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Sample records for halophytic stem succulent

  1. Contrasting submergence tolerance in two species of stem-succulent halophytes is not determined by differences in stem internal oxygen dynamics.

    PubMed

    Konnerup, Dennis; Moir-Barnetson, Louis; Pedersen, Ole; Veneklaas, Erik J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-02-01

    Many stem-succulent halophytes experience regular or episodic flooding events, which may compromise gas exchange and reduce survival rates. This study assesses submergence tolerance, gas exchange and tissue oxygen (O2) status of two stem-succulent halophytes with different stem diameters and from different elevations of an inland marsh. Responses to complete submergence in terms of stem internal O2 dynamics, photosynthesis and respiration were studied for the two halophytic stem-succulents Tecticornia auriculata and T. medusa. Plants were submerged in a glasshouse experiment for 3, 6 and 12 d and O2 levels within stems were measured with microelectrodes. Photosynthesis by stems in air after de-submergence was also measured. Tecticornia medusa showed 100 % survival in all submergence durations whereas T. auriculata did not survive longer than 6 d of submergence. O2 profiles and time traces showed that when submerged in water at air-equilibrium, the thicker stems of T. medusa were severely hypoxic (close to anoxic) when in darkness, whereas the smaller diameter stems of T. auriculata were moderately hypoxic. During light periods, underwater photosynthesis increased the internal O2 concentrations in the succulent stems of both species. Stems of T. auriculata temporally retained a gas film when first submerged, whereas T. medusa did not. The lower O2 in T. medusa than in T. auriculata when submerged in darkness was largely attributed to a less permeable epidermis. The submergence sensitivity of T. auriculata was associated with swelling and rupturing of the succulent stem tissues, which did not occur in T. medusa. The higher submergence tolerance of T. medusa was not associated with better internal aeration of stems. Rather, this species has poor internal aeration of the succulent stems due to its less permeable epidermis; the low epidermal permeability might be related to resistance to swelling of succulent stem tissues when submerged. © The Author 2014. Published by

  2. The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance of salt marsh rodents.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, Harry N

    1970-09-01

    The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance and ecology of salt marsh rodents is dependent upon an evaluation of the composition of the available sources and the physiological properties of their potential consumers. Studies of the osmotic properties of succulent halophytes from southern California coastal salt marshes are presented, together with experiments regarding the utilization of Common Pickleweed (Salicornia virginica L.) by indigenous populations of cricetid rodents (harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis limicola Von Bloecker, and meadow-mouse Microtus californicus stephensi Von Bloecker). These data are discussed in relation to other available information concerning the ecology of coastal salt marshes, particularly in western North America.Extruded sap of Common Pickleweed was found to have a mean total osmotic pressure (TOP) of 1,450 mOsm/liter, with an average chloride ion content of 876 mEq/liter (about 70% of the TOP). A related species, Salicornia subterminale, had a slightly lower TOP (1,300 mOsm/liter), of which about 29% was accounted for by chloride ion concentration. Sea Blight (Suaeda fruticosa) was the only species in which the TOP correlated with the distance from the tide level; sap TOP increased away from the lagoon's edge. In both Sea Blight and Common Pickle weed, TOP was not directly related to chloride content, indicating the importance of other osmotically active solutes.Harvest mice were placed on three experimental regimes: 1) millet seeds only, 2) pickleweed only, and 3) pickleweed and millet seed. Meadow mice were tested on the last regime only. Harvest mice survived best on a strict millet seed diet; when Salicornia was consumed to a detectable extent, the mice did not survive. Meadow mice, however, could survive using Salicornia as a dietary source in conjunction with seeds. Kidney electrolyte concentrating abilities indicated that harvest mice should be able to utilize pickleweed; this was not confirmed in my

  3. Wet fractionation of the succulent halophyte Salicornia sinus-persica, with the aim of low input (water saving) biorefining into bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Alassali, Ayah; Cybulska, Iwona; Galvan, Alejandro Ríos; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2017-02-01

    In this study Salicornia sinus-persica, a succulent halophyte was assessed for its potential to be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. For such succulent, salty, green biomasses, direct fractionation and fermentation allow for water preservation in the process. Fresh biomass of S. sinus-persica was collected and split into two fractions by wet fractionation; liquid (juice) and solid (pulp). Sugar contents were found to be 1.0-1.5% for the juice fraction and 50% (w/w) for the fresh pulp. Direct fermentation of the juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed no salt inhibition of the yeast and ethanol yields of ~70% were achieved. A pretreatment study was carried out for the pulp fraction applying mild hydrothermal pretreatment. Cellulose convertibility was found to be significantly higher for severity factors above 2.00, and the highest ethanol yield (76.91 ± 3.03%) was found at process severity of 3.06 (170 °C, 10 min).

  4. Functional trade-offs in succulent stems predict responses to climate change in columnar cacti.

    PubMed

    Williams, David G; Hultine, Kevin R; Dettman, David L

    2014-07-01

    Columnar cacti occur naturally in many habitats and environments in the Americas but are conspicuously dominant in very dry desert regions. These majestic plants are widely regarded for their cultural, economic, and ecological value and, in many ecosystems, support highly diverse communities of pollinators, seed dispersers, and frugivores. Massive amounts of water and other resources stored in the succulent photosynthetic stems of these species confer a remarkable ability to grow and reproduce during intensely hot and dry periods. Yet many columnar cacti are potentially under severe threat from environmental global changes, including climate change and loss of habitat. Stems in columnar cacti and other cylindrical-stemmed cacti are morphologically diverse; stem volume-to-surface area ratio (V:S) across these taxa varies by almost two orders of magnitude. Intrinsic functional trade-offs are examined here across a broad range of V:S in species of columnar cacti. It is proposed that variation in photosynthetic gas exchange, growth, and response to stress is highly constrained by stem V:S, establishing a mechanistic framework for understanding the sensitivity of columnar cacti to climate change and drought. Specifically, species that develop stems with low V:S, and thus have little storage capacity, are expected to express high mass specific photosynthesis and growth rates under favourable conditions compared with species with high V:S. But the trade-off of having little storage capacity is that low V:S species are likely to be less tolerant of intense or long-duration drought compared with high V:S species. The application of stable isotope measurements of cactus spines as recorders of growth, water relations, and metabolic responses to the environment across species of columnar cacti that vary in V:S is also reviewed. Taken together, our approach provides a coherent theory and required set of observations needed for predicting the responses of columnar cacti to

  5. Influence of halophytic hosts on their parasites—the case of Plicosepalus acaciae

    PubMed Central

    Veste, Maik; Todt, Henning; Breckle, Siegmar-W.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes develop various morphological and physiological traits that enable them to grow successfully on saline substrates. Parasitic plants on halophytic hosts may also encounter salt stress. We investigated the mistletoe Plicosepalus acaciae (syn: Loranthus acacia; Loranthaceae), which occurs on 5 halophytic and at least 10 non-halophytic hosts in the Southern Arava Valley (Israel). Plicosepalus acaciae is a common parasite north of Eilat to the Dead Sea area and in the Jordan Valley. Morphological and physiological responses of P. acaciae to salinity were investigated by comparison of plants on halophytic with those on non-halophytic hosts. Ion patterns of different host–parasite associations were determined as was the development of leaf succulence at different growth stages. The leaf water content of P. acaciae increased and leaves developed succulence when growing on halophytic hosts, especially on Tamarix species, where leaf water content was three times higher than that on non-halophytic hosts and the leaf volume increased four to five times. The reason for increased succulence was a higher ion concentration of, and osmotic adjustment with, Na+ and Cl−. Plicosepalus acaciae showed a high morphological and ecophysiological plasticity, enabling it to cope with salt stress, and can be classified as a facultative eu-halophyte, which increases its halo-succulence according to the host. Host–parasite associations are a model system for the investigation of halophytes under different salt stress conditions. PMID:25515726

  6. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops. PMID:27679645

  7. Introduction to the Special Issue: Halophytes in a changing world

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Timothy J.; Muscolo, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will bring about rising sea levels and increasing drought, both of which will contribute to increasing salinization in many regions of the world. There will be consequent effects on our crops, which cannot withstand significant salinization. This Special Issue looks at the roles that can be played by halophytes, extremophiles that do tolerate salinities toxic to most plants. In an ecological context, papers deal with the conservation of a rare species, the effects of rising concentrations of CO2 and flooding on coastal vegetation, and the consequences of tree planting in inland plains for salinization. Physiological studies deal with the different effects of chlorides and sulfates on the growth of halophytes, the ability of some parasitic plants to develop succulence when growing on halophytic hosts and the interesting finding that halophytes growing in their natural habitat do not show signs of oxidative stress. Nevertheless, spraying with ascorbic acid can enhance ascorbic acid-dependent antioxidant enzymes and growth in a species of Limonium. Enzymes preventing oxidative stress are expressed constitutively as is the case with the vacuolar H-ATPase, a key enzyme in ion compartmentation. A comparison of salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses showed the former to have higher shoot to root Na+ ratios than the latter. A particularly tolerant turf grass is described, as is the significance of its ability to secrete ions. A study of 38 species showed the importance of the interaction of a low osmotic potential and cell wall properties in maintaining growth. From an applied point of view, the importance of identifying genotypes and selecting those best suited for the product required, optimizing the conditions necessary for germination and maximizing yield are described. The consequence of selection for agronomic traits on salt tolerance is evaluated, as is the use of halophytes as green manures. Halophytes are remarkable plants: they are rare in

  8. Distinguishing succulent plants from crop and woody plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Everitt, J. H.; Richardson, A. J.; Rodriguez, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    We compared laboratory spectrophotometrically measured leaf reflectances of six succulents (peperomia, possum-grape, prickly pear, spiderwort, Texas tuberose, wolfberry) with those of four nonsucculents (cenizo, honey mesquite, cotton, sugarcane) for plant species discrimination. Succulents (average leaf water content of 92.2 percent) could be distinguished from nonsucculents (average leaf water content of 71.2 percent) within the near-infrared water absorption waveband (1.35 to 2.5 microns). This was substantiated by field spectrophotometric reflectances of plant canopies. Sensor bands encompassing either the 1.6- or 2.2-wavelengths may be useful to distinguish succulent from nonsucculent plant species.

  9. On the halophytic nature of mangroves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Ball, Marilyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Scientists have discussed the halophytic nature of intertidal plants for decades, and have generally suggested that inherent differentiation of an obligate halophyte from a facultative halophyte relates strongly to whether the plant can survive in fresh water, and not much else. In this mini-review, we provide additional insight to support the pervasive notion that mangroves as a group are truly facultative halophytes, and thus add discourse to the alternate view that mangroves have an obligate salinity requirement. Indeed, growth and physiological optima are realized at moderate salinity concentrations in mangroves, but we maintain the notion that current evidence suggests that survival is not dependent upon a physiological requirement for salt.

  10. Succulent species differ substantially in their tolerance and phytoextraction potential when grown in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengjun; Sale, Peter W G; Clark, Gary J; Liu, Wuxing; Doronila, Augustine I; Kolev, Spas D; Tang, Caixian

    2015-12-01

    Plants for the phytoextraction of heavy metals should have the ability to accumulate high concentrations of such metals and exhibit multiple tolerance traits to cope with adverse conditions such as coexistence of multiple heavy metals, high salinity, and drought which are the characteristics of many contaminated soils. This study compared 14 succulent species for their phytoextraction potential of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. There were species variations in metal tolerance and accumulation. Among the 14 succulent species, an Australian native halophyte Carpobrotus rossii exhibited the highest relative growth rate (20.6-26.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)) and highest tolerance index (78-93%), whilst Sedum "Autumn Joy" had the lowest relative growth rate (8.3-13.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)), and Crassula multicava showed the lowest tolerance indices (<50%). Carpobrotus rossii and Crassula helmsii showed higher potential for phytoextraction of these heavy metals than other species. These findings suggest that Carpobrotus rossii is a promising candidate for phytoextraction of multiple heavy metals, and the aquatic or semiterrestrial Crassula helmsii is suitable for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from polluted waters or wetlands.

  11. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-08-19

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  12. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K+/Na+ ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na+, Cl−, K+ and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However—except for P. crassifolia—proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its ‘osmoprotectant’ functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  13. Halophytes--an emerging trend in phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Manousaki, Eleni; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Halophytic plants are of special interest because these plants are naturally present in environments characterized by an excess of toxic ions, mainly sodium and chloride. Several studies have revealed that these plants may also tolerate other stresses including heavy metals based on the findings that tolerance to salt and to heavy metals may, at least partly, rely on common physiological mechanisms. In addition, it has been shown that salt-tolerant plants may also be able to accumulate metals. Therefore, halophytes have been suggested to be naturally better adapted to cope with environmental stresses, including heavy metals compared to salt-sensitive crop plants commonly chosen for phytoextraction purposes. Thus, potentially halophytes are ideal candidates for phytoextraction orphytostabilization of heavy metal polluted soils and moreover of heavy metal polluted soils affected by salinity. Some halophytes use excretion processes in order to remove the excess of salt ions from their sensitive tissues and in some cases these glandular structures are not always specific to Na+ and Cl- and other toxic elements such as cadmium, zinc, lead, or copper are accumulated and excreted by salt glands or trichomes on the surface of the leaves--a novel phytoremediation process called "phytoexcretion". Finally, the use of halophytes has also been proposed for soil desalination through salt accumulation in the plant tissue or dissolution of soil calcite in the rhizosphere to provide Ca2+ that can be exchanged with Na+ at cation exchange sites.

  14. Halophytes Energy Feedstocks: Back to Our Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    Of the Earth s landmass, approx.43% is arid or semi-arid, and 97% of the Earth s water is seawater. Halophytes are salt-tolerant plants (micro and macro) that can prosper in seawater or brackish waters and are common feedstocks for fuel and food (fuel-food feedstocks) in depressed countries. Two types, broadly classed as coastal and desert, can be found in marshes, coastal planes, inland lakes, and deserts. Major arid or semi-arid halophyte agriculture problems include pumping and draining the required high volumes of irrigation water from sea or ocean sources. Also, not all arid or semi-arid lands are suitable for crops. Benefits of halophyte agriculture include freeing up arable land and freshwater resources, cleansing the environment, decontaminating soils, desalinating brackish waters, and carbon sequestration. Sea and ocean halophyte agriculture problems include storms, transport, and diffuse harvesting. Benefits include available nutrients, ample water, and Sun. Careful attention to details and use of saline agriculture fuel feedstocks are required to prevent anthropogenic disasters. It is shown that the potential for fuel-food feedstock halophyte production is high; based on test plot data, it could supply 421.4 Quad, or 94% of the 2004 world energy consumption and sequester carbon, with major impact on the Triangle of Conflicts.

  15. Atmospheric and Soil Carbon and Halophytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    World population is anticipated to grow 40% within 40-50 years with unprecedented demands for energy, food, freshwater, and clean environments. At 43% of the total landmass, exploiting the Earth s arid and semi-arid lands becomes a matter of necessity. Compared with glycophyte agriculture, we view seawater and brackish water halophyte saline agriculture in its nascent stage and see the need to explore and farm on a massive scale. Halophyte farming costs should be the same as glycophyte cellulosic biomass farming; processing for cellulosic matter should also be applicable. Halophyte life cycle analyses (LCA) within the fueling debate are incomplete, yet glycophyte LCA favors biomass fueling. The Biomass Revolution is in progress. The capacity, cost, and logistics required for biomass replacement of petroleum-based fuels, however, will require all feedstock sources and regional cooperative productivity, technical investments, and both the participation and cooperation of the American farmer and global farm community

  16. Atmospheric and Soil Carbon and Halophytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    World population is anticipated to grow 40% within 40-50 years (2008 baseline) with unprecedented demands for energy, food, freshwater, and clean environments. At 43% of the total landmass, exploiting the Earth's arid and semi-arid lands becomes a matter of necessity. Compared with glycophyte agriculture, we view seawater and brackish water halophyte saline agriculture in its nascent stage and see the need to explore and farm on a massive scale. Halophyte farming costs should be the same as glycophyte cellulosic biomass farming; processing for cellulosic matter should also be applicable. Halophyte life cycle analyses (LCA) within the fueling debate are incomplete, yet glycophyte LCA favors biomass fueling. The Biomass Revolution is in progress. The capacity, cost, and logistics required for biomass replacement of petroleum-based fuels, however, will require all feedstock sources and regional cooperative productivity, technical investments, and both the participation and cooperation of the American farmer and global farm community.

  17. Physiological and proteomic analyses of salt stress response in the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juncheng; Meng, Yaxiong; Li, Baochun; Ma, Xiaole; Lai, Yong; Si, Erjing; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xianliang; Shang, Xunwu; Wang, Huajun; Wang, Di

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the adaptation mechanism of Chenopodiaceae Halogeton glomeratus, a succulent annual halophyte, under saline conditions. In this study, we investigated the morphological and physiological adaptation mechanisms of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of NaCl treatment for 21 d. Our results revealed that H. glomeratus has a robust ability to tolerate salt; its optimal growth occurs under approximately 100 mm NaCl conditions. Salt crystals were deposited in water-storage tissue under saline conditions. We speculate that osmotic adjustment may be the primary mechanism of salt tolerance in H. glomeratus, which transports toxic ions such as sodium into specific salt-storage cells and compartmentalizes them in large vacuoles to maintain the water content of tissues and the succulence of the leaves. To investigate the molecular response mechanisms to salt stress in H. glomeratus, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves that had been exposed to 200 mm NaCl for 24 h, 72 h and 7 d. Forty-nine protein spots, exhibiting significant changes in abundance after stress, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and similarity searches across EST database of H. glomeratus. These stress-responsive proteins were categorized into nine functional groups, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and stress and defence response. PMID:25124288

  18. Physiological and proteomic analyses of salt stress response in the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juncheng; Meng, Yaxiong; Li, Baochun; Ma, Xiaole; Lai, Yong; Si, Erjing; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xianliang; Shang, Xunwu; Wang, Huajun; Wang, Di

    2015-04-01

    Very little is known about the adaptation mechanism of Chenopodiaceae Halogeton glomeratus, a succulent annual halophyte, under saline conditions. In this study, we investigated the morphological and physiological adaptation mechanisms of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of NaCl treatment for 21 d. Our results revealed that H. glomeratus has a robust ability to tolerate salt; its optimal growth occurs under approximately 100 mm NaCl conditions. Salt crystals were deposited in water-storage tissue under saline conditions. We speculate that osmotic adjustment may be the primary mechanism of salt tolerance in H. glomeratus, which transports toxic ions such as sodium into specific salt-storage cells and compartmentalizes them in large vacuoles to maintain the water content of tissues and the succulence of the leaves. To investigate the molecular response mechanisms to salt stress in H. glomeratus, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves that had been exposed to 200 mm NaCl for 24 h, 72 h and 7 d. Forty-nine protein spots, exhibiting significant changes in abundance after stress, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and similarity searches across EST database of H. glomeratus. These stress-responsive proteins were categorized into nine functional groups, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and stress and defence response. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Transcriptomic Profiling and Physiological Responses of Halophyte Kochia sieversiana Provide Insights into Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Long; Yang, Zongze; Guo, Qiaobing; Mao, Shun; Li, Shaoqiang; Sun, Fasheng; Wang, Huan; Yang, Chunwu

    2017-01-01

    Halophytes are remarkable plants that can tolerate extremely high-salinity conditions, and have different salinity tolerance mechanisms from those of glycophytic plants. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms of salinity tolerance of an extreme halophyte, Kochia sieversiana (Pall.) C. A. M, using RNA sequencing and physiological tests. The results showed that moderate salinity stimulated the growth and water uptake of K. sieversiana and, even under 480-mM salinity condition, K. sieversiana maintained an extremely high water content. This high water content may be a specific adaptive strategy of K. sieversiana to high salinity. The physiological analysis indicated that increasing succulence and great accumulations of sodium, alanine, sucrose, and maltose may be favorable to the water uptake and osmotic regulation of K. sieversiana under high-salinity stress. Transcriptome data indicated that some aquaporin genes and potassium (K+) transporter genes may be important for water uptake and ion balance, respectively, while different members of those gene families were employed under low- and high-salinity stresses. In addition, several aquaporin genes were up-regulated in low- but not high-salinity stressed roots. The highly expressed aquaporin genes may allow low-salinity stressed K. sieversiana plants to uptake more water than control plants. The leaf K+/root K+ ratio was enhanced under low- but not high-salinity stress, which suggested that low salinity might promote K+ transport from the roots to the shoots. Hence, we speculated that low salinity might allow K. sieversiana to uptake more water and transport more K+ from roots to shoots, increasing the growth rate of K. sieversiana. PMID:29225608

  20. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in some (non-Cactaceae) succulent plant species.

    PubMed

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2010-01-01

    The water-accumulating leaves of crassulacean acid metabolism plants belonging to five different families were investigated for the presence of biominerals by infrared spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. Spectroscopic results revealed that the mineral present in succulent species of Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, and Asphodelaceae was calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O). Crystals were predominantly found as raphides or solitary crystals of various morphologies. However, representative Crassulaceae members and a succulent species of Asteraceae did not show the presence of biominerals. Overall, these results suggest no correlation between calcium oxalate generation and crassulacean acid metabolism in succulent plants.

  1. Homologous cloning, characterization and expression of a new halophyte phytochelatin synthase gene in Suaeda salsa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Ming; Zhao, Jianmin; Lü, Jiasen; Ren, Zhiming; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-09-01

    The halophyte Suaeda salsa can grow in heavy metal-polluted areas along intertidal zones having high salinity. Since phytochelatins can eff ectively chelate heavy metals, it was hypothesized that S. salsa possessed a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene. In the present study, the cDNA of PCS was obtained from S. salsa (designated as SsPCS) using homologous cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). A sequence analysis revealed that SsPCS consisted of 1 916 bp nucleotides, encoding a polypeptide of 492 amino acids with one phytochelatin domain and one phytochelatin C domain. A similarity analysis suggested that SsPCS shared up to a 58.6% identity with other PCS proteins and clustered with PCS proteins from eudicots. There was a new kind of metal ion sensor motif in its C-terminal domain. The SsPCS transcript was more highly expressed in elongated and fibered roots and stems ( P<0.05) than in leaves. Lead and mercury exposure significantly enhanced the mRNA expression of SsPCS ( P<0.05). To the best of our knowledge, SsPCS is the second PCS gene cloned from a halophyte, and it might contain a diff erent metal sensing capability than the first PCS from Thellungiella halophila. This study provided a new view of halophyte PCS genes in heavy metal tolerance.

  2. How succulent leaves of Aizoaceae avoid mesophyll conductance limitations of photosynthesis and survive drought.

    PubMed

    Ripley, Brad S; Abraham, Trevor; Klak, Cornelia; Cramer, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    In several taxa, increasing leaf succulence has been associated with decreasing mesophyll conductance (g M) and an increasing dependence on Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). However, in succulent Aizoaceae, the photosynthetic tissues are adjacent to the leaf surfaces with an internal achlorophyllous hydrenchyma. It was hypothesized that this arrangement increases g M, obviating a strong dependence on CAM, while the hydrenchyma stores water and nutrients, both of which would only be sporadically available in highly episodic environments. These predictions were tested with species from the Aizoaceae with a 5-fold variation in leaf succulence. It was shown that g M values, derived from the response of photosynthesis to intercellular CO2 concentration (A:C i), were independent of succulence, and that foliar photosynthate δ(13)C values were typical of C3, but not CAM photosynthesis. Under water stress, the degree of leaf succulence was positively correlated with an increasing ability to buffer photosynthetic capacity over several hours and to maintain light reaction integrity over several days. This was associated with decreased rates of water loss, rather than tolerance of lower leaf water contents. Additionally, the hydrenchyma contained ~26% of the leaf nitrogen content, possibly providing a nutrient reservoir. Thus the intermittent use of C3 photosynthesis interspersed with periods of no positive carbon assimilation is an alternative strategy to CAM for succulent taxa (Crassulaceae and Aizoaceae) which occur sympatrically in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

  3. How succulent leaves of Aizoaceae avoid mesophyll conductance limitations of photosynthesis and survive drought

    PubMed Central

    Ripley, Brad S.

    2013-01-01

    In several taxa, increasing leaf succulence has been associated with decreasing mesophyll conductance (g M) and an increasing dependence on Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). However, in succulent Aizoaceae, the photosynthetic tissues are adjacent to the leaf surfaces with an internal achlorophyllous hydrenchyma. It was hypothesized that this arrangement increases g M, obviating a strong dependence on CAM, while the hydrenchyma stores water and nutrients, both of which would only be sporadically available in highly episodic environments. These predictions were tested with species from the Aizoaceae with a 5-fold variation in leaf succulence. It was shown that g M values, derived from the response of photosynthesis to intercellular CO2 concentration (A:C i), were independent of succulence, and that foliar photosynthate δ13C values were typical of C3, but not CAM photosynthesis. Under water stress, the degree of leaf succulence was positively correlated with an increasing ability to buffer photosynthetic capacity over several hours and to maintain light reaction integrity over several days. This was associated with decreased rates of water loss, rather than tolerance of lower leaf water contents. Additionally, the hydrenchyma contained ~26% of the leaf nitrogen content, possibly providing a nutrient reservoir. Thus the intermittent use of C3 photosynthesis interspersed with periods of no positive carbon assimilation is an alternative strategy to CAM for succulent taxa (Crassulaceae and Aizoaceae) which occur sympatrically in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. PMID:24127513

  4. Transcriptome assembly, profiling and differential gene expression analysis of the halophyte Suaeda fruticosa provides insights into salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Diray-Arce, Joann; Clement, Mark; Gul, Bilquees; Khan, M Ajmal; Nielsen, Brent L

    2015-05-06

    assemblies that were used provide coverage of a considerable proportion of the transcriptome, which allows analysis of differential gene expression and identification of genes that may be involved in salt tolerance. The transcriptome may serve as a reference sequence for study of other succulent halophytes.

  5. Proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics perspectives of salinity tolerance in halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Asha; Das, Paromita; Parida, Asish Kumar; Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophytes are plants which naturally survive in saline environment. They account for ∼1% of the total flora of the world. They include both dicots and monocots and are distributed mainly in arid, semi-arid inlands and saline wet lands along the tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Salinity tolerance in halophytes depends on a set of ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to grow and flourish in high saline conditions. The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. The salinity responsive proteins belong to diverse functional classes such as photosynthesis, redox homeostasis; stress/defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction and membrane transport. The important metabolites which are involved in salt tolerance of halophytes are proline and proline analog (4-hydroxy-N-methyl proline), glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol, and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis of specific proteins and osmotically active metabolites control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals under salt stress condition. The present review summarizes the salt tolerance mechanisms of halophytes by elucidating the recent studies that have focused on proteomic, metabolomic, and ionomic aspects of various halophytes in response to salinity. By integrating the information from halophytes and its comparison with glycophytes could give an overview of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes, thus laying down the pavement for development of salt tolerant crop plants through genetic modification and effective breeding strategies. PMID:26284080

  6. Composition of vegetable oil from seeds of native halophytes

    Treesearch

    D. J. Weber; B. Gul; A. Khan; T. Williams; N. Williams; P. Wayman; S. Warner

    2001-01-01

    Of the world’s land area, about 7 percent is salt affected. Irrigated land is more susceptible to salinity and it is estimated that over 1/3 of the irrigated soils are becoming saline. Certain plants (halophytes) grow well on high saline soils. One approach would be to grow halophytes on high saline soils and harvest their seeds. The oil in the seeds would be extracted...

  7. Description of two species of Tenuipalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes) from succulent plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Tenuipalpus, T. sarcophilus n. sp., (Tenuipalpidae) is described from specimens collected from several species of ornamental succulent plants in Florida, including Crassula tetragona L, Sedum spp., Echeveria spp., Pachyphytum spp. (Crassulaceae) and Aloe spp. (Asphodelaceae), and fr...

  8. A tubular-coring device for use in biogeochemical sampling of succulent and pulpy plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A hand-operated, tubular-coring device developed for use in biogeochemical sampling of succulent and pulpy plants is described. The sampler weighs about 500 g (1.1 lb); and if 25 ?? 175 mm (1 ?? 7 in) screw-top test tubes are used as sample containers, the complete sampling equipment kit is easily portable, having both moderate bulk and weight. ?? 1986.

  9. Contemporaneous and recent radiations of the world's major succulent plant lineages

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Mónica; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Nyffeler, Reto; Lendel, Anita; Eggli, Urs; Ogburn, R. Matthew; Spriggs, Elizabeth; Moore, Michael J.; Edwards, Erika J.

    2011-01-01

    The cacti are one of the most celebrated radiations of succulent plants. There has been much speculation about their age, but progress in dating cactus origins has been hindered by the lack of fossil data for cacti or their close relatives. Using a hybrid phylogenomic approach, we estimated that the cactus lineage diverged from its closest relatives ≈35 million years ago (Ma). However, major diversification events in cacti were more recent, with most species-rich clades originating in the late Miocene, ≈10–5 Ma. Diversification rates of several cactus lineages rival other estimates of extremely rapid speciation in plants. Major cactus radiations were contemporaneous with those of South African ice plants and North American agaves, revealing a simultaneous diversification of several of the world's major succulent plant lineages across multiple continents. This short geological time period also harbored the majority of origins of C4 photosynthesis and the global rise of C4 grasslands. A global expansion of arid environments during this time could have provided new ecological opportunity for both succulent and C4 plant syndromes. Alternatively, recent work has identified a substantial decline in atmospheric CO2 ≈15–8 Ma, which would have strongly favored C4 evolution and expansion of C4-dominated grasslands. Lowered atmospheric CO2 would also substantially exacerbate plant water stress in marginally arid environments, providing preadapted succulent plants with a sharp advantage in a broader set of ecological conditions and promoting their rapid diversification across the landscape. PMID:21536881

  10. Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) after Agrobacterium infiltration, difficulties arise due to the thin leaf structure. Thick leaved succulents, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana and Hylotelephium telephium, were tested as alternatives. A xyloglucanase, as well as a xyloglucanase inhibitor protein was successfully produced. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programmes

    PubMed Central

    Rozema, Jelte; Cornelisse, Danny; Zhang, Yuancheng; Li, Hongxiu; Bruning, Bas; Katschnig, Diana; Broekman, Rob; Ji, Bin; van Bodegom, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and more recent breeding have changed salt tolerance of the cultivars relative to their ancestor. Our comparison of salt tolerance of crop cultivars is based on values of the relative growth rate (RGR) of the entire plant at various salinity levels. We found considerable salt tolerance of the sea beet and slightly, but significantly, reduced salt tolerance of the sugar beet cultivars. This indicates that traditional domestication by selection for morphological traits such as leaf size, beet shape and size, enhanced productivity, sugar content and palatability slightly affected salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars. Salt tolerance among four sugar beet cultivars, three of which have been claimed to be salt tolerant, did not differ. We analysed the components of RGR to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance at the whole-plant level. The growth rate reduction at higher salinity was linked with reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level (leaf area ratio) and at the individual leaf level (specific leaf area). The leaf weight fraction was not affected by increased salinity. On the other hand, succulence and leaf thickness and the net assimilation per unit of leaf area (unit leaf rate) increased in response to salt treatment, thus partially counteracting reduced capture of light by lower leaf area. This compensatory mechanism may form part of the salt tolerance mechanism of sea beet and the four studied sugar beet cultivars. Together, our results indicate that domestication of the halophytic ancestor sea beet slightly reduced salt tolerance and that breeding for improved salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars has not been effective. PMID:25492122

  12. NaCl regulation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expression in a glycophyte and a halophyte.

    PubMed

    Niu, X; Narasimhan, M L; Salzman, R A; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1993-11-01

    NaCl regulation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expression in the glycophyte tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var Wisconsin 38) and the halophyte Atriplex nummularia L. was evaluated by comparison of organ-specific mRNA abundance using homologous cDNA probes encoding the ATPases of the respective plants. Accumulation of mRNA was induced by NaCl in fully expanded leaves and in roots but not in expanding leaves or stems. The NaCl responsiveness of the halophyte to accumulate plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase mRNA in roots was substantially greater than that of the glycophyte. Salt-induced transcript accumulation in A. nummularia roots was localized by in situ hybridization predominantly to the elongation zone, but mRNA levels also increased in the zone of differentiation. Increased message accumulation in A. nummularia roots could be detected within 8 h after NaCl (400 mM) treatment, and maximal levels were severalfold greater than in roots of untreated control plants. NaCl-induced plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expression in expanded leaves and roots presumably indicates that these organs require increased H(+)-electrochemical potential gradients for the maintenance of plant ion homeostasis for salt adaptation. The greater capacity of the halophyte to induce plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expression in response to NaCl may be a salt-tolerance determinant.

