical correction was performed using a soft tissue anchor for maintenance of the soft tissues utilized for repair.

  3. Distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release for moderate to severe hallux valgus decided using intraoperative varus stress radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyong-Nyun; Park, Yoo-Jung; Kim, Gab-Lae; Park, Yong-Wook

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the outcomes of distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release for moderate to severe hallux valgus. The patients were selected using criteria that included the degree of lateral soft tissue contracture and metatarsocuneiform joint flexibility. The contracture and flexibility were determined from intraoperative varus stress radiographs. From April 2007 to May 2009, 56 feet in 51 consecutive patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus had undergone distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release. This was done when the lateral soft tissue contracture was not so severe that passive correction of the hallux valgus deformity was not possible and when the metatarsocuneiform joint was flexible enough to permit additional correction of the first intermetatarsal angle after lateral soft tissue release. The mean patient age was 45.2 (range 23 to 54) years, and the duration of follow-up was 27.5 (range 24 to 46) months. The mean hallux abductus angle decreased from 33.5° ± 3.1° to 11.6° ± 3.3°, and the first intermetatarsal angle decreased from 16.4° ± 2.7° to 9.7° ± 2.1°. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-interphalangeal scores increased from 66.6° ± 10.7° to 92.6° ± 9.4° points, and 46 of the 51 patients (90%) were either very satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. No recurrence of deformity or osteonecrosis of the metatarsal head occurred. When lateral soft tissue contracture is not severe and when the metatarsocuneiform joint is flexible enough, distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release can be a useful and effective choice for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Distal soft-tissue procedure in hallux valgus deformity].

    PubMed

    Arbab, D; Wingenfeld, C; Frank, D; Bouillon, B; König, D P

    2016-04-01

    infections, clinical and radiological signs of avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head, overcorrection with hallux varus deformity, or significant stiffness of the first MTP joint.

  5. Longitudinal bracketed epiphysis of proximal phalanx of the great toe with congenital hallux varus managed simultaneously with monorail external fixator: a case report.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vineet; Batra, Amit; Singla, Rohit; Gogna, Paritosh; Magu, Narender; Gupta, Rakesh

    2014-02-01

    Longitudinal bracketed epiphysis (delta phalanx) is a rare congenital anomaly that affects phalanges in the hand more commonly than toes. We present a rare case of congenital hallux varus with longitudinal bracketed epiphysis of proximal phalanx with bifid distal phalanx of the great toe, which was managed with monorail type of external fixator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of its successful implementation in simultaneous treatment of longitudinal bracketed epiphysis of the proximal phalanx of the great toe and hallux varus. Apart from adding to the literature a case of rare subtype of delta phalanx with hallux varus, the present study highlights the role of a reliable alternative in its management.

  6. Correcting Severe Varus Deformity Using Trial Components During Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man S; Koh, In J; Choi, Young J; Kim, Yong D; In, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Extensive medial soft tissue release may be necessary to correct severe varus deformity during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, this procedure may result in instability. Here, we describe a novel soft tissue balancing technique, which can minimize medial release in severe varus deformity during TKA. Fifty knees (40 patients) with hip-knee-ankle angle of more than 20° of varus were corrected using this technique (group 1). After achieving flexion gap balancing by needle puncturing and spreading of the superficial medial collateral ligament, extension gap balancing was obtained by gradual extension with the trial components in place. After group 1 was set, a one-to-one patient-matched control group who had mild varus deformity was selected by propensity score matching (50 knees, 48 patients, group 2). At postoperative 1 year, mediolateral laxity was compared between the 2 groups using the stress radiographs. Clinical outcomes were also compared using the Knee Society Score and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score. There were no differences in mean medial and lateral laxities between groups 1 and 2 at 1 year after the operation (medial laxity: 2.3° ± 1.4° and 2.7° ± 1.3°, respectively, P = .310) (lateral laxity: 3.6° ± 1.7° and 3.2° ± 2.0°, respectively, P = .459). There were no significant differences in postoperative clinical scores and knee alignment. Our technique of obtaining extension gap balancing using trial components led to safe and effective balancing by avoiding unnecessary extensive release in severe varus deformity during TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [The Akin procedure as closing wedge osteotomy for the correction of a hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity].

    PubMed

    Arnold, Heino

    2008-12-01

    Realignment of the great toe in the case of a hallux valgus interphalangeus by means of a medially based closing wedge osteotomy. Hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity, characterized by an enlarged distal articular surface angle (> 10 degrees). Correction of a hallux valgus interphalangeus deformity as an additional procedure in the case of hallux valgus surgery. Incongruent first metatarsophalangeal joint with lateral subluxation of the proximal phalanx. Isolated procedure to correct hallux valgus deformity. Lack of patient compliance. Neurovascular disturbance of the forefoot. Medially based closing wedge osteotomy of the proximal phalanx to reduce the distal articular surface angle. Fixation with a lag screw, cannulated Herbert screw, memory cramp, threaded Kirschner wire, or interosseous suture. Wound dressing to assure the position of the great toe. Radiographic documentation of the forefoot in two planes. Strict elevation of the operated foot to prevent postoperative swelling. Mobilization of the patient with a forefoot relief orthosis, until consolidation of the osteotomy is verified radiologically (4-5 weeks). Low-molecular-weight heparin for at least 1 week. Hallux valgus bandage or functional taping for 6 weeks postoperatively in patients with additional metatarsal osteotomy. Clinical and radiologic follow-up based on 32 patients showed good results. The postoperative Hallux Score of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society improved to 89 points.

  8. Outcomes of proximal chevron osteotomy for moderate versus severe hallux valgus deformities.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae-Young; Lee, Keun-Bae; Seon, Jong Keun; Moon, Eun-Sun; Jung, Sung-Taek

    2012-08-01

    Proximal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure has been widely used to treat moderate to severe hallux valgus deformities. However, there have been no studies comparing the results of proximal chevron osteotomy between patients with moderate and severe hallux valgus. We compared the results of this procedure among these groups. A retrospective review of 95 patients (108 feet) that underwent proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue procedure for moderate and severe hallux valgus was conducted. The 108 feet were divided into two groups: moderate hallux valgus (Group A) and severe hallux valgus (Group B). Group A was composed of 57 feet (52 patients) and Group B of 51 feet (43 patients). Average followup was 45 months. Mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores were 54.1 points in Group A and 53.0 points in Group B preoperatively, and these improved to 90.8 and 92.6, respectively, at the last followup. Mean hallux valgus angles in Groups A and B reduced from 32.3 and 40.8 degrees, preoperatively to 10.7 and 13.2 degrees, postoperatively. Similarly, mean first intermetatarsal angles in Groups A and B reduced from 15.0 and 19.2 degrees, preoperatively to 9.0 and 9.2 degrees, postoperatively. The clinical and radiographic outcomes of proximal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure were found to be comparable for moderate and severe hallux valgus. Accordingly, our results suggest that this procedure provides an effective and reliable means of correcting hallux valgus regardless of severity of deformity.

  9. Management of Cubitus Varus Deformity in Children by Closed Dome Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kejariwal, Ujjwal; Singh, Bijendra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Supracondylar fractures are the most common elbow injuries in skeletally immature children between 5-10 years of age and cubitus varus deformity is the most common late complication. Cubitus varus or bow elbow or gunstock deformity is the result of malunion occurring as a complication of supracondylar fracture of the humerus. Various type of corrective osteotomies are used of which lateral closed wedge French osteotomy is commomly used which has its own complications like lateral condylar prominence, unsightful scar and limitation of movement. Closed dome osteotomy is a technique which overcomes these complications. This surgery is done with simple readily available instruments in the orthopaedic operation theatre with no special requirements for instrumentation. Aim This study was done to study the results of closed dome osteotomy for correction of cubitus varus deformity, after malunited supracondylar fracture of humerus in children. Materials and Methods This study included 25 children of either sex with malunited supracondylar fracture of distal humerus having cubitus varus deformity admitted in orthopaedics department. After appropriate pre operative assessment, closed dome osteotomy was done and post operatively X-ray of patients was taken and carrying angle and Lateral Condylar Prominence Index (LCPI) were calculated. Patients were re-assessed at complete union and results were calculated as per Mitchell and Adams criteria. Results In our study of 25 patients, 68% were males, 32% were females. Majority (84%) of patients were in the age group of 5-10 years. Carrying angle post operatively was 0-10° valgus in 64% of patients while 36% had 10-20° valgus. LCPI changed post operatively ranging from +5.0% to -10.7%, average -2.75%. Decrease in LCPI had better cosmetic appearance. Range of motion post operatively increased or remained same as previous full motion in 84% of the patients. Union occurred in all patients by eight weeks. Few complications

  10. Distal chevron osteotomy with distal soft tissue procedure for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Long Bin; Lee, Keun Bae; Seo, Chang Young; Song, Eun Kyoo; Yoon, Taek Rim

    2010-08-01

    Distal chevron osteotomy has been widely employed to treat mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of distal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure for the correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. We reviewed 76 patients (86 feet) that underwent distal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure for symptomatic moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. At a mean followup of 31 months, all patients were evaluated using subjective, objective and radiographic measurements. Ninety-four percent of the patients were very satisfied or satisfied. Average AOFAS score improved from 54.7 points preoperatively to 92.9 at final followup. Average hallux valgus angle changed from 36.2 degrees preoperatively to 12.4 degrees at final followup, and average first-second intermetatarsal angle changed from 17.1 to 7.3 degrees. Average tibial sesamoid position changed from 2.4 preoperatively to 1.2 at final followup. Dorsal angulation of the head was observed in two feet, and plantaflexion of the head in four feet. There were no cases of avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head. Our results indicate that distal chevron osteotomy with a distal soft tissue procedure provides an effective and reliable means of correcting moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity, and that it does so with high levels of patient satisfaction and low incidence of complications.

  11. Hallux Valgus Deformity and Treatment: A Three-Dimensional Approach: Modified Technique for Lapidus Procedure.

    PubMed

    Santrock, Robert D; Smith, Bret

    2018-06-01

    In a hallux valgus deformity, the problem is deviation of the hallux at the metatarsophalangeal joint and of the first metatarsal at the tarsometatarsal joint. Although anterior-posterior radiograph findings have been prioritized, deviation in the other planes can substantially change visible cues. The modified technique for Lapidus procedure procedure, uses all 3 planes to evaluate and correct the deformity, making radiographic measurements less useful. Using a triplane framework and focusing on the apex of the deformity, all bunions become the same modified technique for Lapidus procedure can be performed regardless of the degree of deformity, always includes triplane correction, and deformity size becomes irrelevant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [How safe are orthoroentgenograms in determining the amount of correction for varus deformities?].

    PubMed

    Gürsu, Sarper; Yıldırım, Timur; Issın, Ahmet; Sofu, Hakan; Sahin, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of the distance of the legs from the midline on alignment and angles of the lower extremities in orthoroentgenograms. Between March 2012 and April 2013, 95 limbs of 56 patients with varus deformity who underwent orthoroentgenogram to identify the amount of joint laxity in two positions were included in this study. The initial X-ray was performed with the feet in contact, while the other was performed as the legs were abducted to be in line with the shoulders. For each orthoroentgenogram, the mean mechanical axis angle, anatomical axis, and joint line orientation angles were measured retrospectively. These measurements were repeated for 43 limbs with varus deformity >10°. In the orthoroentgenograms with the feet in contact, the mean mechanical axis angle was 9.58°±5.7°, (0.20°; 26.0°), the mean anatomical axis angle 3.65°±6.14°, (-9.0°; 21.0°), and the mean joint line orientation angle -3.41°±2.52°, (-12.0°; 1.60°). In the orthoroentgenograms with the legs abducted, the mean mechanical axis angle was 7.73°±5.58°, (-3.0°; 23.0°), the mean anatomical axis angle 2.62°±5.87°, (-11.0°; 18.30°), and mean joint line orientation angle was -2.44°±2.41°, (-13.0°; 3.0°). The differences in the angles between the two positions were statistically significant (p<0.005). Our study results showed that the mean values of mechanical axis angle, anatomical axis and the joint line orientation angle were higher in orthoroentgenograms with the feet in contact than the orthoroentgenograms with the legs abducted in patients with varus gonarthrosis. We suggest that this may lead to mistakes in the preoperative planning. Ideal positions should be standardized to minimize possible problems.

  13. Application of computer-aided design osteotomy template for treatment of cubitus varus deformity in teenagers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan Z; Lu, Sheng; Chen, Bin; Zhao, Jian M; Liu, Rui; Pei, Guo X

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of cubitus varus deformity from a malunited fracture is a challenge. Anatomically accurate correction is the key to obtaining good functional outcomes after corrective osteotomy. The aim of this study was to attempt to increase the accuracy of treatment by use of 3-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design. We describe a novel method for ensuring an accurate osteotomy method in the treatment of cubitus varus deformity in teenagers by means of 3D reconstruction and reverse engineering. Between January 2006 and May 2008, 12 male and 6 female patients with cubitus varus deformities underwent scanning with spiral computed tomography (CT) preoperatively. The mean age was 15.7 years, ranging from 13 to 19 years. Three-dimensional CT image data of the affected and contralateral normal bones of cubitus were transferred to a computer workstation. Three-dimensional models of cubitus were reconstructed by use of MIMICS software. The 3D models were then processed by Imageware software. An osteotomy template that best fitted the angle and range of osteotomy was "reversely" built from the 3D model. These templates were manufactured by a rapid prototyping machine. The osteotomy templates guide the osteotomy of cubitus. An accurate angle of osteotomy was confirmed by postoperative radiography. After 12 to 24 months' follow-up, the mean postoperative carrying angle in 18 patients with cubitus varus deformity was 7.3° (range, 5° to 11°), with a mean correction of 21.9° (range, 12° to 41°). The patient-specific template technique is easy to use, can simplify the surgical act, and generates highly accurate osteotomy in cubitus varus deformity in teenagers. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postoperative alignment of TKA in patients with severe preoperative varus or valgus deformity: is there a difference between surgical techniques?

    PubMed

    Rahm, Stefan; Camenzind, Roland S; Hingsammer, Andreas; Lenz, Christopher; Bauer, David E; Farshad, Mazda; Fucentese, Sandro F

    2017-06-21

    There have been conflicting studies published regarding the ability of various total knee arthroplasty (TKA) techniques to correct preoperative deformity. The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative radiographic alignment in patients with severe preoperative coronal deformity (≥10° varus/valgus) who underwent three different TKA techniques; manual instrumentation (MAN), computer navigated instrumentation (NAV) and patient specific instrumentation (PSI). Patients, who received a TKA with a preoperative coronal deformity of ≥10° with available radiographs were included in this retrospective study. The groups were: MAN; n = 54, NAV; n = 52 and PSI; n = 53. The mechanical axis (varus / valgus) and the posterior tibial slope were measured and analysed using standing long leg- and lateral radiographs. The overall mean postoperative varus / valgus deformity was 2.8° (range, 0 to 9.9; SD 2.3) and 2.5° (range, 0 to 14.7; SD 2.3), respectively. The overall outliers (>3°) represented 30.2% (48 /159) of cases and were distributed as followed: MAN group: 31.5%, NAV group: 34.6%, PSI group: 24.4%. No significant statistical differences were found between these groups. The distribution of the severe outliers (>5°) was 14.8% in the MAN group, 23% in the NAV group and 5.6% in the PSI group. The PSI group had significantly (p = 0.0108) fewer severe outliers compared to the NAV group while all other pairs were not statistically significant. In severe varus / valgus deformity the three surgical techniques demonstrated similar postoperative radiographic alignment. However, in reducing severe outliers (> 5°) and in achieving the planned posterior tibial slope the PSI technique for TKA may be superior to computer navigation and the conventional technique. Further prospective studies are needed to determine which technique is the best regarding reducing outliers in patients with severe preoperative coronal deformity.

  15. Posterior cruciate-retaining versus posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis with severe varus deformity.

    PubMed

    Ünkar, Ethem Ayhan; Öztürkmen, Yusuf; Şükür, Erhan; Çarkçı, Engin; Mert, Murat

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the radiological and functional results of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) - retaining and posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasties in patients with severe varus gonarthrosis. Medical records of 112 knees of 96 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty for severe varus (≥15°) were reviewed. PCL-retaining and PCL-stabilizing groups consisted of 58 and 54 knees, respectively. Mean follow-up time was 56.6 months (range: 24-112 months). Knee Society (KS) clinical rating system was used in clinical evaluation. Range of motion, degree of flexion contracture, postoperative alignment, and complication rates were compared between the groups. Mean preoperative mechanical tibiofemoral angle was 20.1° in varus alignment, and was restored to 4.6° in valgus postoperatively. No statistically significant differences were found between PCL-stabilizing and PCL-retaining groups when KS knee scores, function scores, and flexion arc were evaluated. Two patients in PCL-retaining group underwent revision surgery due to aseptic loosening of tibial component. One patient in PCL-stabilizing group needed arthrotomy due to patellar clunk syndrome. There were no notable differences between the 2 groups and PCL-retaining design had outcomes as good as PCL-stabilizing total knee implant in osteoarthritic knees with severe varus deformity. Level III, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modified Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus deformity in female athletes. A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Giotis, Dimitrios; Paschos, Nikolaos K; Zampeli, Franceska; Giannoulis, Dionisios; Gantsos, Apostolos; Mantellos, George

    2016-09-01

    Hallux valgus is an increasingly common deformity in young female athletes that constricts their daily athletic activities and influences foot cosmesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of modified Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus deformity in this specific population. Forty-two cases of modified Chevron osteotomies were carried out in 33 patients with mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. Each participant was evaluated for AOFAS score, pain, range of motion, cosmetic and radiological outcome. Mean AOFAS score improved to 96.3 (p<0.001) while the mean range of motion of the metatarsophalangeal joint was maintained (p=0.138). The cosmetic result was excellent/good in 40 cases (95%). Mean metatarsophalangeal and intermetatarsal angles were decreased from 29.8° and 14.2° preoperatively to 12.2° and 8.1° postoperatively (p<0.001 and p<0.036), respectively. Modified Chevron osteotomy could offer substantial correction of hallux valgus deformity in young female athletes, with excellent clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Clinical and radiographic evaluation of a new percutaneous technique for moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity].

    PubMed

    Vélez-de Lachica, J C; Valdez-Jiménez, L A; Inzunza-Sánchez, J M

    2017-01-01

    Hallux valgus is considered the most common musculoskeletal deformity, with a prevalence of 88%. There are more than 130 surgical techniques for its treatment; currently, percutaneous ones are popular; however, they do not take into account the metatarsal-phalangeal correction angle. The aim of this study is to propose a modified technique for the correction of the percutaneous metatarsal-phalangeal and inter-metatarsal angles and to evaluate its clinical and radiological results. An experimental, prospective and longitudinal study in 10 patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus according to the classification of Coughlin and Mann were collected; the results were evaluated with the AOFAS scale at 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The McBride technique and the technique of percutaneous anchor with the proposed amendment were performed. The AOFAS scale was applied as described, finding a progressive increase of the rating; the average correction of the inter-metatarsal angle was 8.8 degrees and of the metatarsal-phalangeal, 9.12. The modified technique of percutaneous anchor showed clear clinical and radiographic improvements in the short term. Our modified technique is proposed for future projects, including a large sample with long-term follow-up.

  18. Use of 3D Printed Bone Plate in Novel Technique to Surgically Correct Hallux Valgus Deformities

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Dupont, Kenneth M.; Safranski, David L.; Blair, Jeremy; Buratti, Dawn; Zeetser, Vladimir; Callahan, Ryan; Lin, Jason; Gall, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) printing offers many potential advantages in designing and manufacturing plating systems for foot and ankle procedures that involve small, geometrically complex bony anatomy. Here, we describe the design and clinical use of a Ti-6Al-4V ELI bone plate (FastForward™ Bone Tether Plate, MedShape, Inc., Atlanta, GA) manufactured through 3-D printing processes. The plate protects the second metatarsal when tethering suture tape between the first and second metatarsals and is a part of a new procedure that corrects hallux valgus (bunion) deformities without relying on doing an osteotomy or fusion procedure. The surgical technique and two clinical cases describing the use of this procedure with the 3-D printed bone plate are presented within. PMID:28337049

  19. Change in First Metatarsal Length After Proximal and Distal Chevron Osteotomies for Hallux Valgus Deformity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Young; Lee, Yeon Soo; Song, Kyoung Chul; Choi, Kwi Youn

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the changes in the length of the first metatarsal bone after performing proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (PCMO) or distal Chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) for patients with hallux valgus deformity. A total of 60 patients with moderate-to-severe hallux valgus deformity from July 2009 to July 2011 were randomly divided into the PCMO and DCMO groups, with 30 patients in each group. The distal soft tissue procedure was performed in the same method for both groups. Measurements were performed preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the last follow-up visit at 6.1 ± 0.8 months. The postoperative length change with respect to the preoperative length was 0.7 ± 2.5 mm and -0.7 ± 5.1 mm for the PCMO and DCMO groups, respectively, with a slight lengthening of the first metatarsal bone in the PCMO group and a shortening in the DCMO group (p < .01). The follow-up length change with respect to the preoperative length was -2.1 ± 3.0 mm and -4.4 ± 2.2 mm for the PCMO and DCMO groups, respectively, demonstrating a clear shortening of the first metatarsal length at the last follow-up point in the DCMO group (p < .01).When DCMO and the distal soft tissue procedure were performed, significant shortening was found at 6 months of follow-up. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Modified chevron osteotomy with lateral release and screw fixation for treatment of severe hallux deformity].

    PubMed

    Hofstaetter, S G; Schuh, R; Trieb, K; Trnka, H J

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the clinical and radiological results of the Chevron osteotomy with screw fixation and distal soft tissue release up to an intermetatarsal angle of 19°. Furthermore, the results are presented for patients over the age of 70 years, and whether or not there is a higher complication rate. 86 feet of patients between 23 and 81 years were included in the study. Apart from the overall group, a group with an intermetatarsal angle of 16° to 19° and a group of patients over 70 years old were eavaluated. They were evaluated preoperatively and at follow-up after an average of 3.3 years according to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score. The AOFAS score showed a significant improvement from 55 points preoperatively to 90 points at follow-up. The preoperative hallux valgus angle decreased significantly from 32° to 5° and the preoperative intermetatarsal angle decreased from 14° to 6°. Patient satisfaction in the overall group was rated in 92 % as excellent or good. Also, the patient group with 16° to 19° angles and the patients over 70 years showed a significant improvement of clinical and radiological parameters. The complication rate was very low in all groups. The results show that the Chevron osteotomy is a very good surgical technique with few complications for the correction of splay foot with hallux valgus deformity. We showed that by using the modified technique with a long plantar arm, an excessive soft tissue release and screw fixation, the indication can be extended up to an intermetatarsal angle of 19° when using screw fixation. Furthermore the patients over 70 years of age showed a significant improvement of clinical and radiological parameters without serious complications such as avascular necrosis or dislocation of the metatarsal head. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Point-Connecting Measurements of the Hallux Valgus Deformity: A New Measurement and Its Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jeong-Ho; Boedijono, Dimas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate new point-connecting measurements for the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), which can reflect the degree of subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Also, this study attempted to compare the validity of midline measurements and the new point-connecting measurements for the determination of HVA and IMA values. Materials and Methods Sixty feet of hallux valgus patients who underwent surgery between 2007 and 2011 were classified in terms of the severity of HVA, congruency of the first MTPJ, and type of chevron metatarsal osteotomy. On weight-bearing dorsal-plantar radiographs, HVA and IMA values were measured and compared preoperatively and postoperatively using both the conventional and new methods. Results Compared with midline measurements, point-connecting measurements showed higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for preoperative HVA/IMA and similar or higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for postoperative HVA/IMA. Patients who underwent distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) had higher intraclass correlation coefficient for inter- and intra-observer reliability for pre- and post-operative HVA and IMA measured by the point-connecting method compared with the midline method. All differences in the preoperative HVAs and IMAs determined by both the midline method and point-connecting methods were significant between the deviated group and subluxated groups (p=0.001). Conclusion The point-connecting method for measuring HVA and IMA in the subluxated first MTPJ may better reflect the severity of a HV deformity with higher reliability than the midline method, and is more useful in patients with DCMO than in patients with proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy. PMID:26996576

  2. Hallux abductus interphalangeus in normal feet, early-stage hallux limitus, and hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Lopez, Jose M; Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Reina-Bueno, Maria; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Palomo-Toucedo, Inmaculada C; Munuera, Pedro V

    2014-03-01

    Excessive deviation of the distal phalanx in abduction frequently occurs in advanced stages of hallux rigidus but not in hallux valgus. Therefore, theoretically there should be no significant differences in the hallux interphalangeal angle (HIPA) between individuals with normal feet, those with hallux valgus, and those with mild hallux limitus. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if significant differences in HIPA exist in the early stages of hallux valgus or hallux limitus deformities. The hallux interphalangeal angle was measured in three groups of participants: a control group with normal feet (45 participants), a hallux valgus group (49 participants), and a hallux limitus group (48 participants). Both of the pathologies were at an early stage. A dorsoplantar radiograph under weightbearing conditions was taken for each individual, and measurements (HIPA and hallux abductus angle [HAA]) were taken using AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, California) software. Intergroup comparisons of HIPA, and correlations between HIPA, HAA, and hallux dorsiflexion were calculated. The comparisons revealed no significant differences in the values of HIPA between any of the groups (15.2 ± 5.9 degrees in the control group, 15.5 ± 3.9 degrees in the hallux valgus group, and 16.15 ± 4.3 in the hallux limitus group; P  =  0.634). The Pearson correlation coefficients in particular showed no correlation between hallux dorsiflexion, HAA, and HIPA. For the study participants, there were similar deviations of the distal phalanx of the hallux with respect to the proximal phalanx in normal feet and in feet with the early stages of the hallux limitus and hallux valgus deformities.

  3. Effects of Reduction Osteotomy on Gap Balancing During Total Knee Arthroplasty for Severe Varus Deformity.

    PubMed

    Niki, Yasuo; Harato, Kengo; Nagai, Katsuya; Suda, Yasunori; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of down-sizing and lateralizing of the tibial component (reduction osteotomy) on gap balancing in TKA, and the clinical feasibility of an uncemented modular trabecular metal tibial tray in this technique. Reduction osteotomy was performed for 39 knees of 36 patients with knee OA with a mean tibiofemoral angle of 21° varus. In 20 knees, appropriate gap balance was achieved by release of the deep medial collateral ligament alone. Flexion gap imbalance could be reduced by approximately 1.7° and 2.8° for 4-mm osteotomy and 8-mm osteotomy, respectively. Within the first postoperative year, clinically-stable tibial component subsidence was observed in 9 knees, but it was not progressive, and the clinical results were excellent at a mean follow-up of 3.3 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ninety-Degree Chevron Osteotomy for Correction of Hallux Valgus Deformity: Clinical Data and Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matzaroglou, Charalambos; Bougas, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Saridis, Alkis; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Kouzoudis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    Hallux valgus is a very common foot disorder, with its prevalence estimated at 33% in adult shoe-wearing populations. Conservative management is the initial treatment of choice for this condition, but surgery is sometimes needed. The 600 angle Chevron osteotomy is an accepted method for correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus in adults less than 60 years old. A modified 900 angle Chevron osteotomy has also been described; this modified technique can confer some advantages compared to the 600 angle method, and reported results are good. In the current work we present clinical data from a cohort of fifty-one female patients who had surgery for sixty-two hallux valgus deformities. In addition, in order to get a better physical insight and study the mechanical stresses along the two osteotomies, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was also conducted. FEA indicated enhanced mechanical bonding with the modified 900 Chevron osteotomy, because the compressive stresses that keep the two bone parts together are stronger, and the shearing stresses that tend to slide the two bone parts apart are weaker, compared to the typical 600 technique. Follow-up data on our patient cohort show good or excellent long-term clinical results with the modified 900 angle technique. These results are consistent with the FEA-based hypothesis that a 900 Chevron osteotomy confers certain mechanical advantages compared to the typical 600 procedure. PMID:20648223

  5. Ninety-degree chevron osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity: clinical data and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Matzaroglou, Charalambos; Bougas, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Saridis, Alkis; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Kouzoudis, Dimitris

    2010-04-22

    Hallux valgus is a very common foot disorder, with its prevalence estimated at 33% in adult shoe-wearing populations. Conservative management is the initial treatment of choice for this condition, but surgery is sometimes needed. The 60(0) angle Chevron osteotomy is an accepted method for correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus in adults less than 60 years old. A modified 90(0) angle Chevron osteotomy has also been described; this modified technique can confer some advantages compared to the 60(0) angle method, and reported results are good. In the current work we present clinical data from a cohort of fifty-one female patients who had surgery for sixty-two hallux valgus deformities. In addition, in order to get a better physical insight and study the mechanical stresses along the two osteotomies, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was also conducted. FEA indicated enhanced mechanical bonding with the modified 90(0) Chevron osteotomy, because the compressive stresses that keep the two bone parts together are stronger, and the shearing stresses that tend to slide the two bone parts apart are weaker, compared to the typical 60(0) technique. Follow-up data on our patient cohort show good or excellent long-term clinical results with the modified 90(0) angle technique. These results are consistent with the FEA-based hypothesis that a 90(0) Chevron osteotomy confers certain mechanical advantages compared to the typical 60(0) procedure.

  6. Comparison of outcomes between proximal and distal chevron osteotomy, both with supplementary lateral soft-tissue release, for severe hallux valgus deformity: A prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Park, H-W; Lee, K-B; Chung, J-Y; Kim, M-S

    2013-04-01

    Severe hallux valgus deformity is conventionally treated with proximal metatarsal osteotomy. Distal metatarsal osteotomy with an associated soft-tissue procedure can also be used in moderate to severe deformity. We compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of proximal and distal chevron osteotomy in severe hallux valgus deformity with a soft-tissue release in both. A total of 110 consecutive female patients (110 feet) were included in a prospective randomised controlled study. A total of 56 patients underwent a proximal procedure and 54 a distal operation. The mean follow-up was 39 months (24 to 54) in the proximal group and 38 months (24 to 52) in the distal group. At follow-up the hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, tibial sesamoid position, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal score, patient satisfaction level, and complications were similar in each group. Both methods showed significant post-operative improvement and high levels of patient satisfaction. Our results suggest that the distal chevron osteotomy with an associated distal soft-tissue procedure provides a satisfactory method for correcting severe hallux valgus deformity.

  7. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Scarf and Chevron Osteotomies and the McBride Procedure in the Treatment of Hallux Valgus Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Fakoor, Mohammad; Sarafan, Naser; Mohammadhoseini, Payam; Khorami, Mohsen; Arti, Hamidreza; Mosavi, SeyedShahnam; Aghaeeaghdam, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hallux valgus deformity is a common chronic problem with a reported prevalence of 28.4% and its chief complaint is pain. Thus far, different surgical procedures with their proposed indications have been introduced. This study compared three current procedures, namely the chevron and scarf osteotomies and the McBride procedure. Methods: This retrospective cohort was conducted at the Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences on 44 patients with moderate hallux valgus deformity from 2010 and 2013. All of the patients underwent one of the three procedures (chevron, scarf or McBride). Preoperative and follow up radiographies were evaluated in terms of hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle correction. The Foot and Ankle Disability Index was filled out to assess the functional outcome and the Visual Analogue Scale was used to evaluate pain. Also, satisfaction, aesthetics and the rate of recurrence was evaluated. Results: Hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle correction were significantly higher in scarf, but not in chevron and McBride. However, from amongst the three procedures, there was no significant difference in terms of the Foot and Ankle Disability Index score, aesthetics, satisfaction level, pain score and recurrence rate. Conclusions: Considering that scarf osteotomy had better results in this study, we think that scarf osteotomy can be considered as a first choice for the treatment of moderate hallux valgus deformity. PMID:25207310

  8. Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Scarf and Chevron Osteotomies and the McBride Procedure in the Treatment of Hallux Valgus Deformity.

    PubMed

    Fakoor, Mohammad; Sarafan, Naser; Mohammadhoseini, Payam; Khorami, Mohsen; Arti, Hamidreza; Mosavi, SeyedShahnam; Aghaeeaghdam, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Hallux valgus deformity is a common chronic problem with a reported prevalence of 28.4% and its chief complaint is pain. Thus far, different surgical procedures with their proposed indications have been introduced. This study compared three current procedures, namely the chevron and scarf osteotomies and the McBride procedure. This retrospective cohort was conducted at the Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences on 44 patients with moderate hallux valgus deformity from 2010 and 2013. All of the patients underwent one of the three procedures (chevron, scarf or McBride). Preoperative and follow up radiographies were evaluated in terms of hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle correction. The Foot and Ankle Disability Index was filled out to assess the functional outcome and the Visual Analogue Scale was used to evaluate pain. Also, satisfaction, aesthetics and the rate of recurrence was evaluated. Hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle correction were significantly higher in scarf, but not in chevron and McBride. However, from amongst the three procedures, there was no significant difference in terms of the Foot and Ankle Disability Index score, aesthetics, satisfaction level, pain score and recurrence rate. Considering that scarf osteotomy had better results in this study, we think that scarf osteotomy can be considered as a first choice for the treatment of moderate hallux valgus deformity.

  9. Relationship between Lateral Femoral Bowing and Varus Knee Deformity Based on Two-Dimensional Assessment of Side-to-Side Differences.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myung-Rae; Lee, Young Sik; Choi, Won-Kee

    2018-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relationship between side-to-side differences of lateral femoral bowing and varus knee deformity based on two-dimensional (2D) assessment in unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A total of 143 patients with varus knee osteoarthritis who underwent unilateral TKA were enrolled. We evaluated the side-to-side differences of the frontal lower limb alignment by assessing lateral femoral bowing, anatomical medial distal femoral angle, and anatomical medial proximal tibial angle (aMPTA). The average values of all anatomical indices were significantly different between the operated side and the non-operated side (p<0.05). The side-to-side difference in hip knee ankle (HKA) angle had a statistically significant correlation with that in lateral femoral bowing (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.259; p=0.002) and that in aMPTA. Linear regression analysis showed 0.199° of side-to-side difference in lateral femoral bowing was associated with 1° of side-to-side difference in bilateral HKA angle. The side-to-side difference in lateral femoral bowing showed a tendency to increase in proportion to varus knee deformity based on 2D assessment in unilateral TKA patients.

  10. Effectiveness of surgery for adults with hallux valgus deformity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Klugarova, Jitka; Hood, Victoria; Bath-Hextall, Fiona; Klugar, Miloslav; Mareckova, Jana; Kelnarova, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    Hallux valgus (HV) is a common foot deformity. In severe stages of this condition, surgery is often necessary. Currently, there is no systematic review comparing the effectiveness of surgery over conservative treatment. The objective of this review was to establish the effectiveness of surgery compared to conservatory management for adults with HV. The current review included adults (18 years or over) with HV deformity, excluding adults with neurological problems causing foot deformities, for example, cerebral palsy, neuropathy, stroke and multiple sclerosis. The review included any type of HV surgery compared to no surgery, conservative treatment or different types of HV surgeries. The primary outcome was gait measurement, and secondary outcomes included quality of life, patient satisfaction, pain assessed using any validated assessment tool and adverse events. The review included randomized controlled trials. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilized in 16 databases without language and date limitations. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical appraisal instruments developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). Data were extracted from papers included in the review using the standardized data extraction tool developed by the JBI. Quantitative data were, where possible, pooled in statistical meta-analysis using RevMan5 (Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane). Effect sizes expressed as risk ratio (for categorical data) and mean differences (MD) or standardized MD (for continuous data) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for analysis. Where statistical pooling was not possible, the findings have been presented in narrative form. Searching identified 2412 citations. After removal of duplicates, paper retrieval and critical appraisal, 25 studies

  11. A Prospective Study of Distal Metatarsal Chevron Osteotomies with K-Wire Fixations to Treat Hallux Valgus Deformities.

    PubMed

    Baig, M N; Baig, Usman; Tariq, Ali; Din, Robert

    2017-09-20

    Introduction Hallux valgus is one of the most common forefoot deformities worldwide. Females are affected more often than males. The three most common clinical symptoms are the painful bunion, transfer metatarsalgia, and hammer or claw toes. Methods This case series consisted of 20 patients who had chevron osteotomy from January 2015 to January 2016. The clinical assessment was measured by The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS), and radiologic assessment was determined by preoperative and postoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA). Results The patients' mean age was 56 years. Out of 20 patients, 19 were female, and one was male. The mean AOFAS improved from 51 preoperatively to 82 postoperatively. The HVA improved from 26° preoperatively to 14°. There were five complications including four Kirschner (K)-wire complications. Conclusion Distal chevron osteotomy is a reliable and time-tested procedure. The K-wire fixation has a relatively high complication rate. We planned to use other methods of fixation and then compared them with K-wires fixation results for future studies.

  12. A Prospective Study of Distal Metatarsal Chevron Osteotomies with K-Wire Fixations to Treat Hallux Valgus Deformities

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Usman; Tariq, Ali; Din, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hallux valgus is one of the most common forefoot deformities worldwide. Females are affected more often than males. The three most common clinical symptoms are the painful bunion, transfer metatarsalgia, and hammer or claw toes. Methods This case series consisted of 20 patients who had chevron osteotomy from January 2015 to January 2016. The clinical assessment was measured by The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS), and radiologic assessment was determined by preoperative and postoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA). Results The patients’ mean age was 56 years. Out of 20 patients, 19 were female, and one was male. The mean AOFAS improved from 51 preoperatively to 82 postoperatively. The HVA improved from 26° preoperatively to 14°. There were five complications including four Kirschner (K)-wire complications. Conclusion Distal chevron osteotomy is a reliable and time-tested procedure. The K-wire fixation has a relatively high complication rate. We planned to use other methods of fixation and then compared them with K-wires fixation results for future studies. PMID:29167752

  13. Correction of static axial alignment in children with knee varus or valgus deformities through guided growth: Does it also correct dynamic frontal plane moments during walking?

    PubMed

    Böhm, Harald; Stief, Felix; Sander, Klaus; Hösl, Matthias; Döderlein, Leonhard

    2015-09-01

    Malaligned knees are predisposed to the development and progression of unicompartmental degenerations because of the excessive load placed on one side of the knee. Therefore, guided growth in skeletally immature patients is recommended. Indication for correction of varus/valgus deformities are based on static weight bearing radiographs. However, the dynamic knee abduction moment during walking showed only a weak correlation to malalignment determined by static radiographs. Therefore, the aim of the study was to measure the effects of guided growth on the normalization of frontal plane knee joint moments during walking. 15 legs of 8 patients (11-15 years) with idiopathic axial varus or valgus malalignment were analyzed. 16 typically developed peers served as controls. Instrumented gait analysis and clinical assessment were performed the day before implantation and explantation of eight-plates. Correlation between static mechanical tibiofemoral axis angle (MAA) and dynamic frontal plane knee joint moments and their change by guided growth were performed. The changes in dynamic knee moment in the frontal plane following guided growth showed high and significant correlation to the changes in static MAA (R=0.97, p<0.001). Contrary to the correlation of the changes, there was no correlation between static and dynamic measures in both sessions. In consequence two patients that had a natural knee moment before treatment showed a more pathological one after treatment. In conclusion, the changes in the dynamic load situation during walking can be predicted from the changes in static alignment. If pre-surgical gait analysis reveals a natural load situation, despite a static varus or valgus deformity, the intervention must be critically discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Varus deformity of the left lower extremity causing degenerative lesion of the posterior horn of the left medial meniscus in a patient with Paget's disease of bone.

    PubMed

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Mindler, Gabriel; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We report on a 42-year-old woman who presented with persistent pain in her left knee with no history of trauma. Sagittal T1-weighted MRI of the left knee showed discontinuity between the anterior and posterior horns of the left medial meniscus, causing effectively the development of degenerative lesion of the posterior horn. The latter was correlated to varus deformity of the left lower extremity associated with subsequent narrowing of the medial knee joint. The unusual craniofacial contour of the patient, the skeletal survey and the elevated serum alkaline phosphatase were compatible with the diagnosis of Paget's disease of the bone. To alleviate the adverse effect of the mal-alignment of the left femur onto the left knee, corrective osteotomy of the left femoral diaphysis by means of fixators was performed. To the best of our knowledge this is the first clinical report describing the management and the pathological correlation of a unilateral varus deformity of the femoral shaft and degenerative lesions of the left knee in a patient with Paget's disease of the bone.

  15. A comparison of proximal and distal chevron osteotomy for the correction of moderate hallux valgus deformity.

    PubMed

    Park, C-H; Jang, J-H; Lee, S-H; Lee, W-C

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of proximal and distal chevron osteotomy in patients with moderate hallux valgus. We retrospectively reviewed 34 proximal chevron osteotomies without lateral release (PCO group) and 33 distal chevron osteotomies (DCO group) performed sequentially by a single surgeon. There were no differences between the groups with regard to age, length of follow-up, demographic or radiological parameters. The clinical results were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scoring system and the radiological results were compared between the groups. At a mean follow-up of 14.6 months (14 to 32) there were no significant differences in the mean AOFAS scores between the DCO and PCO groups (93.9 (82 to 100) and 91.8 (77 to 100), respectively; p = 0.176). The mean hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle and sesamoid position were the same in both groups. The metatarsal declination angle decreased significantly in the PCO group (p = 0.005) and the mean shortening of the first metatarsal was significantly greater in the DCO group (p < 0.001). We conclude that the clinical and radiological outcome after a DCO is comparable with that after a PCO; longer follow-up would be needed to assess the risk of avascular necrosis.

  16. Hallux valgus, ankle osteoarthrosis and adult acquired flatfoot deformity: a review of three common foot and ankle pathologies and their treatments

    PubMed Central

    Crevoisier, Xavier; Assal, Mathieu; Stanekova, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hallux valgus deformity is multifactorial. Conservative treatment can alleviate pain but is unable to correct the deformity. Surgical treatment must be adapted to the type and severity of the deformity. Success of surgical treatment ranges from 80% to 95%, and complication rates range from 10% to 30%. Ankle osteoarthrosis most commonly occurs as a consequence of trauma. Ankle arthrodesis and total ankle replacement are the most common surgical treatments of end stage ankle osteoarthrosis. Both types of surgery result in similar clinical improvement at midterm; however, gait analysis has demonstrated the superiority of total ankle replacement over arthrodesis. More recently, conservative surgery (extraarticular alignment osteotomies) around the ankle has gained popularity in treating early- to mid-stage ankle osteoarthrosis. Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a consequence of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction in 80% of cases. Classification is based upon the function of the tibialis posterior tendon, the reducibility of the deformity, and the condition of the ankle joint. Conservative treatment includes orthotics and eccentric muscle training. Functional surgery is indicated for treatment in the early stages. In case of fixed deformity, corrective and stabilising surgery is performed. Cite this article: Crevoisier X, Assal M, Stanekova K. Hallux valgus, ankle osteoarthrosis and adult acquired flatfoot deformity: a review of three common foot and ankle pathologies and their treatments. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:58–64. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000015. PMID:28461929

  17. Gait analysis in hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, M; Turan, I; Agadir, M

    1991-01-01

    The solar pressure zones were analyzed in the feet of 66 patients suffering from hallux valgus, together with 60 normal subjects. The EMED Gait Analysis System was used. In the hallux valgus group, the maximum pressure was found to be increased significantly in the small toe region and more proximally situated, close to the metatarsophalangeal joint. In the normal subjects, the maximum pressure was increased significantly in the first, second, third, and fourth metatarsal and heel regions. In general, the hallux valgus group had smaller contact areas compared to the control group. The increased pressure in the small toe region, together with the smaller contact areas manifested by the hallux valgus group, were interpreted in this work as being the possible causes of the metatarsalgia seen in patients with the deformity.

  18. An Algorithmic, Pie-Crusting Medial Soft Tissue Release Reduces the Need for Constrained Inserts Patients With Severe Varus Deformity Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Goudarz Mehdikhani, Kaveh; Morales Moreno, Beatriz; Reid, Jeremy J; de Paz Nieves, Ana; Lee, Yuo-Yu; González Della Valle, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    We studied the need to use a constrained insert for residual intraoperative instability and the 1-year result of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for a varus deformity. In a control group, a "classic" subperiosteal release of the medial soft tissue sleeve was performed as popularized by pioneers of TKA. In the study group, an algorithmic approach that selectively releases and pie-crusts posteromedial structures in extension and anteromedial structures in flexion was used. All surgeries were performed by a single surgeon using measured resection technique, and posterior-stabilized, cemented implants. There were 228 TKAs in the control group and 188 in the study group. Outcome variables included the use of a constrained insert, and the Knee Society Score at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 1 year postoperatively. The effect of the release technique on use of constrained inserts and clinical outcomes were analyzed in a multivariate model controlling for age, sex, body mass index, and severity of deformity. The use of constrained inserts was significantly lower in study than in control patients (8% vs 18%; P = .002). There was no difference in the Knee Society Score and range of motion between the groups at last follow-up. No patient developed postoperative medial instability. This algorithmic, pie-crusting release technique resulted in a significant reduction in the use of constrained inserts with no detrimental effects in clinical results, joint function, and stability. As constrained TKA implants are more costly than nonconstrained ones, if the adopted technique proves to be safe in the long term, it may cause a positive shift in value for hospitals and cost savings in the health care system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Posterior cruciate-substituting total knee replacement recovers the flexion arc faster in the early postoperative period in knees with high varus deformity: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Alpaslan; Akalın, Yavuz; Çevik, Nazan; Otuzbir, Ali; Özkan, Yüksel; Dostabakan, Yasin

    2016-07-01

    required in that time interval. The other parameters were similar between groups. PS knees gained active flexion arc faster and larger. But straight leg raising activity recovered early in CR knees. Both types of prosthesis produced satisfactory outcome. PS and CR TKRs can be performed with the same performance in osteoarthritic knees even with high varus deformity. Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial, Level II.

  20. Varus deformity of the left lower extremity causing degenerative lesion of the posterior horn of the left medial meniscus in a patient with Paget’s disease of bone

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Mindler, Gabriel; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We report on a 42-year-old woman who presented with persistent pain in her left knee with no history of trauma. Sagittal T1-weighted MRI of the left knee showed discontinuity between the anterior and posterior horns of the left medial meniscus, causing effectively the development of degenerative lesion of the posterior horn. The latter was correlated to varus deformity of the left lower extremity associated with subsequent narrowing of the medial knee joint. The unusual craniofacial contour of the patient, the skeletal survey and the elevated serum alkaline phosphatase were compatible with the diagnosis of Paget’s disease of the bone. To alleviate the adverse effect of the mal-alignment of the left femur onto the left knee, corrective osteotomy of the left femoral diaphysis by means of fixators was performed. To the best of our knowledge this is the first clinical report describing the management and the pathological correlation of a unilateral varus deformity of the femoral shaft and degenerative lesions of the left knee in a patient with Paget’s disease of the bone. PMID:25276115

  1. Factors Associated With Early Loss of Hallux Valgus Correction.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kyprios, Evangelos M; Panchani, Prakash N; Martin, Lanster R; Thorud, Jakob C; Jupiter, Daniel C

    Recurrence is common after hallux valgus corrective surgery. Although many investigators have studied the risk factors associated with a suboptimal hallux position at the end of long-term follow-up, few have evaluated the factors associated with actual early loss of correction. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify the predictors of lateral deviation of the hallux during the postoperative period. We evaluated the demographic data, preoperative severity of the hallux valgus, other angular measurements characterizing underlying deformities, amount of hallux valgus correction, and postoperative alignment of the corrected hallux valgus for associations with recurrence. After adjusting for the covariates, the only factor associated with recurrence was the postoperative tibial sesamoid position. The recurrence rate was ~50% and ~60% when the postoperative tibial sesamoid position was >4 and >5 on the 7-point scale, respectively. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Angle and Base of Gait Long Leg Axial and Intraoperative Simulated Weightbearing Long Leg Axial Imaging to Capture True Frontal Plane Tibia to Calcaneus Alignment in Valgus and Varus Deformities of the Rearfoot and Ankle.

    PubMed

    Boffeli, Troy J; Waverly, Brett J

    2016-01-01

    The long leg axial view is primarily used to evaluate the frontal plane alignment of the calcaneus in relation to the long axis of the tibia when standing. This view allows both angular measurement and assessment for the apex of varus and valgus deformity of the rearfoot and ankle with clinical utility in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings. The frontal plane alignment of the calcaneus to the long axis of the tibia is rarely fixed in the varus or valgus position because of the inherent flexibility of the foot and ankle, which makes patient positioning critical to obtain accurate and reproducible images. Inconsistent patient positioning and imaging techniques are commonly encountered with the long leg axial view for a variety of reasons, including the lack of a standardized or validated protocol. This angle and base of gait imaging protocol involves positioning the patient to align the tibia with the long axis of the foot, which is represented by the second metatarsal. Non-weightbearing long leg axial imaging is commonly performed intraoperatively, which requires a modified patient positioning technique to capture simulated weightbearing long leg axial images. A case series is presented to demonstrate our angle and base of gait long leg axial and intraoperative simulated weightbearing long leg axial imaging protocols that can be applied throughout all phases of patient care for various foot and ankle conditions. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A six-month followup of a randomized trial comparing the efficacy of a lateral-wedge insole with subtalar strapping and an in-shoe lateral-wedge insole in patients with varus deformity osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Toda, Yoshitaka; Tsukimura, Noriko

    2004-10-01

    To assess the effect of a lateral-wedge insole with elastic strapping of the subtalar joint on the femorotibial angle in patients with varus deformity of the knee. The efficacy of a wedged insole with subtalar straps and that of a traditional wedged insole shoe insert were compared. Sixty-six female outpatients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) were randomized (according to birth date) to be treated with either the strapped or the traditional inserted insole. Standing radiographs with unilateral insole use were used to analyze the femorotibial angles for each patient. In both groups, the baseline and 6-month visual analog scale (VAS) scores for subjective knee pain and the Lequesne index scores for knee OA were compared. The 61 patients who completed the 6-month study were evaluated. At baseline, there was no significant difference in the femorotibial angle (P = 0.66) and the VAS score (P = 0.75) between the 2 groups. At the 6-month assessment, the 29 subjects wearing the subtalar-strapped insole demonstrated a significantly decreased femorotibial angle (P < 0.0001) and significantly improved VAS scores (P = 0.001) and Lequesne index scores (P = 0.033) compared with their baseline assessments. These significant differences were not observed in the 32 subjects assigned to the traditional shoe-inserted wedged insole. These results suggest that an insole with a subtalar strap maintained the valgus correction of the femorotibial angle in patients with varus knee OA for 6 months, indicating longer-term clinical improvement with the strapped insert compared with the traditional insert. Copyright 2004 American College of Rheumatology

  4. Bone morphotypes of the varus and valgus knee.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, E; Schwab, P E; Cornu, O; Bellemans, J; Victor, J

    2017-03-01

    Coronal deformity correction with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an important feature in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). The hypothesis of this study was that bone morphology would be different in varus and valgus deformity, both before osteoarthritis development as well as during and after the disease process of OA. Retrospective study with measurements on preoperative and postoperative full leg standing radiographs of 96 patients who underwent TKA. The included patients were selected for this study because they had an OA knee on one side and a non-arthritic knee on the contralateral side presenting the same type of alignment as the to-be-operated knee (varus or valgus alignment on both sides). The control group of 46 subjects was a group of patients with neutral mechanical alignment who presented for ligamentous problems. A single observer measured mechanical alignment, anatomical alignment, anatomical-mechanical femoral angle and intra-articular bone morphology parameters with an accuracy of 1°. Varus OA group has less distal femoral valgus (mLDFA 89°) than control group (87°) and valgus OA group (mLDFA 85°). Varus OA group has same varus obliquity as control group (MPTA 87°) but more than valgus OA group (MPTA 90°). Joint Line Congruency Angle (JLCA) is 3°open on lateral side in varus and medially open in valgus OA group (2°). The non-arthritic valgus group presents a constitutional mechanical valgus of 184° Hip-Knee-Ankle (HKA) angle. Varus deformity in OA as measured with an HKA angle (HKA) <177° is a combination of distal femoral wear, tibial varus obliquity and lateral joint line opening. Valgus deformity in OA with an HKA > 183° is a combination of femoral distal joint line obliquity and wear combined with medial opening due to medial collateral ligament stretching. The clinical importance of bone morphotype analysis is that it shows the intra-articular potential of alignment correction when mechanical axis cuts are performed. Bone

  5. Correction of complex equino cavo varus foot deformity in skeletally mature patients by Ilizarov external fixation versus staged external-internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khaled; El Moatasem, El Hussein; El Shazly, Ossama

    2011-12-01

    Complex foot deformity is a multi-planar foot deformity with many etiologic factors. Different corrective procedures using Ilizarov external fixation have been described which include, soft tissue release, V-osteotomy, multiple osteotomies and triple fusion. In this study we compare the results of two groups of skeletally mature patients with complex foot deformity who were treated by two different protocols. The first group (27 patients, 29 feet) was treated by triple fusion fixed by Ilizarov external fixator until union. The second group (29 patients, 30 feet), was treated by triple fusion with initial fixation by Ilizarov external fixation until correction of the deformity was achieved clinically, and then the Ilizarov fixation was replaced by internal fixation using percutaneous screws. Both groups were compared as regard the surgical outcome and the incidence of complications. There was statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding duration of external fixation and duration of casting with shorter duration in the group 2. Also there was statistically significant difference between both groups regarding pin tract infection with less incidence in group 2. Early removal of Ilizarov external fixation after correction of the deformity and percutaneous internal fixation using 6.5 cannulated screws can shorten the duration of treatment and be more comfortable for the patient with a low risk of recurrence or infection. Copyright © 2010 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A 2-year follow-up of a study to compare the efficacy of lateral wedged insoles with subtalar strapping and in-shoe lateral wedged insoles in patients with varus deformity osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Toda, Y; Tsukimura, N

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted in order to assess the effect of wearing a lateral wedged insole with a subtalar strap for 2 years in patients with osteoarthritis varus deformity of the knee (knee OA). The setting was an outpatient clinic. The efficacies of the strapped insole and a traditional shoe insert wedged insole (the inserted insole), as a positive control, were compared at the baseline and after 2 years of treatment. Randomization was performed according to birth date. The 61 female outpatients with knee OA who completed a prior 6-month study were asked to wear their respective insoles continuously as treatment during the course of the 2-year study. The femorotibial angle (FTA) was assessed by standing radiographs obtained while the subjects were barefoot and the Lequesne index of the knee OA at 2 years was compared with those at baseline in each insole group. There were 61 patients in the original study, but 13 patients (21.3%) did not want to wear the insole continuously and five (8.2%) withdrew for other reasons. The 42 patients who completed the 2-year study were evaluated. At the 2-year assessment, participants wearing the subtalar strapped insole (n=21) demonstrated significantly decreased FTA (P=0.015), and significantly improved Lequesne index (P=0.031) in comparison with their baseline assessments. These significant differences were not found in the group with the traditional shoe inserted wedged insole (n=21). Only those participants using the subtalar strapped insole demonstrated significant change in the FTA in comparison with the baseline assessments. If the insole with a subtalar strap maintains FTA for more than 2 years, it may restrict the progression of degenerative articular cartilage lesions of knee OA.

  7. Venous thrombosis after hallux valgus surgery.

    PubMed

    Radl, Roman; Kastner, Norbert; Aigner, Christian; Portugaller, Horst; Schreyer, Herbert; Windhager, Reinhard

    2003-07-01

    Although surgery for the treatment of hallux valgus is frequently performed, the exact rate of deep vein thrombosis following this procedure is unknown. We performed a single-center, prospective, phlebographically controlled study to quantify the rate of venous thrombosis following operative correction of hallux valgus. Consecutive patients undergoing chevron bunionectomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity were enrolled in the study. Patients with clinical or hematological risk factors for venous thrombosis were excluded. One hundred patients with a mean age of 48.9 years were operated on and did not receive medical prophylaxis against thrombosis. All patients were assessed with phlebography at a mean of twenty-nine days postoperatively. Venous thrombosis was found in four patients (4%). The mean age of these patients (and standard deviation) was 61.7 +/- 6.1 years compared with a mean age of 48.4 +/- 13.9 years for the patients in whom thrombosis did not develop (p = 0.034). Patients are at a low risk for venous thrombosis following surgical treatment of hallux valgus. The need for prophylaxis against thrombosis should be calculated individually for each patient according to his or her known level of risk. Routine medical prophylaxis against thrombosis might be justified for patients over the age of sixty years.

  8. A modified Austin/chevron osteotomy for treatment of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus.

    PubMed

    Vasso, Michele; Del Regno, Chiara; D'Amelio, Antonio; Schiavone Panni, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this brief paper is to present the preliminary results of a modified Austin/chevron osteotomy for treatment of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus. In this procedure, the dorsal arm of the osteotomy is performed orthogonal to the horizontal plane of the first metatarsal, the main advantage being that this allows much easier and more accurate multiplanar correction of first metatarsal deformities. From 2010 to 2013, 184 consecutive patients with symptomatic hallux valgus and 48 patients with hallux rigidus without severe metatarsophalangeal joint degeneration underwent such modified chevron osteotomy. Mean patient age was 54.9 (range 21-70) years, and mean follow-up duration was 41.7 (range 24-56) months. Ninety-three percent of patients were satisfied with the surgery. Mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score improved from 56.6 preoperatively to 90.6 at last follow-up, and mean visual analog scale (VAS) pain score decreased from 5.7 preoperatively to 1.6 at final follow-up (p < 0.05). In patients treated for hallux valgus, mean hallux valgus angle decreased from 34.1° preoperatively to 6.2° at final follow-up, and mean intermetatarsal angle decreased from 18.5° preoperatively to 4.1° at final follow-up (p < 0.05). One patient developed postoperative transfer metatarsalgia, treated successfully with second-time percutaneous osteotomy of the minor metatarsals, whilst one patient had wound infection that resolved with systemic antibiotics. Level IV.

  9. Hallux valgus (bunions)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hallux valgus (bunions) are prominent and often inflamed metatarsal heads and overlying bursae. They are associated with valgus deviation of the great toe which moves towards the second toe. Hallux valgus is found in at least 2% of children aged 9 to 10 years, and almost half of adults, with greater prevalence in women. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of conservative treatments for hallux valgus (bunions)? What are the effects of osteotomy for hallux valgus (bunions)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: chevron osteotomy plus adductor tenotomy; distal metatarsal osteotomy; minimally invasive surgery (percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy, SERI [Simple, Effective, Rapid, Inexpensive] distal metatarsal osteotomy); phalangeal (Akin) osteotomy plus distal chevron osteotomy; proximal osteotomy; night splints; and orthoses (including antipronatory orthoses in children).

  10. Multiple needle puncturing: balancing the varus knee.

    PubMed

    Bellemans, Johan

    2011-09-09

    The so-called "pie crusting" technique using multiple stab incisions is a well-established procedure for correcting tightness of the iliotibial band in the valgus knee. It is, however, not applicable for balancing the medial side in varus knees because of the risk for iatrogenic transsection of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). This article presents our experience with a safer alternative and minimally invasive technique for medial soft tissue balancing, where we make multiple punctures in the MCL using a 19-gauge needle to progressively stretch the MCL until a correct ligament balance is achieved. Our technique requires minimal to no additional soft tissue dissection and can even be performed percutaneously when necessary. This technique, therefore, does not impact the length of the skin or soft tissue incisions. We analyzed 61 cases with varus deformity that were intraoperatively treated using this technique. In 4 other cases, the technique was used as a percutaneous procedure to correct postoperative medial tightness that caused persistent pain on the medial side. The procedure was considered successful when a 2- to 4-mm mediolateral joint line opening was obtained in extension and 2 to 6 mm in flexion. In 62 cases (95%), a progressive correction of medial tightness was achieved according to the above-described criteria. Three cases were overreleased and required compensatory release of the lateral structures and use of a thicker insert. Based on these results, we consider needle puncturing an effective and safe technique for progressive correction of MCL tightness during minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. [Distal osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus (Chevron osteotomy)].

    PubMed

    Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Claaßen, L; Ettinger, S; Yao, D; Lerch, M; Plaaß, C

    2017-05-01

    Distal osteotomies, like the Chevron osteotomy, is indicated for mild to moderate hallux valgus deformities. Splayfoot, painful pseudoexostosis, and transfer metatasalgia are observed in the clinical examination. Radiographic examination should be done with weight bearing in two planes. Preoperatively the intermetatarsal (IM), hallux valgus, and distal metatarsal articular (DMAA) angles should be measured. The operative technique is based on soft tissue and bony correction. Modifications of the osteotomy allow a shortening, lengthening, or neutral correction of the first metatarsal. With a modified Chevron osteotomy, an increased DMAA can be also corrected.

  12. Measurement of first ray of foot with reference to hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Howale, Deepak S; Iyer, Kanaklata V; Shah, Jigesh V

    2012-06-01

    A study was carried out on 58 healthy volunteers. None of the volunteeres had any foot complaints. This was done to study Indian feet, as foot is an important part of human anatomy and its certain deformities eg, hallux valgus, can be very disabling. We have studied anatomical angles between 1st and 2nd rays of foot eg, angle of hallux valgus and angle of slant of distal facet of medial cuneiform and have shown significant correlation between them and development of hallux valgus. The coefficient of correlation (r) calculated between these two angles is significant, showing that this angle influences the angle of hallux valgus and hence development of hallux valgus. These are anatomical angles and indicate shapes of medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal. Hence these seem to be inherited, making the feet anatomically predisposed to develop hallux valgus. This view is supported by Gray's Anatomy. The extrinsic factors such as narrow toes, closed, footwear worn for an extended period do increase the angle of hallux valgus. So, in predisposed feet, this is one of the extrinsic factor which can lead to development of hallux valgus. On studying these two angles, orthopaedicians should be on alert and should advise such individuals on wearing foot- friendly foot-wear.

  13. Radiographic Shape of Foot With Second Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dislocation Associated With Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Tetsuro; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Suda, Yasunori; Waseda, Akeo; Ikezawa, Hiroko

    2017-12-01

    Second metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint dislocation is associated with hallux valgus, and the treatment of complete dislocation can be difficult. The purpose of this study was to radiographically clarify the characteristic foot shape in the presence of second MTP joint dislocation. Weight-bearing foot radiographs of the 268 patients (358 feet) with hallux valgus were examined. They were divided into 2 groups: those with second MTP joint dislocation (study group = 179 feet) and those without dislocation (control group = 179 feet). Parameters measured included the hallux valgus angle (HVA), first-second intermetatarsal angle (IMA), second MTP joint angle, hallux interphalangeal angle (IPA), second metatarsal protrusion distance (MPD), metatarsus adductus angle (MAA), and the second metatarsal declination angle (2MDA). Furthermore, the dislocation group was divided into 3 subgroups according to second toe deviation direction: group M (medial type), group N (neutral type), and group L (lateral type). The IPA and the 2MDA were significantly greater in the study group than in the control group. By multiple comparison analysis, the IMA was greatest in group M and smallest in group L. The IPA was smaller and 2MDA greater in group N than in group L. The HVA and MAA in group L were greatest, and MPD in group L was smallest. The patients with second MTP joint dislocation associated with hallux valgus had greater hallux interphalangeal joint varus and a second metatarsal more inclined than with hallux valgus alone. The second toe deviated in a different direction according to the foot shape. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  14. Revision with suture-tape augmentation after failed collateral ligament reconstruction for chronic interphalangeal instability of the hallux.