  13. NaCl regulation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expression in a glycophyte and a halophyte.

    PubMed Central

    Niu, X; Narasimhan, M L; Salzman, R A; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1993-01-01

    NaCl regulation of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expression in the glycophyte tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var Wisconsin 38) and the halophyte Atriplex nummularia L. was evaluated by comparison of organ-specific mRNA abundance using homologous cDNA probes encoding the ATPases of the respective plants. Accumulation of mRNA was induced by NaCl in fully expanded leaves and in roots but not in expanding leaves or stems. The NaCl responsiveness of the halophyte to accumulate plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase mRNA in roots was substantially greater than that of the glycophyte. Salt-induced transcript accumulation in A. nummularia roots was localized by in situ hybridization predominantly to the elongation zone, but mRNA levels also increased in the zone of differentiation. Increased message accumulation in A. nummularia roots could be detected within 8 h after NaCl (400 mM) treatment, and maximal levels were severalfold greater than in roots of untreated control plants. NaCl-induced plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expression in expanded leaves and roots presumably indicates that these organs require increased H(+)-electrochemical potential gradients for the maintenance of plant ion homeostasis for salt adaptation. The greater capacity of the halophyte to induce plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expression in response to NaCl may be a salt-tolerance determinant. PMID:8022933

  14. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avinash; Tanna, Bhakti

    2017-01-01

    Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile , and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters ( NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase ), ion channels (Cl - , Ca 2+ , aquaporins), antioxidant encoding genes ( APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD ) and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes). It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  15. Potential Use of Halophytes to Remediate Saline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Bhowmik, Prasanta C.; Hossain, Md. Amzad; Rahman, Motior M.; Prasad, Majeti Narasimha Vara; Ozturk, Munir; Fujita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity. PMID:25110683

  16. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Avinash; Tanna, Bhakti

    2017-01-01

    Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile, and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters (NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase), ion channels (Cl−, Ca2+, aquaporins), antioxidant encoding genes (APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD) and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes). It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering. PMID:28572812

  17. Mining Halophytes for Plant Growth-Promoting Halotolerant Bacteria to Enhance the Salinity Tolerance of Non-halophytic Crops

    PubMed Central

    Etesami, Hassan; Beattie, Gwyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Interest is increasing in the application of PGPRs (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) to ameliorate stresses such as salinity stress in crop production. The identification of salt-tolerant, or halophilic, PGPRs has the potential to promote saline soil-based agriculture. Halophytes are a useful reservoir of halotolerant bacteria with plant growth-promoting capabilities. Here, we review recent studies on the use of halophilic PGPRs to stimulate plant growth and increase the tolerance of non-halophytic crops to salinity. These studies illustrate that halophilic PGPRs from the rhizosphere of halophytic species can be effective bio-inoculants for promoting the production of non-halophytic species in saline soils. These studies support the viability of bioinoculation with halophilic PGPRs as a strategy for the sustainable enhancement of non-halophytic crop growth. The potential of this strategy is discussed within the context of ensuring sustainable food production for a world with an increasing population and continuing climate change. We also explore future research needs for using halotolerant PGPRs under salinity stress. PMID:29472908

  18. Seaweeds and halophytes to remove carbon from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, E.P.; Kent, K.J.; Thompson, T.L.

    1991-02-01

    The utility industry and other interested parties have investigated strategies to mitigate the buildup of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. One option that has been considered is the planting of trees on a massive scale to absorb carbon through photosynthesis. A dilemma of using tree plantations, however, is that they might occupy land that will be needed for food production or other needs for an expected doubling of human population in the tropical regions. We evaluated seaweeds and salt-tolerant terrestrial plants (halophytes) to be grown on the coastal shelves and salt deserts of the world as possible alternatives to tree plantations. Anmore » estimated 1.3 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of continental shelf and 1.3 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of salt desert may be usable for seaweed and halophyte plantations. The production rates of managed seaweed and halophyte plantings are similar to managed tree plantations. Seaweeds and halophytes could conceivably absorb 10--20% of annual fossil fuel carbon emissions through biomass production, similar to estimates made for tree plantations. Present costs of halophyte biomass production are similar to costs of tree biomass production, whereas seaweed biomass is much more expensive to produce using existing technologies. Storage of seaweed carbon might be accomplished by allowing it to enter the sediment detritus chain whereas halophyte carbon might be sequestered in the soil, or used as biomass fuel. As has been concluded for reforestation, these saline biomass crops could at best help delay rather than solve the carbon dioxide build-up problem. 1 fig., 13 tabs.« less

  19. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by Sesuvium portulacastrum l. a salt marsh halophyte from tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, Durai; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Ravindran, Konganapuram Chellappan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the sources for remediation of heavy metals and salts from tannery effluent using salt marsh halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. From the results observed, in tannery effluent treated soil from 1 kg dry weight of plant sample, Sesuvium portulacastrum accumulated 49.82 mg Cr, 22.10 mg Cd, 35.10 mg Cu and 70.10 mg Zn and from 1 g dry weight of the plant sample, 246.21 mg Na Cl. Cultivation of Sesuvium portulacastrum significantly reduced the EC, pH and SAR levels in tannery effluent and salt treated soil and correspondingly increased in plant sample after 125 days of cultivation. In conclusion, Sesuvium portulacastrum was an efficient in accumulating heavy metals such as Chromium, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc, sodium and chloride maximum through its leaves when compared to stem and root. The finding of these bioacccumulation studies indicates that Sesuvium portulacastrum could be used for phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated field.

  20. The Reference Genome of the Halophytic Plant Eutrema salsugineum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruolin; Jarvis, David E.; Chen, Hao; Beilstein, Mark A.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Shu, ShengQiang; Prochnik, Simon; Xin, Mingming; Ma, Chuang; Schmutz, Jeremy; Wing, Rod A.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Schumaker, Karen S.; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    Halophytes are plants that can naturally tolerate high concentrations of salt in the soil, and their tolerance to salt stress may occur through various evolutionary and molecular mechanisms. Eutrema salsugineum is a halophytic species in the Brassicaceae that can naturally tolerate multiple types of abiotic stresses that typically limit crop productivity, including extreme salinity and cold. It has been widely used as a laboratorial model for stress biology research in plants. Here, we present the reference genome sequence (241 Mb) of E. salsugineum at 8× coverage sequenced using the traditional Sanger sequencing-based approach with comparison to its close relative Arabidopsis thaliana. The E. salsugineum genome contains 26,531 protein-coding genes and 51.4% of its genome is composed of repetitive sequences that mostly reside in pericentromeric regions. Comparative analyses of the genome structures, protein-coding genes, microRNAs, stress-related pathways, and estimated translation efficiency of proteins between E. salsugineum and A. thaliana suggest that halophyte adaptation to environmental stresses may occur via a global network adjustment of multiple regulatory mechanisms. The E. salsugineum genome provides a resource to identify naturally occurring genetic alterations contributing to the adaptation of halophytic plants to salinity and that might be bioengineered in related crop species. PMID:23518688

  1. The development of halophyte-based agriculture: past and present

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Yvonne; Eshel, Amram; Pasternak, Dov; Sagi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Background Freshwater comprises about a mere 2·5 % of total global water, of which approximately two-thirds is locked into glaciers at the polar ice caps and on mountains. In conjunction with this, in many instances irrigation with freshwater causes an increase in soil salinity due to overirrigation of agricultural land, inefficient water use and poor drainage of unsuitable soils. The problem of salinity was recognized a long time ago and, due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, numerous efforts have been devoted towards improving crop species for better utilization of saline soils and water. Irrigating plants with saline water is a challenge for practitioners and researchers throughout the world. Scope Recruiting wild halophytes with economic potential was suggested several decades ago as a way to reduce the damage caused by salinization of soil and water. A range of cultivation systems for the utilization of halophytes have been developed, for the production of biofuel, purification of saline effluent in constructed wetlands, landscaping, cultivation of gourmet vegetables, and more. This review critically analyses past and present halophyte-based production systems in the context of genetics, physiology, agrotechnical issues and product value. There are still difficulties that need to be overcome, such as direct germination in saline conditions or genotype selection. However, more and more research is being directed not only towards determining salt tolerance of halophytes, but also to the improvement of agricultural traits for long-term progress. PMID:25122652

  2. Behavioural responses of wheat stem sawflies to wheat volatiles

    Treesearch

    D. Piesik; D. K. Weaver; J. B. Runyon; M. Buteler; G. E. Peck; W. L. Morrill

    2008-01-01

    1) Adult wheat stem sawflies Cephus cinctus, pests of cultivated cereals that also infests wild grasses, migrate into wheat fields where they oviposit in elongating, succulent stems. 2) Volatiles released by wheat plants at susceptible stages were analyzed to determine potential semiochemical compounds. Seven major compounds were identified and...

  3. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity.

  4. Beyond aridification: multiple explanations for the elevated diversification of cacti in the New World Succulent Biome.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Tania; Brown, Joseph W; Schlumpberger, Boris O; Eguiarte, Luis E; Magallón, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Succulent plants are widely distributed, reaching their highest diversity in arid and semi-arid regions. Their origin and diversification is thought to be associated with a global expansion of aridity. We test this hypothesis by investigating the tempo and pattern of Cactaceae diversification. Our results contribute to the understanding of the evolution of New World Succulent Biomes. We use the most taxonomically complete dataset currently available for Cactaceae. We estimate divergence times and utilize Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods that account for nonrandom taxonomic sampling, possible extinction scenarios and phylogenetic uncertainty to analyze diversification rates, and evolution of growth form and pollination syndrome. Cactaceae originated shortly after the Eocene-Oligocene global drop in CO2 , and radiation of its richest genera coincided with the expansion of aridity in North America during the late Miocene. A significant correlation between growth form and pollination syndrome was found, as well as a clear state dependence between diversification rate, and pollination and growth-form evolution. This study suggests a complex picture underlying the diversification of Cactaceae. It not only responded to the availability of new niches resulting from aridification, but also to the correlated evolution of novel growth forms and reproductive strategies. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Loss of water transport capacity due to xylem cavitation in roots of two CAM succulents.

    PubMed

    Linton, M J; Nobel, P S

    1999-11-01

    Loss of axial hydraulic conductance as a result of xylem cavitation was examined for roots of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) succulents Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica. Vulnerability to cavitation was not correlated with either root size or vessel diameter. Agave deserti had a mean cavitation pressure of -0.93 ± 0.08 MPa by both an air-injection and a centrifugal method compared to -0.70 ± 0.02 MPa by the centrifugal method for O. ficus-indica, reflecting the greater tolerance of the former species to low water potentials in its native habitat. Substantial xylem cavitation would occur at a soil water potential of -0.25 MPa, resulting in a predicted 22% loss of conductance for A. deserti and 32% for O. ficus-indica. For an extended drought of 3 mo, further cavitation could cause a 69% loss of conductance for A. deserti and 62% for O. ficus-indica. A model of axial hydraulic flow based upon the cavitation response of these species predicted that water uptake rates are far below the maximum possible, owing to the high root water potentials of these desert succulents. Despite various shoot adaptations to aridity, roots of A. deserti and O. ficus-indica are highly vulnerable to cavitation, which partially limits water uptake in a wet soil but helps reduce water loss to a drying soil.

  6. Evolutionary history and leaf succulence as explanations for medicinal use in aloes and the global popularity of Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Grace, Olwen M; Buerki, Sven; Symonds, Matthew R E; Forest, Félix; van Wyk, Abraham E; Smith, Gideon F; Klopper, Ronell R; Bjorå, Charlotte S; Neale, Sophie; Demissew, Sebsebe; Simmonds, Monique S J; Rønsted, Nina

    2015-02-26

    Aloe vera supports a substantial global trade yet its wild origins, and explanations for its popularity over 500 related Aloe species in one of the world's largest succulent groups, have remained uncertain. We developed an explicit phylogenetic framework to explore links between the rich traditions of medicinal use and leaf succulence in aloes. The phylogenetic hypothesis clarifies the origins of Aloe vera to the Arabian Peninsula at the northernmost limits of the range for aloes. The genus Aloe originated in southern Africa ~16 million years ago and underwent two major radiations driven by different speciation processes, giving rise to the extraordinary diversity known today. Large, succulent leaves typical of medicinal aloes arose during the most recent diversification ~10 million years ago and are strongly correlated to the phylogeny and to the likelihood of a species being used for medicine. A significant, albeit weak, phylogenetic signal is evident in the medicinal uses of aloes, suggesting that the properties for which they are valued do not occur randomly across the branches of the phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic investigation of plant use and leaf succulence among aloes has yielded new explanations for the extraordinary market dominance of Aloe vera. The industry preference for Aloe vera appears to be due to its proximity to important historic trade routes, and early introduction to trade and cultivation. Well-developed succulent leaf mesophyll tissue, an adaptive feature that likely contributed to the ecological success of the genus Aloe, is the main predictor for medicinal use among Aloe species, whereas evolutionary loss of succulence tends to be associated with losses of medicinal use. Phylogenetic analyses of plant use offer potential to understand patterns in the value of global plant diversity.

  7. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, OH, Oct. 17 to 18, 2007 (ref. 1).

  8. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  9. Influences of Different Halophyte Vegetation on Soil Microbial Community at Temperate Salt Marsh.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Doongar R; Kim, Jinhyun; Kang, Hojeong

    2018-04-01

    Salt marshes are transitional zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, occupied mainly by halophytic vegetation which provides numerous ecological services to coastal ecosystem. Halophyte-associated microbial community plays an important role in the adaptation of plants to adverse condition and also affected habitat characteristics. To explore the relationship between halophytes and soil microbial community, we studied the soil enzyme activities, soil microbial community structure, and functional gene abundance in halophytes- (Carex scabrifolia, Phragmites australis, and Suaeda japonica) covered and un-vegetated (mud flat) soils at Suncheon Bay, South Korea. Higher concentrations of total, Gram-positive, Gram-negative, total bacterial, and actinomycetes PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids) were observed in the soil underneath the halophytes compared with mud flat soil and were highest in Carex soil. Halophyte-covered soils had different microbial community composition due to higher abundance of Gram-negative bacteria than mud flat soil. Similar to PLFA concentrations, the increased activities of β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase, and sulfatase enzymes were observed under halophyte soil compared to mud flat soil and Carex exhibited highest activities. The abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA, fungal ITS, and denitrifying genes (nirK, nirS, and nosZ) were not influenced by the halophytes. Abundance bacterial 16S rRNA and dissimilatory (bi)sulfite (dsrA) genes were highest in Carex-covered soil. The abundance of functional genes involved in methane cycle (mcrA and pmoA) was not affected by the halophytes. However, the ratios of mcrA/pmoA and mcrA/dsrA increased in halophyte-covered soils which indicate higher methanogenesis activities. The finding of the study also suggests that halophytes had increased the microbial and enzyme activities, and played a pivotal role in shaping microbial community structure.

  10. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  11. Effects of Two Halophytic Plants (Kochia and Atriplex) on Digestibility, Fermentation and Protein Synthesis by Ruminal Microbes Maintained in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Riasi, A.; Mesgaran, M. Danesh; Stern, M. D.; Ruiz Moreno, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Eight continuous culture fermenters were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate various nutritional values of Kochia (Kochia scoparia) compared with Atriplex (Atriplex dimorphostegia). Dried and pelleted samples (leaves and stems) provided substrate for metabolism by ruminal microbes maintained in a continuous culture fermentation system. Results indicated that there were no differences (p>0.05) in dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) digestibility between the two halophytic plants. Atriplex had higher (p<0.05) organic matter (OM) digestibility compared with Kochia. Neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) digestibility of Atriplex (411 g/kg) was higher (p<0.05) than that of Kochia (348 g/kg), however acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in Kochia compared with Atriplex (406 vs. 234 g/kg). There were no differences (p>0.05) between the two halophytic plants in molar proportion of acetate and propionate, but the concentration of butyrate and valerate in Kochia were about two fold of Atriplex (p<0.05). When Kochia provided substrate to the microbes, protein synthesis was higher (p<0.05) compared with feeding Atriplex (5.96 vs. 4.85 g N/kg of OM truly digested). It was concluded that Kochia scoparia and Atriplex dimorphostegia had similar digestibility of DM and CP. It appears that these halophytic plants may not have enough digestible energy for high producing ruminants. PMID:25049608

  12. Isolation of Endophytic Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Associated with the Halophyte Salicornia europaea and Evaluation of their Promoting Activity Under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuai; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Zheng-Yong; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Several reports have highlighted that many plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPE) can assist their host plants in coping with various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information about the PGPE colonizing in the halophytes is still scarce. This study was designed to isolate and characterize PGPE from salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion. A total of 105 isolates were obtained from the surface-sterilized roots, stems, and assimilation twigs of S. europaea. Thirty-two isolates were initially selected for their ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase as well as other properties such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and phosphate-solubilizing activities. The 16S rRNA gene-sequencing analysis revealed that these isolates belong to 13 different genera and 19 bacterial species. For these 32 strains, seed germination and seedling growth in axenically grown S. europaea seedlings at different NaCl concentrations (50-500 mM) were quantified. Five isolates possessing significant stimulation of the host plant growth were obtained. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus endophyticus, Bacillus tequilensis, Planococcus rifietoensis, Variovorax paradoxus, and Arthrobacter agilis. All the five strains could colonize and can be reisolated from the host plant interior tissues. These results demonstrate that habitat-adapted PGPE isolated from halophyte could enhance plant growth under saline stress conditions.

  13. A Rapid and Reliable Method for Total Protein Extraction from Succulent Plants for Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lledías, Fernando; Hernández, Felipe; Rivas, Viridiana; García-Mendoza, Abisaí; Cassab, Gladys I; Nieto-Sotelo, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism plants have some morphological features, such as succulent and reduced leaves, thick cuticles, and sunken stomata that help them prevent excessive water loss and irradiation. As molecular constituents of these morphological adaptations to xeric environments, succulent plants produce a set of specific compounds such as complex polysaccharides, pigments, waxes, and terpenoids, to name a few, in addition to uncharacterized proteases. Since all these compounds interfere with the analysis of proteins by electrophoretic techniques, preparation of high quality samples from these sources represents a real challenge. The absence of adequate protocols for protein extraction has restrained the study of this class of plants at the molecular level. Here, we present a rapid and reliable protocol that could be accomplished in 1 h and applied to a broad range of plants with reproducible results. We were able to obtain well-resolved SDS/PAGE protein patterns in extracts from different members of the subfamilies Agavoideae (Agave, Yucca, Manfreda, and Furcraea), Nolinoideae (Dasylirion and Beucarnea), and the Cactaceae family. This method is based on the differential solubility of contaminants and proteins in the presence of acetone and pH-altered solutions. We speculate about the role of saponins and high molecular weight carbohydrates to produce electrophoretic-compatible samples. A modification of the basic protocol allowed the analysis of samples by bidimensional electrophoresis (2DE) for proteomic analysis. Furostanol glycoside 26-O-β-glucosidase (an enzyme involved in steroid saponin synthesis) was successfully identified by mass spectrometry analysis and de novo sequencing of a 2DE spot from an Agave attenuata sample.

  14. Towards saving freshwater: halophytes as unconventional feedstuffs in livestock feed: a review.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Samak, Dalia H; Noreldin, Ahmed E; Arif, Muhammad; Yaqoob, Hilal S; Swelum, Ayman A

    2018-04-26

    Water represents 71% of all earth area and about 97% of this water is salty water. So, only 3% of the overall world water quantity is freshwater. Human can benefit only from 1% of this water and the remaining 2% freeze at both poles of earth. Therefore, it is important to preserve the freshwater through increasing the plants consuming salty water. The future prosperity of feed resources in arid and semi-arid countries depends on economic use of alternative resources that have been marginalized for long periods of time, such as halophytic plants, which are one such potential future resource. Halophyte plants can grow in high salinity water and soil and to some extent during drought. The growth of these plants depends on the contact of the salted water with plant roots as in semi-desert saline water, mangrove swamps, marshes, and seashores. Halophyte plants need high levels of sodium chloride in the soil water for growth, and the soil water must also contain high levels of salts, as sodium hydroxide or magnesium sulfate. There are many uses for halophyte plants, including feed for animals, vegetables, drugs, sand dune stabilizers, wind shelter, soil cover, wetland cultivation, laundry detergents, and paper production. This paper will focus on the use of halophytes as a feed additive for animals. In spite of the good nutritional value of halophytes, some anti-nutritional factors as nitrates, nitrite complexes, tannins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, saponins, oxalates, and alkaloids may be present in some of them. The presence of such anti-nutritional agents makes halophytes unpalatable to animals, which tends to reduce feed intake and nutrient use. Therefore, the negative effects of these plants on animal performance are the only objection against using halophytes in animal feed diets. This review article highlights the beneficial impact of considering halophytes in animal feeding on saving freshwater and illustrates its nutritive value for livestock from different

  15. Protein profiling of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Pantoja, Omar

    2012-09-01

    Plant epidermal trichomes are as varied in morphology as they are in function. In the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, specialized trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) line the surface of leaves and stems, and increase dramatically in size and volume upon plant salt-treatment. These cells have been proposed to have roles in plant defense and UV protection, but primarily in sodium sequestration and as water reservoirs. To gain further understanding into the roles of EBC, a cell-type-specific proteomics approach was taken in which precision single-cell sampling of cell sap from individual EBC was combined with shotgun peptide sequencing (LC-MS/MS). Identified proteins showed diverse biological functions and cellular locations, with a high representation of proteins involved in H(+)-transport, carbohydrate metabolism, and photosynthesis. The proteome of EBC provides insight into the roles of these cells in ion and water homeostasis and raises the possibility that they are photosynthetically active and functioning in Crassulacean acid metabolism. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Influence of biological, environmental and technical factors on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Tunisian halophytes.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Megdiche, Wided; Falleh, Hanen; Trabelsi, Nejla; Boulaaba, Mondher; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly

    2008-11-01

    Halophyte ability to withstand salt-triggered oxidative stress is governed by multiple biochemical mechanisms that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functioning, and maintain ion homeostasis. Most essential traits include the synthesis of osmolytes, specific proteins, and antioxidant molecules. This might explain the utilization of some halophytes as traditional medicinal and dietary plants. The present study aimed at assessing the phenolic content and antioxidant activities of some Tunisian halophytes (Cakile maritima, Limoniastrum monopetalum, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, M. edule, Salsola kali, and Tamarix gallica), depending on biological (species, organ and developmental stage), environmental, and technical (extraction solvent) factors. The total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities (DPPH and superoxide radicals scavenging activities, and iron chelating and reducing powers) were strongly affected by the above-cited factors. Such variability might be of great importance in terms of valorising these halophytes as a source of naturally secondary metabolites, and the methods for phenolic and antioxidant production.

  17. Coordinated Changes in Antioxidative Enzymes Protect the Photosynthetic Machinery from Salinity Induced Oxidative Damage and Confer Salt Tolerance in an Extreme Halophyte Salvadora persica L.

    PubMed Central

    Rangani, Jaykumar; Parida, Asish K.; Panda, Ashok; Kumari, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Salinity-induced modulations in growth, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content (RWC), lipid peroxidation, photosynthesis, photosystem II efficiency, and changes in activity of various antioxidative enzymes were studied in the halophyte Salvadora persica treated with various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mM NaCl) to obtain an insight into the salt tolerance ability of this halophyte. Both fresh and dry biomass as well as leaf area (LA) declined at all levels of salinity whereas salinity caused an increase in leaf succulence. A gradual increase was observed in the Na+ content of leaf with increasing salt concentration up to 750 mM NaCl, but at higher salt concentration (1000 mM NaCl), the Na+ content surprisingly dropped down to the level of 250 mM NaCl. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of the leaf remained unaffected by salinity. The photosynthetic rate (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), the transpiration rate (E), quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate remained unchanged at low salinity (250 to 500 mM NaCl) whereas, significant reduction in these parameters were observed at high salinity (750 to 1000 mM NaCl). The RWC% and water use efficiency (WUE) of leaf remained unaffected by salinity. The salinity had no effect on maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) which indicates that PS II is not perturbed by salinity-induced oxidative damage. Analysis of the isoforms of antioxidative enzymes revealed that the leaves of S. persica have two isoforms each of Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD and one isoform of Cu-Zn SOD, three isoforms of POX, two isoforms of APX and one isoform of CAT. There was differential responses in activity and expression of different isoforms of various antioxidative enzymes. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content (a product of lipid peroxidation) of leaf remained unchanged in S. persica treated with various levels of salinity. Our results suggest that the absence of pigment

  18. STEM?!?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.

  19. Effect of grazing on vegetation and soil of the heuweltjieveld in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiedel, Ute; Röwer, Inga Ute; Luther-Mosebach, Jona; Dengler, Jürgen; Oldeland, Jens; Gröngröft, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We asked how historical and recent grazing intensity affect the patchy landscape of the heuweltjieveld in the semi-arid biodiversity hotspot Succulent Karoo. The study was carried out on a communal farmland 80 km south-west of Springbok, in Namaqualand. Heuweltjies are roughly circular earth mounds that are regularly distributed in this landscape. We sampled plant species and life-form composition, diversity measures, habitat and soil variables in 100 m2 plots, placed in three visually distinguishable heuweltjie zones (centre, fringe, and matrix) and distributed across grazing camps with different recent and historic grazing intensities. Differences between heuweltjie zones were assessed with ANOVAs and multiple linear regressions. The effect of past and recent grazing intensity on soil and plant variables was analysed by Generalized Linear Models for each heuweltjie zone separately. The three zones constituted clearly distinguishable units in terms of vegetation and soil characteristics. Soil pH and cover of annual plants increased from matrix to centres, while total vegetation cover, species richness and perennial plant cover decreased in the same direction. Historic (pre-2000) grazing patterns had the strongest effects on fringes, showing the strongest soil and vegetation-related signs of overutilization with increased stocking density. Centres showed signs of overutilization irrespective of the stocking density. The much shorter exposure to recent grazing pattern (post-2000), which was nearly inverse to the historic grazing pattern, showed increase of vegetation cover (centres) and species richness (matrix) with recent grazing intensity. We interpret these effects as still visible responses of the lower grazing intensity in these camps during the historic period. No recovery under recent grazing was observed at any of the zones. We conclude that irrespective of their conducive growing conditions, once transformed to a disturbed state, heuweltjie centres recover

  20. Halophytes can salinize soil when competing with glycophytes, intensifying effects of sea level rise in coastal communities.

    PubMed

    Wendelberger, Kristie S; Richards, Jennifer H

    2017-07-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) and land-use change are working together to change coastal communities around the world. Along Florida's coast, SLR and large-scale drying are increasing groundwater salinity, resulting in halophytic (salt-tolerant) species colonizing glycophytic (salt-intolerant) communities. We hypothesized that halophytes can contribute to increased soil salinity as they move into glycophyte communities, making soils more saline than SLR or drying alone. We tested our hypothesis with a replacement-series greenhouse experiment with halophyte/glycophyte ratios of 0:4, 1:3, 2:2, 3:1, 4:0, mimicking halophyte movement into glycophyte communities. We subjected replicates to 0, 26, and 38‰ salinity for one, one, and three months, respectively, taking soil salinity and stomatal conductance measurements at the end of each treatment period. Our results showed that soil salinity increased as halophyte/glycophyte ratio increased. Either osmotic or ionic stress caused decreases in glycophyte biomass, resulting in less per-plant transpiration as compared to halophytes. At 38‰ groundwater, soil salinity increased as halophyte density increased, making conditions more conducive to further halophyte establishment. This study suggests that coastal plant community turnover may occur faster than would be predicted from SLR and anthropogenic disturbance alone.

  1. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples identified 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR). Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na+ and Cl− ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggests large alterations in M. crystallinum epidermal bladder cells. PMID:26113856

  2. Making Epidermal Bladder Cells Bigger: Developmental- and Salinity-Induced Endopolyploidy in a Model Halophyte.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rhodes, Timothy; Tran, Kieu-Nga T; Wijesinghege, Chathura; Larkin, John C; Dassanayake, Maheshi

    2018-06-01

    Endopolyploidy occurs when DNA replication takes place without subsequent mitotic nuclear division, resulting in cell-specific ploidy levels within tissues. In plants, endopolyploidy plays an important role in sustaining growth and development, but only a few studies have demonstrated a role in abiotic stress response. In this study, we investigated the function of ploidy level and nuclear and cell size in leaf expansion throughout development and tracked cell type-specific ploidy in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum In addition to developmental endopolyploidy, we examined the effects of salinity stress on ploidy level. We focused specifically on epidermal bladder cells (EBC), which are modified balloon-like trichomes, due to their large size and role in salt accumulation. Our results demonstrate that ploidy increases as the leaves expand in a similar manner for each leaf type, and ploidy levels up to 512C were recorded for nuclei in EBC of leaves of adult plants. Salt treatment led to a significant increase in ploidy levels in the EBC, and these cells showed spatially related differences in their ploidy and nuclear and cell size depending on the positions on the leaf and stem surface. Transcriptome analysis highlighted salinity-induced changes in genes involved in DNA replication, cell cycle, endoreduplication, and trichome development in EBC. The increase in cell size and ploidy observed in M. crystallinum under salinity stress may contribute to salt tolerance by increasing the storage capacity for sodium sequestration brought about by higher metabolic activity driving rapid cell enlargement in the leaf tissue and EBC. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples identified 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR). Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggests large alterations in M. crystallinum epidermal bladder cells.

  4. Salinity Tolerance Mechanism of Economic Halophytes From Physiological to Molecular Hierarchy for Improving Food Quality

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chongzhi; Tang, Xiaoli; Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is becoming the key constraints factor to agricultural production. Therefore, the plant especially the crops possessing capacities of salt tolerance will be of great economic significance. The adaptation or tolerance of plant to salinity stress involves a series of physiological, metabolic and molecular mechanisms. Halophytes are the kind of organisms which acquire special salt tolerance mechanisms to respond to the salt tress and ensure normal growth and development under saline conditions in their lengthy evolutionary adaptation, so understanding how halophytes respond to salinity stress will provide us with methods and tactics to foster and develop salt resistant varieties of crops. The strategies in physiological and molecular level adopted by halophytes are various including the changes in photosynthetic and transpiration rate, the sequestration of Na+ to extracellular or vacuole, the regulation of stomata aperture and stomatal density, the accumulation and synthesis of the phytohormones as well as the relevant gene expression underlying these physiological traits, such as the stress signal transduction, the regulation of the transcription factors, the activation and expression of the transporter genes, the activation or inhibition of the synthetases and so on. This review focuses on the research advances of the regulating mechanisms in halophytes from physiological to molecular, which render the halophytes tolerance and adaption to salinity stress. PMID:27252587

  5. Biophysical analysis of water filtration phenomenon in the roots of halophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    The water management systems of plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this point of view, new bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration process in the roots of halophytes are experimentally investigated in the plant hydrodynamic point of view. To understand the functional features of the halophytes 3D morphological structure of their roots are analyzed using advanced bioimaging techniques. The surface properties of the roots of halophytes are also examined Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, water filtration phenomenon in the roots is examined. Sodium treated mangroves are soaked in sodium acting fluorescent dye solution to trace sodium ions in the roots. In addition, in vitroexperiment is carried out by using the roots. As a result, the outermost layer of the roots filters out continuously most of sodium ions. This study on developing halophytes would be helpful for understanding the water filtration mechanism of the roots of halophytes and developing a new bio inspired desalination system. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  6. Effects of Ethylene on Seed Germination of Halophyte Plants Under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2017-01-01

    Halophyte plant species are those that can finish their life cycle in the presence of 50% or more seawater concentration. Ethylene, as a natural plant hormone produced at later stages of seed germination, plays an important role in regulating seed germination. However, its regulatory role in seed dormancy and germination of halophyte plants under salt stress is still not well understood. In this chapter, we describe methods used for applications of two ethylene donors, ethephon and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, in studies aimed at examining the effects of ethylene on seed germination of a representative halophyte plant Suaeda salsa under high salinity. Similar approaches can be applied to the study of ethylene and salt interactions in other plant species, when taking into account that salt sensitivities may differ.

  7. A comparison of chelator-facilitated metal uptake by a halophyte and a glycophyte.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Fiona L; Robin-Abbott, Molly; Maier, Raina M; Glenn, Edward P

    2002-12-01

    Phytoextraction is the use of plants to remove contaminants, in particular metals, from soil via root uptake and translocation to the shoots. Efficient phytoextraction requires high-biomass plants with efficient translocating properties. Halophytes characteristically accumulate large quantities of salts in above ground tissue material and can have high biomass production. It has been speculated that salt-tolerant plants may also be heavy metal tolerant and, further, may be able to accumulate metals. This study compared growth and metal uptake by a halophyte, Atriplex nummularia, and a common glycophyte, Zea mays, in a mine-tailing contaminated soil:mulch mixture. Two chelators, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and rhamnolipid, were used to facilitate plant metal uptake. Despite a lower growth rate (2% growth/d) in the contaminated soil, the halophyte accumulated roughly the same amount of metals as the glycophyte on a mass basis (30-40 mg/kg dry wt). Neither plant, however, hyperaccumulated any of the metals tested. When treated with EDTA, specific differences in patterns of metal uptake between the two plants emerged. The halophyte accumulated significantly more Cu (2x) and Pb (1x) in the shoots than the glycophyte, but root metal concentrations were generally higher for the glycophyte, indicating that the halophyte translocated more metal from the root to the shoot than the glycophyte. For example, Zn shoot-to-root ratios ranged from 1.4 to 2.1 for Atriplex and from 0.5 to 0.6 for Z. mays. The biodegradable chelator rhamnolipid was not effective at enhancing shoot metal concentrations, even though radiolabeled chelator was found in the shoot material of both plants. Our results suggest that halophytes, despite their slower growth rates, may have greater potential to selectively phytoextract metals from contaminated soils than glycophytes.

  8. Cellular mechanisms to survive salt in the halophyte Cakile maritima.

    PubMed

    Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Ben Hamed-Laouti, Ibtissem; Laurenti, Patrick; Abdelly, Chedly; Ben Hamed, Karim; Bouteau, François

    2018-07-01

    We recently identified two behaviours in cultured cells of the salt accumulating halophyte Cakile maritima: one related to a sustained depolarization due to Na + influx through the non-selective cation channels leading to programmed cell death of these cells, a second one related to a transient depolarization allowing cells to survive (Ben Hamed-Laouti, 2016). In this study, we considered at the cellular level mechanisms that could participate to the exclusion of Na + out of the cell and thus participate in the regulation of the internal contents of Na + and cell survival. Upon addition of NaCl in the culture medium of suspension cells of C. maritima, we observed a rapid influx of Na + followed by an efflux dependent of the activity of plasma membrane H + -ATPases, in accordance with the functioning of a Na + /H + antiporter and the ability of some cells to repolarize. The Na + efflux was shown to be dependent on Na + -dependent on Ca 2+ influx like the SOS1 Na + /H + antiporter. We further could observe in response to salt addition, an early production of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) probably due to peroxidase activities. This early 1 O 2 production seemed to be a prerequisite to the Na + efflux. Our findings suggest that in addition to the pathway leading to PCD (Ben Hamed-Laouti, 2016), a second pathway comprising an SOS-like system could participate to the survival of a part of the C. maritima cultured cells challenged by salt stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytoremediation potential of some halophytic species for soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Devi, S; Nandwal, A S; Angrish, R; Arya, S S; Kumar, N; Sharma, S K

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of six halophytic species i.e. Suaeda nudiflora, Suaeda fruticosa, Portulaca oleracea, Atriplex lentiformis, Parkinsonia aculeata and Xanthium strumarium was assessed under screen house conditions. Plants were raised at 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, and 20.0 dSm(-1) of chloride-dominated salinity. The control plants were irrigated with canal water. Sampling was done at vegetative stage (60-75 DAS). About 95 percent seed germination occurred up to 12 dSm(-1) and thereafter declined slightly. Mean plant height and dry weight plant(-1) were significantly decreased from 48.71 to 32.44 cm and from 1.73 to 0.61g plant(-1) respectively upon salinization. Na(+)/K(+) ratio (0.87 to 2.72), Na(+)/ Ca(2+) + Mg(2+) (0.48 to 1.54) and Cl(-)/SO4(2-) (0.94 to 5.04) ratio showed increasing trend. Salinity susceptibility index was found minimum in Suaeda fruticosa (0.72) and maximum in Parkinsonia aculeata (1.17). Total ionic content also declined and magnitude of decline varied from 8.51 to 18.91% at 8 dSm(-1) and 1.85 to 7.12% at 20 dSm(-1) of salinity. On the basis of phytoremediation potential Suaeda fruticosa (1170.02 mg plant(-1)), Atriplex lentiformis (777.87 mg plant(-1)) were the best salt hyperaccumulator plants whereas Xanthium strumarium (349.61 mg plant(-1)) and Parkinsonia aculeata (310.59 mg plant(-1)) were the least hyperaccumulator plants.

  10. Concomitant changes in high temperature tolerance and heat-shock proteins in desert succulents. [Agave deserti, Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, S.C.; Nobel, P.S.

    1986-02-01

    Raising the day/night air temperatures from 30/sup 0/C/20/sup 0/C to 50/sup 0/C/40/sup 0/C increases the high temperature tolerated by Agave deserti, Carnegiea gigantea, and Ferocactus acanthodes by 6/sup 0/C to 8/sup 0/C; the increase is about half completed in 3 days and fully completed in 10 days. A 25 to 27 kilodalton protein concomitantly accumulates for all three desert succulents upon transfer to 50/sup 0/C/40/sup 0/C, while accumulation of other heat heat-shock proteins is species specific. Some of the induced proteins are more abundant at 3 days, while others (including the 25-27 kilodalton protein) remain after completion of high temperaturemore » acclimation.« less

  11. The evolution of halophytes, glycophytes and crops, and its implications for food security under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, John M

    2015-04-01

    The effective development of salt tolerant crops requires an understanding that the evolution of halophytes, glycophytes and our major grain crops has involved significantly different processes. Halophytes (and other edaphic endemics) generally arose through colonization of habitats in severe disequilibrium by pre-adapted individuals, rather than by gradual adaptation from populations of 'glycophytes'. Glycophytes, by contrast, occur in low sodium ecosystems, where sodium was and is the major limiting nutrient in herbivore diets, suggesting that their evolution reflects the fact that low sodium individuals experienced lower herbivory and had higher fitness. For domestication/evolution of crop plants, the selective pressure was human imposed and involved humans co-opting functions of defense and reproductive security. Unintended consequences of this included loss of tolerance to various stresses and loss of the genetic variability needed to correct that. Understanding, combining and manipulating all three modes of evolution are now critical to the development of salt tolerant crops, particularly those that will offer food security in countries with few economic resources and limited infrastructure. Such efforts will require exploiting the genetic structures of recently evolved halophytes, the genetic variability of model plants, and endemic halophytes and 'minor' crops that already exist. © 2014 The Author. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome response to salinity stress in the halophytic turf grass Sporobolus virginicus

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Takano, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ishige, Taichiro; Terashima, Shin; Endo, Chisato; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Yajima, Shunsuke; Yano, Kentaro; Tada, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    The turf grass Sporobolus virginicus is halophyte and has high salinity tolerance. To investigate the molecular basis of its remarkable tolerance, we performed Illumina high-throughput RNA sequencing on roots and shoots of a S. virginicus genotype under normal and saline conditions. The 130 million short reads were assembled into 444,242 unigenes. A comparative analysis of the transcriptome with rice and Arabidopsis transcriptome revealed six turf grass-specific unigenes encoding transcription factors. Interestingly, all of them showed root specific expression and five of them encode bZIP type transcription factors. Another remarkable transcriptional feature of S. virginicus was activation of specific pathways under salinity stress. Pathway enrichment analysis suggested transcriptional activation of amino acid, pyruvate, and phospholipid metabolism. Up-regulation of several unigenes, previously shown to respond to salt stress in other halophytes was also observed. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that unigenes assigned as proteins in response to water stress, such as dehydrin and aquaporin, and transporters such as cation, amino acid, and citrate transporters, and H+-ATPase, were up-regulated in both shoots and roots under salinity. A correspondence analysis of the enriched pathways in turf grass cells, but not in rice cells, revealed two groups of unigenes similarly up-regulated in the turf grass in response to salt stress; one of the groups, showing excessive up-regulation under salinity, included unigenes homologos to salinity responsive genes in other halophytes. Thus, the present study identified candidate genes involved in salt tolerance of S. virginicus. This genetic resource should be valuable for understanding the mechanisms underlying high salt tolerance in S. virginicus. This information can also provide insight into salt tolerance in other halophytes. PMID:25954282

  13. Modeling salt movement and halophytic crop growth on marginal lands with the APEX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, N.; Saito, L.; Verburg, P.; Jeong, J.; Garrett, A.

    2016-12-01

    Saline soils negatively impact crop productivity in nearly 20% of irrigated agricultural lands worldwide. At these saline sites, cultivation of highly salt-tolerant plants, known as halophytes, may increase productivity compared to conventional salt-sensitive crops (i.e., glycophytes), thereby increasing the economic potential of marginal lands. Through a variety of mechanisms, halophytes are more effective than glycophytes at excluding, accumulating, and secreting salts from their tissues. Each mechanism can have a different impact on the salt balance in the plant-soil-water system. To date, little information is available to understand the long-term impacts of halophyte cultivation on environmental quality. This project utilizes the Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX) model, developed by the US Department of Agriculture, to model the growth and production of two halophytic crops. The crops being modeled include quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), which has utilities for human consumption and forage, and AC Saltlander green wheatgrass (Elymus hoffmannii), which has forage utility. APEX simulates salt movement between soil layers and accounts for the salt balance in the plant-soil-water system, including salinity in irrigation water and crop-specific salt uptake. Key crop growth parameters in APEX are derived from experimental growth data obtained under non-stressed conditions. Data from greenhouse and field experiments in which quinoa and AC Saltlander were grown under various soil salinity and irrigation salinity treatments are being used to parameterize, calibrate, and test the model. This presentation will discuss progress on crop parameterization and completed model runs under different salt-affected soil and irrigation conditions.

  14. Habitat specificity of a threatened and endemic, cliff-dwelling halophyte

    PubMed Central

    Caperta, Ana D.; Espírito-Santo, M. Dalila; Silva, Vasco; Ferreira, Ana; Paes, Ana P.; Róis, Ana S.; Costa, José C.; Arsénio, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Coastal areas and other saline environments are major contributors to regional and global biodiversity patterns. In these environments, rapidly changing gradients require highly specialized plants like halophytes. In European coastal cliff-tops, rocky and sandy seashores, and saltmarshes, typical halophytes from the genus Limonium are commonly found. Among them, the aneuploid tetraploid (2n = 4x = 35, 36, 37) Limonium multiflorum, endemic to the west coast of Portugal, is an interesting case study for investigating the ecology and conservation of a halophyte agamospermic species. Although it is listed in the IUCN red list of threatened species, information on its population size or rarity, as well as its ecology, in some respects is still unknown. Field surveys in the largest known population were performed (Raso cape, Portugal) in order to determine habitat requirements and conservation status. A total of 88 quadrats were monitored, 43 of which contained at least one L. multiflorum individual. For each sampled quadrat, four abiotic and four biotic variables as well as two spatially derived variables were recorded. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed narrow habitat specificity for this species which appeared to be intolerant to competition with invasive alien plants. We conclude that in situ conservation in a local ‘hotspot’ of this rare and vulnerable species emerges as a priority in order to ensure that biodiversity is not lost. PMID:24942513

  15. Use of halophytes to remove carbon from the atmosphere: Results of a demonstration experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, E.; Olsen, M.; Frye, R.

    1994-01-01

    The project examined the feasibility of using salt-tolerant plants, halophytes, to sequester large quantities of C from the atmosphere and enhance food production in desert regions of the world by using seawater and other saline water sources for irrigation. Field experiments using 40 ppt seawater in a coastal desert site in Mexico recorded biomass yields of 16.7--34.0 t ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} and C yields of 5.4--10.1 t ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1}for the best candidate species in the genera Atriplex, Batis, Salicornia, Suaeda and Sesuvium. These yields are comparable to high-yielding forestry and agricultural biomass crops. Irrigation requirements and othermore » costs of production were within the range of conventional crops as well. Laboratory and field experiments showed that seawater had an inhibitory effect on the decomposition of halophyte biomass in soil; hence, a strategy for C sequestration in desert soil was proposed, in which halophyte crop by-products would be returned to the soil to store C while the harvested portions would be used for oilseeds and animal feed.« less

  16. Learning from halophytes: physiological basis and strategies to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops

    PubMed Central

    Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Background Global annual losses in agricultural production from salt-affected land are in excess of US$12 billion and rising. At the same time, a significant amount of arable land is becoming lost to urban sprawl, forcing agricultural production into marginal areas. Consequently, there is a need for a major breakthrough in crop breeding for salinity tolerance. Given the limited range of genetic diversity in this trait within traditional crops, stress tolerance genes and mechanisms must be identified in extremophiles and then introduced into traditional crops. Scope and Conclusions This review argues that learning from halophytes may be a promising way of achieving this goal. The paper is focused around two central questions: what are the key physiological mechanisms conferring salinity tolerance in halophytes that can be introduced into non-halophyte crop species to improve their performance under saline conditions and what specific genes need to be targeted to achieve this goal? The specific traits that are discussed and advocated include: manipulation of trichome shape, size and density to enable their use for external Na+ sequestration; increasing the efficiency of internal Na+ sequestration in vacuoles by the orchestrated regulation of tonoplast NHX exchangers and slow and fast vacuolar channels, combined with greater cytosolic K+ retention; controlling stomata aperture and optimizing water use efficiency by reducing stomatal density; and efficient control of xylem ion loading, enabling rapid shoot osmotic adjustment while preventing prolonged Na+ transport to the shoot. PMID:24085482

  17. Biophysical and biochemical constraints imposed by salt stress: learning from halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Bernardo; Sleimi, Noomene; Caçador, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinization is one of the most important factors impacting plant productivity. About 3.6 billion of the world’s 5.2 billion ha of agricultural dry land, have already suffered erosion, degradation, and salinization. Halophytes are typically considered as plants able to complete their life cycle in environments where the salt concentration is above 200 mM NaCl. Salinity adjustment is a complex phenomenon but essential mechanism to overcome salt stress, with both biophysical and biochemical implications. At this level, halophytes evolved in several directions, adopting different strategies. Otherwise, the lack of adaptation to a salt environment would negatively affect their electron transduction pathways and the entire energetic metabolism, the foundation of every plant photosynthesis and biomass production. The maintenance of ionic homeostasis is in the basis of all cellular counteractive measures, in particular in terms of redox potential and energy transduction. In the present work the biophysical mechanisms underlying energy capture and transduction in halophytes are discussed alongside with their relation with biochemical counteractive mechanisms, integrating data from photosynthetic light harvesting complexes, electron transport chains to the quinone pools, carbon fixation, and energy dissipation metabolism. PMID:25566311

  18. Sodium chloride toxicity and the cellular basis of salt tolerance in halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Flowers, Timothy J.; Munns, Rana; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Halophytes are the flora of saline soils. They adjust osmotically to soil salinity by accumulating ions and sequestering the vast majority of these (generally Na+ and Cl−) in vacuoles, while in the cytoplasm organic solutes are accumulated to prevent adverse effects on metabolism. At high salinities, however, growth is inhibited. Possible causes are: toxicity to metabolism of Na+ and/or Cl− in the cytoplasm; insufficient osmotic adjustment resulting in reduced net photosynthesis because of stomatal closure; reduced turgor for expansion growth; adverse cellular water relations if ions build up in the apoplast (cell walls) of leaves; diversion of energy needed to maintain solute homeostasis; sub-optimal levels of K+ (or other mineral nutrients) required for maintaining enzyme activities; possible damage from reactive oxygen species; or changes in hormonal concentrations. Scope This review discusses the evidence for Na+ and Cl− toxicity and the concept of tissue tolerance in relation to halophytes. Conclusions The data reviewed here suggest that halophytes tolerate cytoplasmic Na+ and Cl− concentrations of 100–200 mm, but whether these ions ever reach toxic concentrations that inhibit metabolism in the cytoplasm or cause death is unknown. Measurements of ion concentrations in the cytosol of various cell types for contrasting species and growth conditions are needed. Future work should also focus on the properties of the tonoplast that enable ion accumulation and prevent ion leakage, such as the special properties of ion transporters and of the lipids that determine membrane permeability. PMID:25466549

  19. Medicinal halophytes: potent source of health promoting biomolecules with medical, nutraceutical and food applications.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Ksouri, Wided Megdiche; Jallali, Inès; Debez, Ahmed; Magné, Christian; Hiroko, Isoda; Abdelly, Chedly

    2012-12-01

    Salt-tolerant plants grow in a wide variety of saline habitats, from coastal regions, salt marshes and mudflats to inland deserts, salt flats and steppes. Halophytes living in these extreme environments have to deal with frequent changes in salinity level. This can be done by developing adaptive responses including the synthesis of several bioactive molecules. Consequently, several salt marsh plants have traditionally been used for medical, nutritional, and even artisanal purposes. Currently, an increasing interest is granted to these species because of their high content in bioactive compounds (primary and secondary metabolites) such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins, sterols, essential oils (terpenes), polysaccharides, glycosides, and phenolic compounds. These bioactive substances display potent antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumoral activities, and therefore represent key-compounds in preventing various diseases (e.g. cancer, chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorder) and ageing processes. The ongoing research will lead to the utilisation of halophytes as a new source of healthy products as functional foods, nutraceuticals or active principles in several industries. This contribution focuses on the ethnopharmacological uses of halophytes in traditional medicine and reviews recent investigations on their biological activities and nutraceuticals. The work is distributed according to the different families of nutraceuticals (lipids, vitamins, proteins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, etc.) discussing the analytical techniques employed for their determination. Information about the claimed health promoting effects of the different families of nutraceuticals is also provided together with data on their application.

  20. [Isolation, identification and characterization of ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa].

    PubMed

    Teng, Songshan; Liu, Yanping; Zhao, Lei

    2010-11-01

    We Isolated and characterized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa to understand the interactions between endophytes and halophyte. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria were isolated from root, stalk and leaf of Suaeda salsa and were identified based on morphological, physiological-biochemical properties, API and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Isolates were evaluated for their ACC deaminase, antifungal, protease activity, siderophores and phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. Four ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria strains named as LP11, SS12, TW1 and TW2 were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas putida respectively. All the strains possessed the phosphate-solubilizing ability and could produce siderophores and phytohormones more or less. None of them could fix atmospheric nitrogen or produce protease. Only strain SS12 showed antagonism against two phytopathogenic fungi viz Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria of Pseudomonas sp. and Pantoea sp. isolated from halophyte Suaeda salsa have abundant biological characteristics related to plant growth promotion, stress homeostasis regulation and biocontrol activity.

  1. Metal speciation in salt marsh sediments: Influence of halophyte vegetation in salt marshes with different morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Duarte, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Caçador, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes provide environmental conditions that are known to affect metal speciation in sediments. The elevational gradient along the marsh and consequent differential flooding are some of the major factors influencing halophytic species distribution and coverage due to their differential tolerance to salinity and submersion. Different species, in turn, also have distinct influences on the sediment's metal speciation, and its metal accumulation abilities. The present work aimed to evaluate how different halophyte species in two different salt marshes could influence metal partitioning in the sediment at root depth and how that could differ from bare sediments. Metal speciation in sediments around the roots (rhizosediments) of Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia fruticosa and Spartina maritima was determined by sequentially extracting operationally defined fractions with solutions of increasing strength and acidity. Rosário salt marsh generally showed higher concentrations of all metals in the rhizosediments. Metal partitioning was primarily related to the type of metal, with the elements' chemistry overriding the environment's influence on fractionation schemes. The most mobile elements were Cd and Zn, with greater availability being found in non-vegetated sediments. Immobilization in rhizosediments was predominantly influenced by the presence of Fe and Mn oxides, as well as organic complexes. In the more mature of both salt marshes, the differences between vegetated and non-vegetated sediments were more evident regarding S. fruticosa, while in the younger system all halophytes presented significantly different metal partitioning when compared to that of mudflats.

  2. Effectiveness of the aquatic halophyte Sarcocornia perennis spp. perennis as a biotool for ecological restoration of metal-contaminated salt marshes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecological restoration and creation of salt marshes is needed to compensate for their degradation and loss, but little is known about halophytes as plant biotools in restoration projects. Restoration plantings of halophytes have been established following eradication of invasive populations of the e...

  3. Searching for new sources of innovative products for the food industry within halophyte aromatic plants: In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic and mineral contents of infusions and decoctions of Crithmum maritimum L.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina Guerreiro; Barreira, Luísa; da Rosa Neng, Nuno; Nogueira, José Manuel Florêncio; Marques, Cátia; Santos, Tamára F; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2017-09-01

    Aromatic halophyte plants are an outstanding source of bioactive compounds and natural products with potential use in the food industry. This work reports the in vitro antioxidant activity, toxicity, polyphenolic profile and mineral contents of infusions and decoctions from stems, leaves and flowers of Crithmum maritimum L., an aromatic and edible maritime halophyte (sea fennel). Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) Dahlg. (rooibos) herbal tea was used as a reference. Sea fennel's tisanes, particularly from leaves, were rich in phenolic compounds and five of them (p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids, epicatechin, pyrocatechol and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) were here described in C. maritimum for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was the dominant phenolic determined. Na was the most abundant mineral in all tisanes followed by Ca and Mg in leaves' tisanes and K in flowers. Sea fennel's samples had a similar antioxidant activity than those from A. linearis, and had no significant toxicity towards four different mammalian cell lines. Altogether, our results suggest that sea fennel can be a source of products and/or molecules for the food industry with antioxidant properties and minerals in the form, for example, of innovative health-promoting herbal beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Silicon improves photosynthesis and strengthens enzyme activities in the C3 succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jianjun; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhu, Xi

    2016-07-20

    One main strategic adaptive mechanism adopted by succulent xerophyte species, resistance to drought stress is absorbing and accumulating large amounts of sodium (Na + ) from poor and dry soil which was stored in photosynthesizing branches as well as leaves as major osmoregulators, while still accumulating and storing a great deal of silicon (Si) in roots to resist to arid environments. To understand the possible adaptive strategies underlying how Si accumulation stimulates growth and ameliorates the adverse environmental impacts of drought stress on the C 3 succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum, plants grown for 3 weeks were suffered different K 2 SiO 3 concentrations (1.5-7.5mM) (3-15mM KCl as control) treatments in sand culture experiments. Plants were also treated with different osmotic stresses caused by polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) and drought stress (maintain water content about 30% of field water capacity) (30% of FWC) with or without additional 2.5mMK 2 SiO 3 (5mMKCl as control) treatment in sand culture and pot experiments, respectively. We found that 2.5mMK 2 SiO 3 (5mMKCl as control) resulted in optimal plant growth and alleviated adverse influences of drought stress on Z. xanthoxylum, by strengthening the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase, reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and decreasing soluble sugar and free proline concentrations, concomitantly, increasing tissue water content, leaf area and chlorophyll a concentration. The result of ion analysis indicated that the Si absorption of Z. xanthoxylum was markedly induced by drought stress and that the 2.5mMK 2 SiO 3 (5mMKCl as control) treatment significantly increased the aboveground and root Si concentration under different osmotic stresses and 30% of field water capacity compared with the drought and drought with 5mMKCl treatments. Although the K + concentration in root in the drought with 2.5mMK 2 SiO 3 treatment was no significant changes compared with the

  5. Humidity-dependent wound sealing in succulent leaves of Delosperma cooperi - An adaptation to seasonal drought stress.

    PubMed

    Speck, Olga; Schlechtendahl, Mark; Borm, Florian; Kampowski, Tim; Speck, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    During evolution, plants evolved various reactions to wounding. Fast wound sealing and subsequent healing represent a selective advantage of particular importance for plants growing in arid habitats. An effective self-sealing function by internal deformation has been found in the succulent leaves of Delosperma cooperi. After a transversal incision, the entire leaf bends until the wound is closed. Our results indicate that the underlying sealing principle is a combination of hydraulic shrinking and swelling as the main driving forces and growth-induced mechanical pre-stresses in the tissues. Hydraulic effects were measured in terms of the relative bending angle over 55 minutes under various humidity conditions. The higher the relative air humidity, the lower the bending angle. Negative bending angles were found when a droplet of liquid water was applied to the wound. The statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences of the single main effects such as "humidity conditions in the wound region" and "time after wounding" and their interaction effect. The centripetal arrangement of five tissue layers with various thicknesses and significantly different mechanical properties might play an additional role with regard to mechanically driven effects. Injury disturbs the mechanical equilibrium, with pre-stresses leading to internal deformation until a new equilibrium is reached. In the context of self-sealing by internal deformation, the highly flexible wide-band tracheids, which form a net of vascular bundles, are regarded as paedomorphic tracheids, which are specialised to prevent cell collapse under drought stress and allow for building growth-induced mechanical pre-stresses.

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Liao, Maoseng; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-12-17

    Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte, we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 287,185 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 652 bp. Using the BLAST function in the Swiss-Prot, NCBI nr, GO, KEGG, and KOG databases, a total of 216,416 coding sequences associated with known proteins were annotated. Among these, 35,533 unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18,378 unigenes were classified into 202 known pathways. Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60,127 unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38,122 and 22,005 up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. caspica contribute to a comprehensive understanding of K. caspica at the molecular level. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.

  7. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Panuccio, M. R.; Jacobsen, S. E.; Akhtar, S. S.; Muscolo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

  8. Similar regulation patterns of choline monooxygenase, phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase and S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase in leaves of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia L.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Tomoki; Kawaguchi, Yusuke; Azuma, Tetsushi; Nanmori, Takashi; Yasuda, Takeshi

    2005-03-01

    Glycinebetaine (betaine) highly accumulates as a compatible solute in certain plants and has been considered to play a role in the protection from salt stress. The betaine biosynthesis pathway of betaine-accumulating plants involves choline monooxygenase (CMO) as the key enzyme and phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT), which require S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. SAM is synthesized by SAM synthetase (SAMS), and is needed not only for betaine synthesis but also for the synthesis of other compounds, especially lignin. We cloned CMO, PEAMT and SAMS isogenes from a halophyte Atriplex nummularia L. (Chenopodiaceous). The transcript and protein levels of CMO were much higher in leaves and stems than in roots, suggesting that betaine is synthesized mainly in the shoot. The regulation patterns of transcripts for SAMS and PEAMT highly resembled that of CMO in the leaves during and after relief from salt stress, and on a diurnal rhythm. In the leaves, the betaine content was increased but the lignin content was not changed by salt stress. These results suggest that the transcript levels of SAMS are co-regulated with those of PEAMT and CMO to supply SAM for betaine synthesis in the leaves.