    PubMed

    Cho, Byung-Ki; Park, Ji-Kang; Choi, Seung-Myung; SooHoo, Nelson F

    2017-12-01

    Chronic varus instability or recurrent subluxation following isolated interphalangeal dislocation of the hallux is a rare injury. No consensus has been reached regarding the best joint-salvage procedure for patients with the failed collateral ligament reconstruction using tendon graft. We report a case who achieved satisfactory clinical outcome through a modified surgical procedure (revision collateral ligament reconstruction augmented with suture-tape). Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tibiofemoral Osteoarthritis and Varus-Valgus Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Freisinger, Gregory M.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Wanamaker, Andrea B.; Siston, Robert A.; Chaudhari, Ajit M. W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and synthesize the literature measuring varus-valgus laxity in individuals with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (OA). Specifically, we aimed to identify varus-valgus laxity differences between persons with OA and controls, by radiographic disease severity, by frontal plane knee alignment, and by sex. We also aimed to identify if there was a relationship between varus-valgus laxity and clinical performance and self-reported function. We systematically searched for peer-reviewed original research articles in PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL to identify all existing literature regarding knee OA and objective measurement of varus-valgus laxity in vivo. Forty articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria and data were extracted. Varus-valgus laxity was significantly greater in individuals with OA compared with controls in a majority of studies, while no study found laxity to be significantly greater in controls. Varus-valgus laxity of the knee was reported in persons with OA and varying degrees of frontal plane alignment, disease severity, clinical performance, and self-reported function but no consensus finding could be identified. Females with knee OA appear to have more varus-valgus laxity than males. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the subject populations and differences in laxity measurement devices, applied loading, and laxity definitions. Increased varus-valgus laxity is a characteristic of knee joints with OA. Large variances exist in reported varus-valgus laxity and may be due to differences in measurement devices. Prospective studies on joint laxity are needed to identify if increased varus-valgus laxity is a causative factor in OA incidence and progression. PMID:27680888

  16. New modified technique of osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Oh, I S; Kim, M K; Lee, S H

    2004-12-01

    To improve the technique of osteotomy for hallux valgus (bunion). 38 cases of a new modified osteotomy procedure for hallux valgus were performed for 22 patients (21 women and one man). During a 3-year (range, 2-5 years) follow-up, the patients underwent physical examination; and their American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-metatarso-phalangeal-interphalangeal scale scores and standard foot radiographic measurements were recorded. 20 of the 22 patients (38 cases) had no pain, achieved good cosmesis, and were completely satisfied with the results of the operation. The remaining 2 patients had occasional mild discomfort. The mean hallux-metatarso-phalangeal-interphalangeal scale score was 93 points (range, 78-100 points). The mean preoperative and postoperative metatarsophalangeal angles were 34 degrees and 11 degrees, respectively. The mean postoperative reduction of the intermetatarsal angle and metatarsophalangeal angle were 6 degrees and 23 degrees, respectively. The new technique of osteotomy achieved even greater stability and accurate correction of the deformity in our 38 cases. Furthermore, it was more effective than conventional 'chevron' osteotomy in terms of correction of the deformity. Therefore, it should be used more widely.

  17. [A special soft tissue procedure for treatment of hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Waizy, H; Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Abbara-Czardybon, M; Emmerich, J; Windhagen, H; Frank, D

    2011-02-01

    Maintaining the corrected position of the first metatasophalangeal axis. Reducing postoperative stiffness by forgoing a medial capsular shift. Hallux valgus deformities or recurrent hallux valgus deformities. Existing osteoarthritis, joint stiffness, large bone defects, osteonecrosis. General medical contraindications to surgical interventions and anesthesiological procedures. Operation under regional anesthesia (foot block) or general anesthesia. Tourniquet. Longitudinal skin incision medial over the pseudexostosis of the first metatarsal bone. Preparing the tendon of the Musculus abductor hallucis. Detaching the tendon from the capsule. Incision of the joint capsule with protection of the extensor hallucis longus tendon and the dorsal neurovascular bundle in an L-wise manner. Osteotomy of the first metatarsal bone. Lax sutures of the capsule in correct position and reattachment of the Musculus abductor hallucis tendon shifted toward distal and dorsal, regarding the rotation of the hallux. Postoperative elevation of the operated foot. Analgesia with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Postoperative weight-bearing according to the osteotomy. Passive mobilization of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Dressing for 4 weeks postoperatively in the corrected position. Radiologic control after 6 weeks. Hallux valgus orthosis at night and a toe spreader for a further 6 weeks. A total of 30 isolated hallux valgus deformities with a mean preoperative intermetatarsal (IMA) angle of 12.9° (range 11-15°) were operated with a chevron osteotomy. The mean follow-up was 14.4 (range 8-17) months. The mean dorsiflexion at the last follow-up was 44° (range 20-60°). Only 2 patients had a dorsiflexion <40°. The mean reduction of the IM angle was 5.6° (range 3-7°). One patient required wound revision. There was no infection or avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head observed in the patients. At follow-up, 20 (67%) patients were completely satisfied, 9 (30%) satisfied, and 1 (3

  18. Paleopathological study of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Mays, S A

    2005-02-01

    Hallux valgus is the abnormal lateral deviation of the great toe. The principal cause is biomechanical, specifically the habitual use of footwear which constricts the toes. In this study, descriptions of the anatomical changes of hallux valgus from published cadaveric and clinical studies were used to generate criteria for identifying the condition in ancient skeletal remains. The value of systematic scoring of hallux valgus in paleopathology is illustrated using two British skeletal series, one dating from the earlier and one from the later Medieval period. It was found that hallux valgus was restricted to later Medieval burials. This appears consistent with archaeological and historical evidence for a rise in popularity, during the late Medieval period (at least among the richer social classes), of narrow, pointed shoes which would have constricted the toes. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Increased Incidence and Severity of Postoperative Radiographic Hallux Valgus Interphalangeus With Surgical Correction of Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Alexis E; Lee, Lydia C; Charlton, Timothy P; Thordarson, David B

    2015-08-01

    A previous study has shown an increased radiographic prevalence and severity of hallux valgus interphalangeus (HVIP) after surgical correction of hallux valgus (HV) due to correction of pronation deformity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in pre- and postoperative HVIP deformity with correction of HV with multiple radiographic parameters. A retrospective chart review identified all bunion surgeries performed at a single center from July 1, 2009, to September 30, 2012. Exclusion criteria included prior bony surgery to the first ray, inadequate films, nonadult bunion, Akin osteotomy, or surgical treatment other than bunion correction. Pre- and postoperative films were reviewed for 2 HV angular measurements and 5 HVIP measurements, which were compared. The angles measured were hallux valgus angle (HVA), first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), hallux interphalangeus angle (HIA), distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA), proximal phalangeal articular angle (PPAA), proximal to distal phalangeal articular angle (PDPAA), and total distal deformity (TDD). Prevalence of HVIP was analyzed in pre- and postoperative radiographs. A 1-sided Student t test was used to compare continuous data, and a chi-square test was used to compare categorical data. Ninety-two feet in 82 patients were eligible. The average preoperative HV improved with surgery. Preoperative HVA improved from 27 to 11 degrees (P < .001). Preoperative IMA improved from 13.6 to 6.1 degrees (P < .001). HVIP worsened after surgery. Preoperative HIA increased from 7.2 to 13.2 degrees (P < .001). DMAA worsened from 7.3 to 9.2 degrees (P = .001). PPAA worsened from 3.2 to 6.2 degrees. PDPAA worsened from 6.7 to 8.2 degrees (P < .001). The TDD increased from 14.6 to 17.9 degrees (P < .001). The prevalence of HVIP pre- and postoperatively as defined by HIA increased from 26% to 79% (P < .001) and by PPAA from 12% to 46% (P < .001). Initial assessment of preoperative radiographs underestimated HVIP

  20. Variability of single-leg versus double-leg stance radiographs in the varus knee.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew; Rich, Valerie; Bain, Elizabeth; Sterett, William I

    2009-07-01

    We evaluated measured radiographic parameter variability between single-leg stance (SLS) and double-leg stance (DLS) radiographs in patients with varus knee malalignment, indicated for high tibial osteotomy. Fifty-three consecutive knees (mean, 49 years; range, 18-79 years) were evaluated for varus thrust. SLS and DLS radiographs were obtained. A single blinded observer measured mechanical axis angles and weight-bearing line (WBL) deviation using a goniometer. Mechanical axis angles averaged 9.1 degrees (DLS) and 11.3 degrees (SLS). SLS radiographs averaged 9% greater WBL medialization than did DLS. Medial opening averaged 16.4 mm (DLS) and 18.8 mm (SLS). DLS and SLS radiographs showed no significant differences in patients without varus thrust. Patients with varus thrust demonstrated differences in mechanical axis angles (DLS, 9.4 degrees; SLS, 12.2 degrees), WBL deviation (12.1% less), medialization (DLS), and medial opening necessary for correction (DLS, 16.6 mm; SLS, 20.3 mm). In varus thrust, SLS radiographs more closely replicate dynamic knee malalignment, possibly providing more accurate measurements of angular deformity.

  1. Corrective osteotomy for cubitus varus in middle-aged patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tae Kang; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Do Kyung; Park, Min Jong

    2011-09-01

    We reviewed the results of corrective osteotomy for cubitus varus in middle-aged patients to investigate whether it is recommended in this age group. We studied 20 consecutive patients who underwent 3-dimensional corrective osteotomy at an average age of 47.9 years (range, 41-55 years). The osteotomy was fixed with single plating in 8 patients and with double plating in 12. The average follow-up was 23 months (range, 18-109 months). The average humerus-elbow-wrist angle improved from 21.4° (range, 15°-35°) varus to 8.7° (range, -4°-20°) valgus. Osseous union was radiographically demonstrated in all patients at an average of 17.5 weeks (range, 8-36 weeks). Delayed union of longer than 12 weeks was observed in 15 patients (75%). The average time to union in the single-plating group was 21.0 weeks compared with 15.1 weeks in the double-plating group (P = .012). Failure of fixation occurred in 2 patients who had single plating. The preoperative and postoperative arc of motion was similar. According to Oppenheim criteria, results were excellent in 10, good in 8, and poor in 2. The average final Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 90.3 points (range, 70-100 points). Cubitus varus in middle-aged patients can be treated by a closing wedge osteotomy and fixation with double plating. This provides satisfactory deformity correction, maintenance of the elbow motion, and good functional outcome, although healing of the osteotomy tends to be delayed. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Preoperative radiological factors correlated to long-term recurrence of hallux valgus following distal chevron osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Pentikainen, Ilkka; Ojala, Risto; Ohtonen, Pasi; Piippo, Jouni; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to analyze the long-term radiologic results after distal chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus treatment and to determine the preoperative radiographic factors correlating with radiological recurrence of the deformity. The study included 100 consecutive patients who received distal chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus. The osteotomy included fixation with an absorbable pin in 50 cases, and no fixation in the other 50. For 6 weeks postoperatively, half of each group used a soft cast and half had a traditional elastic bandage. Weight-bearing radiographs were evaluated at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and a mean of 7.9 (range, 5.8-9.4) years postoperatively. At the final follow-up, radiological recurrence of hallux valgus deformity (HVA > 15 degrees) was observed in 56 feet (73%). Eleven feet (14%) had mild recurrence (HVA < 20 degrees), 44 (57%) moderate (20 degrees ≥ HVA < 40 degrees), and 1 (1%) severe (HVA ≥ 40 degrees). All recurrences were painless, and thus no revision surgery was required. Long-term hallux valgus recurrence was significantly affected by preoperative congruence, DMAA, sesamoid position, HVA, and I/II IMA. Radiological recurrence of hallux valgus deformity of 15 degrees or more was very common at long-term follow-up after distal chevron osteotomy. Preoperative congruence, DMAA, sesamoid position (LaPorta), HVA, and I/II IMA significantly affected recurrence. Level III, comparative case series. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. [A cadaveric study of a new capsulorrhaphy for the surgical treatment of hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Orozco-Villaseñor, S L; Monzó-Planella, M; Martín-Oliva, X; Vázquez-Escamilla, J; Mayagoitia-Vázquez, J J; Frías-Chimal, J E

    2017-01-01

    There are many surgical options for the treatment of hallux valgus in combination with capsular repairs for the correction of hallux valgus. This report corresponds to a descriptive study where a new capsulorrhaphy technique in hallux valgus is proposed. Six dissections were performed on cadavers with hallux valgus deformity using the following surgical technique: medial approach on the first toe longitudinally, dissecting by planes and locating the metatarsophalangeal joint capsule; it was incised longitudinally. The capsule was separated and an exostectomy of the first metatarsal head was done, the edges were regularized and a release of the abductor hallucis was performed. Later, the capsular remnant was resected and repaired. Six cadaveric feet with hallux valgus were studied, five with mild deformity, one with moderate deformity, one foot with the 2nd finger on supraductus. Many capsular repairs have been reported in the literature, including «L», triangular, «V-Y», rectangular, with satisfactory results, along with osteotomy of the first metatarsal. In this report, a new capsular repair was described. Applying this new capsular repair, we reduced the metatarsophalangeal and intermetatarsal angles and achieved a capsular closure with suitable tension; the metatarsophalangeal joint mobility was preserved.

  4. Role of intraoperative varus stress test for lateral soft tissue release during chevron bunion procedure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyong-Nyun; Suh, Dong-Hyun; Hwang, Pil-Sung; Yu, Sun-O; Park, Yong-Wook

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of distal chevron osteotomy performed in conjunction with selective lateral soft tissue release. The criterion for doing a lateral soft tissue release was assessed by determining the ease and completeness of passive hallux valgus correction at the time of surgery. Between August 2005 and November 2007, 48 feet in 43 patients classified as having mild to moderate hallux valgus were retrospectively studied. Distal chevron osteotomy without lateral soft tissue release was performed in 26 cases (Group 1) when passive correction of the hallux valgus deformity was possible. Distal chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release was performed in 22 cases (Group 2) when passive correction was not possible. Average followup was 23 (range, 12 to 28) months. Clinical results were assessed using radiographic parameters [hallux valgus angle (HVA), first and second intermetatarsal angle (1,2 IMA)], AOFAS scale and patient's subjective satisfaction. For Group 1: the average correction of HVA was 12.8 degrees, the average correction of IMA was 4.7 degrees, and the AOFAS score improved an average of 29.2 points at the last followup. Thirteen patients were very satisfied and ten patients were satisfied with the results. No patient was dissatisfied. For Group 2: the average correction of HVA was 19.1 degrees, the average correction of IMA was 7 degrees and AOFAS score improved at an average of 31.8 points at the last followup. Twelve patients were very satisfied, seven patients were satisfied and one patient, who had stiffness of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, was dissatisfied with the result. Distal chevron osteotomy with selective lateral soft tissue release based on the ability to passively correct the hallux valgus deformity lead to safe and stable correction.

  5. A geometric analysis of hallux valgus: correlation with clinical assessment of severity

    PubMed Central

    Piqué-Vidal, Carlos; Vila, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Background Application of plane geometry to the study of bunion deformity may represent an interesting and novel approach in the research field of hallux valgus. For the purpose of contributing to development of a different perspective in the assessment of hallux valgus, this study was conducted with three objectives: a) to determine the position on the intersection point of the perpendicular bisectors of the longitudinal axes of the first metatarsal and proximal phalanx (IP), b) to correlate the location of this point with hallux valgus deformity according to angular measurements and according to visual assessment of the severity carried out by three independent observers, and c) to assess whether this IP correlated with the radius of the first metatarsophalangeal arc circumference. Methods Measurements evaluated were intermetatarsal angle (IMA), hallux valgus angle (HVA), and proximal phalangeal articular angle (PPAA). The Autocad® program computed the location of the IP inside or outside of the foot. Three independent observers rated the severity of hallux valgus in photographs using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Results Measurements of all angles except PPAA showed significantly lower values when the IP was located out of the foot more distantly and vice versa, significantly higher values for severe deformities in which the IP was found inside the foot (p < 0.001). The IP correlated significantly with VAS scores and with the length of the radius of the circle that included the first metatarsophalangeal arc circumference (p < 0.001) Conclusion The IP is a useful indicator of hallux valgus deformity because correlated significantly with IMA and HVA measurements, VAS scores obtained by visual inspection of the degree of deformity, and location of the center of the first metatarsophalangeal arc circumference. PMID:19442286

  6. Clinical Phenotype Classifications Based on Static Varus Alignment and Varus Thrust in Japanese Patients With Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Hirotaka; Fukutani, Naoto; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Uritani, Daisuke; Kaneda, Eishi; Ota, Kazuo; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between knee pain during gait and 4 clinical phenotypes based on static varus alignment and varus thrust in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Patients in an orthopedic clinic (n = 266) diagnosed as having knee OA (Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] grade ≥1) were divided into 4 phenotype groups according to the presence or absence of static varus alignment and varus thrust (dynamic varus): no varus (n = 173), dynamic varus (n = 17), static varus (n = 50), and static varus + dynamic varus (n = 26). The knee range of motion, spatiotemporal gait parameters, visual analog scale scores for knee pain, and scores on the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure were used to assess clinical outcomes. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified the relationship between knee pain during gait and the 4 phenotypes, adjusted for possible risk factors, including age, sex, body mass index, K/L grade, and gait velocity. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that varus thrust without varus alignment was associated with knee pain during gait (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08–12.4), and that varus thrust combined with varus alignment was strongly associated with knee pain during gait (OR 17.1, 95% CI 3.19–320.0). Sensitivity analyses applying alternative cutoff values for defining static varus alignment showed comparable results. Conclusion Varus thrust with or without static varus alignment was associated with the occurrence of knee pain during gait. Tailored interventions based on individual malalignment phenotypes may improve clinical outcomes in patients with knee OA. PMID:26017348

  7. Short-Term Radiographic Outcome After Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus Using Intramedullary Plates With an Amended Algorithm for the Surgical Management of Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takumi; Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Selene G

    2018-03-01

    Distal Chevron osteotomy is a well-established surgical procedure for mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. Many methods have been described for fixation of osteotomy site; secure fixation, enabling large displacement of the metatarsal head, is one of the essentials of this procedure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the short-term radiographic outcome of a distal Chevron osteotomy using an intramedullary plate for the correction of hallux valgus deformity. The present study evaluated 37 patients (40 feet) who underwent distal Chevron osteotomy using an intramedullary plate by periodic radiographs obtained preoperatively and at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Correction of the hallux valgus angle averaged 17.8°, intermetatarsal angle 7.4°, distal metatarsal articular angle 2.7°, and sesamoid position 1.4 stages at 3 months postoperatively. The average lateral shift of the capital fragment was 6.5 mm. All patients achieved bone union, and there were no cases of dislocation, displacement, or avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head fragment. In conclusion, a distal Chevron osteotomy using an intramedullary plate was a favorable method for the correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity. Level IV: Case series.

  8. [Humerus varus: correction by proximal valgus osteotomy with precontourned plate fixation in children].

    PubMed

    Tallón-López, J; Domínguez-Amador, J J; Andrés-García, J A

    2014-01-01

    Varus deformity of the proximal humerus in children is a little known pathology due to its low incidence of presentation. Progress has been made in recent years in understanding the possible etiology and pathophysiological causes. Radiological criteria for diagnosis and functional impairment that occurs have also been defined. However, there are few reports in the literature about the surgical treatment of this deformity in children. In this paper we present a case of surgical treatment of this deformity by corrective osteotomy fixed with precontoured external maleolar plate osteosynthesis. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Operative Treatment of Traumatic Hallux Valgus in Elite Athletes.

    PubMed

    Covell, D Jeff; Lareau, Craig R; Anderson, Robert B

    2017-06-01

    Traumatic hallux valgus is an increasingly common injury in the athletic population and represents a unique variant of turf toe. Failure to appropriately recognize and treat these injuries can lead to continued pain, decreased performance, progressive deformities, and ultimately degeneration of the hallux metatarsophalangeal joint. Limited literature currently exists to assist in the diagnosis, management, and operative treatment. Nineteen patients were reviewed in this series, including 12 National Football League, 6 college, and 1 high school player who was a college prospect. The average age for all patients at the time of surgery was 24.4 years (range, 19-33 years). Return to play and complications were evaluated. Overall, good operative results were obtained, with 74% of patients returning to their preinjury level of play at an average recovery time of 3.4 months. Traumatic hallux valgus is an increasingly common injury in the athletic population and represents a unique variant of turf toe. The impact of this injury cannot be overstated, as one-quarter of players were unable to return to play. Level IV, case series.

  10. Lateral sesamoid position in hallux valgus: correlation with the conventional radiological assessment.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Yuvraj; Desai, Aravind; Mehta, Jaysheel

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to quantify the severity of the hallux valgus based on the lateral sesamoid position and to establish a correlation of our simple assessment method with the conventional radiological assessments. We reviewed one hundred and twenty two dorso-plantar weight bearing radiographs of feet. The intermetatarsal and hallux valgus angles were measured by the conventional methods; and the position of lateral sesamoid in relation to first metatarsal neck was assessed by our new and simple method. Significant correlation was noted between intermetatarsal angle and lateral sesamoid position (Rho 0.74, p < 0.0001); lateral sesamoid position and hallux valgus angle (Rho 0.56, p < 0.0001). Similar trends were noted in different grades of severity of hallux valgus in all the three methods of assessment. Our method of assessing hallux valgus deformity based on the lateral sesamoid position is simple, less time consuming and has statistically significant correlation with that of the established conventional radiological measurements. Copyright © 2011 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative study of scarf and extended chevron osteotomies for correction of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Vopat, Bryan G; Lareau, Craig R; Johnson, Julie; Reinert, Steven E; DiGiovanni, Christopher W

    2013-12-01

    Scarf and chevron osteotomies are two described treatments for the correction of hallux valgus deformity, but they have traditionally been employed for different levels of severity. We hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant difference between the results of these two treatments. This study is a retrospective review of 70 consecutive patients treated operatively for moderate and severe hallux valgus malalignment. The two groups based on their operative treatment: scarf osteotomy (Group A) and extended chevron osteotomy (Group B). Preoperative and postoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle and distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA) were measured at final follow-up. Charts were also assessed to determine the postoperative rate of satisfaction, stiffness, and pain. There were no statistically significant differences between Groups A and B with regard to the HVA preoperatively and postoperatively. The DMAA was statistically significantly higher for Group B both preoperatively (p=0.0403) and postoperatively (p<0.0001). The differences in HVA correction and IMA correction were not statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to post-operative stiffness, pain, and satisfaction. The scarf and extended chevron osteotomies are capable of adequately reducing the HVA and IMA in patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus. These two techniques yielded similar patient outcomes in terms of stiffness, pain and satisfaction. Based on these results, we recommend both the scarf and extended chevron osteotomy as acceptable forms of correction for moderate to severe hallux valgus.

  12. Evaluation of Hallux Valgus Correction With Versus Without Akin Proximal Phalanx Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Thorud, Jakob C; Martin, Lanster R; Plemmons, Britton S; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Although the efficacy of Akin proximal phalanx closing wedge osteotomy as a sole procedure for correction of hallux valgus deformity is questionable, when used in combination with other osseous corrective procedures, the procedure has been believed to be efficacious. However, a limited number of comparative studies have confirmed the value of this additional procedure. We identified patients who had undergone osseous hallux valgus correction with first metatarsal osteotomy or first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with (n = 73) and without (n = 81) Akin osteotomy and evaluated their radiographic measurements at 3 points (preoperatively, within 3 months after surgery, and ≥6 months after surgery). We found that those people who had undergone the Akin procedure tended to have a larger hallux abduction angle and a more laterally deviated tibial sesamoid position preoperatively. Although the radiographic correction of the deformity was promising immediately after corrective surgery with the Akin osteotomy, maintenance of the correction was questionable in our cohort. The value of additional Akin osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity is uncertain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Equivalent correction in scarf and chevron osteotomy in moderate and severe hallux valgus: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Deenik, Axel; van Mameren, Henk; de Visser, Enrico; de Waal Malefijt, Maarten; Draijer, Frits; de Bie, Rob

    2008-12-01

    Chevron osteotomy is a widely accepted osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus.(18) Algorithms were developed to overcome the limitations of distal osteotomies. Scarf osteotomy has become popular as a versatile procedure that should be able to correct most cases of acquired hallux valgus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether patients with moderate or severe hallux valgus have better correction with a scarf osteotomy as compared to chevron osteotomy. After informed consent, 136 feet in 115 patients were randomized to 66 scarf and 70 chevron osteotomies. Deformities of patients were classified as mild, moderate and severe according to IMA, and both groups were compared with independent t-tests. The results were measured using radiographic HVA, IMA and DMAA measurements. There were no statistical differences in HVA, IMA and DMAA between scarf and chevron osteotomy in mild to moderate hallux valgus. In severe hallux valgus, chevron osteotomy corrected HVA better than scarf osteotomy, although this group consisted of twelve patients only. Five patients in the chevron group and seven in the scarf group developed recurrent subluxation of the metatarsophalangeal joint. In patients with moderate and severe hallux valgus, the results of chevron osteotomy were at least as effective as a scarf osteotomy. Recurrent subluxation of the first metatatarsophalangeal joint was the main cause for insufficient correction. We favor the chevron osteotomy because it is less invasive, without sacrificing correction of HVA and IMA.

  14. Short-Term Effects of Kinesiotaping on Pain and Joint Alignment in Conservative Treatment of Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Bek, Nilgun; Tiftikci, Ugur

    2015-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to measure short-term effects of kinesiotaping on pain and joint alignment in the conservative treatment of hallux valgus. Twenty-one female patients diagnosed with a total of 34 feet with hallux valgus (13 bilateral, 6 right, and 2 left) participated in this study. Kinesiotaping was implemented after the first assessment and renewed in days 3, 7, and 10. The main outcome measures were pain, as assessed using visual analog scale, and hallux adduction angle, as measured by goniometry. Secondary outcome measure was patients' functional status, as measured by Foot Function Index and the hallux valgus scale of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). The radiographic results were also measured before and after 1 month of treatment. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the differences between initial and final scores of AOFAS, as well as FFI scales and hallux valgus angle assessment scores. There was a significant reduction in goniometric measurement of hallux valgus angle (P = .001). There was a significant reduction in pain intensity (P = .001) and AOFAS and Foot Function Index scores at the end of the treatment (P = .001 and P = .001, respectively). There was a significant difference between radiographic results in 1-month control (P = .009). For this group of female patients, pain and joint alignment were improved after a 10-day kinesiotape implementation in patients with hallux valgus. The findings showed short-term decreased pain and disability in hallux valgus deformity. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. No midterm benefit from low intensity pulsed ultrasound after chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Zacherl, Max; Gruber, Gerald; Radl, Roman; Rehak, Peter H; Windhager, Reinhard

    2009-08-01

    Chevron osteotomy is a widely accepted method for correction of symptomatic hallux valgus deformity. Full weight bearing in regular shoes is not recommended before 6 weeks after surgery. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is known to stimulate bone formation leading to more stable callus and faster bony fusion. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study on 44 participants (52 feet) who underwent chevron osteotomy to evaluate the influence of daily transcutaneous low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) treatment at the site of osteotomy. Follow-up at 6 weeks and 1 year included plain dorsoplantar radiographs, hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale and a questionnaire on patient satisfaction. There was no statistical difference in any pre- or postoperative clinical features, patient satisfaction or radiographic measurements (hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, sesamoid index and metatarsal index) except for the first distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). The DMAA showed statistically significant (p = 0.046) relapse in the placebo group upon comparison of intraoperative radiographs after correction and fixation (5.2 degrees) and at the 6-week follow-up (10.6 degrees). Despite potential impact of LIPUS on bone formation, we found no evidence of an influence on outcome 6 weeks and 1 year after chevron osteotomy for correction of hallux valgus deformity.

  16. [Treatment of Hallux Valgus: Current Diagnostic Testing and Surgical Treatment Performed by German Foot and Ankle Surgeons].

    PubMed

    Arbab, Dariusch; Schneider, Lisa-Maria; Schnurr, Christoph; Bouillon, Bertil; Eysel, Peer; König, Dietmar Pierre

    2018-04-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most prevalent foot deformities, and surgical treatment of Hallux valgus is one of the most common procedures in foot and ankle surgery. Diagnostic and treatment standards show large variation despite medical guidelines and national foot and ankle societies. The aim of this nationwide survey is a description of the current status of diagnostics and therapy of Hallux valgus in Germany. A nationwide online questionnaire survey was sent to two German foot and ankle societies. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire of 53 questions with four subgroups (general, diagnostics, operation, preoperative management). Surgical treatment for three clinical cases demonstrating a mild, moderate and severe Hallux valgus deformity was inquired. 427 foot and ankle surgeons answered the questionnaire. 388 participants were certified foot and ankle surgeons from one or both foot and ankle societies. Medical history (78%), preoperative radiographs (100%) and preoperative radiographic management (78%) are of high or very high importance for surgical decision pathway. Outcome scores are used by less than 20% regularly. Open surgery is still the gold standard, whereas minimally invasive surgery is performed by only 7%. Our survey showed that diagnostic standards are met regularly. There is a wide variation in the type of procedures used to treat Hallux valgus deformity. TMT I arthrodesis is preferred in severe Hallux valgus, but also used to treat moderate and mild deformities. Minimally invasive surgery is still used by a minority of surgeons. It remains to be seen, to what extent minimally invasive surgery will be performed in the future. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Descriptive quantitative analysis of hallux abductovalgus transverse plane radiographic parameters.

    PubMed

    Meyr, Andrew J; Myers, Adam; Pontious, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Although the transverse plane radiographic parameters of the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), hallux abductus angle (HAA), and the metatarsal-sesamoid position (MSP) form the basis of preoperative procedure selection and postoperative surgical evaluation of the hallux abductovalgus deformity, the so-called normal values of these measurements have not been well established. The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate the descriptive statistics of the first IMA, HAA, and MSP from a large patient population and (2) to determine an objective basis for defining "normal" versus "abnormal" measurements. Anteroposterior foot radiographs from 373 consecutive patients without a history of previous foot and ankle surgery and/or trauma were evaluated for the measurements of the first IMA, HAA, and MSP. The results revealed a mean measurement of 9.93°, 17.59°, and position 3.63 for the first IMA, HAA, and MSP, respectively. An advanced descriptive analysis demonstrated data characteristics of both parametric and nonparametric distributions. Furthermore, clear differentiations in deformity progression were appreciated when the variables were graphically depicted against each other. This could represent a quantitative basis for defining "normal" versus "abnormal" values. From the results of the present study, we have concluded that these radiographic parameters can be more conservatively reported and analyzed using nonparametric descriptive and comparative statistics within medical studies and that the combination of a first IMA, HAA, and MSP at or greater than approximately 10°, 18°, and position 4, respectively, appears to be an objective "tipping point" in terms of deformity progression and might represent an upper limit of acceptable in terms of surgical deformity correction. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pure Varus Injury to the Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Ho; Lee, Jung Ha; Chang, Chong Bum

    2015-06-01

    A 30-year-old male was involved in a car accident. Radiographs revealed a depressed marginal fracture of the medial tibial plateau and an avulsion fracture of the fibular head. Magnetic resonance imaging showed avulsion fracture of Gerdy's tubercle, injury to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), posterior horn of the medial meniscus, and the attachments of the lateral collateral ligament and the biceps femoris tendon. The depressed fracture of the medial tibial plateau was elevated and stabilized using a cannulated screw and washer. The injured lateral and posterolateral corner (PLC) structures were repaired and augmented by PLC reconstruction. However, the avulsion fracture of Gerdy's tubercle was not fixed because it was minimally displaced and the torn PCL was also not repaired or reconstructed. We present a unique case of pure varus injury to the knee joint. This case contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of knee injury and provides insight regarding appropriate treatment plans for this type of injury.

  19. Increased hallux angle in children and its association with insufficient length of footwear: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian; Groll-Knapp, Elisabeth; Kundi, Michael; Kinz, Wieland

    2009-12-17

    Wearing shoes of insufficient length during childhood has often been cited as leading to deformities of the foot, particularly to the development of hallux valgus disorders. Until now, these assumptions have not been confirmed through scientific research. This study aims to investigate whether this association can be statistically proven, and if children who wear shoes of insufficient length actually do have a higher risk of a more pronounced lateral deviation of the hallux. 858 pre-school children were included in the study. The study sample was stratified by sex, urban/rural areas and Austrian province. The hallux angle and the length of the feet were recorded. The inside length of the children's footwear (indoor shoes worn in pre-school and outdoor shoes) were assessed. Personal data and different anthropometric measurements were taken. The risk of hallux valgus deviation was statistically tested by a stepwise logistic regression analysis and the relative risk (odds ratio) for a hallux angle > or = 4 degrees was calculated. Exact examinations of the hallux angle could be conducted on a total of 1,579 individual feet. Only 23.9% out of 1,579 feet presented a straight position of the great toe. The others were characterized by lateral deviations (valgus position) at different degrees, equalling 10 degrees or greater in 14.2% of the children's feet.88.8% of 808 children examined wore indoor footwear that was of insufficient length, and 69.4% of 812 children wore outdoor shoes that were too short. A significant relationship was observed between the lengthwise fit of the shoes and the hallux angle: the shorter the shoe, the higher the value of the hallux angle. The relative risk (odds ratio) of a lateral hallux deviation of > or = 4 degrees in children wearing shoes of insufficient length was significantly increased. There is a significant relationship between the hallux angle in children and footwear that is too short in length. The fact that the majority of the

  20. [CORRECTION OF VARUS KNEE WITH REDUCTION OSTEOTOMY DURING TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY].

    PubMed

    Su, Weiping; Xie, Jie; Li, Mingqing; Zeng, Min; Lei, Pengfei; Wang, Long; Hu, Yihe

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of reduction osteotomy for correction of varus knee during total knee arthroplasty. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 16 patients (24 knees) who received reduction osteotomy for correcting varus knee during total knee arthroplasty between May 2010 and July 2012. There were 2 males (3 knees) and 14 females (21 knees), with an average age of 67 years (range, 57-79 years). The disease duration ranged from 3 to 15 years (mean, 9.1 years). The Knee Society Score (KSS) was 38.71 ± 10.04 for clinical score and 50.31 ± 14.31 for functional score. The range of motion (ROM) of the knee was (91.88 ± 13.01). The tibiofemoral angle was (9.04 ± 4.53)° of varus deformity. Reduction osteotomy was applied to correct varus knee. The operation time was 85-245 minutes (mean, 165.5 minutes); the obvious blood loss was 10-800 mL (mean, 183.1 mL); the hospitalization time was 8-22 days (mean, 13.6 days). All incisions healed by first intention. No neurovascular injury or patellar fracture occurred. The follow-up duration ranged from 37 to 62 months (mean, 48 months). The tibiofemoral angle was corrected to (3.92 ± 1.89)° of valgus at 48 hours after operation. The lower limb alignment recovered to normal. The X-ray films showed no evidence of obvious radiolucent line, osteolysis, or prosthesis subsidence. The results of KSS were significantly improved to 84.21 ± 6.49 for clinical score and 85.31 ± 6.95 for functional score (t = 20.665, P = 0.000; t = 9.585, P = 0.000); and ROM of the knee was significantly increased to (105.83 ± 11.29)° (t = 8.333, P = 0.000) at last follow-up. The effectiveness of reduction osteotomy for varus knee deformity during total knee arthroplasty is satisfactory. Proper alignment, ROM, and function of knee can be achieved.

  1. [The retrocapital osteotomy ("chevron") for correction of splayfoot with hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Gabel, Michael

    2008-12-01

    Surgical treatment of hallux valgus deformity with a distal osteotomy of the first metatarsal to address an increased intermetatarsal angle (IMA) I-II. This procedure is combined with a soft-tissue procedure at the first metatarsophalangeal joint: realignment of the first ray, lateral displacement of the first metatarsal head above the sesamoids, rebalancing of the soft tissues at the metatarsophalangeal joint. Pain and soft-tissue inflammation at the bunion, impaired function of the metatarsophalangeal joint, and lateral deviation of the hallux. IMA I-II hallux valgus angle (HVA) 10 degrees. Symptomatic osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, assessed clinically or radiographically. Acute inflammation of the forefoot, osteoporosis of the first metatarsal. Vascular disturbance. Cosmetic indication only. Relative: hypermobility of the first ray, valgus malalignment of the hindfoot, previous retrocapital osteotomy. Lateral soft-tissue release. Resection of the medial pseudoexostosis. V-shaped osteotomy of the distal metatarsal I. Exostosectomy. Lateral displacement of the first metatarsal head. Screw fixation. Realignment of the metatarsophalangeal joint by tightening of the medial soft tissues. Postoperative shoe with full weight bearing. Active exercises of the foot and hallux. Physiotherapy. Prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis depending on the degree of mobility. Radiographic control after 6 weeks. Bandage or orthosis to maintain toe alignment. IMA I-II was reduced from 13.6 degrees preoperatively to 6.6 degrees postoperatively. HVA decreased from 29.8 degrees to 8.2 degrees postoperatively.

  2. First metatarsal length change after basilar closing wedge osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Day, Thomas; Charlton, Timothy P; Thordarson, David B

    2011-05-01

    Hallux valgus deformities with large intermetatarsal angles require a more proximal metatarsal procedure to adequately correct the deformity. Due to the relative ease of a closing wedge osteotomy, this technique was adopted but with concern over first metatarsal shortening. In this study, we primarily evaluated angular correction and first metatarsal shortening. We evaluated 70 feet in 57 patients (average age, 54 years) with 52 female and five male. The average followup was 14 (range, 6 to 45) months. The charts were reviewed for the presence of metatarsalgia. Digital radiographic measurements were made for pre- and postoperative hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles, dorsiflexion angle of the first metatarsal, and absolute and relative shortening of the first metatarsal. The average hallux valgus angle improved from 31 to 11 degrees (p < 0.0001) and intermetatarsal angle from 13.2 to 4.4 angles (p < 0.0001). The absolute shortening of the first metatarsal was 2.2 mm and relative shortening was 0.6 mm. There was 1.3 degrees of dorsiflexion on average. Excellent correction of the deformity with minimal dorsiflexion or new complaints of metatarsalgia was found with this technique. The new method of assessing the relative shortening found to be less than the absolute shortening, which we feel more accurately reflects the functional length of the first metatarsal.

  3. Comparison of the Modified McBride Procedure and the Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Mild to Moderate Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gi Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Kim, Taik Seon; Chun, Sung Kwang; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Yong In; Kim, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Distal metatarsal osteotomy and the modified McBride procedure have each been used for the treatment of mild to moderate hallux valgus. However, few studies have compared the results of these 2 procedures for mild to moderate hallux valgus. The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of distal chevron osteotomy and the modified McBride procedure for treatment of mild to moderate hallux valgus according to the severity of the deformity. We analyzed the data from 45 patients (49.5%; 48 feet [49.0%]), who had undergone an isolated modified McBride procedure (McBride group), and 46 patients (50.5%; 50 feet [51.0%]), who had a distal chevron osteotomy (chevron group). We subdivided each group into those with mild and moderate deformity and compared the clinical and radiologic outcomes between the groups in relation to the severity of the deformity. The improvements in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale score and the visual analog scale for pain were significantly better for the chevron group for both mild and moderate deformity. The chevron group experienced significantly greater correction in the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle for both mild and moderate deformity. The chevron group experienced a significantly greater decrease in the grade of sesamoid displacement for patients with moderate deformity. The McBride group had a greater risk of recurrence than did the chevron group for moderate deformity (odds ratio 14.00, 95% confidence interval 3.91 to 50.06, p < .001). The results of the present study have demonstrated the superiority of the distal chevron osteotomy over the modified McBride procedure for mild to moderate deformity. For patients with moderate deformity, the McBride group had a greater risk of hallux valgus recurrence than did the distal chevron group. Therefore, we recommend distal chevron osteotomy rather than a modified McBride procedure for the treatment of mild and moderate hallux valgus. Copyright

  4. Z-osteotomy in hallux valgus: clinical and radiological outcome after Scarf osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Marcus; Schmidt, Michael; Wild, Alexander; Bittersohl, Bernd; Courtois, Susanne; Schmidt, Troy G.; Rüdiger, Krauspe

    2009-01-01

    Correction osteotomies of the first metatarsal are common surgical approaches in treating hallux valgus deformities whereas the Scarf osteotomy has gained popularity. The purpose of this study was to analyze short- and mid-term results in hallux valgus patients who underwent a Scarf osteotomy. The subjective and radiological outcome of 131 Scarf osteotomies (106 hallux valgus patients, mean age: 57.5 years, range: 22–90 years) were retrospectively analyzed. Mean follow-up was 22.4 months (range: 6 months–5 years). Surgical indications were: intermetatarsal angle (IMA) of 12–23°; increased proximal articular angle (PAA>8°), and range of motion of the metatarsophalangeal joint in flexion and extension >40°. Exclusion criteria were severe osteoporosis and/or osteoarthritis. The mean subjective range of motion (ROM) of the great toe post-surgery was 0.8±1.73 points (0: full ROM, 10: total stiffness). The mean subjective cosmetic result was 2.7±2.7 points (0: excellent, 10: poor). The overall post-operative patient satisfaction with the result was high (2.1±2.5 points (0: excellent, 10: poor). The mean hallux valgus angle improvement was 16.6° (pre-operative mean value: 37.5°) which was statistically significant (p<0.01). The IMA improved by an average of 5.96° from a pre-operative mean value of 15.4° (p<0.01). Neither osteonecrosis of the distal fragment nor perioperative fractures were noted during the follow-up. In keeping with our follow-up results, the Scarf osteotomy approach shows potential in the therapy of hallux valgus. PMID:21808668

  5. Chevron osteotomy with lateral release and adductor tenotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Vito; Caterini, Roberto; Farsetti, Pasquale; Forconi, Fabrizio; Savarese, Eugenio; Nicoletti, Simone; Ippolito, Ernesto

    2009-06-01

    Distal chevron osteotomy is a procedure widely performed for the surgical treatment of painful hallux valgus. The risks and benefits of a lateral capsular release and adductor tenotomy combined with chevron osteotomy are still debated. The aim of our study was to report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of this combined procedure in mild and moderate incongruent bunion deformities, with a hallux valgus angle (HVA) up to 40 degrees and an intermetatarsal angle (IMA) up to 20 degrees. Forty-two patients (52 feet) who consecutively underwent chevron osteotomy combined with lateral release and adductor tenotomy were reviewed 24-36 months after surgery. The mean age of the patients was 53.5 (range, 43 to 64) years. All the deformities were mild to moderate, with a mean preoperative value of 28 degrees in the HVA (range, 16 degrees to 40 degrees) and of 13 degrees in the IMA (range, 9 degrees to 20 degrees). At followup, the AOFAS hallux score improved from an average of 46 to an average of 88. The HVA and IMA had an average postoperative decrease respectively of 12 degrees and 6 degrees; lateral sesamoid displacement decreased by a mean of 15%. In no case did we observe infection or nonunion of the osteotomy. In one case, painless avascular necrosis of the first metatarsal head developed. Our short-term results show that distal chevron osteotomy combined with lateral release and adductor tenotomy is a feasible surgical option to address mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity, even with an IM angle between 15 and 20 degrees. Clinical and radiographic outcomes are generally good and patient satisfaction is generally high.

  6. [Dynamic plantar pressure distribution after percutaneous hallux valgus correction using the Reverdin-Isham osteotomy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; López-Gavito, Eduardo; Pérez-Sanpablo, Alberto Isaac; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín; Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe; Parra-Téllez, Patricia; Vázquez-Escamilla, Jesús; Quiñones-Urióstegui, Ivett

    2014-07-01

    Percutaneous surgical techniques are suitable for the correction of the hallux valgus deformity. Satisfactory aesthetic and functional results obtained with the Reverdin- Isham osteotomy have been reported. The aim of this study was to describe dynamic plantar pressure redistribution after the correction of the deformity using this technique. A sample of 20 feet with mild or moderate hallux valgus was conformed and surgically treated using the Reverdin-Isham osteotomy. Clinical, radiological, surface and pressure assessments were performed pre and postoperatively. Postoperative mean (± SD) values of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, metatarsophalangeal, first intermetatarsal and proximal articular sect angles were 95.7 (3.3), 15.5° (5.4), 9.5° (1.5) y 5.3° (3.0), respectively. A significant decrease was observed in surface values of both lateral (P = 0.003) and medial (P = 0.001) masks of the forefoot. Mean pressure values of the lateral forefoot region denoted a significant increase (P < 0.001) while the medial forefoot region showed no change (P = 0.137). There is evidence that this particular surgical technique promotes a new plantar pressure pattern in the foot that might significantly favour the increase of the pressure observed under the lesser metatarsal heads and might not induce meaningful changes in the mean pressure registered under the first metatarsal head and hallux.

  7. Radiographic angles in hallux valgus: Comparison between protractor and iPhone measurements.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hong-Zheng; Zhang, Wei-Lin; Li, Xiu-Cheng; Yang, Mao-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Radiographic angles are used to assess the severity of hallux valgus deformity, make preoperative plans, evaluate outcomes after surgery, and compare results between different methods. Traditionally, hallux valgus angle (HVA) has been measured by using a protractor and a marker pen with hardcopy radiographs. The main objective of this study is to compare HVA measurements performed using a smartphone and a traditional protractor. The secondary objective was to compare the time taken between those two methods. Six observers measured major HVA on 20 radiographs of hallux valgus deformity with both a standard protractor and an Apple iPhone. Four of the observers repeated the measurements at least a week after the original measurements. The mean absolute difference between pairs of protractor and smartphone measurements was 3.2°. The 95% confidence intervals for intra-observer variability were ±3.1° for the smartphone measurement and ±3.2° for the protractor method. The 95% confidence intervals for inter-observer variability were ±9.1° for the smartphone measurement and ±9.6° for the protractor measurement. We conclude that the smartphone is equivalent to the protractor for the accuracy of HVA measurement. But, the time taken in smartphone measurement was also reduced. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Is Double Metatarsal Osteotomy Superior to Proximal Chevron Osteotomy in Treatment of Hallux Valgus With Increased Distal Metatarsal Articular Angle?

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Hyun; Lee, Woo-Chun

    We compared the results of proximal chevron osteotomy and double metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus with an increased distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). From October 2008 to December 2012, first metatarsal osteotomies were performed in 64 patients (69 feet) with symptomatic hallux valgus associated with an increased DMAA. Proximal chevron with Akin osteotomy and lateral soft tissue release was performed in 46 feet (PCO group); double metatarsal osteotomy and Akin osteotomy without lateral soft tissue release was performed in 23 feet (DMO group). Clinical assessments were performed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale and visual analog scale (VAS). The hallux valgus angles, intermetatarsal angles, sesamoid positions, metatarsus adductus angles, and DMAAs were compared at different postoperative times. Postoperative shortening of first the metatarsal and complications were compared. The mean AOFAS scale and VAS scores showed significant improvement in both groups after surgery; however, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups. The immediate postoperative hallux valgus angle and sesamoid position were significantly larger in DMO group; however, no intergroup difference was observed at the last follow-up visit, with the hallux valgus angle gradually increasing in the PCO group. The postoperative DMAA was significantly smaller in the DMO group. The mean shortening of the first metatarsal after surgery was significantly larger in the DMO group than in the PCO group. Transfer metatarsalgia developed in 1 foot (2.2%) in the PCO group and 2 feet (8.7%) in the DMO group. Partial avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head with advanced arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint developed in 1 foot (4.3%) in the DMO group. In conclusion, no differences in the clinical and radiographic results were observed between the 2 groups for hallux valgus deformity with an increased DMAA. Copyright © 2017 The American

  9. Long-term Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Scarf to Chevron Osteotomy in Hallux Valgus Correction.

    PubMed

    Jeuken, Ralph M; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kort, Nanne P; Deenik, Axel; Jong, Bob; Hendrickx, Roel P M

    2016-07-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most common foot deformities. This long-term follow-up study compared the results of 2 widely used operative treatments for hallux valgus: the scarf and chevron osteotomy. Conventional weight bearing anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of the foot were made for evaluating the intermetatarsal angle and hallux valgus angle. For clinical evaluation, the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) rating system for the hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale was used together with physical examination of the foot. These data were compared with the results from the original study. The Short Form 36 questionnaire, the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ), and a general questionnaire including a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score were used for subjective evaluation. The primary outcome measures were the radiologic recurrence of hallux valgus and reoperation rate of the same toe. Secondary outcome measures were the results from the radiographs and subjective and clinical evaluation. The response rate was 76% at the follow-up of 14 years; in the chevron group, 37 feet were included compared with 36 feet in the scarf group. Twenty-eight feet in the chevron group and 27 in the scarf group developed recurrence of hallux valgus (P = .483). One patient in the scarf group had a reoperation of the same toe compared with none in the chevron group (P = .314). Current VAS pain scores and results from the SF-36, MOXFQ, and AOFAS did not significantly differ between groups. Both techniques showed similar results after 2 years of follow-up. At 14 years of follow-up, neither technique was superior in preventing recurrence. Level II, randomized controlled trial. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Polyethylene Damage Increases With Varus Implant Alignment in Posterior-stabilized and Constrained Condylar Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhichang; Esposito, Christina I; Koch, Chelsea N; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Padgett, Douglas E; Wright, Timothy M

    2017-12-01

    Implant malalignment in primary TKA has been reported to increase stresses placed on the bearing surfaces of implant components. We used a longitudinally maintained registry coupled with an implant retrieval program to consider whether preoperative, postoperative, or prerevision malalignment was associated with increased risk of revision surgery after TKA. (1) What is the relative polyethylene damage on medial and lateral compartments of the tibial plateaus from revised TKAs? (2) Does coronal TKA alignment affect implant performance, such that TKAs aligned in varus are predisposed to experience increased polyethylene damage? (3) Does TKA alignment differ between postoperative and prerevision radiographs, and if so, what does this difference suggest about the mechanical contact load placed on a knee with a TKA? Between 2007 and 2012, we performed 18,065 primary TKAs at our institution. By March 2016, 178 of those TKAs (1%) were revised at our center at least 2 years after primary surgery at our institution. Eighteen of those TKAs were excluded from this analysis because the tibial insert was not explanted during revision surgery, and four more were excluded because the inserts were lost or returned to the patient before the study was initiated, leaving 156 retrieved polyethylene tibial inserts (in 153 patients) revised at greater than 2 years after the primary TKA for this retrospective study. Patients who underwent revision surgery elsewhere were not considered here, since this study depended on having retrieved components. Polyethylene damage modes of burnishing, pitting, scratching, delamination, surface deformation, abrasion, and third-body debris were subjectively graded on a scale of 0 to 3 to reflect the extent and severity of each damage mode. On preoperative, postoperative, and prerevision radiographs, overall alignment, femoral alignment, and tibial alignment in the coronal plane were measured according to the protocol recommended by the Knee Society

  11. Hallux rigidus: How do I approach it?

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Aaron; Chan, Jimmy J; Surace, Michele F; Vulcano, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    Hallux rigidus is a degenerative disease of the first metatarsalphalangeal (MTP) joint and affects 2.5% of people over age 50. Dorsal osteophytes and narrowed joint space leads to debilitating pain and limited range of motion. Altered gait mechanics often ensued as 119% of the body force transmit through the 1st MTP joint during gait cycle. Precise etiology remains under debate with trauma being often cited in the literature. Hallux valgus interphalangeus, female gender, inflammatory and metabolic conditions have all been identified as associative factors. Clinical symptoms, physical exam and radiographic evidence are important in assessing and grading the disease. Non-operative managements including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, intra-articular injections, shoe modification, activity modification and physical therapy, should always be attempted for all hallux rigidus patients. The goal of surgery is to relieve pain, maintain stability of the first MTP joint, and improve function and quality of life. Operative treatments can be divided into joint-sparing vs joint-sacrificing. Cheilectomy and moberg osteotomy are examples of joint-sparing techniques that have demonstrated great success in early stages of hallux rigidus. Arthrodesis is a joint-sacrificing procedure that has been the gold standard for advanced hallux rigidus. Other newer procedures such as implant arthroplasty, interpositional arthroplasty and arthroscopy, have demonstrated promising early patient outcomes. However, future studies are still needed to validate its long-term efficacy and safety. The choice of procedure should be based on the condition of the joint, patient’s goal and expectations, and surgeon’s experience with the technique. PMID:28567339

  12. Plantar pressures determinants in mild Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Nova, Alfonso; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Leal-Muro, Alejo; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan Diego

    2010-07-01

    While podobarometric techniques have been applied to the study of pressures in Hallux Valgus (HV), little is known about its clinical and radiological determinants. So, the aim of the present study was to determine the plantar pressure pattern in participants with mild HV, comparing to a control group, and their clinical and anthropometric determinants. Biofoot/IBV(®) in-shoe system was used to evaluate 79 participants with mild HV. Computerized measurements of the 1st intermetatarsal angle (IMA) and the hallux abductus angle (HAA) were made on antero-posterior radiographs. The clinical outcome was assessed using the AOFAS score. The dependent baropodometric variables and the independent clinical and anthropometric variables were subjected to a multiple regression analysis. In both groups, the highest average pressure was in the 2nd metatarsal head (MTH). The mean pressure under the Hallux was significantly higher in HV group (controls, 146.5±92.5kPa; HV, 328.5±113.2kPa; p<0.001). An 18.6% of average pressure under the 1st MTH was accounted for pain, first ray alignment and total AOFAS score. Variations of the HAA explained 26.8% of the mean Hallux pressure. Women with mild HV present with pathologically increased pressure under the Hallux, which is caused by the altered alignment of the first ray. Pain and clinical result were associated with the pressure under the 1st MTH and the remaining variables were only moderate predictors of dynamic plantar pressures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between varus knee malalignment and patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakajima, Mikio; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Oda, Shuhei; Hoshiyama, Yoshiaki; Iida, Go; Neo, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) and varus OA of the knee with a focus on the location of joint space narrowing. Eighty-five patients scheduled to undergo total knee arthroplasty caused by varus OA were enrolled in this study. The relationship between patellofemoral OA and varus knee malalignment was elucidated. To determine the alignment of the patellofemoral joint in varus knees, patellar tilt, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance were measured, and patellofemoral OA was classified using computed tomography. The femorotibial angles in patients with stage II-IV patellofemoral OA were significantly larger than those in patients with stage I patellofemoral OA, and the patellar tilt in patients with stage II-IV patellofemoral OA and the TT-TG distance in patients with stage IV patellofemoral OA were significantly larger than those in patients with stage I patellofemoral OA. The TT-TG distance was strongly correlated with patellar tilt (R(2) = 0.41, P < 0.001). Patellofemoral joint space narrowing was mainly noted at the lateral facet, and it was found on both sides as patellofemoral OA worsened. Varus knee malalignment was induced by patellofemoral OA, especially at the lateral facet. Patellar tilt and the TT-TG distance are considered critical factors for the severity of patellofemoral OA. Understanding the critical factors for patellofemoral OA in varus knees such as the TT-TG distance and patellar will facilitate the prevention of patellofemoral OA using procedures such as high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty to correct knee malalignment. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  14. WITHDRAWN: Interventions for treating hallux valgus (abductovalgus) and bunions.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Jill; Higgins, Julian Pt; Prior, Trevor D

    2009-04-15

    Hallux valgus is classified as an abnormal deviation of the great toe (hallux) towards the midline of the foot. To identify and evaluate the evidence from randomised trials of interventions used to correct hallux valgus. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauama Group trials register (2003/1), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2003), MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2003) and EMBASE (1980 to January 2003). No language restrictions were applied. Hand searching of specific foot journals was also undertaken.Date of the most recent search: 31st March 2003. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of both conservative and surgical treatments of hallux valgus. Excluded were studies comparing areas of surgery not specific to the control of the deformity such as use of anaesthetics or tourniquet placement. Methodological quality of trials which met the inclusion criteria was independently assessed by two reviewers. Data extraction was undertaken by two reviewers. The trials were grouped according to the interventions being compared, but the dissimilarity in the comparisons prevented pooling of results. The methodological quality of the 21 included trials was generally poor and trial sizes were small.Three trials involving 332 participants evaluated conservative treatments versus no treatment. There was no evidence of a difference in outcomes between treatment and no treatment.One good quality trial involving 140 participants compared surgery to conservative treatment. Evidence was shown of an improvement in all outcomes in patients receiving chevron osteotomy compared with those receiving orthoses. The same trial also compared surgery to no treatment in 140 participants. Evidence was shown of an improvement in all outcomes in patients receiving chevron osteotomy compared with those receiving no treatment.Two trials involving 133 people with hallux valgus compared Keller's arthroplasty with other surgical techniques

  15. Interventions for treating hallux valgus (abductovalgus) and bunions.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, J; Higgins, J P T; Prior, T D

    2004-01-01

    Hallux valgus is classified as an abnormal deviation of the great toe (hallux) towards the midline of the foot. To identify and evaluate the evidence from randomised trials of interventions used to correct hallux valgus. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group trials register (2003/1), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2003), MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2003) and EMBASE (1980 to January 2003). No language restrictions were applied. Hand searching of specific foot journals was also undertaken. Date of the most recent search: 31st March 2003. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of both conservative and surgical treatments of hallux valgus. Excluded were studies comparing areas of surgery not specific to the control of the deformity such as use of anaesthetics or tourniquet placement. Methodological quality of trials which met the inclusion criteria was independently assessed by two reviewers. Data extraction was undertaken by two reviewers. The trials were grouped according to the interventions being compared, but the dissimilarity in the comparisons prevented pooling of results. The methodological quality of the 21 included trials was generally poor and trial sizes were small. Three trials involving 332 participants evaluated conservative treatments versus no treatment. There was no evidence of a difference in outcomes between treatment and no treatment. One good quality trial involving 140 participants compared surgery to conservative treatment. Evidence was shown of an improvement in all outcomes in patients receiving chevron osteotomy compared with those receiving orthoses. The same trial also compared surgery to no treatment in 140 participants. Evidence was shown of an improvement in all outcomes in patients receiving chevron osteotomy compared with those receiving no treatment. Two trials involving 133 people with hallux valgus compared Keller's arthroplasty with other surgical techniques. In

  16. Scarf versus chevron osteotomy in hallux valgus: a randomized controlled trial in 96 patients.

    PubMed

    Deenik, A R; Pilot, P; Brandt, S E; van Mameren, H; Geesink, R G T; Draijer, W F

    2007-05-01

    The degree of correction of hallux valgus deformity using a distal chevron osteotomy is reported as limited. The scarf osteotomy is reported to correct large intermetatarsal angles (IMA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate if one technique gave greater correction of the IMA and hallux valgus angle (HVA) than the other. After informed consent, 96 feet in 83 patients were randomized into two treatment groups (49 scarf and 47 chevron osteotomies). The results were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hallux Valgus Scale and radiographic HVA and IMA measurements. At 27 (range 23-31) months followup both groups improved. The AOFAS score in the chevron group improved from 48 to 89 points and in the scarf group from 47 to 91 points. In the chevron group the HVA corrected from 30 to 17 degrees, and in the scarf group the HVA corrected from 29 to 18 degrees. In both groups, the IMA was corrected from 13 to 10 degrees. The differences were not statistically significant. Three patients in the chevron group developed a partial metatarsal head necrosis. In the scarf group, four patients developed grade 1 complex regional pain syndrome compared to one patient in the chevron group. No differences of statistical significance could be measured between the two groups with respect to the AOFAS score, HVA, and IMA. Although both groups showed good to excellent results, we favor the chevron osteotomy because the procedure is technically less demanding.

  17. History of surgical treatments for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Galois, Laurent

    2018-05-31

    In the nineteenth century, the prevalent understanding of the hallux valgus was that it was purely an enlargement of the soft tissue, first metatarsal head, or both, most commonly caused by ill-fitting footwear. Thus, treatment had varying results, with controversy over whether to remove the overlying bursa alone or in combination with an exostectomy of the medial head. Since 1871, when the surgical technique was first described, many surgical treatments for the correction of hallux valgus have been proposed. A number of these techniques have come into fashion, and others have fallen into oblivion. Progress in biomechanical knowledge, and improvements in materials and supports have allowed new techniques to be developed over the years. We have developed techniques that sacrifice the metatarsophalangeal joint (arthrodesis, arthroplasties), as well as conservative procedures, and one can distinguish those which only involve the soft tissues from those that are linked with a first ray osteotomy.

  18. Youngswick-Austin versus distal oblique osteotomy for the treatment of Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Viladot, Antonio; Sodano, Luca; Marcellini, Lorenzo; Zamperetti, Marco; Hernandez, Elsa Sanchez; Perice, Ramon Viladot

    2017-08-01

    Hallux Rigidus is the most common degenerative joint pathology of the foot. Several procedures are described for the management of this deformity. In this prospective study we compared Youngswick-Austin and distal oblique osteotomy in the treatment of grade II Hallux Rigidus, in terms of clinical outcomes, efficacy and complications. Forty-six patients (50 feet) with moderate Hallux Rigidus (Regnauld grade II) were recruited and operated between March 2009 and December 2012. Surgical technique was Youngswick-Austin osteotomy (Group A) or distal oblique osteotomy (Group B). Mean follow-up was 42.7 ±12.2 (range, 24-70) months. Both groups achieved significant improvement of AOFAS score and first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion (p value <.05). The mean AOFAS score improved from a preoperative score of 44.1 ±11.8 to 89.2 ± 9.4 (24 months) in Group A and from 40.9 ±11.3 to 89.5 ±7.2 (24 months) in Group B. At 24 months, the average improvement of first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion was 20.9° in Group A and 22.4° in Group B. The postoperative AOFAS score and joint range of motion were comparable in both groups. For this specific patient population Youngswick-Austin and distal oblique osteotomies provides subjective patient improvement and increases the first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion. The results of grade II Hallux Rigidus treatment were comparable when using a Youngswick-Austin or distal oblique osteotomy. Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiographic assessment of knee-ankle alignment after total knee arthroplasty for varus and valgus knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fuqiang; Ma, Jinhui; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Wang, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    There are unanswered questions about knee-ankle alignment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for varus and valgus osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess knee-ankle alignment after TKA. The study consisted of 149 patients who had undergone TKA due to varus and valgus knee OA. The alignment and angles in the selected knees and ankles were measured on full-length standing anteroposterior radiographs, both pre-operatively and post-operatively. The paired t-test and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis. The results showed that ankle alignment correlated with knee alignment both pre-operatively and postoperatively (P<0.05). The pre-operative malalignment of the knee was corrected (P<0.05), and the ankle tilt angle was accordingly improved in the operative side after TKA (P<0.05). In addition, TKA had little effect on knee-ankle alignment on the non-operative side (P>0.05). These findings indicated that routine TKA could correct the varus or valgus deformity of a knee, and improve the tilt of the ankle. Ankle alignment correlated with knee alignment both pre-operatively and postoperatively. Both pre-operative knee and ankle malalignment can be simultaneously corrected following TKA. Level III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiographic angles in hallux valgus: differences between measurements made manually and with a computerized program.