  9. Single cell-type analysis of cellular lipid remodelling in response to salinity in the epidermal bladder cells of the model halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Garibay-Hernández, Adriana; Melzer, Michael; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W T; Roessner, Ute

    2018-05-29

    Salt stress causes dramatic changes in the organization and dynamic properties of membranes, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved. Modified trichomes, known as epidermal bladder cells (EBC), on the leaves and stems of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum can be successfully exploited as a single-cell-type system to investigate salt-induced changes to cellular lipid composition. In this study alterations in key molecular species from different lipid classes highlighted an increase in phospholipid species, particularly those from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidic acid (PA), where the latter is central to the synthesis of membrane lipids. Triacylglycerol (TG) species decreased during salinity, while there was little change in plastidic galactolipids. EBC transcriptomic and proteomic data mining revealed changes in genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism and the upregulation of transcripts for PIPKIB, PI5PII, PIPKIII, and PLDδ, suggested the induction of signalling processes mediated by phosphoinositides and PA. TEM and flow cytometry showed the dynamic nature of lipid droplets in these cells under salt stress. Altogether, this work indicates the metabolism of TG might play an important role in EBC response to salinity as either an energy reserve for sodium accumulation and/or driving membrane biosynthesis for EBC expansion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity, distribution and roles of osmoprotective compounds accumulated in halophytes under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Slama, Inès; Abdelly, Chedly; Bouchereau, Alain; Flowers, Tim; Savouré, Arnould

    2015-02-01

    Osmolytes are low-molecular-weight organic solutes, a broad group that encompasses a variety of compounds such as amino acids, tertiary sulphonium and quaternary ammonium compounds, sugars and polyhydric alcohols. Osmolytes are accumulated in the cytoplasm of halophytic species in order to balance the osmotic potential of the Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulated in the vacuole. The advantages of the accumulation of osmolytes are that they keep the main physiological functions of the cell active, the induction of their biosynthesis is controlled by environmental cues, and they can be synthesized at all developmental stages. In addition to their role in osmoregulation, osmolytes have crucial functions in protecting subcellular structures and in scavenging reactive oxygen species. This review discusses the diversity of osmolytes among halophytes and their distribution within taxonomic groups, the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence their accumulation, and their role in osmoregulation and osmoprotection. Increasing the osmolyte content in plants is an interesting strategy to improve the growth and yield of crops upon exposure to salinity. Examples of transgenic plants as well as exogenous applications of some osmolytes are also discussed. Finally, the potential use of osmolytes in protein stabilization and solvation in biotechnology, including the pharmaceutical industry and medicine, are considered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Assessing the role of endophytic bacteria in the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Torre, S; Barcia-Piedras, J M; Mateos-Naranjo, E; Redondo-Gómez, S; Camacho, M; Caviedes, M A; Pajuelo, E; Rodríguez-Llorente, I D

    2017-03-01

    There is an increasing interest to use halophytes for revegetation of salt affected ecosystems, as well as in understanding their mechanisms of salt tolerance. We hypothesized that bacteria from the phyllosphere of these plants might play a key role in its high tolerance to excessive salinity. Eight endophytic bacteria belonging to Bacillus and closely related genera were isolated from phyllosphere of the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum growing in salty agricultural soils. The presence of plant-growth promoting (PGP) properties, enzymatic activities and tolerance towards NaCl was determined. Effects of inoculation on seeds germination and adult plant growth under experimental NaCl treatments (0, 510 and 1030 mM NaCl) were studied. Inoculation with a consortium including the best performing bacteria improved considerably the kinetics of germination and the final germination percentage of A. macrostachyum seeds. At high NaCl concentrations (1030 mM), inoculation of plants mitigated the effects of high salinity on plant growth and physiological performance and, in addition, this consortium appears to have increased the potential of A. macrostachyum to accumulate Na + in its shoots, thus improving sodium phytoextraction capacity. Bacteria isolated from A. macrostachyum phyllosphere seem to play an important role in plant salt tolerance under stressing salt concentrations. The combined use of A. macrostachyum and its microbiome can be an adequate tool to enhance plant adaptation and sodium phytoextraction during restoration of salt degraded soils. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Diversity, distribution and roles of osmoprotective compounds accumulated in halophytes under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Inès; Abdelly, Chedly; Bouchereau, Alain; Flowers, Tim; Savouré, Arnould

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Osmolytes are low-molecular-weight organic solutes, a broad group that encompasses a variety of compounds such as amino acids, tertiary sulphonium and quaternary ammonium compounds, sugars and polyhydric alcohols. Osmolytes are accumulated in the cytoplasm of halophytic species in order to balance the osmotic potential of the Na+ and Cl− accumulated in the vacuole. The advantages of the accumulation of osmolytes are that they keep the main physiological functions of the cell active, the induction of their biosynthesis is controlled by environmental cues, and they can be synthesized at all developmental stages. In addition to their role in osmoregulation, osmolytes have crucial functions in protecting subcellular structures and in scavenging reactive oxygen species. Scope This review discusses the diversity of osmolytes among halophytes and their distribution within taxonomic groups, the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence their accumulation, and their role in osmoregulation and osmoprotection. Increasing the osmolyte content in plants is an interesting strategy to improve the growth and yield of crops upon exposure to salinity. Examples of transgenic plants as well as exogenous applications of some osmolytes are also discussed. Finally, the potential use of osmolytes in protein stabilization and solvation in biotechnology, including the pharmaceutical industry and medicine, are considered. PMID:25564467

  13. Salt Induces Features of a Dormancy-Like State in Seeds of Eutrema (Thellungiella) salsugineum, a Halophytic Relative of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kazachkova, Yana; Khan, Asif; Acuña, Tania; López-Díaz, Isabel; Carrera, Esther; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Fait, Aaron; Barak, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The salinization of land is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide. Halophytes adapted to high levels of salinity are likely to possess useful genes for improving crop tolerance to salt stress. In addition, halophytes could provide a food source on marginal lands. However, despite halophytes being salt-tolerant plants, the seeds of several halophytic species will not germinate on saline soils. Yet, little is understood regarding biochemical and gene expression changes underlying salt-mediated inhibition of halophyte seed germination. We have used the halophytic Arabidopsis relative model system, Eutrema (Thellungiella) salsugineum to explore salt-mediated inhibition of germination. We show that E. salsugineum seed germination is inhibited by salt to a far greater extent than in Arabidopsis, and that this inhibition is in response to the osmotic component of salt exposure. E. salsugineum seeds remain viable even when germination is completely inhibited, and germination resumes once seeds are transferred to non-saline conditions. Moreover, removal of the seed coat from salt-treated seeds allows embryos to germinate on salt-containing medium. Mobilization of seed storage reserves is restricted in salt-treated seeds, while many germination-associated metabolic changes are arrested or progress to a lower extent. Salt-exposed seeds are further characterized by a reduced GA/ABA ratio and increased expression of the germination repressor genes, RGL2, ABI5, and DOG1. Furthermore, a salt-mediated increase in expression of a LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT gene and accretion of metabolites involved in osmoprotection indicates induction of processes associated with stress tolerance, and accumulation of easily mobilized carbon reserves. Overall, our results suggest that salt inhibits E. salsugineum seed germination by inducing a seed state with molecular features of dormancy while a physical constraint to radicle emergence is provided by the seed coat layers. This seed

  14. The use of halophytic plants for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Farzi, Abolfazl; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Vossoughi, Manouchehr

    2017-07-03

    This research studied the use of constructed wetlands (CWs) to reduce water salinity. For this purpose, three halophytic species of the Chenopodiaceae family (Salicornia europaea, Salsola crassa, and Bienertia cycloptera) that are resistant to saline conditions were planted in the CWs, and experiments were conducted at three different salinity levels [electrical conductivity (EC)∼2, 6, 10 dS/m]. EC and concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and chlorine (Cl) were measured before and after phytoremediation with a retention time of 1 week. The results suggested that these plants were able to grow well and complete their life cycles at all the salinity levels within this study. Moreover, these plants reduced the measured parameters to acceptable levels. Therefore, these plants can be considered good options for salt phytoremediation.

  15. Phytostabilisation of severely contaminated mine tailings using halophytes and field addition of organic and inorganic amendments.

    PubMed

    Pardo, T; Bernal, M P; Clemente, R

    2017-07-01

    Phytostabilisation strategies have proven to be an efficient remediation option for mine tailings, but the adequate plant species and amendments have to be carefully selected. A remediation experiment was carried out at the semi-field level in tailings (pH 3.2, ≈1100, 4700 and 5000 mg kg -1 of As, Pb and Zn, respectively) from the mining district of La Unión-Cartagena (SE Spain). A red mud derivative (Fe/Al oxides), its combination with compost, and hydrated lime (Ca hydroxide) were applied in field plots of 0.25 m 2 . After four months of field stabilisation, tailings were transferred unaltered to a plant growth facility, and Atriplex halimus and Zygophyllum fabago (halophytes) were sown. Three months later, trace element (TE) solubility, plant accumulation and chemical speciation in the tailings pore water were studied. In unamended tailings, soluble TEs concentrations were very high (e.g., 40 mg Zn l -1 ), the dominant species being free ions and SO 4 2- - complexes (>70%). The addition of amendments increased tailings pH (6.7-7), reduced TEs solubility and extractability (>80-99%) and changed the dominant species of soluble Al, Cu, Pb and Zn to hydroxides and/or organo-metallic complexes, but increased slightly the extractable As and soluble Tl concentrations. Plants were able to grow only in amended tailings, and both species presented low levels of Al, As, Cd and Zn. Therefore, the use of combined red mud derivative and compost and halophytes was shown to be a good phytostabilisation strategy, although the dose applied must be carefully chosen in order to avoid possible solubilisation of As and Tl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the potential of halophytes as energy crops for the electric utility industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This technical report assesses and estimates the potential of selected halophytes as future renewable energy resources, especially by US electric utilities, and familiarizes nonspecialists with research and development problems that must be resolved before these energy sources can become dependable supplies of energy. A literature search related to both indigenous and exotic species of halophytes has been done and appropriate terrestrial species have been selected. Selection criteria include: total biomass potential, genetic constraints, establishment and cultivation requirements, regions of suitability, secondary credits, and a number of other factors. Based on these selection criteria, for the arid western states with highmore » levels of salinity in water and/or soils, there is little potential for energy feedstocks derived from grasses and herbaceous forbs. Likewise, coastal marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, although excellent biomass producers, are too limited by region and have too many ecological and environmental problems for consideration. The deep-rooted, perennial woody shrubs indigenous to many saline regions of the west provide the best potential. The number of species in this group is limited, and Atriplex canescens, Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and Chrysothamnus nauseosus are the three species with the greatest biological potential. These shrubs would receive minimal energy inputs in cultivation, would not compete with agricultural land, and would restore productivity to severely disturbed sites. One might logically expect to achieve biomass feedstock yields of three to five tons/acre/yr on a long-term sustainable basis. The possibility also exists that exotic species might be introduced. 67 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.« less

  17. Deficit irrigation of a landscape halophyte for reuse of saline waste water in a desert city

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glenn, E.P.; Mckeon, C.; Gerhart, V.; Nagler, P.L.; Jordan, F.; Artiola, J.

    2009-01-01

    Saline waste waters from industrial and water treatment processes are an under-utilized resource in desert urban environments. Management practices to safely use these water sources are still in development. We used a deeprooted native halophyte, Atriplex lentiformis (quailbush), to absorb mildly saline effluent (1800 mg l-1 total dissolved solids, mainly sodium sulfate) from a water treatment plant in the desert community of Twentynine Palms, California. We developed a deficit irrigation strategy to avoid discharging water past the root zone to the aquifer. The plants were irrigated at about one-third the rate of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological data over five years and soil moisture levels were monitored to a soil depth of 4.7 m at monthly intervals with a neutron hydroprobe. The deficit irrigation schedule maintained the soil below field capacity throughout the study. Water was presented on a more or less constant schedule, so that the application rates were less than ETo in summer and equal to or slightly greater than ETo in winter, but the plants were able to consume water stored in the profile in winter to support summer ET. Sodium salts gradually increased in the soil profile over the study but sulfate levels remained low, due to formation of gypsum in the calcic soil. The high salt tolerance, deep roots, and drought tolerance of desert halophytes such as A. lentiformis lend these plants to use as deficit-irrigated landscape plants for disposal of effluents in urban setting when protection of the aquifer is important. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Investigations of adaptation mechanisms of different halophytes types in different soil salinity conditions (Southern Central Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyusar, Natalia; Pechurkin, Nickolay

    High salt concentration in the soil is one of the limiting factors affecting plant growth and development. However, there are plants that are physiologically adapted to high salts concen-trations -halophytes. Studies of halophytes reveals mechanisms of adaptation to this factor. Investigations were conducted in the steppe zone of Southern Central Siberia (Russia, Khaka-sia), nearest coastal zone of the Lake Kurinka. The work was carried on route and stationary methods. As a results was conducted about 100 geobotanical descriptions, was defined species composition, covering, vertical and horizontal structure of plant communities, the productivity of above ground dry phytomass. As a result of field work was identified various types of plant communities, that are located on soils with a salinity degree are 0,2 -7,16 g / l. Type of saline -sulfate-sodium. Suaeda plant communities was located in the meadow-saline soil (soil salinity degree 5 -7 g / l). The dominant is euhalophyte Suaeda linifolia Pall. and subdominant is glycohalophyte Puccinellia tenuissima. A plant community has two layers. Total covering is 50 -55During the study period (2004 -2009), the change was observed in the soil salinity degree in the range of 2.27 -7.16 g / l. The plan community productivity varied from 99 to 201 g/m2 by years of research. Also was noted that the salt amount in the plants biomass varies depending on the type of halophyte. In the cells of euhalophyte Suaeda linifolia the salt amount was 10-35The investigation noted that relations between the main photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) have changes depending on the type of halophyte. Thus, in typical glycohalophyte Puccinellia tenuissima, Elytrigia repens and Phragmites australis chlorophyll content remained relatively high during the summer period and were 0,74, 0,61 and 0,53

  19. How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas?

    PubMed Central

    Lutts, Stanley; Lefèvre, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Many areas throughout the world are simultaneously contaminated by high concentrations of soluble salts and by high concentrations of heavy metals that constitute a serious threat to human health. The use of plants to extract or stabilize pollutants is an interesting alternative to classical expensive decontamination procedures. However, suitable plant species still need to be identified for reclamation of substrates presenting a high electrical conductivity. Scope Halophytic plant species are able to cope with several abiotic constraints occurring simultaneously in their natural environment. This review considers their putative interest for remediation of polluted soil in relation to their ability to sequester absorbed toxic ions in trichomes or vacuoles, to perform efficient osmotic adjustment and to limit the deleterious impact of oxidative stress. These physiological adaptations are considered in relation to the impact of salt on heavy metal bioavailabilty in two types of ecosystem: (1) salt marshes and mangroves, and (2) mine tailings in semi-arid areas. Conclusions Numerous halophytes exhibit a high level of heavy metal accumulation and external NaCl may directly influence heavy metal speciation and absorption rate. Maintenance of biomass production and plant water status makes some halophytes promising candidates for further management of heavy-metal-polluted areas in both saline and non-saline environments. PMID:25672360

  20. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

  1. Soil aggregation and aggregate-associated carbon under four typical halophyte communities in an arid area.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haichang; Wang, Jingya; Zhang, Fenghua

    2016-12-01

    The soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) is considered as a sensitive index of soil carbon ecosystem. The distribution of aggregate-associated MBC determines the capacity of the soil to store soil organic carbon (SOC). We compared soil aggregate-associated SOC and aggregate-associated MBC under four halophyte communities: Karelinia caspia (Pall.) Less. (Abbr. K. caspia), Bassia dasyphylla (Fisch. et C. A. Mey.) Kuntze. (Abbr. B. dasyphylla), Haloxylon ammodendron (C. A. Mey.) Bunge. (Abbr. H. ammodendron), and Tamarix ramosissima Lour (Abbr. T. ramosissima) on an alluvial fan in the Manasi River Basin, Xinjiang, China. The specific objectives of the study were to determine which aggregate size fraction was the most important for MBC and SOC retention in these soils of four halophyte communities. The results showed that the 0.053-0.25 mm fraction contained 47 to 75 % of the total soil mass. The amount of soil in the 0.053-0.25 mm fraction was significantly greater than that in the >0.25 and the <0.053 mm fractions. The >0.25 and the <0.053 mm fractions contained 7.8 to 43.0 % of the soil mass. Aggregate-associated SOC concentrations ranged from 1.70 to 13.68 g kg -1 , and the aggregate-associated SOC were the highest under the H. ammodendron and T. ramosissima communities. The aggregate-associated MBC ranged from 55.26 to 217.11 g kg -1 , and the aggregate-associated MBC were higher under the K. caspia and B. dasyphylla communities. The aggregate-associated SOC concentrations were significantly higher in the >0.25 and the <0.053 mm fractions than in the 0.053-0.25 mm fraction. The aggregate-associated MBC in the 20-40 cm depth was consistent with its law. However, in the 0-20 cm depth, the aggregate-associated MBC concentrations were significantly higher in the >0.25 mm fraction than the other two aggregate fractions, and there were no significant differences in 0.25-0.053 or <0.053 mm fraction. Correlation analyses showed that the aggregate

  2. The estimation of adaptive capacity of plants - halophytes, depending on the varying degrees of soil salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononova, Natalia; Pechurkin, Nickolay

    2012-07-01

    The high osmotic pressure of soil solution and toxic salts restrict the possible growth of the most plant species. However, the plant halophytes are able to grow on soil with a very high degree of salinity. The object of this study is a halophytic vegetation located near the coastal zone of the Lake Kurinka (the South Siberia, Khakasia). The total lake mineralization varies from 72 to 108 g / l. Type of salinity - sulfate-soda (the content of SO42-- 0,086%; HCO3-- 1,74%). It was observed that each plant communitie are located on soils with the different soil salinity degree (0.2 - 7.16 g / l). That is why, they have a different species richness and structural organization. It is shown that the average values of above-ground dry phytomass of plant communities (over five years of research) changed to a limited extent by changing the size of a projective cover of the dominant species. It is noted that in Suaeda plant community (dominant Suaeda corniculata) productivity ranges from 100 to 210 g/m2. It was calculated the possible accumulation of plant community phytomass (taking into account changes in soil salinity) so if in this territory grows only one species, that in a real community was a dominant. Estimated phytomass of the monodominant (Sueda corniculata) in 2004 and 2008 (143 and 188 g/m2 for years, respectively) was comparable with the real growth of the community (174 and 201 g/m2 for years, respectively). For Puccinellia tenuissima, that is subdominant in this plant communities, characterized by a small increasing of phytomass and in the likely absence of competition, the total phytomass this plant communities are amounted to 54 and 111 g/m2, respectively, over the years. This values are almost two times lower than the actual value. It is obvious that the existing conditions of salinity are sufficiently extreme to Puccinellia tenuissima and its monospecific community would be able to compete with the real dominant - Suaeda corniculata.

  3. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  4. Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia

  5. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance. PMID:27169610

  6. 'Halophyte filters': the potential of constructed wetlands for application in saline aquaculture.

    PubMed

    De Lange, H J; Paulissen, M P C P; Slim, P A

    2013-01-01

    World consumption of seafood continues to rise, but the seas and oceans are already over-exploited. Land-based (saline) aquaculture may offer a sustainable way to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish. A major problem of aquaculture is nutrient waste, as most of the nutrients added through feed are released into the environment in dissolved form. Wetlands are nature's water purifiers. Constructed wetlands are commonly used to treat contaminated freshwater effluent. Experience with saline systems is more limited. This paper explores the potential of constructed saline wetlands for treating the nutrient-rich discharge from land-based saline aquaculture systems. The primary function of constructed wetlands is water purification, but other ancillary benefits can also be incorporated into treatment wetland designs. Marsh vegetation enhances landscape beauty and plant diversity, and wetlands may offer habitat for fauna and recreational areas. Various approaches can be taken in utilizing plants (halophytes, macro-algae, micro-algae) in the treatment of saline aquaculture effluent. Their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed here, and a conceptual framework is presented that takes into account economic and ecological benefits as well as spatial constraints. Use of the framework is demonstrated for assessing various saline aquaculture systems in the southwestern delta region of the Netherlands.

  7. Water potential in soil and Atriplex nummularia (phytoremediator halophyte) under drought and salt stresses.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Hidelblandi Farias; de Souza, Edivan Rodrigues; de Almeida, Brivaldo Gomes; Mulas, Maurizio

    2018-02-23

    Atriplex nummularia is a halophyte widely employed to recover saline soils and was used as a model to evaluate the water potentials in the soil-plant system under drought and salt stresses. Potted plants grown under 70 and 37% of field capacity irrigated with solutions of NaCl and of a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 and CaCl 2 reproducing six electrical conductivity (EC): 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 dS m -1 . After 100 days, total water (Ψ w, plant ) and osmotic (Ψ o, plant ) potentials at predawn and midday and Ψ o, soil , matric potential (Ψ m, soil ) and Ψ w, soil were determined. The type of ion in the irrigation water did not influence the soil potential, but was altered by EC. The soil Ψ o component was the largest contributor to Ψ w, soil . Atriplex is surviving ECs close to 40 dS m -1 due to the decrease in the Ψ w . The plants reached a Ψ w of approximately -8 MPa. The water potentials determined for different moisture levels, EC levels and salt types showed huge importance for the management of this species in semiarid regions and can be used to recover salt affected soils.

  8. Biosynthesis and accumulation of osmoprotective compounds by halophytic plants of the genus Limonium

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; Rathinasabapathi, B.; Gage, D.A.

    1991-05-01

    Analyses of quaternary ammonium compounds in leaf and root tissues of halophytic Limonium spp. using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry revealed that only 3 out of 21 spp. accumulated glycine betaine, the common angiosperm osmolyte. The 18 other spp. accumulated {beta}-alanine betaine instead. However, all the Limonium spp. studied accumulated choline-O-sulfate and their leaf disks metabolized ({sup 14}C) choline to choline-O-sulfate. Only the glycine betaine accumulators oxidized ({sup 14}C) choline to glycine betaine and only {beta}-alanine betaine accumulators converted {beta}-({sup 14}C)alanine to {beta}-alanine betaine. When {beta}-alanine betaine and glycine betaine accumulators were salinized with NaCl, the levels of their respectivemore » betaines and of choline sulfate were closely correlated with solute potential. Glycine betaine accumulators had less choline-O-sulfate than {beta}-alanine betaine accumulators and increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2}/Cl ratio in the medium increased choline-O-sulfate and caused a matching decrease in glycine betaine. Thus, it appears that {beta}-alanine betaine has replaced glycine betaine in most members of this genus, eliminating a possible competition between glycine betaine and choline-O-sulfate for choline.« less

  9. Anti-aging activities of extracts from Tunisian medicinal halophytes and their aromatic constituents

    PubMed Central

    Jdey, A.; Falleh, H.; Ben Jannet, S.; Mkadmini Hammi, K.; Dauvergne, X.; Magné, C.; Ksouri, R.

    2017-01-01

    Six medicinal halophytes widely represented in North Africa and commonly used in traditional medicine were screened for pharmacological properties to set out new promising sources of natural ingredients for cosmetic or nutraceutical applications. Thus, Citrullus colocynthis, Cleome arabica, Daemia cordata, Haloxylon articulatum, Pituranthos scoparius and Scorzonera undulata were examined for their in vitro antioxidant (DPPH scavenging and superoxide anion-scavenging, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and iron-reducing tests), antibacterial (microdilution method, against four human pathogenic bacteria) and anti-tyrosinase activities. Besides, their aromatic composition was determined by RP-HPLC. H. articulatum shoot extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity and inhibited efficiently the growth of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli. P. scoparius and C. arabica inhibited slightly monophenolase, whereas H. articulatum was the most efficient inhibitor of diphenolase activity. Furthermore, H. articulatum exhibited the highest aromatic content (3.4 % DW), with dopamine as the major compound. These observations suggest that shoot extract of H. articulatum, and to a lesser extent of C. arabica, could be used as antioxidant, antibiotic as well as new natural skin lightening agents. Also, possible implication of aromatic compounds in anti-tyrosinase activity is discussed. PMID:28827992

  10. Anti-aging activities of extracts from Tunisian medicinal halophytes and their aromatic constituents.

    PubMed

    Jdey, A; Falleh, H; Ben Jannet, S; Mkadmini Hammi, K; Dauvergne, X; Magné, C; Ksouri, R

    2017-01-01

    Six medicinal halophytes widely represented in North Africa and commonly used in traditional medicine were screened for pharmacological properties to set out new promising sources of natural ingredients for cosmetic or nutraceutical applications. Thus, Citrullus colocynthis , Cleome arabica , Daemia cordata , Haloxylon articulatum , Pituranthos scoparius and Scorzonera undulata were examined for their in vitro antioxidant (DPPH scavenging and superoxide anion-scavenging, β -carotene bleaching inhibition and iron-reducing tests), antibacterial (microdilution method, against four human pathogenic bacteria) and anti-tyrosinase activities. Besides, their aromatic composition was determined by RP-HPLC. H. articulatum shoot extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity and inhibited efficiently the growth of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli . P. scoparius and C. arabica inhibited slightly monophenolase, whereas H. articulatum was the most efficient inhibitor of diphenolase activity. Furthermore, H. articulatum exhibited the highest aromatic content (3.4 % DW), with dopamine as the major compound. These observations suggest that shoot extract of H. articulatum , and to a lesser extent of C. arabica , could be used as antioxidant, antibiotic as well as new natural skin lightening agents. Also, possible implication of aromatic compounds in anti-tyrosinase activity is discussed.

  11. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of the medicinal halophyte Reaumuria vermiculata

    PubMed Central

    Karker, Manel; Falleh, Hanen; Msaada, Kamel; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Abdelly, Chedly; Legault, Jean; Ksouri, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Reaumuria vermiculata is a xero-halophytic specie widely distributed in the south of Tunisia. In the current study, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Reaumuria vermiculata shoot extracts as well as its phenolic compounds were investigated in different solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water). Results showed a strong antioxidant activity, using the ORAC method and a cell based-assay, in methanol extract as well as an important phenolic composition (117.12 mg GAE/g). Hexane and dichloromethane proved an interesting anticancer activity against A-549 lung carcinoma cells, with IC50 values of 17 and 23 µg/ml, respectively. Besides, dichloromethane extract displayed the utmost anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting NO release over 100 % at 80 µg/ml in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. Taken together, these finding suggest that R. vermiculata exhibited an interesting biological activities which may be related to the phenolic composition of this plant. Moreover, the identification of phenolic compounds in R. vermiculata dichloromethane extract using RP-HPLC revealed that myricetin was the major molecule. These results allow us to propose R. vermiculata as a valuable source for bioactive and natural compounds exhibiting interesting biological capacities. PMID:27298615

  12. Divergence in Life History Traits between Two Populations of a Seed-Dimorphic Halophyte in Response to Soil Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.; Yang, Xuejun; Cao, Dechang; Huang, Zhenying

    2017-01-01

    Production of heteromorphic seeds is common in halophytes growing in arid environments with strong spatial and temporal heterogeneity. However, evidence for geographic variation (reflecting local adaptation) is almost nonexistent. Our primary aims were to compare the life history traits of two desert populations of this halophytic summer annual Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica and to investigate the phenotypic response of its plant and heteromorphic seeds to different levels of salt stress. Dimorphic seeds (F1) of the halophyte S. corniculata collected from two distant populations (F0) that differ in soil salinity were grown in a common environment under different levels of salinity to minimize the carryover effects from the field environment and tested for variation in plant (F1) and seed (F2) traits. Compared to F1 plants grown in low soil salinity, those grown in high salinity (>0.2 mol⋅L-1) were smaller and produced fewer seeds but had a higher reproductive allocation and a higher non-dormant brown seed: dormant black seed ratio. High salinity during plant growth decreased germination percentage of F2 black seeds but had no effect on F2 brown seeds. Between population differences in life history traits in the common environment corresponded with those in the natural populations. Phenotypic differences between the two populations were retained in F1 plants and in F2 seeds in the common environment, which suggests that the traits are genetically based. Our results indicate that soil salinity plays an ecologically important role in population regeneration of S. corniculata by influencing heteromorphic seed production in the natural habitat. PMID:28670319

  13. Remediation of saline soils contaminated with crude oil using the halophyte Salicornia persica in conjunction with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ebadi, Ali; Khoshkholgh Sima, Nayer Azam; Olamaee, Mohsen; Hashemi, Maryam; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Reza

    2018-08-01

    The negative impact of salinity on plant growth and the survival of rhizosphere biota complicates the application of bioremediation to crude oil-contaminated saline soils. Here, a comparison was made between the remedial effect of treating the soil with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a salinity tolerant hydrocarbon-degrading consortium in conjunction with either the halophyte Salicornia persica or the non-halophyte Festuca arundinacea. The effect of the various treatments on salinized soils was measured by assessing the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation, the soil's dehydrogenase activity, the abundance of the bacteria and the level of phytotoxicity as measured by a bioassay. When a non-salinized soil was assessed after a treatment period of 120 days, the ranking for effectiveness with respect to TPH removal was F. arundinacea > P. aeruginosa > S. persica > no treatment control, while in the presence of salinity, the ranking changed to S. persica > P. aeruginosa > F. arundinacea > no treatment control. Combining the planting of S. persica or F. arundinacea with P. aeruginosa inoculation ("bioaugmentation") boosted the degradation of TPH up to 5-17%. Analyses of the residual oil contamination revealed that long chain alkanes (above C20) were particularly strongly degraded following the bioaugmentation treatments. The induced increase in dehydrogenase activity and the abundance of the bacteria (3.5 and 10 fold respectively) achieved in the bioaugmentation/S. persica treatment resulted in 46-76% reduction in soil phytotoxicity in a saline soil. The indication was that bioaugmentation of halophyte can help to mitigate the adverse effects on the effectiveness of bioremediation in a crude oil-contaminated saline soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs

    PubMed Central

    Collazo-Ortega, Margarita; Rosas, Ulises; Reyes-Santiago, Jerónimo

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding the monitoring of carbon sequestration by green roofs. Large-scale naturation, such as the implementation of green roofs, provides a way to partially mitigate the increased carbon dioxide output in urban areas. METHODS: Here, we quantified the carbon sequestration capabilities of two ornamental succulent plant species, Sedum dendroideum and Sedum rubrotinctum, which require low maintenance, and little or no irrigation. To obtain a detailed picture of these plants’ carbon sequestration capabilities, we measured carbon uptake on the Sedum plants by quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and fixation as organic acids, during the day and across the year, on a green roof located in Southern Mexico City. RESULTS: The species displayed their typical CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Moreover, our quantification allowed us to conservatively estimate that a newly planted green roof of Sedum sequesters approximately 180,000,000 ppm of carbon dioxide per year in a green roof of 100 square meters in the short term. DISCUSSION: The patterns of CAM and carbon dioxide sequestration were highly robust to the fluctuations of temperature and precipitation between seasons, and therefore we speculate that carbon sequestration would be comparable in any given year of a newly planted green roof. Older green roof would require regular trimming to mantain their carbon sink properties, but their carbon sequestration capabilities remain to be quantified. Nevertheless, we propose that Sedum green roofs can be part of the long-term solutions to mitigate the air pollution crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan area, and

  15. Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs.

    PubMed

    Collazo-Ortega, Margarita; Rosas, Ulises; Reyes-Santiago, Jerónimo

    2017-03-31

    In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding the monitoring of carbon sequestration by green roofs. Large-scale naturation, such as the implementation of green roofs, provides a way to partially mitigate the increased carbon dioxide output in urban areas. Here, we quantified the carbon sequestration capabilities of two ornamental succulent plant species, Sedum dendroideum and Sedum rubrotinctum, which require low maintenance, and little or no irrigation. To obtain a detailed picture of these plants' carbon sequestration capabilities, we measured carbon uptake on the Sedum plants by quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and fixation as organic acids, during the day and across the year, on a green roof located in Southern Mexico City. The species displayed their typical CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Moreover, our quantification allowed us to conservatively estimate that a newly planted green roof of Sedum sequesters approximately 180,000,000 ppm of carbon dioxide per year in a green roof of 100 square meters in the short term. The patterns of CAM and carbon dioxide sequestration were highly robust to the fluctuations of temperature and precipitation between seasons, and therefore we speculate that carbon sequestration would be comparable in any given year of a newly planted green roof. Older green roof would require regular trimming to mantain their carbon sink properties, but their carbon sequestration capabilities remain to be quantified. Nevertheless, we propose that Sedum green roofs can be part of the long-term solutions to mitigate the air pollution crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan area, and other "megacities" with marked seasonal drought.

  16. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant.

    PubMed

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  17. Expression of Osmotin-Like Genes in the Halophyte Atriplex nummularia L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Ana M.; Nelson, Donald E.; Raghothama, Kashchandra G.; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Singh, Narendra K.; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    A peptide (molecular mass 50 kilodaltons) that is immunologically related to tobacco osmotin was detected in cells of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia. This protein was constitutively expressed in both unadapted and NaCl-adapted cells. A predominant osmotin-like peptide (molecular mass 24 kilodaltons) was also found in culture media after cell growth. Two unique A. nummularia cDNA clones, pA8 and pA9, encoding osmotin-like proteins have been isolated. The pA8 and pA9 inserts are 952 and 792 base pairs and encode peptides of 222 and 224 amino acids, respectively. The peptide deduced from pA8 has a molecular mass of 23,808 daltons and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.31, whereas the peptide derived from pA9 has a molecular mass of 23,827 daltons and an isoelectric point of 6.88. Unique transcripts were detected by the inserts of the cDNA clones, two (1.2 and 1.0 kilobases) by pA8 and one (0.9 kilobase) by pA9. The pA8 transcripts were constitutively accumulated in unadapted and NaCl-adapted cells, whereas the mRNA levels were up-regulated by abscisic acid treatment. The level of pA9 mRNA was induced by NaCl treatment and increased in cells as a function of NaCl adaptation. Southern analysis of the genomic DNA indicated the presence of osmotin-like multigene families in A. nummularia. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:16668870

  18. Expression of Osmotin-Like Genes in the Halophyte Atriplex nummularia L.

    PubMed

    Casas, A M; Nelson, D E; Raghothama, K G; D'Urzo, M P; Singh, N K; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1992-05-01

    A peptide (molecular mass 50 kilodaltons) that is immunologically related to tobacco osmotin was detected in cells of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia. This protein was constitutively expressed in both unadapted and NaCl-adapted cells. A predominant osmotin-like peptide (molecular mass 24 kilodaltons) was also found in culture media after cell growth. Two unique A. nummularia cDNA clones, pA8 and pA9, encoding osmotin-like proteins have been isolated. The pA8 and pA9 inserts are 952 and 792 base pairs and encode peptides of 222 and 224 amino acids, respectively. The peptide deduced from pA8 has a molecular mass of 23,808 daltons and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.31, whereas the peptide derived from pA9 has a molecular mass of 23,827 daltons and an isoelectric point of 6.88. Unique transcripts were detected by the inserts of the cDNA clones, two (1.2 and 1.0 kilobases) by pA8 and one (0.9 kilobase) by pA9. The pA8 transcripts were constitutively accumulated in unadapted and NaCl-adapted cells, whereas the mRNA levels were up-regulated by abscisic acid treatment. The level of pA9 mRNA was induced by NaCl treatment and increased in cells as a function of NaCl adaptation. Southern analysis of the genomic DNA indicated the presence of osmotin-like multigene families in A. nummularia.

  19. Dormancy cycling and persistence of seeds in soil of a cold desert halophyte shrub

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Formation of seed banks and dormancy cycling are well known in annual species, but not in woody species. In this study it was hypothesized that the long-lived halophytic cold desert shrub Kalidium gracile has a seed bank and dormancy cycling, which help restrict germination to a favourable time for seedling survival. Methods Fresh seeds were buried in November 2009 and exhumed and tested for germination monthly from May 2010 to December 2011 over a range of temperatures and salinities. Germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were investigated in the field. Key Results Seeds of K. gracile had a soil seed bank of 7030 seeds m−2 at the beginning of the growing season. About 72 % of the seeds were depleted from the soil seed bank during a growing season, and only 1·4 % of them gave rise to seedlings that germinated early enough to reach a stage of growth at which they could survive to overwinter. About 28 % of the seeds became part of a persistent soil seed bank. Buried seeds exhibited an annual non-dormancy/conditional dormancy (ND/CD) cycle, and germination varied in sensitivity to salinity during the cycle. Dormancy cycling is coordinated with seasonal environmental conditions in such a way that the seeds germinate in summer, when there is sufficient precipitation for seedling establishment. Conclusions Kalidium gracile has three life history traits that help ensure persistence at a site: a polycarpic perennial life cycle, a persistent seed bank and dormancy cycling. The annual ND/CD cycle in seeds of K. gracile contributes to seedling establishment of this species in the unpredictable desert environment and to maintenance of a persistent soil seed bank. This is the first report of a seed dormancy cycle in a cold desert shrub. PMID:24249808

  20. Exploration for the Salinity Tolerance-Related Genes from Xero-Halophyte Atriplex canescens Exploiting Yeast Functional Screening System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingtao; Sun, Xinhua; Liu, Yanzhi; Wang, Xueliang; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    Plant productivity is limited by salinity stress, both in natural and agricultural systems. Identification of salt stress-related genes from halophyte can provide insights into mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in plants. Atriplex canescens is a xero-halophyte that exhibits optimum growth in the presence of 400 mM NaCl. A cDNA library derived from highly salt-treated A. canescens plants was constructed based on a yeast expression system. A total of 53 transgenic yeast clones expressing enhanced salt tolerance were selected from 105 transformants. Their plasmids were sequenced and the gene characteristics were annotated using a BLASTX search. Retransformation of yeast cells with the selected plasmids conferred salt tolerance to the resulting transformants. The expression patterns of 28 of these stress-related genes were further investigated in A. canescens leaves by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In this study, we provided a rapid and robust assay system for large-scale screening of genes for varied abiotic stress tolerance with high efficiency in A. canescens. PMID:29149055

  1. Cell growth and water relations of the halophyte, Atriplex nummularia L., in response to NaCl.

    PubMed

    Casas, A M; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1991-06-01

    Growth reduction or cessation is an initial response of Atriplex nummularia L. cells to NaCl. However, A. nummularia L. cells that are adapted to 342 and 428 mM NaCl are capable of sustained growth in the presence of salt. Cells that are adapted to NaCl exhibit a reduced rate of division compared to unadapted cells. Unlike salt adapted cells of the glycophyte Nicotiana tabacum L., A. nummularia L. cells do not exhibit reduced rate of cell expansion after adaptation. However, the cell expansion rate of unadapted A. nummularia L. cells is considerably slower than that of unadapted glycophyte cells and this normally low rate of cell expansion may contribute to the enhanced capacity of the halophyte to tolerate salt. Turgor of NaCl adapted cells was equivalent to unadapted cells indicating that the cells of the halophyte do not respond to salt by osmotic "over adjustment" as reported for the glycophyte tobacco (Binzel et al. 1985, Plant Physiol. 79:118-125).

  2. Effects of the halophytes Tecticornia indica and Suaeda fruticosa on soil enzyme activities in a Mediterranean Sabkha.

    PubMed

    Ouni, Youssef; Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Rabhi, Mokded; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Maria, A Rao; Chedly, Abdelly

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we studied the effectiveness of the predominant halophytes of Soliman sabkha (Tecticornia indica and Suaeda fruticosa) to promote soil biological activities and ecosystem productivity. Soil Arylsulphatese ARY, beta-glucosidase beta-GLU, phosphatase PHO, invertase INV, urease URE, and dehydogenase DES activities in Extra- and Intra-tuft halophytes and plant productivity were assessed. Results revealed a high increase of microbial community and ARY, beta-GLU, PHO, INV URE and DES activities (+298%, +400%, +800%, +350%, +320%, +25% and +759%, respectively) in Intra-tuft rhizosphere as compared to Extra-tuft one, which is likely due to the significant decrease of salinity in the rhizosphere of Tecticornia indica and Suaeda fruticosa. Both perennial plants exhibited high productivities (7.4 t dry weight ha(-1) and 2.2 t dry weight ha(-1), respectively) and Na+-hyperaccumulating capacities (0.75 t Na+ ha(-1) and 0.22 t Na+ ha(-1), respectively), reducing salt constraint and favouring soil fertility. This constitutes a promising alternative to enhance productivity in such a salt-affected biotope by offering suitable microhabitat for annual glycophytes.

  3. Long-chain (C19-C29) 1-chloro-n-alkanes in leaf waxes of halophytes of the Chenopodiaceae.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Vincent; Raphel, Danielle

    2003-07-01

    The hydrocarbon fraction of leaf waxes of three halophytes of the Chenopodiaceae common to Mediterranean salt marshes (Suaeda vera, Sarcocornia fruticosa and Halimione portulacoides) revealed the presence of a minor series of odd and even chains 1-chloro-n-alkanes ranging from C(19) to C(29). The identification of these new chlorinated plant constituents was based on a combination of mass spectrometry data with selective chlorine detection (CPG-AED) and was confirmed by comparison with authentic standards. The qualitative and quantitative distributions of these 1-chloro-n-alkanes varied inter-specifically. Homologues with an odd carbon-chain were predominant in all species but maximised at C(25) and C(27) in S. vera and S. fruticosa, and at C(27) and C(29) in H. portulacoides. Remarkably, 1-chloro-nonacosane was an abundant homologue only in this latter species. Leaves of S. vera contained 4 to 7 times more of total chloroalkanes than leaves of the other two species. These compounds accounted for 10, 4 and 1% of the hydrocarbon fraction of leaf waxes of S. vera, S. fruticosa and H. portulacoides, respectively. Attempts to link the occurrence of these chloroalkanes with other classes of leaf waxes (n-alkenes, n-aldehydes and n-alcohols) did not allowed a clear precursor-product relationship to be established. The biological functions as well as the mode of synthesis of alkylchlorides in (halophyte) plants remain unknown but undoubtedly deserve further attention.

  4. Metabolic potential and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with the roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium L.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Sonia; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Złoch, Michał; Ruppel, Silke; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The submitted work assumes that the abundance and diversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with the halophytic plant Aster tripolium L. growing in a salty meadow in the vicinity of a soda factory (central Poland) represent unique populations of cultivable bacterial strains. Endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria were (i) isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequences; (ii) screened for nifH and acdS genes; and (iii) analyzed based on selected metabolic properties. Moreover, total microbial biomass and community structures of the roots (endophytes), rhizosphere and soil were evaluated using a cultivation-independent technique (PLFA) to characterize plant-microbial interactions under natural salt conditions. The identification of the isolated strains showed domination by Gram-positive bacteria (mostly Bacillus spp.) both in the rhizosphere (90.9%) and roots (72.7%) of A. tripolium. Rhizosphere bacterial strains exhibited broader metabolic capacities, while endophytes exhibited higher specificities for metabolic activity. The PLFA analysis showed that the total bacterial biomass decreased in the following order (rhizospherehalophyte. The described strain collection provides a valuable basis for a subsequent applications of bacteria in improvement of site adaptation of plants in saline soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Germination of dimorphic seeds of the desert annual halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae), a C4 plant without Kranz anatomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhenying; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Dong, Ming

    2008-11-01

    Suaeda aralocaspica is a C4 summer annual halophyte without Kranz anatomy that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia. It produces two distinct types of seeds that differ in colour, shape and size. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the dormancy and germination characteristics of dimorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica and to develop a conceptual model of their dynamics. Temperatures simulating those in the natural habitat of S. aralocaspica were used to test for primary dormancy and germination behaviour of fresh brown and black seeds. The effects of cold stratification, gibberellic acid, seed coat scarification, seed coat removal and dry storage on dormancy breaking were tested in black seeds. Germination percentage and recovery responses of brown seeds, non-treated black seeds and 8-week cold-stratified black seeds to salt stress were tested. Brown seeds were non-dormant, whereas black seeds had non-deep Type 2 physiological dormancy (PD). Germination percentage and rate of germination of brown seeds and of variously pretreated black seeds were significantly higher than those of non-pretreated black seeds. Exposure of seeds to various salinities had significant effects on germination, germination recovery and induction into secondary dormancy. A conceptual model is presented that ties these results together and puts them into an ecological context. The two seed morphs of S. aralocaspica exhibit distinct differences in dormancy and germination characteristics. Suaeda aralocaspica is the first cold desert halophyte for which non-deep Type 2 PD has been documented.

  6. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    PubMed

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-03

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The interactive effects of mercury and selenium on metabolic profiles, gene expression and antioxidant enzymes in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Lai, Yongkai; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zou, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Suaeda salsa is the pioneer halophyte in the Yellow River Delta and was consumed as a popular vegetable. Mercury has become a highly risky contaminant in the sediment of intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. In this work, we investigated the interactive effects of mercury and selenium in S. salsa on the basis of metabolic profiling, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression quantification. Our results showed that mercury exposure (20 μg L(-1)) inhibited plant growth of S. salsa and induced significant metabolic responses and altered expression levels of INPS, CMO, and MDH in S. salsa samples, together with the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and POD. Overall, these results indicated osmotic and oxidative stresses, disturbed protein degradation and energy metabolism change in S. salsa after mercury exposures. Additionally, the addition of selenium could induce both antagonistic and synergistic effects including alleviating protein degradation and aggravating osmotic stress caused by mercury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Response of the Halophyte, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (Ice Plant) to High Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Suzuki, Takamasa; Nishikawa, Kouki; Agarie, Sakae; Ishiguro, Sumie; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms that convey salt tolerance in plants is a crucial issue for increasing crop yield. The ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) is a halophyte that is capable of growing under high salt conditions. For example, the roots of ice plant seedlings continue to grow in 140 mM NaCl, a salt concentration that completely inhibits Arabidopsis thaliana root growth. Identifying the molecular mechanisms responsible for this high level of salt tolerance in a halophyte has the potential of revealing tolerance mechanisms that have been evolutionarily successful. In the present study, deep sequencing (RNAseq) was used to examine gene expression in ice plant roots treated with various concentrations of NaCl. Sequencing resulted in the identification of 53,516 contigs, 10,818 of which were orthologs of Arabidopsis genes. In addition to the expression analysis, a web-based ice plant database was constructed that allows broad public access to the data. The results obtained from an analysis of the RNAseq data were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Novel patterns of gene expression in response to high salinity within 24 hours were identified in the ice plant when the RNAseq data from the ice plant was compared to gene expression data obtained from Arabidopsis plants exposed to high salt. Although ABA responsive genes and a sodium transporter protein (HKT1), are up-regulated and down-regulated respectively in both Arabidopsis and the ice plant; peroxidase genes exhibit opposite responses. The results of this study provide an important first step towards analyzing environmental tolerance mechanisms in a non-model organism and provide a useful dataset for predicting novel gene functions. PMID:25706745

  9. Identification of Novel and Conserved miRNAs from Extreme Halophyte, Oryza coarctata, a Wild Relative of Rice.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Debnath, Ananda Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Oryza coarctata, a halophyte and wild relative of rice, is grown normally in saline water. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in every domain of life including stress response. There are very few reports on the discovery of salt-responsive miRNAs from halophytes. In this study, two small RNA libraries, one each from the control and salt-treated (450 mM NaCl for 24 h) leaves of O. coarctata were sequenced, which yielded 338 known and 95 novel miRNAs. Additionally, we used publicly available transcriptomics data of O. coarctata which led to the discovery of additional 48 conserved miRNAs along with their pre-miRNA sequences through in silico analysis. In total, 36 known and 7 novel miRNAs were up-regulated whereas, 12 known and 7 novel miRNAs were down-regulated under salinity stress. Further, 233 and 154 target genes were predicted for 48 known and 14 novel differentially regulated miRNAs respectively. These targets with the help of gene ontology analysis were found to be involved in several important biological processes that could be involved in salinity tolerance. Relative expression trends of majority of the miRNAs as detected by real time-PCR as well as predicted by Illumina sequencing were found to be coherent. Additionally, expression of most of the target genes was negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs. Thus, the present study provides an account of miRNA-target networking that is involved in salinity adaption of O. coarctata.

  10. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming

    2011-12-01

    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  11. Growth responses and ion accumulation in the halophytic legume Prosopis strombulifera are determined by Na2SO4 and NaCl.

    PubMed

    Reginato, M; Sosa, L; Llanes, A; Hampp, E; Vettorazzi, N; Reinoso, H; Luna, V

    2014-01-01

    Halophytes are potential gene sources for genetic manipulation of economically important crop species. This study addresses the physiological responses of a widespread halophyte, Prosopis strombulifera (Lam.) Benth to salinity. We hypothesised that increasing concentrations of the two major salts present in soils of central Argentina (Na2SO4, NaCl, or their iso-osmotic mixture) would produce distinct physiological responses. We used hydroponically grown P. strombulifera to test this hypothesis, analysing growth parameters, water relations, photosynthetic pigments, cations and anions. These plants showed a halophytic response to NaCl, but strong general inhibition of growth in response to iso-osmotic solutions containing Na2SO4. The explanation for the adaptive success of P. strombulifera in high NaCl conditions seems to be related to a delicate balance between Na(+) accumulation (and its use for osmotic adjustment) and efficient compartmentalisation in vacuoles, the ability of the whole plant to ensure sufficient K(+) supply by maintaining high K(+)/Na(+) discrimination, and maintenance of normal Ca(2+) levels in leaves. The three salt treatments had different effects on the accumulation of ions. Findings in bi-saline-treated plants were of particular interest, where most of the physiological parameters studied showed partial alleviation of SO4(2-)-induced toxicity by Cl(-). Thus, discussions on physiological responses to salinity could be further expanded in a way that more closely mimics natural salt environments. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Native-Invasive Plants vs. Halophytes in Mediterranean Salt Marshes: Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Two Related Species.

    PubMed

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Chaura, Juliana; López-Gresa, María P; Borsai, Orsolya; Daniso, Enrico; Donat-Torres, María P; Mayoral, Olga; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in "La Albufera" Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain). The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves-where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles-and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na(+) and Cl(-) contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose) accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K(+) transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level-estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation-was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides. Based on these results, we

  13. Native-Invasive Plants vs. Halophytes in Mediterranean Salt Marshes: Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Two Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Chaura, Juliana; López-Gresa, María P.; Borsai, Orsolya; Daniso, Enrico; Donat-Torres, María P.; Mayoral, Olga; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in “La Albufera” Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain). The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves—where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles—and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na+ and Cl− contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose) accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K+ transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level—estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation—was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides. Based on these results

  14. Stem cells.

    PubMed

    Behr, Björn; Ko, Sae Hee; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Longaker, Michael T

    2010-10-01

    Stem cells are self-renewing cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines and are classified according to their origin and their ability to differentiate. Enormous potential exists in use of stem cells for regenerative medicine. To produce effective stem cell-based treatments for a range of diseases, an improved understanding of stem cell biology and better control over stem cell fate are necessary. In addition, the barriers to clinical translation, such as potential oncologic properties of stem cells, need to be addressed. With renewed government support and continued refinement of current stem cell methodologies, the future of stem cell research is exciting and promises to provide novel reconstructive options for patients and surgeons limited by traditional paradigms.

  15. STEM Symposium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    Lorenzo L. Esters, Vice President, APLU (Association of Public and Land-grant Universities), and Project Director, MMSI (Minority Male STEM Initiative) addresses STEM initiative report findings at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  16. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

  17. Specialized Microbiome of a Halophyte and its Role in Helping Non-Host Plants to Withstand Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhilin; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Labbé, Jessy; Redman, Regina; Qin, Yuan; Rodriguez, Russell; Zhang, Chulong; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Lin, Fucheng

    2016-01-01

    Root microbiota is a crucial determinant of plant productivity and stress tolerance. Here, we hypothesize that the superior halo-tolerance of seepweed Suaeda salsa is tightly linked to a specialized belowground microbiome. To test this hypothesis, we performed a phylogenetic trait-based framework analysis based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacer profiling. Data showed that the dominant α-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria communities in bulk soil and root endosphere tend to be phylogenetically clustered and at the same time exhibit phylogenetic over-dispersion in rhizosphere. Likewise, the dominant fungal genera occurred at high phylogenetic redundancy. Interestingly, we found the genomes of rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria associated with S. salsa to be enriched in genes contributing to salt stress acclimatization, nutrient solubilization and competitive root colonization. A wide diversity of rhizobacteria with similarity to known halotolerant taxa further supported this interpretation. These findings suggest that an ecological patterned root-microbial interaction strategy has been adopted in S. salsa system to confront soil salinity. We also demonstrated that the potential core microbiome members improve non-host plants growth and salt tolerance. This work provides a platform to improve plant fitness with halophytes-microbial associates and novel insights into the functions of plant microbiome under salinity. PMID:27572178

  18. Specialized microbiome of a halophyte and its role in helping non-host plants to withstand salinity

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Zhilin; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Labbé, Jessy

    Root microbiota is a crucial determinant of plant productivity and stress tolerance. Here, we hypothesize that the superior halo-tolerance of seepweed Suaeda salsa is tightly linked to a specialized belowground microbiome. To test this hypothesis, we performed a phylogenetic trait-based framework analysis based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacer profiling. Data showed that the dominant α-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria communities in bulk soil and root endosphere tend to be phylogenetically clustered and at the same time exhibit phylogenetic over-dispersion in rhizosphere. Likewise, the dominant fungal genera occurred at high phylogenetic redundancy. Interestingly, we found themore » genomes of rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria associated with S. salsa to be enriched in genes contributing to salt stress acclimatization, nutrient solubilization and competitive root colonization. A wide diversity of rhizobacteria with similarity to known halotolerant taxa further supported this interpretation. These findings suggest that an ecological patterned root-microbial interaction strategy has been adopted in S. salsa system to confront soil salinity. We also demonstrated that the potential core microbiome members improve non-host plants growth and salt tolerance. As a result, this work provides a platform to improve plant fitness with halophytes-microbial associates and novel insights into the functions of plant microbiome under salinity.« less

  19. Effects of salinity and ascorbic acid on growth, water status and antioxidant system in a perennial halophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Abdul; Gulzar, Salman; Aziz, Irfan; Hussain, Tabassum; Gul, Bilquees; Khan, M. Ajmal

    2015-01-01

    Salinity causes oxidative stress in plants by enhancing production of reactive oxygen species, so that an efficient antioxidant system, of which ascorbic acid (AsA) is a key component, is an essential requirement of tolerance. However, antioxidant responses of plants to salinity vary considerably among species. Limonium stocksii is a sub-tropical halophyte found in the coastal marshes from Gujarat (India) to Karachi (Pakistan) but little information exists on its salt resistance. In order to investigate the role of AsA in tolerance, 2-month-old plants were treated with 0 (control), 300 (moderate) and 600 (high) mM NaCl for 30 days with or without exogenous application of AsA (20 mM) or distilled water. Shoot growth of unsprayed plants at moderate salinity was similar to that of controls while at high salinity growth was inhibited substantially. Sap osmolality, AsA concentrations and activities of AsA-dependant antioxidant enzymes increased with increasing salinity. Water spray resulted in some improvement in growth, indicating that the growth promotion by exogenous treatments could partly be attributed to water. However, exogenous application of AsA on plants grown under saline conditions improved growth and AsA dependent antioxidant enzymes more than the water control treatment. Our data show that AsA-dependent antioxidant enzymes play an important role in salinity tolerance of L. stocksii. PMID:25603966

  20. Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from Halophyte Atriplex canescens to Explore Salt-Responsive Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingtao; Sun, Xinhua; Yu, Gang; Jia, Chengguo; Liu, Jinliang; Pan, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on gene expression profiling of halophyte A. canescens. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for stress tolerance in A. canescens, a full-length complementary DNA library was generated from A. canescens exposed to 400 mM NaCl, and provided 343 high-quality ESTs. In an evaluation of 343 valid EST sequences in the cDNA library, 197 unigenes were assembled, among which 190 unigenes (83.1% ESTs) were identified according to their significant similarities with proteins of known functions. All the 343 EST sequences have been deposited in the dbEST GenBank under accession numbers JZ535802 to JZ536144. According to Arabidopsis MIPS functional category and GO classifications, we identified 193 unigenes of the 311 annotations EST, representing 72 non-redundant unigenes sharing similarities with genes related to the defense response. The sets of ESTs obtained provide a rich genetic resource and 17 up-regulated genes related to salt stress resistance were identified by qRT-PCR. Six of these genes may contribute crucially to earlier and later stage salt stress resistance. Additionally, among the 343 unigenes sequences, 22 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were also identified contributing to the study of A. canescens resources. PMID:24960361

  1. Effect of operating conditions on yield and quality of biocrude during hydrothermal liquefaction of halophytic microalga Tetraselmis sp.

    PubMed

    Eboibi, B E; Lewis, D M; Ashman, P J; Chinnasamy, S

    2014-10-01

    The biomass of halophytic microalga Tetraselmis sp. with 16%w/w solids was converted into biocrude by a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process in a batch reactor at different temperatures (310, 330, 350 and 370°C) and reaction times (5, 15, 30, 45 and 60min). The biocrude yield, elemental composition, energy density and severity parameter obtained at various reaction conditions were used to predict the optimum condition for maximum recovery of biocrude with improved quality. This study clearly indicated that the operating condition for obtaining maximum biocrude yield and ideal quality biocrude for refining were different. A maximum biocrude yield of ∼65wt% ash free dry weight (AFDW) was obtained at 350°C and 5min, with a severity parameter and energy density of 5.21 and ∼35MJ/kg, respectively. The treatment with 45min reaction time recorded ∼62wt% (AFDW) yield of biocrude with and energy density of ∼39MJ/kg and higher severity parameter of 7.53. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Specialized microbiome of a halophyte and its role in helping non-host plants to withstand salinity

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Zhilin; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Labbé, Jessy; ...

    2016-08-30

    Root microbiota is a crucial determinant of plant productivity and stress tolerance. Here, we hypothesize that the superior halo-tolerance of seepweed Suaeda salsa is tightly linked to a specialized belowground microbiome. To test this hypothesis, we performed a phylogenetic trait-based framework analysis based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacer profiling. Data showed that the dominant α-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria communities in bulk soil and root endosphere tend to be phylogenetically clustered and at the same time exhibit phylogenetic over-dispersion in rhizosphere. Likewise, the dominant fungal genera occurred at high phylogenetic redundancy. Interestingly, we found themore » genomes of rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria associated with S. salsa to be enriched in genes contributing to salt stress acclimatization, nutrient solubilization and competitive root colonization. A wide diversity of rhizobacteria with similarity to known halotolerant taxa further supported this interpretation. These findings suggest that an ecological patterned root-microbial interaction strategy has been adopted in S. salsa system to confront soil salinity. We also demonstrated that the potential core microbiome members improve non-host plants growth and salt tolerance. As a result, this work provides a platform to improve plant fitness with halophytes-microbial associates and novel insights into the functions of plant microbiome under salinity.« less

  3. Isolation and in silico analysis of a novel H+-pyrophosphatase gene orthologue from the halophytic grass Leptochloa fusca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Muhammad; Saeed, Nasir A.; Habib, Imran; Ahmed, Moddassir; Shahzad, Khurram; Mansoor, Shahid; Ali, Rashid

    2017-02-01

    Structure prediction can provide information about function and active sites of protein which helps to design new functional proteins. H+-pyrophosphatase is transmembrane protein involved in establishing proton motive force for active transport of Na+ across membrane by Na+/H+ antiporters. A full length novel H+-pyrophosphatase gene was isolated from halophytic grass Leptochloa fusca using RT-PCR and RACE method. Full length LfVP1 gene sequence of 2292 nucleotides encodes protein of 764 amino acids. DNA and protein sequences were used for characterization using bioinformatics tools. Various important potential sites were predicted by PROSITE webserver. Primary structural analysis showed LfVP1 as stable protein and Grand average hydropathy (GRAVY) indicated that LfVP1 protein has good hydrosolubility. Secondary structure analysis showed that LfVP1 protein sequence contains significant proportion of alpha helix and random coil. Protein membrane topology suggested the presence of 14 transmembrane domains and presence of catalytic domain in TM3. Three dimensional structure from LfVP1 protein sequence also indicated the presence of 14 transmembrane domains and hydrophobicity surface model showed amino acid hydrophobicity. Ramachandran plot showed that 98% amino acid residues were predicted in the favored region.

  4. Effects of salinity on the growth, physiology and relevant gene expression of an annual halophyte grown from heteromorphic seeds

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jing; Lv, Xiu Yun; Chen, Ling; Xing, Jia Jia; Lan, Hai Yan

    2015-01-01

    Seed heteromorphism provides plants with alternative strategies for survival in unfavourable environments. However, the response of descendants from heteromorphic seeds to stress has not been well documented. Suaeda aralocaspica is a typical annual halophyte, which produces heteromorphic seeds with disparate forms and different germination characteristics. To gain an understanding of the salt tolerance of descendants and the impact of seed heteromorphism on progeny of this species, we performed a series of experiments to investigate the plant growth and physiological parameters (e.g. osmolytes, oxidative/antioxidative agents and enzymes), as well as expression patterns of corresponding genes. Results showed that osmolytes (proline and glycinebetaine) were significantly increased and that excess reactive oxygen species (O2−, H2O2) produced under high salinity were scavenged by increased levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and corresponding antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione). Moreover, enhancement of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity at high salt intensity had a positive effect on photosynthesis. The descendants from heteromorphic seeds presented no significant difference in performance with or without salinity. In conclusion, we found that high salinity induced the same active physiological responses in plants from heteromorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica, there was no carry-over of seed heteromorphism to plants: all the descendants required salinity for optimal growth and adaptation to their natural habitat. PMID:26386128

  5. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of the Response to NaCl in Suaeda maritima Provides an Insight into Salt Tolerance Mechanisms in Halophytes

    PubMed Central

    Tambat, Subodh; Vasudevan, Madavan

    2016-01-01

    Although salt tolerance is a feature representative of halophytes, most studies on this topic in plants have been conducted on glycophytes. Transcriptome profiles are also available for only a limited number of halophytes. Hence, the present study was conducted to understand the molecular basis of salt tolerance through the transcriptome profiling of the halophyte Suaeda maritima, which is an emerging plant model for research on salt tolerance. Illumina sequencing revealed 72,588 clustered transcripts, including 27,434 that were annotated using BLASTX. Salt application resulted in the 2-fold or greater upregulation of 647 genes and downregulation of 735 genes. Of these, 391 proteins were homologous to proteins in the COGs (cluster of orthologous groups) database, and the majorities were grouped into the poorly characterized category. Approximately 50% of the genes assigned to MapMan pathways showed homology to S. maritima. The majority of such genes represented transcription factors. Several genes also contributed to cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism, ion relation, redox responses and G protein, phosphoinositide and hormone signaling. Real-time PCR was used to validate the results of the deep sequencing for the most of the genes. This study demonstrates the expression of protein kinase C, the target of diacylglycerol in phosphoinositide signaling, for the first time in plants. This study further reveals that the biochemical and molecular responses occurring at several levels are associated with salt tolerance in S. maritima. At the structural level, adaptations to high salinity levels include the remodeling of cell walls and the modification of membrane lipids. At the cellular level, the accumulation of glycinebetaine and the sequestration and exclusion of Na+ appear to be important. Moreover, this study also shows that the processes related to salt tolerance might be highly complex, as reflected by the salt-induced enhancement of transcription factor

  7. Effect of temperature, light and salinity on seed germination and radicle growth of the geographically widespread halophyte shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiao-Xia; Huang, Zhen-Ying; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2008-01-01

    The small leafy succulent shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum occurs in saline habitats from northern Africa and Mediterranean Europe to western Asia, and it is a dominant species in salt deserts such as those of north-west China. The effects of temperature, light/darkness and NaCl salinity were tested on seed germination, and the effects of salinity were tested on seed germination recovery, radicle growth and radicle elongation recovery, using seeds from north-west China; the results were compared with those previously reported on this species from 'salt steppes' in the Mediterranean region of Spain. Seed germination was tested over a range of temperatures in light and in darkness and over a range of salinities at 25 degrees C in the light. Seeds that did not germinate in the NaCl solutions were tested for germination in deionized water. Seeds from which radicles had barely emerged in deionized water were transferred to NaCl solutions for 10 d and then back to deionized water for 10 d to test for radicle growth and recovery. Seeds germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness and at high than at low temperatures. Germination percentages decreased with an increase in salinity from 0.1 to 0.75 M NaCl. Seeds that did not germinate in NaCl solutions did so after transfer to deionized water. Radicle elongation was increased by low salinity, and then it decreased with an increase in salinity, being completely inhibited by > or = 2.0 M NaCl. Elongation of radicles from salt solutions < 3.0 M resumed after seedlings were transferred to deionized water. The seed and early seedling growth stages of the life cycle of H. strobilaceum are very salt tolerant, and their physiological responses differ somewhat between the Mediterranean 'salt steppe' of Spain and the inland cold salt desert of north-west China.