    PubMed

    Piqué-Vidal, Carlos; Maled-García, Ignaci; Arabi-Moreno, Juanjo; Vila, Joan

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare angular measurements in the evaluation of hallux valgus deformities using a goniometer and a computerized program to assess degree of concordance between the two methods and determine the reliability of manual measurements. Angles measured included the hallux valgus angle (HVA), the intermetatarsal angle (IMA), the distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA), and the proximal phalangeal articular angle (PPAA), also called the hallux valgus interphalangeus angle or interphalangeal angle. Measurements were made on preoperative weightbearing radiographs in 176 patients with symptomatic hallux valgus. Manual measurements were made with a goniometer by an orthopaedic surgeon. An independent experienced technician used digitized images to perform angular measurements with the Autocad software program (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA). HVA values obtained with the two techniques were similar. However, significantly higher mean values were obtained with the Autocad for the IMA and PPAA measurements, and higher mean values were obtained for the DMAA measurement with the manual technique. Whereas differences were more or less randomly distributed for the HVA, in the remaining patients, measurements were clearly related to the measurement technique, i.e., for the DMAA, the manual technique had a tendency to show higher values, and for the IMA and PPAA the manual technique showed lower values than the computer. Correlations between both techniques for the different angular measurements were as follows: HVA, -0.179 (p = 0.018); DMMA, -0.294 (p < 0.001); PPAA, -0.876 (p < 0.001); and IMA, -0.661 (p < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that the concordance between manual and Autocad angular measurements was excellent for the HVA (ICC = 0.89) and DMAA (ICC = 0.80) and very poor for the PPAA (ICC = 0.11) and IMA (ICC = 0.42). Angular measurements made on weightbearing radiographs with the Autocad in patients with hallux

  1. Associations of Varus Thrust and Alignment with Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Grace H.; Harvey, William F.; McAlindon, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare associations of varus thrust and varus static alignment with pain in those with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Method This was a cross-sectional study of participants from a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D for knee OA. Participants were video recorded walking and scored for presence of varus thrust. Standard PA knee X-rays were measured for static alignment. Pain questions from the Western Ontario McMasters Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) questionnaire assessed symptoms. We calculated means for total WOMAC pain by varus thrust and varus alignment (i.e. corrected anatomic alignment < 178°). We performed ordinal logistic regressions; outcomes: individual WOMAC pain questions; predictors: varus thrust and varus alignment. Results There were 82 participants, mean age 65.1 (±8.5), mean body mass index 30.2 (±5.4), and 60% female. Total WOMAC pain was 6.3 versus 3.9, p = 0.007 in those with versus without definite varus thrust. For varus alignment, total WOMAC pain was 5.2 versus 4.2, p = 0.30. Odds ratios for pain with walking and standing were 5.5 (95%CI 2.0 – 15.1) and 6.0 (95%CI 2.2 – 16.2) in those with versus without definite varus thrust. There were no significant associations between varus alignment and individual WOMAC pain questions. Sensitivity analyses suggested a more stringent definition of varus might have been associated with walking and standing pain. Conclusion In those with knee OA, varus thrust and possibly varus static alignment, were associated with pain, specifically during weight-bearing activities. Treatment of varus thrust (e.g. via bracing or gait modification) may lead to improvement of symptoms. PMID:22307813

  2. Varus Thrust and Knee Frontal Plane Dynamic Motion in Persons with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alison H.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Moisio, Kirsten C.; Almagor, Orit; Zhang, Yunhui; Cahue, September; Sharma, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Objective Varus thrust visualized during walking is associated with a greater medial knee and an increased risk of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Little is known about varus thrust presence determined by visual observation relates to quantitative gait kinematic We hypothesized that varus thrust presence is associated with greater knee frontal plane dynamic movement during the stance phase of gait. Methods Participants had knee OA in at least one knee. Trained examiners assessed participants for varus thrust presence during ambulation. Frontal plane knee motion during ambulation captured using external passive reflective markers and an 8-camera motion analysis system. To examine the cross-sectional relationship between varus thrust and frontal plane knee motion, used multivariable regression models with the quantitative motion measures as dependent variables and varus thrust (present/absent) as predictor; models were adjusted for age, gender, BMI, gait speed, and knee static alignment. Results 236 persons [mean BMI: 28.5 kg/m2 (SD 5.5), mean age: 64.9 years (SD 10.4), 75.8% women] contributing 440 knees comprised the study sample. 82 knees (18.6%) had definite varus thrust. Knees with varus thrust had greater peak varus angle and greater peak varus angular velocity during stance than knees without varus thrust (mean differences 0.90° and 6.65°/sec, respectively). These patterns remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, gait speed, and knee static alignment. Conclusion Visualized varus thrust during walking was associated with a greater peak knee varus angular velocity and a greater peak knee varus angle during stance phase of gait. PMID:23948980

  3. Varus thrust and knee frontal plane dynamic motion in persons with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, A H; Chmiel, J S; Moisio, K C; Almagor, O; Zhang, Y; Cahue, S; Sharma, L

    2013-11-01

    Varus thrust visualized during walking is associated with a greater medial knee load and an increased risk of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Little is known about how varus thrust presence determined by visual observation relates to quantitative gait kinematic data. We hypothesized that varus thrust presence is associated with greater knee frontal plane dynamic movement during the stance phase of gait. Participants had knee OA in at least one knee. Trained examiners assessed participants for varus thrust presence during ambulation. Frontal plane knee motion during ambulation was captured using external passive reflective markers and an 8-camera motion analysis system. To examine the cross-sectional relationship between varus thrust and frontal plane knee motion, we used multivariable regression models with the quantitative motion measures as dependent variables and varus thrust (present/absent) as predictor; models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), gait speed, and knee static alignment. 236 persons [mean BMI: 28.5 kg/m(2) (standard deviation (SD) 5.5), mean age: 64.9 years (SD 10.4), 75.8% women] contributing 440 knees comprised the study sample. 82 knees (18.6%) had definite varus thrust. Knees with varus thrust had greater peak varus angle and greater peak varus angular velocity during stance than knees without varus thrust (mean differences 0.90° and 6.65°/s, respectively). These patterns remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, gait speed, and knee static alignment. Visualized varus thrust during walking was associated with a greater peak knee varus angular velocity and a greater peak knee varus angle during stance phase of gait. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plate fixation for proximal chevron osteotomy has greater risk for hallux valgus recurrence than Kirschner wire fixation.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Yong; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between feet fixed with Kirschner wires and those fixed with a plate and screws. Between December 2008 and November 2009, 53 patients (62 feet) were treated with proximal chevron osteotomy and distal soft tissue procedure for symptomatic moderate to severe hallux valgus deformity. Thirty-four patients (41 feet) were stabilised with Kirschner wires (K-wire group) and 19 patients (21 feet) were stabilised with a locking plate (plate group). Clinical results were assessed using American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Radiographic parameters were compared between these groups. Recurrence rate at the last follow-up was compared between the K-wire and plate groups. Mean AOFAS score was lower in the plate group, however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant in AOFAS score at the last follow-up. Hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle were significantly larger in the plate group at the last follow-up. Mean 1-2 metatarsal (MT) distance on immediately postoperative radiographs was significant larger in the plate group. Four (9.8 %) of the 41 feet in the K-wire group and 7 (33.3 %) of the 21 feet in the plate group showed hallux valgus recurrence at the last follow-up. The plate group had a significantly higher risk of recurrence than the K-wire group. Fixation of proximal chevron osteotomy using a plate and screws has a greater risk of hallux valgus recurrence than fixation using Kirschner wires.

  5. Extended plantar limb (modified) chevron osteotomy versus scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus correction: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Devendra; Lines, Stephen; Hepple, Stephen; Winson, Ian; Harries, William

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this RCT was to compare the extended plantar limb (modified) chevron osteotomy with the scarf osteotomy in correcting hallux valgus deformity and improving functional scores and patient satisfaction. Patients were randomly assigned and kept blind to surgical allocation. Cases requiring additional procedures including the Akin osteotomy were excluded. Outcomes were measured at 1 year following surgery. 84 patients (109 feet) were analysed (60 modified chevron; 49 Scarf). The mean age was 50.7 years (75F: 9M). Post-operative intermetatarsal angle (IMA) was significantly lower in the modified chevron group (5.8° versus 6.9°, p=0.045). Hallux valgus angle and distal metatarsal articular angle were similar. The magnitude of IMA correction with the modified chevron was also significantly greater (9.1° versus 7.1°, p=0.007). Both osteotomies produced comparable MOxFQ scores and satisfaction ratings. The modified chevron was superior to the scarf osteotomy in correcting IMA in hallux valgus deformity. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of distal chevron osteotomy with and without lateral soft tissue release for the treatment of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Jin; Chung, Jin-Wha; Chu, In-Tak; Kim, Yoon-Chung

    2010-04-01

    A lateral soft tissue release is often performed with distal chevron osteotomy for the correction of hallux valgus deformities. However, many complications of lateral soft tissue release have been reported. To define the necessity of lateral soft tissue release, the authors compared the clinical and radiographic results of distal chevron osteotomy with and without it. 86 consecutive patients (152 feet) were enrolled in this prospective study. In Group A, 45 patients (74 feet) underwent a chevron osteotomy with lateral soft tissue release. In Group B, 41 patients (78 feet) underwent a chevron osteotomy without it. Mean followup was 1.7 years and 2.1 years, respectively. The hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA), and AOFAS score were measured preoperatively, and 1-year followup postoperatively and complications were evaluated. The change in HVA, IMA and AOFAS score were insignificant (p > 0.05) between Group A and Group B, however, the range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was significantly less in Group A (p < 0.05). Complications of digital neuritis and cosmetically dissatisfied scarring of the dorsal web space were seen only in Group A. No cases had avascular necrosis of the metatarsal head, malunion or nonunion. Lateral soft tissue release may not be needed for mild or moderate hallux valgus deformities which may prevent decreased range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, neuritis of dorsal or plantar lateral digital nerve and cosmetic dissatisfaction of a dorsal scar.

  7. Bunionette deformity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bruce E; Nicholson, Christopher W

    2007-05-01

    The bunionette, or tailor's bunion, is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Most commonly, bunionettes are the result of a widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle with associated varus of the metatarsophalangeal joint. When symptomatic, these deformities often respond to nonsurgical treatment methods, such as wider shoes and padding techniques. When these methods are unsuccessful, surgical treatment is based on preoperative radiographs and associated lesions, such as hyperkeratoses. In rare situations, a simple lateral eminence resection is appropriate; however, the risk of recurrence or overresection is high with this technique. Patients with a lateral bow to the fifth metatarsal are treated with a distal chevron-type osteotomy. A widened 4-5 intermetatarsal angle often requires a diaphyseal osteotomy for correction.

  8. Long-term stress distribution patterns of the ankle joint in varus knee alignment assessed by computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Tomohiro; Majima, Tokifumi; Iwasaki, Norimasa; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Kasahara, Yasuhiko; Minami, Akio

    2012-09-01

    The stress distribution of an ankle under various physiological conditions is important for long-term survival of total ankle arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to measure subchondral bone density across the distal tibial joint surface in patients with malalignment/instability of the lower limb. We evaluated subchondral bone density across the distal tibial joint in patients with malalignment/instability of the knee by computed tomography (CT) osteoabsorptiometry from ten ankles as controls and from 27 ankles with varus deformity/instability of the knee. The quantitative analysis focused on the location of the high-density area at the articular surface, to determine the resultant long-term stress on the ankle joint. The area of maximum density of subchondral bone was located in the medial part in all subjects. The pattern of maximum density in the anterolateral area showed stepwise increases with the development of varus deformity/instability of the knee. Our results should prove helpful for designing new prostheses and determining clinical indications for total ankle arthroplasty.

  9. A pictorial review of reconstructive foot and ankle surgery: hallux abductovalgus

    PubMed Central

    Meyr, Andrew J; Singh, Salil; Chen, Oliver; Ali, Sayed

    2015-01-01

    This pictorial review focuses on basic procedures performed within the field of podiatric surgery, specifically for the hallux abductovalgus or “bunion” deformity. Our goal is to define objective radiographic parameters that surgeons utilize to initially define deformity, lead to procedure selection and judge post-operative outcomes. We hope that radiologists will employ this information to improve their assessment of post-operative radiographs following reconstructive foot surgeries. First, relevant radiographic measurements are defined and their role in procedure selection explained. Second, the specific surgical procedures of the distal metatarsal, metatarsal shaft, metatarsal base, and phalangeal osteotomies are described in detail. Additional explanations of arthrodesis of the first metatarsal-phalangeal and metatarsal-cuneiform joints are also provided. Finally, specific plain film radiographic findings that judge post-operative outcomes for each procedure are detailed. PMID:26622935

  10. Hallux valgus surgery affects kinematic parameters during gait

    PubMed Central

    Klugarova, J.; Janura, M.; Svoboda, Z.; Sos, Z.; Stergiou, N.; Klugar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to compare spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb and pelvis kinematics during the walking in patients with hallux valgus before and after surgery and in relation to a control group. Methods Seventeen females with hallux valgus, who underwent first metatarsal osteotomy, constituted our experimental group. The control group consisted of thirteen females. Kinematic data during walking were obtained using the Vicon MX system. Findings Our results showed that hallux valgus before surgery affects spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb and pelvis kinematics during walking. Hallux valgus surgery further increased the differences that were present before surgery. Specifically after hallux valgus surgery, the walking speed decreased even more (p=0.09, η2= 0.19) while step time increased (p=0.002, η2=0.44) on both legs. The maximum ankle plantar flexion of the operated leg during toe off decreased to a greater extend (p=0.03, η2=0.26). The asymmetry in the hip and the pelvis movements in the frontal plane (present preoperatively) persisted after surgery. Interpretation Hallux valgus is not an isolated problem of the first ray, which could be just surgically addressed by correcting the foot’s alignment. It is a long-term progressive malfunction of the foot affecting the entire kinematic chain of the lower extremity. PMID:27792950

  11. [Preemptive local anesthetic infiltration in hallux valgus one-day surgery].

    PubMed

    Gądek, Artur; Liszka, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    The surgical treatment of hallux valgus deformity is connected with significant postoperative pain. Spinal and general anesthesia as well as peripheral blocks are successfully used in foot surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of local anesthetic infiltration before hallux valgus one-day surgery on postoperative pain and the need for analgesics. 134 patients underwent chevron or miniinvasive Mitchell-Kramer osteotomy of the first distal metatarsal. After general anesthesia each patient randomly received an infiltration of 7ml of local anesthetic (4 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 3 ml of 2% lidocaine) or the same amount of normal saline 15 minutes before the skin incision. Both the patient and the surgeon were blinded. The patient was discharged after approximately 2 hours of observation. 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 72 hours after the release of the tourniquet the level of pain was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Rescue analgesia, side effects and the use of painkillers were noted. Preemptive local anesthetic infiltration significantly decreased pain during the first 24 hours after the surgery. None of the patients from the injected group and 38 from the placebo group received 100 mg of ketoprofen intravenously for rescue analgesia in the first 2 hours after the release of the tourniquet. During the first 24 hours we noted significantly decreased use of 1000 mg of paracetamol and 100 mg mg of ketoprofen orally in the injected group. No systemic adverse effects were noted. One patient from placebo group had allergic rush after use of 100 mg ketoprofen. Preemptive local anesthetic infiltration in one-day hallux valgus surgery significantly decreases postoperative pain. It is safe, efficient and allows fast discharge.

  12. Comparison of complete distal release of the medial collateral ligament and medial epicondylar osteotomy during ligament balancing in varus knee total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jae Ang; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kwak, Ji Hoon; Yang, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kwang Hui; Lee, Beom Koo

    2013-12-01

    During ligament balancing for severe medial contracture in varus knee total knee arthroplasty (TKA), complete distal release of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) or a medial epicondylar osteotomy can be necessary if a large amount of correction is needed. This study retrospectively reviewed 9 cases of complete distal release of the MCL and 11 cases of medial epicondylar osteotomy which were used to correct severe medial contracture. The mean follow-up periods were 46.5 months (range, 36 to 78 months) and 39.8 months (range, 32 to 65 months), respectively. There were no significant differences in the clinical results between the two groups. However, the valgus stress radiograph revealed significant differences in medial instability. In complete distal release of the MCL, some stability was obtained by repair and bracing but the medial instability could not be removed completely. Medial epicondylar osteotomy for a varus deformity in TKA could provide constant medial stability and be a useful ligament balancing technique.

  13. Associations of varus thrust and alignment with pain in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Grace H; Harvey, William F; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2012-07-01

    To investigate associations of varus thrust and varus static alignment with pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This was a cross-sectional study of participants from a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D treatment for knee OA. Participants were video recorded while walking and scored for presence of varus thrust. Static alignment was measured on standard posteroanterior knee radiographs. Pain questions from the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire were used to assess symptoms. We calculated means for total WOMAC pain in relation to varus thrust and static varus alignment (i.e., corrected anatomic alignment<178 degrees). Ordinal logistic regressions were performed, with responses on individual WOMAC pain questions as the outcomes and varus thrust and varus alignment as the predictors. There were 82 participants, 60% of whom were female. The mean±SD age was 65.1±8.5 years, and the mean±SD body mass index was 30.2±5.4 kg/m2. The mean total WOMAC pain score was 6.3 versus 3.9, respectively, in those with versus without definite varus thrust (P=0.007) and 5.0 versus 4.2 in those with versus without varus alignment (P=0.36). Odds ratios for pain with walking and standing were 4.7 (95% confidence interval 1.8-11.9) and 5.5 (95% confidence interval 2.2-14.2), respectively, in those with and those without definite varus thrust. There were no significant associations between varus alignment and responses to individual WOMAC pain questions. Sensitivity analyses suggested that varus classified using a more stringent definition might have been associated with pain on walking and standing. In patients with knee OA, varus thrust, and possibly varus static alignment, were associated with pain, specifically during weight-bearing activities. Treatment of varus thrust (e.g., via bracing or gait modification) may lead to improvement of symptoms. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. External torsion in a proximal tibia and internal torsion in a distal tibia occur independently in varus osteoarthritic knees compared to healthy knees.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomoharu; Tanifuji, Osamu; Koga, Yoshio; Hata, Ryosuke; Mori, Takahiro; Nishino, Katsutoshi; Sato, Takashi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Omori, Go; Sakamoto, Makoto; Tanabe, Yuji; Endo, Naoto

    2017-05-01

    The relative torsional angle of the distal tibia is dependent on a deformity of the proximal tibia, and it is a commonly used torsional parameter to describe deformities of the tibia; however, this parameter cannot show the location and direction of the torsional deformity in the entire tibia. This study aimed to identify the detailed deformity in the entire tibia via a coordinate system based on the diaphysis of the tibia by comparing varus osteoarthritic knees to healthy knees. In total, 61 limbs in 58 healthy subjects (age: 54 ± 18 years) and 55 limbs in 50 varus osteoarthritis (OA) subjects (age: 72 ± 7 years) were evaluated. The original coordinate system based on anatomic points only from the tibial diaphysis was established. The evaluation parameters were 1) the relative torsion in the distal tibia to the proximal tibia, 2) the proximal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis, and 3) the distal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis. The relative torsion in the distal tibia to the proximal tibia showed external torsion in both groups, while the external torsion was lower in the OA group than in the healthy group (p < 0.0001). The proximal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis had a higher external torsion in the OA group (p = 0.012), and the distal tibial torsion relative to the tibial diaphysis had a higher internal torsion in the OA group (p = 0.004) in comparison to the healthy group. The reverse torsional deformity, showing a higher external torsion in the proximal tibia and a higher internal torsion in the distal tibia, occurred independently in the OA group in comparison to the healthy group. Clinically, this finding may prove to be a pathogenic factor in varus osteoarthritic knees. Level Ⅲ. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship of abnormal foot pronation to hallux abducto valgus--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ross, F D

    1986-08-01

    Abnormal foot mechanics is the most common cause of hallux abducto valgus. To date no quantitative data regarding the relationship between abnormal foot mechanics and the degree of hallux abducto valgus has been presented. An outline of the abnormal foot mechanics responsible for hallux abducto valgus is described along with a technique for measuring the extent of abnormal function. A common intrinsic abnormality responsible for hallux abducto valgus is described along with its diagnosis and orthotic treatment.

  16. Proximal metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus: an audit of radiologic outcome after single screw fixation and full postoperative weightbearing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proximal metatarsal osteotomy combined with a distal soft-tissue procedure is a common treatment for moderate to severe hallux valgus. Secure stabilisation of the metatarsal osteotomy is necessary to avoid complications such as delayed union, nonunion or malunion as well as loss of correction. The aim of this study was to report our results using a single screw for stabilisation of the osteotomy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 151 patients with severe hallux valgus who were treated by the above mentioned way with full postoperative weightbearing in a stiff soled shoe. Mean age of patients at time of surgery was 54 years, 19 patients were male and 132 female. Assessment of clinical and radiographic results was performed after 2 days and 6 weeks. Results were also correlated to the experience of the performing surgeon. Results Mean preoperative HVA (hallux valgus angle) was 36.4 degrees, and then 3.5 degrees 2 days and 13.4 degrees 6 weeks after the procedure (p < 0.001). Mean preoperative IMA (intermetarsal angle) was 16.8 degrees, and then 6.4 degrees after 2 days and 9.8 degrees after 6 weeks (p < 0.001). Mean preoperative first metatarsal length of 56.4 mm decreased to 53.6 mm after 6 weeks. Possible non-union of the osteotomy was observed in 4 patients (2.6%) after 6 weeks. Performing residents (n = 40) operated in 65 minutes and attending surgeons (n = 111) in 45 minutes, with no significant differences in radiographic measurements between both groups. Conclusions Single screw stabilisation of proximal chevron osteotomy is a reliable method for treating severe hallux valgus deformities with satisfactory results. PMID:23725485

  17. Varus alignment leads to increased forces in the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Gerrit Jan; Arnold, Markus P; Verdonschot, Nico; van Kampen, Albert

    2009-03-01

    Varus thrust of the knee is a dynamic increase of an often preexisting varus angle and it is suspected to be a major reason for failure of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. However, it is not known if a direct relationship exists between varus thrust and forces in the anterior cruciate ligament. Forces in the anterior cruciate ligament increase with increasing varus alignment, and consequently an anterior cruciate ligament deficiency in a varus-aligned leg leads to more lateral tibiofemoral joint opening. Controlled laboratory study. Six human cadaver legs were axially loaded with 3 different weightbearing lines--a neutral weightbearing line, a weightbearing line that passes through the middle of the medial tibial plateau (50% varus), and a line passing the edge of the medial tibial plateau (100% varus)--that were used to create a varus moment. The resulting lateral tibiofemoral joint opening and corresponding anterior cruciate ligament tension were measured. The tests were repeated with and without the anterior cruciate ligament in place. In the neutral aligned legs, there was no apparent lateral joint opening, and no anterior cruciate ligament tension change was noted. The lateral joint opening increased when the weightbearing line increased from 0% to 50% to 100%. The lateral joint opening was significantly higher in 10 degrees of knee flexion compared with knee extension. In the 100% varus weightbearing line, the anterior cruciate ligament tension was significantly higher (53.9 N) compared with neutral (31 N) or the 50% weightbearing line (37.9 N). A thrust could only be observed in the 100% weightbearing line tests. In the absence of an anterior cruciate ligament, there was more lateral joint opening, although this was only significant in the 100% weightbearing line. There is a direct relationship between varus alignment and anterior cruciate ligament tension. In the absence of an anterior cruciate ligament, the amount of lateral opening tends to

  18. [Short-Term Results of Surgical Treatment of Patients with Hallux Rigidus].

    PubMed

    Dygrýnová, M; Uvízl, M; Gallo, J

    2017-01-01

    osteoarthritis in order to extend the period of clinically acceptable results and thereby to postpone the TJR indication. TJR (similarly to arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint) is a procedure performed in elderly patients with low physical activity and more advanced deformities. CONCLUSIONS Both the reported methods offer reliable and valuable short-term clinical outcomes with relatively low complication rate. Cheilectomy is undoubtedly more appropriate for younger patients with mild or moderate arthritic changes. Although it does not appear to alter the natural progression of the disease process, it provides satisfactory pain relief, motion improvement and overall patient gait comfort for patients in a short-term period. TJR seems to be a better solution for less active older patients to whom it provides a loadable, painless, and moving joint. Key words: hallux rigidus, first metatarsophalangeal joint, cheilectomy, arthroplasty, Metis®, surgical treatment.

  19. Plantar fasciitis and its relationship with hallux limitus.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Yolanda; Munuera, Pedro V

    2014-05-01

    We sought to determine whether patients with plantar fasciitis have limited dorsiflexion in the first metatarsophalangeal joint and which type of foot, pronated or supinated, is most frequently associated with plantar fasciitis. The 100 study participants (34 men and 66 women) were divided into two groups: patients with plantar fasciitis and controls. The Foot Posture Index and dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint were compared between the two groups, and a correlation analysis was conducted to study their relationship. In the plantar fasciitis group there was a slight limitation of dorsiflexion of the hallux that was not present in the control group (P < .001). Hallux dorsiflexion and the Foot Posture Index were inversely correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient, -0.441; P < .01). Participants with plantar fasciitis presented less hallux dorsiflexion than those in the control group, and their most common foot type was the pronated foot.

  20. Valgus-varus motion of the knee in normal level walking and stair climbing.

    PubMed

    Yu, B; Stuart, M J; Kienbacher, T; Growney, E S; An, K-N

    1997-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The knee valgus-varus moment and the knee angles were compared between normal level walking and stair climbing. DESIGN: Ten healthy subjects were tested for ascent, descent, and level walking. BACKGROUND: An understanding of the normal valgus-varus motion of the knee during stair climbing is needed to apply biomechanical analysis of stair climbing as a evaluation tool for knee osteoarthritis patients. METHODS: A motion analysis system, three force plates, and a flight of stairs were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data. The knee angles and moments were calculated from the collected kinematic and kinetic data. RESULTS: The knee varus angle for the maximum knee valgus moments in stair climbing was significantly greater than that in level walking. The knee valgus moment was significantly correlated to ground reaction forces and knee valgus-varus angle during stair climbing and level walking. CONCLUSIONS: There is a coupling between the knee valgus-varus motion and flexion-extension motion. Ground reaction forces are the major contributors to the within-subject variation in the knee valgus-varus moment during stair climbing and level walking. The knee valgus-varus angle is a major contributor to the between-subject variation in the knee valgus moment during stair climbing and level walking.

  1. The Gibson and Piggott osteotomy for adult hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Rangrez, Arshad Bashir; Dar, Tahir Ahmed; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Wani, Sharief Ahmed; Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Mumtaz, Imran; Ahmed, Muzzaffar

    2012-01-01

    The Gibson and Piggott procedure for hallux valgus is based on sound surgical principles addressing the basic pathologies of this disorder. However, this procedure has not been studied extensively in the literature in comparison to the Mitchell and Chevron osteotomies. We report a prospective study conducted on 50 adult feet with hallux valgus. The Gibson and Piggot osteotomy was done on all the feet. We obtained 76% excellent and 18% good results with this procedure. The results bear out the fact that this procedure is a useful procedure for the management of this disorder.

  2. Proximal Intermetatarsal Divergence in Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus: An Overlooked Finding.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Evren; Buyuk, Abdul Fettah; Cetinkaya, Engin; Gursu, Sarper; Ucpunar, Hanifi; Albayrak, Akif

    2016-01-01

    The goal of distal chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus is to restore proper first-toe joint alignment by performing lateral translation of the distal first metatarsal fragment (the metatarsal head). We hypothesized that in some patients this procedure might also result in involuntary medial translation of the proximal first metatarsal fragment, which we called proximal intermetatarsal divergence. The aim of the present study was to compare the pre- and postoperative radiographs of patients with hallux valgus to determine whether we could identify proximal intermetatarsal divergence. We retrospectively compared the pre- and postoperative radiographs of 29 feet in 28 patients treated with distal chevron osteotomy. Two different methods were used to measure the intermetatarsal angles: the anatomic intermetatarsal angle (aIMA) and the mechanical intermetatarsal angle (mIMA). The maximum intermetatarsal distance (MID) was also measured. We defined proximal intermetatarsal divergence as a postoperative increase in the aIMA or MID, coupled with a decrease in the mIMA. For data analysis, we divided the patients into low-angle (mild deformity) and high-angle (severe deformity) groups, according to their preoperative mIMA. The mean ± standard deviation patient age was 41 ± 14 years. In the low-angle group, the mean mIMA decreased (from 10.91° to 7.00°), the mean aIMA increased (from 11.80° to 13.55°), and the mean MID increased (from 17.97 mm to 20.60 mm; p = .001, for all). In the high-angle group, the mean mIMA decreased (from 14.30° to 6.90°; p = .001), the mean aIMA decreased (from 14.77° to 13.54°; p = .06), and the mean MID decreased (from 20.74 mm to 20.37 mm; p = .64). The results of our study suggest that proximal intermetatarsal divergence might occur after distal chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus, primarily in patients with a low preoperative mIMA. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Karl Ludloff (1864-1945): An Inventive Orthopedic Surgeon, His Work and His Surgical Technique for the Correction of Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Markatos, Konstantinos; Karaoglanis, Georgios; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoucalas, Gregory

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the work and pioneering achievements in the field of orthopedic surgery of the German orthopedic surgeon Karl Ludloff. Ludloff had an impact in the diagnostics, physical examination, orthopedic imaging, and orthopedic surgical technique of his era. He was a pioneer in the surgical treatment of dysplastic hip, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and hallux valgus. His surgical technique for the correction of hallux valgus, initially stabilized with plaster of Paris, remained unpopular among other orthopedic surgeons for decades. In the 1990s, the advent and use of improved orthopedic materials for fixation attracted the interest of numerous orthopedic surgeons in the Ludloff osteotomy for its ability to correct the deformity in all 3 dimensions, its anatomic outcomes, and its low recurrence rate and patient satisfaction.

  4. Medial capsular interpositional arthroplasty for severe hallux rigidus.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Michael Patrick; Gerhardt, Nels; Thordarson, David B

    2009-06-01

    Multiple surgical options have been described for severe hallux rigidus. One option is capsular interpositional arthroplasty. We report our initial results with a technique using the thicker medial capsule as our interpositional material instead of the dorsal capsule and extensor hallucis brevis (EHB). Twenty-two patients with grade IV hallux rigidus underwent minimal proximal phalanx resection (modified Keller) with preservation of the flexor hallucis brevis (FHB) insertion and medial capsular interpositional arthroplasty. Postoperative AOFAS hallux MTP-IP scores (mean 77.8), and SF-36 scores (mean 68.7 on physical function, 79.5 role limitations) demonstrated clinical improvement compared to historical controls. Alignment and stability were well maintained (mean preoperative HV angle of 11.8 degrees, mean postoperative HV angle of 13.0 degrees). Dorsiflexion/plantarflexion arc of motion showed sustained improvement (mean 38.4 degrees preoperative, mean 62.3 degrees postoperative). These results are comparable to other forms of interpositional arthroplasty and arthrodesis for end stage arthritis of the hallux MTPJ.

  5. Effects of Corrective Taping on Balance and Gait in Patients With Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Gur, Gozde; Ozkal, Ozden; Dilek, Burcu; Aksoy, Songul; Bek, Nilgun; Yakut, Yavuz

    2017-05-01

    Taping is an effective temporary therapy for improving hallux valgus (HV) in adults. Although HV has been demonstrated to impair postural balance, there is a lack of information about how corrective taping affects balance and gait patterns in adults with HV deformity. Eighteen middle-aged female patients (average age, 53.5 years) with HV were included. Corrective tape was applied to correct HV angulation. A series of balance and gait stability tests were performed before applying tape and 1 hour after the tape was applied with a Balance Master computerized posturography device. The study involved the following tests: modified clinical test of sensory interaction and balance (mCTSIB), unilateral stance (US), limit of stability (LoS), step up/over (SUO), and walk across (WA) tests. No significant difference was found between the no-tape and taped condition in the static balance mCTSIB and US tests ( P > .05). The taping intervention resulted in significant improvement in the dynamic balance measures for the LoS test's backward reaction time and left maximum excursion ( P < .05), a significantly higher impact index bilaterally in the SUO assessment ( P < .05), and an increase in step width mean and variability in the WA test ( P < .05). Taping for correcting HV angulation had negative acute effects on dynamic balance in the SUO and WA tests and positive effects in the LoS test. Corrective taping, although a form of conservative treatment for hallux valgus, has been insufficiently studied in terms of effects on balance. Our results show that taping, as an acute effect, may impair balance in middle-aged adults when walking or ascending and descending stairs.

  6. Proximal Tibia Medial Biplanar Retrotubercle Open Wedge Osteotomy for Varus Knees with Medial Gonarthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Türkmen, İsmail; Esenkaya, İrfan; Ünay, Koray; Türkmensoy, Fatih; Özkut, Afşar Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the early results of proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis and compare the results with the literatüre. Methods: The results of proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy for 23 knees of 22 patients with medial gonarthrosis were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Results: Twenty of the patients were female and two were male. Mean age of the patients was 56.24; mean boy mass index was 31.95 and preoperative HSS (Hospital for Special Surgery) score was 68.7. Mean tibiofemoral axis was 186.39° and mean Insall-Salvatti index value was 1.04 preoperatively. Mean follow up period was 30.19 months. Mean HSS score was 86.48, femorotibial anatomic axis angle was 175° and Insall-Salvati index value 1.06 during the last follow-up. The improvement of the HSS score and the femorotibial anatomic axis angle was statistically significant. However, the change in Insall Salvati index values was statistically insignificant. Nonfatal pulmonary embolus in 1 patient, and deep vein thrombosis that occured one year after the procedure in 1 patient, rhabdomyolysis in 1 patient and loss of correction (relapse) in 1 patient were encountered as complications. Conclusion: Our results show that proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy improves the frontal and sagittal plane deformities without changing the patellar tendon length. Hence, possible patellofemoral problems are prevented and the clinical results are improved.

  7. Primary and coupled motions of the native knee in response to applied varus and valgus load.

    PubMed

    Gladnick, Brian P; Boorman-Padgett, James; Stone, Kyle; Kent, Robert N; Cross, Michael B; Mayman, David J; Pearle, Andrew D; Imhauser, Carl W

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the complex kinematics of the native knee is a prerequisite for a successful reconstructive procedure. The aim of this study is to describe the primary and coupled motions of the native knee throughout the range of knee flexion, in response to applied varus and valgus loads. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaver knees were affixed to a six degree of freedom robotic arm with a universal force-moment sensor, and loaded with a 4Nm moment in varus and valgus at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 90° of knee flexion. The resulting tibiofemoral angulation, displacement, and rotation were recorded. For each parameter investigated, the knee joint demonstrated more laxity at higher flexion angles. Varus angulation increased progressively from zero (2.0° varus) to 90 (5.2° varus) degrees of knee flexion (p<0.001). Valgus angulation also increased progressively, from zero (1.5° valgus) to 90 (3.9° valgus) degrees of knee flexion (p<0.001). At all flexion angles, the magnitude of tibiofemoral angle deviation was larger with varus than with valgus loading (p<0.05). We conclude that the native knee exhibits small increases in coronal plane laxity as the flexion angle increases, and that the knee has generally more laxity under varus load than with valgus load throughout the Range of Motion (ROM). Larger differences in laxity of more than 2 to 3°, or peak laxity specifically during the range of mid-flexion, were not found in our cadaver model and are not likely to represent normal coronal plane kinematics. Level V, biomechanical cadaveric study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Accuracy of estimating Unicondylar Knee Replacement implant varus/valgus angles from antero-posterior radiographs.

    PubMed

    Khare, Rahul; Jaramaz, Branislav

    2016-12-01

    Unicondylar Knee Replacement (UKR) is an orthopedic surgical procedure to reduce pain and improve function in the knee. Load-bearing long-standing antero-posterior (AP) radiographs are typically used postoperatively to measure the leg alignment and assess the varus/valgus implant orientation. However, implant out-of-plane rotations, user variability, and X-ray acquisition parameters introduce errors in the estimation of the implant varus/valgus estimation. Previous work has explored the accuracy of various imaging modalities in this estimation. In this work, we explored the impact of out-of-plane rotations and X-ray acquisition parameters on the estimation of implant component varus/valgus angles. For our study, we used a single CT scan and positioned femoral and tibial implants under varying orientations within the CT volume. Then, a custom software application was used to obtain digitally reconstructed radiographs from the CT scan with implants under varying orientations. Two users were then asked to manually estimate the varus/valgus angles for the implants. We found that there was significant inter-user variability (p < 0.05) in the varus/valgus estimates for the two users. However, the 'ideal' measurements, obtained using actual implant orientations, showed small errors due to variations in implant orientation. We also found that variation in the projection center does not have a statistically significant impact (p < 0.01) on the estimation of implant varus/valgus angles. We conclude that manual estimates of UKR implant varus/valgus orientations are unreliable.

  9. Biodegradable magnesium-based screw clinically equivalent to titanium screw in hallux valgus surgery: short term results of the first prospective, randomized, controlled clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Nondegradable steel-and titanium-based implants are commonly used in orthopedic surgery. Although they provide maximal stability, they are also associated with interference on imaging modalities, may induce stress shielding, and additional explantation procedures may be necessary. Alternatively, degradable polymer implants are mechanically weaker and induce foreign body reactions. Degradable magnesium-based stents are currently being investigated in clinical trials for use in cardiovascular medicine. The magnesium alloy MgYREZr demonstrates good biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. The aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical pilot trial was to determine if magnesium-based MgYREZr screws are equivalent to standard titanium screws for fixation during chevron osteotomy in patients with a mild hallux valgus. Methods Patients (n=26) were randomly assigned to undergo osteosynthesis using either titanium or degradable magnesium-based implants of the same design. The 6 month follow-up period included clinical, laboratory, and radiographic assessments. Results No significant differences were found in terms of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score for hallux, visual analog scale for pain assessment, or range of motion (ROM) of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). No foreign body reactions, osteolysis, or systemic inflammatory reactions were detected. The groups were not significantly different in terms of radiographic or laboratory results. Conclusion The radiographic and clinical results of this prospective controlled study demonstrate that degradable magnesium-based screws are equivalent to titanium screws for the treatment of mild hallux valgus deformities. PMID:23819489

  10. Bosch osteotomy and scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus correction.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Oliva, Francesco; Denaro, Vincenzo; Coppola, Cristiano

    2009-10-01

    Minimally invasive distal metatarsal osteotomies are becoming broadly accepted for correction of hallux valgus. We compared the duration of surgery, the length of hospital stay, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) in 36 patients who underwent a minimal incision subcapital osteotomy of the first metatarsal with 36 matched patients who had hallux valgus corrected by a scarf technique. The minimum follow-up was 2.1 years (mean, 2.5 years; range, 2.1-3.2 years). Patients having the osteotomy had similar AOFAS and FAOS scores with less operating time and earlier discharge. Less operative time may benefit the patients, and earlier discharge has financial implications for the hospital.

  11. The results of Scarf osteotomy combined with distal soft tissue procedure are mostly satisfactory in surgical management of moderate to severe hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Şaylı, Uğur; Akman, Budak; Tanrıöver, Altuğ; Kaspar, Çiğdem; Güven, Melih; Özler, Turhan

    2017-05-29

    Intrinsically stable diaphyseal osteotomy gained popularity in recent years for symptomatic hallux valgus deformities. In this study, Scarf osteotomy results, in surgical management of moderate to severe hallux valgus, are presented. Study group consisted of 40 feet of 32 (28 females, four males) patients surgically managed by Scarf osteotomy between September 2009 and 2011, with a mean age of 52,98 (range, 31-75) years at the time of surgery. Patient satisfaction and VAS were used for subjective evaluation while for objective measures AOFAS score, first metatarsophalangeal joint ROM and radiological measurements (intermetatarsal, hallux valgus and distal metatarsal articular angles) were evaluated. Mean follow-up period was 38 (range, 24-60) months. Sixteen feet (40%) were reported as very satisfied, 19 (47,5%) as satisfied and the remaining five (12,5%) as unsatisfied resulting with a total of 35 (87,5%) satisfaction. The mean preoperative VAS and AOFAS forefoot scores improved from 8,13±0,791 to 2,68±1,228 (p=0,0001) and from 58,25±6,15 to 78,25±8,13 (p=0,0001) on the final follow-up, respectively. The postoperative change of first metatarsophalangeal joint ROM was not statistically significant (p=0,281). On the radiological evaluation; intermetatarsal and hallux valgus angles improved from a mean value of 14,77±1,76 to 8,13±1,52° (p=0,0001) and from 35,28±5,86 to 20,10±5,55° (p=0,0001), respectively. Distal metatarsal articular angle did not show any statistically significant change (p=0,195). Scarf osteotomy combined with distal soft tissue procedure is a technically demanding procedure. The osteotomy is intrinsically stable and the correction power is high and the results are mostly satisfactory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A comparison of Chevron and Lindgren-Turan osteotomy techniques in hallux valgus surgery: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Esat; Özkan, Namık Kemal; Akan, Kaya; Çift, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized controlled single-blind study was to compare the results of Chevron and Lindgren-Turan osteotomy techniques for treatment of moderate hallux valgus. A total of 66 female patients (34 in Chevron group, 32 Lindgren-Turan group) were recruited in this study and followed up for an average of 26.08 months. Operative procedures were performed by 2 surgeons, and patients were evaluated by an another researcher who was blinded to the surgical technique. The groups were compared for their radiological and clinical results. Both techniques was clinically and radiologically effective (p<0.01). However, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups regarding American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society's clinical rating system, Painful Foot Evaluation scale of Maryland University scores, or radiologic evaluation (p>0.05). Compared to the Chevron group, the Lindgren-Turan group was found to have shorter surgical duration (p<0.05) and significantly more shortening at the first metatarsal (p<0.05). In moderate hallux valgus deformity, both the Chevron and Lindgren-Turan osteotomy techniques are clinically and radiologically safe, effective, and reliable alternatives. No superiority was detected in either technique. Although shortening at the first metatarsal in the Lindgren-Turan group was radiologically significant, the results were clinically tolerable.

  13. Initial varus displacement of proximal humerus fractures results in similar function but higher complication rates.

    PubMed

    Capriccioso, Christina E; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Egol, Kenneth A

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of initial varus or valgus surgical neck alignment on outcomes of patients who sustained proximal humerus fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). An institutional review board approved database of proximal humerus fractures treated with locked plates was reviewed. Of 185 fractures in the database, 101 fractures were identified and met inclusion criteria. Initial varus displacement was seen in 47 fractures (OTA types 11.A2.2, A3.1, A3.3, B1.2, B2.2, C1.2, C2.2, or C2.3) and initial valgus displacement was observed in 54 fractures (OTA types 11.A2.3, B1.1, C1.1, or C2.1). All patients were treated in a similar manner and examined by the treating physician at standard intervals. Functional outcomes were quantified via the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and physical examination data at 12 months. Radiographs were reviewed for complications of healing. Additionally, complication rate and reoperation rate were investigated. Patients who presented with initial varus displacement had an average age of 59.3 years, while patients in the valgus group had an average age of 62.4 years. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in age, sex distribution, BMI, fracture parts, screws used, or implant plate type between the two groups. At a minimum 12 months follow up, there was no significant difference in DASH scores between those presenting with varus versus valgus fracture patterns. In addition, no significant differences were seen in final shoulder range of motion in any plane. Overall, 30 patients included in this study developed a complication. A significantly greater number of patients in the initial varus cohort developed complications (40.4%), as compared to 20.3% of patients in the initial valgus cohort (P=0.03). Fourteen patients in this study underwent reoperation. Nine of these patients were in the varus cohort, while 5 were in the valgus cohort (P=0.15). In this

  14. Rehabilitation after hallux valgus surgery: importance of physical therapy to restore weight bearing of the first ray during the stance phase.

    PubMed

    Schuh, Reinhard; Hofstaetter, Stefan G; Adams, Samuel B; Pichler, Florian; Kristen, Karl-Heinz; Trnka, Hans-Joerg

    2009-09-01

    Operative treatment of people with hallux valgus can yield favorable clinical and radiographic results. However, plantar pressure analysis has demonstrated that physiologic gait patterns are not restored after hallux valgus surgery. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the changes of plantar pressure distribution during the stance phase of gait in patients who underwent hallux valgus surgery and received a multimodal rehabilitation program. This was a prospective descriptive study. Thirty patients who underwent Austin (n=20) and scarf (n=10) osteotomy for correction of mild to moderate hallux valgus deformity were included in this study. Four weeks postoperatively they received a multimodal rehabilitation program once per week for 4 to 6 weeks. Plantar pressure analysis was performed preoperatively and 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. In addition, range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint was measured, and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) forefoot questionnaire was administered preoperatively and at 6 months after surgery. The mean AOFAS score significantly increased from 60.7 points (SD=11.9) preoperatively to 94.5 points (SD=4.5) 6 months after surgery. First metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion increased at 6 months postoperatively, with a significant increase in isolated dorsiflexion. In the first metatarsal head region, maximum force increased from 117.8 N to 126.4 N and the force-time integral increased from 37.9 N.s to 55.6 N.s between the preoperative and 6-month assessments. In the great toe region, maximum force increased from 66.1 N to 87.2 N and the force-time integral increased from 18.7 N.s to 24.2 N.s between the preoperative and 6-month assessments. A limitation of the study was the absence of a control group due to the descriptive nature of the study. The results suggest that postoperative physical therapy and gait training may lead to improved function and weight bearing of the first

  15. [Clinical effect modified Chevron osteotomy combined with lateral tissue loosening in treating mild-moderate hallux valgus through internal signal approach].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Qiang; Wu, Qun-Feng; Dong, Wei-Qin; Yu, Li-Xin; Li, Xiong-Feng

    2018-03-25

    To explore clinical effect of modified Chevron osteotomy combined with lateral tissue loosening for the treatment of mild-moderate hallux valgus through internal signal approach. From July 2015 to June 2016, 26 patients with mild-moderate hallux valgus treated with modified Chevron osteotomy combined with lateral tissue loosening through internal signal approach, including 2 males and 24 females aged from 45 to 65 years old with an average of(54.6±4.8) years old;the courses of diseases ranged from 1 to 5 months with an average of (7.5±3.3) months. Hallux valgus angle(HVA), inter metatarsal angle(IMA) were measured at 12 months after operation, and AOFAS score was applied to evaluate clinical effect before and after operation. All incisions were healed at stage I. No incision occurred infection, metatarsal necrosis and recurrence of hallux valgus deformity. Two patients occurred skin numbness caused by musculocutaneous nerve injury. Twenty-six patients were followed up from 6 to 12 months with an average of(9.12±2.06) months. HVA, IMA were(30.01±3.71)°, (14.00±1.50)° before operation and(9.41±4.16)°, (7.00±0.60)° after operation, which had significant difference. There was statistical significance in AOFAS score before operation 54.77±9.59 and after operation 92.73±5.47, and 19 cases obtained excellent results and 7 moderate. Modified Chevron osteotomy combined with full thread headless pressure screw fixation and lateral tissue loosening for the treatment of mild-moderate hallux valgus has advantages of excellent exposure, simple operation, stable fixation, rapid recovery. Akin osteotomy with internal capsulorrhaphy were used with lateral loosening and could recover soft tissue balance between lateral and internal, and could receive satisfied clinical effects. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  16. Femoral Component Varus Malposition is Associated with Tibial Aseptic Loosening After TKA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Sik; Cho, Hyun-Ik; Bin, Seong-Il; Kim, Jong-Min; Jo, Byeong-Kyu

    2018-02-01

    The notion that neutral alignment is mandatory to assure long-term durability after TKA has been based mostly on short-film studies. However, this is challenged by recent long-film studies. We conducted this long-film study to know (1) whether the risk of aseptic revision for nontraumatic reasons was greater among knees with greater than 3° varus or valgus (defined as "outliers") than those that were aligned within 3° of neutral on long-standing mechanical axis (hip to knee) radiographs; and (2) what the failure mechanisms were and whether the malalignment was femoral or tibial in origin, or both, among those in the outlier group. Between November 1998 and January 2009 we performed 1299 cemented, posterior cruciate ligament-substituting TKAs in 867 patients for primary osteoarthritis. We had inadequate long-standing radiographs to analyze postoperative alignment for 124 of those knees, and an additional 24 were excluded for prespecified reasons. Consequently, 1151 knees were enrolled in our study. Of these, 982 (85%) in 661 patients (620 women and 41 men) who had followup greater than 24 months were analyzed. The knees were divided according to whether the postoperative mechanical axis was neutral (0° ± 3°), varus (> 3°), or valgus (< -3°) alignment on long-standing radiographs. The survivorships free from aseptic revision for nontraumatic reasons were compared among groups. The mechanical femoral and the tibial component alignment (MFCA and MTCA, respectively) were investigated to know the origin of overall mechanical malalignment of the outlier knees. The mean duration of followup was 8 ± 4 years (range, 2-17 years). Thirty-five knees (4%) showed aseptic loosening at 7 ± 4 years (range, 0.1-14 years) and five (1%) showed polyethylene wear at 12 ± 1 years (range, 10-13 years). Tibial loosening (73%) was the most common reason for aseptic revision followed by femoral loosening (30%). Of this cohort, 687 (70%), 250 (25%), and 45 (5%) knees had overall

  17. Impaired Varus-Valgus Proprioception and Neuromuscular Stabilization in Medial Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alison H.; Lee, Song Joo; Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Impaired proprioception and poor muscular stabilization in the frontal plane may lead to knee instability during functional activities, a common complaint in persons with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Understanding these frontal plane neuromechanical properties in KOA will help elucidate the factors contributing to knee instability and aid in the development of targeted intervention strategies. The study objectives were to compare knee varus-valgus proprioception, isometric muscle strength, and active muscular contribution to stability between persons with medial KOA and healthy controls. We evaluated knee frontal plane neuromechanical parameters in 14 participants with medial KOA and 14 age- and gender-matched controls, using a joint driving device (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus proprioception acuity (1.08 ± 0.59° vs. 0.69 ± 0.49°, p < 0.05), decreased normalized varus muscle strength (1.31 ± 0.75% vs. 1.79 ± 0.84% body weight, p < 0.05), a trend toward decreased valgus strength (1.29 ± 0.67% vs. 1.88 ± 0.99%, p = 0.054), and impaired ability to actively stabilize the knee in the frontal plane during external perturbation (4.67 ± 2.86 vs. 8.26 ± 5.95 Nm/degree, p < 0.05). The knee frontal plane sensorimotor control system is compromised in persons with medial KOA. Our findings suggest varus-valgus control deficits in both the afferent input (proprioceptive acuity) and muscular effectors (muscle strength and capacity to stabilize the joint). PMID:24321442

  18. Reliability of Two Smartphone Applications for Radiographic Measurements of Hallux Valgus Angles.

    PubMed

    Mattos E Dinato, Mauro Cesar; Freitas, Marcio de Faria; Milano, Cristiano; Valloto, Elcio; Ninomiya, André Felipe; Pagnano, Rodrigo Gonçalves

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reliability of 2 smartphone applications compared with the traditional goniometer technique for measurement of radiographic angles in hallux valgus and the time required for analysis with the different methods. The radiographs of 31 patients (52 feet) with a diagnosis of hallux valgus were analyzed. Four observers, 2 with >10 years' experience in foot and ankle surgery and 2 in-training surgeons, measured the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using a manual goniometer technique and 2 smartphone applications (Hallux Angles and iPinPoint). The interobserver and intermethod reliability were estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and the time required for measurement of the angles among the 3 methods was compared using the Friedman test. A very good or good interobserver reliability was found among the 4 observers measuring the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using the goniometer (ICC 0.913 and 0.821, respectively) and iPinPoint (ICC 0.866 and 0.638, respectively). Using the Hallux Angles application, a very good interobserver reliability was found for measurements of the hallux valgus angle (ICC 0.962) and intermetatarsal angle (ICC 0.935) only among the more experienced observers. The time required for the measurements was significantly shorter for the measurements using both smartphone applications compared with the goniometer method. One smartphone application (iPinPoint) was reliable for measurements of the hallux valgus angles by either experienced or nonexperienced observers. The use of these tools might save time in the evaluation of radiographic angles in the hallux valgus. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Closing wedge retrotubercular tibial osteotomy and TKA for posttraumatic osteoarthritis with angular deformity.

    PubMed

    Meehan, John P; Khadder, Mohammad A; Jamali, Amir A; Trauner, Kenneth B

    2009-05-01

    Posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the knee can be associated with angular deformities and alterations in the joint line as a result of the initial trauma and subsequent surgical procedures. These deformities can be characterized as extra-articular or intra-articular or can involve aspects of both. Conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may require either a staged or a simultaneous corrective osteotomy to restore the limb alignment and proper knee function. This article describes a closing wedge retrotubercular tibia osteotomy performed concurrently with TKA in an effort to correct an extra-articular varus deformity and to improve the patella tendon height in relation to the reconstructed joint line. A 57-year-old man previously treated for a Schatzker type 6 tibia plateau fracture presented with symptoms of arthritis pain and instability as a result of a varus thrust with weight bearing. Radiographs revealed posttraumatic osteoarthritis, a 35 degrees varus deformity, and patella infera. Maintaining the tibia tubercle continuity with the distal tibia allowed for correction of the varus deformity and improvement in the patella tendon height relative to the joint line. At 5-year follow-up, the patient had osteotomy healing, clinically neutral limb alignment, and improvement in joint line biomechanics with resolution of symptoms of pain and instability.

  20. The hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis as an alternative to the measurement of the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus angle.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christian; Kinz, Wieland; Zembsch, Alexander; Groll-Knapp, Elisabeth; Kundi, Michael

    2014-04-21

    Currently, the metatarsophalangeal angle (hallux valgus angle) is measured based on radiographic images. However, using X-ray examinations for epidemiological or screening purposes would be unethical, especially in children. For this reason it is discussed to measure the hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis (medial border of the foot) documented on foot outline drawings or foot scans. As a first step on the way to prove the validity of those approaches this study assesses the hallux valgus angle measured on the margo medialis pedis based on the same x-ray pictures as the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus. Radiographic images of the foot were obtained from patients with symptomatic hallux valgus malformation. Twelve sets of contact copies of the 63 originals were made, and were marked and measured according to three different methods, each one performed by two observers and with two repeated measurements. Thus, data sets from 756 individual assessments were entered into the multifactorial statistical analysis.Comparisons were made between the angle of the margo medialis pedis and the metatarsophalangeal angle, which was determined by two different methods. To determine the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the different methods, each assessment was conducted by two independent experts and repeated after a period of several weeks. The correlations between the hallux valgus angles determined by the three different methods were all above r=0.89 (p<0.001) and thus highly significant. The values obtained by measuring the margo medialis pedis angle, however, were on average 4.8 degrees smaller than the metatarsophalangeal angles. No significant differences were found between the observers. No systematic deviations for any observer between repeated measurements were detected. Measurements of the radiographic hallux angle of the margo medialis pedis are reliable and show high correlation with the metatarsophalangeal angle. Because the hallux valgus angles

  1. The hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis as an alternative to the measurement of the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus angle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, the metatarsophalangeal angle (hallux valgus angle) is measured based on radiographic images. However, using X-ray examinations for epidemiological or screening purposes would be unethical, especially in children. For this reason it is discussed to measure the hallux valgus angle of the margo medialis pedis (medial border of the foot) documented on foot outline drawings or foot scans. As a first step on the way to prove the validity of those approaches this study assesses the hallux valgus angle measured on the margo medialis pedis based on the same x-ray pictures as the metatarsophalangeal hallux valgus. Methods Radiographic images of the foot were obtained from patients with symptomatic hallux valgus malformation. Twelve sets of contact copies of the 63 originals were made, and were marked and measured according to three different methods, each one performed by two observers and with two repeated measurements. Thus, data sets from 756 individual assessments were entered into the multifactorial statistical analysis. Comparisons were made between the angle of the margo medialis pedis and the metatarsophalangeal angle, which was determined by two different methods. To determine the inter- and intraobserver reliability of the different methods, each assessment was conducted by two independent experts and repeated after a period of several weeks. Results The correlations between the hallux valgus angles determined by the three different methods were all above r = 0.89 (p < 0.001) and thus highly significant. The values obtained by measuring the margo medialis pedis angle, however, were on average 4.8 degrees smaller than the metatarsophalangeal angles. No significant differences were found between the observers. No systematic deviations for any observer between repeated measurements were detected. Conclusions Measurements of the radiographic hallux angle of the margo medialis pedis are reliable and show high correlation with the

  2. Prospective randomized study of chevron osteotomy versus Mitchell's osteotomy in hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Buciuto, Robert

    2014-12-01

    We conducted a prospective randomized trial to compare the most popular osteotomy types of operative treatment of hallux valgus (HV) used in Norway, Mitchell's osteotomy (MO) and chevron osteotomy (CO). One hundred twenty adult female patients were prospectively randomized to treatment with either MO or CO. All operative procedures were performed with ankle block and with tourniquet applied. None of the patients received any antibiotic or antithrombotic prophylaxis. The follow-up period was 3 years. Clinical results were rated according to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Clinical Rating System (CRS). HV in the MO group was reduced from 30 (range, 20 to 44) to 15 (range, 8 to 24) degrees and IM angle from 11 (range, 6 to 14) to 7 (range, 4 to 11) degrees. HV in the CO group was reduced from 31 (range, 22 to 42) to 16 (range, 6 to 24) degrees and IM angle from 14 (range, 8 to 20) to 6 (range, 2 to 10) degrees. Transfer metatarsalgia occurred in 36 (60%) patients and hammertoe in 6 (10%) patients in the MO group. In the CO group, metatarsalgia occurred in 5 patients. The median loss of postoperative HV correction was 4 (range, 2 to 10) degrees in mild deformity and 6 (6 to 10) degrees in moderate deformity. Patients treated with CO had significantly better results for AOFAS CRS, number of postoperative complications, patient satisfaction, and length of sick leave for the employed patients. Based on our results, we consider that in female patients CO should be regarded as the first-line procedure for treatment of mild and moderate HV. Level I, prospective randomized study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Weight-bearing computed tomography findings in varus ankle osteoarthritis: abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Beom; Yi, Young; Kim, Jae-Young; Cho, Jae-Ho; Kwon, Min-Soo; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Woo-Chun

    2017-08-01

    To assess the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the axial plane in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and to determine whether this incidence differs from the severity of varus ankle osteoarthritis (moderate versus severe). We retrospectively evaluated weight-bearing computed tomography (CT) and plain radiographs of 52 ankles with no abnormalities (control group) and 96 ankles with varus osteoarthritis (varus-OA group), which were further stratified into a moderate-OA subgroup (50 ankles) and a severe-OA subgroup (46 ankles). A new radiographic parameter on weight-bearing CT, the talus rotation ratio, was used to assess the rotation of the talus in the axial plane. The normal range of the talus rotation ratio was defined as the 95% prediction interval for talus rotation ratio values in the control group. Abnormal internal rotation of the talus was defined for talus rotation ratio values above the normal range. We determined the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus in the varus-OA group, moderate-OA subgroup, and severe-OA subgroup. In the varus-OA group, the incidence of abnormal internal rotation of the talus was 45% (43 ankles), which corresponded to an incidence of 32% (16 ankles) in the moderate-OA subgroup and 59% (27 ankles) in the severe-OA subgroup (p = 0.013). Our study demonstrates that abnormal internal rotation of the talus occurs in patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis, and is more frequently noted in severe than in moderate varus ankle osteoarthritis.

  4. Varus thrust in women with early medial knee osteoarthritis and its relation with the external knee adduction moment.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian, Armaghan; van Dieen, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Baert, Isabel Ac; Faber, Gert S; Luyten, Frank P; Verschueren, Sabine Mp

    2016-11-01

    Varus thrust, defined as an abrupt increase of the knee varus angle during weight-bearing in gait, has been shown to be present in patients with moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis and is considered to be one of the risk factors for progression of symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis. We evaluated the presence and magnitude of varus thrust and its relation with the Knee Adduction Moment in women with early medial knee osteoarthritis, and compared it to that in a group of controls and in a group of subjects with established medial knee osteoarthritis. Twenty-seven women with early medial knee osteoarthritis, 20 women with established medial knee osteoarthritis and 24 asymptomatic controls were evaluated. Varus thrust was estimated as an increase of the knee varus angle during the weight-bearing phase of gait at self-selected speed, assessed by 3D motion analysis. Varus thrust was significantly higher in both early and established osteoarthritis groups compared to the control group (P<0.001), but not different between osteoarthritis groups. While the knee adduction moments were higher than controls only in the established osteoarthritis group, the magnitude of varus thrust was significantly correlated with the second peak knee adduction moment. Higher varus thrust was found both in early and established stages of knee osteoarthritis, suggesting that problems with dynamic stabilization of the knee are present early in the development of knee osteoarthritis. This highlights the necessity of considering dynamic alignment in rehabilitation already in the early stages of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computing muscle, ligament, and osseous contributions to the elbow varus moment during baseball pitching

    PubMed Central

    Buffi, James H.; Werner, Katie; Kepple, Tom; Murray, Wendy M.

    2014-01-01

    Baseball pitching imposes a dangerous valgus load on the elbow that puts the joint at severe risk for injury. The goal of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal modeling approach to enable evaluation of muscle-tendon contributions to mitigating elbow injury risk in pitching. We implemented a forward dynamic simulation framework that used a scaled biomechanical model to reproduce a pitching motion recorded from a high school pitcher. The medial elbow muscles generated substantial, protective, varus elbow moments in our simulations. For our subject, the triceps generated large varus moments at the time of peak valgus loading; varus moments generated by the flexor digitorum superficialis were larger, but occurred later in the motion. Increasing muscle-tendon force output, either by augmenting parameters associated with strength and power or by increasing activation levels, decreased the load on the ulnar collateral ligament. Published methods have not previously quantified the biomechanics of elbow muscles during pitching. This simulation study represents a critical advancement in the study of baseball pitching and highlights the utility of simulation techniques in the study of this difficult problem. PMID:25281409

  6. Varus knee osteoarthritis: Elevated synovial CD15 counts correlate with inferior biomechanical properties of lateral-compartment cartilage.

    PubMed

    Koller, Ulrich; Waldstein, Wenzel; Krenn, Veit; Windhager, Reinhard; Boettner, Friedrich

    2018-03-01

    The study analyzed the influence of synovitis on the histological and biomechanical properties of lateral-compartment cartilage. In a prospective cohort study, 84 patients (100 knees) with varus deformity of the knee were included. Osteochondral samples from the distal lateral femur underwent biomechanical and histologic analysis. Synovial tissue was sampled for histological (chronic synovitis score) and immunohistochemical evaluation of the degree of synovitis. CD15 (neutrophils), Ki-67 (dividing cells), and CD68 (macrophages) were tested in all synovial samples. While the histological synovitis score did not correlate with the degree of cartilage degeneration (histological OARSI grades), both CD15 (r s  = 0.297, p = 0.006) and Ki-67 (r s  = 0.249, p = 0.023) correlated with histological OARSI grades. There was a weak negative correlation of CD15 with biomechanical properties of cartilage of the distal lateral femur (aggregate modulus (Ha): r s  = -0.125; p = 0.257; dynamic modulus (DM): r s  = -0.216; p = 0.048). No correlations were observed for Ki-67 and CD68. In addition, biomechanical properties were inferior in knees with a CD15 of >8/high power field compared to knees with a CD15 of ≤8/high power field (Ha: p = 0.031, d = 0.46; DM: p = 0.005, d = 0.68). The study demonstrates an association of increased inflammatory activity with advanced cartilage degeneration. Lateral-compartment cartilage in knees with elevated synovial CD15 counts has a reduced ability to withstand compressive loads. CD15 might serve as an indicator for inferior biomechanical cartilage properties. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:841-846, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Lesser toe deformities. Definition, pathogenesis, and options for surgical correction].

    PubMed

    Arnold, H

    2005-08-01

    Whereas in the past resection arthroplasty was - in analogy to hallux valgus surgery - the preferred therapy to correct lesser toe deformities, the point of view has undergone a change. Much interest is directed toward functional aspects that require reconstructive management. Whenever possible the integrity of joint play should be saved. Above all the metatarsophalangeal joint of the lesser toes is worth being preserved to prevent a severe disturbance of the biomechanics of the foot. Tendon transfers and subtle corrective osteotomies such as the Weil procedure allow restricting resection procedures to contraction deformities.

  8. Surgical Treatment of Moderate Hallux Valgus: A Comparison of Distal Chevron Metatarsal Osteotomy With and Without Lateral Soft-Tissue Release.

    PubMed

    Grle, Maki; Vrgoc, Goran; Bohacek, Ivan; Hohnjec, Vladimir; Martinac, Marko; Brkic, Iva; Stefan, Lovro; Jotanovic, Zdravko

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether lateral soft-tissue release (LSTR) has a beneficial or detrimental effect on the outcome of distal Chevron first metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) in the treatment of moderate hallux valgus (HV). We compared the effect of different surgical treatments in 2 groups of patients: group I (23 patients, 25 feet, average age of 55 [from 43 to 77] years) was subjected to DCMO only, whereas group II (18 patients, 23 feet, average age of 59 [from 52 to 70] years]) was subjected to DCMO with LSTR. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society's Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal scale survey was conducted postoperatively, followed by the brief survey on postoperative patient satisfaction. The patient follow-up period was from 18 to 24 months after surgical treatment, on average. After surgical intervention, both groups of patients presented with an improved HV angle, but there was no significant difference between the groups. However, group II showed significant improvements in medial sesamoid bone position and patient satisfaction scores as compared with group I. Our midterm follow-up of surgical treatments for moderate HV deformity suggests that both procedures provide good postoperative results. However, according to our results, DCMO with LSTR provides better results than procedures without LSTR. Therapeutic, Level III: Retrospective comparative study.