  8. The Arabidopsis halophytic relative Thellungiella halophila tolerates nitrogen-limiting conditions by maintaining growth, nitrogen uptake, and assimilation.

    PubMed

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth; Barak, Simon; Rothstein, Steven J

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms regulating nitrogen (N) use efficiency is required to reduce excessive input of N fertilizers while maintaining acceptable crop yields under limited N supply. Studying plant species that are naturally adapted to low N conditions could facilitate the identification of novel regulatory genes conferring better N use efficiency. Here, we show that Thellungiella halophila, a halophytic relative of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grows better than Arabidopsis under moderate (1 mm nitrate) and severe (0.4 mm nitrate) N-limiting conditions. Thellungiella exhibited a lower carbon to N ratio than Arabidopsis under N limitation, which was due to Thellungiella plants possessing higher N content, total amino acids, total soluble protein, and lower starch content compared with Arabidopsis. Furthermore, Thellungiella had higher amounts of several metabolites, such as soluble sugars and organic acids, under N-sufficient conditions (4 mm nitrate). Nitrate reductase activity and NR2 gene expression in Thellungiella displayed less of a reduction in response to N limitation than in Arabidopsis. Thellungiella shoot GS1 expression was more induced by low N than in Arabidopsis, while in roots, Thellungiella GS2 expression was maintained under N limitation but was decreased in Arabidopsis. Up-regulation of NRT2.1 and NRT3.1 expression was higher and repression of NRT1.1 was lower in Thellungiella roots under N-limiting conditions compared with Arabidopsis. Differential transporter gene expression was correlated with higher nitrate influx in Thellungiella at low (15)NO(3)(-) supply. Taken together, our results suggest that Thellungiella is tolerant to N-limited conditions and could act as a model system to unravel the mechanisms for low N tolerance.

  9. Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-12-01

    Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds.

  10. Prokaryotes in salt marsh sediments of Ria de Aveiro: Effects of halophyte vegetation on abundance and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Vanessa; Santos, Ana L.; Aguiar, Claúdia; Santos, Luisa; Salvador, Ângelo C.; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Silva, Helena; Rocha, Sílvia M.; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of monospecific colonization of sediment stands by Spartina maritima or Halimione portulacoides on benthic prokaryote assemblages in a salt marsh located in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The distribution of Bacteria, Archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sediments with monospecific plant stands and in unvegetated sediments was characterized by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Total prokaryote abundance (0.4 × 109-1.7 × 109 cells gdw-1) was highest in sediments from the surface layer. The domain Bacteria comprised approximately 40% of total prokaryote communities with the highest percentages occurring in the surface layer. Archaeal cells corresponded to an average of 25% of total prokaryote population, with higher abundance in the vegetation banks, and displaying homogeneous vertical distribution. The relative abundance of SRB represented approximately 3% of total 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) stained cells at unvegetated sediment and H. portulacoides stand and 7% at S. maritima stand. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC × GC-ToFMS) was used to analyse the volatile and semi-volatile fraction of root exudates. A total of 171 compounds were identified and Principal Component Analysis showed a clear separation between the chemical composition (volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds) of the exudates of the two plants. The patterns of vertical distribution and differences in the proportion of SRB and Archaea in the prokaryote communities developing in sediments colonized by Spartina maritima or Halimione portulacoides suggest the existence of plant-specific interactions between halophyte vegetation and estuarine sediment bacteria in Ria de Aveiro salt marshes, exerted via sediment lithology and root-derived exudates.

  11. Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L.: a potential halophyte for the degradation of toxic textile dye, Green HE4B.

    PubMed

    Patil, Asmita V; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Suprasanna, Penna; Bapat, Vishwas A; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2012-05-01

    Sesuvium portulacastrum is a common halophyte growing well in adverse surroundings and is exploited mainly for the environmental protection including phytoremediation, desalination and stabilization of contaminated soil. In the present investigation, attempts have been made on the decolorization of a toxic textile dye Green HE4B (GHE4B) using in vitro grown Sesuvium plantlets. The plantlets exhibited significant (70%) decolorization of GHE4B (50 mg l(-1)) that sustain 200 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) within 5 days of incubation. The enzymatic analysis performed on the root and shoot tissues of the in vitro plantlets subjected to GHE4B decolorization in the presence of 200 mM NaCl showed a noteworthy induction of tyrosinase, lignin peroxidase and NADH-DCIP reductase activities, indicating the involvement of these enzymes in the metabolism of the dye GHE4B. The UV-visible spectrophotometer, HPLC and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses of the samples before and after decolorization of the dye confirmed the efficient phytotransformation of GHE4B in the presence of 200 mM NaCl. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the products revealed the formation of three metabolites such as p -amino benzene, p -amino toluene and 1, 2, 7-amino naphthalene after phytotransformation of GHE4B. Based on the FTIR and GC-MS results, the possible pathway for the biodegradation of GHE4B in the presence of 200 mM NaCl has been proposed. The phytotoxicity experiments confirmed the non-toxicity of the degraded products. The present study demonstrates for the first time the potential of Sesuvium for the efficient degradation of textile dyes and its efficacy on saline soils contaminated with toxic compounds.

  12. Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Method Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Key Results Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. Conclusions The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds. PMID:22975287

  13. Sodium chloride decreases cadmium accumulation and changes the response of metabolites to cadmium stress in the halophyte Carpobrotus rossii.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Miaomiao; Wang, Anan; Liu, Zhiqian; Gendall, Anthony R; Rochfort, Simone; Tang, Caixian

    2018-05-18

    Salinity affects the bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) in soils and Cd accumulation in plants, but the associated mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the metabolic response to NaCl and Cd and the relationship between metabolites and Cd accumulation in the halophyte Carpobrotus rossii, which has potential for Cd phytoextraction. Plants were grown in nutrient solution with 0-400 mm NaCl in the presence of 5 or 15 µm Cd, with varied or constant solution Cd2+ activity. Plant growth and Cd uptake were measured, and the accumulation of peptides, and organic and amino acids in plant tissues were assessed. The addition of NaCl to Cd-containing solutions improved plant growth along with 70-87 % less shoot Cd accumulation, resulting from decreases in Cd root uptake and root-to-shoot translocation irrespective of Cd2+ activity in solutions. Moreover, Cd exposure increased the concentration of phytochelatins, which correlated positively with Cd concentrations in plants regardless of NaCl addition. In comparison, Cd inhibited the synthesis of organic acids in shoots and roots in the absence of NaCl, but increased it in shoots in the presence of NaCl. While Cd increased the concentrations of amino acids in plant shoots, the effect of NaCl on the synthesis of amino acids was inconsistent. Our data provide the first evidence that NaCl decreased Cd shoot accumulation in C. rossii by decreasing Cd root uptake and root-to-shoot translocation even under constant Cd2+ activity. The present study also supports the important role of peptides and organic acids, particular of phytochelatins, in Cd tolerance and accumulation although the changes of those metabolites was not the main reason for the decreased Cd accumulation.

  14. Leaf fatty acid remodeling in the salt-excreting halophytic grass Spartina patens along a salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Bernardo; Matos, Ana Rita; Marques, João Carlos; Caçador, Isabel

    2018-03-01

    Spartina patens is a highly dispersed halophytic grass invader in Mediterranean marshes. It is also characterized by having a high degree of resistance to salinity, one of the main drivers of plant zonation in salt marshes. Nevertheless, the physiological basis behind the extreme resistance of S. patens requires more detailed studies. In the present work, we aimed to study how membrane fatty acid remodeling could contribute to the resistance of this plant to salt. Spartina patens individuals exposed to increasing levels of salinity and its leaf fatty acid profile under lipid peroxidation products evaluated under all tested concentrations. A significant increase in the relative amounts of the saturated fatty acids (SFA) was observed, namely palmitic acid (C16:0), essential for PS II functioning, and stearic (C18:0) acid. The chloroplastidial trans-hexadecenoic acid (C16:1t) as well as the polyunsaturated linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids showed significant decreases in all the salt treatments. These changes led to a reduction in the double bond index in salt-treated plants which reflects reduction of the fluidity of the chloroplast membranes, which could contribute to maintain the membrane impermeable to the toxic exogenous Na. Despite the decrease observed in the total fatty acid contents in plants exposed to high salt concentrations the amounts of lipid peroxidation products decreased highlighting the resistance of this species towards toxic exogenous salt concentrations. Membrane fatty acid remodeling could represent an efficient mechanism to maintain the photosynthetic machinery of S. patens highly efficient under salt stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced salt stress tolerance of rice plants expressing a vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) gene from the halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora Löisel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiological role of a vacuolar ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) from a halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora was studied through its expression in rice. The SaVHAc1– expressing plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress than the wild-type plants, mainly through adjustments in early stage and p...

  16. Plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase gene expression is regulated by NaCl in cells of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia L.

    PubMed

    Niu, X; Zhu, J K; Narasimhan, M L; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1993-01-01

    An Atriplex nummularia L. cDNA probe encoding the partial sequence of an isoform of the plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase was isolated, and used to characterize the NaCl regulation of mRNA accumulation in cultured cells of this halophyte. The peptide (477 amino acids) translated from the open reading frame has the highest sequence homology to the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase isoform pma4 (greater than 80% identity) and detected a transcript of approximately 3.7 kb on Northern blots of both total and poly(A)+ RNA. The mRNA levels were comparable in unadapted cells, adapted cells (cells adapted to and growing in 342 mM NaCl) and deadapted cells (cells previously adapted to 342 mM NaCl that are now growing without salt). Increased mRNA abundance was detected in deadapted cells within 24 h after exposure to NaCl but not in unadapted cells with similar salt treatments. The NaCl up-regulation of message abundance in deadapted cells was subject to developmental control. Analogous to those reported for glycophytes, the plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase are encoded by a multigene family in the halophyte.

  17. Light–dark O2 dynamics in submerged leaves of C3 and C4 halophytes under increased dissolved CO2: clues for saltmarsh response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, B.; Santos, D.; Silva, H.; Marques, J. C.; Caçador, I.; Sleimi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Waterlogging and submergence are the major constraints to which wetland plants are subjected, with inevitable impacts on their physiology and productivity. Global warming and climate change, as driving forces of sea level rise, tend to increase such submersion periods and also modify the carbonate chemistry of the water column due to the increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. In the present work, the underwater O2 fluxes in the leaves of two abundant Mediterranean halophytes were evaluated at different levels of dissolved CO2. Photosynthetic enhancement due to increased dissolved CO2 was confirmed for both Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima, probably due to high tissue porosity, formation of leaf gas films and reduction of the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Enhancement of the photosynthetic rates in H. portulacoides and S. maritima was concomitant with an increase in energy trapping and transfer, mostly due to enhancement of the carboxylation reaction of Rubisco, leading to a reduction of the energy costs for carbon fixation. Transposing these findings to the ecosystem, and assuming increased dissolved CO2 concentration scenarios, the halophyte community displays a new ecosystem function, increasing the water column oxygenation and thus reinforcing their role as principal primary producers of the estuarine system. PMID:25381259

  18. Seed Heteromorphism and Effects of Light and Abiotic Stress on Germination of a Typical Annual Halophyte Salsola ferganica in Cold Desert

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yali; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Jinghua; Zhang, Shiyue; Liu, Yanxia; Lan, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    Seed heteromorphism is a common characteristic of halophyte and an adaptation to the spatial and temporal variations of natural habitats. Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but the mechanisms for maintenance between different status in various populations have not been well-understood. Salsola ferganica is a typical annual halophyte in Chenopodiaceae distributed in cold desert, in the present study, we found that it could produce three distinct types of seed according to the shape and size of winged perianth (WP), which differed in dispersal ability, dormancy and germination behaviors. Our further investigation revealed that light could significantly promote germination of heteromorphic seeds of S. ferganica, and WP inhibited while GA3 enhanced germination, which suggests that S. ferganica seeds possessed a photo-sensitive combined with morphological and non-deep physiological dormancy type, in which light was the dominant factor. Not like other desert plant species, the germinability of heteromorphic seeds of S. ferganica could not sustain for long (only 1–2 years), especially the small seeds, and was affected by storage time, temperature, salinity, even the environmental conditions of the maternal plant. Thus, the differences of characteristics existed among heteromorphic seeds and variations of heteromorphic ratio among different calendar years were presumed as diverse adaptation strategies integrated in the individual mother plant, and might apply important ecological significance for successful reproduction of the species in the unpredictable cold desert. PMID:29387073

  19. A novel plant-based-sea water culture media for in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the halophyte microbiome.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohamed Y; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Mourad, Elhussein F; Hamza, Mervat A; Abbas, Mohamed T; Othman, Amal A; Youssef, Hanan H; Morsi, Ahmed T; Youssef, Gehan H; El-Tahan, Mahmoud; Amer, Wafaa A; Fayez, Mohamed; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2017-11-01

    The plant-based-sea water culture medium is introduced to in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the microbiome of halophytes. The ice plant ( Mesembryanthemum crystallinum ) was used, in the form of juice and/or dehydrated plant powder packed in teabags, to supplement the natural sea water. The resulting culture medium enjoys the combinations of plant materials as rich source of nutrients and sea water exercising the required salt stress. As such without any supplements, the culture medium was sufficient and efficient to support very good in vitro growth of halotolerant bacteria. It was also capable to recover their in situ culturable populations in the phyllosphere, ecto-rhizosphere and endo-rhizosphere of halophytes prevailing in Lake Mariout, Egypt. When related to the total bacterial numbers measured for Suaeda pruinosa roots by quantitative-PCR, the proposed culture medium increased culturability (15.3-19.5%) compared to the conventional chemically-synthetic culture medium supplemented with (11.2%) or without (3.8%) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, representative isolates of halotolerant bacteria prevailed on such culture medium were closely related to Bacillus spp., Halomonas spp., and Kocuria spp. Seed germination tests on 25-50% sea water agar indicated positive interaction of such bacterial isolates with the germination and seedlings' growth of barley seeds.

  20. Isolation of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria from rhizospheric soil of halophytes and their impact on maize (Zea mays L.) under induced soil salinity.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sami; Bano, Asghari

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation was aimed to scrutinize the salt tolerance potential of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from rhizospheric soil of selected halophytes (Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon salicornicum, Lespedeza bicolor, Suaeda fruticosa, and Salicornica virginica) collected from high-saline fields (electrical conductivity 4.3-5.5) of District Mardan, Pakistan. Five PGPR strains were identified using 16S rRNA amplification and sequence analysis. Bacillus sp., isolated from rhizospheric soil of Atriplex leucoclada, and Arthrobacter pascens, isolated from rhizospheric soil of Suaeda fruticosa, are active phosphate solubilizers and bacteriocin and siderophore producers; hence, their inoculation and co-inoculation on maize ('Rakaposhi') under induced salinity stress enhanced shoot and root length and shoot and root fresh and dry mass. The accumulation of osmolytes, including sugar and proline, and the elevation of antioxidant enzymes activity, including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, were enhanced in the maize variety when inoculated and co-inoculated with Bacillus sp. and Arthrobacter pascens. The PGPR (Bacillus sp. and A. pascens) isolated from the rhizosphere of the mentioned halophytes species showed reliability in growth promotion of maize crop in all the physiological parameters; hence, they can be used as bio-inoculants for the plants growing under salt stress.

  1. STEM Education.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-08-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.'s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches.

  2. STEM | News

    Science.gov Websites

    the field. STEM Career Expo at Fermilab From NCTV17, April 20, 2018: The next generation of scientists Career Expo. Watch the 90-second segment. In photos: Dare to Dream shares joys of STEM with Latina middle Lab professionals discussed their work, shared their experiences in different career areas and

  3. STEM Symposium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    Christine Keller, right, Director of Research, APLU (Association of Public and Land-grant Universities) presents STEM initiative report findings at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. STEM Symposium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    Christine Keller, Director of Research, APLU (Association of Public and Land-grant Universities) presents STEM initiative report findings at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. STEM Education

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Fang, Michael; Shauman, Kimberlee

    2015-01-01

    Improving science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, especially for traditionally disadvantaged groups, is widely recognized as pivotal to the U.S.’s long-term economic growth and security. In this article, we review and discuss current research on STEM education in the U.S., drawing on recent research in sociology and related fields. The reviewed literature shows that different social factors affect the two major components of STEM education attainment: (1) attainment of education in general, and (2) attainment of STEM education relative to non-STEM education conditional on educational attainment. Cognitive and social psychological characteristics matter for both major components, as do structural influences at the neighborhood, school, and broader cultural levels. However, while commonly used measures of socioeconomic status (SES) predict the attainment of general education, social psychological factors are more important influences on participation and achievement in STEM versus non-STEM education. Domestically, disparities by family SES, race, and gender persist in STEM education. Internationally, American students lag behind those in some countries with less economic resources. Explanations for group disparities within the U.S. and the mediocre international ranking of US student performance require more research, a task that is best accomplished through interdisciplinary approaches. PMID:26778893

  6. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... Home > Learn About Stem Cells > Stem Cell Basics Cells in the human body The human body comprises ...

  7. Effect of Temperature, Light and Salinity on Seed Germination and Radicle Growth of the Geographically Widespread Halophyte Shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiao-Xia; Huang, Zhen-Ying; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The small leafy succulent shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum occurs in saline habitats from northern Africa and Mediterranean Europe to western Asia, and it is a dominant species in salt deserts such as those of north-west China. The effects of temperature, light/darkness and NaCl salinity were tested on seed germination, and the effects of salinity were tested on seed germination recovery, radicle growth and radicle elongation recovery, using seeds from north-west China; the results were compared with those previously reported on this species from ‘salt steppes’ in the Mediterranean region of Spain. Methods Seed germination was tested over a range of temperatures in light and in darkness and over a range of salinities at 25 °C in the light. Seeds that did not germinate in the NaCl solutions were tested for germination in deionized water. Seeds from which radicles had barely emerged in deionized water were transferred to NaCl solutions for 10 d and then back to deionized water for 10 d to test for radicle growth and recovery. Key Results Seeds germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness and at high than at low temperatures. Germination percentages decreased with an increase in salinity from 0·1 to 0·75 m NaCl. Seeds that did not germinate in NaCl solutions did so after transfer to deionized water. Radicle elongation was increased by low salinity, and then it decreased with an increase in salinity, being completely inhibited by ≥2·0 m NaCl. Elongation of radicles from salt solutions <3·0 m resumed after seedlings were transferred to deionized water. Conclusions The seed and early seedling growth stages of the life cycle of H. strobilaceum are very salt tolerant, and their physiological responses differ somewhat between the Mediterranean ‘salt steppe’ of Spain and the inland cold salt desert of north-west China. PMID:17428834

  8. Evaluation of the halophyte Salsola soda as an alternative crop for saline soils high in selenium and boron.

    PubMed

    Centofanti, Tiziana; Bañuelos, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization, industrial development, and intensive agriculture have caused soil contamination and land degradation in many areas of the world. Salinization is one important factor contributing to land degradation and it affects agricultural production and environmental quality. When salinization is combined with soil pollution by trace elements, as it occurs in many arid and semi-arid regions around the world, strategies to phyto-manage pollutants and sustain crop production need to be implemented. In this study, we present the case of saline soils in the West side of Central California which contain naturally-occurring selenium (Se), boron (B), and other salts, such as NaCl, CaCl2, Na2SO4, and Na2SeO4. To sustain crop production on Se- and B-laden arid saline soils, we investigated the potential of the halophyte "agretti" (Salsola soda L.) as an alternative crop. The aim of our greenhouse study was to examine adaptability, B tolerance, and Se accumulation by S. soda grown on soils collected from a typical saline-laden field site located on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Our results showed that S. soda tolerates the saline (EC ∼ 10 dS m(-1)) and B-laden soils (10 mg B L(-1)) of the SJV even with the additional irrigation of saline and B rich water (EC ∼ 3 dS m(-1) and 4 mg B L(-1)). Under these growing conditions, the plant can accumulate high concentrations of Na (80 g Na kg(-1) DW), B (100 mg B kg(-1) DW), and Se (3-4 mg Se kg(-1) DW) without showing toxicity symptoms. Hence, S. soda showed promising potential as a plant species that can be grown in B-laden saline soils and accumulate and potentially manage excessive soluble Se and B in soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rethinking the role of edaphic condition in halophyte vegetation degradation on salt marshes due to coastal defense structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tian; Cui, Baoshan; Bai, Junhong; Li, Shanze; Zhang, Shuyan

    2018-02-01

    Determining how human disturbance affects plant community persistence and species conservation is one of the most pressing ecological challenges. The large-scale disturbance form defense structures usually have a long-term and potential effect on phytocommunity in coastal saltmarshes. Coastal defense structures usually remove the effect of tidal wave on tidal salt marshes. As a consequence, edaphic factors such as the salinity and moisture contents are disturbed by tidal action blocking. However, few previous studies have explicitly addressed the response of halophyte species persistence and dynamics to the changing edaphic conditions. The understanding of the response of species composition in seed banks and aboveground vegetation to the stress is important to identify ecological effect of coastal defense structures and provide usefully insight into restoration. Here, we conducted a field study to distinguish the density, species composition and relationships of seed bank with aboveground vegetation between tidal flat wetlands with and without coastal defense structures. We also addressed the role of edaphic condition in vegetation degradation caused by coastal defense structures in combination with field monitor and greenhouse experiments. Our results showed the density of the seed bank and aboveground vegetation in the tidal flat without coastal defense structures was significantly lower than the surrounded flat with coastal defense structures. A total of 14 species were founded in the surrounded flat seed bank and 11 species in the tidal flat, but three species were only recorded in aboveground vegetation of the tidal flat which was much lower than 24 aboveground species in the surrounded flat. The absent of species in aboveground vegetation contributed to low germination rate which depend on the edaphic condition. The germination of seeds in the seed bank were inhabited by high soil salinity in the tidal flat and low soil moisture in the surrounded flat. Our

  10. STEM Symposium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    U.S. Congresswoman Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) addresses the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  11. Response to non-uniform salinity in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia: growth, photosynthesis, water relations and tissue ion concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Colmer, Timothy D; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G

    2009-09-01

    Soil salinity is often heterogeneous, yet the physiology of halophytes has typically been studied with uniform salinity treatments. An evaluation was made of the growth, net photosynthesis, water use, water relations and tissue ions in the halophytic shrub Atriplex nummularia in response to non-uniform NaCl concentrations in a split-root system. Atriplex nummularia was grown in a split-root system for 21 d, with either the same or two different NaCl concentrations (ranging from 10 to 670 mm), in aerated nutrient solution bathing each root half. Non-uniform salinity, with high NaCl in one root half (up to 670 mm) and 10 mm in the other half, had no effect on shoot ethanol-insoluble dry mass, net photosynthesis or shoot pre-dawn water potential. In contrast, a modest effect occurred for leaf osmotic potential (up to 30 % more solutes compared with uniform 10 mm NaCl treatment). With non-uniform NaCl concentrations (10/670 mm), 90 % of water was absorbed from the low salinity side, and the reduction in water use from the high salinity side caused whole-plant water use to decrease by about 30 %; there was no compensatory water uptake from the low salinity side. Leaf Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were 1.9- to 2.3-fold higher in the uniform 670 mm treatment than in the 10/670 mm treatment, whereas leaf K(+) concentrations were 1.2- to 2.0-fold higher in the non-uniform treatment. Atriplex nummularia with one root half in 10 mm NaCl maintained net photosynthesis, shoot growth and shoot water potential even when the other root half was exposed to 670 mm NaCl, a concentration that inhibits growth by 65 % when uniform in the root zone. Given the likelihood of non-uniform salinity in many field situations, this situation would presumably benefit halophyte growth and physiology in saline environments.

  12. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The activity of H+-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na+ exclusion via Na+/H+ exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H+-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. Methods The kinetics of salt-induced net H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Key Results Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (−144 ± 3·3, −138 ± 5·4 and −128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux, Na+ efflux and K+ retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H+ efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H+-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Conclusions Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant’s ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative

  13. Response to non-uniform salinity in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia: growth, photosynthesis, water relations and tissue ion concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Colmer, Timothy D.; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Soil salinity is often heterogeneous, yet the physiology of halophytes has typically been studied with uniform salinity treatments. An evaluation was made of the growth, net photosynthesis, water use, water relations and tissue ions in the halophytic shrub Atriplex nummularia in response to non-uniform NaCl concentrations in a split-root system. Methods Atriplex nummularia was grown in a split-root system for 21 d, with either the same or two different NaCl concentrations (ranging from 10 to 670 mm), in aerated nutrient solution bathing each root half. Key Results Non-uniform salinity, with high NaCl in one root half (up to 670 mm) and 10 mm in the other half, had no effect on shoot ethanol-insoluble dry mass, net photosynthesis or shoot pre-dawn water potential. In contrast, a modest effect occurred for leaf osmotic potential (up to 30 % more solutes compared with uniform 10 mm NaCl treatment). With non-uniform NaCl concentrations (10/670 mm), 90 % of water was absorbed from the low salinity side, and the reduction in water use from the high salinity side caused whole-plant water use to decrease by about 30 %; there was no compensatory water uptake from the low salinity side. Leaf Na+ and Cl− concentrations were 1·9- to 2·3-fold higher in the uniform 670 mm treatment than in the 10/670 mm treatment, whereas leaf K+ concentrations were 1·2- to 2·0-fold higher in the non-uniform treatment. Conclusions Atriplex nummularia with one root half in 10 mm NaCl maintained net photosynthesis, shoot growth and shoot water potential even when the other root half was exposed to 670 mm NaCl, a concentration that inhibits growth by 65 % when uniform in the root zone. Given the likelihood of non-uniform salinity in many field situations, this situation would presumably benefit halophyte growth and physiology in saline environments. PMID:19556265

  14. Isolation, identification and expression analysis of salt-induced genes in Suaeda maritima, a natural halophyte, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Binod B; Shaw, Birendra P

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite wealth of information generated on salt tolerance mechanism, its basics still remain elusive. Thus, there is a need of continued effort to understand the salt tolerance mechanism using suitable biotechnological techniques and test plants (species) to enable development of salt tolerant cultivars of interest. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to generate information on salt stress responsive genes in a natural halophyte, Suaeda maritima, using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (PCR-SSH) technique. Results Forward and reverse SSH cDNA libraries were constructed after exposing the young plants to 425 mM NaCl for 24 h. From the forward SSH cDNA library, 429 high quality ESTs were obtained. BLASTX search and TIGR assembler programme revealed overexpression of 167 unigenes comprising 89 singletons and 78 contigs with ESTs redundancy of 81.8%. Among the unigenes, 32.5% were found to be of special interest, indicating novel function of these genes with regard to salt tolerance. Literature search for the known unigenes revealed that only 17 of them were salt-inducible. A comparative analysis of the existing SSH cDNA libraries for NaCl stress in plants showed that only a few overexpressing unigenes were common in them. Moreover, the present study also showed increased expression of phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene, indicating the possible accumulation of a much studied osmoticum, glycinebetaine, in halophyte under salt stress. Functional categorization of the proteins as per the Munich database in general revealed that salt tolerance could be largely determined by the proteins involved in transcription, signal transduction, protein activity regulation and cell differentiation and organogenesis. Conclusion The study provided a clear indication of possible vital role of glycinebetaine in the salt tolerance process in S. maritima. However, the salt-induced expression of a large number of genes involved in a wide range of

  15. Variability of antioxidant and antibacterial effects of essential oils and acetonic extracts of two edible halophytes: Crithmum maritimum L. and Inula crithmoїdes L.

    PubMed

    Jallali, Ines; Zaouali, Yosr; Missaoui, Ibtissem; Smeoui, Abderrazek; Abdelly, Chedly; Ksouri, Riadh

    2014-02-15

    This work aimed to assess the richness of the food halophytes Crithmum maritimum and Inula crithmoїdes on phenolics and essential oils (EOs) and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of these metabolites. Results displayed that extract of I. crithmoїdes possesses considerable contents of phenolic compounds (14.1mg GAE.g⁻¹ DW) related to important antioxidant activities (IC₅₀ = 13 μg ml⁻¹ for the DPPH test) as compared to C. maritimum. C. maritimum EOs composition is dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes, while I. crithmoїdes one is mainly consisted by monoterpene hydrocarbons. EOs have low antioxidant activity as compared to acetone extracts; nevertheless, they show best antimicrobial activity. A significant variability is also depicted between the provenances of each species and depended on the chemical nature of antioxidant and antibacterial molecules as well as the used tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in cellular distribution regulate SKD1 ATPase activity in response to a sudden increase in environmental salinity in halophyte ice plant

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Yingtzy; Chiang, Chih-Pin; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. (ice plant) rapidly responds to sudden increases in salinity in its environment by activating specific salt-tolerant mechanisms. One major strategy is to regulate a series of ion transporters and proton pumps to maintain cellular Na+/K+ homeostasis. Plant SKD1 (suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1) proteins accumulate in cells actively engaged in the secretory processes, and play a critical role in intracellular protein trafficking. Ice plant SKD1 redistributes from the cytosol to the plasma membrane hours after salt stressed. In combination with present knowledge of this protein, we suggest that stress facilitates SKD1 movement to the plasma membrane where ADP/ATP exchange occurs, and functions in the regulation of membrane components such as ion transporters to avoid ion toxicity. PMID:24390077

  17. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant responses to heterogeneous salinity: growth of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia is determined by the root-weighted mean salinity of the root zone

    PubMed Central

    Bazihizina, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is generally spatially heterogeneous, but our understanding of halophyte physiology under such conditions is limited. The growth and physiology of the dicotyledonous halophyte Atriplex nummularia was evaluated in split-root experiments to test whether growth is determined by: (i) the lowest; (ii) the highest; or (iii) the mean salinity of the root zone. In two experiments, plants were grown with uniform salinities or horizontally heterogeneous salinities (10–450mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 670mM in the high-salt side, or 10mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 500–1500mM in the high-salt side). The combined data showed that growth and gas exchange parameters responded most closely to the root-weighted mean salinity rather than to the lowest, mean, or highest salinity in the root zone. In contrast, midday shoot water potentials were determined by the lowest salinity in the root zone, consistent with most water being taken from the least negative water potential source. With uniform salinity, maximum shoot growth was at 120–230mM NaCl; ~90% of maximum growth occurred at 10mM and 450mM NaCl. Exposure of part of the roots to 1500mM NaCl resulted in an enhanced (+40%) root growth on the low-salt side, which lowered root-weighted mean salinity and enabled the maintenance of shoot growth. Atriplex nummularia grew even with extreme salinity in part of the roots, as long as the root-weighted mean salinity of the root zone was within the 10–450mM range. PMID:23125356

  19. Plant responses to heterogeneous salinity: growth of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia is determined by the root-weighted mean salinity of the root zone.