  9. Outcome of Joint-Preserving Arthroplasty for Rheumatoid Forefoot Deformities.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okazaki, Ken; Yamada, Hisakata; Mawatari, Taro; Ohishi, Masanobu; Oyamada, Akiko; Akasaki, Yukio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-03-01

    Along with the recent advances in the pharmacological management of rheumatoid arthritis, there is a trend toward the use of joint-preserving surgery in the treatment of rheumatoid forefoot deformities. However, the clinical outcomes of joint-preserving surgery for rheumatoid forefoot deformities have not been assessed in comparison to resection arthroplasty. We retrospectively evaluated 23 feet in 17 patients with rheumatoid forefoot deformities who underwent surgery between January 2010 and December 2013. The patients included 1 male (1 foot) and 16 females (22 feet), with a mean age of 62 years. The mean length of follow-up was 28 months. The patients were treated by 3 surgeons. One surgeon performed joint-preserving procedures (JP group) to the feet in which (1) no pain with motion existed, and (2) the range of motion in the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint was greater than 30 degrees (n = 10); otherwise, resection arthroplasty with arthrodesis of the first MTP joint was performed (n = 3). The other surgeons performed resection arthroplasty in all cases (n = 10) (RA group, n = 13 in total). The clinical outcomes of the patients were evaluated using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) hallux and lesser toe scales. There were no significant differences in the preoperative total JSSF scores for either the hallux (54.5 and 61.4 points) or the lesser toe (45.2 and 57.4 points) between the RA and JP groups, respectively. Postoperatively, the total JSSF scores for both the hallux (79.4 and 88.2 points) and lesser toes (73.6 and 87.7 points) showed significant improvement in both the RA and JP groups, respectively; however, the JP group showed a greater postoperative improvement. The scores relating to the function category on the hallux scale and the alignment category on the lesser toe scale were significantly higher in the JP group. With regard to the function of the hallux and the alignment of the lesser toes, the joint-preserving procedures

  10. [Proximal femoral varus osteotomy in adults after developmental dysplasia of the hip: long-term results].

    PubMed

    Rozkydal, Z; Janíček, P; Otiepka, P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the results of varus osteotomy of the proximal femur in adults with coxa valga after developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and to evaluate the efficacy of this method. Thirty hips in 28 patients treated by proximal femoral varus osteotomy in the period from 1983 to 1990 were evaluated. The indication for surgery involved coxa valga (145°-168°) with grade I- III of osteoarthritis and mild acetabular dysplasia. The patient group comprised twenty six women and two men with an average age of 28 years (18 to 42) at the time of surgery. The mean follow-up was 22 years (19 to 26). The preoperative radiographic examination included an AP view of the pelvis, AP views of the hip in neutral and in frog-leg position and AP views of the hip in 30° of abduction and neutral rotation. Varus osteotomy was indicated when the best position of the hip joint was achieved in abduction. The procedure was performed according to M. Müller. Hip assessment was based on the grade of osteoarthritis, CCD angle, Wiberg angle and AHI index. The results were statistically evaluated using the life table analysis of clinical survivorship of osteotomy and the Kaplan- Meier curve. Clinical failure was defined as conversion of osteotomy to total hip replacement (THR). At the latest follow-up of 22 years on the average, 18 patients (19 hips) still had osteotomy and 10 patients (11 hips) had undergone conversion to THR. The life table analysis showed the cumulative proportion of osteotomy with a clinical survivorship of 0.97 at 5 years, 0.75 at 10 and 15 years, and 0.68 at 20 and 25 years after surgery. The cumulative rate of clinical survivorship of osteotomy, as shown by the Kaplan-Meier curve, was 0.89 at 10 years, 0.75 at 20 years and 0.67 at 25 years after surgery. Nineteen patients were satisfied with the osteotomy outcome. The median of Harris hip scores in the patients with osteotomy was 48 points before surgery and 78 points at the latest

  11. Radiographic Measurements of the Affected and Unaffected Feet in Patients with Unilateral Hallux Limitus A Case-Control Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Knox, Andrew F; Bryant, Alan R

    2016-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the structural and functional causes of hallux limitus, including metatarsus primus elevatus, a long first metatarsal, first-ray hypermobility, the shape of the first metatarsal head, and the presence of hallux interphalangeus. Some articles have reported on the radiographic evaluation of these measurements in feet affected by hallux limitus, but no study has directly compared the affected and unaffected feet in patients with unilateral hallux limitus. This case-control pilot study aimed to establish whether any such differences exist. Dorsoplantar and lateral weightbearing radiographs of both feet in 30 patients with unilateral hallux limitus were assessed for grade of disease, lateral intermetatarsal angle, metatarsal protrusion distance, plantar gapping at the first metatarsocuneiform joint, metatarsal head shape, and hallux abductus interphalangeus angle. Data analysis was performed using a statistical software program. Mean radiographic measurements for affected and unaffected feet demonstrated that metatarsus primus elevatus, a short first metatarsal, first-ray hypermobility, a flat metatarsal head shape, and hallux interphalangeus were prevalent in both feet. There was no statistically significant difference between feet for any of the radiographic parameters measured (Mann-Whitney U tests, independent-samples t tests, and Pearson χ(2) tests: P > .05). No significant differences exist in the presence of the structural risk factors examined between affected and unaffected feet in patients with unilateral hallux limitus. The influence of other intrinsic factors, including footedness and family history, should be investigated further.

  12. Comparison of radiographic and anatomic femoral varus angle measurements in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, Jennifer K; Radecki, Steven V; Park, Richard D; Palmer, Ross H

    2008-01-01

    To determine if the clinically practiced method of radiographic femoral varus angle (R-FVA) measurement is repeatable, reproducible, and accurate. Radiographic and anatomic study. ANIMALS/SAMPLE POPULATION: Normal Walker hound cadavers (n=5) and femora (n=10). Cadavers were held in dorsally-recumbent and torso-elevated positions as 3 craniocaudal radiographs were made of each femur, by each of 2 different technicians. Femora were then harvested for direct measurement of anatomic femoral varus angle (A-FVA). R-FVA was measured on each radiograph by each of 3 examiners on 3 separate occasions. Intra-observer (repeatability) and inter-observer (reproducibility) variance in R-FVA measurement and the strength of relationship between R-FVA and A-FVA (accuracy) were determined. Mean (+/-SD) A-FVA was 5.2+/-2.1 degrees (range, 2.4-8.2 degrees). Mean (+/-SD) R-FVA was 5.8+/-1.0 degrees (range, 2.7-9.6 degrees). Intra-observer variance (range: 11-16%) and inter-observer variance (16%) were acceptable. The strength of relationship between measured R-FVA and A-FVA (maximum adjusted R(2)<0) was unacceptably low regardless of observer, patient position, or radiographic technician. R-FVA measurement was repeatable and reproducible, but not statistically accurate in predicting A-FVA in these 5 normal Walker hounds. The detected inaccuracy may be real or the result of a selection bias for normal dogs obscuring the true relationship. R-FVA may not be an accurate method of femoral varus measurement in dogs with A-FVA<10 degrees. Using Slocum's criteria for distal femoral osteotomy (R-FVA>10 degrees), the procedure would not have been erroneously performed in any of the normal dogs of this study.

  13. Boomerang proximal tibial osteotomy for the treatment of severe varus gonarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Sangkaew, Chanchit; Piyapittayanun, Peerapong

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to review the results of modified infratubercle displacement osteotomy in patients with severe varus gonarthrosis and to determine the factors influencing outcomes. A total of 177 knees in 133 patients with severe varus gonarthrosis were treated with infratubercle boomerang-shaped osteotomy, stabilised with dual plates. The mean age of the patients was 63.8 years (range 43-80 years), and the mean follow-up period was 61.4 months (range 24 -139 months). The factors associated with clinical and survival outcomes were analysed including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), preoperative and post-operative femorotibial angle and femorotibial angle at one year after surgery. Using the Knee Society clinical rating system 149 knees or 84.2 % were rated as having good to excellent results and 21 knees or 15.8 % as having fair to poor results. Overall, the mean preoperative knee score of 33.6 points had improved significantly to 80.7 points at the final follow-up (p < 0.001). Using Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis the five-year survival was 97.1 % with conversion to arthroplasty or second osteotomy as the end point and 89.2 % with a knee score of under 70 points as the end point. The anatomical femorotibial angle at one year after osteotomy had the most significant positive effect on the clinical (p < 0.001) and survival outcomes for all end points (p = 0.002 for conversion to arthroplasty or second osteotomy and p < 0.001 for knee score less than 70 points). The boomerang osteotomy can create adequate valgus alignment in severe varus gonarthrosis. The one-year post-operative knee alignment of 11° valgus provided the most satisfactory results and that between six and 15° valgus the longest survival time.

  14. Intra- and Interobserver Reliability of Three Classification Systems for Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Sarita; Schilero, Christina; Chiang, Sharon; Pham, Peter

    2018-04-18

    There are over ten classification systems currently used in the staging of hallux rigidus. This results in confusion and inconsistency with radiographic interpretation and treatment. The reliability of hallux rigidus classification systems has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra- and interobserver reliability using three commonly used classifications for hallux rigidus. Twenty-one plain radiograph sets were presented to ten ACFAS board-certified foot and ankle surgeons. Each physician classified each radiograph based on clinical experience and knowledge according to the Regnauld, Roukis, and Hattrup and Johnson classification systems. The two-way mixed single-measure consistency intraclass correlation was used to calculate intra- and interrater reliability. The intrarater reliability of individual sets for the Roukis and Hattrup and Johnson classification systems was "fair to good" (Roukis, 0.62±0.19; Hattrup and Johnson, 0.62±0.28), whereas the intrarater reliability of individual sets for the Regnauld system bordered between "fair to good" and "poor" (0.43±0.24). The interrater reliability of the mean classification was "excellent" for all three classification systems. Conclusions Reliable and reproducible classification systems are essential for treatment and prognostic implications in hallux rigidus. In our study, Roukis classification system had the best intrarater reliability. Although there are various classification systems for hallux rigidus, our results indicate that all three of these classification systems show reliability and reproducibility.

  15. Hallux valgus in a historical French population: paleopathological study of 605 first metatarsal bones.

    PubMed

    Mafart, Bertrand

    2007-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of hallux valgus in a historical population in France, to identify associated skeletal abnormalities, and to look for an influence of footwear changes through time. We studied the 605 first metatarsals found in the necropolis of the Notre-Dame-du-Bourg cathedral in Digne in the Alpes-de-Hautes-Provence region of southern France. The necropolis contains remains from the 5th to the 17th century. Hallux valgus was identified only in individuals older than 30years at death, and its prevalence increased significantly with age. Exostosis at the medial and dorsal aspects of the head of the first metatarsal were common in advanced forms. The prevalence was comparable in males and females in the Middle Ages but was significantly higher in males in the 16th and 17th centuries, whereas in contemporary populations females are selectively affected. The increase in the prevalence of hallux valgus over time suggests an influence of changes in footwear. The heeled shoes and boots made of stiff leather that men wore in premodern times probably promoted the development of hallux valgus. However, the prevalence of hallux valgus in women in western industrialized countries today is even higher than that in our historical population of older premodern individuals, suggesting an extremely deleterious effect of contemporary female footwear.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Three-Step Medial Release Technique in Varus Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Woo; Koh, In Jun; Kim, Ju Hwan; Jung, Jae Jong; In, Yong

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of our novel three-step medial release technique in varus total knee arthroplasty (TKA) over time. Two hundred sixty seven consecutive varus TKAs were performed by applying the algorithmic release technique which consisted of sequential release of the deep medial collateral ligament (step 1), the semimembranosus (step 2), and multiple needle puncturing of the superficial medial collateral ligament (step 3). One hundred seventeen, 114, and 36 knees were balanced after step 1, 2, and 3 releases, respectively. There were no significant differences in changes of medial and lateral laxities between groups in over a year. Our novel stepwise medial release technique was efficacious and safe in balancing varus knees during TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Varus and valgus stress tests after total knee arthroplasty with and without anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tsukeoka, Tadashi; Tsuneizumi, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-01

    Retrospective studies demonstrated inadequate soft tissue balance is associated with the long-term outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, most of these studies have evaluated the joint laxity only postoperatively without anesthesia. Therefore information about the effect of anesthesia on knee laxity is important for soft tissue balancing at the time of surgery. This study was conducted to determine how anesthesia affects the varus and valgus stress tests after TKA. A consecutive series of 26 patients undergoing staged bilateral TKA was evaluated. Varus and valgus laxity of the knee with the TKA implant was measured a few days before the contralateral TKA without anesthesia and again immediately after the contralateral TKA under spinal anesthesia. The laxity was significantly increased from 3.0° to 3.6° (p = 0.005) and from 4.7° to 5.7° (p = 0.007) in medial and lateral side, respectively, when the stress tests were performed under anesthesia in comparison to the laxity measured without anesthesia. The major change in laxity (≥3°) was measured in 6 (23%) patients tested without anesthesia. Anesthesia significantly influenced knee joint laxity after TKA. The findings of this study suggest that muscular forces impart a stabilizing force across the joint.

  18. Improved ankle push-off power following cheilectomy for hallux rigidus: a prospective gait analysis study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sheryl M; Coleman, Scott C; Bacon, Stacy A; Polo, Fabian E; Brodsky, James W

    2012-06-01

    There is limited objective scientific information on the functional effects of cheilectomy. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that cheilectomy for hallux rigidus improves gait by increasing ankle push-off power. Seventeen patients with symptomatic Stage 1 or Stage 2 hallux rigidus were studied. Pre- and postoperative first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) range of motion and AOFAS hallux scores were recorded. A gait analysis was performed within 4 weeks prior to surgery and repeated at a minimum of 1 year after surgery. Gait analysis was done using a three-dimensional motion capture system and a force platform embedded in a 10-m walkway. Gait velocity sagittal plane ankle range of motion and peak sagittal plane ankle push-off power were analyzed. Following cheilectomy, significant increases were noted for first MTP range of motion and AOFAS hallux score. First MTP motion improved an average of 16.7 degrees, from means of 33.9 degrees preoperatively to 50.6 degrees postoperatively (p<0.001). AOFAS hallux score increased from 62 to 81 (p<0.007). As demonstrated through gait anaylsis, a significant increase in postoperative peak sagittal plane ankle push-off power from 1.71±0.92 W/kg to 2.05±0.75 W/kg (p<0.04). In addition to clinically increased range of motion and improved AOFAS Hallux score, first MTP joint cheilectomy produced objective improvement in gait, as measured by increased peak sagittal-plane ankle push-off power.

  19. Evaluating the Quality, Accuracy, and Readability of Online Resources Pertaining to Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, Jason P; Rosenbaum, Andrew J; Abousayed, Mostafa; Hushmendy, Shazaan F; DiPreta, John A

    2016-02-01

    The Internet is one of the most widely utilized resources for health-related information. Evaluation of the medical literature suggests that the quality and accuracy of these resources are poor and written at inappropriately high reading levels. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the quality, accuracy, and readability of online resources pertaining to hallux valgus. Two search terms ("hallux valgus" and "bunion") were entered into Google, Yahoo, and Bing. With the use of scoring criteria specific to hallux valgus, the quality and accuracy of online information related to hallux valgus was evaluated by 3 reviewers. The Flesch-Kincaid score was used to determine readability. Statistical analysis was performed with t tests and significance was determined by P values <.05. Sixty-two unique websites were evaluated. Quality was significantly higher with use of the search term "bunion" as compared to "hallux valgus" (P = .045). Quality and accuracy were significantly higher in resources authored by physicians as compared to nonphysicians (quality, P = .04; accuracy, P < .001) and websites without commercial bias (quality, P = .038; accuracy, P = .011). However, the reading level was significantly more advanced for websites authored by physicians (P = .035). Websites written above an eighth-grade reading level were significantly more accurate than those written at or below an eighth-grade reading level (P = .032). The overall quality of online information related to hallux valgus is poor and written at inappropriate reading levels. Furthermore, the search term used, authorship, and presence of commercial bias influence the value of these materials. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to become familiar with patient education materials, so that appropriate recommendations can be made regarding valuable resources. Level IV. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Preliminary Results and Learning Curve of the Minimally Invasive Chevron Akin Operation for Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Charlie R J; Bedi, Harvinder S

    Minimally invasive surgery is increasing in popularity. It is relevant in hallux valgus surgery owing to the potential for reduced disruption of the soft tissues and improved wound healing. We present our results and assess the learning curve of the minimally invasive Chevron Akin operation for hallux valgus. A total of 120 consecutive feet underwent minimally invasive Chevron Akin for symptomatic hallux valgus, of which 14 were excluded. They were followed up for a mean of 25 (range 18 to 38) months. The patients were clinically assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score. Complications and patient satisfaction were recorded. The radiographs were analyzed and measurements recorded for hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angle correction. The mean age of the patients undergoing surgery was 55 (range 25 to 81) years. Of the 78 patients, 76 (97.4%) were female and 2 (2.6%) were male; 28 (35.9%) cases were bilateral. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 56 (range 23 to 76) preoperatively to 87 (range 50 to 100) postoperatively (p < .001). The mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles preoperatively were 29.7° (range 12° to 46°) and 14.0° (range 8° to 20°). The corresponding postoperative angles were 10.3° (range 0° to 25°) and 7.6° (range 3° to 15°; p < .001). The patients were satisfied with the results of surgery in 87% of cases (92 of 106). The incidence of reoperation was 14% (15 of 106). These are the only reported results for this technique. They display a steep associated learning curve. However, the results are promising, and the learning curve is comparable to that for open hallux valgus surgery. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rolled Tendon Allograft Interposition Arthroplasty for Salvage Surgery of the Hallux Metatarsophalangeal Joint.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Danielle; Thordarson, David

    2018-04-01

    Hallux rigidus is a common osteoarthritic disease of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Few salvage treatment options exist that preserve motion for patients who have failed an initial procedure and who are not amenable to fusion, typically patients who are active or who would like to wear high heels. Allograft tendon interpositional arthroplasty is an unconventional salvage treatment option that may preserve motion and prevent bone loss. A retrospective chart review is reported of 19 patients who failed previous procedures and refused fusion who underwent allograft tendon interpositional arthroplasty of the hallux MTPJ by a single surgeon between 2012 and 2015. Outcomes included the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale assessment as well as measurement of apparent joint space on anterior to posterior and lateral views. The cumulative average AOFAS score for all patients was 68.5 preoperatively and 74.1 postoperatively. The average AOFAS pain subscore was 24.7 preoperatively and 26.8 postoperatively (SD = 7.7 and 13.8, respectively). Radiographically, patients had an increase in apparent joint space from pre- to postoperatively, most notable on the lateral view (0.6 to 4.7 mm; SD = 0.7 and 3.2 mm). Five patients required a second operative procedure, for an overall 26% reoperation rate. One patient underwent hallux MTPJ fusion after the interpositional arthroplasty. An additional 4 patients (21%) had symptoms requiring a steroid injection, and another 3 patients (16%) were recommended to undergo a revision procedure based on their symptoms. Rolled allograft tendon interposition arthroplasty performed poorly as a salvage strategy for failed previous hallux MTPJ surgery for hallux rigidus because of a high rate of complication and minimal benefits. The senior author has abandoned the technique. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  2. [Treatment of posttraumatic cubitus varus in children and adolescents. Supracondylar humeral osteotomy using radial external fixation].

    PubMed

    Slongo, T

    2015-06-01

    Precise adaptable fixation of a supracondylar humerus osteotomy with a radial/lateral external fixator to correct posttraumatic cubitus varus. Acquired, posttraumatic cubitus varus as a result of a malhealed and unsatisfactorily treated supracondylar humerus fracture. Idiopathic, congenital cubitus varus (very seldom) if the child (independent of age and after complete healing) is cosmetically impaired; stability of the elbow is reduced due to malalignment (hyperextension); secondary problems and pain (e. g., irritation of the ulnar nerve) are expected or already exist; or there is an explicit wish of the child/parents (relative indication). In principle there are no contraindications provided that the indication criteria are filled. The common argument of age does not represent a contraindication in our opinion, since angular remodeling at the distal end of the humerus is practically nonexistent. Basically, the surgical technique of the radial external fixator is used as previously described for stabilization of complex supracondylar humeral fractures. With the patient in supine position, the arm is placed freely on an arm table. Using a 4-5 cm long skin incision along the radial, supracondylar, the extracapsular part of the distal humerus is prepared, whereby great caution regarding the radial nerve is advised. In contrast to the procedure used in radial external fixation for supracondylar humeral fracture treatment, two Schanz screws are always fixed in each fragment at a distance of 1.5-2 cm. The osteotomy must allow the fragment to freely move in all directions. The proximal and distal two Schanz screws are then connected with short 4 mm carbon or stainless steel rods. These two rods are connected with each other over another rod using the tub-to-tub technique. Now the preliminary correction according the clinical situation can be performed and the clamps are tightened. Anatomical axis and function are checked. If these are radiologically and clinically

  3. Hallux Valgus, By Nature or Nurture? A Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Shannon E; Menz, Hylton B; Wark, John D; Christie, Jemma J; Scurrah, Katrina J; Bui, Minh; Erbas, Bircan; Hopper, John L; Wluka, Anita E

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the contributions of shared but unmeasured genetic and environmental factors to hallux valgus (HV). Between 2011 and 2012, 74 monozygotic (MZ) and 56 dizygotic (DZ) female twin pairs self-reported HV and putative risk factors, including footwear use across their lifespan. Estimates of casewise concordance (P C ), correlation (ρ), and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated, adjusting for age and other risk factors, and compared between MZ and DZ pairs using logistic regression, generalized estimating equations, and a maximum likelihood-based method, respectively. A total of 70 participants (27%) reported HV, with 12 MZ and 7 DZ pairs being concordant. After adjusting for age, twins were correlated (ρ = 0.27 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.08, 0.46]) and concordant (P C  = 0.45 [95% CI 0.29, 0.61]; mean age 58 years), with no difference between MZ and DZ pairs (P = 0.7). HV was associated with regularly wearing footwear with a constrictive toe-box during the fourth decade (adjusted OR 2.73 [95% CI 1.12, 6.67]). This risk factor was correlated in MZ (ρ = 0.38 [95% CI 0.15, 0.60]) but not DZ (ρ = -0.20 [95% CI -0.43, 0.03]) pairs. These correlations were significantly different (P = 0.002). Twins are correlated for HV, but we found no evidence that correlation was due to shared genetic factors. We identified an environmental risk factor, footwear with a constrictive toe-box, that is not shared to the same extent by MZ and DZ pairs, contrary to the assumption of the classic twin model. Footwear, and possibly genetic factors and unknown shared environmental factors, could contribute to developing HV. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Hallux valgus correction using transarticular lateral release with distal chevron osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Rak; Lee, Ho Seong; Jeong, Jae Jung; Kim, Sang Woo; Jeon, In-Ho; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Woo Chun

    2012-10-01

    Transarticular lateral release through a medial incision can avoid a dorsal incision. This study investigated outcomes following hallux valgus correction using transarticular lateral release, distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy and Akin phalangeal osteotomy through one medial incision. Between June 2004 and May 2009, a single surgeon performed a transarticular lateral release, distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy and Akin phalangeal osteotomy through one medial incision for hallux valgus on a total of 103 feet of 68 patients. The average patient age at the time of surgery was 51 years, and the average followup was 27 months. The average preoperative and final followup results were: 1) hallux valgus angle improvement from 29 degrees to 5 degrees, 2) intermetatarsal angle from 13 degrees to 5 degrees and 3) medial sesamoid bone position from 3 to 1 (p < 0.05 for each variable). The average AOFAS scores were improved from 49 to 92, and the VAS pain scores were improved from 7 to 1 (p < 0.05 for both variables). No patient had a serious complication such as infection, avascular necrosis, nonunion, transfer-metatarsalgia, or first metatarsophalangeal joint arthritis. Hallux valgus correction using transarticular lateral release, distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy and Akin phalangeal osteotomy through one medial incision was found to be effective and safe. The advantages include that the procedure is simple, early ambulation is possible, and there is no dorsal scarring.

  5. Perioperative analgesia with a buprenorphine transdermal patch for hallux valgus surgery: a prospective, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Can; Li, Mingqing; Wang, Chenggong; Li, Hui; Liu, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Hallux valgus surgery often results in significant postoperative pain. Adequate control of pain is essential for patient satisfaction and improves the outcome of the procedure. This study aimed to investigate the perioperative analgesic effect of a buprenorphine transdermal patch in patients who underwent hallux valgus surgery. Patients and methods A total of 90 patients were randomly divided into the following three groups based on the perioperative analgesic method: flurbiprofen axetil intravenous injection (Group F), oral celecoxib (Group C), and buprenorphine transdermal delivery system (BTDS) (Group BTDS). The pain status, degree of satisfaction, adverse effects, and administration of tramadol hydrochloride for uncontrolled pain were recorded on the night before surgery, postoperative day 1, postoperative day 2, and postoperative day 3. Results The BTDS could effectively control perioperative pain for patients undergoing hallux valgus surgery. The analgesic effect of the BTDS was better than that of oral celecoxib. In addition, statistically significant differences were not observed in the visual analog scale (VAS) scores, adverse effects, and rescue analgesia between the patients who received the BTDS and the patients who received the flurbiprofen axetil intravenous injection. However, the degree of patient satisfaction of the BTDS group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the other two groups. Conclusion The BTDS (a preemptive analgesia regimen) could exert an analgesic effect during the perioperative period for patients who had received hallux valgus surgery, and this effect is beneficial for sustaining postoperative physiological and psychological states and promoting functional rehabilitation. PMID:29731664

  6. Association of knee confidence with pain, knee instability, muscle strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Skou, Søren T; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-05-01

    To investigate associations between self-reported knee confidence and pain, self-reported knee instability, muscle strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 100 participants with symptomatic and radiographic medial tibiofemoral compartment osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment recruited for a randomized controlled trial. The extent of knee confidence, assessed using a 5-point Likert scale item from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, was set as the dependent variable in univariable and multivariable ordinal regression, with pain during walking, self-reported knee instability, quadriceps strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking as independent variables. One percent of the participants were not troubled with lack of knee confidence, 17% were mildly troubled, 50% were moderately troubled, 26% were severely troubled, and 6% were extremely troubled. Significant associations were found between worse knee confidence and higher pain intensity, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion. The multivariable model consisting of the same variables significantly accounted for 24% of the variance in knee confidence (P < 0.001). Worse knee confidence is associated with higher pain, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps muscle strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. Since previous research has shown that worse knee confidence is predictive of functional decline in knee OA, addressing lack of knee confidence by treating these modifiable impairments could represent a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Resection Arthroplasty for Resistant Ulcers Underlying the Hallux in Insensate Diabetics.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Eran; Tamir, Jeremy; Beer, Yiftah; Kosashvili, Yona; Finestone, Aharon S

    2015-08-01

    Foot ulcers carry considerable morbidity in patients with peripheral neuropathy and frequently lead to foot amputation. The purpose of this study was to present our experience treating recalcitrant ulcers underlying the hallux interphalangeal joint in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM)-related neuropathy with a first metatarsophalangeal (MTPJ1) resection arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the computerized medical files of patients with diabetic neuropathy treated with a MTPJ1 resection arthroplasty. We performed 28 arthroplasties on 20 patients with a mean age of 59 years. The patients had a diagnosis of DM for a mean of 10.7 years. Of the ulcers, 26 were grade 1A ulcers, and 2 were grade 2A ulcers (University of Texas score); the ulcer's mean age was 5.4 months. The mean dorsiflexion of the hallux before surgery was 46 degrees. The primary ulcer recovered in a mean of 3.1 weeks. Major complications (wound dehiscence and infection) occurred in 6 of 28 operations. Patients returned to normal activity 4 weeks after all procedures except in the 6 patients with dehiscence. In a subgroup of patients with follow-up longer than a year, the ulcer recurred after 4 of 18 arthroplasties (22%) between 3 and 12 months due to postoperative hallux rigidus. In the remaining 14 of 18 arthroplasties (78%), there was no recurrence during a mean follow-up of 26 months. MTPJ1 resection arthroplasty may be considered in a patient with resistant plantar hallux ulcerations, even in the absence of hallux rigidus. As with all operations on neuropathic feet in patients with DM, the surgeon and the patient should be aware that there is a significant likelihood of complications, but most are treatable. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Use of the iPhone for radiographic evaluation of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Ege, Tolga; Kose, Ozkan; Koca, Kenan; Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Basbozkurt, Mustafa

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the measurements made using a smartphone accelerometer and computerized measurements as a reference in a series of 32 hallux valgus patients. Two observers used an iPhone to measure the hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), and distal metatarsal articular angle (of anteroposterior foot radiographs in 32 patients with symptomatic hallux valgus on a computer screen. Digital angular measurements on the computer were set as the reference standard for analysis and comparison. The difference between computerized measurements and all iPhone measurements, and the difference between the first and second iPhone measurements for each observer were calculated. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the smartphone measurement method was also tested. The variability of all measurements was similar for the iPhone and the computer-assisted techniques. The concordance between iPhone and computer-assisted angular measurements was excellent for the HVA, IMA, and DMAA. The maximum mean difference between the two techniques was 1.25 ± 1.02° for HVA, 0.92 ± 0.92° for IMA, and 1.10 ± 0.82° for DMAA. The interobserver reliability was excellent for HVA, IMA, and DMAA. The maximum mean difference between observers was 1.31 ± 0.89° for HVA, 0.90 ± 0.92° for IMA, and 0.78 ± 0.87° for DMAA. The intraobserver reliability was excellent for HVA, IMA, and DMAA. We conclude that the Hallux Angles software for the iPhone can be used for measurement of hallux valgus angles in clinical practice and even for research purposes. It is an accurate and reproducible method.

  9. Effect of various hallux valgus reconstruction on sesamoid location: a radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Eddie H; Charlton, Timothy P; Ajayi, Samuel; Thordarson, David B

    2013-01-01

    The correction of sesamoid subluxation is an important component of hallux valgus reconstruction with some surgeons feeling that the sesamoids can be pulled back under the first metatarsal head when imbricating the medial capsule during surgery. The purpose of this study was to radiographically assess the effect of an osteotomy on sesamoid location relative to the second metatarsal. This is a retrospective radiographic study review of 165 patients with hallux valgus treated with reconstructive osteotomies. Patients were included if they underwent a scarf or basilar osteotomy for hallux valgus but were excluded if they had inflammatory arthropathy or lesser metatarsal osteotomy. A modified McBride soft tissue procedure was performed in conjunction with the basilar and scarf osteotomies. Each patient's preoperative and postoperative radiographs were evaluated for hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal 1-2 angle, tibial sesamoid classification, and lateral sesamoid location relative to the second metatarsal. The greatest correction of both hallux valgus and intermetatrsal 1-2 angle was achieved in basilar osteotomies (20.6 degrees and 9.7 degrees, respectively), then scarf osteotomies (14.4 degrees and 8.7 degrees, respectively). Basilar and scarf osteotomies both corrected medial sesamoid subluxation relative to the first metatarsal head an average of 2-3 classification stages. All osteotomies had minimal lateral sesamoid location change relative to the second metatarsal. The majority of sesamoid correction correlated with the intermetatarsal 1-2 correction. The concept that medial capsular plication pulls the sesamoids beneath the first metatarsal (ie, changes the location of the sesamoids relative to the second metatarsal) was not supported by our results. Level III, retrospective case series.

  10. Association Between Patient Factors and Outcome of Synthetic Cartilage Implant Hemiarthroplasty vs First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Arthrodesis in Advanced Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Andy; Singh, Dishan; Glazebrook, Mark; Blundell, Chris M; De Vries, Gwyneth; Le, Ian L D; Nielsen, Dominic; Pedersen, M Elizabeth; Sakellariou, Anthony; Solan, Matthew; Younger, Alastair S E; Daniels, Timothy R; Baumhauer, Judith F

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated data from a clinical trial of first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ1) implant hemiarthroplasty and arthrodesis to determine the association between patient factors and clinical outcomes. Patients ≥18 years with hallux rigidus grade 2, 3, or 4 were treated with synthetic cartilage implant MTPJ1 hemiarthroplasty or arthrodesis. Pain visual analog scale (VAS), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) sports and activities of daily living (ADL) scores, and Short Form-36 Physical Function (SF-36 PF) subscore were obtained preoperatively, and at 2, 6, 12, 24, 52, and 104 weeks postoperatively. Final outcome data, great toe active dorsiflexion motion, secondary procedures, radiographs, and safety parameters were evaluated for 129 implant hemiarthroplasties and 47 arthrodeses. The composite primary endpoint criteria for clinical success included VAS pain reduction ≥30%, maintenance/improvement in function, no radiographic complications, and no secondary surgical intervention at 24 months. Predictor variables included hallux rigidus grade; gender; age; body mass index (BMI); symptom duration; prior MTPJ1 surgery; preoperative hallux valgus angle, range of motion (ROM), and pain. Two-sided Fisher exact test was used ( P < .05). Patient demographics and baseline outcome measures were similar. Success rates between implant MTPJ1 hemiarthroplasty and arthrodesis were similar ( P > .05) when stratified by hallux rigidus grade, gender, age, BMI, symptom duration, prior MTPJ1 surgery status, and preoperative VAS pain, hallux valgus, and ROM. Synthetic cartilage implant hemiarthroplasty was appropriate for patients with grade 2, 3, or 4 hallux rigidus. Its results in those with associated mild hallux valgus (≤20 degrees) or substantial preoperative stiffness were equivalent to MTPJ1 fusion, irrespective of gender, age, BMI, hallux rigidus grade, preoperative pain or symptom duration. Level II, randomized clinical trial.

  11. Does low-constraint mobile bearing knee prosthesis give satisfactory results for severe coronal deformities? A five to twelve year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Czekaj, Jaroslaw; Fary, Camdon; Gaillard, Thierry; Lustig, Sebastien

    2017-07-01

    Severe varus and valgus knee deformities traditionally are replaced with constrained implants, with a number of disadvantages. We present our results in this challenging group using a low constraint deep-dish mobile bearing implant design. One hundred fifty-four patients (170 arthroplasties) who underwent primary TKA using a deep-dish, mobile bearing posterior-stabilized implant for severe varus (HKA < 170°) or valgus (HKA > 190°) deformity between 2004 and 2009 were evaluated at a mean of 6.6 years post-operatively (minimum of 5 years). Alignment improved from a pre-operative mean (±SD) varus deformity of 167.4° (±2.6°) and a mean (±SD) valgus deformity of 194.1° (±4.0°) to an overall mean (±SD) post-operative mechanical alignment of 178.6° (±3.2°). Twenty-three patients had post-operative varus alignment, five patients had post-operative valgus alignment and 134 knees were in neutral alignment (within 3° spread). Clinical scores at final follow-up were excellent (IKS score 93.8 (±7.4) and function score 82.4 (±20.2)). Three patients were re-operated upon: one deep infection, one periprosthetic fracture and one revision at 144 months for aseptic loosening of the femoral component. No patient was revised for instability or implant failure. The survival rate at five years was 99.4% and at ten years 98.6%. Satisfactory outcomes can be achieved in patients with substantial varus or valgus deformities using low constraint deep-dish mobile bearing implant, standard approach and appropriate soft tissue releases.

  12. Outcomes in chevron osteotomy for Hallux Valgus in a large cohort.

    PubMed

    van Groningen, Bart; van der Steen, M C Marieke; Reijman, Max; Bos, Janneke; Hendriks, Johannes G E

    2016-12-01

    Clinical and radiological related outcomes have been reported for Chevron osteotomy as correction for mild to moderate hallux valgus, but only for relatively small patient series. Moreover, evaluation of the patient's point of view has mostly been conducted by means of more physician-based outcome measures. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus on patients' daily lives using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) as a validated and a hallux valgus specific patient reported outcome measure (PROM). Secondary outcome measures were radiological correction, complication rate, and re-operations. All 438 Chevron procedures (336 patients), at two surgical hospital sites in the period between January 2010 and October 2014, were retrospectively evaluated with a follow-up of at least 6 months. Patients were invited to fill in a cross-sectional online FAOS. For the FAOS, a total response of 60% was achieved. The FAOS ranged between 71 and 88 with a follow-up of on average 36 months. Patients with an undercorrection of their hallux valgus (11.6% of the procedures) scored significantly lower on three subscales of the FAOS (range between 61 and 77 versus 72-84). Patients who had a reoperation (12.6% of the procedures) also scored significantly lower on four subscales: 58-100 versus 73-89. Postoperative radiological measurements improved significantly with a mean difference of 6.1 (5.9; 6.4) degrees for the intermetatarsal angle and 13.7 (13.0; 14.5) degrees for the hallux valgus angle. In this large study cohort, Chevron osteotomy for hallux valgus offers good PROM scores on FAOS. These scores were significantly lower in patients with radiological undercorrection or with a reoperation. Results of the FAOS appear to modulate with physician based outcomes and therapeutic incidents. Improvement of outcome may therefore well be possible by increased attention on these surgical details. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Footwear modification following hallux valgus surgery: The all-or-none phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Cal; Bhosale, Abhijit; Pillai, Anand

    2016-06-26

    To define footwear outcomes following hallux valgus surgery, focusing on patient return to comfortable and heeled footwear and patterns of post-operative footwear selection. Surgical intervention is indicated for symptomatic cases of hallux valgus unresponsive to conservative methods, with favourable reported outcomes. The return to various types of footwear post-operatively is reflective of the degree of correction achieved, and corresponds to patient satisfaction. Patients are expected to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively without significant residual symptoms. Many female patients will additionally attempt to return to high-heeled, narrow toe box shoes. However, minimal evidence exists to guide their expectations. Sixty-five female hallux valgus patients that had undergone primary surgery between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively identified using our hospital surgical database. Patients were reviewed using a footwear-specific outcome questionnaire at a mean 18.5 mo follow-up. Eighty-six percent of patients were able to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively with minimal discomfort. Of those intending to resume wearing heeled footwear, 62% were able to do so, with 77% of these patients wearing these as or more frequently than pre-operatively. No significant difference was observed between pre- and post-operative heel size. Mean time to return to heeled footwear was 21.4 wk post-operation. Cosmetic outcomes were very high and did not adversely impact footwear selection. We report high rates of return to both comfortable and heeled shoes in female patients following primary hallux valgus surgery. We observed an "all-or-none phenomenon" where patients rejected a return to heeled footwear unless able to tolerate them at the same frequency and heel size as pre-operatively. A minority of patients were unable to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively, which had adverse ramifications on their quality-of-life. We recommend that the

  14. Minimally Invasive and Open Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Mild to Moderate Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Kit; Lindisfarne, Edward; Akehurst, Harold; Farook, Usama; Shrier, Will; Palmer, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques are increasingly being used in foot and ankle surgery but it is important that they are adopted only once they have been shown to be equivalent or superior to open techniques. We believe that the main advantages of MIS are found in the early postoperative period, but in order to adopt it as a technique longer-term studies are required. The aim of this study was to compare the 2-year outcomes of a third-generation MIS distal chevron osteotomy with a comparable traditional open distal chevron osteotomy for mild-moderate hallux valgus. Our null hypothesis was that the 2 techniques would yield equivalent clinical and radiographic results at 2 years. This was a retrospective cohort study. Eighty-one consecutive feet (49 MIS and 32 open distal chevron osteotomies) were followed up for a minimum 24 months (range 24-58). All patients were clinically assessed using the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire. Radiographic measures included hallux valgus angle, the intermetatarsal angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, metatarsal phalangeal joint angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, tibial sesamoid position, shape of the first metatarsal head, and plantar offset. Statistical analysis was done using Student t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous data and Pearson chi-square test for categorical data. Clinical and radiologic postoperative scores in all domains were substantially improved in both groups (P < .001), but there was no statistically significant difference in improvement of any domain between open and MIS groups (P > .05). There were no significant differences in complications between the 2 groups ( > .5). The midterm results of this third-generation technique show that it was a safe procedure with good clinical outcomes and comparable to traditional open techniques for symptomatic mild-moderate hallux valgus. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Hallux Valgus Correction Comparing Percutaneous Chevron/Akin (PECA) and Open Scarf/Akin Osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moses; Walsh, James; Smith, Margaret M; Ling, Jeff; Wines, Andrew; Lam, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is being used increasingly, including for hallux valgus surgery. Despite the growing interest in minimally invasive procedures, there have been few publications on percutaneous chevron/akin (PECA) procedures, and no studies have been published comparing PECA to open scarf/akin osteotomies (SA). This was a prospective, randomized study of 50 patients undergoing operative correction of hallux valgus using one of 2 techniques (PECA vs open SA). Data were collected preoperatively and on 1 day, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months postoperatively. Outcome measures include the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Hallux-Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal (AOFAS-HMI) Score, visual analog pain score, hallux valgus angle (HVA), and 1-2 intermetatarsal angle (IMA). Twenty-five patients underwent PECA procedures and 25 patients received SA procedures. Both groups showed significantly improved AOFAS-HMI scores after surgery (PECA group: 61.8 to 88.9, SA group: 57.3 to 84.1, P = .560) with comparable final scores. HVA and IMA also presented similar outcomes at final follow-up ( P = .520 and P = .270, respectively). However, the PECA group showed significantly lower pain level (VAS) in the early postoperative phase (postoperative day 1 to postoperative week 6, P < .001 and P = .004, respectively). No serious complications were observed in either group. Both groups showed comparable good to excellent clinical and radiologic outcomes at final follow-up. However, the PECA group had significantly less pain in the first 6 weeks following surgery. Level of Evidence Level II, prospective comparative study.

  16. Impact of Podiatry Resident Experience Level in Hallux Valgus Surgery on Postoperative Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Adam E.; Yorath, Martin C.; Joseph, Robert; Baron, Adam; Nordquist, Thomas; Moore, Braden; Robinson, Richmond; Reilly, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite modern advancements in transosseous fixation and operative technique, hallux valgus (i.e., bunion) surgery is still associated with a higher than usual amount of patient dissatisfaction, and is generally recognized as a complex and nuanced procedure requiring precise osseous and capsulotendon balancing. It stands to reason then that familiarity and skill level of trainee surgeons might impact surgical outcomes in this surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether podiatry resident experience level influences mid-term outcomes in hallux valgus surgery. Methods Consecutive adults who underwent isolated hallux valgus surgery via distal metatarsal osteotomy at a single US metropolitan teaching hospital from January 2004 to January 2009 were contacted and asked to complete a validated outcome measure of foot health (Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire) regarding their operated foot. Resident experience level was quantified using the surgical logs for the primary resident of record at the time of each case. Associations were assessed using simple, multiple and logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 102 adult patients (n=102 feet) agreed to participate with a mean age of 46.8 (SD 13.1 years, range 18-71) and average length of follow-up 6.2 years (SD 1.4, range 3.6-8.6). Level of trainee experience was not associated with postoperative outcomes in either the univariate (odds ratio 0.99 [95% CI 0.98-1.01], p = 0.827) or multivariate analyses (odds ratio 1.00 [95% CI 0.97-1.02], p = 0.907). Conclusions We conclude that podiatry resident level of experience in hallux valgus surgery does not contribute appreciably to postoperative clinical outcomes. PMID:24726058

  17. Comparison of arthrodesis, resurfacing hemiarthroplasty, and total joint replacement in the treatment of advanced hallux rigidus.

    PubMed

    Erdil, Mehmet; Elmadağ, Nuh Mehmet; Polat, Gökhan; Tunçer, Nejat; Bilsel, Kerem; Uçan, Vahdet; Erkoçak, Omer Faruk; Sen, Cengiz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the functional results of arthrodesis, resurfacing hemiarthroplasty, and total joint replacement in hallux rigidus. The data from patients treated from 2006 to 2010 for advanced stage hallux rigidus were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 38 patients who had at least 2 years (range 24 to 66 months, mean 31.1) of follow-up were included in the present study. Of the 38 patients, 12 were included in the total joint replacement group (group A), 14 in the resurfacing hemiarthroplasty group (group B), and 12 in the arthrodesis group (group C). At the last follow-up visit, the functional outcomes were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society-Hallux Metatarsophalangeal Interphalangeal (AOFAS-HMI) scale, visual analog scale (VAS), and metatarsophalangeal range of motion. Significant improvements were seen in the AOFAS-HMI score, with a decrease in the VAS score in all 3 groups. According to the AOFAS-HMI score, no significant difference was found between groups A and B. However, in group C, the AOFAS-HMI scores were significantly lower than in the other groups owing to the lack of motion. According to the final VAS scores, no significant difference was found between groups A and B; however, the VAS score had decreased significantly more in group C than in the other groups. No major complications occurred in any of the 3 groups. After 2 years of follow-up, all the groups had good functional outcomes. Although arthrodesis is still the most reliable procedure, implant arthroplasty is also a good alternative for advanced stage hallux rigidus. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Oliveira, Sâmella Silva de; Sachett, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.

  19. Tensile Properties of the Deep Transverse Metatarsal Ligament in Hallux Valgus: A CONSORT-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Abdalbary, Sahar Ahmed; Elshaarawy, Ehab A A; Khalid, Bahaa E A

    2016-02-01

    The deep transverse metatarsal ligament (DTML) connects the neighboring2 metatarsal heads and is one of the stabilizers connecting the lateral sesamoid and second metatarsal head. In this study, we aimed to determine the tensile properties of the DTML in normal specimens and to compare these results with hallux valgus specimens. We hypothesized that the tensile properties of the DTML would be different between the 2 groups of specimens.The DTML in the first interspace was dissected from 12 fresh frozen human cadaveric specimens. Six cadavers had bilateral hallux valgus and the other 6 cadavers had normal feet. The initial length (L0) and cross-sectional area (A0) of the DTML were measured using a digital caliper, and tensile tests with load failure were performed using a material testing machine.There were significant between-groups differences in the initial length (L0) P = 0.009 and cross-sectional area (A0) of the DTML P = 0.007. There were also significant between-groups differences for maximum force (N) P = 0.004, maximum distance (mm) P = 0.005, maximum stress (N/mm) P = 0.003, and maximum strain (%) P = 0.006.The DTML is an anatomical structure for which the tensile properties differ in hallux valgus.

  20. Second Metatarsal Transfer Lesions Due to First Metatarsal Shortening After Distal Chevron Metatarsal Osteotomy for Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyong; Lee, Ho Seong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Kim, Ju Yeong

    2016-06-01

    The first metatarsal bone can shorten after a distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO). This shortening can result in a postoperative second metatarsal transfer lesion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of second metatarsal transfer lesions after DCMO. This study involved 185 feet (138 patients), with hallux valgus (HV) deformity, treated with DCMO with Akin osteotomy. The mean patient age was 51.7 years (range, 21 to 74). Patients were followed for an average of 28 months, between June 2004 and June 2010. We measured the length of first metatarsal relative to second metatarsal preoperatively and postoperatively, using Morton's and Hardy-Clapham's methods. A second metatarsal transfer lesion was defined as a newly developed lesion, including metatarsalgia, a painful callosity, or a painless callosity, which was not present prior to the DCMO. The relation of the shortened first metatarsal after DCMO with the occurrence of second metatarsal transfer lesion was evaluated. Second metatarsal transfer lesions (painless callosity) developed in 5 feet (2.7%) of 185 feet. Twenty-four preoperative second metatarsal lesions were improved postoperatively. The median shortening of the first metatarsal bone after DCMO was 0.6 mm according to Morton's method (range, -6.4 to 6.4), and 1.9 according to Hardy-Clapham's method (range, -5.8 to 5.8). According to the extent of first metatarsal shortening after DCMO by Hardy-Clapham's method and Morton's method, there was no significant difference of the occurrence of second transfer metatarsal lesions (P = .259 and P = .176, respectively). In our study, second metatarsal transfer lesions developed in 2.7% of feet after DCMO. The occurrence of second metatarsal transfer lesions did not appear to be correlated with the degree of first metatarsal shortening in cases with less than 5.8 mm shortening. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The Relationship of Throwing Arm Mechanics and Elbow Varus Torque: Within-Subject Variation for Professional Baseball Pitchers Across 82,000 Throws.

    PubMed

    Camp, Christopher L; Tubbs, Travis G; Fleisig, Glenn S; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dowling, Brittany

    2017-11-01

    Likely due to the high level of strain exerted across the elbow during the throwing motion, elbow injuries are on the rise in baseball. To identify at-risk athletes and guide postinjury return-to-throw programs, a better understanding of the variables that influence elbow varus torque is desired. To describe the within-subject relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot and arm rotation in professional baseball pitchers. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 81 professional pitchers performed 82,000 throws while wearing a motusBASEBALL sensor and sleeve. These throws represented a combination of throw types, such as warm-up/catch, structured long-toss, bullpen throwing from a mound, and live game activity. Variables recorded for each throw included arm slot (angle of the forearm relative to the ground at ball release), arm speed (maximal rotational velocity of the forearm), arm rotation (maximal external rotation of the throwing arm relative to the ground), and elbow varus torque. Linear mixed-effects models and likelihood ratio tests were used to estimate the relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot, arm speed, and arm rotation within individual pitchers. All 3 metrics-arm slot (χ 2 = 428, P < .001), arm speed (χ 2 = 57,683, P < .001), and arm rotation (χ 2 = 1392, P < .001)-were found to have a significant relationship with elbow varus torque. Within individual athletes, a 1-N.m increase in elbow varus torque was associated with a 13° decrease in arm slot, a 116 deg/s increase in arm speed, and an 8° increase in arm rotation. Elbow varus torque increased significantly as pitchers increased their arm rotation during the arm cocking phase, increased the rotational velocity of their arm during the arm acceleration phase of throwing, and decreased arm slot at ball release. Thus, shoulder flexibility, arm speed, and elbow varus torque (and likely injury risk) are interrelated and should be considered collectively when treating pitchers. It

  2. Preoperative varus-valgus kinematic pattern throughout flexion persists more strongly after cruciate-retaining than after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hino, Kazunori; Oonishi, Yoshio; Kutsuna, Tatsuhiko; Watamori, Kunihiko; Iseki, Yasutake; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Seiji; Miura, Hiromasa

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal knee kinematics is key to improving patient satisfaction and functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of preoperative varus-valgus kinematics due to knee osteoarthritis on the postoperative kinematics is unclear. The function of the knee ligament contributes to both knee stability and kinematics. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in varus-valgus kinematics before and after TKA using a navigation system, in addition to comparing the pre- and postoperative changes in kinematic patterns between cruciate-retaining (CR)- and posterior-stabilized (PS)-TKAs. Forty knees treated with TKA were evaluated (CR-TKA 20; PS-TKA 20). Manual mild passive knee flexion was applied while moving the leg from full extension to flexion. The varus-valgus angle was automatically measured by a navigation system at every 10° of the flexion angle, and the kinematics were evaluated. Kinematic patterns throughout flexion can be classified into five types. The pre- and postoperative kinematic patterns were similar in 60% of patients who underwent CR-TKA, whereas they were similar in only 25% of those who underwent PS-TKA. The mean change in the size of the varus-valgus angle throughout flexion did not differ between CR-TKA and PS-TKA. However, the distribution of changes in the size of the varus-valgus angle differed between CR-TKA and PS-TKA. We obtained the following results: 1) some patterns of varus-valgus kinematics are noted under unloading conditions despite recovery of neutral alignment in extension and 2) the preoperative varus-valgus kinematic pattern persisted more strongly after CR-TKA than after PS-TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Trochantoplasty for Total Hip Arthroplasty in Patients With Coxa Vara Deformity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Parvizi, Javad; Song, Ji-Ung; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-07-01

    In total hip arthroplasty (THA) of hips with coxa vara, the femoral stems might be inserted in a varus alignment. To avoid varus insertion, we designed a technique, which we termed "trochantoplasty." In this procedure, the medial half of the greater trochanter was removed during THA. We evaluated 30 patients (31 hips) who had coxa vara deformity and underwent THA using trochantoplasty at the mean follow-up of 5 years (range, 3-9 years). All stems were inserted in the neutral position. One Vancouver type 1 periprosthetic femoral fracture occurred after a fall at postoperative 2 months. At the latest follow-up, the mean power of abductor was 4.3 (range, 3-5). Four patients had moderate limp whereas 26 patients had slight limp. The abduction at 90° flexion ranged from 15° to 45° (mean, 35°). There was no revision. All prostheses had bone-ingrown stability without any detectable wear or osteolysis. The mean Harris hip score was improved from 66.9 to 89.4 points. Trochantoplasty can be used to avoid varus insertion of the femoral stem while performing THA in patients with coxa vara deformity without compromising the abductor mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Semimembranosus Release for Medial Soft Tissue Balancing Does Not Weaken Knee Flexion Strength in Patients Undergoing Varus Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Won; Koh, In Jun; Kim, Man Soo; Kim, Ju Yeong; In, Yong

    2016-11-01

    The sequential medial release technique including semimembranosus (semiM) release is effective and safe during varus total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, there are concerns about weakening of knee flexion strength after semiM release. We determined whether semiM release to balance the medial soft tissue decreased knee flexion strength after TKA. Fifty-nine consecutive varus knees undergoing TKA were prospectively enrolled. A 3-step sequential release protocol which consisted of release of (1) the deep medial collateral ligament (dMCL), (2) the semiM, and (3) the superficial medial collateral ligament based on medial tightness. Gap balancing was obtained after dMCL release in 31 knees. However, 28 knees required semiM release or more after dMCL release. Isometric muscle strength of the knee was compared 6 months postoperatively between the semiM release and semiM nonrelease groups. Knee stability and clinical outcomes were also compared. No differences in knee flexor or extensor peak torque were observed between the groups 6 months postoperatively (P = .322 and P = .383, respectively). No group difference was observed in medial joint opening angle on valgus stress radiographs (P = .327). No differences in the Knee Society or Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores were detected between the groups (P = .840 and P = .682, respectively). These results demonstrate that semiM release as a sequential step to balance medial soft tissue in varus knees did not affect knee flexion strength after TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuromuscular versus quadriceps strengthening exercise in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim L; Kyriakides, Mary; Metcalf, Ben; Egerton, Thorlene; Wrigley, Tim V; Hodges, Paul W; Hunt, Michael A; Roos, Ewa M; Forbes, Andrew; Ageberg, Eva; Hinman, Rana S

    2014-04-01

    To compare the effects of neuromuscular exercise (NEXA) and quadriceps strengthening (QS) on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral distribution of knee load), pain, and physical function in patients with medial knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment. One hundred patients with medial knee pain, mostly moderate-to-severe radiographic medial knee OA, and varus malalignment were randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs. Each program involved 14 individually supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus a home exercise component. Primary outcomes were peak external knee adduction moment (3-dimensional gait analysis), pain (visual analog scale), and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index). Eighty-two patients (38 [76%] of 50 in the NEXA group and 44 [88%] of 50 in the QS group) completed the trial. There was no significant between-group difference in the change in the peak knee adduction moment (mean difference 0.13 Nm/[body weight × height]% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.08, 0.33]), pain (mean difference 2.4 mm [95% CI -6.0, 10.8]), or physical function (mean difference -0.8 units [95% CI -4.0, 2.4]). Neither group showed a change in knee moments following exercise, whereas both groups showed similar significant reductions in pain and improvement in physical function. Although comparable improvements in clinical outcomes were observed with both neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in patients with moderate varus malalignment and mostly moderate-to-severe medial knee OA, these forms of exercise did not affect the knee adduction moment, a key predictor of structural disease progression. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. A comparison of men's and women's strength to body mass ratio and varus/valgus knee angle during jump landings.

    PubMed

    Haines, Tracie L; McBride, Jeffrey M; Triplett, N Travis; Skinner, Jared W; Fairbrother, Kimberly R; Kirby, Tyler J

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare valgus/varus knee angles during various jumps and lower body strength between males and females relative to body mass. Seventeen recreationally active females (age: 21.94 ± 2.59 years; height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; mass: 64.42 ± 8.39 kg; percent body fat: 26.89 ± 6.26%; squat one-repetition maximum: 66.18 ± 19.47 kg; squat to body mass ratio: 1.03 ± 0.28) and 13 recreationally active males (age: 21.69 ± 1.65 years; height: 1.77 ± 0.07 m; mass: 72.39 ± 9.23 kg; percent body fat: 13.15 ± 5.18%; squat one-repetition maximum: 115.77 ± 30.40 kg; squat to body mass ratio: 1.59 ± 0.31) performed a one-repetition maximum in the squat and three of each of the following jumps: countermovement jump, 30 cm drop jump, 45 cm drop jump, and 60 cm drop jump. Knee angles were analysed using videography and body composition was analysed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to allow for squat to body mass ratio and squat to fat free mass ratio to be calculated. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found between male and female one-repetition maximum, male and female squat to body mass ratio, and male and female squat to fat free mass ratio. Significant differences were found between male and female varus/valgus knee positions during maximum flexion of the right and left leg in the countermovement jump, drop jump from 30 cm, drop jump from 45 cm, and drop jump from 60 cm. Correlations between varus/valgus knee angles and squat to body mass ratio for all jumps displayed moderate, non-significant relationships (countermovement jump: r = 0.445; drop jump from 30 cm: r = 0.448; drop jump from 45 cm: r = 0.449; drop jump from 60 cm: r = 0.439). In conclusion, males and females have significantly different lower body strength and varus/valgus knee position when landing from jumps.

  7. Proximal reverse chevron metatarsal osteotomy, lateral soft tissue release, and akin osteotomy through a single medial incision for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong-Geun; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Tae; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2014-04-01

    Scarring on the dorsal first web space after lateral soft tissue release can be a major contributor to patient dissatisfaction following hallux valgus surgery. We hypothesized that performing distal soft tissue procedure (DSTP), proximal reverse chevron metatarsal osteotomy (PCMO), and Akin osteotomy through a single medial incision would provide better clinical and radiographic results with improved patient satisfaction compared with bunion corrections performed through 2 incisions. The study included 117 feet (of 98 patients) with moderate to severe hallux valgus. Clinically, the preoperative and final follow-up visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, the preoperative and final follow-up American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal (MTP)-interphalangeal (IP) scores, first MTP joint range of motion (ROM), and patient satisfaction after the surgery were evaluated. Radiographically, the hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), hallux valgus interphalangeal angle (HIA), medial sesamoid position (MSP), and first to fifth metatarsal width (1-5MTW) were analyzed before and after surgery. The mean AOFAS hallux score improved from 56.3 preoperatively to 90.6 at the final follow-up, and the mean VAS pain score decreased from 6.8 preoperatively to 1.5 at the final follow-up (P < .001). Ninety-five percent of the patients were satisfied with the surgery. Radiographically, the mean HVA decreased from 36.1 degrees (range, 16.0 to 44.0 degrees) preoperatively to 5.4 degrees (range, -12.4 to 29.7 degrees) at the final follow-up (P < .001), and the mean IMA decreased from 19.0 degrees (range, 9.0 to 28.0 degrees) preoperatively to 4.5 degrees (range, -5.0 to 14.2 degrees) at the final follow-up (P < .001). The mean 1-5MTW also decreased by 16% (16 mm) from 97.3 mm (range, 85.0 to 110.0 mm) preoperatively to 81.3 mm (range, 70.0 to 95.0 mm) at the final follow-up (P < .001). We achieved very favorable clinical and radiographic outcomes

  8. Treatment of moderate hallux valgus by percutaneous, extra-articular reverse-L Chevron (PERC) osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Lucas y Hernandez, J; Golanó, P; Roshan-Zamir, S; Darcel, V; Chauveaux, D; Laffenêtre, O

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report a single surgeon series of consecutive patients with moderate hallux valgus managed with a percutaneous extra-articular reverse-L chevron (PERC) osteotomy. A total of 38 patients underwent 45 procedures. There were 35 women and three men. The mean age of the patients was 48 years (17 to 69). An additional percutaneous Akin osteotomy was performed in 37 feet and percutaneous lateral capsular release was performed in 22 feet. Clinical and radiological assessments included the type of forefoot, range of movement, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle (AOFAS) score, a subjective rating and radiological parameters. The mean follow-up was 59.1 months (45.9 to 75.2). No patients were lost to follow-up. The mean AOFAS score increased from 62.5 (30 to 80) pre-operatively to 97.1 (75 to 100) post-operatively. A total of 37 patients (97%) were satisfied. At the last follow up there was a statistically significant decrease in the hallux valgus angle, the intermetatarsal angle and the proximal articular set angle. The range of movement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint improved significantly.. There was more improvement in the range of movement in patients who had fixation of the osteotomy of the proximal phalanx. Preliminary results of this percutaneous approach are promising. This technique is reliable and reproducible. Its main asset is that it maintains an excellent range of movement. The PERC osteotomy procedure is an effective approach for surgical management of moderate hallux valgus which combines the benefits of percutaneous surgery with the versatility of the chevron osteotomy whilst maintaining excellent first MTPJ range of motion. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Management of pain on hallux valgus with percutaneous intra-articular Pulse-Dose Radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Masala, Salvatore; Fiori, Roberto; Calabria, Eros; Raguso, Mario; de Vivo, Dominique; Cuzzolino, Alessandro; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of intra-articular pulse-dose radiofrequency in management of painful hallux valgus refractory to conservative therapies. Between November 2010 and April 2012, 51 patients (15 male, 36 female) with a median age of 71.4 years were included in our clinical trial. Under fluoroscopic guidance we introduced a 22 gauge 10 cm length cannula by a percutaneous access in the first metatarsophalangeal joint and its tip was placed intra-articularly. After removing the spindle, a radiofrequency needle with a 5 mm active tip was introduced. The following parameters were used: 1200 pulses at high voltage (45 V) with 20 msec duration followed by 480 msec silent phases. A great reduction in pain intensity was documented at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after procedures. Pain intensity increased between 5 and 8 months after treatments, so we performed a second procedure in all patients between 7 months and 9 months since the first treatment. Also in this case we obtained a great reduction of pain intensity in the first 3 months after the procedure. Pain intensity returned at preprocedural values after 9 months after second procedure. No complications were observed. Our experience shows pulse-dose radiofrequency is a safe, repeatable and effective technique for managing patients with symptomatic hallux valgus in the short and medium term. Pulse-dose radiofrequency may improve pain control and quality of life in patients with hallux valgus refractory to conservative therapies. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Footwear modification following hallux valgus surgery: The all-or-none phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cal; Bhosale, Abhijit; Pillai, Anand

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To define footwear outcomes following hallux valgus surgery, focusing on patient return to comfortable and heeled footwear and patterns of post-operative footwear selection. METHODS: Surgical intervention is indicated for symptomatic cases of hallux valgus unresponsive to conservative methods, with favourable reported outcomes. The return to various types of footwear post-operatively is reflective of the degree of correction achieved, and corresponds to patient satisfaction. Patients are expected to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively without significant residual symptoms. Many female patients will additionally attempt to return to high-heeled, narrow toe box shoes. However, minimal evidence exists to guide their expectations. Sixty-five female hallux valgus patients that had undergone primary surgery between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively identified using our hospital surgical database. Patients were reviewed using a footwear-specific outcome questionnaire at a mean 18.5 mo follow-up. RESULTS: Eighty-six percent of patients were able to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively with minimal discomfort. Of those intending to resume wearing heeled footwear, 62% were able to do so, with 77% of these patients wearing these as or more frequently than pre-operatively. No significant difference was observed between pre- and post-operative heel size. Mean time to return to heeled footwear was 21.4 wk post-operation. Cosmetic outcomes were very high and did not adversely impact footwear selection. CONCLUSION: We report high rates of return to both comfortable and heeled shoes in female patients following primary hallux valgus surgery. We observed an “all-or-none phenomenon” where patients rejected a return to heeled footwear unless able to tolerate them at the same frequency and heel size as pre-operatively. A minority of patients were unable to return to comfortable footwear post-operatively, which had adverse ramifications on their quality

  11. The influence of personality traits on the subjective outcome of operative hallux valgus correction.

    PubMed

    Radl, Roman; Leithner, Andreas; Zacherl, Maximilian; Lackner, Ursula; Egger, Josef; Windhager, Reinhard

    2004-10-01

    We studied prospectively the influence of personality traits on the subjective outcome of a chevron osteotomy in 42 patients with hallux valgus. The mean age of patients was 48.3 (20-70) years. Personality traits were evaluated by the means of the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI-R). Three months postoperatively 37 patients were satisfied, and five patients not satisfied with the operative procedure. The preoperative AOFAS Score improved from an average of 48.7 (30-65) points to 87.9 (50-100) points. A comparison of satisfied and dissatisfied patients revealed statistically significant differences in the personality traits aggressiveness (p=0.003), extraversion (p=0.001) and health worries (p=0.04). The postoperative hallux valgus angle was 12.2+/-7.8 degrees and 13.4+/-8.3 degrees (p=0.74) among satisfied and not satisfied patients, respectively, and the intermetatarsal angle (I-II) was 7.4+/-2.5 degrees and 7.6+/-4 degrees (p=0.89), respectively. The results suggest that the patient's subjective result after the operative correction may be influenced by some individual, personality profiles.