    PubMed

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G; Colmer, Timothy D

    2012-11-01

    Soil salinity is generally spatially heterogeneous, but our understanding of halophyte physiology under such conditions is limited. The growth and physiology of the dicotyledonous halophyte Atriplex nummularia was evaluated in split-root experiments to test whether growth is determined by: (i) the lowest; (ii) the highest; or (iii) the mean salinity of the root zone. In two experiments, plants were grown with uniform salinities or horizontally heterogeneous salinities (10-450 mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 670 mM in the high-salt side, or 10 mM NaCl in the low-salt side and 500-1500 mM in the high-salt side). The combined data showed that growth and gas exchange parameters responded most closely to the root-weighted mean salinity rather than to the lowest, mean, or highest salinity in the root zone. In contrast, midday shoot water potentials were determined by the lowest salinity in the root zone, consistent with most water being taken from the least negative water potential source. With uniform salinity, maximum shoot growth was at 120-230 mM NaCl; ~90% of maximum growth occurred at 10 mM and 450 mM NaCl. Exposure of part of the roots to 1500 mM NaCl resulted in an enhanced (+40%) root growth on the low-salt side, which lowered root-weighted mean salinity and enabled the maintenance of shoot growth. Atriplex nummularia grew even with extreme salinity in part of the roots, as long as the root-weighted mean salinity of the root zone was within the 10-450 mM range.

  20. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  1. STEM Symposium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    Carl Wieman, Associate Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, The White House, speaks at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  2. Why STEM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA) defines STEM as a new transdisciplinary subject in schools that integrates the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics into a single course of study. There are three major problems with this definition: There is no consensus in support of the ITEEA…

  3. STEM Thinking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a term seen almost daily in the news. In 2009, President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate initiative to move American students from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math achievement over the next decade (The White House, n.d.). Learning about the attributes of STEM…

  4. STEM Symposium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    J. Keith Motley, Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Boston, and Chair, APLU (Association of Public and Land-grant Universities) Commission on Access, Diversity and Excellence, speaks at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. STEM Symposium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    Woodrow Whitlow, NASA Associate Administrator, Mission Support Directorate, gives opening remarks at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. STEM Symposium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    Leland Melvin, Associate Administrator, Office of Education and former astronaut, gives opening remarks at the Symposium on Supporting Underrepresented Minority Males in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Tuesday, February 28, 2012 at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  8. Stem cell biobanks.

    PubMed

    Bardelli, Silvana

    2010-04-01

    Stem cells contribute to innate healing and harbor a promising role for regenerative medicine. Stem cell banking through long-term storage of different stem cell platforms represents a fundamental source to preserve original features of stem cells for patient-specific clinical applications. Stem cell research and clinical translation constitute fundamental and indivisible modules catalyzed through biobanking activity, generating a return of investment.

  9. Temporal and spatial changes in ion homeostasis, antioxidant defense and accumulation of flavonoids and glycolipid in a halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L.

    PubMed Central

    Nikalje, Ganesh C.; Variyar, P. S.; Joshi, M. V.; Nikam, T. D.

    2018-01-01

    Salinity is an important environmental constraint limiting plant productivity. Understanding adaptive responses of halophytes to high saline environments may offer clues to manage and improve salt stress in crop plants. We have studied physiological, biochemical and metabolic changes in a perennial, fast growing halophyte, Sesuvium portulacastrum under 0 mM (control), 150 mM (low salt, LS) and 500 mM (high salt, HS) NaCl treatments. The changes in growth, relative water content, cation, osmolyte accumulation, H2O2 and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD, CAT and APX) were observed under different treatment conditions. A positive correlation was revealed for sodium ion accumulation with malondialdehyde (r2 = 0.77), proline (r2 = 0.88) and chlorophyll content (r2 = 0.82) under salt treatment while a negative correlation was observed with relative tissue water content (r2 = -0.73). The roots and leaves showed contrasting accumulation of potassium and sodium ions under LS treatment. Temporal and spatial study of sodium and potassium ion content indicated differential accumulation pattern in roots and leaves, and, high potassium levels in root. Higher H2O2 content was recorded in roots than leaves and the antioxidant enzyme activities also showed significant induction under salt treatment conditions. Gene expression profiling of sodium transporters, Sodium proton exchanger (NHX3), Vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) and Salt overly sensitive1 (SOS1) showed up regulation under salt stress after 6–24 hr of NaCl treatment. Metabolite changes in the salt stressed leaves showed increased accumulation of flavonoids (3,5-dihydroxy-6,4’-dimethoxy-flavone-7-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside], and3,5-dihydroxy-6,3’,4’-trimethoxy-flavone-7-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside] in both LS and HS treatments, while a glycolipid, 1-O-linolenyl-2-O-(palmitoyl)-3-O-galactopyranosyl glycerol, accumulated more in LS over HS treatments and control. The results

  10. Application of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation for insight into DOM fractions from native halophyte soils in a larger estuarine delta.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huaibin; Yu, Huibin; Pan, Hongwei; Gao, Hongjie

    2018-05-01

    UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional correlation (2D correlation) is used to trace components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from soils in a larger estuarine delta and to investigate spatial variations of DOM fractions. Soil samples of different depths were collected from native halophyte soils along a saline gradient, i.e., Suaeda salsa Comm. (SSC), Chenopodium album Comm. (CAC), Phragmites australis Comm. (PAC), and Artemisia selengensis Comm. (ASC). Molecular weights of DOM within the SSC soil profile were the lowest, followed by the CAC, PAC, and ASC soil profiles. Humification degree of DOM within the ASC soil profile was the highest, followed by the PAC, SSC, and CAC soil profiles. DOM within the soil profiles mainly contained phenolic, carboxylic, microbial products, and aromatic and alkyl groups through the PCA, which presented the significant differentiation among the four native halophyte soil profiles. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the SSC soil profile indicated that the variations of the phenolic groups were the largest, followed by the carboxylic groups, microbial products, and humified organic materials according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 → 520 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the CAC soil profiles determined that the decreasing order of the variations was phenolic groups > carboxylic groups > microbial products according the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the PAC soil profile proved that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the carboxylic groups according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the ASC soil profile demonstrated that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the other DOM fractions according to the broad cross-peak at

  11. Stem Cell Sciences plc.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Sebnem

    2006-09-01

    Stem Cell Sciences' core objective is to develop safe and effective stem cell-based therapies for currently incurable diseases. In order to achieve this goal, Stem Cell Sciences recognizes the need for multiple technologies and a globally integrated stem cell initiative. The key challenges for the successful application of stem cells in the clinic is the need for a reproducible supply of pure, fully characterized stem cells that have been grown in suitable conditions for use in the clinic.

  12. The Impacts of Soil Fertility and Salinity on Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Mediated by the Soil Microbial Community Beneath the Halophytic Shrub Tamarisk.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Chikae; Imada, Shogo; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Du, Sheng; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Tateno, Ryunosuke

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most common limiting nutrients for primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbes transform organic N into inorganic N, which is available to plants, but soil microbe activity in drylands is sometimes critically suppressed by environmental factors, such as low soil substrate availability or high salinity. Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) is a halophytic shrub species that is widely distributed in the drylands of China; it produces litter enriched in nutrients and salts that are thought to increase soil fertility and salinity under its crown. To elucidate the effects of tamarisks on the soil microbial community, and thus N dynamics, by creating "islands of fertility" and "islands of salinity," we collected soil samples from under tamarisk crowns and adjacent barren areas at three habitats in the summer and fall. We analyzed soil physicochemical properties, inorganic N dynamics, and prokaryotic community abundance and composition. In soils sampled beneath tamarisks, the N mineralization rate was significantly higher, and the prokaryotic community structure was significantly different, from soils sampled in barren areas, irrespective of site and season. Tamarisks provided suitable nutrient conditions for one of the important decomposers in the area, Verrucomicrobia, by creating "islands of fertility," but provided unsuitable salinity conditions for other important decomposers, Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria, by mitigating salt accumulation. However, the quantity of these decomposers tended to be higher beneath tamarisks, because they were relatively unaffected by the small salinity gradient created by the tamarisks, which may explain the higher N mineralization rate beneath tamarisks.

  13. Studies on H-Translocating ATPases in Plants of Varying Resistance to Salinity : I. Salinity during Growth Modulates the Proton Pump in the Halophyte Atriplex nummularia.

    PubMed

    Braun, Y; Hassidim, M; Lerner, H R; Reinhold, L

    1986-08-01

    Membrane vesicles were isolated from the roots of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. H(+)-translocating Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was manifested by the establishment of a positive membrane potential (measured as SCN(-) accumulation); and also by the establishment of a transmembrane pH gradient (measured by quinacrine fluorescence quenching). H(+)-translocation was highly specific to ATP and was stable to oligomycin. Growing the plants in the presence of 400 millimolar NaCl doubled the proton-translocating activity per milligram of membrane protein and otherwise modulated it in the following ways. First, the flat pH profile observed in non-salt-grown plants was transformed to one showing a peak at about pH 6.2. Second, the lag effect observed at low ATP concentration in curves relating SCN(-) accumulation to ATP concentration was abolished; the concave curvature shown in the double reciprocal plot was diminished. Third, sensitivity to K-2 (N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid stimulation was shown in salt-grown plants (about 40% stimulation) but was absent in non-salt-grown plants. Fourth, the KCl concentration bringing about 50% dissipation of ATP-dependent SCN(-) accumulation was 20 millimolar for salt-grown plants and 50 millimolar for non-salt-grown plants. Vanadate sensitivity was shown in both cases. No clear NO(3) (-) inhibition was observed.

  14. Na+/H+ and K+/H+ Antiport in Root Membrane Vesicles Isolated from the Halophyte Atriplex and the Glycophyte Cotton 1

    PubMed Central

    Hassidim, Miriam; Braun, Yael; Lerner, Henri R.; Reinhold, Leonora

    1990-01-01

    Proton fluxes have been followed into and out of membrane vesicles isolated from the roots of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia and the glycophyte Gossypium hirsutum, with the aid of the ΔpH probe [14C]methylamine. Evidence is presented for the operation of Na+/H+ and K+/H+ antiporters in the membranes of both plants. Cation supply after a pH gradient has been set up across the vesicle membrane (either as a result of providing ATP to the H+-ATPase or by imposing an artificial pH gradient) brings about dissipation of the ΔpH, but does not depolarize the membrane potential as observed in similar experiments, but in the absence of Cl−, using the ΔΨ probe SCN−. Cation/H+ exchange is thus indicated. This exchange is not due to nonspecific electric coupling, nor to competition for anionic adsorption sites on the membrane, nor to inhibition of the H+-ATPase; coupling of the opposed cation and H+ fluxes by a membrane component is the most likely explanation. Saturation kinetics have been observed for both Na+/H+ and K+/H+ antiport in Atriplex. Moreover, additive effects are obtained when Na+ is supplied together with saturating concentrations of K+, and vice versa, suggesting that separate antiporters for Na+ and for K+ may be operating. In the case of both Atriplex and Gossypium evidence was obtained suggesting the presence of antiporters in both plasmalemma and tonoplast. PMID:16667918

  15. Salinization of the soil solution decreases the further accumulation of salt in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. growing above shallow saline groundwater.

    PubMed

    Alharby, Hesham F; Colmer, Timothy D; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G

    2018-01-01

    Water use by plants in landscapes with shallow saline groundwater may lead to the accumulation of salt in the root zone. We examined the accumulation of Na + and Cl - around the roots of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. and the impacts of this increasing salinity for stomatal conductance, water use and growth. Plants were grown in columns filled with a sand-clay mixture and connected at the bottom to reservoirs containing 20, 200 or 400 mM NaCl. At 21 d, Na + and Cl - concentrations in the soil solution were affected by the salinity of the groundwater, height above the water table and the root fresh mass density at various soil depths (P < 0.001). However, by day 35, the groundwater salinity and height above the water table remained significant factors, but the root fresh mass density was no longer significant. Regression of data from the 200 and 400 mM NaCl treatments showed that the rate of Na + accumulation in the soil increased until the Na + concentration reached ~250 mM within the root zone; subsequent decreases in accumulation were associated with decreases in stomatal conductance. Salinization of the soil solution therefore had a feedback effect on further salinization within the root zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Na/H and k/h antiport in root membrane vesicles isolated from the halophyte atriplex and the glycophyte cotton.

    PubMed

    Hassidim, M; Braun, Y; Lerner, H R; Reinhold, L

    1990-12-01

    Proton fluxes have been followed into and out of membrane vesicles isolated from the roots of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia and the glycophyte Gossypium hirsutum, with the aid of the DeltapH probe [(14)C]methylamine. Evidence is presented for the operation of Na(+)/H(+) and K(+)/H(+) antiporters in the membranes of both plants. Cation supply after a pH gradient has been set up across the vesicle membrane (either as a result of providing ATP to the H(+)-ATPase or by imposing an artificial pH gradient) brings about dissipation of the DeltapH, but does not depolarize the membrane potential as observed in similar experiments, but in the absence of Cl(-), using the DeltaPsi probe SCN(-). Cation/H(+) exchange is thus indicated. This exchange is not due to nonspecific electric coupling, nor to competition for anionic adsorption sites on the membrane, nor to inhibition of the H(+)-ATPase; coupling of the opposed cation and H(+) fluxes by a membrane component is the most likely explanation. Saturation kinetics have been observed for both Na(+)/H(+) and K(+)/H(+) antiport in Atriplex. Moreover, additive effects are obtained when Na(+) is supplied together with saturating concentrations of K(+), and vice versa, suggesting that separate antiporters for Na(+) and for K(+) may be operating. In the case of both Atriplex and Gossypium evidence was obtained suggesting the presence of antiporters in both plasmalemma and tonoplast.

  17. The use of a halophytic plant species and organic amendments for the remediation of a trace elements-contaminated soil under semi-arid conditions.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Rafael; Walker, David J; Pardo, Tania; Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Bernal, M Pilar

    2012-07-15

    The halophytic shrub Atriplex halimus L. was used in a field phytoremediation experiment in a semi-arid area highly contaminated by trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) within the Sierra Minera of La Unión-Cartagena (SE Spain). The effects of compost and pig slurry on soil conditions and plant growth were determined. The amendments (particularly compost) only slightly affected trace element concentrations in soil pore water or their availability to the plants, increased soil nutrient and organic matter levels and favoured the development of a sustainable soil microbial biomass (effects that were enhanced by the presence of A. halimus) as well as, especially for slurry, increasing A. halimus biomass and ground cover. With regard to the minimisation of trace elements concentrations in the above-ground plant parts, the effectiveness of both amendments was greatest 12-16 months after their incorporation. The findings demonstrate the potential of A. halimus, particularly in combination with an organic amendment, for the challenging task of the phytostabilisation of contaminated soils in (semi-)arid areas and suggest the need for an ecotoxicological evaluation of the remediated soils. However, the ability of A. halimus to accumulate Zn and Cd in the shoot may limit its use to moderately-contaminated sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, Joseph E.; Sanderson, Stephen N.

    1984-01-01

    A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  19. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

    1981-10-27

    A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  20. A comparative pharmacognostical and preliminary physico-chemical analysis of stem and leaf of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.BR.) Wettst.

    PubMed

    Gubbannavar, Jyoti S; Chandola, H M; Harisha, C R; Khanpara, Komal; Shukla, V J

    2013-01-01

    Brahmi is a well-known herbal drug having an effect on brain as a memory enhancer. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst are both marketed in the name of Brahmi. The present study differentiates Bacopa monnieri and Bacopa floribunda in morphology, transverse section (T.S.) of root and leaf, powder microscopy, and chemical constituents. Morphological characters show color difference in flower, stem and leaf and differences in microscopic study, organoleptic study, and powder characteristics. Morphologically, Bacopa monnieri leaf is fleshy and more succulent than Bacopa floribunda leaf. There is also a difference in the interval of the stem internodes of the two. Physico-chemical analysis revealed presence of 26% bacoside A in Bacopa floribunda leaf and 27% in Bacopa floribunda stem, which is higher than the bacoside A content in leaf (22%) and stem (18%) of Bacopa monnieri. However due to the hemolytic action of bacoside A, which is the toxic effect of the chemical constituent, it seems likely that Bacopa monnieri is more popular in regular use than Bacopa floribunda.

  1. A comparative pharmacognostical and preliminary physico-chemical analysis of stem and leaf of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.BR.) Wettst

    PubMed Central

    Gubbannavar, Jyoti S.; Chandola, H. M.; Harisha, C. R.; Khanpara, Komal; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    Brahmi is a well-known herbal drug having an effect on brain as a memory enhancer. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst are both marketed in the name of Brahmi. The present study differentiates Bacopa monnieri and Bacopa floribunda in morphology, transverse section (T.S.) of root and leaf, powder microscopy, and chemical constituents. Morphological characters show color difference in flower, stem and leaf and differences in microscopic study, organoleptic study, and powder characteristics. Morphologically, Bacopa monnieri leaf is fleshy and more succulent than Bacopa floribunda leaf. There is also a difference in the interval of the stem internodes of the two. Physico-chemical analysis revealed presence of 26% bacoside A in Bacopa floribunda leaf and 27% in Bacopa floribunda stem, which is higher than the bacoside A content in leaf (22%) and stem (18%) of Bacopa monnieri. However due to the hemolytic action of bacoside A, which is the toxic effect of the chemical constituent, it seems likely that Bacopa monnieri is more popular in regular use than Bacopa floribunda. PMID:24049413

  2. The Arabidopsis Halophytic Relative Thellungiella halophila Tolerates Nitrogen-Limiting Conditions by Maintaining Growth, Nitrogen Uptake, and Assimilation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth; Barak, Simon; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms regulating nitrogen (N) use efficiency is required to reduce excessive input of N fertilizers while maintaining acceptable crop yields under limited N supply. Studying plant species that are naturally adapted to low N conditions could facilitate the identification of novel regulatory genes conferring better N use efficiency. Here, we show that Thellungiella halophila, a halophytic relative of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grows better than Arabidopsis under moderate (1 mm nitrate) and severe (0.4 mm nitrate) N-limiting conditions. Thellungiella exhibited a lower carbon to N ratio than Arabidopsis under N limitation, which was due to Thellungiella plants possessing higher N content, total amino acids, total soluble protein, and lower starch content compared with Arabidopsis. Furthermore, Thellungiella had higher amounts of several metabolites, such as soluble sugars and organic acids, under N-sufficient conditions (4 mm nitrate). Nitrate reductase activity and NR2 gene expression in Thellungiella displayed less of a reduction in response to N limitation than in Arabidopsis. Thellungiella shoot GS1 expression was more induced by low N than in Arabidopsis, while in roots, Thellungiella GS2 expression was maintained under N limitation but was decreased in Arabidopsis. Up-regulation of NRT2.1 and NRT3.1 expression was higher and repression of NRT1.1 was lower in Thellungiella roots under N-limiting conditions compared with Arabidopsis. Differential transporter gene expression was correlated with higher nitrate influx in Thellungiella at low 15NO3− supply. Taken together, our results suggest that Thellungiella is tolerant to N-limited conditions and could act as a model system to unravel the mechanisms for low N tolerance. PMID:18467466

  3. Accumulation and distribution of Zn in the shoots and reproductive structures of the halophyte plant species Kosteletzkya virginica as a function of salinity.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruiming; Quinet, Muriel; André, Emilie; van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Destrebecq, Florence; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Cui, Guangling; Debeljak, Marta; Lefèvre, Isabelle; Lutts, Stanley

    2013-09-01

    Kosteletzkya virginica is a wetland halophyte that is a good candidate for rehabilitation of degraded salt marshes and production of oil as biodiesel. Salt marshes are frequently contaminated by heavy metals. The distribution of Zn in vegetative and reproductive organs of adult plants, and the NaCl influence on this distribution remain unknown and were thus explored in the present study. Plants were cultivated in a nutrient film technique system, from seedling stage until seed maturation in a control, Zn (100 μM), NaCl (50 mM) or Zn + NaCl medium. Photosynthesis, ion nutrition, malondialdehyde and non-protein thiol concentrations were quantified. Zinc distribution in reproductive organs was estimated by a laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry procedure (LA-ICP-MS). Adult plants accumulated up to 2 mg g(-1) DW Zn in the shoots. Zinc reduced plant growth, inhibited photosynthesis and reduced seed yield. Zinc accumulation in the seeds was only two times higher in Zn-treated plants than in controls. Exogenous NaCl neutralized the damaging action of Zn and modified the Zn distribution through a preferential accumulation of toxic ions in older leaves. Zinc was present in seed testa, endosperm and, to a lower extent, in embryo. Additional NaCl induced a chalazal retention of Zn during seed maturation and reduced final Zn seed content. It is concluded that NaCl 50 mM had a positive impact on the response of K. virginica to Zn toxicity and acts through a modification in Zn distribution rather than a decrease in Zn absorption.

  4. Nature's patchwork: How water sources and soil salinity determine the distribution and structure of halophytic plant communities in arid environments of the Eastern Pamir

    PubMed Central

    Mętrak, Monika; Chachulski, Łukasz; Navruzshoev, Dovutsho; Pawlikowski, Paweł; Rojan, Elżbieta; Sulwiński, Marcin; Suska-Malawska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The eastern part of the Pamir Mountains, located in Central Asia, is characterized by great climatic continentality and aridity. Wetlands developed in this hostile region are restricted to spring areas, terraces of shallow lakes or floodplains along rivers, and provide diversified ecosystem services e.g. as water reservoirs, refugia for rare species and pastures for domestic cattle. These ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate changes, that in the Pamir Mountains result in increased temperatures, intense permafrost/glacial melt and alterations of precipitation patterns. Climatic changes affect pasture management in the mountains, causing overutilization of sites located at lower elevations. Thus, both climate and man-induced disturbances may violate the existing ecological equilibrium in high-mountain wetlands of the Eastern Pamir, posing a serious risk to their biodiversity and to food security of the local population. In this context, we sought to assess how environmental drivers (with special focus on soil features and potential water sources) shape the distribution and diversity of halophytic plant communities developed in valleys in the Eastern Pamir. This task was completed by means of a vegetation survey and comprehensive analyses of habitat conditions. The lake terraces and floodplains studied were covered by a repetitive mosaic of plant communities determined by differences in soil moisture and salinity. On lower, wetter sites, this patchwork was formed by Blysmus rufus dominated salt marshes, saline small sedge meadows and saline meadows with Kobresia royleana and Primula pamirica; and on drier, elevated sites, by endemic grasslands with Hordeum brevisubulatum and Puccinellia species and patches of xerohalophytic vegetation. Continuous instability of water sources and summer droughts occurring in the Pamir Mountains may lead to significant structural and functional transformations of described wetland ecosystems. Species more tolerant to

  5. RING-type ubiquitin ligase McCPN1 catalyzes UBC8-dependent protein ubiquitination and interacts with Argonaute 4 in halophyte ice plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Hua; Chiang, Chih-Pin; Yang, Jun-Yi; Ma, Chia-Jou; Chen, Yu-Chan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2014-07-01

    RING-type copines are a small family of plant-specific RING-type ubiquitin ligases. They contain an N-terminal myristoylation site for membrane anchoring, a central copine domain for substrate recognition, and a C-terminal RING domain for E2 docking. RING-type copine McCPN1 (copine1) from halophyte ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) was previously identified from a salt-induced cDNA library. In this work, we characterize the activity, expression, and localization of McCPN1 in ice plant. An in vitro ubiquitination assay of McCPN1 was performed using two ice plant UBCs, McUBC1 and McUBC2, characterized from the same salt-induced cDNA library. The results showed that McUBC2, a member of the UBC8 family, stimulated the autoubiquitination activity of McCPN1, while McUBC1, a homolog of the UBC35 family, did not. The results indicate that McCPN1 has selective E2-dependent E3 ligase activity. We found that McCPN1 localizes primarily on the plasma membrane and in the nucleus of plant cells. Under salt stress, the accumulation of McCPN1 in the roots increases. A yeast two-hybrid screen was used to search for potential McCPN1-interacting partners using a library constructed from salt-stressed ice plants. Screening with full-length McCPN1 identified several independent clones containing partial Argonaute 4 (AGO4) sequence. Subsequent agro-infiltration, protoplast two-hybrid analysis, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirmed that McCPN1 and AGO4 interacted in vivo in the nucleus of plant cells. The possible involvement of a catalyzed degradation of AGO4 by McCPN1 in response to salt stress is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Disentangling the effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the halophyte Salicornia ramosissima J. Woods physiological performance under optimal and suboptimal saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Romero, Jesús Alberto; Idaszkin, Yanina Lorena; Barcia-Piedras, Jose-Maria; Duarte, Bernardo; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Caçador, Isabel; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique

    2018-06-01

    A mesocosm experiment was designed to assess the effect of atmospheric CO 2 increment on the salinity tolerance of the C 3 halophyte Salicornia ramosissima. Thus, the combined effect of 400 ppm and 700 ppm CO 2 at 0, 171 and 510 mM NaCl on plants growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, pigments profiles, antioxidative enzyme activities and water relations was studied. Our results highlighted a positive effect of atmospheric CO 2 increment on plant physiological performance under suboptimal salinity concentration (510 mM NaCl). Thus, we recorded higher net photosynthetic rate (A N ) values under saline conditions and 700 ppm CO 2 , being this effect mainly mediated by a reduction of mesophyll (g m ) and biochemical limitation imposed to salt excess. In addition, rising atmospheric CO 2 led to a better plant water balance, linked with a reduction of stomatal conductante (g s ) and an overall increment of osmotic potential (Ѱ o ) with NaCl concentration increment. In spite of these positive effects, there were no significant biomass variations between any treatments. Being this fact ascribed by the investment of the higher energy fixed for salinity stress defence mechanisms, which allowed plants to maintain more active the photochemical machinery even at high salinities, reducing the risk of ROS production, as indicated an improvement of the electron flux and a rise of the energy dissipation. Finally, the positive effect of the CO 2 was also supported by the modulation of pigments profiles (mainly zeaxhantin and violaxhantin) concentrations and anti-oxidative stress enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APx). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-cell-type quantitative proteomic and ionomic analysis of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte model plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum to identify salt-responsive proteins.

    PubMed

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Raymond, Carolyn

    2016-05-10

    Epidermal bladder cells (EBC) are large single-celled, specialized, and modified trichomes found on the aerial parts of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Recent development of a simple but high throughput technique to extract the contents from these cells has provided an opportunity to conduct detailed single-cell-type analyses of their molecular characteristics at high resolution to gain insight into the role of these cells in the salt tolerance of the plant. In this study, we carry out large-scale complementary quantitative proteomic studies using both a label (DIGE) and label-free (GeLC-MS) approach to identify salt-responsive proteins in the EBC extract. Additionally we perform an ionomics analysis (ICP-MS) to follow changes in the amounts of 27 different elements. Using these methods, we were able to identify 54 proteins and nine elements that showed statistically significant changes in the EBC from salt-treated plants. GO enrichment analysis identified a large number of transport proteins but also proteins involved in photosynthesis, primary metabolism and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Validation of results by western blot, confocal microscopy and enzyme analysis helped to strengthen findings and further our understanding into the role of these specialized cells. As expected EBC accumulated large quantities of sodium, however, the most abundant element was chloride suggesting the sequestration of this ion into the EBC vacuole is just as important for salt tolerance. This single-cell type omics approach shows that epidermal bladder cells of M. crystallinum are metabolically active modified trichomes, with primary metabolism supporting cell growth, ion accumulation, compatible solute synthesis and CAM. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004045.

  8. New species for the biomitigation of a super-intensive marine fish farm effluent: Combined use of polychaete-assisted sand filters and halophyte aquaponics.

    PubMed

    Marques, Bruna; Calado, Ricardo; Lillebø, Ana I

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to test an innovative biomitigation approach, where polychaete-assisted (Hediste diversicolor) sand filters were combined with the production of Halimione portulacoides in aquaponics, to remediate an organic-rich effluent generated by a super intensive fish farm operating a land-based RAS (Recirculating aquaculture system). The set up included four different experimental combinations that were periodically monitored for 5months. After this period, polychaete-assisted sand filters reduced in 70% the percentage of OM and the average densities increased from ≈400ind.m -2 to 7000ind.m -2 . H. portulacoides in aquaponics contributed to an average DIN (Dissolved inorganic Nitrogen) decrease of 65%, which increased to 67% when preceded by filter tanks stocked with polychaetes. From May until October (5months) halophytes biomass increased from 1.4kgm -2 ±0.7 (initial wet weight) to 18.6kgm -2 ±4.0. Bearing in mind that the uptake of carbon is mostly via photosynthesis and not though the uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon, this represents an approximate incorporation of ≈1.3kgm -2 carbon (C), ≈15gm -2 nitrogen (N) and ≈8gm -2 phosphorus (P) in the aerial part (76% of total biomass), and an approximate incorporation of ≈0.5kgm -2 carbon (C), ≈3gm -2 nitrogen (N) and ≈2gm -2 phosphorus (P) in the roots (24% of total biomass). In the present study, the potential of the two extractive species for biomitigation of a super-intensive marine fish farm effluent could be clearly demonstrated, contributing in this way to potentiate the implementation of more sustainable practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth platform-dependent and -independent phenotypic and metabolic responses of Arabidopsis and its halophytic relative, Eutrema salsugineum, to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Kazachkova, Yana; Batushansky, Albert; Cisneros, Aroldo; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Fait, Aaron; Barak, Simon

    2013-07-01

    Comparative studies of the stress-tolerant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) halophytic relative, Eutrema salsugineum, have proven a fruitful approach to understanding natural stress tolerance. Here, we performed comparative phenotyping of Arabidopsis and E. salsugineum vegetative development under control and salt-stress conditions, and then compared the metabolic responses of the two species on different growth platforms in a defined leaf developmental stage. Our results reveal both growth platform-dependent and -independent phenotypes and metabolic responses. Leaf emergence was affected in a similar way in both species grown in vitro but the effects observed in Arabidopsis occurred at higher salt concentrations in E. salsugineum. No differences in leaf emergence were observed on soil. A new effect of a salt-mediated reduction in E. salsugineum leaf area was unmasked. On soil, leaf area reduction in E. salsugineum was mainly due to a fall in cell number, whereas both cell number and cell size contributed to the decrease in Arabidopsis leaf area. Common growth platform-independent leaf metabolic signatures such as high raffinose and malate, and low fumarate contents that could reflect core stress tolerance mechanisms, as well as growth platform-dependent metabolic responses were identified. In particular, the in vitro growth platform led to repression of accumulation of many metabolites including sugars, sugar phosphates, and amino acids in E. salsugineum compared with the soil system where these same metabolites accumulated to higher levels in E. salsugineum than in Arabidopsis. The observation that E. salsugineum maintains salt tolerance despite growth platform-specific phenotypes and metabolic responses suggests a considerable degree of phenotypic and metabolic adaptive plasticity in this extremophile.