  12. Comparison of the proximal chevron and Ludloff osteotomies for the correction of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Jin; Yoon, Han Kook; Yoon, Hang Seob; Kim, Bom Soo; Lee, Jin Woo

    2009-12-01

    Although several studies have described good results of proximal chevron and Ludloff osteotomies, there have been no studies comparing the results of these two techniques at a single institution. We consecutively evaluated 46 patients who underwent proximal chevron osteotomies and 52 patients who underwent Ludloff osteotomies. Patients were evaluated by preoperative and postoperative weight bearing radiographs and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux MP score. Both groups had similarly high AOFAS scores and good correction by radiographic parameters. No statistically significant differences were found with respect to correction of hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA) between the two groups. Significant shortening of the first metatarsal was found after Ludloff osteotomy (p < 0.05). At 6 weeks after surgery, the pain subscore was significantly lower in the proximal chevron group than in the Ludloff group (p < 0.05). The proximal chevron and Ludloff osteotomies yielded equivalent clinical and radiological results. The Ludloff osteotomy with lag screw fixation is more stable and does not require postoperative hardware removal, although it is technically demanding and has a tendency toward greater shortening of the first metatarsal.

  13. Intra-rater reliability of hallux flexor strength measures using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board.

    PubMed

    Quek, June; Treleaven, Julia; Brauer, Sandra G; O'Leary, Shaun; Clark, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of a new method in combination with the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (NWBB) to measure the strength of hallux flexor muscle. Thirty healthy individuals (age: 34.9 ± 12.9 years, height: 170.4 ± 10.5 cm, weight: 69.3 ± 15.3 kg, female = 15) participated. Repeated testing was completed within 7 days. Participants performed strength testing in sitting using a wooden platform in combination with the NWBB. This new method was set up to selectively recruit an intrinsic muscle of the foot, specifically the flexor hallucis brevis muscle. Statistical analysis was performed using intra-class coefficients and ordinary least product analysis. To estimate measurement error, standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and percentage error were calculated. Results indicate excellent intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.982, CI = 0.96-0.99) with an absence of systematic bias. SEM, MDC and percentage error value were 0.5, 1.4 and 12 % respectively. This study demonstrates that a new method in combination with the NWBB application is reliable to measure hallux flexor strength and has potential to be used for future research and clinical application.

  14. Being overweight has limited effect on SCARF osteotomy outcome for hallux valgus correction.

    PubMed

    Milczarek, Marcin A; Milczarek, Julia J; Tomasik, Bartłomiej; Łaganowski, Przemysław; Nowak, Krzysztof; Domżalski, Marcin

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and the results of SCARF osteotomy of the first metatarsal for hallux valgus (HV) correction, as the literature on this is scant. This prospective study was carried out between 2011 and 2015. One hundred and thirty-three patients diagnosed with moderate to severe HV underwent a SCARF corrective osteotomy. We divided the patients into two groups according to their BMI: normal and overweight. Postoperative follow-up was two years. All patients were examined twice by two medical doctors simultaneously: pre-operatively and post-operatively at two years' follow-up. Data collected included biometrical records, X-rays [HV angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hallux Metatarsophalangeal Index (AOFAS-HMI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction]. There was a significant difference between patient age (p = 0.001), age at onset (p < 0.001) and AOFAS-HMI (p = 0.035) at follow-up. Other parameters were similar in both groups. Regardless of BMI, the radiological outcome was comparable. Despite a significant difference in AOFAS-HMI results, pain and satisfaction level were similar. The authors agreed that high BMI has protective role in the prevalence of HV.

  15. Single absorbable polydioxanone pin fixation for distal chevron bunion osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Deorio, J K; Ware, A W

    2001-10-01

    The distal chevron osteotomy is a well-established technique for correction of symptomatic mild to moderate metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformity. Fixation of the osteotomy ranges from none to bone pegs, Kirschner wires, screws, or absorbable pins. We evaluated one surgeon's (J.K.D.) results of distal chevron osteotomy fixation with a single, nonpredrilled, 1.3-mm poly-p-dioxanone pin and analyzed any differences in patients with unilateral or bilateral symptomatic metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformities. All osteotomies healed without evidence of infection, osteolysis, nonunion, or necrosis. Equal correction was achieved in unilateral and bilateral procedures. The technique is quick and easy, and adequate fixation is achieved.

  16. The influence of the choice of closing wedge angle on leg length discrepancy after proximal femoral varus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Segaren, N; Abdul-Jabar, H B; Hashemi-Nejad, A

    2014-08-01

    Proximal femoral varus osteotomy improves the biomechanics of the hip and can stimulate normal acetabular development in a dysplastic hip. Medial closing wedge osteotomy remains the most popular technique, but is associated with shortening of the ipsilateral femur. We produced a trigonometric formula which may be used pre-operatively to predict the resultant leg length discrepancy (LLD). We retrospectively examined the influence of the choice of angle in a closing wedge femoral osteotomy on LLD in 120 patients (135 osteotomies, 53% male, mean age six years, (3 to 21), 96% caucasian) over a 15-year period (1998 to 2013). A total of 16 of these patients were excluded due to under or over varus correction. The patients were divided into three age groups: paediatric (< 10 years), adolescent (10 to 16 years) and adult (> 16 years). When using the same saw blades as in this series, the results indicated that for each 10° of angle of resection the resultant LLD equates approximately to multiples of 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm in the three age groups, respectively. Statistical testing of the 59 patients who had a complete set of pre- and post-operative standing long leg radiographs, revealed a Pearson's correlation coefficient for predicted versus radiologically observed shortening when using a wedge of either 10° or 20° of 0.93 (p < 0.001). The 95% limits of agreement from the Bland-Altman analysis for this subgroup were -3.5 mm to +3.3 mm. It has been accepted that a 10 mm discrepancy is clinically acceptable. This study identified a geometric model that provided satisfactory accuracy when using specific saw blades of known thicknesses for this formula to be used in clinical practice. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. The remodeling of the neck-shaft angle after proximal femoral varus osteotomy for the treatment of Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiarapattanakom, Pariyut; Thanacharoenpanich, Songkiat; Pakpianpairoj, Charoenchai; Liupolvanish, Prasert

    2012-10-01

    To study the corrections of the neck-shaft angle (NSA) and the related clinical symptoms after proximal femoral varus osteotomy (PFVO) for the treatment of Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome (LCPS). Retrospective cohort study. Consecutive cases of LCPS treated at Lerdsin General Hospital during 1999 to 2010 were reviewed. The patients were excluded if they had less than 3 years of follow-up, there was incomplete data, and bilateral involvement. Demographic data and clinical symptoms were collected. The NSA were measured before and after PFVO. Twenty-two patients were treated by PFVO. The mean pre-operative NSA was 140 degrees. The mean varus angle created by PFVO was 20 degrees. The mean post-operative NSA at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years were 119, 119, 118, 120 and 120 degrees respectively. No statistical difference between the mean NSA at 6 weeks and 3 years (p = 0.65). There were 9 patients whose NSA increased more than 5 degrees at 3 years after operation. This group of patients had a more varus angulation at the early post-operative period. No physeal arrest was detected in any cases at 3 years after PFVO. No correlation between the NSA and pain or limitation of the hip abduction were observed. There were 3 patients, who had NSA less than 110 degrees after PFVO, had limping gait. It is difficult to predict the degree of remodeling of an individual hip after proximal femoral varus osteotomy. Special attention should be paid to avoid excessive varus of the proximal femur less than 110 degrees whenever PFVO is performed.

  18. Lengthening of the shortened first metatarsal after Wilson's osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Dudkiewicz, I

    2009-12-01

    Metatarsalgia is a recognised complication following iatrogenic shortening of the first metatarsal in the management of hallux valgus. The traditional surgical treatment is by shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals. We describe the results of lengthening of iatrogenic first brachymetatarsia in 16 females. A Scarf-type osteotomy was used in the first four cases and a step-cut of equal thicknesses along the axis of the first metatarsal was performed in the others. The mean follow-up was 21 months (19 to 26). Relief of metatarsalgia was obtained in the six patients in whom 10 mm of lengthening had been achieved, compared to only 50% relief in those where less than 8 mm of lengthening had been gained. One-stage step-cut lengthening osteotomy of the first metatarsal may be preferable to shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals in the treatment of metatarsalgia following surgical shortening of the first metatarsal.

  19. Three saints with deformed extremities in an Italian Renaissance altarpiece.

    PubMed

    Albury, W R; Weisz, G M

    2017-03-01

    A fifteenth-century Florentine altarpiece painted by the Pollaiuolo brothers, Antonio (1433-1498) and Piero (1443-1496), shows three saints with evident deformities of the hands and feet. The pathologies concerned are tentatively identified, and various rationales for their presence in the painting are discussed. Of particular importance is the location of the altarpiece in a chapel which houses the tomb of the Cardinal of Portugal, Prince James of Lusitania (1433-1459). It is argued that both the artistic style of the day and the religious symbolism of the Cardinal's funeral chapel contributed to the artists' decision to portray the saints with deformities. An unnatural curvature of the fifth finger was apparently considered elegant in fifteenth-century paintings, and the depiction of bare feet with hallux valgus gave them a shape which approximated and could have been caused by fashionable pointed shoes. But in addition, deformities in religious art could be symbolic of suffering and martyrdom, a theme which the Cardinal's chapel emphasised in a number of ways. It is suggested therefore that the Pollaiuolo altarpiece reconciles these two disparate factors, portraying genuine deformities in a way that was artistically stylish and symbolically meaningful.

  20. Impact of podiatry resident experience level in hallux valgus surgery on postoperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Adam E; Yorath, Martin C; Joseph, Robert M; Baron, Adam; Nordquist, Thomas; Moore, Braden J; Robinson, Richmond C O; Reilly, Charles H

    2014-06-15

    Despite modern advancements in transosseous fixation and operative technique, hallux valgus (i.e., bunion) surgery is still associated with a higher than usual amount of patient dissatisfaction and is generally recognized as a complex and nuanced procedure requiring precise osseous and capsulotendon balancing. It stands to reason then that familiarity and skill level of trainee surgeons might impact surgical outcomes in this surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether podiatry resident experience level influences midterm outcomes in hallux valgus surgery (HVS). Consecutive adults who underwent isolated HVS via distal metatarsal osteotomy at a single US metropolitan teaching hospital from January 2004 to January 2009 were contacted and asked to complete a validated outcome measure of foot health (Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire) regarding their operated foot. Resident experience level was quantified using the surgical logs for the primary resident of record at the time of each case. Associations were assessed using linear and logistic regression analyses. A total of 102 adult patients (n = 102 feet) agreed to participate with a mean age of 46.8 years (standard deviation 13.1, range 18-71) and average length of follow-up 6.2 y (standard deviation 1.4, range 3.6-8.6). Level of trainee experience was not associated with postoperative outcomes in either the univariate (odds ratio 0.99 [95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.01], P = 0.827) or multivariate analyses (odds ratio 1.00 [95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.02], P = 0.907). We conclude that podiatry resident level of experience in HVS does not contribute appreciably to postoperative clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wound healing complications in patients with and without systemic diseases following hallux valgus surgery.

    PubMed

    Kromuszczyńska, Justyna; Kołodziej, Łukasz; Jurewicz, Alina

    2018-01-01

    There are many defined risk factors for wound healing. Comorbidities and their treatment are identified to be one of them. The aim of this study is to verify whether there are significant differences in wound healing between patients with and without systemic diseases, who underwent hallux valgus correction with Scarf osteotomy. A total of 155 consecutive patients were included into this prospective study. All of the patients underwent Scarf osteotomy for hallux valgus correction. In 60,6% of patients comorbidities were present, most often hypertension (57 patients, 36,8%), hypothyroidism (19 patients 12,3%) and diabetes (7 patients, 4,5%) occurred. Most of the patients were women (96,1%). During the study complication rate was noted. Patients underwent follow-up: 1,2, 3, 6 and 12 weeks and 6 months after the surgery. Preoperatively and during the last visit treatment results were assessed with AOFAS HMI scale. Scar assessment was performed by independent observer with VAS followed by patient scar assessment with VSS. In 30 patients complications were noted (19,4%). Surgical site infection was found in 6 patients (3,9%). In 13 patients (8,4%) partial wound dehiscence occurred, in 5 of them (3,2%) additional skin closure (Steri-Strips) was applied. Treatment results assessed with AOFAS HMI scale were good and very good in both healthy and comorbidity group, and the results improved significantly after surgical procedure. Scar assessment with VAS was on the average 1,5 pts. Average result in VSS was 2 pts. Results in both scales were rated as very good. No statistically significant differences were found in both healthy and comorbidity group in scar assessment. Based on the results of the study authors believe there are no significant differences between patients with and without comorbidities in aspects like: complication rate, surgery result and scar assessment as long as foot surgery is concerned.

  2. Postoperative pain and preemptive local anesthetic infiltration in hallux valgus surgery.

    PubMed

    Gądek, Artur; Liszka, Henryk; Wordliczek, Jerzy

    2015-03-01

    Several techniques of anesthesia are used in foot surgery. Preemptive analgesia helps to prevent the development of hypersensitivity in the perioperative period. The aim of our study was to assess the role of preemptive local anesthetic infiltration and postoperative pain after hallux valgus surgery. We evaluated 118 patients who underwent modified chevron and mini-invasive Mitchell-Kramer bunionectomy of the first distal metatarsal. After spinal anesthesia each patient randomly received an infiltration of local anesthetic or the same amount of normal saline 10 minutes before the skin incision. We measured the intensity of pain 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 72 hours after the release of the tourniquet using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Rescue analgesia and all other side effects were noted. Preemptive analgesia resulted in less pain during the first 24 hours after surgery. The decrease of VAS score was significantly lower in the study group during all the short postoperative periods measured. The rescue analgesia was administered in 11.9% of patients in the injected group and 42.4% in the placebo group (P < .05). In the injected group we did not observe significant difference in VAS score between patients post-chevron and miniinvasive Mitchell-Kramer osteotomy of the first distal metatarsal. No systemic adverse effects were noted. One persistent injury of dorsomedial cutaneous nerve was observed. Preemptive local anesthetic infiltration was an efficient and safe method to reduce postoperative pain after hallux valgus surgery. The analgesic effect was satisfactory in both traditional and minimally invasive techniques. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Clinical and Radiological Outcomes Comparing Percutaneous Chevron-Akin Osteotomies vs Open Scarf-Akin Osteotomies for Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Lai, Mun Chun; Rikhraj, Inderjeet Singh; Woo, Yew Lok; Yeo, William; Ng, Yung Chuan Sean; Koo, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgeries have gained popularity due to less soft tissue trauma and better wound healing. To date, limited studies have compared the outcomes of percutaneous and open osteotomies. This study aims to investigate the clinical and radiological outcomes of percutaneous chevron-Akin osteotomies vs open scarf-Akin osteotomies at 24-month follow-up. We reviewed a prospectively collected database in a tertiary hospital hallux valgus registry. Twenty-nine feet that underwent a percutaneous technique were matched to 58 feet that underwent open scarf and Akin osteotomies. Clinical outcome measures assessed included visual analog scale (VAS) scores, American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal score (AOFAS Hallux MTP-IP), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey. Radiological outcomes included hallux valgus angle (HVA) and intermetatarsal angle (IMA). All patients were prospectively followed up at 6 and 24 months. Both groups showed comparable clinical and radiological outcomes at the 24-month follow-up. However, the percutaneous group demonstrated less pain in the perioperative period ( P < .001). There were significant differences in the change in HVA between the groups but comparable radiological outcomes in IMA at the 24-month follow-up. The percutaneous group demonstrated shorter length of operation ( P < .001). There were no complications in the percutaneous group but 3 wound complications in the open group. We conclude that clinical and radiological outcomes of third-generation percutaneous chevron-Akin osteotomies were comparable with open scarf and Akin osteotomies at 24 months but with significantly less perioperative pain, shorter length of operation, and less risk of wound complications. Level III, retrospective comparative series.

  4. Effect of medial arch support foot orthosis on plantar pressure distribution in females with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus after one month of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Farzadi, Maede; Safaeepour, Zahra; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Saeedi, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Higher plantar pressures at the medial forefoot are reported in hallux valgus. Foot orthoses with medial arch support are considered as an intervention in this pathology. However, little is known about the effect of foot orthoses on plantar pressure distribution in hallux valgus. To investigate the effect of a foot orthosis with medial arch support on pressure distribution in females with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus. Quasi-experimental. Sixteen female volunteers with mild-to-moderate hallux valgus participated in this study and used a medial arch support foot orthosis for 4 weeks. Plantar pressure for each participant was assessed using the Pedar-X(®) in-shoe system in four conditions including shoe-only and foot orthosis before and after the intervention. The use of the foot orthosis for 1 month led to a decrease in peak pressure and maximum force under the hallux, first metatarsal, and metatarsals 3-5 (p < 0.05). In the medial midfoot region, peak pressure, maximum force, and contact area were significantly higher with the foot orthosis than shoe-only before and after the intervention (p = 0.00). A foot orthosis with medial arch support could reduce pressure beneath the hallux and the first metatarsal head by transferring the load to the other regions. It would appear that this type of foot orthosis can be an effective method of intervention in this pathology. Findings of this study will improve the clinical knowledge about the effect of the medial arch support foot orthosis used on plantar pressure distribution in hallux valgus pathology. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  5. Greater Growth of Proximal Metatarsals in Bird Embryos and the Evolution of Hallux Position in the Grasping Foot.

    PubMed

    Botelho, João Francisco; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Núñez-León, Daniel; Palma, Verónica; Vargas, Alexander O

    2017-01-01

    In early theropod dinosaurs-the ancestors of birds-the hallux (digit 1) had an elevated position within the foot and had lost the proximal portion of its metatarsal. It no longer articulated with the ankle, but was attached at about mid-length of metatarsal 2 (mt2). In adult birds, the hallux is articulated closer to the distal end of mt2 at ground level with the other digits. However, on chick embryonic day 7, its position is as in early theropods at half-length of mt2. The adult distal location is acquired during embryonic days 8-10. To assess how the adult phenotype is acquired, we produced fate maps of the metatarsals of day 6 chicken embryos injecting the lipophilic tracer DiI. The fates of these marks indicate a larger expansion of the metatarsals at their proximal end, which creates the illusory effect that d1 moves distally. This larger proximal expansion occurs concomitantly with growth and early differentiation of cartilage. Histological analysis of metatarsals shows that the domains of flattened and prehypertrophic chondrocytes are larger toward the proximal end. The results suggest that the distal position of the hallux in the avian foot evolved as a consequence of an embryological period of expansion of the metatarsus toward the proximal end. It also brings attention to the developmental mechanisms leading to differential growth between epiphyses and their evolutionary consequences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hallux Rigidus

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the big toe during use (walking, standing, bending, etc.) Pain and stiffness aggravated by cold, damp ... ps.position.alert.message}} Getting your location, one moment... Please enter a 5-digit zip code. Please ...

  7. Treatment of post-traumatic elbow deformities in children with the Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis technique.

    PubMed

    Özkan, Cenk; Deveci, Mehmet Ali; Tekin, Mustafa; Biçer, Ömer Sunkar; Gökçe, Kadir; Gülşen, Mahir

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed functional and radiographic outcomes of distraction osteogenesis treatment of post-traumatic elbow deformities in children. Eight children were treated between 2008 and 2013 for post-traumatic elbow deformities using distraction osteogenesis. Mean age at time of operation was 10.9 years. Six patients had varus and 2 had valgus deformity. Magnitude of correction, fixator index, complications, carrying angle, and elbow range of motion were assessed. Functional results were graded according to protocol of Bellemore et al. Mean follow-up was 43 months. Mean preoperative varus deformity in 6 patients was 29.2° and valgus deformity in 2 patients was 28.5°. Preoperative flexion and extension of elbow were 123.8° and -10.6°, respectively. Mean carrying angle was 9° valgus at last follow-up. Mean flexion and extension were 134.4° and -6.0°, respectively. Change in carrying angle was statistically significant (p = 0.002). There were 2 grade 1 pin tract infections and 1 diaphyseal fracture of humerus. Functional outcome was rated excellent in 7 patients and good in 1 patient. Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis is a valuable alternative in treatment of elbow deformities in children. The surgical technique is simple and correction is adjustable. Gradual correction prevents possible neurovascular complications and minimally invasive surgery produces less scarring. Compliance of patient and family is key factor in the success of the outcome. Level IV, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of toe-in and toe-in with wider step width on level walking knee biomechanics in varus, valgus, and neutral knee alignments.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Hunter J; Shen, Guangping; Cates, Harold E; Zhang, Songning

    2017-12-01

    Increased peak external knee adduction moments exist for individuals with knee osteoarthritis and varus knee alignments, compared to healthy and neutrally aligned counterparts. Walking with increased toe-in or increased step width have been individually utilized to successfully reduce 1st and 2nd peak knee adduction moments, respectfully, but have not previously been combined or tested among all alignment groups. The purpose of this study was to compare toe-in only and toe-in with wider step width gait modifications in individuals with neutral, valgus, and varus alignments. Thirty-eight healthy participants with confirmed varus, neutral, or valgus frontal-plane knee alignment through anteroposterior radiographs, performed level walking in normal, toe-in, and toe-in with wider step width gaits. A 3×3 (group×intervention) mixed model repeated measures ANOVA compared alignment groups and gait interventions (p<0.05). The 1st peak knee adduction moment was reduced in both toe-in and toe-in with wider step width compared to normal gait. The 2nd peak adduction moment was increased in toe-in compared to normal and toe-in with wider step width. The adduction impulse was also reduced in toe-in and toe-in with wider step width compared to normal gait. Peak knee flexion and external rotation moments were increased in toe-in and toe-in with wider step width compared to normal gait. Although the toe-in with wider step width gait seems to be a viable option to reduce peak adduction moments for varus alignments, sagittal, and transverse knee loadings should be monitored when implementing this gait modification strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimal Clinically Important Differences for American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Score in Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chan, Hiok Yang; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zainul-Abidin, Suraya; Ying, Hao; Koo, Kevin; Rikhraj, Inderjeet Singh

    2017-05-01

    The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score is one of the most common and adapted outcome scales in hallux valgus surgery. However, AOFAS is predominantly physician based and not patient based. Although it may be straightforward to derive statistical significance, it may not equate to the true subjective benefit of the patient's experience. There is a paucity of literature defining MCID for AOFAS in hallux valgus surgery although it could have a great impact on the accuracy of analyzing surgical outcomes. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to define the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) for the AOFAS score in these patients, and the secondary aim was to correlate patients' demographics to the MCID. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. A total of 446 patients were reviewed preoperatively and followed up for 2 years. An anchor question was asked 2 years postoperation: "How would you rate the overall results of your treatment for your foot and ankle condition?" (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor, terrible). The MCID was derived using 4 methods, 3 from an anchor-based approach and 1 from a distribution-based approach. Anchor-based approaches were (1) mean difference in 2-year AOFAS scores of patients who answered "good" versus "fair" based on the anchor question; (2) mean change of AOFAS score preoperatively and at 2-year follow-up in patients who answered good; (3) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves method, where the area under the curve (AUC) represented the likelihood that the scoring system would accurately discriminate these 2 groups of patients. The distribution-based approach used to calculate MCID was the effect size method. There were 405 (90.8%) females and 41 (9.2%) males. Mean age was 51.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 13) years, mean preoperative BMI was 24.2 (SD = 4.1). Mean preoperative AOFAS score was 55.6 (SD = 16.8), with significant improvement to 85.7 (SD = 14.4) in 2 years ( P value

  10. Metatarsal head resurfacing arthroplasty in the treatment of hallux rigidus: is it reliable treatment option?

    PubMed

    Circi, E; Tuzuner, T; Sukur, E; Baris, A; Kanay, E

    2016-08-01

    This study looks at the failure and complications arising secondary to resurfacing and hemi-arthroplasty done at the metatarsal head in patients with hallux rigidus. Our report includes a review of the relevant literature to verify the validity of our techniques. We performed metatarsal head resurfacing with hemi-arthroplasty using the HemiCap(®), on 12 patients with hallux rigidus between the dates of March 2010 and October 2013. The mean follow-up period was 22.3 months (range 12-54). All patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated according to the American Orthopedics Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) functional scale and the Coughlin and Shurnas classification. The recorded mean AOFAS score showed an increase from the preoperative score of 49.2 ± 13.1 to a postoperative follow-up score of 80.8 ± 13.1 (p < 0.001). Pain scores also showed an improvement from 16.5 ± 7.1 points preoperatively to 32.5 ± 6.9 points during the postoperative follow-up (p < 0.001). The mean function score improved from 17.7 ± 7.6 points preoperatively to 33.2 ± 7.6 points during the final postoperative follow-up (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean range of motion improved from 16.3 ± 4.8° preoperatively to 45.4 ± 13.2° postoperatively (p < 0.001). Three patients (25 %) reported pain at rest. Surgical revision was done on these patients who have significant pain that limited their range of motion. Favorable outcomes were achieved by performing minimal bone resection which also helps maintain metatarso-phalangeal joint function through metatarsal head resurfacing arthroplasty. We expect the failure rates to decrease with the advancements of surgical techniques. Selecting the appropriate patient populous in the application of the technique is crucial in attaining successful clinical results.

  11. Prevalence estimation and familial tendency of common forefoot deformities in Turkey: A survey of 2662 adults.

    PubMed

    Şaylı, Uğur; Altunok, Elif Çiğdem; Güven, Melih; Akman, Budak; Biros, Jnev; Şaylı, Ayşe

    2018-02-19

    This survey was designed to evaluate the prevalence estimations of HV, bunionette, hammertoe as well as their relations to shoe wearing and also familial tendency, in Turkey. Two thousand six hundred sixty two volunteers (1615 females and 1047 males) with a mean age of 34.15 ± 14.23 (range; 18 to 96) years were asked to answer the predetermined questionnaire between January and June, 2016. Hallux valgus, hammertoe and bunionette images were provided as references and every adult participant without any known forefoot problems or past forefoot surgery history was asked to rate his/her foot and to respond the questions about family history and shoe wearing habits. Responses were statistically analyzed. The prevalence estimations of hallux valgus, bunionette and hammertoe were calculated as 54.3%, 13.8% and 8.9% and positive family history rates were 53.2%, 61.2% and 56.1%, respectively. All three deformities were more common in females than in males (p < 0.001). Nonetheless the older age group reported significantly higher prevalence rates for only HV (p < 0.001). Likewise, among the three deformities, females reported a higher rate of positive family history only in HV compared to men (p < 0.001). Constricting shoe wear was found to affect HV incidence in women (p < 0.001) and bunionette incidence in both sexes (p < 0.01). This study concludes that forefoot deformities are common with high familial tendency. Hence it is worthwhile to work on molecular genetics and this may enable the anticipation of forthcoming deformities in order to take early action in prevention, in nearly the half of the population. Copyright © 2018 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Application of tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Han, Guangpu; Zhang, Jinxiu; Ma, Shiqiang; Guo, Donghui; Yuan, Fulu; Qi, Bingbing; Shen, Runbin

    2013-07-01

    To explore the application value of self-made tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for improving the lower extremity force line. Between January and August 2012, 13 cases (21 knees) of osteoarthritis with tibial extra-articular deformity were treated, including 5 males (8 knees) and 8 females (13 knees) with an average age of 66.5 years (range, 58-78 years). The disease duration was 2-5 years (mean, 3.5 years). The knee society score (KSS) was 45.5 +/- 15.5. Extra-articular deformities included 1 case of knee valgus (2 knees) and 12 cases of knee varus (19 knees). Preoperative full-length X-ray films of lower extremities showed 10-21 degrees valgus or varus deformity of tibial extra joint. Self-made tibial mechanical axis locator was used to determine and mark coronal tibial mechanical axis under X-ray before TKA, and then osteotomy was performed with extramedullary positioning device according to the mechanical axis marker.' All incisions healed by first intention, without related complications of infection and joint instability. All patients were followed up 5-12 months (mean, 8.3 months). The X-ray examination showed < 2 degrees knee deviation angle in the others except 1 case of 2.9 degrees knee deviation angle at 3 days after operation, and the accurate rate was 95.2%. No loosening or instability of prosthesis occurred during follow-up. KSS score was 85.5 +/- 15.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=12.82, P=0.00). The seft-made tibial mechanical axis locator can improve the accurate rate of the lower extremity force line in TKA for tibia extra-articular deformity.

  13. Humeral lengthening and proximal deformity correction with monorail external fixator in young adults.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hongjiang; Zhu, Yi; Liu, Shen; Kang, Qinglin

    2018-05-01

    Several humeral lengthening or simultaneous deformity corrections through one osteotomy using various external fixators were reported, while literature regarding correction of shortening and proximal varus deformity is scarce. This retrospective clinical study evaluated the results of preforming an acute correction and delayed lengthening in young adults through two osteotomies using monorail external fixator. We report seven patients with various pathologies who underwent humeral proximal deformity correction and lengthening between 2009 and 2015. Pre-operative and post-operative clinical and radiographic data were collected. The mean follow-up time was 33.4 months (25-46 months). The humeral neck-shaft angle improved from 97.9° (85-110°) to 138.6° (135-145°). The magnitude of lengthening achieved was average 7.6 cm (range, 6-10 cm) at an average healing index of lengthening of 30.2 days/cm (range, 27.7-35.4 days/cm). There was a significant increase in range of shoulder abduction, and active abduction improved from pre-operative 136.4° (range, 95-160°) to post-operative 166.4° (range, 150-180°). The DASH score improved significance from 23.29 ± 8.36 to 6.57 ± 3.65 (t = 4.848; p < 0.001). Acute deformity correction and gradual lengthening with the monorail external fixator can be used for humeral shortening and proximal varus angular deformity. Functional improvement is expected after surgery and post-operative therapy.

  14. Proximal Opening Wedge Osteotomy Provides Satisfactory Midterm Results With a Low Complication Rate.

    PubMed

    Oravakangas, Rami; Leppilahti, Juhana; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Tuukka

    2016-01-01

    Hallux valgus is one of the most common foot deformities. Proximal opening wedge osteotomy is used for the treatment of moderate and severe hallux valgus with metatarsus primus varus. However, hypermobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint can compromise the results of the operation, and a paucity of midterm results are available regarding proximal open wedge osteotomy surgery. The aim of the present study was to assess the midterm results of proximal open wedge osteotomy in a consecutive series of patients with severe hallux valgus. Thirty-one consecutive adult patients (35 feet) with severe hallux valgus underwent proximal open wedge osteotomy. Twenty patients (35.5%) and 23 feet (34.3%) were available for the final follow-up examination. The mean follow-up duration was 5.8 (range 4.6 to 7.0) years. The radiologic measurements and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux-metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores were recorded pre- and postoperatively, and subjective questionnaires were completed and foot scan analyses performed at the end of the follow-up period. The mean hallux valgus angle decreased from 38° to 23°, and the mean intermetatarsal angle correction decreased from 17° to 10°. The mean improvement in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal score increased from 52 to 84. Two feet (5.7%) required repeat surgery because of recurrent hallux valgus. No nonunions were identified. Proximal open wedge osteotomy provided satisfactory midterm results in the treatment of severe hallux valgus, with a low complication rate. The potential instability of the first tarsometatarsal joint does not seem to jeopardize the midterm results of the operation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chevron versus Mitchell osteotomy in hallux valgus surgery: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, F O; Verburg, H; Reininga, I H F; van Raaij, T M

    2015-01-01

    Good clinical results have been reported for chevron and Mitchell osteotomies in mild hallux valgus (HV). The primary aim of the present study was to compare first metatarsal shortening after chevron and Mitchell osteotomies in HV. The secondary outcome measures were the degree of valgus correction, metatarsalgia, and patient satisfaction. A total of 84 patients were included in the present study and were treated from 2005 to 2007; 42 patients were in each group. The outcome measurements-first metatarsal length, HV angle, 1-2 intermetatarsal angle, satisfaction, and metatarsalgia-were taken preoperatively and at follow-up. The Mitchell osteotomy resulted in a significantly larger decrease in the first metatarsal length. No significant difference in transfer metatarsalgia was found. Approximately 30% of patients were mildly or not satisfied after HV surgery. Mitchell osteotomy leads to a larger decrease in the first metatarsal length. Patients with metatarsalgia performed poorly, and no significant differences in metatarsalgia were found. Preventing postoperative metatarsalgia is important for a successful outcome after HV surgery. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Traumeel S® for pain relief following hallux valgus surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In spite of recent advances in post-operative pain relief, pain following orthopedic surgery remains an ongoing challenge for clinicians. We examined whether a well known and frequently prescribed homeopathic preparation could mitigate post-operative pain. Method We performed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the homeopathic preparation Traumeel S® in minimizing post-operative pain and analgesic consumption following surgical correction of hallux valgus. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized to receive either Traumeel tablets or an indistinguishable placebo, and took primary and rescue oral analgesics as needed. Maximum numerical pain scores at rest and consumption of oral analgesics were recorded on day of surgery and for 13 days following surgery. Results Traumeel was not found superior to placebo in minimizing pain or analgesic consumption over the 14 days of the trial, however a transient reduction in the daily maximum post-operative pain score favoring the Traumeel arm was observed on the day of surgery, a finding supported by a treatment-time interaction test (p = 0.04). Conclusions Traumeel was not superior to placebo in minimizing pain or analgesic consumption over the 14 days of the trial. A transient reduction in the daily maximum post-operative pain score on the day of surgery is of questionable clinical importance. Trial Registration This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. # NCT00279513 PMID:20380750

  17. Comparative biomechanical effectiveness of over-the-counter devices for individuals with a flexible flatfoot secondary to forefoot varus.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Wendy J; Kavros, Steven J; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2010-11-01

    Evaluate effects of a new off-the-shelf insert on frontal plane foot biomechanics and compare effectiveness of the new and an existing off-the-shelf insert and a motion-control shoe in neutralizing frontal plane foot biomechanics. Descriptive. Biomechanics laboratory. Fifteen uninjured subjects with a flexible flatfoot secondary to forefoot varus. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected as subjects walked and jogged at their self-selected speed while wearing a motion-control running shoe, the shoe with a new off-the-shelf insert, and the shoe with an existing off-the-shelf insert. Frontal plane kinematics and rearfoot kinetics were evaluated during stance. Statistical analysis was performed using a repeated measures analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests (α ≤ 0.05). The new insert and motion-control shoe placed the forefoot in a less-everted position than the existing off-the-shelf insert during walking. There were no differences in forefoot kinematics during jogging, nor were there differences in rearfoot motion during walking or jogging. The rearfoot eversion moment was significantly lower with the new off-the-shelf insert compared with the motion-control shoe and the existing insert during walking and jogging. A new off-the-shelf device is available that promotes more neutral frontal plane biomechanics, thus providing a theoretical rationale for using this device for injury prevention and treatment. The comparative biomechanical effectiveness of a motion-control shoe and the orthotic inserts may assist health care professionals in selecting a device to correct the flatfoot structure.

  18. Monoplanar versus biplanar medial open-wedge proximal tibial osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis: a comparison of clinical and radiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Elmalı, Nurzat; Esenkaya, Irfan; Can, Murat; Karakaplan, Mustafa

    2013-12-01

    We compared clinical and radiological results of two proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO) techniques: monoplanar medial open-wedge osteotomy and biplanar retrotubercle medial open-wedge osteotomy, stabilised by a wedged plate. We evaluated 88 knees in 78 patients. Monoplanar medial open-wedge PTO was performed on 56 knees in 50 patients with a mean age of 55 ± 9 years. Biplanar retrotubercle medial open-wedge PTO was performed on 32 knees in 28 patients with a mean age of 57 ± 7 years. Mean follow-up periods were 40.6 ± 7 months for the monoplanar PTO group and 38 ± 5 months for the biplanar retrotubercle PTO group. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the hospital for special surgery scoring system, and radiological outcome was evaluated by the measurements of femorotibial angle (FTA), patellar height and tibial slope changes. In both groups, post-operative HSS scores increased significantly. No significant difference was found between groups in FTA alteration, but the FTA decreased significantly in both groups. Patellar index ratios decreased significantly in the monoplanar PTO group (Insall-Salvati Index by 0.07, Blackburne-Peel Index by 0.07), but not in the biplanar retrotubercle PTO group. Tibial slopes were increased significantly in the monoplanar PTO group, but not in the retrotubercle PTO group. Biplanar retrotubercle medial open-wedge osteotomy and monoplanar medial open-wedge osteotomy are both clinically effective for the treatment for varus gonarthrosis. Retrotubercle osteotomy also prevents patella infera and tibial slope changes radiologically.

  19. How accurately does high tibial osteotomy correct the mechanical axis of an arthritic varus knee? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van den Bempt, Maxim; Van Genechten, Wouter; Claes, Toon; Claes, Steven

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to give an overview of the accuracy of coronal limb alignment correction after high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for the arthritic varus knee by performing a systematic review of the literature. The databases PubMed, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were screened for relevant articles. Only prospective clinical studies with the accuracy of alignment correction by performing HTO as primary or secondary objective were included. Fifteen studies were included in this systematic review and were subdivided in 23 cohorts. A total of 966 procedures were considered. Nine cohorts used computer navigation during HTO and the other 14 cohorts used a conventional method. In seven computer navigation cohorts, at least 75% of the study population fell into the accepted "range of accuracy" (AR) as proposed by the different studies, but only six out of 14 conventional cohorts reached this percentage. Four out of eight conventional cohorts that provided data on under- and overcorrection, had a tendency to undercorrection. The accuracy of coronal alignment corrections using conventional HTO falls short. The number of procedures outside the proposed AR is surprising and exposes a critical concern for modern HTO. Computer navigation might improve the accuracy of correction, but its use is not widespread among orthopedic surgeons. Although HTO procedures have been shown to be successful in the treatment of unicompartmental knee arthritis when performed accurately, the results of this review stress the importance of ongoing efforts in order to improve correction accuracy in modern HTO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus with combined proximal opening wedge and distal chevron osteotomies: a reliable technique.

    PubMed

    Jeyaseelan, L; Chandrashekar, S; Mulligan, A; Bosman, H A; Watson, A J S

    2016-09-01

    The mainstay of surgical correction of hallux valgus is first metatarsal osteotomy, either proximally or distally. We present a technique of combining a distal chevron osteotomy with a proximal opening wedge osteotomy, for the correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. We reviewed 45 patients (49 feet) who had undergone double osteotomy. Outcome was assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and the Short Form (SF) -36 Health Survey scores. Radiological measurements were undertaken to assess the correction. The mean age of the patients was 60.8 years (44.2 to 75.3). The mean follow-up was 35.4 months (24 to 51). The mean AOFAS score improved from 54.7 to 92.3 (p < 0.001) and the mean SF-36 score from 59 to 86 (p < 0.001). The mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles were improved from 41.6(o) to 12.8(o) (p < 0.001) and from 22.1(o) to 7.1(o), respectively (p < 0.001). The mean distal metatarsal articular angle improved from 23(o) to 9.7(o). The mean sesamoid position, as described by Hardy and Clapham, improved from 6.8 to 3.5. The mean length of the first metatarsal was unchanged. The overall rate of complications was 4.1% (two patients). These results suggest that a double osteotomy of the first metatarsal is a reliable, safe technique which, when compared with other metatarsal osteotomies, provides strong angular correction and excellent outcomes with a low rate of complications. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1202-7. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Morphometric analysis of the proximal ulna using three-dimensional computed tomography and computer-aided design: varus, dorsal, and torsion angulation.

    PubMed

    Yong, Woon Jae; Tan, Jun; Adikrishna, Arnold; Lee, Hyun Joo; Jung, Jin Woo; Cho, Dong-Woo; Jeon, In-Ho

    2014-10-01

    The proximal ulna, particularly the course of the posterior border, has a complex three-dimensional (3D) morphology which has been highlighted recently due to its clinical relevance in relation to surgical treatments. 3D computed tomography (CT) reconstruction and computer-aided design (CAD) based software can help to visualize the complex anatomy and thus aid the investigation of the more detailed morphology of the proximal ulna. In our current study, 3D CT reconstruction images of 20 cadavers were imported into the 3D CAD program. Three morphologic angle parameters of the proximal ulna were measured including the dorsal, varus and torsion angulation. The torsion angulation was measured using the flat spot of olecranon dorsal aspect. We measured the total length of the ulna and the distance between the olecranon tip and the apex of dorsal and varus angulation. Furthermore, the thickness of olecranon was also measured for all the specimens. The results showed that the mean dorsal, varus, and torsion angulation was 4.3° (range 2.6°-5.9°), 12.1° (range 7.9°-17.6°), and 22.5° (range 16.6°-30.5°), respectively. The average length ratio of the dorsal and varus angulation apex to the total ulnar length was 26.4 % (range 19.8-30.7 %) and 32.7 % (range 27.5-37.5 %), respectively. The average of olecranon thickness at the proximal tip, mid-olecranon fossa, and at coronoid tip level was 17.8 mm (range 14.1-22.8 mm), 19.7 mm (range 15.8-23.1 mm), and 35.1 mm (range 27.9-41.8 mm), respectively. In conclusion, variations in the proximal ulna have to be considered when anatomically contoured dorsal plates are applied. Knowledge of the 3D morphologic anatomy of the proximal ulna would provide important information on fracture reductions, and the design of a precontoured dorsal plate or a prosthetic ulnar stem.

  2. Deformity or dysfunction? Osteopathic manipulation of the idiopathic cavus foot: A clinical suggestion.

    PubMed Central

    Gidali, Adi; Harris, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Observed gait abnormalities are often related to a variety of foot deformities such as the cavus foot, also known as pes cavus, cavovarus, uncompensated varus, and the high arched foot. When gait abnormalities related to cavus foot deformities produce symptoms or contribute to dysfunctional movement of the lower extremity, foot orthotics are commonly used to accommodate the deformity and optimize the function of the lower extremity. In more severe cases, surgical intervention is common. Hypomobility of the many joints of the foot and ankle may be mistaken as an idiopathic cavus foot deformity. As for any other limb segment suspected of musculoskeletal dysfunction, it is suggested that joint mobility testing and mobilization, if indicated, be attempted on the foot and ankle joints before assuming the presence of a bony cavus deformity. The purpose of this clinical suggestion is to describe the use of osteopathic manipulations of the foot and ankle in the context of an illustrative case of bilateral idiopathic cavus feet to demonstrate that apparent foot deformities may actually be joint hypomobility dysfunctions. PMID:21509155

  3. Kinematic adaptations of the hindfoot, forefoot, and hallux during cross-slope walking.

    PubMed

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Dixon, Philippe C; Pearsall, David J

    2010-07-01

    Despite cross-slope surfaces being a regular feature of our environment, little is known about segmental adaptations required to maintain both balance and forward locomotion. The purpose of this study was to determine kinematic adaptations of the foot segments in relation to transverse (cross-sloped) walking surfaces. Ten young adult males walked barefoot along an inclinable walkway (level, 0° and cross-slope, 10°). Kinematic adaptations of hindfoot with respect to tibia (HF/TB), forefoot with respect to hindfoot (FF/HF), and hallux with respect to forefoot (HX/FF) in level walking (LW), inclined walking up-slope (IWU), i.e., the foot at the higher elevation, and inclined walking down-slope (IWD), i.e., the foot at the lower elevation, were measured. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. In the sagittal plane, the relative FF/HF and HX/FF plantar/dorsiflexion angles differed across conditions (p=0.024 and p=0.026, respectively). More importantly, numerous frontal plane alterations occurred. For the HF/TB angle, inversion of IWU and eversion of IWD was seen at heel-strike (p<0.001). This pattern reversed with IWU showing eversion and IWD inversion in early stance (p=0.024). For the FF/HF angle, significant differences were observed in mid-stance with IWD revealing inversion while IWU was everted (p<0.004). At toe-off, the pattern switched to eversion of IWD and inversion of IWU (p=0.032). The information obtained from this study enhances our understanding of the kinematics of the human foot in stance during level and cross-slope walking. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasound evaluation of intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia in hallux valgus

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, César Calvo; Marín, Alejandro Garrido; Sanz, David Rodríguez; López, Daniel López; López, Patricia Palomo; Morales, Carlos Romero; Corbalán, Irene Sanz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness reduction of the abductor hallucis (AbH) is shown in subjects with hallux valgus (HV). To date, other soft-tissue structures have not been researched in relation with HV. The aim of this study was to compare the CSA and thickness of the intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia (PF) between feet with and without HV. Therefore, a cross-sectional and case-control study was performed using B-mode with an iU22 Philips ultrasound system and a 5 to 17-MHz transducer. The CSA and thickness were measured for the AbH, flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), and also the thickness for the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions. A convenience sample of 40 feet, 20 with HV and 20 without HV, was recruited from a clinical and research center. A multivariate regression analysis using linear regression was performed to evaluate the ultrasound imaging measurements (α = 0.05). Consequently, statistically significant differences were observed between the groups (P < 0.05) for the AbH and FHB thickness, and CSA reduction, and also the plantar fascia thickness increase in favor of the HV group. On the contrary, the FDB thickness and CSA did not show statistically significant differences (P ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, the CSA and thickness of the AbH and FHB intrinsic plantar muscles are reduced, whereas the thickness of the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions are increased, in subjects with HV compared with those without HV. PMID:27828846

  5. Ultrasound evaluation of intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia in hallux valgus: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lobo, César Calvo; Marín, Alejandro Garrido; Sanz, David Rodríguez; López, Daniel López; López, Patricia Palomo; Morales, Carlos Romero; Corbalán, Irene Sanz

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness reduction of the abductor hallucis (AbH) is shown in subjects with hallux valgus (HV). To date, other soft-tissue structures have not been researched in relation with HV. The aim of this study was to compare the CSA and thickness of the intrinsic plantar muscles and fascia (PF) between feet with and without HV. Therefore, a cross-sectional and case-control study was performed using B-mode with an iU22 Philips ultrasound system and a 5 to 17-MHz transducer. The CSA and thickness were measured for the AbH, flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), and also the thickness for the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions. A convenience sample of 40 feet, 20 with HV and 20 without HV, was recruited from a clinical and research center. A multivariate regression analysis using linear regression was performed to evaluate the ultrasound imaging measurements (α = 0.05). Consequently, statistically significant differences were observed between the groups (P < 0.05) for the AbH and FHB thickness, and CSA reduction, and also the plantar fascia thickness increase in favor of the HV group. On the contrary, the FDB thickness and CSA did not show statistically significant differences (P ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, the CSA and thickness of the AbH and FHB intrinsic plantar muscles are reduced, whereas the thickness of the anterior, middle, and posterior PF portions are increased, in subjects with HV compared with those without HV.

  6. [Arthrodesis of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint by Locking Plate].

    PubMed

    Kunovský, R; Pink, T; Jarošík, J

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The authors in their paper evaluate a group of patients who underwent arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint using a locking plate. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period 2010-2015, we performed surgery in 51 patients (56 forefeet), of which in 5 cases bilaterally and in 46 cases unilaterally, in 38 women and 13 men. The mean age was 57.8 years, the mean follow-up was 3.1 years. The indications for surgery were hallux rigidus in 23 patients, hallux valgus in 15 patients, hallux varus in 3 patients, and hallux erectus in 2 patients. In 4 patients the surgery was performed for valgus deformity associated with rheumatoid arthritis, 9 patients were indicated for a failure of the prior surgical intervention. In all 56 forefeet, the anatomic, low-profile titanium plate Variable Angle LCP 1st MTP Fusion Plate 2.4/2.7 was used. RESULTS According to Gainor s score the surgical outcomes were assessed as excellent in 46 patients who underwent surgery (90%), good in 4 patients (8%), fair in 1 patient (2%), and poor in 0 patient (0%). In 53 forefeet, the control radiographs showed solid bone union. In 2 patients and 3 forefeet, non-union of the arthrodesis occurred. In 2 forefeet, revision arthrodesis was performed, after which solid bone union followed. Malpositioned union was reported in 5 forefeet, of which in 4 cases into valgosity and in 1 case into dorsiflexion. DISCUSSION Numerous fixation materials can be used for arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. The use of the least stable Kirschner wires (cerclage) is being abandoned and substituted with a more stable fixation by screws, memory staples and locking plates. The achievement of excellent results requires proper positioning of the arthrodesis. Impingement syndrome between the big toe and the second toe can result in painful callosities formation, too large dorsiflexion can lead to a hallux hammertoe, with reduced big toe support function, to metatarsalgia. CONCLUSIONS The

  7. Influence of varus/valgus positioning of the Nanos® and Metha® short-stemmed prostheses on stress shielding of metaphyseal bone.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, V; Radetzki, F; Gutteck, N; Delank, S; Zeh, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze bone remodeling around the Nanos® (Smith & Nephew) and Metha® (Aesculap AG) implants as a function of varus/valgus stem positioning. In 75 patients with diagnosed coxarthrosis, either Nanos® (n= 51) or Metha® (n= 24) prostheses were implanted. Digital assessment of plain radiographs immediately, 97 days, and 381 days after THA showed no clinically-relevant migration, angulation, or change in offset and center of rotation. The DEXA scans showed significant BMD changes in Gruen zones 1 (-12.8%), 2 (-3.3%), 6 (+6.4%), and 7(-7.8%)(t-test). The pre/postoperative CCD for the Nanos® was 129°/ 135° and for the Metha® 131°/ 127°. Linear regression analysis showed no prediction for BMD by postoperative CCD or stem type. In conclusion, there was no clinically-relevant influence on proximal femur BMD according to varus/valgus implantation of the Nanos® or Metha® prostheses.

  8. Increases in tibial force imbalance but not changes in tibiofemoral laxities are caused by varus-valgus malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned TKA.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeremy; Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-01-29

    The purposes of this study were to quantify the increase in tibial force imbalance (i.e. magnitude of difference between medial and lateral tibial forces) and changes in laxities caused by 2° and 4° of varus-valgus (V-V) malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and use the results to detemine sensitivities to errors in making the distal femoral resections. Because V-V malalignment would introduce the greatest changes in the alignment of the articular surfaces at 0° flexion, the hypotheses were that the greatest increases in tibial force imbalance would occur at 0° flexion, that primarily V-V laxity would significantly change at this flexion angle, and that the tibial force imbalance would increase and laxities would change in proportion to the degree of V-V malalignment. Kinematically aligned TKA was performed on ten human cadaveric knee specimens using disposable manual instruments without soft tissue release. One 3D-printed reference femoral component, with unmodified geometry, was aligned to restore the native distal and posterior femoral joint lines. Four 3D-printed femoral components, with modified geometry, introduced V-V malalignments of 2° and 4° from the reference component. Medial and lateral tibial forces were measured during passive knee flexion-extension between 0° to 120° using a custom tibial force sensor. Eight laxities were measured from 0° to 120° flexion using a six degree-of-freedom load application system. With the tibial component kinematically aligned, the increase in the tibial force imbalance from that of the reference component at 0° of flexion was sensitive to the degree of V-V malalignment of the femoral component. Sensitivities were 54 N/deg (medial tibial force increasing > lateral tibial force) (p < 0.0024) and 44 N/deg (lateral tibial force increasing > medial tibial force) (p < 0.0077) for varus and valgus malalignments, respectively. Varus

  9. Models of determining deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladilin, V. N.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, a lot of functions designed to determine deformation values that occur mostly as a result of settlement of structures and industrial equipment. Some authors suggest such advanced mathematical functions approximating deformations as general methods for the determination of deformations. The article describes models of deformations as physical processes. When comparing static, cinematic and dynamic models, it was found that the dynamic model reflects the deformation of structures and industrial equipment most reliably.

  10. Non-surgical treatment of hallux valgus: a current practice survey of Australian podiatrists.

    PubMed

    Hurn, Sheree E; Vicenzino, Bill T; Smith, Michelle D

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hallux valgus (HV) frequently present to podiatrists for non-surgical management, with a wide range of concerns including pain, footwear difficulty and quality of life impacts. There is little research evidence guiding podiatrists' clinical decisions surrounding non-surgical management of HV. Thus practitioners rely largely upon clinical experience and expert opinion. This survey was conducted to determine whether a consensus exists among Australian podiatrists regarding non-surgical treatment of HV, and secondly to explore common presenting concerns and physical examination findings associated with HV. An online survey was distributed to Australian podiatrists in mid-2013 via the professional association in each state (approximately 1900 members). Podiatrists indicated common treatments recommended, presenting problems and physical examination findings associated with HV in juveniles, adults and older adults. Proportions were calculated to determine the most common responses, and Chi-squared tests were used to examine differences in treatment recommendations according to HV patient age group and podiatrist demographics. Of 210 survey respondents, 65 % (136) were female and 80 % (168) were private practitioners. Complete survey responses were received from 159 podiatrists for juvenile HV, 146 for adults and 141 for older adults. Seven different non-surgical treatment options were commonly recommended (by >50 % podiatrists), although recommendations differed between adult, older adult and juvenile HV. Common treatments included footwear advice or modification, custom and prefabricated orthotic devices, addition of padding, and muscle strengthening/retraining exercises. Padding was more likely to be utilised in older adults, while exercises were more likely to be prescribed for juveniles. A diverse range of presenting problems and physical examination findings were reported to be associated with HV. Despite the lack of empirical evidence in this area

  11. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim L; Egerton, Thorlene; Wrigley, Tim V; Hodges, Paul W; Hunt, Michael; Roos, Ewa M; Kyriakides, Mary; Metcalf, Ben; Forbes, Andrew; Ageberg, Eva; Hinman, Rana S

    2011-12-05

    Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function measured at baseline and

  12. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function

  13. A Comparison of Two Designs of Postoperative Shoe on Function, Satisfaction, and Back Pain After Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shelain; Garg, Parag; Fazal, M Ali; Shahid, Muhammad S; Park, Derek H; Ray, Pinak S

    2018-06-01

    The reverse camber shoe is commonly used after hallux valgus corrective surgery to offload the forefoot but is associated with back pain and poor compliance. Recent designs of postoperative shoes may obviate the need for a reverse camber. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a reverse camber shoe and a noncambered shoe with transitional rigidity after hallux valgus correction. A cohort of 80 feet was prospectively studied undergoing surgery at a single NHS trust. The first 40 feet received the reverse cambered Jura Medical Off-loader Heel shoe and the subsequent 40 feet received the noncambered DonJoy Podalux shoe. No demographic differences existed between the groups and data were collected at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months. The Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ), a 5-question survey and dichotomous question about back pain was used to assess clinical outcome and radiographs were reviewed by 2 orthopaedic surgeons to monitor for loss of correction. Both groups experienced comparable improvements in MOXFQ and shoe satisfaction from 2 weeks compared with 6 weeks. Six patients experienced back pain in the reverse cambered shoe group and none in the noncambered shoe group. Five patients stopped using the reverse cambered shoe during the first 6 weeks after surgery and none stopped using their prescribed noncambered shoe. No loss of corrections were observed in either group. Both shoe designs gave equal foot specific functional and radiological outcomes, but the noncambered shoe with transitional rigidity was associated with less back pain and better compliance. Level II: Prospective comparative study.

  14. Geometry of the Valgus Knee: Contradicting the Dogma of a Femoral-Based Deformity.

    PubMed

    Eberbach, Helge; Mehl, Julian; Feucht, Matthias J; Bode, Gerrit; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    Realignment osteotomies of valgus knee deformities are usually performed at the distal femur, as valgus alignment is considered to be a femoral-based deformity. This dogma, however, has not been proven in a large patient population. Valgus malalignment may also be caused by a tibial deformity or a combined tibial and femoral deformity. The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze the coronal geometry of patients with valgus malalignment and identify the location of the underlying deformity and (2) to investigate the proportion of cases that require realignment osteotomy at the tibia, the femur, or both locations to avoid an oblique joint line. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The analysis included 420 standing full-leg radiographs of patients with valgus malalignment (mechanical femorotibial angle [mFTA], ≥4°). A systematic analysis of the coronal leg geometry was performed including the mFTA, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA), mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA), and joint-line convergence angle (JLCA). The localization of the deformity was determined according to the malalignment test described by Paley, and patients were assigned to 1 of 4 groups: femoral-based valgus deformity, tibial-based valgus deformity, femoral- and tibial-based valgus deformity, or intra-articular/ligamentary-based valgus deformity. Subsequently, the ideal osteotomy site was identified with the goal of a postoperative change of the joint line of two different maximum values, ±2° and ±4°, from its physiological varus position of 3°. Measurements of the coronal alignment revealed a mean (±SD) mFTA of 7.4° ± 4.3° (range, 4°-28.2°). The mean mLDFA and mean mMPTA were 84.8° ± 2.4° and 90.9° ± 2.6°, respectively. The mean JLCA was 1.2° ± 3.1°. The majority (41.0%) of valgus deformities were tibial based, 23.6% were femoral based, 26.9% were femoral and tibial based, and 8.6% were intra-articular/ligamentary based. To achieve a

  15. Foot deformities, function in the lower extremities, and plantar pressure in patients with diabetes at high risk to develop foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ulla Hellstrand; Zügner, Roland; Lisovskaja, Vera; Karlsson, Jon; Hagberg, Kerstin; Tranberg, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Foot deformities, neuropathy, and dysfunction in the lower extremities are known risk factors that increase plantar peak pressure (PP) and, as a result, the risk of developing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. However, knowledge about the prevalence of these factors is still limited. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of risk factors observed in patients with diabetes without foot ulcers and to explore possible connections between the risk factors and high plantar pressure. Patients diagnosed with type 1 (n=27) or type 2 (n=47) diabetes (mean age 60.0±15.0 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included the registration of foot deformities; test of gross function at the hip, knee, and ankle joints; a stratification of the risk of developing foot ulcers according to the Swedish National Diabetes Register; a walking test; and self-reported questionnaires including the SF-36 health survey. In-shoe PP was measured in seven regions of interests on the sole of the foot using F-Scan(®). An exploratory analysis of the association of risk factors with PP was performed. Neuropathy was present in 28 (38%), and 39 (53%) had callosities in the heel region. Low forefoot arch was present in 57 (77%). Gait-related parameters, such as the ability to walk on the forefoot or heel, were normal in all patients. Eighty percent had normal function at the hip and ankle joints. Gait velocity was 1.2±0.2 m/s. All patients were stratified to risk group 3. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were associated with an increase in the PP in the medial forefoot. A higher body mass index (BMI) was found to increase the PP at metatarsal heads 4 and 5. Pes planus was associated with a decrease in PP at metatarsal head 1. Neuropathy did not have a high association with PP. This study identified several potential risk factors for the onset of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus appeared to increase the PP under the medial

  16. Foot deformities, function in the lower extremities, and plantar pressure in patients with diabetes at high risk to develop foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ulla Hellstrand; Zügner, Roland; Lisovskaja, Vera; Karlsson, Jon; Hagberg, Kerstin; Tranberg, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Objective Foot deformities, neuropathy, and dysfunction in the lower extremities are known risk factors that increase plantar peak pressure (PP) and, as a result, the risk of developing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. However, knowledge about the prevalence of these factors is still limited. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of risk factors observed in patients with diabetes without foot ulcers and to explore possible connections between the risk factors and high plantar pressure. Patients and methods Patients diagnosed with type 1 (n=27) or type 2 (n=47) diabetes (mean age 60.0±15.0 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included the registration of foot deformities; test of gross function at the hip, knee, and ankle joints; a stratification of the risk of developing foot ulcers according to the Swedish National Diabetes Register; a walking test; and self-reported questionnaires including the SF-36 health survey. In-shoe PP was measured in seven regions of interests on the sole of the foot using F-Scan®. An exploratory analysis of the association of risk factors with PP was performed. Results Neuropathy was present in 28 (38%), and 39 (53%) had callosities in the heel region. Low forefoot arch was present in 57 (77%). Gait-related parameters, such as the ability to walk on the forefoot or heel, were normal in all patients. Eighty percent had normal function at the hip and ankle joints. Gait velocity was 1.2±0.2 m/s. All patients were stratified to risk group 3. Hallux valgus and hallux rigidus were associated with an increase in the PP in the medial forefoot. A higher body mass index (BMI) was found to increase the PP at metatarsal heads 4 and 5. Pes planus was associated with a decrease in PP at metatarsal head 1. Neuropathy did not have a high association with PP. Conclusions This study identified several potential risk factors for the onset of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Hallux valgus and hallux

  17. Varus femoral osteotomy improves sphericity of the femoral head in older children with severe form of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

    PubMed

    Terjesen, Terje; Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein

    2012-09-01

    In the Norwegian prospective study on Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD), we found varus femoral osteotomy gave better femoral head sphericity at a mean of 5 years postoperative than physiotherapy in children older than 6.0 years at diagnosis with femoral head necrosis of more than 50%. That study did not include separate analyses for hips with 100% necrosis and those with a percentage of necrosis between 50% and 100%. We asked whether (1) femoral osteotomy improves femoral head sphericity at followup in all patients with more than 50% femoral head necrosis or in selected groups only and (2) there is a critical age between 6.0 and 10.0 years over which femoral osteotomy does not improve the prognosis. We treated 70 patients with unilateral LCPD, age at diagnosis of more than 6.0 years, and femoral head necrosis of more than 50% with varus femoral osteotomy between 1996 and 2000. We classified necrosis using the Catterall classification. We established a control group of 51 similar children who received physiotherapy. At the 5-year followup visit, the hips were graded according to femoral head shape: spherical, ovoid, or flat. At 5-year followup, there was no difference between the treatment groups in radiographic outcome in Catterall Group 3 hips. In Catterall Group 4 hips, femoral head sphericity was better in the osteotomy group, with flat femoral heads in 14% compared to 75% after physiotherapy. The same trend toward better head sphericity occurred when the lateral pillar classification was used. In children aged 6.0 to 10.0 years, in whom the whole femoral head is affected, femoral head sphericity 5 years after femoral osteotomy was better than that after physiotherapy.

  18. Knee joint contact mechanics during downhill gait and its relationship with varus/valgus motion and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A; Gustafson, Jonathan A; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p < 0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p < 0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p = 0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p = 0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p < 0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with deficits in muscle strength.

  19. Knee Joint Contact Mechanics during Downhill Gait and its Relationship with Varus/Valgus Motion and Muscle Strength in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Group differences in contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion excursions were compared using analysis of covariance with adjustments for body mass index. Differences in strength were compared using independent sample t-tests. Additionally, linear associations between contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee motion and muscle strength were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p<0.02) and greater heel-strike joint contact point velocities (p<0.05) for the medial and lateral compartments compared to the control group. The peak medial/lateral joint contact point velocity of the medial compartment was also greater for patients with knee OA compared to their control counterparts (p=0.02). Additionally, patients with knee OA demonstrated significantly increased frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.01) and greater quadriceps and hip abductor muscle weakness (p=0.03). In general, increased joint contact point excursions and velocities in patients with knee OA were linearly associated with greater frontal-plane varus motion excursions (p<0.04) but not with quadriceps or hip abductor strength. Conclusion Altered contact mechanics in patients with knee OA may be related to compromised frontal-plane joint stability but not with

  20. Deformations in VLBI antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. A.; Thomsen, P.

    1988-01-01

    A study is presented of deformations in antennas with the emphasis on their influence on VLBI measurements. The GIFTS structural analysis program has been used to model the VLBI antenna in Fairbanks (Alaska). The report identifies key deformations and studies the effect of gravity, wind, and temperature. Estimates of expected deformations are given.