  10. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    Stem cells are required to support the indeterminate growth style of plants. Meristems are a plants stem cell niches that foster stem cell survival and the production of descendants destined for differentiation. In shoot meristems, stem cell fate is decided at the populational level. The size of the stem cell domain at the meristem tip depends on signals that are exchanged with cells of the organizing centre underneath. In root meristems, individual stem cells are controlled by direct interaction with cells of the quiescent centre that lie in the immediate neighbourhood. Analysis of the interactions and signaling processes in the stem cell niches has delivered some insights into the molecules that are involved and revealed that the two major niches for plant stem cells are more similar than anticipated.

  11. Hypertensive brain stem encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pen-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Chang; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with headache and extreme hypertension. Computed tomography showed diffuse brain stem hypodensity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse brain stem vasogenic edema. Hypertensive brain stem encephalopathy is an uncommon manifestation of hypertensive encephalopathy, which classically occurs at parietooccipital white matter. Because of its atypical location, the diagnosis can be challenging. Moreover, the coexistence of hypertension and brain stem edema could also direct clinicians toward a diagnosis of ischemic infarction, leading to a completely contradictory treatment goal.

  12. Understanding STEM: Current Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan; Brown, Joshua; Reardon, Kristin; Merrill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In many ways, the push for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education appears to have grown from a concern for the low number of future professionals to fill STEM jobs and careers and economic and educational competitiveness. The proponents of STEM education believe that by increasing math and science requirements in…

  13. STEM Curricula. Premiere PD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan, Ed.; Ernst, Jeremy, Ed.; Clark, Aaron, Ed.; DeLuca, Bill, Ed.; Kelly, Daniel, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This professional development activity on STEM Education is designed to keep Technology and Engineering teachers up to date regarding current and important issues in the discipline. This article describes why there is a focus on STEM Education, defines STEM Education, and discusses curriculum integration and its elements.

  14. Creative Teaching in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Vikki; Hains-Wesson, Rachael; Young, Karen

    2018-01-01

    If Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines in higher education are to retain students, there needs to be a shift towards teaching in more enriching and interesting ways. Creative teaching needs to become more prominent in STEM. This article presents a study that defines creative teaching in the STEM context and…

  15. Expanding STEM Education | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Editor’s note: This article is written as a reflection on experiential STEM education by a student who completed her Werner H. Kirsten internship in June 2015. Here, she advocates for incorporating hands-on experience into STEM curricula. If the only way for high school students to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is through textbooks, then count

  16. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarizes current data concerning Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows choosing specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX, and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between non-selective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is discussed and

  17. Proteomic Response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to Salinity Stress: Similarities and Differences between a Glycophyte and a Halophyte

    PubMed Central

    Maršálová, Lucie; Vítámvás, Pavel; Hynek, Radovan; Prášil, Ilja T.; Kosová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley H. marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defense-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant family, several chaperones from heat shock protein family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper and nascent polypeptide-associated complex families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H. vulgare indicate plant tissue damage as

  18. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarizes current data concerning Na+ and K+ concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows choosing specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX, and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between non-selective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is discussed and

  19. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  20. Stem Cell Pathology.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dah-Jiun; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa L; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Ellenson, Lora H; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2018-01-24

    Rapid advances in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine have opened new opportunities for better understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. Many stem cell niches are well defined anatomically, thereby allowing their routine pathological evaluation during disease initiation and progression. Evaluation of the consequences of genetic manipulations in stem cells and investigation of the roles of stem cells in regenerative medicine and pathogenesis of various diseases such as cancer require significant expertise in pathology for accurate interpretation of novel findings. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing stem cell pathology as a discipline to facilitate stem cell research and regenerative medicine. This review provides examples of anatomically defined niches suitable for evaluation by diagnostic pathologists, describes neoplastic lesions associated with them, and discusses further directions of stem cell pathology.

  1. Investigating Preservice STEM Teacher Conceptions of STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radloff, Jeff; Guzey, Selcen

    2016-01-01

    Surrounding the national emphasis on improving STEM education, effective STEM educators are required. Connected, yet often overlooked, is the need for effective preservice STEM teaching instruction for incoming educators. At a basic level, preservice STEM teacher education should include STEM content, pedagogy, and conceptualization. However, the…

  2. Global Collaborative STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meabh Kelly, Susan; Smith, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Global Collaborative STEM Education, as the name suggests, simultaneously supports two sets of knowledge and skills. The first set is STEM -- science, technology, engineering and math. The other set of content knowledge and skills is that of global collaboration. Successful global partnerships require awareness of one's own culture, the biases embedded within that culture, as well as developing awareness of the collaborators' culture. Workforce skills fostered include open-mindedness, perseverance when faced with obstacles, and resourceful use of technological "bridges" to facilitate and sustain communication. In respect for the 2016 GIFT Workshop focus, Global Collaborative STEM Education projects dedicated to astronomy research will be presented. The projects represent different benchmarks within the Global Collaborative STEM Education continuum, culminating in an astronomy research experience that fully reflects how the global STEM workforce collaborates. To facilitate wider engagement in Global Collaborative STEM Education, project summaries, classroom resources and contact information for established international collaborative astronomy research projects will be disseminated.

  3. Stem Cells and Aging.

    PubMed

    Koliakos, George

    2017-02-01

    The article is a presentation at the 4th Conference of ESAAM, which took place on October 30-31, 2015, in Athens, Greece. Its purpose was not to cover all aspects of cellular aging but to share with the audience of the Conference, in a 15-minute presentation, current knowledge about the rejuvenating and repairing somatic stem cells that are distinct from other stem cell types (such as embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells), emphasize that our body in old age cannot take advantage of these rejuvenating cells, and provide some examples of novel experimental stem cell applications in the field of rejuvenation and antiaging biomedical research.

  4. Stem cells and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2010-06-01

    To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent.

  5. Bringing STEM to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeihiser, Mike; Ray, Dori

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary approach that science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) projects inspire in both teachers and students "brings to light a larger picture that promotes real-world scientific applications, which has in turn been shown to increase undergraduate persistence in STEM." The high school students have been…

  6. Teaching STEM by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiar, Kristen; Hubelbank, Jeanne; Oliva, Thomas; Camesano, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Developing innovative science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) curricula that elicit student excitement for learning is a continuous challenge for K-12 STEM teachers. Generating these lessons while meeting conflicting pedagogical objectives and constraints of time, content, and cost from various parties is truly a challenging task…

  7. The Hidden STEM Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Workers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields play a direct role in driving economic growth. Yet, because of how the STEM economy has been defined, policymakers have mainly focused on supporting workers with at least a bachelor's (BA) degree, overlooking a strong potential workforce of those with less than a BA. This report…

  8. State of STEM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-13

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver listens to a question during the first-ever State of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Event (SoSTEM) held at the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, Wednesday, Feb. 13, 2013 in Washington. Garver was part of a panel that took questions from a crowd of STEM students. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Lock For Valve Stem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1991-01-01

    Simple, cheap device locks valve stem so its setting cannot be changed by unauthorized people. Device covers valve stem; cover locked in place with standard padlock. Valve lock made of PVC pipe and packing band. Shears, drill or punch, and forming rod only tools needed.

  10. Making STEM Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sheryl L.; Bryan, Joel A.; McConnell, Tom J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated approaches to education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), especially those set in the context of real-world situations, can motivate and deepen students' learning of the STEM subjects (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council 2014). This article describes two integrated investigations used…

  11. STEM School Discourse Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of discursive practices in science classrooms within STEM schools may provide meaningful information about the nature of these classrooms and, potentially, their uniqueness. Full descriptions of current practice can serve as a foundation for exploring the differences in instructional norms within STEM specialized schools and across…

  12. Investigating Preservice STEM Teacher Conceptions of STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, Jeff; Guzey, Selcen

    2016-10-01

    Surrounding the national emphasis on improving STEM education, effective STEM educators are required. Connected, yet often overlooked, is the need for effective preservice STEM teaching instruction for incoming educators. At a basic level, preservice STEM teacher education should include STEM content, pedagogy, and conceptualization. However, the literature suggests no leading conception of STEM education, and little is known about how preservice STEM teachers are conceptualizing STEM education. In order to explore preservice STEM teacher conceptions of STEM education, preservice teachers at a large, Midwestern research university were given an open-ended survey eliciting both textual and visual responses. Here, we report and discuss the results of employing this instrument in relation with the current STEM conceptualization literature.

  13. The pea stem

    PubMed Central

    Karahara, Ichirou

    2012-01-01

    The Casparian strip is commonly observed in the endodermis of roots of vascular plants and, in some cases, also in the stems. Pea stems develop the Casparian strip, and its development has been reported to be regulated by blue light. In addition, for the purpose of photobiological studies, pea stems provide a unique experimental system for other physiological studies of the development of the Casparian strip. In this article, I have briefly summarized (1) the effects of environmental factors on the development of the Casparian strip, (2) the advantage of using pea stems for physiological studies of the development of the Casparian strip, and (3) cellular events indicated to be involved in the development of the Casparian strip, focusing on the studies using pea stems as well as other recent studies. PMID:22899074

  14. Expanding STEM Education | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Editor’s note: This article is written as a reflection on experiential STEM education by a student who completed her Werner H. Kirsten internship in June 2015. Here, she advocates for incorporating hands-on experience into STEM curricula. If the only way for high school students to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is through textbooks, then count me out. But how then do you get students to learn STEM outside of the classroom? The focus of this article is to advocate for high school STEM education through experiential learning. Tom Freston, one of the founders and the chief executive officer (CEO) of MTV Productions, said in an interview in Men’s Journal that “innovation is taking two things that already exist and...

  15. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Environmentalist and third-year law student at Elon University School of Law Tyrone Davis speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    NASA associate administrator for education and former astronaut Leland Melvin speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    White House innovation expert Cristin Dorgelo speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Gill Pratt speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba, left, is interviewed by National Geographic Kids reporter Trevor Jehl ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba, left, is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Grace Clark ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. What is a stem cell?

    PubMed

    Slack, Jonathan M W

    2018-05-15

    The historical roots of the stem cell concept are traced with respect to its usage in embryology and in hematology. The modern consensus definition of stem cells, comprising both pluripotent stem cells in culture and tissue-specific stem cells in vivo, is explained and explored. Methods for identifying stem cells are discussed with respect to cell surface markers, telomerase, label retention and transplantability, and properties of the stem cell niche are explored. The CreER method for identifying stem cells in vivo is explained, as is evidence in favor of a stochastic rather than an obligate asymmetric form of cell division. In conclusion, it is found that stem cells do not possess any unique and specific molecular markers; and stem cell behavior depends on the environment of the cell as well as the stem cell's intrinsic qualities. Furthermore, the stochastic mode of division implies that stem cell behavior is a property of a cell population not of an individual cell. In this sense, stem cells do not exist in isolation but only as a part of multicellular system. This article is categorized under: Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Tissue Stem Cells and Niches Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Methods and Principles Adult Stem Cells, Tissue Renewal, and Regeneration > Environmental Control of Stem Cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Verfaillie, C

    2009-05-01

    The isolation of human embryonic stem cells (ESC) in 1998 has created the hope that stem cells will one day be used to regenerate tissues and organs, even though it is obvious that a number of hurdles will need to be overcome for such therapies to become reality. The cloning of "Dolly" in 1997, more than 40 years after the first frogs were cloned, combined with the very fast progress made in our understanding of the molecular processes that govern the pluripotency of ESC has lead to the ability of scientists to recreate a pluripotent state in fibroblasts and other cells from mouse, rat and man, named induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). This feat makes it theoretically possible to create patient specific pluripotent stem cells whose differentiated progeny could be used in an autologous manner obviating the need for immunosuppression that would be needed to use allogeneic ESC-derived differentiated cells. In addition, the ability to generate custom made pluripotent stem cells will no doubt lead to the development of protein or small molecule drugs that can induce differentiation not only of iPSC or ESC to mature tissue cells, but also endogenous tissue stem cells. Moreover, it allows scientists to create models of human diseases and may aid the pharmaceutical industry in testing more rigorously toxicity of drugs for human differentiated cells. Thus, there is little doubt that progress in stem cell biology will change many aspects of medicine as we know it in the next one to two decades.

  3. Haemopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bellantuono, Ilaria

    2004-04-01

    Considerable effort has been made in recent years in understanding the mechanisms that govern stem cell generation, proliferation, self-renewal, commitment and lately plasticity. In the development of the haemopoietic system during embryonic and fetal life the notion of different pools of stem cells arising from the endothelium is gaining consensus. Gene expression profiling of populations of stem cells is bringing to light categories of genes important for self-renewal or commitment. Besides the role of transcription factors in lineage decision, the role of soluble factors and transmembrane proteins, very active at the time of embryo development, are taking central stage in the maintenance and in vitro expansion of haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The hierarchical model of haemopoietic development is being questioned with reports of lineage switching and plasticity of haemopoietic stem cells to non-haemopoietic cells. Yet the understanding of the overall process is still very fragmented and hypothetical. This is mainly due to the absence of appropriate markers to enable selection of homogeneous stem cell populations and the need to rely on retrospective functional assays, able only to determine the overall behaviour of a population of cells. This review is intended to be an overview of the haemopoietic system and a critical re-visitation of issues such as plasticity and self-renewal important for therapeutic applications of haemopoietic stem cells.

  4. Fish stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  5. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer. PMID:21547056

  6. Autophagy in stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jun-Lin; Simon, Anna Katharina; Prescott, Mark; Menendez, Javier A.; Liu, Fei; Wang, Fen; Wang, Chenran; Wolvetang, Ernst; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Zhang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future. PMID:23486312

  7. GE STEM Teacher's Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-13

    Education Specialists Lynn Dotson, left, of the NASA Public Engagement Center, and Lester Morales, right, of Texas State University's NASA STEM Educator Professional Development Collaborative, explain the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge to teachers participating in the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.

  8. [Stem cells in adults].

    PubMed

    Borge, O J; Funderud, S

    2001-08-30

    We present a literature review of the plasticity observed by adult stem cells. We have reviewed the literature regarding stem cells from adults in order to summarise their ability to generate cells of other types than those of the tissue/organ from which they were isolated. Adult stem cells have recently been demonstrated to terminally differentiate into cells of other tissues than those from which they were originally isolated. For example, bone marrow cells have been shown to generate liver, nerve, heart and skeletal muscle cells in addition to their well-known ability to produce blood and mesenchymal cells. Most studies demonstrate a proof-of-principle in animal models; much more research is needed before adult stem cells can be utilised in human medicine. However, the published reports are encouraging and give reasons for a cautious optimism with regard to future clinical use.

  9. [STEM on Station Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  10. Innovation and STEM Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  11. GE STEM Teacher's Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-13

    Teachers participate in the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge during the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.

  12. State of STEM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-13

    Bobak Ferdowsi, Flight Director, Mars Curiosity Rover, answers questions from Scholastic News young reporter Emily Shao prior to the start of the first-ever State of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Event (SoSTEM) held at the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, Wednesday, Feb. 13, 2013 in Washington. Ferdowsi was part of a panel that took questions from a crowd of STEM students. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. STEM Workforce Pipeline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-30

    more about STEM. From museums, to gardens, to planetariums and more, Places to Go mobilizes people to explore the STEM resources offered by their...Works website was developed utilizing a phased approach. This approach allowed for informed, periodic updates to the structure, design, and backend ...our web development team, throughout this phase. A significant amount of backend development work on the website, as well as design work was completed

  14. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, right, is interviewed by National Geographic Kids reporter Trevor Jehl ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, listens to a question during the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, speaks at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Kristen Rigsby, ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, talks with NASA's 2013 astronaut candidates at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    NASA associate administrator for education and former astronaut Leland Melvin, left, watches as astronauts, Rick Mastracchio, screen left, and Michael Hopkins, deliver a message from the International Space Station (ISS) to attendees of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, left, is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Grace Clark ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Montgomery Blair High School Student Newspaper “Silver Chips” Online Editor-in-Chief Aanchal Johri, right, and Photo Editor Emma Howells, left, from Silver Spring, MD. interview NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. The extreme halophyte Salicornia veneta is depleted of the extrinsic PsbQ and PsbP proteins of the oxygen-evolving complex without loss of functional activity

    PubMed Central

    Pagliano, Cristina; La Rocca, Nicoletta; Andreucci, Flora; Deák, Zsuzsanna; Vass, Imre; Rascio, Nicoletta; Barbato, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Photosystem II of oxygenic organisms is a multi-subunit protein complex made up of at least 20 subunits and requires Ca2+ and Cl− as essential co-factors. While most subunits form the catalytic core responsible for water oxidation, PsbO, PsbP and PsbQ form an extrinsic domain exposed to the luminal side of the membrane. In vitro studies have shown that these subunits have a role in modulating the function of Cl− and Ca2+, but their role(s) in vivo remains to be elucidated, as the relationships between ion concentrations and extrinsic polypeptides are not clear. With the aim of understanding these relationships, the photosynthetic apparatus of the extreme halophyte Salicornia veneta has been compared with that of spinach. Compared to glycophytes, halophytes have a different ionic composition, which could be expected to modulate the role of extrinsic polypeptides. Methods Structure and function of in vivo and in vitro PSII in S. veneta were investigated and compared to spinach. Light and electron microscopy, oxygen evolution, gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, DNA sequencing, RT–PCR and time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence were used. Key Results Thylakoids of S. veneta did not contain PsbQ protein and its mRNA was absent. When compared to spinach, PsbP was partly depleted (30 %), as was its mRNA. All other thylakoid subunits were present in similar amounts in both species. PSII electron transfer was not affected. Fluorescence was strongly quenched upon irradiation of plants with high light, and relaxed only after prolonged dark incubation. Quenching of fluorescence was not linked to degradation of D1 protein. Conclusions In S. veneta the PsbQ protein is not necessary for photosynthesis in vivo. As the amount of PsbP is sub-stoichiometric with other PSII subunits, this protein too is largely dispensable from a catalytic standpoint. One possibility is that PsbP acts as an assembly factor for PSII. PMID:19033288

  3. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  4. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  5. Anastatica hierochuntica, an Arabidopsis Desert Relative, Is Tolerant to Multiple Abiotic Stresses and Exhibits Species-Specific and Common Stress Tolerance Strategies with Its Halophytic Relative, Eutrema (Thellungiella) salsugineum

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Gil; Shaked, Ruth; Kazachkova, Yana; Khan, Asif; Eppel, Amir; Cisneros, Aroldo; Acuna, Tania; Gutterman, Yitzhak; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron; Barak, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The search for novel stress tolerance determinants has led to increasing interest in plants native to extreme environments – so called “extremophytes.” One successful strategy has been comparative studies between Arabidopsis thaliana and extremophyte Brassicaceae relatives such as the halophyte Eutrema salsugineum located in areas including cold, salty coastal regions of China. Here, we investigate stress tolerance in the desert species, Anastatica hierochuntica (True Rose of Jericho), a member of the poorly investigated lineage III Brassicaceae. We show that A. hierochuntica has a genome approximately 4.5-fold larger than Arabidopsis, divided into 22 diploid chromosomes, and demonstrate that A. hierochuntica exhibits tolerance to heat, low N and salt stresses that are characteristic of its habitat. Taking salt tolerance as a case study, we show that A. hierochuntica shares common salt tolerance mechanisms with E. salsugineum such as tight control of shoot Na+ accumulation and resilient photochemistry features. Furthermore, metabolic profiling of E. salsugineum and A. hierochuntica shoots demonstrates that the extremophytes exhibit both species-specific and common metabolic strategies to cope with salt stress including constitutive up-regulation (under control and salt stress conditions) of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, two metabolites involved in ROS scavenging. Accordingly, A. hierochuntica displays tolerance to methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress suggesting that a highly active antioxidant system is essential to cope with multiple abiotic stresses. We suggest that A. hierochuntica presents an excellent extremophyte Arabidopsis relative model system for understanding plant survival in harsh desert conditions. PMID:28144244

  6. Antiobesity Effects of an Edible Halophyte Nitraria retusa Forssk in 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Differentiation and in C57B6J/L Mice Fed a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zar Kalai, Feten; Han, Junkyu; Ksouri, Riadh; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Abdelly, Chedly; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Nitraria retusa is an edible halophyte, used in Tunisia for several traditional medicine purposes. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Nitraria retusa ethanol extract (NRE) in 3T3-L1 cells using different doses and in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Male C57B6J/L mice were separately fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and daily administrated with NRE (50, 100 mg/kg) or one for 2 days with Naringenin (10 mg/kg). NRE administration significantly decreased body weight gain, fat pad weight, serum glucose, and lipid levels in HFD-induced obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism of action of NRE, the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were measured in liver. Results showed that mice treated with NRE demonstrated a significant decrease in cumulative body weight and fat pad weight, a significant lowering in glucose and triglycerides serum levels, and an increase in the HDL-cholesterol serum level. Moreover mRNA expression results showed an enhancement of the expression of genes related to liver metabolism. Our findings suggest that NRE treatment had a protective or controlling effect against a high fat diet-induced obesity in C57B6J/L mice through the regulation of expression of genes involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis and thus the enhancement of the lipid metabolism in liver. PMID:24367387

  7. Antiobesity Effects of an Edible Halophyte Nitraria retusa Forssk in 3T3-L1 Preadipocyte Differentiation and in C57B6J/L Mice Fed a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    PubMed

    Zar Kalai, Feten; Han, Junkyu; Ksouri, Riadh; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Abdelly, Chedly; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Nitraria retusa is an edible halophyte, used in Tunisia for several traditional medicine purposes. The present study investigated the antiobesity effects of Nitraria retusa ethanol extract (NRE) in 3T3-L1 cells using different doses and in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Male C57B6J/L mice were separately fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and daily administrated with NRE (50, 100 mg/kg) or one for 2 days with Naringenin (10 mg/kg). NRE administration significantly decreased body weight gain, fat pad weight, serum glucose, and lipid levels in HFD-induced obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism of action of NRE, the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism were measured in liver. Results showed that mice treated with NRE demonstrated a significant decrease in cumulative body weight and fat pad weight, a significant lowering in glucose and triglycerides serum levels, and an increase in the HDL-cholesterol serum level. Moreover mRNA expression results showed an enhancement of the expression of genes related to liver metabolism. Our findings suggest that NRE treatment had a protective or controlling effect against a high fat diet-induced obesity in C57B6J/L mice through the regulation of expression of genes involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis and thus the enhancement of the lipid metabolism in liver.

  8. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY CAST IRON VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Weir Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  9. 5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, (12' DIAMETER HARDESTY MODEL 112 CIRCULAR GATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Island Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  10. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  11. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (15' HARDESTY MODEL 115 GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Marjorie Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  12. 6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  13. 7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  14. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  15. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Pot Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  16. 5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  17. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, left, is interviewed by Montgomery Blair High School Student Newspaper “Silver Chips” Online Editor-in-Chief Aanchal Johri, center, and Photo Editor Emma Howells, from Silver Spring, MD. ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, left, smiles along with 16-year-old Joey Hudy, a former White House Science Fair participant and self-described “Maker” at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, center, poses for a group photograph with NASA's 2013 astronaut candidates, from left, Josh A. Cassada, Nicole Aunapu Mann, Jessica U. Meir, Tyler N. "Nick" Hague, Holdren, Victor J. Glover, Christina M. Hammock, Andrew R. Morgan, and, Anne C. McClain at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, left, is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Kristen Rigsby, as Moira Vahey, Deputy Assistant Director for Strategic Communications at the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, right, takes notes ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba, center, moderates a panel discussion with NASA's 2013 astronaut candidates, from left, Christina M. Hammock, Andrew R. Morgan, Victor J. Glover, Jessica U. Meir, Tyler N. "Nick" Hague, Josh A. Cassada, Anne C. McClain, and, Nicole Aunapu Mann, at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    A student ask a question to NASA Astronaut Joe Acaba, center, and NASA's 2013 astronaut candidates, from left, Christina M. Hammock, Andrew R. Morgan, Victor J. Glover, Jessica U. Meir, Tyler N. "Nick" Hague, Josh A. Cassada, Anne C. McClain, and, Nicole Aunapu Mann, at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Stem cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  4. Germline Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Spradling, Allan; Fuller, Margaret T.; Braun, Robert E.; Yoshida, Shosei

    2011-01-01

    Sperm and egg production requires a robust stem cell system that balances self-renewal with differentiation. Self-renewal at the expense of differentiation can cause tumorigenesis, whereas differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can cause germ cell depletion and infertility. In most organisms, and sometimes in both sexes, germline stem cells (GSCs) often reside in a defined anatomical niche. Factors within the niche regulate a balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation. Asymmetric division of the germline stem cell to form daughter cells with alternative fates is common. The exception to both these tendencies is the mammalian testis where there does not appear to be an obvious anatomical niche and where GSC homeostasis is likely accomplished by a stochastic balance of self-renewal and differentiation and not by regulated asymmetric cell division. Despite these apparent differences, GSCs in all organisms share many common mechanisms, although not necessarily molecules, to guarantee survival of the germline. PMID:21791699

  5. Expanding STEM Opportunities through Inclusive STEM-Focused High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Barbara; Wang, Haiwen; Wei, Xin; Lynch, Sharon; Peters, Vanessa; Young, Viki; Allen, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    Inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs) (where STEM is science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) admit students on the basis of interest rather than competitive examination. This study examines the central assumption behind these schools--that they provide students from subgroups underrepresented in STEM with experiences that equip them…

  6. GE STEM Teacher's Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-13

    Teachers prepare to demonstrate the projects they built for the Rocketry Engineering Design Challenge during the 2017 GE Foundation High School STEM Integration Conference at the Center for Space Education at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. High school teachers from across the country took part in the week-long conference, which is designed to explore effective ways for teachers, schools and districts from across the country to integrate STEM throughout the curriculum. The conference is a partnership between GE Foundation and the National Science Teachers Association.

  7. Biomechanics of stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, A. A.; Yuan, D.; Somers, S.; Grayson, W. L.

    2018-04-01

    Stem cells play a key role in the healthy development and maintenance of organisms. They are also critically important in medical treatments of various diseases. It has been recently demonstrated that the mechanical factors such as forces, adhesion, stiffness, relaxation, etc. have significant effects on stem cell functions. Under physiological conditions, cells (stem cells) in muscles, heart, and blood vessels are under the action of externally applied strains. We consider the stem cell microenvironment and performance associated with their conversion (differentiation) into skeletal muscle cells. Two problems are studied by using mathematical models whose parameters are then optimized by fitting experiments. First, we present our analysis of the process of stem cell differentiation under the application of cyclic unidirectional strain. This process is interpreted as a transition through several (six) stages where each of them is defined in terms of expression of a set of factors typical to skeletal muscle cells. The stem cell evolution toward muscle cells is described by a system of nonlinear ODEs. The parameters of the model are determined by fitting the experimental data on the time course of expression of the factors under consideration. Second, we analyse the mechanical (relaxation) properties of a scaffold that serves as the microenvironment for stem cells differentiation into skeletal muscle cells. This scaffold (surrounded by a liquid solution) is composed of unidirectional fibers with pores between them. The relaxation properties of the scaffold are studied in an experiment where a long cylindrical specimen is loaded by the application of ramp displacement until the strain reaches a prescribed value. The magnitude of the corresponding load is recorded. The specimen is considered as transversely isotropic poroelastic cylinder whose force relaxation is associated with liquid diffusion through the pores. An analytical solution for the total force applied to

  8. STEM on the radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    Looking for an Internet radio station focusing on programing about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)? The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) announced on 26 September the launch of Science360 Radio, which it says is the first Internet radio stream dedicated to STEM programing. Science360 includes more than 100 radio shows and podcasts that are available on the Web as well as on iPhone and Android devices. The shows originate from a variety of sources, including NSF, other U.S. government agencies, science organizations, universities, and media outlets. For more information, see http://science360.gov/files/.

  9. Stem cells in kidney regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Shinya; Yokoo, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Currently many efforts are being made to apply regenerative medicine to kidney diseases using several types of stem/progenitor cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, renal stem/progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem cells have the ability to repair injured organs and ameliorate damaged function. The strategy for kidney tissue repair is the recruitment of stem cells and soluble reparative factors to the kidney to elicit tissue repair and the induction of dedifferentiation of resident renal cells. On the other hand, where renal structure is totally disrupted, absolute kidney organ regeneration is needed to rebuild a whole functional kidney. In this review, we describe current advances in stem cell research for kidney tissue repair and de novo organ regeneration.

  10. Stem cells and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S

    2009-02-01

    Several recent findings in stem cell biology have resulted in new opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. Endometrial regeneration can be driven by bone marrow derived stem cells. This finding has potential implications for the treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the etiology of endometriosis. The ovaries have been shown to contain stem cells that form oocytes in adults and can be cultured in vitro to develop mature oocytes. Stem cells from the fetus have been demonstrated to lead to microchimerism in the mother and implicated in several maternal diseases. Additionally the placenta may be another source of hematopoietic stem cell. Finally endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into non-reproductive tissues. While we are just beginning to understand stem cells and many key questions remain, the potential advantages of stem cells in reproductive biology and medicine are apparent.

  11. Multipotent Stem Cell and Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Khanlarkhani, Neda; Baazm, Maryam; Mohammadzadeh, Farzaneh; Najafi, Atefeh; Mehdinejadiani, Shayesteh; Sobhani, Aligholi

    Stem cells are self-renewing and undifferentiated cell types that can be differentiate into functional cells. Stem cells can be classified into two main types based on their source of origin: Embryonic and Adult stem cells. Stem cells also classified based on the range of differentiation potentials into Totipotent, Pluripotent, Multipotent, and Unipotent. Multipotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types within one particular lineage. There are plentiful advantages and usages for multipotent stem cells. Multipotent Stem cells act as a significant key in procedure of development, tissue repair, and protection. The accessibility and adaptability of these amazing cells create them a great therapeutic choice for different part of medical approaches, and it becomes interesting topic in the scientific researches to found obvious method for the most advantageous use of MSC-based therapies. Recent studies in the field of stem cell biology have provided new perspectives and opportunities for the treatment of infertility disorders.

  12. [Progress in epidermal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Wang, You-Liang; Yang, Xiao

    2010-03-01

    Mammalian skin epidermis contains different epidermal stem cell pools which contribute to the homeostasis and repair of skin epithelium. Epidermal stem cells possess two essential features common to all stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation. Disturbing the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of epidermal stem cell often causes tumors or other skin diseases. Epidermal stem cell niches provide a special microenvironment that maintains a balance of stem cell quiescence and activity. This review primarily concentrates on the following points of the epidermal stem cells: the existing evidences, the self-renewal and differentiation, the division pattern, the signal pathways regulating self-renewal and differentiation, and the microenvironment (niche) and macroenvironment maintaining the homeostasis of stem cells.

  13. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  14. Information on Stem Cell Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... of stem cells share similar properties there are differences as well. For