  1. Inter and intra-observer reliability in assessment of the position of the lateral sesamoid in determining the severity of hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Panchani, Sunil; Reading, Jonathan; Mehta, Jaysheel

    2016-06-01

    The position of the lateral sesamoid on standard dorso-plantar weight bearing radiographs, with respect to the lateral cortex of the first metatarsal, has been shown to correlate well with the degree of the hallux valgus angle. This study aimed to assess the inter- and intra-observer error of this new classification system. Five orthopaedic consultants and five trainee orthopaedic surgeons were recruited to assess and document the degree of displacement of the lateral sesamoid on 144 weight-bearing dorso-plantar radiographs on two separate occasions. The severity of hallux valgus was defined as normal (0%), mild (≤50%), moderate (51-≤99%) or severe (≥100%) depending on the percentage displacement of the lateral sesamoid body from the lateral cortical border of the first metatarsal. Consultant intra-observer variability showed good agreement between repeated assessment of the radiographs (mean Kappa=0.75). Intra-observer variability for trainee orthopaedic surgeons also showed good agreement with a mean Kappa=0.73. Intraclass correlations for consultants and trainee surgeons was also high. The new classification system of assessing the severity of hallux valgus shows high inter- and intra-observer variability with good agreement and reproducibility between surgeons of consultant and trainee grades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Z-plasty of the flexor hallucis longus tendon at tarsal tunnel for checkrein deformity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Young Jun; Baek, Jong Hun; Kim, Dong Hee

    2016-12-01

    To review the outcome of Z-plasty of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon at the tarsal tunnel for checkrein deformity in 8 patients. Records of 6 males and 2 females aged 14 to 67 (mean, 39.5) years who underwent Z-plasty (lengthening) of the FHL tendon at the tarsal tunnel for checkrein deformity in the first and second toes by a single surgeon were reviewed. All patients had undergone 3 months of conservative treatment. The mean time from injury to surgical treatment was 8.4 (range, 5-12) months. All patients had associated injuries including distal tibiofibular fracture (n=6), distal fibular fracture (n=1), and crush injury aroundthe ankle (n=1); they were treated with intramedullary nailing (n=6), long leg splinting (n=1), and short leg splinting (n=1). After a mean follow-up of 3.4 (range, 1-7) years, the FHL tendon was lengthened by a mean of 1.7 (range, 1.6-1.8) cm, and the mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society hallux score increased from 59 (range, 52-67) to 89 (range, 80-90). No patient had recurrence, nerve injury, or tarsal tunnel syndrome, although one patient had sensory disturbance of the posterior tibial nerve in the forefoot, which resolved spontaneously at week 2. Z-plasty of the FHL tendon at the tarsal tunnel is a viable option for correction of checkrein deformity.

  3. Comparison of distal soft-tissue procedures combined with a distal chevron osteotomy for moderate to severe hallux valgus: first web-space versus transarticular approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Yu-Bok; Lee, Keun-Bae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Seon, Jong-Keun; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-11-06

    There are two surgical approaches for distal soft-tissue procedures for the correction of hallux valgus-the dorsal first web-space approach, and the medial transarticular approach. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes achieved after use of either of these approaches combined with a distal chevron osteotomy in patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus. One hundred and twenty-two female patients (122 feet) who underwent a distal chevron osteotomy as part of a distal soft-tissue procedure for the treatment of symptomatic unilateral moderate to severe hallux valgus constituted the study cohort. The 122 feet were randomly divided into two groups: namely, a dorsal first web-space approach (group D; sixty feet) and a medial transarticular approach (group M; sixty-two feet). The clinical and radiographic results of the two groups were compared at a mean follow-up time of thirty-eight months. The American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scale hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scores improved from a mean and standard deviation of 55.5 ± 12.8 points preoperatively to 93.5 ± 6.3 points at the final follow-up in group D and from 54.9 ± 12.6 points preoperatively to 93.6 ± 6.2 points at the final follow-up in group M. The mean hallux valgus angle in groups D and M was reduced from 32.2° ± 6.3° and 33.1° ± 8.4° preoperatively to 10.5° ± 5.5° and 9.9° ± 5.5°, respectively, at the time of final follow-up. The mean first intermetatarsal angle in groups D and M was reduced from 15.0° ± 2.8° and 15.3° ± 2.7° preoperatively to 6.5° ± 2.2° and 6.3° ± 2.4°, respectively, at the final follow-up. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups. The final clinical and radiographic outcomes between the two approaches for distal soft-tissue procedures were comparable and equally successful. Accordingly, the results of this study suggest that the medial transarticular

  4. Bunion correction using proximal chevron osteotomy: a single-incision technique.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, G J; Russo-Alesi, F G

    1998-07-01

    Proximal chevron first metatarsal osteotomy with lateral capsulotomy, adductor tenotomy, and binding of the first and second metatarsals was reviewed in 88 consecutive cases. Seventy-two cases in 55 patients are reported, with an average clinical follow-up of 41 months. The hallux valgus angle improved an average of 15 degrees , from 32.0 degrees preoperatively to an average of 17.0 degrees postoperatively. The intermetatarsal I-II angle improved an average of 5.5 degrees, from 15.3 degrees preoperatively to 9.0 degrees postoperatively. The lateral plantar first metatarsal angle did not change. First metatarsal length was decreased by 2.0 mm. Union occurred at an average of 2 months. Sesamoid position improved 49%, from a preoperative average subluxation of 80% to a postoperative average subluxation of 29%. Subjective foot score profiles improved from a preoperative average of 70.1/100 to a postoperative average of 94.4/100 with respect to pain, deformity, motion, disability, and cosmesis. There were 10 patients with complications, including three patients with delayed unions, two with second metatarsal stress fractures, one with hallux varus, two with hallux limitus, one with progressive arthritis, one with cellulitis, and one with hallux elevatus. Eighty-four percent of the patients stated that they would undergo the procedure again without reservation, 9% would proceed with reservation, and 7% would not proceed with surgery again if offered. This technique provides reliable successful long-term results for the treatment of moderate and severe symptomatic bunion, hallux valgus, and metatarsus primus varus.

  5. [Application of three-dimensional printing technology to design individual angle section on Chevron of hallux valgus osteotomy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Hang; Bi, Da-Wei; Chen, Yi-Min; Zu, Gang; Ma, Hai-Tao

    2018-03-25

    To explore clinical application of three-dimensional printing technology to design individual angle section on Chevron of hallux valgus osteotomy. From May 2013 to May 2016, 47 patients(66 feet) with mild to moderate hallux valgus treated by Chevron osteotomy according to different preoperative design were divided into computer osteotomy group(group A) and traditional osteotomy group(group B). In group A, there were 25 patients (33 feet), including 4 males(5 feet) and 21 females(28 feet) with an average age of (47.88±6.08) years old, average weight IMA was (13.58±1.15) degree, AOFAS score was 59.00±5.86, and treated individual 3D printing technology to design operation scheme. While in group B, there were 22 patients (33 feet), including 3 males (3 feet) and 19 females (28 feet) with an average age of (48.16±6.16) years old, average weight IMA was(13.51±1.14) degree, AOFAS score was 60.67±5.85, and treated with osteotomy according to surgical experience. Operation time, blood loss, hospital stays, VAS score at 1 week after operation, wound healing and improvement of postoperative weight-bearing intermetatarsal angle(IMA) were compared between two groups, AOFAS score system was used to evaluate ankle function after surgery. There was no significant difference in following-up between group A 12.41±2.32 and group B 11.73±2.76. There was 1 patient in group B were excluded. Others perform good wounds healing on the first stage after operation. There were no significant differences in operation time, blood loss, hospital stays and VAS score at 1 week after operation( P <0.05); IMA in group A was (5.21±0.88)°, (6.42±0.85)° in group B, and had significant differences between two groups ( t =5.68, P <0.05). There was obvious meaning in AOFAS score between group A 88.15±5.19 and group B 82.90±5.01( t =4.14, P <0.05). Fourteen feet in group A obtained excellent results and 19 feet good, while 5 feet in group B obtained excellent results and 27 feet good

  6. L'ostéotomie de scarf dans le traitement de l'hallux valgus: à propos de 19 cas

    PubMed Central

    Boussakri, Hassan; Bachiri, Mohammed; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    L'ostéotomie de Scarf constitue une technique chirurgicale bien décrite, grâce à ses résultats excellents, elle est considérée comme un traitement de choix de l'hallux valgus. Le but de ce travail est de décrire le profil épidémiologique et radio-clinique des hallux valgus, ainsi qu’évaluer les résultats radiologiques et fonctionnels des patients traités par la technique classique d'ostéotomie de Scarf. Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective, concernant 22 ostéotomies de Scarf chez 19 patients, opérés d'hallux valgus entre mai 2009 et janvier 2013. Le recul moyen était de 22,5 mois (3-42 mois). L'âge moyen des patients au moment de l'intervention était de 49 ans, avec des extrêmes de 19 et 75 ans. Tous les patients ont bénéficié d'une évaluation clinique et radiologique préopératoire et postopératoire ainsi qu'une analyse statistique. Au dernier recul, selon des critères subjectifs, nos résultats étaient très satisfaisants dans 42%, satisfaisants dans 52% et déçus dans 6%, et en fonction du score de l'AOFAS, les résultats étaient nettement améliorée avec un AOFAS préopératoire de 57% à 84% en postopératoire. Concernant les résultats radiologiques, la déformation métatarsophalangienne (angle M1P1) a été corrigée (43,63 °-12,8°) avec une p très significative (p <0,001). D'autre part une amélioration de l'Angle moyen M1M2, passer de 18,18° préopératoire à 12,95° au dernier recul, avec une correction significative (p <0,001). Le valgus épiphysaire de premier métatarsien (AADM) a été statistiquement amélioré (p <0,001), passer de 24,45° à 7,91°. Concernant les complications nous avons noté un cas de sepsis précoce superficiel géré par une antibiothérapie adaptée, deux cas de névrome et un cas d'ostéonécrose. Par contre on n'a pas noté aucune fracture per opératoire du premier métatarsien. Nous concluons que l'ostéotomie de Scarf est une technique reproductible fiable, en pleine

  7. Nearly associative deformation quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilevich, Dmitri; Oliveira, Fernando Martins Costa

    2018-04-01

    We study several classes of non-associative algebras as possible candidates for deformation quantization in the direction of a Poisson bracket that does not satisfy Jacobi identities. We show that in fact alternative deformation quantization algebras require the Jacobi identities on the Poisson bracket and, under very general assumptions, are associative. At the same time, flexible deformation quantization algebras exist for any Poisson bracket.

  8. Varus-valgus stability at 90° flexion correlates with the stability at midflexion range more widely than that at 0° extension in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hino, Kazunori; Kutsuna, Tatsuhiko; Watamori, Kunihiko; Kiyomatsu, Hiroshi; Ishimaru, Yasumitsu; Takeba, Jun; Watanabe, Seiji; Shiraishi, Yoshitaka; Miura, Hiromasa

    2017-10-01

    Midflexion stability can potentially improve the outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between varus-valgus stability at 0° of extension and 90° of flexion and that at the midflexion range in posterior-stabilized (PS)-TKA. Forty-three knees that underwent PS-TKA were evaluated. Manual mild passive varus-valgus stress was applied to the knees, and the postoperative maximum varus-valgus stability was measured every 10° throughout range of motion, using a navigation system. Correlations between the stability at 0°, 90° of flexion, and that at each midflexion angle were evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The stability of 0° modestly correlated with that of 10°-20°, but it did not significantly correlate with that of 30°-80°. However, the stability of 90° strongly correlated with that of 60°-80°, modestly correlated with that of 40°-50°, weakly correlated with that of 20°-30°, and did not correlate with that of 10°. The present study confirmed the importance of acquiring stability at 90° flexion to achieve midflexion stability in PS-TKA. However, initial flexion stability did not strongly correlate with the stability at either 0° or 90°. Our findings can provide useful information for understanding varus-valgus stability throughout the range of motion in PS-TKA. Attention to soft tissue balancing is necessary to stabilize a knee at the initial flexion range in PS-TKA.

  9. A comparison of proximal and distal Chevron osteotomy, both with lateral soft-tissue release, for moderate to severe hallux valgus in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral correction: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, K B; Cho, N Y; Park, H W; Seon, J K; Lee, S H

    2015-02-01

    Moderate to severe hallux valgus is conventionally treated by proximal metatarsal osteotomy. Several recent studies have shown that the indications for distal metatarsal osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure could be extended to include moderate to severe hallux valgus. The purpose of this prospective randomised controlled trial was to compare the outcome of proximal and distal Chevron osteotomy in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus. The original study cohort consisted of 50 female patients (100 feet). Of these, four (8 feet) were excluded for lack of adequate follow-up, leaving 46 female patients (92 feet) in the study. The mean age of the patients was 53.8 years (30.1 to 62.1) and the mean duration of follow-up 40.2 months (24.1 to 80.5). After randomisation, patients underwent a proximal Chevron osteotomy on one foot and a distal Chevron osteotomy on the other. At follow-up, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal interphalangeal (MTP-IP) score, patient satisfaction, post-operative complications, hallux valgus angle, first-second intermetatarsal angle, and tibial sesamoid position were similar in each group. Both procedures gave similar good clinical and radiological outcomes. This study suggests that distal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure is as effective and reliable a means of correcting moderate to severe hallux valgus as proximal Chevron osteotomy with a distal soft-tissue procedure. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Hallux valgus surgery may produce early improvements in balance control: results of a cross-sectional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadra, Saba; Fleischer, Adam; Klein, Erin; Grewal, Gurtej S; Knight, Jessica; Weil, Lowell Scott; Weil, Lowell; Najafi, Bijan

    2013-01-01

    Hallux valgus (HV) is associated with poorer performance during gait and balance tasks and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. We sought to assess whether corrective HV surgery improves gait and balance. Using a cross-sectional study design, gait and static balance data were obtained from 40 adults: 19 patients with HV only (preoperative group), 10 patients who recently underwent successful HV surgery (postoperative group), and 11 control participants. Assessments were made in the clinic using body-worn sensors. Patients in the preoperative group generally demonstrated poorer static balance control compared with the other two groups. Despite similar age and body mass index, postoperative patients exhibited 29% and 63% less center of mass sway than preoperative patients during double-and single-support balance assessments, respectively (analysis of variance P =.17 and P =.14, respectively [both eyes open condition]). Overall, gait performance was similar among the groups, except for speed during gait initiation, where lower speeds were encountered in the postoperative group compared with the preoperative group (Scheffe P = .049). This study provides supportive evidence regarding the benefits of corrective lower-extremity surgery on certain aspects of balance control. Patients seem to demonstrate early improvements in static balance after corrective HV surgery, whereas gait improvements may require a longer recovery time. Further research using a longitudinal study design and a larger sample size capable of assessing the long-term effects of HV surgical correction on balance and gait is probably warranted.

  11. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  12. Preliminary results of a new surgical technique in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using the native ligament tension for femoral implant positioning in varus osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Hagen; Perka, Carsten; Pfitzner, Tilman

    2016-07-01

    Individual implant alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has seen growing interest over the past years. This study therefore aimed to develop a surgical technique for implant alignment based on native ligament tension, and to present the results obtained using this technique. 25 patients were included in this prospective study. Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) was used for the resection of the extension gap. Ligament tension was measured after the removal of all accessible osteophytes. In the event of asymmetry, the distal femur resection was adjusted up to 2.5° using an adjustable cutting block. The aim was to achieve a symmetrical extension gap without release, not a neutral leg axis. Femoral rotation was aligned on the basis of ligament tension. Patients were followed up to 3 months postoperatively. The postoperative whole-leg axis was 2.8° ± 1.6° varus. Patients achieved a flexion of 118° ± 9°, a Knee Score of 91.5 ± 3.2 and a Function Score of 86.8 ± 8.3 points. For the first time, the new surgical technique described here permits a ligament tension based femoral implant alignment together with PSI. It was shown to be safe, with encouraging clinical and radiological results. Therapeutic study level IV.

  13. Skeletal deformities associated with nutritional congenital rickets in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, K E; Morley, R E; Smith, R L

    2017-01-01

    A group of 545 pregnant rising 2-year-old Coopdale ewes on a Southland sheep farm were grazed over winter on a fodder beet (Beta vulgaris) crop. Subsequently, 45 out of approximately 750 lambs were born with a variety of skeletal deformities, including shortened limbs, varus and valgus angular limb deformities, palmar grade stance and cranial bowing of the carpus. Analysis of the crop showed the fodder beet contained a low percentage of phosphorus. In addition, 60 out of 460 rising 2-year-old ewes that had been grazed on the fodder beet crop as 1-year-olds had incisor abnormalities and malocclusion. Two affected lambs (1-day-old and 3-days-old) with representative clinical signs examined postmortem were found to have markedly enlarged costochondral junctions, and noticeably enlarged long bone metaphyses. In addition, one lamb had a dense band of metaphyseal sclerosis beneath the physes of all long bones examined. Histopathological findings included small islands and columns of chondrocytes and eosinophilic cartilage matrix present in the metaphysis. Metaphyseal trabeculae were disorganised and often lined by accumulations of pale pink osteoid; similar pale pink osteoid was also present in the cortices. Unerupted molar teeth in the affected lambs lacked a layer of enamel, and the dentine was irregular with globular basophilia. The gross and histopathological lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of rickets. Nutritional congenital rickets has not been previously diagnosed in sheep, but is a recognised disease of human infants with vitamin D deficient mothers. The rickets in affected lambs was most likely associated with phosphorus deficiency as a result of the pregnant ewes grazing fodder beet during gestation. While vitamin D deficiency was not definitively ruled out in these cases, practitioners are alerted to the possible effects of feeding phosphorus-deficient fodder beet to ewes for long periods during gestation and to 1-year-old sheep during important growth

  14. Deforming regular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, J. C. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass functions. By using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor to generate metrics, the solutions presented in this work are either regular or singular. That is, within this approach, it is possible to generate regular or singular black holes from regular or singular black holes. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the deformed regular black holes may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.

  15. The management of the neglected congenital foot deformity in the older child with the Taylor spatial frame.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Atef; Letts, Merv

    2012-01-01

    Neglected or inadequately treated rigid congenitally deformed feet in older children are a nightmarish challenge for the child, the parents, and the orthopaedic surgeon. Because of the multiplicity of spatial deformities exhibited by these feet and legs, it was hypothesized that correction using the Taylor spatial frame (TSF) would decrease morbidity, facilitate correction, and minimize treatment time in children from remote regions with extremely rigid deformed feet. Recent experience with the management of 11 such feet (Dimeglio type IV) in 9 children with an average age of 9.2 years using the TSF has been gratifying. Six children had associated leg length discrepancy, which was corrected by concomitant tibial lengthening. All feet underwent soft tissue releases, whereas forefoot and/or hindfoot osteotomies were performed in 7 feet. All children attained plantigrade, functional feet, and were fully ambulatory and capable of wearing normal footwear. Complications were minor consisting of pin tract infections, residual metatarsus varus in 3, and wound dehiscence in 1. There were no neurovascular events. This was attributed to the slower 3 plane correction using the TSF technique as well as the elimination of the need for plaster immobilization thus allowing direct monitoring of the foot and limb. The rigid foot deformity in the older child can be safely and effectively corrected with the aid of the TSF, which facilitates a 3 plane correction and concomitant limb lengthening.

  16. Deformability of shredded tires

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-01-01

    This report describes three separate studies that examine the deformability of shredded tire fill material. The first study determined the response of shredded tires to cyclic loading. These tests were conducted in a load frame on both constrained an...

  17. Deformations of superconformal theories

    DOE PAGES

    Córdova, Clay; Dumitrescu, Thomas T.; Intriligator, Kenneth

    2016-11-22

    Here, we classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d ≥ 3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and noncentral charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact thatmore » short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.« less

  18. Integrating health economics into the product development cycle: a case study of absorbable pins for treating hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Steuten, Lotte; Parkinson, Bonny; Girling, Alan J; Buxton, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The probability of reimbursement is a key factor in determining whether to proceed with or abandon a product during its development. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the methods of iterative Bayesian economic evaluation proposed in the literature can be incorporated into the development process of new medical devices, adapting them to face the relative scarcity of data and time that characterizes the process. A 3-stage economic evaluation was applied: an early phase in which simple methods allow for a quick prioritization of competing products; a mid-stage in which developers synthesize the data into a decision model, identify the parameters for which more information is most valuable, and explore uncertainty; and a late stage, in which all relevant information is synthesized. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the case study of absorbable pins, compared with metallic fixation, in osteotomy to treat hallux valgus. The results from the early analysis suggest absorbable pins to be cost-effective under the beliefs and assumptions applied. The outputs from the models at the mid-stage analyses show the device to be cost-effective with a high probability. Late-stage analysis synthesizes evidence from a randomized controlled trial and informative priors, which are based on previous evidence. It also suggests that absorbable pins are the most cost-effective strategy, although the uncertainty in the model output increased considerably. This example illustrates how the method proposed allows decisions in the product development cycle to be based on the best knowledge that is available at each stage.

  19. Biomechanical Comparison Study of Three Fixation Methods for Proximal Chevron Osteotomy of the First Metatarsal in Hallux Valgus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Su; Young, Ki Won; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2017-01-01

    Background Fixation of proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy has been accomplished using K-wires traditionally and with a locking plate recently. However, both methods have many disadvantages. Hence, we developed an intramedullary fixation technique using headless cannulated screws and conducted a biomechanical study to evaluate the superiority of the technique to K-wire and locking plate fixations. Methods Proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy was performed on 30 synthetic metatarsal models using three fixation techniques. Specimens in group I were fixated with K-wires (1.6 mm × 2) and in group II with headless cannulated screws (3.0 mm × 2) distally through the intramedullary canal. Specimens in group III were fixated with a locking X-shaped plate (1.3-mm thick) and screws (2.5 mm × 4). Eight metatarsal specimens were selected from each group for walking fatigue test. Bending stiffness and dorsal angulation were measured by 1,000 repetitions of a cantilever bending protocol in a plantar to dorsal direction. The remaining two samples from each group were subjected to 5 mm per minute axial loading to assess the maximal loading tolerance. Results All samples in group I failed walking fatigue test while group II and group III tolerated the walking fatigue test. Group II showed greater resistance to bending force and smaller dorsal angulation than group III (p = 0.001). On the axial loading test, group I and group II demonstrated superior maximum tolerance to group III (54.8 N vs. 47.2 N vs. 28.3 N). Conclusions Authors have demonstrated proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy with intramedullary screw fixation provides superior biomechanical stability to locking plate and K-wire fixations. The new technique using intramedullary screw fixation can offer robust fixation and may lead to better outcomes in surgical treatment of hallux valgus. PMID:29201305

  20. Biomechanical Comparison Study of Three Fixation Methods for Proximal Chevron Osteotomy of the First Metatarsal in Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Hun Ki; Young, Ki Won; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2017-12-01

    Fixation of proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy has been accomplished using K-wires traditionally and with a locking plate recently. However, both methods have many disadvantages. Hence, we developed an intramedullary fixation technique using headless cannulated screws and conducted a biomechanical study to evaluate the superiority of the technique to K-wire and locking plate fixations. Proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy was performed on 30 synthetic metatarsal models using three fixation techniques. Specimens in group I were fixated with K-wires (1.6 mm × 2) and in group II with headless cannulated screws (3.0 mm × 2) distally through the intramedullary canal. Specimens in group III were fixated with a locking X-shaped plate (1.3-mm thick) and screws (2.5 mm × 4). Eight metatarsal specimens were selected from each group for walking fatigue test. Bending stiffness and dorsal angulation were measured by 1,000 repetitions of a cantilever bending protocol in a plantar to dorsal direction. The remaining two samples from each group were subjected to 5 mm per minute axial loading to assess the maximal loading tolerance. All samples in group I failed walking fatigue test while group II and group III tolerated the walking fatigue test. Group II showed greater resistance to bending force and smaller dorsal angulation than group III ( p = 0.001). On the axial loading test, group I and group II demonstrated superior maximum tolerance to group III (54.8 N vs. 47.2 N vs. 28.3 N). Authors have demonstrated proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy with intramedullary screw fixation provides superior biomechanical stability to locking plate and K-wire fixations. The new technique using intramedullary screw fixation can offer robust fixation and may lead to better outcomes in surgical treatment of hallux valgus.

  1. [Austin's horizontal V-shaped sliding osteotomy of the metatarsal head [Chevron-osteotomy) in the treatment of hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Steinböck, G

    1996-08-01

    From 1983 to 1995, 1587 patients suffering from hallux abductovalgus were treated with the Austin bunionectomy. The operation consists of a medial exostosis removal, a V-shaped laterally directed displacement osteotomy of the metatarsal head, lateral release and medial reefing of the capsulo-ligamentous structures. Lateral transposition is facilitated by performing a sufficient lateral release consisting of dissection of the lateral metatarsophalangeal ligament and separation of the adductor tendon from the base of the phalanx and the lateral sesamoid. In the case of intermetatarsal angles greater than 15 degrees, the metatarsal-sesamoid ligament is also severed just above the lateral sesamoid. The periosteum is stripped in a limited fashion dorsally and toward the plantar, leaving its insertion at the metatarsal head intact. After this procedure, reposition of the metatarsal head onto the sesamoids is usually possible and is maintained by reconstruction of the medial metatarsal-sesamoid ligament. In the author's own research material, metatarsophalangeal angles larger than 50 degrees and intermetatarsal angles of over 20 degrees could be corrected. Pronation of the toe is usually corrected by tenotomy of the abductor tendon near the base of the phalanx. Avascular necrosis is extremely rare with a careful operative technique. In our extensive research material, four cases of AVN were recognized. Provided there is free motion of the joint (60-0-20), mild radiological signs of osteoarthritis are no contraindication for the operation. Even in the aged, good results can be achieved provided there are no trophic problems. The Austin bunionectomy has proved to be a versatile method for treating bunion problems. The possibility of transposing the metatarsal head laterally, toward the plantar, proximally and distally by altering the direction of the osteotomy, as well as tilting it medially or laterally, has made this osteotomy an invaluable tool for addressing various

  2. A prospective 24 months follow-up of a three component press-fit prosthesis for hallux rigidus.

    PubMed

    Wassink, S; Burger, B J; Saragas, N P; Asunción Márquez, J; Trtik, L; Harlaar, J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results following total first metatarsophalangeal (FMTP) joint replacement arthroplasty using a modular three component press fit prosthesis at two year follow up. All patient data was collected in a prospective way in four study centres. Both preoperative and postoperative evaluation consisted of an assessment using the AOFAS-HMI score, visual analogue scale for pain, evaluation of the range of motion and patient satisfaction scores. Postoperative X-rays were reviewed for loosening and radiolucency up to two years. Fifty-five feet were available for analysis at 24 months. Two implants were removed during the study. Six more feet had additional surgery due to stiffness or malalignment. Postoperative AOFAS-HMI scores improved significantly by 32.4 points at two year follow-up (p<0.001). The visual analogue scale for pain improved significantly from 6.8 (std 1,6) preoperatively to 1.6 (std 1,9) postoperatively (p<0.0001). Mean dorsiflexion improved from 12.6 (std 10,1) degrees preoperatively to 31.2 (std 16,8) degrees postoperatively. Eighty-seven percent of patients were moderately to well satisfied with the end result. Eighteen prostheses showed radiolucency at 24 months. Implantation of a Metis ® modular three component press fit prosthesis for the metatarsophalangeal joint in hallux rigidus shows significant improvement in AOFAS-HMI scores and a decrease in pain. Concerns remain with regard to early reoperation rate (14.5%) and long term survival of the implant. Future studies will have to address these aspects. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The pie-crusting technique using a blade knife for medial collateral ligament release is unreliable in varus total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dai-Soon; In, Yong; Kim, Tae Kyun; Cho, Han Suk; Koh, In Jun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the documented clinical efficacy of the pie-crusting technique for medial collateral ligament (MCL) release in varus total knee arthroplasty, its quantitative effects on medial gaps and safety remain unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy (quantitative effect and consistency of the number of punctures) and the safety (frequency of early over-release) of the pie-crusting technique for MCL release. From ten pairs of cadaveric knees, one knee from each pair was randomly assigned to undergo pie crusting in extension (group E) or in flexion (group F). Pie crusting was performed in the superficial MCL using a blade until over-release occurred. After every puncture, the incremental medial gap increase was recorded, and the number of punctures required for 2- or 4-mm gap increases was assessed. In group E, the extension gap increased from 0.8 to 5.0 mm and the flexion gap increased from 0.8 to 3.0 mm. In group F, the extension gap increased from 1.0 to 3.0 mm and the flexion gap increased from 2.6 to 6.0 mm. However, the gap increments were inconsistent with those that followed the preceding blade punctures, and the number of punctures required to increase the gaps by 2 or 4 mm was variable. The number of punctures leading to over-release in group E and group F was 6 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 punctures, respectively. Overall, 70% of over-release occurred earlier than the average number of punctures leading to over-release. Pie crusting led to unpredictable gap increments and to frequent early over-release. Surgeons should decide carefully before using the pie-crusting technique for MCL release and should be cautious of performing throughout the procedure, especially when performing in a flexed knee. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  4. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  5. Comparison of Femoral Head Rotation and Varus Collapse Between a Single Lag Screw and Integrated Dual Screw Intertrochanteric Hip Fracture Fixation Device Using a Cadaveric Hemi-Pelvis Biomechanical Model.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Brandon G; Nayak, Aniruddh N; Cooper, Seth A; Smithson, Ian R; Cox, Jacob L; Marberry, Scott T; Sanders, Roy W

    2016-04-01

    This study compared the stabilizing effect of 2 intertrochanteric (IT) fracture fixation devices in a cadaveric hemi-pelvis biomechanical model. Eleven pairs of cadaveric osteopenic female hemi-pelves with intact hip joint and capsular ligaments were used. An unstable IT fracture (OTA 31-A2) was created in each specimen and stabilized with a single lag screw device (Gamma 3) or an integrated dual screw (IDS) device (InterTAN). The hemi-pelves were inverted, coupled to a biaxial apparatus and subjected to 13.5 k cycles of loading (3 months) using controlled, oscillating pelvic rotation (0-90 degrees) plus cyclic axial femoral loading at a 2:1 body weight (BW) ratio. Femoral head rotation and varus collapse were monitored optoelectonically. For specimens surviving 3 months of loading, additional loading was performed in 0.25 × BW/250 cycle increments to a maximum of 4 × BW or failure. Femoral head rotation with IDS fixation was significantly less than the single lag screw construct after 3 months of simulated loading (P = 0.016). Maximum femoral head rotation at the end of 4 × BW loading was 7× less for the IDS construct (P = 0.006). Varus collapse was significantly less with the IDS construct over the entire loading cycle (P = 0.021). In this worst-case model of an osteopenic, unstable, IT fracture, the IDS construct, likely owing to its larger surface area, noncylindrical profile, and fracture compression, provided significantly greater stability and resistance to femoral head rotation and varus collapse.

  6. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2009-04-14

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  7. Proximal Femoral Varus Derotation Osteotomy in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Effect of Age, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level, and Surgeon Volume on Surgical Success.

    PubMed

    Shore, Benjamin J; Zurakowski, David; Dufreny, Chantal; Powell, Dustin; Matheney, Travis H; Snyder, Brian D

    2015-12-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mid-term results of proximal femoral varus derotation osteotomy (VDRO) in children with cerebral palsy and determine what effect age, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, and surgeon volume had on surgical success. We analyzed a cohort of children with cerebral palsy who underwent VDRO for hip displacement at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital between 1994 and 2007. Age, sex, GMFCS level, preoperative radiographic parameters, previous botulinum toxin administration or soft-tissue release, adjunctive pelvic osteotomy, the performance of bilateral surgery at the index VDRO, and surgeon volume (the number of procedures performed) were recorded. Results were analyzed via univariate and multivariate analyses for association with the need for revision hip surgery. Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves were generated, determining the time from index surgery to failure (defined as the need for subsequent surgical procedures on the hip and/or pelvis, or a hip migration percentage of >50% at the time of final follow-up), and were further stratified according to osseous versus soft-tissue revision. A total of 567 VDROs were performed in 320 children (mean age [and standard deviation], 8.2 ± 3.8 years). The mean follow-up was 8.3 years (range, three to eighteen years). Of the initial 320 patients, 117 (37%) were considered to have had failure. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that younger age at surgery (p < 0.001), increased GMFCS level (p = 0.01), and lower annual surgical hip volume (p = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of any type of surgical revision. Furthermore, soft-tissue release at VDRO was protective against revision (p = 0.02). Five-year survivorship analysis revealed a 92% success rate for children classified as GMFCS levels I and II compared with a 76% success rate for those of GMFCS level V (p < 0.01). This study demonstrated a 37% failure rate after VDRO in children with

  8. Efficacy of Arnica montana D4 for healing of wounds after Hallux valgus surgery compared to diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Karow, Jens-Hagen; Abt, Hans-Peter; Fröhling, Markus; Ackermann, Hanns

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to answer the question: "Is Arnica D4 as efficacious as diclofenac in relation to symptoms and wound healing after foot surgery?" In this randomized double-blinded, parallel-group study (GCP-standard), the efficacy of Arnica D4 10 pillules (taken orally, 3 times per day) and diclofenac sodium, 50 mg (taken orally, 3 times per day) were investigated for equivalence in 88 patients 4 days after hallux valgus surgery. Outcome parameters were (1) postoperative irritation, (2) patient mobility, (3) rated pain, and (4) use of analgesics. The hierarchic equivalence test based on one-sided Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-U confidence intervals (CIs) was used. Equivalence was perceived, when the lower margin of the 95% CI was > 0.36 corresponding to a range of equivalence of 1/2 standard deviation. Arnica D4 and diclofenac were equivalent for wound irritation (lower margin of the 95% CI on day 4: 0.4729 for rubor; 0.3674 for swelling; 0.4106 for calor) and patient mobility (0.4726). A descriptive analysis showed the superiority of Arnica D4 with respect to patient mobility (p = 0.045). With respect to pain, Arnica D4 was inferior to diclofenac (lower margin of the 95% CI 0.026). No significant differences were found regarding the use of additional analgesics during the 4 postoperative days (Dipidolor, Janssen-Cilag, Neuss, Germany; p = 0.54; Tramal, Grünenthal, Aachen, Germany; p = 0.1; and Novalgin, AVENTIS-Pharma, Bad Soden, Germany; p = 0.1). Arnica D4 was significantly better tolerated than diclofenac (p = 0.049). Nine (9) patients (20.45%) of the diclofenac group and 2 (4.5%) of the Arnica D4 group reported intolerance. There was no disturbance in wound healing in any of the patients. Arnica D4 is 60% cheaper than diclofenac. After foot operations, Arnica D4 can be used instead of diclofenac to reduce wound irritation.

  9. Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii

  10. [Mathematical model of oblique three-dimensional intertrochanteric detorsion varus-forming osteotomy of the femur by the Bernbeck method in surgical treatment of congenital hip dysplasia in children].

    PubMed

    Bohatyrewicz, A

    1992-01-01

    Whenever the conservative procedure fails to bring about congruence of the dysplastic hip joint, an operative procedure becomes indispensable. In Orthopaedic Clinic of the Pomeranian Medical Academy in Szczecin we implement the oblique three-dimensional intertrochanteric detorsion and varus forming osteotomy after Bernbeck in order to correct the proximal end of the femoral bone. Precise determination of the plane to be cut, prior to the operative procedure, simplifies and shortens the operation itself and facilitates the achieving of the planned angular values in all three planes. Mathematical model of osteotomy according to Bernbeck considering required angles of correction as well as angles determining the plane of osteotomy was worked out. In collaboration of the Szczecin Technical University, a simple computer program was elaborated which allowed the presentation of the results in the form of tables. With the help of tables the optimal cutting plane was chosen and created correct biomechanical and anatomical conditions as well as optimal conditions for stable osteosynthesis of dissected fragments of the femoral bone. That type of osteotomy is useful in most operative correcrions of the dysplastic hip joint (not great varus formation connected with relatively extensive detorsion). The achieved congruence in the 22 dysplastic hip joints operated on was the most important condition for their later physiological development. Short post-operative observations confirm the value of described mathematic model.

  11. Measurement of varus-valgus and internal-external rotational knee laxities in vivo--Part II: relationship with anterior-posterior and general joint laxity in males and females.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sandra J; Shimokochi, Yohei; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Schmitz, Randy J; Beynnon, Bruce D; Perrin, David H

    2007-08-01

    We examined sex differences in general joint laxity (GJL), and anterior-posterior displacement (ANT-POST), varus-valgus rotation (VR-VL), and internal-external rotation (INT-EXT) knee laxities, and determined whether greater ANT and GJL predicted greater VR-VL and INT-EXT. Twenty subjects were measured for GJL, and scored on a scale of 0-9. ANT and POST were measured using a standard knee arthrometer at 133 N. VR-VL and INT-EXT were measured using a custom joint laxity testing device, defined as the angular displacements (deg) of the tibia relative to the femur produced by 0-10 Nm of varus-valgus torques, and 0-5 Nm of internal-external torques, respectively. INT-EXT were measured during both non-weight-bearing (NWB) and weight-bearing (WB = 40% body weight) conditions while VR-VL were measured NWB. All laxity measures were greater for females compared to males except for POST. ANT and GJL positively predicted 62.5% of the variance in VR-VL and 41.8% of the variance in WB INT-EXT. ANT was the sole predictor of INT-EXT in NWB, explaining 42.3% of the variance. These findings suggest that subjects who score higher on clinical measures of GJL and ANT are also likely to have greater VR-VL and INT-EXT knee laxities.

  12. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    MedlinePlus

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  13. [Inserts for foot deformities].

    PubMed

    Stinus, H; Weber, F

    2005-08-01

    Inserts are orthopedic aids in the treatment of foot disorders that result from changes of the static or dynamic situation. Provision of appropriate orthopedic devices can relieve the pain caused by forefoot deformities either in lieu of surgical intervention or in rare cases also following surgical treatment to improve the symptoms of residual pain.Available materials provide support, padding, and cushioning. Inserts are custom-made to measure and/or based on a plaster impression. Determining the indication, prescribing the inlay, and checking the orthosis are the tasks of the physician. One treatment option for relieving the pain of forefoot deformities consists in conservative therapy with an insert combining features of padding and support as well as adjusting a ready-made shoe. The shoe and inlay should constitute a functional unit since often the optimal effect is only achieved with a combination of insert and orthopedic adjustment of the ready-made shoe.

  14. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  15. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  16. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  17. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  18. Deformable micro torque swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Imai, Yohsuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modeled as a capsule with a hyper elastic membrane enclosing Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary beat were modeled as torques distributed above the cell body. Effects of the membrane elasticity, the aspect ratio of cell's reference shape and the density difference between the cell and the surrounding fluid were investigated. The results showed that the cell deformed like heart shape when Capillary number (Ca) was sufficiently large, and the swimming velocity decreased as Ca was increased. The gravity effect on the membrane tension suggested that the upwards and downwards swimming velocities of Paramecium might be reglated by the calcium ion channels distributed locally around the anterior end. Moreover, the gravity induced deformation made a cell directed vertically downwards, which resulted in a positive geotaxis like behavior with physical origin. These results are important to understand physiology of ciliate's biological responses to mechanical stimuli.

  19. Injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Supplementary Strategy of Marrow Stimulation Improves Cartilage Regeneration After Lateral Sliding Calcaneal Osteotomy for Varus Ankle Osteoarthritis: Clinical and Second-Look Arthroscopic Results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Sang; Koh, Yong Gon

    2016-05-01

    To compare the clinical and second-look arthroscopic outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic marrow stimulation combined with lateral sliding calcaneal osteotomy for varus ankle osteoarthritis, with or without adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection. In this retrospective comparative study, 49 patients with varus ankle osteoarthritis underwent second-look arthroscopy after arthroscopic marrow stimulation combined with lateral sliding calcaneal osteotomy between January 2010 and November 2012; 23 ankles underwent marrow stimulation alone (group 1), and 26 underwent marrow stimulation with MSC injection (group 2). The decision whether to receive the MSC injection, which was free of charge, was solely up to the patients. Second-look arthroscopies were performed at a mean of 12.5 months and 12.4 months postoperatively in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Clinical outcome measures included a visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. The radiologic outcome variable was the talar tilt angle. On second-look arthroscopy, cartilage regeneration was evaluated using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade. The mean VAS score improved significantly from 7.3 ± 0.9 to 3.9 ± 1.2 in group 1 and from 7.4 ± 0.8 to 3.1 ± 1.5 in group 2 at final follow-up (P < .001 for both groups). The mean AOFAS score also improved significantly from 64.4 ± 4.1 to 79.6 ± 7.7 in group 1 and from 63.5 ± 4.2 to 84.2 ± 7.9 in group 2 at final follow-up (P < .001 for both groups). The VAS and AOFAS scores were significantly better in group 2 than in group 1 (P = .040 and P = .047, respectively). ICRS grades were significantly correlated with clinical outcomes in both groups (all P < .05), and there were significant differences in ICRS grades between the groups (P < .05). The mean talar tilt angle improved significantly after lateral sliding calcaneal osteotomy in both groups and was significantly

  20. Smoothly deformed light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenholm, Stig

    1993-01-01

    A single mode cavity is deformed smoothly to change its electromagnetic eigenfrequency. The system is modeled as a simple harmonic oscillator with a varying period. The Wigner function of the problem is obtained exactly by starting with a squeezed initial state. The result is evaluated for a linear change of the cavity length. The approach to the adiabatic limit is investigated. The maximum squeezing is found to occur for smooth change lasting only a fraction of the oscillational period. However, only a factor of two improvement over the adiabatic result proves to be possible. The sudden limit cannot be investigated meaningfully within the model.

  1. Bunions (Hallux Abducto Valgus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} Getting your location, one moment... Please ... and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site Map 8725 West ...

  2. Deformation of crowns during cementation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P R; Goodkind, R J; Delong, R; Sakaguchi, R

    1990-11-01

    Deformation of crowns during cementation was investigated by a simple loading system of defined crowns with silicone fluids as cements. Deformation of the crowns was measured by long stain gauges that encircled the cervical margins. Die spacing was simulated by etching the die. Venting was simulated by removing a small screw. Deformation of the crowns was decreased by decreasing the viscosity of fluid, increasing the thickness of the crowns, and venting. Etching the die decreased the seating times of the crowns, but did not alter the level of deformation. Terminal cementation with zinc phosphate cement confirmed the presence of crown deformation during cementation. The results have consequences for bonded and all-ceramic crowns, and explain several clinical phenomena. It is suggested that low viscosity cements, low seating forces, and die spacing be used to decrease the deformation of crowns during seating. The importance of passive fitting of the crown to the tooth is stressed.

  3. Acute and mid-term (six-week) effects of an ankle-foot-orthosis on biomechanical parameters, clinical outcomes and physical activity in knee osteoarthritis patients with varus malalignment.

    PubMed

    Sliepen, Maik; Mauricio, Elsa; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2018-05-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a painful disease commonly caused by high loads on the articular cartilage. Orthotic interventions aim to reduce mechanical loading, thereby alleviating pain. Traditional orthotics appear effective, but high drop-out rates have been reported over prolonged periods. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a novel ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on gait parameters, physical function and activity of KOA patients. 29 clinically diagnosed KOA patients with varus malalignment wore an AFO for 6 weeks. Prior to and after the intervention period, 3D gait analysis, physical function tests and the KOOS questionnaire were administered. Physical activity was objectively assessed with accelerometers. The AFO immediately reduced the first peak of the knee adduction moment (KAM) and the KAM impulse by 41% and 19%. The knee flexion moment (KFM) was increased by 48%. After six weeks, the first KAM peak and KAM impulse were decreased by 27% and 19% while using the AFO. The KFM was increased by 71%. Furthermore, patients completed the functional tests faster (1.4-2.6%). The KOOS scores decreased significantly. No significant differences were found in physical activity parameters. The six-week AFO application significantly reduced the KAM. The patients' physical function appeared improved; yet these improvements were only minor and therefore arguably clinically irrelevant. The KFM appeared to be negatively affected after six weeks, as were the scores on the KOOS subscales. In summary, even though the AFO reduced the KAM and improved physical function, the clinical benefit for KOA patients with varus malalignment after the 6-week AFO application is debatable. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Mid-term effectiveness of rotating hinge knee prosthesis for severe knee deformity].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Min; Hu, Yihe; Xie, Jie; Li, Mingqing; Lin, Shaoru

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the mid-term effectiveness of rotating hinge knee prosthesis for severe knee deformity. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 24 patients (24 knees) who received rotating hinge knee prosthesis for total knee arthroplasty between January 2003 and June 2011. There were 14 males and 10 females, aged from 60 to 81 years (mean, 70 years). The disease causes included osteoarthritis in 5 cases, rheumatoid arthritis in 7 cases, traumatic arthritis in 9 cases, and Charcot's arthropathy in 3 cases. The disease duration ranged from 5 to 25 years (mean, 14.5 years). Of them, 13 cases had flexion deformity, 7 cases had valgus deformity, and 16 cases had varus deformity. The operation time, the amount of bleeding between operation and drainage-tubes removal, hospitalization time, incision healing, and complications were recorded. The results were evaluated according to Knee Society Score (KSS), visual analogue scale (VAS), and the range of motion (ROM) of knee. Short-form 36 health survey scale (SF-36) was used to evaluate the life quality of patients. The position of prosthesis was observed through X-ray examination. The operation time ranged from 70 to 90 minutes (mean, 78 minutes). The amount of bleeding between operation and drainage-tubes removal ranged from 400 to 1 000 mL (mean, 650 mL). The hospitalization time ranged from 14 to 18 days (mean, 15.2 days). Patellar fracture occurred in 1 case (4.17%) during operation, swelling and effusion of incision in 1 case (4.17%), and periprosthetic infections in 2 cases (8.33%) after operation. All patients were followed up 2-10 years (mean, 5.5 years). The X-ray films showed no evidence of obvious radiolucent line, osteolysis, prosthesis subsidence, and limb alignment change. The results of KSS, VAS socres, and ROM of knee at 1 year postoperatively and last follow-up were significantly better than preoperative ones (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between at 1 year postoperatively

  5. Proximal opening wedge osteotomy with wedge-plate fixation compared with proximal chevron osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Mark; Copithorne, Peter; Boyd, Gordon; Daniels, Timothy; Lalonde, Karl-André; Francis, Patricia; Hickey, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Hallux valgus with an increased intermetatarsal angle is usually treated with a proximal metatarsal osteotomy. The proximal chevron osteotomy is commonly used but is technically difficult. This study compares the proximal opening wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal with the proximal chevron osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus with an increased intermetatarsal angle. This prospective, randomized multicenter (three-center) study was based on the clinical outcome scores of the Short Form-36, the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society forefoot questionnaire, and the visual analog scale for pain, activity, and patient satisfaction. Subjects were assessed prior to surgery and at three, six, and twelve months postoperatively. Surgeon preference was evaluated based on questionnaires and the operative times required for each procedure. No significant differences were found for any of the patients' clinical outcome measurements between the two procedures. The proximal opening wedge osteotomy was found to lengthen, and the proximal chevron osteotomy was found to shorten, the first metatarsal. The intermetatarsal angles improved (decreased) significantly, from 14.8° ± 3.2° to 9.1° ± 2.9 (mean and standard deviation) after a proximal opening wedge osteotomy and from 14.6° ± 3.9° to 11.3° ± 4.0° after a proximal chevron osteotomy (p < 0.05 for both). Operative time required for performing a proximal opening wedge osteotomy is similar to that required for performing a proximal chevron osteotomy (mean and standard deviation, 67.1 ± 16.5 minutes compared with 69.9 ± 18.6 minutes; p = 0.510). Opening wedge and proximal chevron osteotomies have comparable radiographic outcomes and comparable clinical outcomes for pain, satisfaction, and function. The proximal opening wedge osteotomy lengthens, and the proximal chevron osteotomy shortens, the first metatarsal. The proximal opening wedge osteotomy was subjectively less technically demanding and was

  6. Nuclear Deformation at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Gilbreth, C. N.; Bertsch, G. F.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation, a key concept in our understanding of heavy nuclei, is based on a mean-field description that breaks the rotational invariance of the nuclear many-body Hamiltonian. We present a method to analyze nuclear deformations at finite temperature in a framework that preserves rotational invariance. The auxiliary-field Monte Carlo method is used to generate a statistical ensemble and calculate the probability distribution associated with the quadrupole operator. Applying the technique to nuclei in the rare-earth region, we identify model-independent signatures of deformation and find that deformation effects persist to temperatures higher than the spherical-to-deformed shape phase-transition temperature of mean-field theory.

  7. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  8. Quantifying the Erlenmeyer flask deformity

    PubMed Central

    Carter, A; Rajan, P S; Deegan, P; Cox, T M; Bearcroft, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective Erlenmeyer flask deformity is a common radiological finding in patients with Gaucher′s disease; however, no definition of this deformity exists and the reported prevalence of the deformity varies widely. To devise an easily applied definition of this deformity, we investigated a cohort of knee radiographs in which there was consensus between three experienced radiologists as to the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology. Methods Using the presence or absence of Erlenmeyer flask morphology as a benchmark, we measured the diameter of the femur at the level of the physeal scar and serially at defined intervals along the metadiaphysis. Results A measured ratio in excess of 0.57 between the diameter of the femoral shaft 4 cm from the physis to the diameter of the physeal baseline itself on a frontal radiograph of the knee predicted the Erlenmeyer flask deformity with 95.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity in our series of 43 independently diagnosed adults with Gaucher′s disease. Application of this method to the distal femur detected the Erlenmeyer flask deformity reproducibly and was simple to carry out. Conclusion Unlike diagnostic assignments based on subjective review, our simple procedure for identifying the modelling deformity is based on robust quantitative measurement: it should facilitate comparative studies between different groups of patients, and may allow more rigorous exploration of the pathogenesis of the complex osseous manifestations of Gaucher′s disease to be undertaken. PMID:22010032

  9. Polygonal deformation bands in sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are dm-wide zones of shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions in the lower portion of the Jurassic Entrada Fm (Utah, USA). The edges of the polygons are 1 to 5 meters long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain < 0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. Density inversion, that takes place where under-compacted and over-pressurized layers (Carmel Fm) lay below normally compacted sediments (Entrada Sandstone), may be an important process for polygonal deformation bands formation. The gravitational sliding and soft sediment structures typically observed within the Carmel Fm support this hypothesis. Soft sediment deformation may induce polygonal faulting in the section of the Entrada Sandstone just above the Carmel Fm. The permeability of the polygonal deformation bands is approximately 10-14 to 10-13 m2, which is less than the permeability of the host, Entrada Sandstone (range 10-12 to 10-11 m2). The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  10. Deformation twinning in a creep-deformed nanolaminate structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Luke L.

    2010-10-01

    The underlying mechanism of deformation twinning occurring in a TiAl-(γ)/Ti3Al-(α2) nanolaminate creep deformed at elevated temperatures has been studied. Since the multiplication and propagation of lattice dislocations in both γ and α2 thin lamellae are very limited, the total flow of lattice dislocations becomes insufficient to accommodate the accumulated creep strains. Consequently, the movement of interfacial dislocations along the laminate interfaces, i.e., interface sliding, becomes an alternative deformation mode of the nanolaminate structure. Pile-ups of interfacial dislocations occur when interfacial ledges and impinged lattice dislocations act as obstacles to impede the movement of interfacial dislocations. Deformation twinning can accordingly take place to relieve a stress concentration resulting from the pile-up of interfacial dislocations. An interface-controlled twinning mechanism driven by the pile-up and dissociation of interfacial dislocations is accordingly proposed.

  11. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    2001-01-01

    The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

  12. Successful correction of tibial bone deformity through multiple surgical procedures, liquid nitrogen-pretreated bone tumor autograft, three-dimensional external fixation, and internal fixation in a patient with primary osteosarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Watanabe, Koji; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-07

    In a previous report, we described a method of reconstruction using tumor-bearing autograft treated by liquid nitrogen for malignant bone tumor. Here we present the first case of bone deformity correction following a tumor-bearing frozen autograft via three-dimensional computerized reconstruction after multiple surgeries. A 16-year-old female student presented with pain in the left lower leg and was diagnosed with a low-grade central tibial osteosarcoma. Surgical bone reconstruction was performed using a tumor-bearing frozen autograft. Bone union was achieved at 7 months after the first surgical procedure. However, local tumor recurrence and lung metastases occurred 2 years later, at which time a second surgical procedure was performed. Five years later, the patient developed a 19° varus deformity and underwent a third surgical procedure, during which an osteotomy was performed using the Taylor Spatial Frame three-dimensional external fixation technique. A fourth corrective surgical procedure was performed in which internal fixation was achieved with a locking plate. Two years later, and 10 years after the initial diagnosis of tibial osteosarcoma, the bone deformity was completely corrected, and the patient's limb function was good. We present the first report in which a bone deformity due to a primary osteosarcoma was corrected using a tumor-bearing frozen autograft, followed by multiple corrective surgical procedures that included osteotomy, three-dimensional external fixation, and internal fixation.

  13. Handedness and spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, C J; Moore, D P; Fogarty, E E; Dowling, F E

    2006-01-01

    Biological lateralisation is clearly manifest in scoliosis, yet its relevance is unclear. Goldberg et al. (Spine. 15(2):61-64. 1990) found an association between curve pattern and hand-preference in a screened population, but no increase in sinistrality. Milenkovic et al, (European Journal of Epidemiology, 19:969-972,2004) concluded left-handedness was a risk factor in a screened group. The database was reassessed to determine whether clinically significant scoliosis was associated with sinistrality or differed from the population norm of 10%. Patients attending the scoliosis clinic were asked their preferred writing hand. 1,636 patients were identified with complete data. Overall, left handedness occurred in 11.5%, greater than the general population (p=0.04) Left hand preference was found to be increased in boys with infantile idiopathic scoliosis and in girls with infantile, juvenile, congenital and syndromic scoliosis, but was reduced in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis lateralisation was random in infantile and congenital scoliosis, while left curve patterns were decreased in girls with juvenile idiopathic scoliosis and increased in boys with syndromic scoliosis. Curve pattern and handedness correlated in asymmetry in boys and girls and in girls with radiologically confirmed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, but not in any other type. This study cannot confirm findings of left-handedness as a risk factor for spinal deformity. Its incidence is reduced in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and the increased sinistrality in infantile scoliosis is not a new finding (Rauterberg & Tonnis Ger. Z.Orthop. 109(14):676-689. 1971). Lateralisation is undoubtedly a factor in scoliosis, but does not have a simple causal relationship, probably deriving from the underlying scoliotic process, rather than contributing to it.

  14. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel [Albuquerque, NM; Ramsey, Marc [Albuquerque, NM; Schwarz, Jens [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  15. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  16. Anisotropic ripple deformation in phosphorene

    DOE PAGES

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C.; ...

    2015-04-07

    Here, two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS 2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classicalmore » elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.« less

  17. Anisotropic ripple deformation in phosphorene

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C.

    Here, two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS 2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classicalmore » elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.« less

  18. Perioperative Assessment of Myocardial Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Andra E.; Alfirevic, Andrej; Sessler, Daniel I.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Thomas, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of left ventricular performance improves risk assessment and guides anesthetic decisions. However, the most common echocardiographic measure of myocardial function, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), has important limitations. LVEF is limited by subjective interpretation which reduces accuracy and reproducibility, and LVEF assesses global function without characterizing regional myocardial abnormalities. An alternative objective echocardiographic measure of myocardial function is thus needed. Myocardial deformation analysis, which performs quantitative assessment of global and regional myocardial function, may be useful for perioperative care of surgical patients. Myocardial deformation analysis evaluates left ventricular mechanics by quantifying strain and strain rate. Strain describes percent change in myocardial length in the longitudinal (from base to apex) and circumferential (encircling the short-axis of the ventricle) direction and change in thickness in the radial direction. Segmental strain describes regional myocardial function. Strain is a negative number when the ventricle shortens longitudinally or circumferentially and is positive with radial thickening. Reference values for normal longitudinal strain from a recent meta-analysis using transthoracic echocardiography are (mean ± SD) −19.7 ± 0.4%, while radial and circumferential strain are 47.3 ± 1.9 and −23.3 ± 0.7%, respectively. The speed of myocardial deformation is also important and is characterized by strain rate. Longitudinal systolic strain rate in healthy subjects averages −1.10 ± 0.16 sec−1. Assessment of myocardial deformation requires consideration of both strain (change in deformation), which correlates with LVEF, and strain rate (speed of deformation), which correlates with rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt). Myocardial deformation analysis also evaluates ventricular relaxation, twist, and untwist, providing new and noninvasive methods to

  19. Analysis of Mining Terrain Deformation Characteristics with Deformation Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowski, Jan; Milczarek, Wojciech; Grzempowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    Mapping and prediction of mining related deformations of the earth surface is an important measure for minimising threat to surface infrastructure, human population, the environment and safety of the mining operation itself arising from underground extraction of useful minerals. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and increasing with the development of geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, global positioning systems, remote sensing, spatial interpolation, finite element method modelling, GIS based modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of an integrated Deformation Information System (DIS) developed in geographic information systems environment for analysis and modelling of various spatial data related to mining activity and demonstrate its applications for mapping and visualising, as well as identifying possible mining terrain deformation areas with various spatial modelling methods. The DIS concept is based on connected modules that include: the spatial database - the core of the system, the spatial data collection module formed by: terrestrial, satellite and remote sensing measurements of the ground changes, the spatial data mining module for data discovery and extraction, the geological modelling module, the spatial data modeling module with data processing algorithms for spatio-temporal analysis and mapping of mining deformations and their characteristics (e.g. deformation parameters: tilt, curvature and horizontal strain), the multivariate spatial data classification module and the visualization module allowing two-dimensional interactive and static mapping and three-dimensional visualizations of mining ground characteristics. The Systems's functionality has been presented on

  20. Deformation of second and third quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  1. Prospective, Randomized, Multi-centered Clinical Trial Assessing Safety and Efficacy of a Synthetic Cartilage Implant Versus First Metatarsophalangeal Arthrodesis in Advanced Hallux Rigidus.

    PubMed

    Baumhauer, Judith F; Singh, Dishan; Glazebrook, Mark; Blundell, Chris; De Vries, Gwyneth; Le, Ian L D; Nielsen, Dominic; Pedersen, M Elizabeth; Sakellariou, Anthony; Solan, Matthew; Wansbrough, Guy; Younger, Alastair S E; Daniels, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Although a variety of great toe implants have been tried in an attempt to maintain toe motion, the majority have failed with loosening, malalignment/dislocation, implant fragmentation and bone loss. In these cases, salvage to arthrodesis is more complicated and results in shortening of the ray or requires structural bone graft to reestablish length. This prospective study compared the efficacy and safety of this small (8/10 mm) hydrogel implant to the gold standard of a great toe arthrodesis for advanced-stage hallux rigidus. In this prospective, randomized non-inferiority study, patients from 12 centers in Canada and the United Kingdom were randomized (2:1) to a synthetic cartilage implant or first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint arthrodesis. VAS pain scale, validated outcome measures (Foot and Ankle Ability Measure [FAAM] sport scale), great toe active dorsiflexion motion, secondary procedures, radiographic assessment, and safety parameters were evaluated. Analysis was performed using intent-to-treat (ITT) and modified ITT (mITT) methodology. The primary endpoint for the study consisted of a single composite endpoint using the 3 primary study outcomes (pain, function, and safety). The individual subject's outcome was considered a success if all of the following criteria were met: (1) improvement (decrease) from baseline in VAS pain of ≥30% at 12 months; (2) maintenance of function from baseline in FAAM sports subscore at 12 months; and (3) absence of major safety events at 2 years. The proportion of successes in each group was determined and 1-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between treatment groups was calculated. Noninferiority of the implant to arthrodesis was considered statistically significant if the 1-sided 95% lower confidence interval was greater than the equivalence limit (<15%). A total of 236 patients were initially enrolled; 17 patients withdrew prior to randomization, 17 patients withdrew after randomization, and 22 were

  2. Chitayat syndrome: hyperphalangism, characteristic facies, hallux valgus and bronchomalacia results from a recurrent c.266A>G p.(Tyr89Cys) variant in the ERF gene.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, M; Lord, H; Levesque, S; Guturu, H; Thuriot, F; Sillon, G; Wenger, A M; Sureka, D L; Lester, T; Johnson, D S; Bowen, J; Calhoun, A R; Viskochil, D H; Bejerano, G; Bernstein, J A; Chitayat, D

    2017-03-01

    In 1993, Chitayat et al. , reported a newborn with hyperphalangism, facial anomalies, and bronchomalacia. We identified three additional families with similar findings. Features include bilateral accessory phalanx resulting in shortened index fingers; hallux valgus; distinctive face; respiratory compromise. To identify the genetic aetiology of Chitayat syndrome and identify a unifying cause for this specific form of hyperphalangism. Through ongoing collaboration, we had collected patients with strikingly-similar phenotype. Trio-based exome sequencing was first performed in Patient 2 through Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. Proband-only exome sequencing had previously been independently performed in Patient 4. Following identification of a candidate gene variant in Patient 2, the same variant was subsequently confirmed from exome data in Patient 4. Sanger sequencing was used to validate this variant in Patients 1, 3; confirm paternal inheritance in Patient 5. A recurrent, novel variant NM_006494.2:c.266A>G p.(Tyr89Cys) in ERF was identified in five affected individuals: de novo (patient 1, 2 and 3) and inherited from an affected father (patient 4 and 5). p.Tyr89Cys is an aromatic polar neutral to polar neutral amino acid substitution, at a highly conserved position and lies within the functionally important ETS-domain of the protein. The recurrent ERF c.266A>C p.(Tyr89Cys) variant causes Chitayat syndrome. ERF variants have previously been associated with complex craniosynostosis. In contrast, none of the patients with the c.266A>G p.(Tyr89Cys) variant have craniosynostosis. We report the molecular aetiology of Chitayat syndrome and discuss potential mechanisms for this distinctive phenotype associated with the p.Tyr89Cys substitution in ERF . Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Slow deformation of intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Broberg, K B

    1993-01-01

    Intervertebral discs exhibit pronounced time-dependent deformations when subjected to load variations. These deformations are caused by fluid flow to and from the disc and by viscoelastic deformation of annulus fibres. The fluid flow is caused by differences between mechanical and osmotic pressure. A mechanical model of lumbar disc functions allows one to calculate both the extent of fluid flow and its implications for disc height as well as the role played by viscoelastic deformation of annulus fibres. From such calculations changes in body height are estimated. Experimental results already documented in the literature offer bases for the determination of the parameters involved. Body height variations are studied, both those related to normal diurnal rhythmicity and those related to somewhat exceptional circumstances. The normal diurnal fluid flow is found to be about +/- 40% of the disc fluid content late in the evening. Viscoelastic deformation of annulus fibres contributes approximately one quarter of the height change obtained after several hours normal activity, but dominates during the first hour.

  4. Static response of deformable microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  5. Quantifying torso deformity in scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajemba, Peter O.; Kumar, Anish; Durdle, Nelson G.; Raso, V. James

    2006-03-01

    Scoliosis affects the alignment of the spine and the shape of the torso. Most scoliosis patients and their families are more concerned about the effect of scoliosis on the torso than its effect on the spine. There is a need to develop robust techniques for quantifying torso deformity based on full torso scans. In this paper, deformation indices obtained from orthogonal maps of full torso scans are used to quantify torso deformity in scoliosis. 'Orthogonal maps' are obtained by applying orthogonal transforms to 3D surface maps. (An 'orthogonal transform' maps a cylindrical coordinate system to a Cartesian coordinate system.) The technique was tested on 361 deformed computer models of the human torso and on 22 scans of volunteers (8 normal and 14 scoliosis). Deformation indices from the orthogonal maps correctly classified up to 95% of the volunteers with a specificity of 1.00 and a sensitivity of 0.91. In addition to classifying scoliosis, the system gives a visual representation of the entire torso in one view and is viable for use in a clinical environment for managing scoliosis.

  6. Volcanic deformation in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, S.; Fournier, T.; Pritchard, M.

    2009-05-01

    We present the results from an InSAR survey of volcanic activity in South America. We use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS L-band radar satellite from 2006-2009. The L-band instrument provides better coherence in densely vegetated regions, compared to the shorter wave length C-band data. The survey reveals volcano related deformation in regions, north, central and southern, of the Andes volcanic arc. Since observations are limited to the austral summer, comprehensive coverage of all volcanoes is not possible. Yet, our combined observations reveal volcanic/hydrothermal deformation at Lonquimay, Llaima, Laguna del Maule, and Chaitén volcanoes, extend deformation measurements at Copahue, and illustrate temporal complexity to the previously described deformation at Cerro Hudson and Cordón Caulle. No precursory deformation is apparent before the large Chaitén eruption (VEI_5) of 2 May 2008, (at least before 16 April) suggesting rapid magma movement from depth at this long dormant volcano. Subsidence at Ticsani Volcano occurred coincident with an earthquake swarm in the same region.

  7. Finite Deformation of Magnetoelastic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Barham, Matthew Ian

    2011-05-31

    A nonlinear two-dimensional theory is developed for thin magnetoelastic lms capable of large deformations. This is derived directly from three-dimensional theory. Signi cant simpli cations emerge in the descent from three dimensions to two, permitting the self eld generated by the body to be computed a posteriori. The model is specialized to isotropic elastomers with two material models. First weak magnetization is investigated leading to a free energy where magnetization and deformation are un-coupled. The second closely couples the magnetization and deformation. Numerical solutions are obtained to equilibrium boundary-value problems in which the membrane is subjected to lateral pressure andmore » an applied magnetic eld. An instability is inferred and investigated for the weak magnetization material model.« less

  8. Foam rheology at large deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  9. Deformation processes in forging ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. M.; Rhodes, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    The deformation processes involved in the forging of refractory ceramic oxides were investigated. A combination of mechanical testing and forging was utilized to investigate both the flow and fracture processes involved. Deformation studies of very fine grain Al203 revealed an apparent transition in behavior, characterized by a shift in the strain rate sensitivity from 0.5 at low stresses to near unity at higher stresses. The behavior is indicative of a shift in control between two dependent mechanisms, one of which is indicated to be cation limited diffusional creep with significant boundary enhancement. The possible contributions of slip, indicated by crystallographic texture, interface control of the diffusional creep and inhomogeneous boundary sliding are also discussed. Additional experiments indicated an independence of deformation behavior on MgO doping and retained hot pressing impurities, at least for ultrafine grained material, and also an independence of test atmosphere.

  10. Is it too early to move to full electronic PROM data collection?: A randomized controlled trial comparing PROM's after hallux valgus captured by e-mail, traditional mail and telephone.

    PubMed

    Palmen, Leonieke N; Schrier, Joost C M; Scholten, Ruben; Jansen, Justus H W; Koëter, Sander

    2016-03-01

    Patient reported outcome measures (PROM's) after hallux valgus surgery are used to rate the effectiveness as perceived by the patient. The interpretability of these PROM's is highly dependent on participation rate. Data capture method may be an important factor contributing to the response rate. We investigated the effect on response rate of traditional paper mail, telephone and e-mail PROM's after hallux valgus surgery. All consecutive patients operated between January and September 2013, were identified. Included patients were randomized by envelope in three groups: traditional pen and paper mail, e-mail and telephone. They were asked to fill in a FFI and EQ-5D. Two weeks later non-responders were sent a reminder. Of the 73 included patients, 25 were approached by mail, 24 by e-mail and 24 patients by telephone. The response rate on traditional mail was highest (88%), while response on e-mail was lowest (33%). Response rate on telephone was also high (79%). Response rate on traditional mail and telephone was significantly higher (p<0.001) than response on e-mail. Though electronic data collection has enormous potential, this study shows that e-mail yields unacceptable low response rates. It is too early to replace traditional pen-and-paper PROM's by electronic questionnaires. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Crystallization of Deformable Spherical Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Vera M. O.; Miller, Mark A.

    2010-08-01

    We introduce and characterize a first-order model for a generic class of colloidal particles that have a preferred spherical shape but can undergo deformations while always maintaining hard-body interactions. The model consists of hard spheres that can continuously change shape at fixed volume into prolate or oblate ellipsoids of revolution, subject to an energetic penalty. The severity of this penalty is specified by a single parameter that determines the flexibility of the particles. The deformable hard spheres crystallize at higher packing fractions than rigid hard spheres, have a narrower solid-fluid coexistence region and can reach high densities by a second transition to an orientationally ordered crystal.

  12. Analytical volcano deformation source models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Primary volcanic landforms are created by the ascent and eruption of magma. The ascending magma displaces and interacts with surrounding rock and fluids as it creates new pathways, flows through cracks or conduits, vesiculates, and accumulates in underground reservoirs. The formation of new pathways and pressure changes within existing conduits and reservoirs stress and deform the surrounding rock. Eruption products load the crust. The pattern and rate of surface deformation around volcanoes reflect the tectonic and volcanic processes transmitted to the surface through the mechanical properties of the crust.

  13. Deforming baryons into confining strings

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Portugues, Ruben

    2004-09-15

    We find explicit probe D3-brane solutions in the infrared of the Maldacena-Nunez background. The solutions describe deformed baryon vertices: q external quarks are separated in spacetime from the remaining N-q. As the separation is taken to infinity we recover known solutions describing infinite confining strings in N=1 gauge theory. We present results for the mass of finite confining strings as a function of length. We also find probe D2-brane solutions in a confining type IIA geometry, the reduction of a G{sub 2} holonomy M theory background. The relation between these deformed baryons and confining strings is not as straightforward.

  14. Deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyono, Hideki; Okumura, Suguru; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2017-03-01

    We study deformations of the Almheiri-Polchinski (AP) model by employing the Yang-Baxter deformation technique. The general deformed AdS2 metric becomes a solution of a deformed AP model. In particular, the dilaton potential is deformed from a simple quadratic form to a hyperbolic function-type potential similarly to integrable deformations. A specific solution is a deformed black hole solution. Because the deformation makes the spacetime structure around the boundary change drastically and a new naked singularity appears, the holographic interpretation is far from trivial. The Hawking temperature is the same as the undeformed case but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is modified due to the deformation. This entropy can also be reproduced by evaluating the renormalized stress tensor with an appropriate counter-term on the regularized screen close to the singularity.

  15. Patterns of Alloy Deformation by Pulsed Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebotnyagin, L. M.; Potapov, V. V.; Lopatin, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    Patterns of alloy deformation for optimization of a welding regime are studied by the method of modeling and deformation profiles providing high deformation quality are determined. A model of stepwise kinetics of the alloy deformation by pulsed pressure from the expanding plasma channel inside of a deformable cylinder is suggested. The model is based on the analogy between the acoustic and electromagnetic wave processes in long lines. The shock wave pattern of alloy deformation in the presence of multiple reflections of pulsed pressure waves in the gap plasma channel - cylinder wall and the influence of unloading waves from free surfaces are confirmed.

  16. Unclassified congenital deformities of the external ear.

    PubMed

    Vathulya, Madhubari

    2018-01-01

    Congenital ear deformities are a common entity. They are found in isolation or as a part of syndrome in patients. They may involve the external, middle or inner ear or in any of these combinations. Three patients of different ages presented with deformities including mirror image duplication of the superior auricle, unclassified deformities of ear lobule (wavy lobule) and deformity of superior auricle with unclassified variety of lateral ear pit. This article highlights that there are further cases of ear deformities that are noticed in the general population who come for cosmetic correction, and hence, there is a need for further modifying the classification of ear deformities.

  17. Management of Congenital Chest Wall Deformities

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Felix C.; Elliott, Steven T.; Sandler, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital chest wall deformities are considered to be anomalies in chest wall growth. These can be categorized as either rib cage overgrowth or deformities related to inadequate growth (aplasia or dysplasia). Rib cage overgrowth leads to depression of the sternum (pectus excavatum) or protuberance of the sternum (pectus carinatum) and accounts for greater than 90% of congenital chest wall deformities. The remaining deformities are a result of inadequate growth. Evolution in the management of congenital chest wall deformities has made significant progress over the past 25 years. This article will review chest wall deformities and the current management strategies of these interesting anomalies. PMID:22294949

  18. Stem Deformity in Black Cherry

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Rexrode

    1978-01-01

    A 2-year study of stem deformity in black cherry on the Allegheny and Monongahela National Forests revealed that insects, disease, frost, and browsing by deer were the major sources of injury to the terminal shoots of seedlings and saplings. Twenty-seven species of insects from 19 families and 5 orders were associated with young black cherry trees. Of these species,...

  19. Noncommutative gerbes and deformation quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschieri, Paolo; Baković, Igor; Jurčo, Branislav; Schupp, Peter

    2010-11-01

    We define noncommutative gerbes using the language of star products. Quantized twisted Poisson structures are discussed as an explicit realization in the sense of deformation quantization. Our motivation is the noncommutative description of D-branes in the presence of topologically non-trivial background fields.

  20. Deformation interplay at Hawaii Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzaei, M.; Walter, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanoes are known to be closely related to the tectonic environment, including vent locations and eruptions resulting from faults and earthquakes. Similarly, adjacent volcanoes interact with each other in time and space, as suggested for the Hawaiian volcanoes Kilauea and Mauna Loa. New satellite radar data imply even more complex deformation interplay in Hawaii than previously thought, involving magma chamber pressure changes, dike intrusions, slow earthquakes and ground subsidence. The affected regions are the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcano summits, their active rift zones, the island’s unstable southeast flank and even the capital city of Hilo. Based on the data acquired by the European satellite ENVISAT, we present in this work a five-year spatio-temporal analysis of the deformation signals recorded between 2003 and 2008. The data suggests that most of the deformation sources are acting in chorus. The magma intrusion at the Mauna Loa chamber and the intrusion into the Kilauea rift dike are correlated in time while also interacting with gravity-driven flank movement events. Some of the events occur silently underneath the Kilauea south flank, such as slow earthquakes that may largely affect all of the active magmatic systems and reverse their sign of correlation. This study of the interplay between multiple deformations and inherently coupled systems provides a better understanding of Hawaiian volcano activity and may lead to new methods for assessing the hazards that arise during volcano-tectonic activities elsewhere.

  1. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinghang

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, suchmore » as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth

  2. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms

    DOE PAGES

    Kaercher, Pamela M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, Eloisa; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; ...

    2014-11-07

    Although the crystal structure of the high pressure SiO 2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, little is known about the development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation in stishovite. Insight into CPO and associated deformation mechanics of stishovite would provide important information for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. To study CPO development, we converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. We collected diffraction patterns in radial geometry to examine in situ development of crystallographic preferred orientationmore » and find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction. Viscoplastic self-consistent modeling suggests the most likely slip systems at high pressure and ambient temperature are pyramidal and basal slip.« less

  3. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deformation of Reservoir Sandstones by Elastic versus Inelastic Deformation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pijnenburg, R.; Verberne, B. A.; Hangx, S.; Spiers, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrocarbon or groundwater production from sandstone reservoirs can result in surface subsidence and induced seismicity. Subsidence results from combined elastic and inelastic compaction of the reservoir due to a change in the effective stress state upon fluid extraction. The magnitude of elastic compaction can be accurately described using poroelasticity theory. However inelastic or time-dependent compaction is poorly constrained. Specifically, the underlying microphysical processes controlling sandstone compaction remain poorly understood. We use sandstones recovered by the field operator (NAM) from the Slochteren gas reservoir (Groningen, NE Netherlands) to study the importance of elastic versus inelastic deformation processes upon simulated pore pressure depletion. We conducted conventional triaxial tests under true in-situ conditions of pressure and temperature. To investigate the effect of applied differential stress (σ1 - σ3 = 0 - 50 MPa) and initial sample porosity (φi = 12 - 24%) on instantaneous and time-dependent inelastic deformation, we imposed multiple stages of axial loading and relaxation. The results show that inelastic strain develops at all stages of loading, and that its magnitude increases with increasing value of differential stress and initial porosity. The stress sensitivity of the axial creep strain rate and microstructural evidence suggest that inelastic compaction is controlled by a combination of intergranular slip and intragranular cracking. Intragranular cracking is shown to be more pervasive with increasing values of initial porosity. The results are consistent with a conceptual microphysical model, involving deformation by poro-elasticity combined with intergranular sliding and grain contact failure. This model aims to predict sandstone deformation behavior for a wide range of stress conditions.

  5. Application of Quaternions for Mesh Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2002-01-01

    A new three-dimensional mesh deformation algorithm, based on quaternion algebra, is introduced. A brief overview of quaternion algebra is provided, along with some preliminary results for two-dimensional structured and unstructured viscous mesh deformation.

  6. Real-time subject-specific monitoring of internal deformations and stresses in the soft tissues of the foot: a new approach in gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Yarnitzky, G; Yizhar, Z; Gefen, A

    2006-01-01

    No technology is presently available to provide real-time information on internal deformations and stresses in plantar soft tissues of individuals during evaluation of the gait pattern. Because internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad are critical factors in foot injuries such as diabetic foot ulceration, this severely limits evaluation of patients. To allow such real-time subject-specific analysis, we developed a hierarchal modeling system which integrates a two-dimensional gross structural model of the foot (high-order model) with local finite element (FE) models of the plantar tissue padding the calcaneus and medial metatarsal heads (low-order models). The high-order whole-foot model provides real-time analytical evaluations of the time-dependent plantar fascia tensile forces during the stance phase. These force evaluations are transferred, together with foot-shoe local reaction forces, also measured in real time (under the calcaneus, medial metatarsals and hallux), to the low-order FE models of the plantar pad, where they serve as boundary conditions for analyses of local deformations and stresses in the plantar pad. After careful verification of our custom-made FE solver and of our foot model system with respect to previous literature and against experimental results from a synthetic foot phantom, we conducted human studies in which plantar tissue loading was evaluated in real time during treadmill gait in healthy individuals (N = 4). We concluded that internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad during gait cannot be predicted from merely measuring the foot-shoe force reactions. Internal loading of the plantar pad is constituted by a complex interaction between the anatomical structure and mechanical behavior of the foot skeleton and soft tissues, the body characteristics, the gait pattern and footwear. Real-time FE monitoring of internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad is therefore required to identify elevated deformation

  7. Scarf versus chevron osteotomy for the correction of 1-2 intermetatarsal angle in hallux valgus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Simon E; Landorf, Karl B; Butterworth, Paul A; Menz, Hylton B

    2012-01-01

    The chevron and scarf osteotomies are commonly used for the surgical management of hallux valgus (HV). However, there is debate as to whether one osteotomy provides more 1-2 intermetatarsal (1-2 IMA) correction than the other. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of 3 types of first metatarsal osteotomy for reducing the 1-2 IMA in HV correction: the chevron osteotomy, the long plantar arm (modified) chevron osteotomy, and the scarf osteotomy. A systematic search for eligible studies was performed of the following databases: Medline, Embase (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO Host), and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials. Only English-language studies previous to May 2010 were included in the review. Additional hand and electronic content searches of relevant foot and orthopaedic journals were performed. Criteria for inclusion in this analysis included systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, and case-control studies, as well as case-series studies involving the chevron, scarf, or long plantar arm chevron osteotomy of >20 participants with a minimum of 80% follow-up. Quality of evidence of the included studies was assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. All pooled analyses were based on a fixed effects model. There was a total of 1351 participants who underwent either a chevron (n = 1028), scarf (n = 300), or long plantar arm chevron osteotomy (n = 23). Only one study for the long plantar arm chevron group fitted the eligibility criteria for this review; however, it was not amenable to meta-analysis. The chevron osteotomy was associated with a mean reduction of 1-2 IMA from preoperative to postoperative of 5.33° (95% confidence interval, 5.12 to 5.54, p < .001), and the scarf osteotomy was associated with a mean reduction of 6.21° (95% confidence

  8. Phase space deformations in phantom cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. L.; Sabido, M.; Yee-Romero, C.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the physical consequences of general phase space deformations on the minisuperspace of phantom cosmology. Based on the principle of physically equivalent descriptions in the deformed theory, we investigate for what values of the deformation parameters the arising descriptions are physically equivalent. We also construct and solve the quantum model and derive the semiclassical dynamics.

  9. Riccati Parametric Deformations of the Cornu Spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Flores-Garduño, Elizabeth

    2018-06-01

    In this article, a parametric deformation of the Cornu spiral is introduced. The parameter is an integration constant which appears in the general solution of the Riccati equation and is related to the Fresnel integrals. The Argand plots of the deformed spirals are presented and a supersymmetric (Darboux) structure of the deformation is revealed through the factorization approach.

  10. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.

    2016-01-15

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF{sup 0} Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes.more » The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, {sup 180}Pb and {sup 184}Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF{sup 0} functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF{sup 0} functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where

  11. Dynamic Deformation of Theatrical Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Jamiahus; Martell, Eric; Martell, Verda

    2013-03-01

    In theatre, flats are used as walls and background scenery. During construction, flats are often built on the ground and then ``walked up,'' where a group of stagehands manually lift one end while another anchors the other end in place. When flats are very large, they can deform during this process. Stiffeners are used to decrease the amount of deformation in the flat. The purpose of this research is to determine the strain along the flat during the process of raising it up with and without stiffeners. We will also explore the effect of the person anchoring the pivot edge of the flat and discuss the safety concerns this presents. This research is part of the Physics of Theatre Project, an interdisciplinary collaboration designed to improve safety, reduce costs, and increase knowledge of physics principles within the technical theatre community.

  12. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninnemann, Holger

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Kostant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincaré upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function.

  13. Performance through Deformation and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.

  14. Deformation processes in forging ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. M.; Rhodes, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The deformation processes involved in the forging of refractory ceramic oxides were investigated. A combination of mechanical testing and forging are utilized to investigate both the flow and fracture processes involved. An additional hemisphere forging was done which failed prematurely. Analysis and comparison with available fracture data for AL2O3 indicated possible causes of the failure. Examination of previous forgings indicated an increase in grain boundary cavitation with increasing strain.

  15. Deformational injection rate measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčič, Milan

    2002-09-01

    After completing the diesel engine endurance testing, we detected various traces of thermal load on the walls of combustion chambers located in the engine pistons. The engines were fitted with ω combustion chambers. The thermal load of different intensity levels occurred where the spray of fuel, fuel vapor, and air interacted with the combustion chamber wall. The uneven thermal load distribution of the combustion chamber wall results from varying injection rates in each injection nozzle hole. The most widely applied controlling methods so far for injection rate measurement, such as the Zeuch and Bosch concepts, allow measurement of only the total injection rate in multihole nozzles, without providing any indication whatsoever of the injection rate differences in individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the article allows the injection rate to be measured in each hole of the multihole nozzle. The results of the measurements using this method showed that the differences occurred in injection rates of individual injection nozzle holes. These differences may be the cause of various thermal loads on the combustion chamber walls. The criterion for injection rate is the deformation of the membrane due to an increase in the fuel quantity in the measuring space and due to the pressure waves resulting from the fuel being injected into the measuring space. The membrane deformation is measured using strain gauges, glued to the membrane and forming the Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the temperature compensation of the Wheatstone's bridge and the membrane, heated up during the measurements.

  16. Accidental degeneracies in nonlinear quantum deformed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, A. N. F.; Balantekin, A. B.

    2011-09-01

    We construct a multi-parameter nonlinear deformed algebra for quantum confined systems that includes many other deformed models as particular cases. We demonstrate that such systems exhibit the property of accidental pairwise energy level degeneracies. We also study, as a special case of our multi-parameter deformation formalism, the extension of the Tamm-Dancoff cutoff deformed oscillator and the occurrence of accidental pairwise degeneracy in the energy levels of the deformed system. As an application, we discuss the case of a trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential, which is successfully used in models for quantum confined systems, ranging from electrons in quantum dots to quarks in hadrons.

  17. Instrumentation and fusion for congenital spine deformities.

    PubMed

    Hedequist, Daniel J

    2009-08-01

    A retrospective clinical review. To review the use of modern instrumentation of the spine for congenital spinal deformities. Spinal instrumentation has evolved since the advent of the Harrington rod. There is a paucity of literature, which discusses the use of modern spinal instrumentation in congenital spine deformity cases. This review focuses on modern instrumentation techniques for congenital scoliosis and kyphosis. A systematic review was performed of the literature to discuss spinal implant use for congenital deformities. Spinal instrumentation may be safely and effectively used in cases of congenital spinal deformity. Spinal surgeons taking care of children with congenital spine deformities need to be trained in all aspects of modern spinal instrumentation.

  18. Micromechanisms of deformation in shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnelye, A.; Gharbi, H.; Hallais, S.; Dimanov, A.; Bornert, M.; Picard, D.; Mezni, M.; Conil, N.

    2017-12-01

    One of the envisaged solutions for nuclear wastes disposal is underground repository in shales. For this purpose, the Callovo Oxfordian (Cox) argillaceous formation is extensively studied. The hydro-mechanical behavior of the argillaceous rock is complex, like the multiphase and multi-scale structured material itself. The argilaceous matrix is composed of interstratified illite-smectite particles, it contains detritic quartz and calcite, accessory pyrite, and the rock porosity ranges from micrometre to nanometre scales. Besides the bedding anisotropy, structural variabilities exist at all scales, from the decametric-metric scales of the geological formation to the respectively millimetric and micrometric scales of the aggregates of particles and clay particles Our study aims at understanding the complex mechanisms which are activated at the micro-scale and are involved in the macroscopic inelastic deformation of such a complex material. Two sets of experiments were performed, at two scales on three bedding orientations (90°, 45° and 0°). The first set was dedicated to uniaxial deformation followed with an optical set-up with a pixel resolution of 0.55µm. These experiments allowed us to see the fracture propagation with different patterns depending on the bedding orientation. For the second set of experiments, an experimental protocol was developed in order to perform uniaxial deformation experiment at controlled displacement rate, inside an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), under controlled relative humidity, in order to preserve as much as possible the natural state of saturation of shales. We aimed at characterizing the mechanical anisotropy and the mechanisms involved in the deformation, with an image resolution below the micormeter. The observed sample surfaces were polished by broad ion beam in order to reveal the fine microstructures of the argillaceous matrix. In both cases, digital images were acquired at different loading stages during

  19. Treatment of shepherd’s crook deformity in patients with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia using a new type of custom made retrograde intramedullary nail: a technical note

    PubMed Central

    Hefti, F.; Donnan, L.; Krieg, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Aims The severe form of coxa vara, the ‘shepherd’s crook deformity’, is always a consequence of a locally extensive form of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (or McCune-Albright syndrome). Treatment of this deformity is a challenge. The soft bone does not tolerate any implant that depends on the stability of the cortical bone (like plates or external fixators). Intramedullary nails are the most appropriate implants for stabilisation, but if they are inserted from the greater trochanter, they cannot correct the varus deformity enough. Patients and Methods We have developed a special intramedullary nail that can be inserted from the osteotomy site and can be driven retrograde into the femoral neck in an appropriate valgus position. We have operated 15 legs in 13 patients. The average age at surgery was 14 years and 5 months (6 to 28.9). In all, 11 femora had been operated before (unsuccessfully) with various implants. Results The average follow-up was 54.2 months (7 to 132). The average correction of the neck/(distal) shaft angle was 57.5° (10° to 80°) ( = 72.8%). While pre-operatively none of the patients was able to walk without aid, at follow-up only one patient was unable to walk, three used the aid of crutches because of tibial lesions and one patient had an increased external rotation of the leg. At follow-up, most patients were free of pain. One implant broke and had to be replaced. Conclusion This new operative method offers the possibility of efficient correction and stabilisation of this severe and difficult deformation. PMID:28439311

  20. Occurrence of oral deformities in larval anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.L.; Altig, R.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    We quantified deformities in the marginal papillae, tooth rows, and jaw sheaths of tadpoles from 13 population samples representing three families and 11 sites in the southeastern United States. Oral deformities were observed in all samples and in 13.5-98% of the specimens per sample. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytrid) infections were detected in three samples. There was high variability among samples in the pattern and number of discovered deformities. Pairwise associations between oral structures containing deformities were nonrandom for several populations, especially those with B. dendrobatidis infections or high total numbers of deformities. Comparisons of deformities among samples using multivariate analyses revealed that tadpole samples grouped together by family. Analyses of ordination indicated that three variables, the number of deformities, the number of significant associations among deformity types within populations, and whether populations were infected with B. dendrobatidis, were significantly correlated with the pattern of deformities. Our data indicate that the incidence of oral deformities can be high in natural populations and that phylogeny and B. dendrobatidis infection exert a strong influence on the occurrence and type of oral deformities in tadpoles. ?? by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herperologists.

  1. Does excessive flatfoot deformity affect function? A comparison between symptomatic and asymptomatic flatfeet using the Oxford Foot Model.

    PubMed

    Hösl, Matthias; Böhm, Harald; Multerer, Christel; Döderlein, Leonhard

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of asymptomatic flexible flatfeet is a subject of great controversy. The purpose of this study was to examine foot function during walking in symptomatic (SFF) and asymptomatic (ASFF) flexible flatfeet. Thirty-five paediatric and juvenile patients with idiopathic flexible flatfeet were recruited from an orthopaedic outpatient department (14 SFF and 21 ASFF). Eleven age-matched participants with typically developing feet served as controls (TDF). To study foot function, 3D multi-segment foot kinematics and ankle joint kinetics were captured during barefoot gait analysis. Overall, alterations in foot kinematics in flatfeet were pronounced but differences between SFF and ASFF were not observed. Largest discriminatory effects between flatfeet and TDF were noticed in reduced hindfoot dorsiflexion as well as in increased forefoot supination and abduction. Upon clinical examination, restrictions in passive dorsiflexion in ASFF and SFF were significant. During gait, the hindfoot in flatfeet (both ASFF and SFF) was more everted, but less flexible. In sagittal plane, limited hindfoot dorsiflexion of ASFF and SFF was compensated for by increased forefoot mobility and a hypermobile hallux. Concerning ankle kinetics, SFF lacked positive joint energy for propulsion while ASFF needed to absorb more negative ankle joint energy during loading response. This may risk fatigue and overuse syndrome of anterior shank muscles in ASFF. Hence, despite a lack of symptoms flatfoot deformity in ASFF affected function. Yet, contrary to what was expected, SFF did not show greater deviations in 3D foot kinematics than ASFF. Symptoms may rather depend on tissue wear and subjective pain thresholds. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effect of greater trochanteric epiphysiodesis after femoral varus osteotomy for lateral pillar classification B and B/C border Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Keun-Sang; Wang, Sung Il; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Moon, Young Jae; Kim, Jung Ryul

    2017-08-01

    This is a retrospective observational study. Greater trochanteric epiphysiodesis (GTE) has been recommended to prevent Trendelenburg gait and limitation of the hip joint motion due to trochanteric overgrowth after femoral varus osteotomy (FVO) in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD). However, capital femoral physeal arrest frequently occurs in patients with severe disease (lateral pillar C), so GTE might not be as effective in these patients. The aim of this study was to compare trochanteric growth inhibition due to GTE after FVO between 2 age groups (<8 or >8 years) in patients with lateral pillar B and B/C border LCPD and evaluate the effectiveness of GTE compared with the normal, unaffected hip.This study included 19 children with lateral pillar B and B/C border LCPD in 1 leg who underwent FVO followed by GTE. Of the 19 children, 9 underwent GTE before the age of 8 years and 10 underwent GTE after 8 years of age. On radiographs taken at the immediate postoperative period and at skeletal maturity, the articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD), center-trochanteric distance (CTD), and neck-shaft angle (NSA) were compared between the 2 age groups. The amount of correction was compared between groups. The contralateral, unaffected hip was used as a control for trochanteric growth. The patients were clinically evaluated with Iowa hip score at the final follow-up.There was no significant difference between the 2 age groups in terms of time to GTE, length of follow-up, or lateral pillar classification. In the affected hip, the amount of correction of the ATD, CTD, and NSA was significantly greater in patients < 8 years than in patients > 8 years. However, in the unaffected hip, the change in the ATD, CTD, and NSA did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.We suggest that FVO followed by GTE for lateral pillar B and B/C border LCPD in patients under the age of 8 years can affect growth of the greater trochanter. However, effective growth inhibition due to GTE was not

  3. Tectonic deformation in southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

  4. Deformational characteristics of thermoplastic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indukuri, Kishore K.

    This thesis focuses primarily on the structure-property relationships of poly (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) triblock copolymer TPEs. First evidence for strain-induced crystallization occurring in certain SEBS block copolymers has been established using unique techniques like deformation calorimetry, combined in-situ small angle X-ray and wide angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD/WAXD). Also the ramifications of such strain-induced crystallization on the mechanical properties like cyclic hysteresis, stress relaxation/creep retention of these SEBS systems have been studied. In addition, the structural changes in the morphology of these systems on deformation have been investigated using combined SAXD/WAXD setup. Small angle X-ray diffraction probed the changes at the nano-scale of polystyrene (PS) cylinders, while wide angle X-ray diffraction probed the changes at molecular length scales of the amorphous/crystalline domains of the elastomeric mid-block in these systems. New structural features at both these length scales have been observed and incorporated into the overall deformation mechanisms of the material. Continuous processing techniques like extrusion have been used to obtain ultra long-range order and orientation in these SEBS systems. Thus well ordered crystal like hexagonal packing of cylinders, where in each element in this hexagonal lattice can be individually addressed without any grain boundaries can be realized using these robust techniques. The effect of long-range order/orientation on the mechanical properties has been studied. In addition, these well ordered systems serve as model systems for evaluating deformation mechanisms of these SEBS systems, where the relative contributions of each of the phases can be estimated. EPDM/i-PP thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) have micron size scale phase separated morphologies of EPDM rubber dispersed in a semicrystalline i-PP matrix as a result of the dynamic vulcanization process. Confocal microscopy studies

  5. Deformable Mirrors Correct Optical Distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    By combining the high sensitivity of space telescopes with revolutionary imaging technologies consisting primarily of adaptive optics, the Terrestrial Planet Finder is slated to have imaging power 100 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope. To this end, Boston Micromachines Corporation, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for space-based adaptive optical technology. The work resulted in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) called the Kilo-DM. The company now offers a full line of MEMS DMs, which are being used in observatories across the world, in laser communication, and microscopy.

  6. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  7. Thermocapillary motion of deformable drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Shi, Qingping; Borhan, Ali

    1994-01-01

    The thermocapillary motion of initially spherical drops/bubbles driven by a constant temperature gradient in an unbounded liquid medium is simulated numerically. Effects of convection of momentum and energy, as well as shape deformations, are addressed. The method used is based on interface tracking on a base cartesian grid, and uses a smeared color or indicator function for the determination of the surface topology. Quad-tree adaptive refinement of the cartesian grid is implemented to enhance the fidelity of the surface tracking. It is shown that convection of energy results in a slowing of the drop, as the isotherms get wrapped around the front of the drop. Shape deformation resulting from inertial effects affect the migration velocity. The physical results obtained are in agreement with the existing literature. Furthermore, remarks are made on the sensitivity of the calculated solutions to the smearing of the fluid properties. Analysis and simulations show that the migration velocity depends very strongly on the smearing of the interfacial force whereas it is rather insensitive to the smearing of other properties, hence the adaptive grid.

  8. Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.

  9. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has beenmore » incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.« less

  10. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  11. Deformable mirrors development program at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroebele, Stefan; Vernet, Elise; Brinkmann, Martin; Jakob, Gerd; Lilley, Paul; Casali, Mark; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Kasper, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Over the last decade, adaptive optics has become essential in different fields of research including medicine and industrial applications. With this new need, the market of deformable mirrors has expanded a lot allowing new technologies and actuation principles to be developed. Several E-ELT instruments have identified the need for post focal deformable mirrors but with the increasing size of the telescopes the requirements on the deformable mirrors become more demanding. A simple scaling up of existing technologies from few hundred actuators to thousands of actuators will not be sufficient to satisfy the future needs of ESO. To bridge the gap between available deformable mirrors and the future needs for the E-ELT, ESO started a development program for deformable mirror technologies. The requirements and the path to get the deformable mirrors for post focal adaptive optics systems for the E-ELT is presented.

  12. Self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators

    SciTech Connect

    Much, Albert

    2015-09-15

    We consider deformations of unbounded operators by using the novel construction tool of warped convolutions. By using the Kato-Rellich theorem, we show that unbounded self-adjoint deformed operators are self-adjoint if they satisfy a certain condition. This condition proves itself to be necessary for the oscillatory integral to be well-defined. Moreover, different proofs are given for self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators in the context of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

  13. Deformation effect on spectral statistics of nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, H.; Jalili Majarshin, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we tried to get significant relations between the spectral statistics of atomic nuclei and their different degrees of deformations. To this aim, the empirical energy levels of 109 even-even nuclei in the 22 ≤ A ≤ 196 mass region are classified as their experimental and calculated quadrupole, octupole, hexadecapole and hexacontatetrapole deformations values and analyzed by random matrix theory. Our results show an obvious relation between the regularity of nuclei and strong quadrupole, hexadecapole and hexacontatetrapole deformations and but for nuclei that their octupole deformations are nonzero, we have observed a GOE-like statistics.

  14. Foldover-free shape deformation for biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongchuan; Zhang, Jian J; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-04-01

    Shape deformation as a fundamental geometric operation underpins a wide range of applications, from geometric modelling, medical imaging to biomechanics. In medical imaging, for example, to quantify the difference between two corresponding images, 2D or 3D, one needs to find the deformation between both images. However, such deformations, particularly deforming complex volume datasets, are prone to the problem of foldover, i.e. during deformation, the required property of one-to-one mapping no longer holds for some points. Despite numerous research efforts, the construction of a mathematically robust foldover-free solution subject to positional constraints remains open. In this paper, we address this challenge by developing a radial basis function-based deformation method. In particular we formulate an effective iterative mechanism which ensures the foldover-free property is satisfied all the time. The experimental results suggest that the resulting deformations meet the internal positional constraints. In addition to radial basis functions, this iterative mechanism can also be incorporated into other deformation approaches, e.g. B-spline based FFDs, to develop different deformable approaches for various applications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Deformation-Aware Log-Linear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, Tobias; Deselaers, Thomas; Ney, Hermann

    In this paper, we present a novel deformation-aware discriminative model for handwritten digit recognition. Unlike previous approaches our model directly considers image deformations and allows discriminative training of all parameters, including those accounting for non-linear transformations of the image. This is achieved by extending a log-linear framework to incorporate a latent deformation variable. The resulting model has an order of magnitude less parameters than competing approaches to handling image deformations. We tune and evaluate our approach on the USPS task and show its generalization capabilities by applying the tuned model to the MNIST task. We gain interesting insights and achieve highly competitive results on both tasks.

  16. Deformation twinning: Influence of strain rate

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III

    Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of deformation is decreased or the rate of deformation is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow deformation twins. Under high-strain rate or shock-loading/impact conditions deformation twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault energy FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily deform via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shockmore » wave deformation the competition between slip and deformation twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of deformation twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of strain rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-strain-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of deformation twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.« less

  17. Adhesive interaction of elastically deformable spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'yachenko, E. N.; Dueck, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Two spherical particles that attract each other by van der Waals volume forces and can undergo deformation as a result of the attraction are considered. Small deformations of such particles can be described by the solution of the Hertz problem. The deformation of particles, in turn, alters the force of attraction between them. It has been established that the relationship between the adhesion and elasticity of the indicated particles is determined by the degree to which these particles deform and that the adhesion force acting between the particles depends on their elasticity, size, and the Hamaker constants.

  18. Advantages of formulating an evolution equation directly for elastic distortional deformation in finite deformation plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, M. B.; Cardiff, P.

    2017-11-01

    Simo (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 66:199-219, 1988) proposed an evolution equation for elastic deformation together with a constitutive equation for inelastic deformation rate in plasticity. The numerical algorithm (Simo in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 68:1-31, 1988) for determining elastic distortional deformation was simple. However, the proposed inelastic deformation rate caused plastic compaction. The corrected formulation (Simo in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 99:61-112, 1992) preserves isochoric plasticity but the numerical integration algorithm is complicated and needs special methods for calculation of the exponential map of a tensor. Alternatively, an evolution equation for elastic distortional deformation can be proposed directly with a simplified constitutive equation for inelastic distortional deformation rate. This has the advantage that the physics of inelastic distortional deformation is separated from that of dilatation. The example of finite deformation J2 plasticity with linear isotropic hardening is used to demonstrate the simplicity of the numerical algorithm.

  19. Deformation measurement for a rotating deformable lap based on inverse fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Min; Zhang, Qican

    2015-03-01

    The active deformable lap (also namely stressed lap) is an efficient polishing tool in optical manufacturing. To measure the dynamic deformation caused by outside force on a deformable lap is important and helpful to the opticians to ensure the performance of a deformable lap as expected. In this paper, a manual deformable lap was designed to simulate the dynamic deformation of an active stressed lap, and a measurement system was developed based on inverse projected fringe technique to restore the 3D shape. A redesigned inverse fringe has been projected onto the surface of the measured lap, and the deformations of the tested lap become much obvious and can be easily and quickly evaluated by Fourier fringe analysis. Compared with the conventional projection, this technique is more obvious, and it should be a promising one in the deformation measurement of the active stressed lap in optical manufacturing.

  20. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  1. Deformed exponentials and portfolio selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Ana Flávia P.; Guerreiro, Igor M.; Cavalcante, Charles Casimiro

    In this paper, we present a method for portfolio selection based on the consideration on deformed exponentials in order to generalize the methods based on the gaussianity of the returns in portfolio, such as the Markowitz model. The proposed method generalizes the idea of optimizing mean-variance and mean-divergence models and allows a more accurate behavior for situations where heavy-tails distributions are necessary to describe the returns in a given time instant, such as those observed in economic crises. Numerical results show the proposed method outperforms the Markowitz portfolio for the cumulated returns with a good convergence rate of the weights for the assets which are searched by means of a natural gradient algorithm.

  2. Deformed ellipsoidal diffraction grating blank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decew, Alan E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Deformed Ellipsoidal Grating Blank (DEGB) is the primary component in an ultraviolet spectrometer. Since one of the major concerns for these instruments is throughput, significant efforts are made to reduce the number of components and subsequently reflections. Each reflection results in losses through absorption and scattering. It is these two sources of photon loss that dictated the requirements for the DEGB. The first goal is to shape the DEGB in such a way that the energy at the entrance slit is focused as well as possible on the exit slit. The second goal is to produce a surface smooth enough to minimize the photon loss due to scattering. The program was accomplished in three phases. The first phase was the fabrication planning. The second phase was the actual fabrication and initial testing. The last phase was the final testing of the completed DEGB.

  3. Deformation quantization of fermi fields

    SciTech Connect

    Galaviz, I.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, P.O. Box 14-740, 07000 Mexico, D.F.

    2008-04-15

    Deformation quantization for any Grassmann scalar free field is described via the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal formalism. The Stratonovich-Weyl quantizer, the Moyal *-product and the Wigner functional are obtained by extending the formalism proposed recently in [I. Galaviz, H. Garcia-Compean, M. Przanowski, F.J. Turrubiates, Weyl-Wigner-Moyal Formalism for Fermi Classical Systems, arXiv:hep-th/0612245] to the fermionic systems of infinite number of degrees of freedom. In particular, this formalism is applied to quantize the Dirac free field. It is observed that the use of suitable oscillator variables facilitates considerably the procedure. The Stratonovich-Weyl quantizer, the Moyal *-product, the Wigner functional, the normal ordering operator, and finally,more » the Dirac propagator have been found with the use of these variables.« less

  4. Deformation and seismicity of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2000-10-10

    14C-dated Holocene coastal uplift, conventional and satellite geodetic measurements, and coseismic and aseismic fault slip reveal the pattern of distributed deformation at Taiwan resulting from convergence between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia; as in other subduction orogenic settings, the locus of strain release and accumulation is strongly influenced by changes in fault geometry across strike. Uplift evidence from the islands of Lutao and Lanhsu is consistent with progressive oblique collision between the Luzon arc and the Chinese continental margin. In the Coastal Range, geodetic and seismic records show that shortening is taken up serially by discontinuous slip on imbricate faults. The geodetic data point to net extension across the Central Range, but deformed Holocene shorelines in the Hengchun Peninsula at its southern extremity suggest that the extension is a superficial effect partly caused by blind reverse faulting. The fastest shortening rates indicated by geodesy are recorded on the Longitudinal Valley fault and across the Chukou fault within the fold-and-thrust belt. In the former, the strain is dissipated mainly as aseismic reverse and strike-slip displacement. In contrast, the fold-and-thrust belt has witnessed five earthquakes with magnitudes of 6.5 or above in the 20th century, including the 1999.9.21 Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude approximately 7.6) on a branch of the Chukou fault. The neotectonic and geodetic data for Taiwan as a whole suggest that the fold-and-thrust belt will continue to host the majority of great earthquakes on the island.

  5. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  6. Jordanian deformation of SL(2) as a contraction of its Drinfeld-Jimbo deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamohammadi, A.; Khorrami, M.; Shariati, A.

    1995-04-01

    We show that $h$-deformation can be obtained, by a singular limit of a similarity transformation, from $q$-deformation; to be specefic, we obtain $\\GL_h(2)$, its differential structure, its inhomogenous extension, and $\\Uh{\\sl(2)}$ from their $q$-deformed counterparts.

  7. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  8. Deformed Palmprint Matching Based on Stable Regions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2015-12-01

    Palmprint recognition (PR) is an effective technology for personal recognition. A main problem, which deteriorates the performance of PR, is the deformations of palmprint images. This problem becomes more severe on contactless occasions, in which images are acquired without any guiding mechanisms, and hence critically limits the applications of PR. To solve the deformation problems, in this paper, a model for non-linearly deformed palmprint matching is derived by approximating non-linear deformed palmprint images with piecewise-linear deformed stable regions. Based on this model, a novel approach for deformed palmprint matching, named key point-based block growing (KPBG), is proposed. In KPBG, an iterative M-estimator sample consensus algorithm based on scale invariant feature transform features is devised to compute piecewise-linear transformations to approximate the non-linear deformations of palmprints, and then, the stable regions complying with the linear transformations are decided using a block growing algorithm. Palmprint feature extraction and matching are performed over these stable regions to compute matching scores for decision. Experiments on several public palmprint databases show that the proposed models and the KPBG approach can effectively solve the deformation problem in palmprint verification and outperform the state-of-the-art methods.

  9. Measuring Viscoelastic Deformation with an Optical Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, T. W.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using an optical mouse to track the viscoelastic deformation of low-density polyethylene films that have a fixed attached load is presented. It is seen that using an optical mouse and with rudimentary experiment paraphernalia and arrangement, it is possible to get good measurements of viscoelastic deformation.

  10. T -folds from Yang-Baxter deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Melgarejo, José J.; Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Sakatani, Yuho; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2017-12-01

    Yang-Baxter (YB) deformations of type IIB string theory have been well studied from the viewpoint of classical integrability. Most of the works, however, are focused upon the local structure of the deformed geometries and the global structure still remains unclear. In this work, we reveal a non-geometric aspect of YB-deformed backgrounds as T -fold by explicitly showing the associated O( D, D; ℤ) T -duality monodromy. In particular, the appearance of an extra vector field in the generalized supergravity equations (GSE) leads to the non-geometric Q-flux. In addition, we study a particular solution of GSE that is obtained by a non-Abelian T-duality but cannot be expressed as a homogeneous YB deformation, and show that it can also be regarded as a T -fold. This result indicates that solutions of GSE should be non-geometric quite in general beyond the YB deformation.

  11. Infinitesimal Deformations of a Formal Symplectic Groupoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabegov, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Given a formal symplectic groupoid G over a Poisson manifold ( M, π 0), we define a new object, an infinitesimal deformation of G, which can be thought of as a formal symplectic groupoid over the manifold M equipped with an infinitesimal deformation {π_0 + \\varepsilon π_1} of the Poisson bivector field π 0. To any pair of natural star products {(ast,tildeast)} having the same formal symplectic groupoid G we relate an infinitesimal deformation of G. We call it the deformation groupoid of the pair {(ast,tildeast)} . To each star product with separation of variables {ast} on a Kähler-Poisson manifold M we relate another star product with separation of variables {hatast} on M. We build an algorithm for calculating the principal symbols of the components of the logarithm of the formal Berezin transform of a star product with separation of variables {ast} . This algorithm is based upon the deformation groupoid of the pair {(ast,hatast)}.

  12. Deformation Measurements of Smart Aerodynamic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus

    2005-01-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F planform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flap, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  13. The properties of Q-deformed hyperbolic and trigonometric functions in quantum deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Deta, U. A., E-mail: utamaalan@yahoo.co.id, E-mail: utamadeta@unesa.ac.id; Suparmi

    2015-09-30

    Quantum deformation has been studied due to its relation with applications in nuclear physics, conformal field theory, and statistical-quantum theory. The q-deformation of hyperbolic function was introduced by Arai. The application of q-deformed functions has been widely used in quantum mechanics. The properties of this two kinds of system explained in this paper including their derivative. The graph of q-deformed functions presented using Matlab. The special case is given for modified Poschl-Teller plus q-deformed Scarf II trigonometry potentials.

  14. Results of total knee replacement with a cruciate-retaining model for severe valgus deformity--a study of 48 patients followed for an average of 9 years.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Esa; Remes, Ville; Paavolainen, Pekka; Harilainen, Arsi; Sandelin, Jerker; Tallroth, Kaj; Kettunen, Jyrki; Ylinen, Pekka

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to find out the results and the factors affecting survival after primary knee arthroplasty with a cruciate-retaining prosthesis in severe valgus deformity. Forty-eight patients (52 knees) participated in the current follow-up study. All patients were followed at least 5 years or to first revision. Mean follow-up time was 9 years (range, 1 to 17 years).The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed 79% (95% CI 68% to 91%) survival rate with revision for any reason and 81% (95% CI 70% to 93%) survival rate with revision for instability as an endpoint at 10 years. Preoperatively TFA was 23° (range, 15°-51°) in valgus and 7° (range, 21° valgus-4° varus) in valgus postoperatively. Of the 14 re-operated patients, eight were revised because of progressive postoperative medial collateral ligament instability. All re-operations were performed during the first 4 years of the follow-up. The mean TFA was 15.5° valgus postoperatively for those eight and the odds ratio for a revision was 2 (95% CI 1-3, p = 0.025) when compared to the rest of the study population. The residual valgus deformity increases the risk of re-operation and it should be avoided. If proper soft-tissue balance cannot be achieved or there is no functional medial collateral ligament present more constrained implants should be used. In selected cases where both bony correction and ligament balancing have properly been achieved the use of a cruciate-retaining type of prosthesis is justified. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical Failure Mode of Metal Nanowires: Global Deformation versus Local Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Duc Tam; Im, Youngtae; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Earmme, Youn Young; Kim, Sung Youb

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that the failure mode of metal nanowires under tensile loading is the result of the nucleation and propagation of dislocations. Such failure modes can be slip, partial slip or twinning and therefore they are regarded as local deformation. Here we provide numerical and theoretical evidences to show that global deformation is another predominant failure mode of nanowires under tensile loading. At the global deformation mode, nanowires fail with a large contraction along a lateral direction and a large expansion along the other lateral direction. In addition, there is a competition between global and local deformations. Nanowires loaded at low temperature exhibit global failure mode first and then local deformation follows later. We show that the global deformation originates from the intrinsic instability of the nanowires and that temperature is a main parameter that decides the global or local deformation as the failure mode of nanowires. PMID:26087445

  16. Deformed soft matter under constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Martin

    In the last few decades, an increasing number of physicists specialized in soft matter, including polymers, have turned their attention to biologically relevant materials. The properties of various molecules and fibres, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and filaments of all sorts, are studied to better understand their behaviours and functions. Self-assembled biological membranes, or lipid bilayers, are also the focus of much attention as many life processes depend on these. Small lipid bilayers vesicles dubbed liposomes are also frequently used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this thesis, work is presented on both the elastic properties of polymers and the response of lipid bilayer vesicles to extrusion in narrow-channels. These two areas of research may seem disconnected but they both concern deformed soft materials. The thesis contains four articles: the first presenting a fundamental study of the entropic elasticity of circular chains; the second, a simple universal description of the effect of sequence on the elasticity of linear polymers such as DNA; the third, a model of the symmetric thermophoretic stretch of a nano-confined polymer; the fourth, a model that predicts the final sizes of vesicles obtained by pressure extrusion. These articles are preceded by an extensive introduction that covers all of the essential concepts and theories necessary to understand the work that has been done.

  17. Crustal deformation: Earth vs Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    It is timely to consider the possible tectonic regimes on Venus both in terms of what is known about Venus and in terms of deformation mechanisms operative on the earth. Plate tectonic phenomena dominate tectonics on the earth. Horizontal displacements are associated with the creation of new crust at ridges and destruction of crust at trenches. The presence of plate tectonics on Venus is debated, but there is certainly no evidence for the trenches associated with subduction on the earth. An essential question is what kind of tectonics can be expected if there is no plate tectonics on Venus. Mars and the Moon are reference examples. Volcanic constructs appear to play a dominant role on Mars but their role on Venus is not clear. On single plate planets and satellites, tectonic structures are often associated with thermal stresses. Cooling of a planet leads to thermal contraction and surface compressive features. Delamination has been propsed for Venus by several authors. Delamination is associated with the subduction of the mantle lithosphere and possibly the lower crust but not the upper crust. The surface manifestations of delamination are unclear. There is some evidence that delamination is occurring beneath the Transverse Ranges in California. Delamination will certainly lead to lithospheric thinning and is likely to lead to uplift and crustal thinning.

  18. Ultrasound evaluation of foot deformities in infants.

    PubMed

    Miron, Marie-Claude; Grimard, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Foot deformity in infants is the most common congenital musculoskeletal condition. A precise diagnosis can sometimes be impossible to establish clinically. Radiologic imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal abnormalities. However conventional imaging techniques, such as plain radiographs of the foot, are of very little help in this age group because of the lack of ossification of the tarsal bones. US presents a significant advantage because it permits the visualization of cartilaginous structures. This leads to the detailed assessment of foot deformities in infants. Furthermore, US can also be used as a dynamic imaging modality. Different scanning views are beneficial to evaluate the complete anatomy of the foot; depending on the suspected clinical diagnosis, some planes are more informative to display the pathological features of a specific deformity. We describe the US findings of five of the most common foot deformities referred to our pediatric orthopedic clinic (clubfoot, simple metatarsus adductus, skewfoot, and oblique and vertical talus). For each deformity we propose a specific imaging protocol based on US to provide an accurate diagnosis. US is a complementary tool to the clinical examination for determining the diagnosis and the severity of the deformity and also for monitoring the efficacy of treatment. Radiologists investigating foot deformities in infants should consider using US for the detailed assessment of the foot in this age group.

  19. State-variable theories for nonelastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.Y.

    The various concepts of mechanical equation of state for nonelastic deformation in crystalline solids, originally proposed for plastic deformation, have been recently extended to describe additional phenomena such as anelastic and microplastic deformation including the Bauschinger effect. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to predict, based on current state variables in a unified way, the mechanical response of a material under an arbitrary loading. Thus, if the evolution laws of the state variables are known, one can describe the behavior of a material for a thermal-mechanical path of interest, for example, during constant load (or stress) creep withoutmore » relying on specialized theories. Some of the existing theories of mechanical equation of state for nonelastic deformation are reviewed. The establishment of useful forms of mechanical equation of state has to depend on extensive experimentation in the same way as that involved in the development, for example, the ideal gas law. Recent experimental efforts are also reviewed. It has been possible to develop state-variable deformation models based on experimental findings and apply them to creep, cyclic deformation, and other time-dependent deformation. Attempts are being made to correlate the material parameters of the state-variable models with the microstructure of a material. 24 figures.« less

  20. A Deformable Atlas of the Laboratory Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper presents a deformable mouse atlas of the laboratory mouse anatomy. This atlas is fully articulated and can be positioned into arbitrary body poses. The atlas can also adapt body weight by changing body length and fat amount. Procedures A training set of 103 micro-CT images was used to construct the atlas. A cage-based deformation method was applied to realize the articulated pose change. The weight-related body deformation was learned from the training set using a linear regression method. A conditional Gaussian model and thin-plate spline mapping were used to deform the internal organs following the changes of pose and weight. Results The atlas was deformed into different body poses and weights, and the deformation results were more realistic compared to the results achieved with other mouse atlases. The organ weights of this atlas matched well with the measurements of real mouse organ weights. This atlas can also be converted into voxelized images with labeled organs, pseudo CT images and tetrahedral mesh for phantom studies. Conclusions With the unique ability of articulated pose and weight changes, the deformable laboratory mouse atlas can become a valuable tool for preclinical image analysis. PMID:25049072

  1. Cooperative deformations of periodically patterned hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi Jian; Zhu, Chao Nan; Hong, Wei; Wu, Zi Liang; Zheng, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    Nature has shown elegant paradigms of smart deformation, which inspired biomimetic systems with controllable bending, folding, and twisting that are significant for the development of soft electronics and actuators. Complex deformations are usually realized by additively incorporating typical structures in selective domains with little interaction. We demonstrate the cooperative deformations of periodically patterned hydrogel sheets, in which neighboring domains mutually interact and cooperatively deform. Nonswelling disc gels are periodically positioned in a high-swelling gel. During the swelling process, the compartmentalized high-swelling gel alternately bends upward or downward to relieve the in-plane compression, but the overall integrated structure remains flat. The synergy between the elastic mismatch and the geometric periodicity selects the outcome pattern. Both experiment and modeling show that various types of cooperative deformation can be achieved by tuning the pattern geometry and gel properties. Different responsive polymers can also be patterned in one composite gel. Under stimulation, reversible transformations between different cooperative deformations are realized. The principle of cooperative deformation should be applicable to other materials, and the patterns can be miniaturized to the micrometer- or nanometer-scale level, providing the morphing materials with advanced functionalities for applications in various fields.

  2. Craniofacial neurofibromatosis: treatment of the midface deformity.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Dhruv; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Tsai, Yueh-Ju; Yu, Chung-Chih; Chen, Hung Chang; Chen, Yu-Ray; Chen, Philip Kuo-Ting

    2014-07-01

    Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis is a benign but devastating disease. While the most common location of facial involvement is the orbito-temporal region, patients often present with significant mid-face deformities. We reviewed our experience with Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis from June 1981 to June 2011 and included patients with midface soft tissue deformities defined as gross alteration of nasal or upper lip symmetry. Data reviewed included the medical records and photobank. Over 30 years, 52 patients presented to and underwent surgical management for Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis at the Chang Gung Craniofacial Center. 23 patients (43%) demonstrated gross mid-facial deformities at initial evaluation. 55% of patients with lip deformities and 28% of patients with nasal deformities demonstrated no direct tumour involvement. The respective deformity was solely due to secondary gravitational effects from neurofibromas of the cheek subunit. Primary tumour infiltration of the nasal and/or labial subunits was treated with excision followed by various methods of reconstruction including lower lateral cartilage repositioning, forehead flaps, free flaps, and/or oral commissure suspension. Soft tissue deformities of the midface are very common in patients with Craniofacial Neurofibromatosis and profoundly affect overall aesthetic outcomes. Distinguishing primary from secondary involvement of the midface assists in surgical decision making. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. From labyrinthine aplasia to otocyst deformity.

    PubMed

    Giesemann, Anja Maria; Goetz, Friedrich; Neuburger, Jürgen; Lenarz, Thomas; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2010-02-01

    Inner ear malformations (IEMs) are rare and it is unusual to encounter the rarest of them, namely labyrinthine aplasia (LA) and otocyst deformity. They do, however, provide useful pointers as to the early embryonic development of the ear. LA is characterised as a complete absence of inner ear structures. While some common findings do emerge, a clear definition of the otocyst deformity does not exist. It is often confused with the common cavity first described by Edward Cock. Our purpose was to radiologically characterise LA and otocyst deformity. Retrospective analysis of CT and MRI data from four patients with LA or otocyst deformity. Middle and inner ear findings were categorised by two neuroradiologists. The bony carotid canal was found to be absent in all patients. Posterior located cystic structures were found in association with LA and otocyst deformity. In the most severe cases, only soft tissue was present at the medial border of the middle ear cavity. The individuals with otocyst deformity also had hypoplasia of the petrous apex bone. These cases demonstrate gradual changes in the two most severe IEMs. Clarification of terms was necessary and, based on these findings, we propose defining otocyst deformity as a cystic structure in place of the inner ear, with the cochlea, IAC and carotid canal absent. This condition needs to be differentiated from the common cavity described by Edward Cook. A clear definition of inner ear malformations is essential if outcomes following cochlear implantation are to be compared.

  4. Non-affine deformations in polymer hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qi; Basu, Anindita; Janmey, Paul A.; Yodh, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Most theories of soft matter elasticity assume that the local strain in a sample after deformation is identical everywhere and equal to the macroscopic strain, or equivalently that the deformation is affine. We discuss the elasticity of hydrogels of crosslinked polymers with special attention to affine and non-affine theories of elasticity. Experimental procedures to measure non-affine deformations are also described. Entropic theories, which account for gel elasticity based on stretching out individual polymer chains, predict affine deformations. In contrast, simulations of network deformation that result in bending of the stiff constituent filaments generally predict non-affine behavior. Results from experiments show significant non-affine deformation in hydrogels even when they are formed by flexible polymers for which bending would appear to be negligible compared to stretching. However, this finding is not necessarily an experimental proof of the non-affine model for elasticity. We emphasize the insights gained from experiments using confocal rheoscope and show that, in addition to filament bending, sample micro-inhomogeneity can be a significant alternative source of non-affine deformation. PMID:23002395

  5. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measuredmore » using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.« less

  6. Local deformation for soft tissue simulation

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper presents a new methodology to localize the deformation range to improve the computational efficiency for soft tissue simulation. This methodology identifies the local deformation range from the stress distribution in soft tissues due to an external force. A stress estimation method is used based on elastic theory to estimate the stress in soft tissues according to a depth from the contact surface. The proposed methodology can be used with both mass-spring and finite element modeling approaches for soft tissue deformation. Experimental results show that the proposed methodology can improve the computational efficiency while maintaining the modeling realism. PMID:27286482

  7. Differential Calculus on h-Deformed Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlemont, Basile; Ogievetsky, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    We construct the rings of generalized differential operators on the h-deformed vector space of gl-type. In contrast to the q-deformed vector space, where the ring of differential operators is unique up to an isomorphism, the general ring of h-deformed differential operators {Diff}_{h},σ(n) is labeled by a rational function σ in n variables, satisfying an over-determined system of finite-difference equations. We obtain the general solution of the system and describe some properties of the rings {Diff}_{h},σ(n).

  8. Deformable Mirror Materials Issue Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, R E

    2008-05-27

    It was a pleasure to speak with you and Dr. Olivier Guyon about your project to develop a coronagraph and in particular about materials science considerations in the development of the deformable mirror (DM) for the coronagraph. The coronagraph application will demand more of a DM than previous applications with regard to precision, and since the characterization and modeling tools are currently under development, you asked me to comment on materials issues that might impact the DM design and testing. I have not conducted research on this question, and my own research on modeling MEMS has not included DM systems.more » I am only in a position to discuss some general considerations that may help in developing a research plan for the DM system. As I understand it, the relevant points about the DM system are as follows. The DM surface needs to be positioned to less than 1 {angstrom} RMS of the desired shape, and be stable to 0.3 {angstrom} RMS for an hour. In the ultimate application in space the stability requirements may be greater. For example, the DM shape can be set using a bright star and then allow the coronagraph to be turned to a dim star to collect data for several hours, counting on the mirror shape to be stable. The DM is made of a polysilicon membrane coated with one or more metal layers for the reflective surface and actuated by 32x32 or 64x64 electrostatic actuators on the back side. The uncertainty in the position of any one actuator should be at the few-picometer level or less averaged over the 300-{micro}m region of the actuator. Currently, experiments are conducted that can characterize the surface shape to the 1 nm level, and it is anticipated that the experiments will be able to characterize the shape at the sub-Angstrom level but not in the immediate future. Regarding stability, under relatively large deformations (10's of nm), the DM mirror surface shows no hysteresis at the measurable nm level. Let me begin by saying that I am not aware of

  9. Large poroelastic deformation of a soft material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMinn, Christopher W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2014-11-01

    Flow through a porous material will drive mechanical deformation when the fluid pressure becomes comparable to the stiffness of the solid skeleton. This has applications ranging from hydraulic fracture for recovery of shale gas, where fluid is injected at high pressure, to the mechanics of biological cells and tissues, where the solid skeleton is very soft. The traditional linear theory of poroelasticity captures this fluid-solid coupling by combining Darcy's law with linear elasticity. However, linear elasticity is only volume-conservative to first order in the strain, which can become problematic when damage, plasticity, or extreme softness lead to large deformations. Here, we compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of a large-deformation framework in the context of two model problems. We show that errors in volume conservation are compounded and amplified by coupling with the fluid flow, and can become important even when the deformation is small. We also illustrate these results with a laboratory experiment.

  10. 7 CFR 51.319 - Seriously deformed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.319 Seriously deformed. “Seriously deformed” means that the apple is so badly misshapen that its appearance is seriously...

  11. 7 CFR 51.319 - Seriously deformed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.319 Seriously deformed. “Seriously deformed” means that the apple is so badly misshapen that its appearance is seriously...

  12. Rings of h-deformed differential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogievetsky, O. V.; Herlemont, B.

    2017-08-01

    We describe the center of the ring Diff h ( n) of h- deformed differential operators of type A. We establish an isomorphism between certain localizations of Diff h ( n) and the Weyl algebra W n , extended by n indeterminates.

  13. 7 CFR 51.1357 - Seriously deformed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND... were well formed. Round or apple-shaped pears shall not be considered seriously deformed. ...

  14. Dielectric elastomer membranes undergoing inhomogeneous deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tianhu; Zhao, Xuanhe; Suo, Zhigang

    2009-10-01

    Dielectric elastomers are capable of large deformation subject to an electric voltage and are promising for use as actuators, sensors, and generators. Because of large deformation, nonlinear equations of states, and diverse modes of failure, modeling the process of electromechanical transduction has been challenging. This paper studies a membrane of a dielectric elastomer deformed into an out-of-plane axisymmetric shape, a configuration used in a family of commercial devices known as the universal muscle actuators. The kinematics of deformation and charging, together with thermodynamics, leads to equations that govern the state of equilibrium. Numerical results indicate that the field in the membrane can be very inhomogeneous, and that the membrane is susceptible to several modes of failure, including electrical breakdown, loss of tension, and rupture by stretch. Care is needed in the design to balance the requirements of averting various modes of failure while using the material efficiently.

  15. 7 CFR 51.1357 - Seriously deformed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... deformed means that the pear is so badly misshapen as to cause a loss during the usual commercial preparation for use of over 20 percent, by weight, of the pear in excess of that which would occur if the pear...

  16. A ferrofluidic deformable mirror for ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, J. B.; Thibault, S.; Borra, E. F.; Ritcey, A. M.; Carufel, N.; Asselin, D.; Jerominek, H.; Campbell, M. C. W.

    2005-09-01

    Optical aberrations reduce the imaging quality of the human eye. In addition to degrading vision, this limits our ability to illuminate small points of the retina for therapeutic, surgical or diagnostic purposes. When viewing the rear of the eye, aberrations cause structures in the fundus to appear blurred, limiting the resolution of ophthalmoscopes (diagnostic instruments used to image the eye). Adaptive optics, such as deformable mirrors may be used to compensate for aberrations, allowing the eye to work as a diffraction-limited optical element. Unfortunately, this type of correction has not been widely available for ophthalmic applications because of the expense and technical limitations of current deformable mirrors. We present preliminary design and characterisation of a deformable mirror suitable for ophthalmology. In this ferrofluidic mirror, wavefronts are reflected from a fluid whose surface shape is controlled by a magnetic field. Challenges in design are outlined, as are advantages over traditional deformable mirrors.

  17. Cardiac fluid dynamics meets deformation imaging.

    PubMed

    Dal Ferro, Matteo; Stolfo, Davide; De Paris, Valerio; Lesizza, Pierluigi; Korcova, Renata; Collia, Dario; Tonti, Giovanni; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Pedrizzetti, Gianni

    2018-02-20

    Cardiac function is about creating and sustaining blood in motion. This is achieved through a proper sequence of myocardial deformation whose final goal is that of creating flow. Deformation imaging provided valuable contributions to understanding cardiac mechanics; more recently, several studies evidenced the existence of an intimate relationship between cardiac function and intra-ventricular fluid dynamics. This paper summarizes the recent advances in cardiac flow evaluations, highlighting its relationship with heart wall mechanics assessed through the newest techniques of deformation imaging and finally providing an opinion of the most promising clinical perspectives of this emerging field. It will be shown how fluid dynamics can integrate volumetric and deformation assessments to provide a further level of knowledge of cardiac mechanics.

  18. Gravitational Redshift of Deformed Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Alexis; Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2015-04-01

    Non-rotating neutron stars are generally treated in theoretical studies as perfect spheres. Such a treatment, however, may not be correct if strong magnetic fields are present and/or the pressure of the matter in the cores of neutron stars is non-isotropic, leading to neutron stars which are deformed. In this work, we investigate the impact of deformation on the gravitational redshift of neutron stars in the framework of general relativity. Using a parameterized metric to model non-spherical mass distributions, we derive an expression for the gravitational redshift in terms of the mass, radius, and deformity of a neutron star. Numerical solutions for the redshifts of sequences of deformed neutron stars are presented and observational implications are pointed out. This research is funded by the NIH through the Maximizing Access to Research Careers (MARC), under Grant Number: 5T34GM008303-25 and through the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-1411708.

  19. Deformation Theory and Physics Model Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    The mathematical theory of deformations has proved to be a powerful tool in modeling physical reality. We start with a short historical and philosophical review of the context and concentrate this rapid presentation on a few interrelated directions where deformation theory is essential in bringing a new framework - which has then to be developed using adapted tools, some of which come from the deformation aspect. Minkowskian space-time can be deformed into Anti de Sitter, where massless particles become composite (also dynamically): this opens new perspectives in particle physics, at least at the electroweak level, including prediction of new mesons. Nonlinear group representations and covariant field equations, coming from interactions, can be viewed as some deformation of their linear (free) part: recognizing this fact can provide a good framework for treating problems in this area, in particular global solutions. Last but not least, (algebras associated with) classical mechanics (and field theory) on a Poisson phase space can be deformed to (algebras associated with) quantum mechanics (and quantum field theory). That is now a frontier domain in mathematics and theoretical physics called deformation quantization, with multiple ramifications, avatars and connections in both mathematics and physics. These include representation theory, quantum groups (when considering Hopf algebras instead of associative or Lie algebras), noncommutative geometry and manifolds, algebraic geometry, number theory, and of course what is regrouped under the name of M-theory. We shall here look at these from the unifying point of view of deformation theory and refer to a limited number of papers as a starting point for further study.

  20. On the ambiguity in relativistic tidal deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2018-04-01

    The LIGO collaboration recently reported the first gravitational-wave constraints on the tidal deformability of neutron stars. I discuss an inherent ambiguity in the notion of relativistic tidal deformability that, while too small to affect the present measurement, may become important in the future. I propose a new way to understand the ambiguity and discuss future prospects for reliably linking observed gravitational waveforms to compact object microphysics.

  1. On the Dequantization of Fedosov's Deformation Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabegov, Alexander V.

    2003-08-01

    To each natural deformation quantization on a Poisson manifold M we associate a Poisson morphism from the formal neighborhood of the zero section of the cotangent bundle to M to the formal neighborhood of the diagonal of the product M x M~, where M~ is a copy of M with the opposite Poisson structure. We call it dequantization of the natural deformation quantization. Then we "dequantize" Fedosov's quantization.

  2. Pocket formula for nuclear deformations of actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Sridhar, K. N.

    2018-06-01

    We have formulated a pocket formula for quadrupole (β2), octupole (β3), hexadecapole (β4) and hexacontatetrapole (β6) deformation of the nuclear ground state of all isotopes of actinide nuclei (89 < Z < 103). This formula is first of its kind and produces a nuclear deformation of all isotopes actinide nuclei 89 < Z < 103 with simple inputs of Z and A. Hence, this formula is useful in the fields of nuclear physics to study the structure and interaction of nuclei.

  3. Modeling of spray droplets deformation and breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, E. A.; Yang, H. Q.; Przekwas, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    A droplet deformation and breakup (DDB) model is proposed to study shear-type mechanism of spray droplets in pure extentional flows. A numerical solution of the DDB model equation is obtained using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta initial-value solver. The predictions of the DDB model as well as semianalytical and the Taylor analogy models are compared with the experimental data (Krzeczkowski, 1980) for shear breakup, which depict the dimensionless deformation of the drop vs dimensionless time.

  4. Thermal elastic deformations of the planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.

    1971-01-01

    The variation in solar heating due to the resonance rotation of Mercury produces periodic elastic deformations on the surface of the planet. The thermal stress and strain fields under Mercury's surface are calculated after certain simplifications. It is shown that deformations penetrate to a greater depth than the variation of solar heating, and that the thermal strain on the surface of the planet pulsates with an amplitude of 0.004 and a period of 176 days.

  5. Thermal elastic deformations of the planet Mercury.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1972-01-01

    The variation in solar heating due to the resonance rotation of Mercury produces periodic elastic deformations on the surface of the planet. The thermal stress and strain fields under Mercury's surface are calculated after certain simplifications. It is found that deformations penetrate to a greater depth than the variation of solar heating, and that the thermal strain on the surface of the planet pulsates with an amplitude of .004 and a period of 176 days.

  6. Optico-photographic measurements of airplane deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, Hans Georg

    1931-01-01

    The deformation of aircraft wings is measured by photographically recording a series of bright shots on a moving paper band sensitive to light. Alternating deformations, especially vibrations, can thus be measured in operation, unaffected by inertia. A handy recording camera, the optograph, was developed by the static division of the D.V.L. (German Experimental Institute for Aeronautics) for the employment of this method of measurement on airplanes in flight.

  7. Inelastic Deformation and Fracture of Glassy Solids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    systems . The results of these simulations are best discussed in the context of the deformation studies for which they have been developed. Therefore, we...11.4.3 below this, can be viewed either as a system with a distribution of relaxation times, obeying conventional Arrhernius kinetics or a process that...the case by Argon and Shi (1982) in the soap bubble rafts) which results in the build-up of a system pressure when the deformation is performed at

  8. Orthopaedic deformities associated with lumbosacral spinal lipomas.

    PubMed

    Gourineni, Prasad; Dias, Luciano; Blanco, Ronaldo; Muppavarapu, Satheesh

    2009-12-01

    Lipomeningocele is the most common cause of occult spinal dysraphism and spinal cord tethering. Children with this condition seem normal at birth except for cutaneous signs, and the initial complaints are usually musculoskeletal. We studied the orthopaedic deformities observed in this condition. We reviewed the medical charts of 159 patients with a diagnosis of lipoma of the lumbosacral spine that were examined in the Myelodysplasia Clinic over 25 years. Of these patients, 122 were treated by a single orthopaedic surgeon (L.D.) and were studied in detail. Of these 122 patients, 45 were over 15 years of age at the time of the final follow-up. Most patients had cutaneous stigmata. Foot deformities were the most common orthopaedic problems, followed by scoliosis. In patients over 15 years of age, the incidence of foot deformities was 44.2% (36 feet), with 20 feet requiring surgical treatment. The most common foot deformities were cavovarus, cavus, and equinocavovarus. In 70% of the surgical cases, good correction was achieved with only one procedure. Foot surgeries in patients under the age of 8 years were usually soft tissue procedures, and bony procedures were performed primarily in patients over the age of 11 years. Orthopaedic deformities are common at the initial presentation in patients with occult spinal dysraphism. A careful clinical examination with a high index of suspicion for spinal cord anomalies is indicated in all cases of spinal and lower extremity deformities. Foot deformities are very common and surgical treatment is usually successful. A thorough follow-up evaluation, including manual muscle strength testing, should be performed routinely to detect tethering of the cord in the early stages and to prevent worsening of the orthopaedic deformities. This was a retrospective case study. Level 4.

  9. Geodetic deformation monitoring at Pendidikan Diponegoro Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuwono, Bambang Darmo; Awaluddin, Moehammad; Yusuf, M. A.; Fadillah, Rizki

    2017-07-01

    Deformation monitoring is one indicator to assess the feasibility of Dam. In order to get the correct result of the deformation, it is necessary to determine appropriate deformation monitoring network and the observation data should be analyse and evaluated carefully. Measurement and analysis of deformation requires relatively accurate data and the precision is high enough, one of the observation method that used is GPS (Global Positioning System). The research was conducted at Pendidikan Undip Dams is Dam which is located in Tembang. Diponegoro Dam was built in 2013 and a volume of 50.86 m3 of water, inundation normal width of up to 13,500 m2. The main purpose of these building is not only for drainage but also for education and micro hydro power plant etc. The main goal of this reasearch was to monitor and analyze the deformation at Pendidikan Undip Dam and to determaine whether GPS measurement could meet accuracy requirement for dam deformation measurements. Measurements were made 2 times over 2 years, 2015 and 2016 using dual frequency GPS receivers with static methods and processed by Scientific Software GAMIT 10.6

  10. Bialgebra cohomology, deformations, and quantum groups.

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenhaber, M; Schack, S D

    1990-01-01

    We introduce cohomology and deformation theories for a bialgebra A (over a commutative unital ring k) such that the second cohomology group is the space of infinitesimal deformations. Our theory gives a natural identification between the underlying k-modules of the original and the deformed bialgebra. Certain explicit deformation formulas are given for the construction of quantum groups--i.e., Hopf algebras that are neither commutative nor cocommutative (whether or not they arise from quantum Yang-Baxter operators). These formulas yield, in particular, all GLq(n) and SLq(n) as deformations of GL(n) and SL(n). Using a Hodge decomposition of the underlying cochain complex, we compute our cohomology for GL(n). With this, we show that every deformation of GL(n) is equivalent to one in which the comultiplication is unchanged, not merely on elements of degree one but on all elements (settling in the strongest way a decade-old conjecture) and in which the quantum determinant, as an element of the underlying k-module, is identical with the usual one. PMID:11607053

  11. Adiabatically describing rare earths using microscopic deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, Gustavo; Dupuis, Marc; Herman, Michal; Brown, David

    2017-09-01

    Recent works showed that reactions on well-deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region are very well described by an adiabatic method. This assumes a spherical optical potential (OP) accounting for non-rotational degrees of freedom while the deformed configuration is described by couplings to states of the g.s. rotational band. This method has, apart from the global OP, only the deformation parameters as inputs, with no additional fit- ted variables. For this reason, it has only been applied to nuclei with well-measured deformations. With the new computational capabilities, microscopic large-scale calculations of deformation parameters within the HFB method based on the D1S Gogny force are available in the literature. We propose to use such microscopic deformations in our adi- abatic method, allowing us to reproduce the cross sections agreements observed in stable nuclei, and to reliably extend this description to nuclei far from stability, describing the whole rare-earth region. Since all cross sections, such as capture and charge exchange, strongly depend on the correct calculation of absorption from the incident channel (from direct reaction mechanisms), this approach significantly improves the accuracy of cross sections and transitions relevant to astrophysical studies. The work at BNL was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the US Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC.

  12. Deformable Organic Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeongjun; Oh, Jin Young; Kim, Taeho Roy; Gu, Xiaodan; Kim, Yeongin; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan; Wu, Hung-Chin; Pfattner, Raphael; To, John W F; Katsumata, Toru; Son, Donghee; Kang, Jiheong; Matthews, James R; Niu, Weijun; He, Mingqian; Sinclair, Robert; Cui, Yi; Tok, Jeffery B-H; Lee, Tae-Woo; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-02-01

    Deformable electronic devices that are impervious to mechanical influence when mounted on surfaces of dynamically changing soft matters have great potential for next-generation implantable bioelectronic devices. Here, deformable field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of single organic nanowires (NWs) as the semiconductor are presented. The NWs are composed of fused thiophene diketopyrrolopyrrole based polymer semiconductor and high-molecular-weight polyethylene oxide as both the molecular binder and deformability enhancer. The obtained transistors show high field-effect mobility >8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 with poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) polymer dielectric and can easily be deformed by applied strains (both 100% tensile and compressive strains). The electrical reliability and mechanical durability of the NWs can be significantly enhanced by forming serpentine-like structures of the NWs. Remarkably, the fully deformable NW FETs withstand 3D volume changes (>1700% and reverting back to original state) of a rubber balloon with constant current output, on the surface of which it is attached. The deformable transistors can robustly operate without noticeable degradation on a mechanically dynamic soft matter surface, e.g., a pulsating balloon (pulse rate: 40 min -1 (0.67 Hz) and 40% volume expansion) that mimics a beating heart, which underscores its potential for future biomedical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Compliant deformable mirror approach for wavefront improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H.; Penado, F. Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    We describe a compliant static deformable mirror approach to reduce the wavefront concavity at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI). A single actuator pressing on the back surface of just one of the relay mirrors deforms the front surface in a correcting convex shape. Our design uses the mechanical advantage gained from a force actuator sandwiched between a rear flexure plate and the back surface of the mirror. We superimpose wavefront contour measurements with our finite element deformed mirror model. An example analysis showed improvement from 210-nm concave-concave wavefront to 51-nm concave-concave wavefront. With our present model, a 100-nm actuator increment displaces the mirror surface by 1.1 nm. We describe the need for wavefront improvement that arises from the NPOI reconfigurable array, offer a practical design approach, and analyze the support structure and compliant deformable mirror using the finite element method. We conclude that a 20.3-cm-diameter, 1.9-cm-thick Zerodur® mirror shows that it is possible to deform the reflective surface and cancel out three-fourths of the wavefront deformation without overstressing the material.

  14. Global synthesis of volcano deformation: Results of the Volcano Deformation Task Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Jay, J.; Biggs, J.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Delgado, F.

    2013-12-01

    Ground deformation in volcanic regions is being observed more frequently -- the number of known deforming volcanoes has increased from 44 in 1997 to more than 210 in 2013 thanks in large part thanks to the availability of satellite InSAR observations. With the launch of new SAR satellites in the coming years devoted to global deformation monitoring, the number of well-studied episodes of volcano deformation will continue to increase. But evaluating the significance of the observed deformation is not always straightforward -- how often do deformation episodes lead to eruption? Are there certain characteristics of the deformation or the volcano that make the linkage between deformation and eruption more robust -- for example the duration or magnitude of the ground deformation and/or the composition and tectonic setting of the volcano? To answer these questions, a global database of volcano deformation events is needed. Recognizing the need for global information on volcano deformation and the opportunity to address it with InSAR and other techniques, we formed the Volcano Deformation Database Task force as part of Global Volcano Model. The three objectives of our organization are: 1) to compile deformation observations of all volcanoes globally into appropriate formats for WOVOdat and the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution. 2) document any relation between deformation events and eruptions for the Global assessment of volcanic hazard and risk report for 2015 (GAR15) for the UN. 3) to better link InSAR and other remote sensing observations to volcano observatories. We present the first results from our global study of the relation between deformation and eruptions, including case studies of particular eruptions. We compile a systematically-observed catalog of >500 volcanoes with observation windows up to 20 years. Of 90 volcanoes showing deformation, 40 erupted. The positive predictive value (PPV = 0.44) linking deformation and eruption on this

  15. Deformation-related recrystallization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Martyn R.; Urai, Janos L.

    1990-02-01

    Recrystallization is a common microstructural transformation that occurs during deformation, metamorphism and diagenesis of rocks. Studies on minerals and rock analogues have demonstrated that a wide range of recrystallization mechanisms can occur. The range of mechanisms is related to the various ways in which two basic processes, grain boundary migration and new grain boundary formation combine to transform the microstructure. Two recent papers (Drury et al., 1985; Urai et al., 1986) have proposed different schemes for the description of recrystallization mechanisms. The purpose of this paper is to provide a unified framework for the description of mechanisms. Recrystallization mechanisms are divided into three main types; rotation mechanisms which principally involve the formation of new grain boundaries; migration mechanisms which principally involve grain boundary migration; and general mechanisms which involve both basic processes. A further distinction is made on the basis of the continuity of the microstructural transformation with respect to time. Each of the three main types of mechanism can be divided into a number of sub-types depending on whether the processes of grain boundary migration, new grain boundary formation and new grain formation occur in a discontinuous or continuous manner with respect to time. As the terms continuous and discontinuous have been used in the metallurgical literature to signify the spatial continuity of the microstructural transformation, the terms discontinuai and continual are used to refer to the temporal continuity of the transformation. It is recommended that the following aspects should be specified, if possible, in a general description of recrystallization mechanisms: (1) How do the basic processes combine to transform the microstructure. (2) If new grain development occurs, what is the development mechanism, and does new grain formation occur in a continual or discontinuai manner. (3) If grain boundary migration is

  16. Equilibrium Droplets on Deformable Substrates: Equilibrium Conditions.

    PubMed

    Koursari, Nektaria; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Starov, Victor M

    2018-05-15

    Equilibrium conditions of droplets on deformable substrates are investigated, and it is proven using Jacobi's sufficient condition that the obtained solutions really provide equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformed support. At the equilibrium, the excess free energy of the system should have a minimum value, which means that both necessary and sufficient conditions of the minimum should be fulfilled. Only in this case, the obtained profiles provide the minimum of the excess free energy. The necessary condition of the equilibrium means that the first variation of the excess free energy should vanish, and the second variation should be positive. Unfortunately, the mentioned two conditions are not the proof that the obtained profiles correspond to the minimum of the excess free energy and they could not be. It is necessary to check whether the sufficient condition of the equilibrium (Jacobi's condition) is satisfied. To the best of our knowledge Jacobi's condition has never been verified for any already published equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate. A simple model of the equilibrium droplet on the deformable substrate is considered, and it is shown that the deduced profiles of the equilibrium droplet and deformable substrate satisfy the Jacobi's condition, that is, really provide the minimum to the excess free energy of the system. To simplify calculations, a simplified linear disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm is adopted for the calculations. It is shown that both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium are satisfied. For the first time, validity of the Jacobi's condition is verified. The latter proves that the developed model really provides (i) the minimum of the excess free energy of the system droplet/deformable substrate and (ii) equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate.

  17. Homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations as generalized diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Jun-ichi; Sakatani, Yuho; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2017-10-01

    Yang-Baxter (YB) deformations of string sigma model provide deformed target spaces. We propose that homogeneous YB deformations always lead to a certain class of β-twisted backgrounds and represent the bosonic part of the supergravity fields in terms of the classical r-matrix associated with the YB deformation. We then show that various β-twisted backgrounds can be realized by considering generalized diffeomorphisms in the undeformed background. Our result extends the notable relation between the YB deformations and (non-commuting) TsT transformations. We also discuss more general deformations beyond the YB deformations.

  18. A homogeneous 2D deformation of geological interest: Rotation shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastida, Fernando; Bobillo-Ares, Nilo C.; Aller, Jesús; Lisle, Richard J.

    2018-07-01

    We define a simple two-dimensional deformation called "rotation shear". It has one line of no finite longitudinal strain with invariant direction and another one that rotates with the deformation. An analysis of this deformation is carried out. Rotation shear superficially resembles simple shear but the analysis reveals that the two deformations have very different properties. In general, lines deformed by simple shear show a more complex deformation history and undergo greater longitudinal strain, i.e. are more extended, than lines deformed by rotation shear. Rotation shear is used to explain the development of geological structures such as kink bands, ideal similar folds, crenulation and crenulation cleavage and shear zones.

  19. Deformation Monitoring and Analysis of Lsp Landslide Based on Gbinsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Guo, J.; Yang, F.

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring and analyzing the deformation of the river landslide in city to master the deformation law of landslide, which is an important means of landslide safety assessment. In this paper, aiming at the stability of the Liu Sha Peninsula Landslide during its strengthening process after the landslide disaster. Continuous and high precision deformation monitoring of the landslide was carried out by GBInSAR technique. Meanwhile, the two-dimensional deformation time series pictures of the landslide body were retrieved by the time series analysis method. The deformation monitoring and analysis results show that the reinforcement belt on the landslide body was basically stable and the deformation of most PS points on the reinforcement belt was within 1 mm. The deformation of most areas on the landslide body was basically within 4 mm, and the deformation presented obvious nonlinear changes. GBInSAR technique can quickly and effectively obtain the entire deformation information of the river landslide and the evolution process of deformation.

  20. Mechanical biocompatibility of highly deformable biomedical materials.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Edoardo; Ehret, Alexander E

    2015-08-01

    Mismatch of mechanical properties between highly deformable biomedical materials and adjacent native tissue might lead to short and long term health impairment. The capability of implants to deform at the right level, i.e. similar to the macroscopic mechanical response of the surrounding biological materials, is often associated with dissimilar microstructural deformation mechanisms. This mismatch on smaller length scales might lead to micro-injuries, cell damage, inflammation, fibrosis or necrosis. Hence, the mechanical biocompatibility of soft implants depends not only on the properties and composition of the implant material, but also on its organization, distribution and motion at one or several length scales. The challenges related to the analysis and attainment of mechanical biocompatibility are illustrated with two examples: prosthetic meshes for hernia and pelvic repair and electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering. For these material systems we describe existing methods for characterization and analysis of the non-linear response to uniaxial and multiaxial stress states, its time and history dependence, and the changes in deformation behavior associated with tissue in-growth and material resorption. We discuss the multi-scale deformation behavior of biomaterials and adjacent tissue, and indicate major interdisciplinary questions to be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interfacial diffusion aided deformation during nanoindentation

    DOE PAGES

    Samanta, Amit; E., Weinan

    2015-07-06

    Nanoindentation is commonly used to quantify the mechanical response of material surfaces. Despite its widespread use, a detailed understanding of the deformation mechanisms responsible for plasticity during these experiments has remained elusive. Nanoindentation measurements often show stress values close to a material’s ideal strength which suggests that dislocation nucleation and subsequent dislocation activity dominates the deformation. However, low strain-rate exponents and small activation volumes have also been reported which indicates high temperature sensitivity of the deformation processes. Using an order parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling technique called adiabatic free energy dynamics [J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys.more » Chem. B, 112, 15742 (2008)], and molecular dynamics we have probed the diffusive mode of deformation during nanoindentation. Localized processes such as surface vacancy and ad-atom pair formation, vacancy diffusion are found to play an important role during indentation. Furthermore, our analysis suggests a change in the dominant deformation mode from dislocation mediated plasticity to diffusional flow at high temperatures, slow indentation rates and small indenter tip radii.« less

  2. Optical Deformability as New Diagnostic Cell Marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guck, Jochen; Lincoln, Bryan; Schinkinger, Stefan; Wottawah, Falk; Moore, Samantha; Ananthakrishnan, Revathi; Kas, Josef

    2002-03-01

    The optical stretcher is a novel laser tool that can deform individual cells in rapid succession. When a cell is trapped between two counterpropagating laser beams the optically induced surface forces stretch the cell along the laser axis. The degree of stretching depends on the optical properties, which determine the forces, as well as the mechanical properties, which govern the response of the cell to the forces. Our results show that different cells can be distinguished based on their optical deformability, which naturally suggests using the optical deformability of cells as a novel cell marker. Many diseases are reflected in an altered cytoskeleton, which leads to a different optical deformability. An important example is the malignant transformation of cells, which is accompanied by a decrease in cytoskeletal integrity and, consequently, cell elasticity. Using optical deformability as cell marker holds the promise of earlier detection and improved diagnosis of cancer. In this context, the optical stretcher can be used as a diagnostic device to detect and sort abnormal cells. Future applications in the study of the normal differentiation of cells from stem cells to mature cells are envisioned.

  3. Deformation field heterogeneity in punch indentation

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Tejas G.; Saldana, Christopher; Hudspeth, Matthew; M'Saoubi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Plastic heterogeneity in indentation is fundamental for understanding mechanics of hardness testing and impression-based deformation processing methods. The heterogeneous deformation underlying plane-strain indentation was investigated in plastic loading of copper by a flat punch. Deformation parameters were measured, in situ, by tracking the motion of asperities in high-speed optical imaging. These measurements were coupled with multi-scale analyses of strength, microstructure and crystallographic texture in the vicinity of the indentation. Self-consistency is demonstrated in description of the deformation field using the in situ mechanics-based measurements and post-mortem materials characterization. Salient features of the punch indentation process elucidated include, among others, the presence of a dead-metal zone underneath the indenter, regions of intense strain rate (e.g. slip lines) and extent of the plastic flow field. Perhaps more intriguing are the transitions between shear-type and compression-type deformation modes over the indentation region that were quantified by the high-resolution crystallographic texture measurements. The evolution of the field concomitant to the progress of indentation is discussed and primary differences between the mechanics of indentation for a rigid perfectly plastic material and a strain-hardening material are described. PMID:24910521

  4. [Adolescent scoliosis : From deformity to treatment].

    PubMed

    Schulze, A; Schrading, S; Betsch, M; Quack, V; Tingart, M

    2015-11-01

    Scoliosis affects up to 6 % of the population. The resulting spine deformity, the increasing risk of back pain, cosmetic aspects, pulmonary disorders if the Cobb angle is > 80°, and the progress of the deformity to > 50° after the end of growth indicate non-operative or operative therapy. In daily clinical practice, the classifications of scoliosis allow the therapy to be adapted. Classifications consider deformity, topography of the scoliosis, and the age at diagnosis. This publication gives an overview of the relevant and most common classifications in the treatment of adolescent scoliosis. For evaluation, the deformity measurement on the coronary radiographic projection of the total spine (Cobb angle) is relevant to therapy. The classification of topography, form, and the sagittal profile of the deformity of the spine are useful for preoperative planning of the fusion level. Classifications that take into account the age at the time of the diagnosis of scoliosis differentiate among early onset scoliosis (younger than 10 years of age), adolescent scoliosis (up to the end of growth), and adult scoliosis. Early onset scoliosis is subdivided by age and etiology. Therapy is derived from the classification of clinical and radiological findings. Classifications that take into account clinical and radiological parameters are essential components of modern scoliosis therapy.

  5. An algorithmic approach to crustal deformation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iz, Huseyin Baki

    1987-01-01

    In recent years the analysis of crustal deformation measurements has become important as a result of current improvements in geodetic methods and an increasing amount of theoretical and observational data provided by several earth sciences. A first-generation data analysis algorithm which combines a priori information with current geodetic measurements was proposed. Relevant methods which can be used in the algorithm were discussed. Prior information is the unifying feature of this algorithm. Some of the problems which may arise through the use of a priori information in the analysis were indicated and preventive measures were demonstrated. The first step in the algorithm is the optimal design of deformation networks. The second step in the algorithm identifies the descriptive model of the deformation field. The final step in the algorithm is the improved estimation of deformation parameters. Although deformation parameters are estimated in the process of model discrimination, they can further be improved by the use of a priori information about them. According to the proposed algorithm this information must first be tested against the estimates calculated using the sample data only. Null-hypothesis testing procedures were developed for this purpose. Six different estimators which employ a priori information were examined. Emphasis was put on the case when the prior information is wrong and analytical expressions for possible improvements under incompatible prior information were derived.

  6. Deformable and conformal silk hydrogel inverse opal

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sookyoung; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-01-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) efficiently manipulate photons at the nanoscale. Applying these crystals to biological tissue that has been subjected to large deformation and humid environments can lead to fascinating bioapplications such as in vivo biosensors and artificial ocular prostheses. These applications require that these PhCs have mechanical durability, deformability, and biocompatibility. Herein, we introduce a deformable and conformal silk hydrogel inverse opal (SHIO); the photonic lattice of this 3D PhC can be deformed by mechanical strain. This SHIO is prepared by the UV cross-linking of a liquid stilbene/silk solution, to give a transparent and elastic hydrogel. The pseudophotonic band gap (pseudo-PBG) of this material can be stably tuned by deformation of the photonic lattice (stretching, bending, and compressing). Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the SHIO can be applied as an ocular prosthesis for better vision, such as that provided by the tapeta lucida of nocturnal or deep-sea animals. PMID:28559327

  7. Deformation of metal brackets: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Flores, D A; Choi, L K; Caruso, J M; Tomlinson, J L; Scott, G E; Jeiroudi, M T

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of material and design on the force and stress required to permanently deform metal brackets. Fourteen types of metal brackets were categorized according to raw material composition, slot torque degree, and wing type. Five types of raw materials, three types of slot torque degree, and four types of wing design were tested using an archwire torque test developed by Flores. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test showed that all three categories had a significant effect on the force and stress needed to permanently deform metal brackets. Of the three, raw material had the greatest effect on the amount of force. Results showed that 17-4PH and 303S had higher yield strengths and regular twin brackets had higher resistance to deformation. Also, as slot torque degree increased, brackets deformed with less force. Result confirmed that brackets requiring the greatest stress to permanently deform were made of steel with the greatest hardness.

  8. Core Characteristics Deterioration due to Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaido, Chikara; Arai, Satoshi

    This paper discusses the effect of plastic deformation at core manufacturing on the characteristics of cores where non-oriented electrical steel sheets are used as core material. Exciting field and iron loss increase proportionally to plastic deformation in the case of rP<10, where rP is a ratio of plastic deformation to that at yield point. In this region, anomalous eddy currents increase because plastic deformations of crystalline grains are distributed and then the flux distribution is induced. In the case of rP>20, the deterioration tend to saturate, and the increases in magnetic field and iron loss are 1000 to 1500A/m and 2 to 4W/kg. They are related to grain size, and high grade with larger grain may have lager field increase and smaller iron loss increase. Anomalous eddy current losses scarcely increase in this region. In actual motors, the plastic deformation affects iron loss increase although exciting current increases a little.

  9. Seismic anisotropy in deforming salt bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasse, P.; Wookey, J. M.; Kendall, J. M.; Dutko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt is often involved in forming hydrocarbon traps. Studying salt dynamics and the deformation processes is important for the exploration industry. We have performed numerical texture simulations of single halite crystals deformed by simple shear and axial extension using the visco-plastic self consistent approach (VPSC). A methodology from subduction studies to estimate strain in a geodynamic simulation is applied to a complex high-resolution salt diapir model. The salt diapir deformation is modelled with the ELFEN software by our industrial partner Rockfield, which is based on a finite-element code. High strain areas at the bottom of the head-like strctures of the salt diapir show high amount of seismic anisotropy due to LPO development of halite crystals. The results demonstrate that a significant degree of seismic anisotropy can be generated, validating the view that this should be accounted for in the treatment of seismic data in, for example, salt diapir settings.

  10. Simulating 3D deformation using connected polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarigan, J. T.; Jaya, I.; Hardi, S. M.; Zamzami, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    In modern 3D application, interaction between user and the virtual world is one of an important factor to increase the realism. This interaction can be visualized in many forms; one of them is object deformation. There are many ways to simulate object deformation in virtual 3D world; each comes with different level of realism and performance. Our objective is to present a new method to simulate object deformation by using a graph-connected polygon. In this solution, each object contains multiple level of polygons in different level of volume. The proposed solution focusses on performance rather while maintaining the acceptable level of realism. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of our solution and show that this solution is usable in performance sensitive 3D application such as games and virtual reality.

  11. Connectedness percolation of hard deformed rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drwenski, Tara; Dussi, Simone; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René; van der Schoot, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Nanofiller particles, such as carbon nanotubes or metal wires, are used in functional polymer composites to make them conduct electricity. They are often not perfectly straight cylinders but may be tortuous or exhibit kinks. Therefore we investigate the effect of shape deformations of the rod-like nanofillers on the geometric percolation threshold of the dispersion. We do this by using connectedness percolation theory within a Parsons-Lee type of approximation, in combination with Monte Carlo integration for the average overlap volume in the isotropic fluid phase. We find that a deviation from a perfect rod-like shape has very little effect on the percolation threshold, unless the particles are strongly deformed. This demonstrates that idealized rod models are useful even for nanofillers that superficially seem imperfect. In addition, we show that for small or moderate rod deformations, the universal scaling of the percolation threshold is only weakly affected by the precise particle shape.

  12. Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which wasmore » then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.« less

  13. Deformations of vector-scalar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnich, Glenn; Boulanger, Nicolas; Henneaux, Marc; Julia, Bernard; Lekeu, Victor; Ranjbar, Arash

    2018-02-01

    Abelian vector fields non-minimally coupled to uncharged scalar fields arise in many contexts. We investigate here through algebraic methods their consistent deformations ("gaugings"), i.e., the deformations that preserve the number (but not necessarily the form or the algebra) of the gauge symmetries. Infinitesimal consistent deformations are given by the BRST cohomology classes at ghost number zero. We parametrize explicitly these classes in terms of various types of global symmetries and corresponding Noether currents through the characteristic cohomology related to antifields and equations of motion. The analysis applies to all ghost numbers and not just ghost number zero. We also provide a systematic discussion of the linear and quadratic constraints on these parameters that follow from higher-order consistency. Our work is relevant to the gaugings of extended supergravities.

  14. Plastic deformation in a metallic granular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musson, Ryan W.; Carlson, William

    2016-03-01

    Solitary wave response was investigated in a metallic granular chain-piston system using LS-DYNA. A power law hardening material model was used to show that localized plastic deformation is present in a metallic granular chain for an impact velocity of 0.5 m/s. This loss due to plastic deformation was quantified via impulse, and it was shown that the loss scales nearly linearly with impact velocity. Therefore, metallic grains may not be suitable for devices that require high-amplitude solitary waves. There would be too much energy lost to plastic deformation. One can assume that ceramics will behave elastically; therefore, the response of an aluminum oxide granular chain was compared to that of a steel chain.

  15. Deformed coset models from gauged WZW actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Q.-Han

    1994-06-01

    A general Lagrangian formulation of integrably deformed G/H-coset models is given. We consider the G/H-coset model in terms of the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten action and obtain an integrable deformation by adding a potential energy term Tr(gTg -1overlineT) , where algebra elements T, overlineT belong to the center of the algebra h associated with the subgroup H. We show that the classical equation of motion of the deformed coset model can be identified with the integrability condition of certain linear equations which makes the use of the inverse scattering method possible. Using the linear equation, we give a systematic way to construct infinitely many conserved currents as well as soliton solutions. In the case of the parafermionic SU(2)/U(1)-coset model, we derive n-solitons and conserved currents explicitly.

  16. Computing Fault Displacements from Surface Deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyzenga, Gregory; Parker, Jay; Donnellan, Andrea; Panero, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Simplex is a computer program that calculates locations and displacements of subterranean faults from data on Earth-surface deformations. The calculation involves inversion of a forward model (given a point source representing a fault, a forward model calculates the surface deformations) for displacements, and strains caused by a fault located in isotropic, elastic half-space. The inversion involves the use of nonlinear, multiparameter estimation techniques. The input surface-deformation data can be in multiple formats, with absolute or differential positioning. The input data can be derived from multiple sources, including interferometric synthetic-aperture radar, the Global Positioning System, and strain meters. Parameters can be constrained or free. Estimates can be calculated for single or multiple faults. Estimates of parameters are accompanied by reports of their covariances and uncertainties. Simplex has been tested extensively against forward models and against other means of inverting geodetic data and seismic observations. This work

  17. Transport diffusion in deformed carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiamei; Chen, Peirong; Zheng, Dongqin; Zhong, Weirong

    2018-03-01

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods, we have studied the transport diffusion of gas in deformed carbon nanotubes. Perfect carbon nanotube and various deformed carbon nanotubes are modeled as transport channels. It is found that the transport diffusion coefficient of gas does not change in twisted carbon nanotubes, but changes in XY-distortion, Z-distortion and local defect carbon nanotubes comparing with that of the perfect carbon nanotube. Furthermore, the change of transport diffusion coefficient is found to be associated with the deformation factor. The relationship between transport diffusion coefficient and temperature is also discussed in this paper. Our results may contribute to understanding the mechanism of molecular transport in nano-channel.

  18. Predicting Hot Deformation of AA5182 Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, John T.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Jodlowski, Jakub P.; Taleff, Eric M.

    Aluminum 5000-series alloy sheet materials exhibit substantial ductilities at hot and warm temperatures, even when grain size is not particularly fine. The relatively high strain-rate sensitivity exhibited by these non-superplastic materials, when deforming under solute-drag creep, is a primary contributor to large tensile ductilities. This active deformation mechanism influences both plastic flow and microstructure evolution across conditions of interest for hot- and warm-forming. Data are presented from uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge tests of AA5182 sheet material at elevated temperatures. These data are used to construct a material constitutive model for plastic flow, which is applied in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of plastic deformation under multiaxial stress states. Simulation results are directly compared against experimental data to explore the usefulness of this constitutive model. The effects of temperature and stress state on plastic response and microstructure evolution are discussed.

  19. Modelling deformation and fracture in confectionery wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Idris K.; Charalambides, Maria N.; Williams, J. Gordon; Rasburn, John

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to model the deformation and fracture behaviour of brittle wafers often used in chocolate confectionary products. Three point bending and compression experiments were performed on beam and circular disc samples respectively to determine the 'apparent' stress-strain curves in bending and compression. The deformation of the wafer for both these testing types was observed in-situ within an SEM. The wafer is modeled analytically and numerically as a composite material with a core which is more porous than the skins. X-ray tomography was used to generate a three dimensional volume of the wafer microstructure which was then meshed and used for quantitative analysis. A linear elastic material model, with a damage function and element deletion, was used and the XMT generated architecture was loaded in compression. The output from the FE simulations correlates closely to the load-deflection deformation observed experimentally.

  20. Deformation and Breakup of Two Fluid Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Pankaj; Ramkrishna, Doraiswamy; Basaran, Osman

    2001-11-01

    Two fluid jets consists of an inner liquid core surrounded by an annulus of outer immiscible liquid. The perturbation in the inner and outer interphase could cause capillary instability resulting in large deformation and breakup of the jet into drops. The jet breakup and drop size distribution is largely influenced by the properties of inner and outer fluid phases. Out of the various jet breakup phenomena one with most technological importance is the one in which inner interphase ruptures followed by the outer interphase resulting in the formation of compound drops. The compound drop formation is very useful for the microencapsulation technology, which find use in diverse pharmaceutical and chemical industry applications. In this paper we present a computational analysis of non-linear deformation and breakup of two fluid jets of Newtonian fluids. The analysis involves study of capillary instability driven deformation of a free jet with periodic boundary conditions. Although small amplitude deformation of two fluid jets have previously been studied, large amplitude deformation exhibiting interesting nonlinear dynamics and eventual breakup of the two fluid jets have been beyond the reach of previously used analytical and computational techniques. The computational difficulties result from the facts that (1) the inner and outer interphase can overturn during the motion and (2) pressure and normal stress are discontinuous at the inner interphase. We overcome both of these difficulties by using a new Galerkin/finite element algorithm that relies on a powerful elliptic mesh generation technique. The results to be presented includes jet deformation and breakup time as a function of inner and outer fluid phase properties. The highlight of the results will be prediction of drop size distribution which is of critical importance for microencapsulation technology.

  1. Stent Design Affects Femoropopliteal Artery Deformation.

    PubMed

    MacTaggart, Jason; Poulson, William; Seas, Andreas; Deegan, Paul; Lomneth, Carol; Desyatova, Anastasia; Maleckis, Kaspars; Kamenskiy, Alexey

    2018-03-23

    Poor durability of femoropopliteal artery (FPA) stenting is multifactorial, and severe FPA deformations occurring with limb flexion are likely involved. Different stent designs result in dissimilar stent-artery interactions, but the degree of these effects in the FPA is insufficiently understood. To determine how different stent designs affect limb flexion-induced FPA deformations. Retrievable markers were deployed into n = 28 FPAs of lightly embalmed human cadavers. Bodies were perfused and CT images were acquired with limbs in the standing, walking, sitting, and gardening postures. Image analysis allowed measurement of baseline FPA foreshortening, bending, and twisting associated with each posture. Markers were retrieved and 7 different stents were deployed across the adductor hiatus in the same limbs. Markers were then redeployed in the stented FPAs, and limbs were reimaged. Baseline and stented FPA deformations were compared to determine the influence of each stent design. Proximal to the stent, Innova, Supera, and SmartFlex exacerbated foreshortening, SmartFlex exacerbated twisting, and SmartControl restricted bending of the FPA. Within the stent, all devices except Viabahn restricted foreshortening; Supera, SmartControl, and AbsolutePro restricted twisting; SmartFlex and Innova exacerbated twisting; and Supera and Viabahn restricted bending. Distal to the stents, all devices except AbsolutePro and Innova exacerbated foreshortening, and Viabahn, Supera, Zilver, and SmartControl exacerbated twisting. All stents except Supera were pinched in flexed limb postures. Peripheral self-expanding stents significantly affect limb flexion-induced FPA deformations, but in different ways. Although certain designs seem to accommodate some deformation modes, no device was able to match all FPA deformations.

  2. Experimental deformation of a mafic rock - interplay between fracturing, reaction and viscous deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Sina; Stünitz, Holger; Heilbronner, Renée; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Deformation experiments were performed on natural Maryland Diabase (˜ 55% Plg, 42% Px, 3% accessories, 0.18 wt.-% H2O added) in a Griggs-type deformation apparatus in order to explore the brittle-viscous transition and the interplay between deformation and mineral reactions. Shear experiments at strain rates of ˜ 2e-5 /s are performed, at T=600, 700 and 800°C and confining pressures Pc=1.0 and 1.5 GPa. Deformation localizes in all experiments. Below 700°C, the microstructure is dominated by brittle deformation with a foliation formed by cataclastic flow and high strain accommodated along 3-5 major ultracataclasite shear bands. At 700°C, the bulk of the material still exhibits abundant microfractures, however, deformation localizes into an anastomosing network of shear bands (SB) formed from a fine-grained (<< 1 μm) mixture of newly formed Plg and Amph. These reaction products occur almost exclusively along syn-kinematic structures such as fractures and SB. Experiments at 800°C show extensive mineral reactions, with the main reaction products Amph+Plg (+Zo). Deformation is localized in broad C' and C SB formed by a fine-grained (0.1 - 0.8 μm) mixture of Plg+Amph (+Zo). The onset of mineral reactions in the 700°C experiments shows that reaction kinetics and diffusional mass transport are fast enough to keep up with the short experimental timescales. While in the 700°C experiments brittle processes kinematically contribute to deformation, fracturing is largely absent at 800°C. Diffusive mass transfer dominates. The very small grain size within SB favours a grain size sensitive deformation mechanism. Due to the presence of water (and relatively high supported stresses), dissolution-precipitation creep is interpreted to be the dominant strain accommodating mechanism. From the change of Amph coronas around Px clasts with strain, we can determine that Amph is re-dissolved at high stress sites while growing in low stress sites, showing the ability of Amph to

  3. Supermultiplet of β-deformations from twistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milián, Segundo P.

    2017-09-01

    We consider the supermultiplet of linearized beta-deformation of 𝒩 = 4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM). It was previously studied on the gravitational side. We study the supermultiplet of beta-deformations on the field theory side and we compare two finite-dimensional representations of psl(4|4,R) algebra. We show that they are related by an intertwining operator. We develop a twistor-based approach which could be useful for studying other finite-dimensional and nonunitary representations in AdS/CFT correspondence.

  4. Reports on crustal movements and deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.; Peck, T.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of tectonic plate motions, regional crustal deformations, strain accumulation and release, deformations associated with earthquakes and fault motion, and micro-plate motion, were collected and are summarized. To a limited extent, papers dealing with global models of current plate motions and crustal stress are included. The data base is restricted to articles appearing in reveiwed technical journals during the years 1970-1980. The major journals searched include: Journal of Geophysical Research (solid earth), Tectonophysics, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Geological Society of America Bulletin, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Journal of Geology.

  5. Octupole deformation in odd-odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the experimental and theoretical ground-state spins of odd-odd nuclei in the region 220less than or equal toAless than or equal to228 generally shows agreement with a folded Yukawa octupole deformed model with epsilon/sub 3/ = 0.08 and some lack of agreement with the same model with epsilon/sub 3/ = 0. Thus in spite of limited spectroscopic information, the ground-state spins suggest the existence of octupole deformation in odd-odd nuclei in the region 220less than or equal toAless than or equal to228.

  6. Global deformation on the surface of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilotti, Frank; Connors, Chris; Suppe, John

    1992-01-01

    Large-scale mapping of tectonic structures on Venus shows that there is an organized global distribution to deformation. The structures we emphasize are linear compressive mountain belts, extensional rafted zones, and the small-scale but widely distributed wrinkle ridges. Ninety percent of the area of the planet's compressive mountain belts are concentrated in the northern hemisphere whereas the southern hemisphere is dominated by extension and small-scale compression. We propose that this striking concentration of fold belts in the northern hemisphere, along with the globe-encircling equatorial rift system, represents a global organization to deformation on Venus.

  7. Spiderweb deformation induced by electrostatically charged insects

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Capture success of spider webs has been associated with their microstructure, ornamentation, and wind-induced vibrations. Indirect evidence suggests that statically charged objects can attract silk thread, but web deformations induced by charged insects have not yet been described. Here, we show under laboratory conditions that electrostatically charged honeybees, green bottle flies, fruit flies, aphids, and also water drops falling near webs of cross-spiders (Araneus diadematus) induce rapid thread deformation that enhances the likelihood of physical contact, and thus of prey capture. PMID:23828093

  8. Management of post burn hand deformities

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, S. Raja; Bajantri, Babu; Bharathi, R. Ravindra

    2010-01-01

    The hand is ranked among the three most frequent sites of burns scar contracture deformity. One of the major determinants of the quality of life in burns survivors is the functionality of the hands. Burns deformities, although largely preventable, nevertheless do occur when appropriate treatment is not provided in the acute situation or when they are part of a major burns. Reconstructive procedures can greatly improve the function of the hands. Appropriate choice of procedures and timing of surgery followed by supervised physiotherapy can be a boon for a burns survivor. PMID:21321661

  9. Deformation associated with continental normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resor, Phillip G.

    Deformation associated with normal fault earthquakes and geologic structures provide insights into the seismic cycle as it unfolds over time scales from seconds to millions of years. Improved understanding of normal faulting will lead to more accurate seismic hazard assessments and prediction of associated structures. High-precision aftershock locations for the 1995 Kozani-Grevena earthquake (Mw 6.5), Greece image a segmented master fault and antithetic faults. This three-dimensional fault geometry is typical of normal fault systems mapped from outcrop or interpreted from reflection seismic data and illustrates the importance of incorporating three-dimensional fault geometry in mechanical models. Subsurface fault slip associated with the Kozani-Grevena and 1999 Hector Mine (Mw 7.1) earthquakes is modeled using a new method for slip inversion on three-dimensional fault surfaces. Incorporation of three-dimensional fault geometry improves the fit to the geodetic data while honoring aftershock distributions and surface ruptures. GPS Surveying of deformed bedding surfaces associated with normal faulting in the western Grand Canyon reveals patterns of deformation that are similar to those observed by interferometric satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) for the Kozani Grevena earthquake with a prominent down-warp in the hanging wall and a lesser up-warp in the footwall. However, deformation associated with the Kozani-Grevena earthquake extends ˜20 km from the fault surface trace, while the folds in the western Grand Canyon only extend 500 m into the footwall and 1500 m into the hanging wall. A comparison of mechanical and kinematic models illustrates advantages of mechanical models in exploring normal faulting processes including incorporation of both deformation and causative forces, and the opportunity to incorporate more complex fault geometry and constitutive properties. Elastic models with antithetic or synthetic faults or joints in association with a master

  10. Deformation and Fabric in Compacted Clay Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensrich, C. M.; Pineda, J.; Luzin, V.; Suwal, L.; Kisi, E. H.; Allameh-Haery, H.

    2018-05-01

    Hydromechanical anisotropy of clay soils in response to deformation or deposition history is related to the micromechanics of platelike clay particles and their orientations. In this article, we examine the relationship between microstructure, deformation, and moisture content in kaolin clay using a technique based on neutron scattering. This technique allows for the direct characterization of microstructure within representative samples using traditional measures such as orientation density and soil fabric tensor. From this information, evidence for a simple relationship between components of the deviatoric strain tensor and the deviatoric fabric tensor emerge. This relationship may provide a physical basis for future anisotropic constitutive models based on the micromechanics of these materials.

  11. Physics-based deformable organisms for medical image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamarneh, Ghassan; McIntosh, Chris

    2005-04-01

    Previously, "Deformable organisms" were introduced as a novel paradigm for medical image analysis that uses artificial life modelling concepts. Deformable organisms were designed to complement the classical bottom-up deformable models methodologies (geometrical and physical layers), with top-down intelligent deformation control mechanisms (behavioral and cognitive layers). However, a true physical layer was absent and in order to complete medical image segmentation tasks, deformable organisms relied on pure geometry-based shape deformations guided by sensory data, prior structural knowledge, and expert-generated schedules of behaviors. In this paper we introduce the use of physics-based shape deformations within the deformable organisms framework yielding additional robustness by allowing intuitive real-time user guidance and interaction when necessary. We present the results of applying our physics-based deformable organisms, with an underlying dynamic spring-mass mesh model, to segmenting and labelling the corpus callosum in 2D midsagittal magnetic resonance images.

  12. Post Deformation at Room and Cryogenic Temperature Cooling Media on Severely Deformed 1050-Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, M. Sarkari; Kazeminezhad, M.

    2018-03-01

    The annealed 1050-aluminum sheets were initially subjected to the severe plastic deformation through two passes of constrained groove pressing (CGP) process. The obtained specimens were post-deformed by friction stir processing at room and cryogenic temperature cooling media. The microstructure evolutions during mentioned processes in terms of grain structure, misorientation distribution, and grain orientation spread (GOS) were characterized using electron backscattered diffraction. The annealed sample contained a large number of "recrystallized" grains and relatively large fraction (78%) of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). When CGP process was applied on the annealed specimen, the elongated grains with interior substructure were developed, which was responsible for the formation of 80% low-angle grain boundaries. The GOS map of the severely deformed specimen manifested the formation of 43% "distorted" and 51% "substructured" grains. The post deformation of severely deformed aluminum at room temperature led to the increase in the fraction of HAGBs from 20 to 60%. Also, it gave rise to the formation of "recrystallized" grains with the average size of 13 μm, which were coarser than the grains predicted by Zener-Hollomon parameter. This was attributed to the occurrence of appreciable grain growth during post deformation. In the case of post deformation at cryogenic temperature cooling medium, the grain size was decreased, which was in well agreement with the predicted grain size. The cumulative distribution of misorientation was the same for both processing routes. Mechanical properties characterizations in terms of nano-indentation and tensile tests revealed that the post deformation process led to the reduction in hardness, yield stress, and ultimate tensile strength of the severely deformed aluminum.

  13. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor); Norman, Colin A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  14. Crustal deformation along the San Andreas, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Victor C.

    1992-01-01

    The goal is to achieve a better understanding of the regional and local deformation and crustal straining processes in western North America, particularly the effects of the San Andreas and nearby faults on the spatial and temporal crustal deformation behavior. Construction of theoretical models based on the mechanics of coupled elastic plate, viscoelastic foundation and large scale crack mechanics provide a rational basis for the interpretation of seismic and aseismic anomalies and expedite efforts in forecasting the stability of plate boundary deformation. Special focus is placed on the three dimensional time dependent surface deformation due to localized slippage in a elastic layer coupled to a visco-elastic substrate. The numerical analysis is based on a 3-D boundary element technique. Extension to visco-elastic coupling demands the derivation of 3-D time dependent Green's function. This method was applied to analyze the viscoelastic surface displacements due to a dislocated embedded patch. Surface uplift as a function of time and position are obtained. Comparisons between surface uplift for long and short dislocated patches are made.

  15. Habit tic deformity secondary to guitar playing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jashin J

    2009-03-15

    A 29-year-old man exhibited linear ridges of the right thumbnail that had been present for ten years. After he stopped playing the guitar for three months, the proximal portion of the abnormality cleared. Nail changes similar to the habit tic deformity may be produced by guitar playing.

  16. Deformation and Forming of Joined Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carsley, John; Hovanski, Yuri; Clarke, Kester D.

    2014-09-23

    Introductory article to a set of invited papers from the TMS committee on shaping and forming. This paper introduces a set of papers that were prepared to discussing the deformation and forming of joined materials, and to announce an upcoming symposium at the 2015 MS&T meeting in Columbus Ohio.

  17. Canny edge-based deformable image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Vasant; Huang, Yihui; Mao, Weihua; Yuan, Baohong; Tang, Liping

    2017-02-01

    This work focuses on developing a 2D Canny edge-based deformable image registration (Canny DIR) algorithm to register in vivo white light images taken at various time points. This method uses a sparse interpolation deformation algorithm to sparsely register regions of the image with strong edge information. A stability criterion is enforced which removes regions of edges that do not deform in a smooth uniform manner. Using a synthetic mouse surface ground truth model, the accuracy of the Canny DIR algorithm was evaluated under axial rotation in the presence of deformation. The accuracy was also tested using fluorescent dye injections, which were then used for gamma analysis to establish a second ground truth. The results indicate that the Canny DIR algorithm performs better than rigid registration, intensity corrected Demons, and distinctive features for all evaluation matrices and ground truth scenarios. In conclusion Canny DIR performs well in the presence of the unique lighting and shading variations associated with white-light-based image registration.

  18. Acoustic Emission of Deformation Twinning in Magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Chengyang; Wisner, Brian; Cabal, Mike; Hazeli, Kavan; Ramesh, K. T.; El Kadiri, Haitham; Al-Samman, Talal; Molodov, Konstantin D.; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Kontsos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    The Acoustic Emission of deformation twinning in Magnesium is investigated in this article. Single crystal testing with combined full field deformation measurements, as well as polycrystalline testing inside the scanning electron microscope with simultaneous monitoring of texture evolution and twin nucleation were compared to testing at the laboratory scale with respect to recordings of Acoustic Emission activity. Single crystal testing revealed the formation of layered twin boundaries in areas of strain localization which was accompanied by distinct changes in the acoustic data. Testing inside the microscope directly showed twin nucleation, proliferation and growth as well as associated crystallographic reorientations. A post processing approach of the Acoustic Emission activity revealed the existence of a class of signals that appears in a strain range in which twinning is profuse, as validated by the in situ and ex situ microscopy observations. Features extracted from such activity were cross-correlated both with the available mechanical and microscopy data, as well as with the Acoustic Emission activity recorded at the laboratory scale for similarly prepared specimens. The overall approach demonstrates that the method of Acoustic Emission could provide real time volumetric information related to the activation of deformation twinning in Magnesium alloys, in spite of the complexity of the propagation phenomena, the possible activation of several deformation modes and the challenges posed by the sensing approach itself when applied in this type of materials evaluation approach. PMID:28773786

  19. Acoustic Emission of Deformation Twinning in Magnesium.

    PubMed

    Mo, Chengyang; Wisner, Brian; Cabal, Mike; Hazeli, Kavan; Ramesh, K T; El Kadiri, Haitham; Al-Samman, Talal; Molodov, Konstantin D; Molodov, Dmitri A; Kontsos, Antonios

    2016-08-06

    The Acoustic Emission of deformation twinning in Magnesium is investigated in this article. Single crystal testing with combined full field deformation measurements, as well as polycrystalline testing inside the scanning electron microscope with simultaneous monitoring of texture evolution and twin nucleation were compared to testing at the laboratory scale with respect to recordings of Acoustic Emission activity. Single crystal testing revealed the formation of layered twin boundaries in areas of strain localization which was accompanied by distinct changes in the acoustic data. Testing inside the microscope directly showed twin nucleation, proliferation and growth as well as associated crystallographic reorientations. A post processing approach of the Acoustic Emission activity revealed the existence of a class of signals that appears in a strain range in which twinning is profuse, as validated by the in situ and ex situ microscopy observations. Features extracted from such activity were cross-correlated both with the available mechanical and microscopy data, as well as with the Acoustic Emission activity recorded at the laboratory scale for similarly prepared specimens. The overall approach demonstrates that the method of Acoustic Emission could provide real time volumetric information related to the activation of deformation twinning in Magnesium alloys, in spite of the complexity of the propagation phenomena, the possible activation of several deformation modes and the challenges posed by the sensing approach itself when applied in this type of materials evaluation approach.

  20. A Microfluidic Technique to Probe Cell Deformability

    PubMed Central

    Hoelzle, David J.; Varghese, Bino A.; Chan, Clara K.; Rowat, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Here we detail the design, fabrication, and use of a microfluidic device to evaluate the deformability of a large number of individual cells in an efficient manner. Typically, data for ~102 cells can be acquired within a 1 hr experiment. An automated image analysis program enables efficient post-experiment analysis of image data, enabling processing to be complete within a few hours. Our device geometry is unique in that cells must deform through a series of micron-scale constrictions, thereby enabling the initial deformation and time-dependent relaxation of individual cells to be assayed. The applicability of this method to human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells is demonstrated. Driving cells to deform through micron-scale constrictions using pressure-driven flow, we observe that human promyelocytic (HL-60) cells momentarily occlude the first constriction for a median time of 9.3 msec before passaging more quickly through the subsequent constrictions with a median transit time of 4.0 msec per constriction. By contrast, all-trans retinoic acid-treated (neutrophil-type) HL-60 cells occlude the first constriction for only 4.3 msec before passaging through the subsequent constrictions with a median transit time of 3.3 msec. This method can provide insight into the viscoelastic nature of cells, and ultimately reveal the molecular origins of this behavior. PMID:25226269

  1. Numerical study of suspensions of deformable particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Luca; Rosti, Marco Edoardo

    2017-11-01

    We consider a model non-Newtonian fluid consisting of a suspension of deformable particles in a Newtonian solvent. Einstein showed in his pioneering work that the relative increase in effective viscosity is a linear function of the particle volume fraction for dilute suspensions of rigid particles. Inertia has been shown to introduce deviations from the behaviour predicted by the different empirical fits, an effect that can be related to an increase of the effective volume fraction. We here focus on the effect of elasticity, i.e. visco-elastic deformable particles. To tackle the problem at hand, we perform three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a plane Couette flow with a suspension of neutrally buoyant deformable viscous hyper-elastic particles. We show that elasticity produces a shear-thinning effect in elastic suspensions (in comparison to rigid ones) and that it can be understood in terms of a reduction of the effective volume fraction of the suspension. The deformation modifies the particle motion reducing the level of mutual interaction. Normal stress differences will also be considered. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  2. Gas Release as a Deformation Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.

    Radiogenic noble gases are contained in crustal rock at inter and intra granular sites. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history, fluid phases, and the aging effect by decay of U, Th, and K. The isotopic signature of noble gases found in rocks is vastly different than that of the atmosphere which is contributed by a variety of sources. When rock is subjected to stress conditions exceeding about half its yield strength, micro-cracks begin to form. As rock deformation progresses a fracture network evolves, releasing trapped noble gases and changing the transport properties to gas migration. Thus, changes inmore » gas emanation and noble gas composition from rocks could be used to infer changes in stress-state and deformation. The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the effect of deformation/strain rate upon noble gas release. Four triaxial experiments were attempted for a strain rate range of %7E10-8 /s (180,000s) to %7E 10-4/s (500s); the three fully successful experiments (at the faster strain rates) imply the following: (1) helium is measurably released for all strain rates during deformation, this release is in amounts 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that present in the air, and (2) helium gas release increases with decreasing strain rate.« less

  3. 7 CFR 51.319 - Seriously deformed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.319 Seriously deformed. “Seriously deformed” means that the apple is so badly misshapen that its appearance is seriously affected. ...

  4. 7 CFR 51.319 - Seriously deformed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.319 Seriously deformed. “Seriously deformed” means that the apple is so badly misshapen that its appearance is seriously affected. ...

  5. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  6. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  7. Transient Non Lin Deformation in Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, Enrico

    1998-10-14

    MATLOC is a nonlinear, transient, two-dimensional (planer and axisymmetric), thermal stress, finite-element code designed to determine the deformation within a fractured rock mass. The mass is modeled as a nonlinear anistropic elastic material which can exhibit stress-dependent bi-linear locking behavior.

  8. Measuring High Speed Deformation for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentzel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry) has proven to be a reliable and versatile technique to observe rapid deformation of frangible joints. It will be a valuable technique in order to understand the physics of two-stage light gas guns and the material response to hypervelocity impact.

  9. Reports on crustal movements and deformations. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.; Peck, T.

    1983-01-01

    This Catalog of Reports on Crustal Movements and Deformation is a structured bibliography of scientific papers on the movements of the Earth crust. The catalog summarizes by various subjects papers containing data on the movement of the Earth's surface due to tectonic processes. In preparing the catalog we have included studies of tectonic plate motions, spreading and convergence, microplate rotation, regional crustal deformation strain accumulation and deformations associated with the earthquake cycle, and fault motion. We have also included several papers dealing with models of tectonic plate motion and with crustal stress. Papers which discuss tectonic and geologic history but which do not present rates of movements or deformations and papers which are primarily theoretical analyses have been excluded from the catalog. An index of authors cross-referenced to their publications also appears in the catalog. The catalog covers articles appearing in reviewed technical journals during the years 1970-1981. Although there are citations from about twenty journals most of the items come from the following publications: Journal of Geophysical Research, Tectonophysics, Geological Society of America Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Nature, Science, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, and Geology.

  10. New Deformation-Induced Nanostructure in Silicon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Zhang, Zhenyu; Chang, Keke; Cui, Junfeng; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Yu, Jinhong; Lin, Cheng-Te; Chen, Guoxin; Zang, Ketao; Luo, Jun; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Dongming

    2018-06-18

    Nanostructures in silicon (Si) induced by phase transformations have been investigated during the past 50 years. Performances of nanostructures are improved compared to that of bulk counterparts. Nevertheless, the confinement and loading conditions are insufficient to machine and fabricate high-performance devices. As a consequence, nanostructures fabricated by nanoscale deformation at loading speeds of m/s have not been demonstrated yet. In this study, grinding or scratching at a speed of 40.2 m/s was performed on a custom-made setup by an especially designed diamond tip (calculated stress under the diamond tip in the order of 5.11 GPa). This leads to a novel approach for the fabrication of nanostructures by nanoscale deformation at loading speeds of m/s. A new deformation-induced nanostructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), consisting of an amorphous phase, a new tetragonal phase, slip bands, twinning superlattices, and a single crystal. The formation mechanism of the new phase was elucidated by ab initio simulations at shear stress of about 2.16 GPa. This approach opens a new route for the fabrication of nanostructures by nanoscale deformation at speeds of m/s. Our findings provide new insights for potential applications in transistors, integrated circuits, diodes, solar cells, and energy storage systems.

  11. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Rai, Gopal K.; Akhtar, Javed; Phillip, Rajeev; Gutch, Manish; Arya, T. V. S.

    2013-01-01

    Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner's syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made. PMID:24251169

  12. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Rai, Gopal K; Akhtar, Javed; Phillip, Rajeev; Gutch, Manish; Arya, T V S

    2013-10-01

    Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner's syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  13. Vesicle deformation by microtubules: A phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Virginie; Cardoso, Olivier; Tabeling, Patrick

    1998-10-01

    The experimental investigation of vesicles deformed by the growth of encapsulated microtubules shows that the axisymmetric morphologies can be classified into ovals, lemons, φ, cherries, dumbbells, and pearls. A geometrical phase diagram is established. Numerical minimization of the elastic energy of the membrane reproduces satisfactorily well the observed morphologies and the corresponding phase diagram.

  14. Aeroelastic deformation of a perforated strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttag, M.; Karimi, H. H.; Falcón, C.; Reis, P. M.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a combined experimental and numerical investigation into the static deformation of perforated elastic strips under uniform aerodynamic loading at high-Reynolds-number conditions. The static shape of the porous strips, clamped either horizontally or vertically, is quantified as they are deformed by wind loading, induced by a horizontal flow. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical simulations using a reduced model that takes into account the normal drag force on the deformed surface. For both configurations (vertical and horizontal clamping), we compute the drag coefficient of the strip, by fitting the experimental data to the model, and find that it decreases as a function of porosity. Surprisingly, we find that, for every value of porosity, the drag coefficients for the horizontal configuration are larger than those of the vertical configuration. For all data in both configurations, with the exception of the continuous strip clamped vertically, a linear relation is found between the porosity and drag. Making use of this linearity, we can rescale the drag coefficient in a way that it becomes constant as a function of the Cauchy number, which relates the force due to fluid loading on the elastic strip to its bending rigidity, independently of the material properties and porosity of the strip and the flow speed. Our findings on flexible strips are contrasted to previous work on rigid perforated plates. These results highlight some open questions regarding the usage of reduced models to describe the deformation of flexible structures subjected to aerodynamic loading.

  15. 7 CFR 51.319 - Seriously deformed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.319 Seriously deformed. “Seriously deformed” means that the...

  16. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshn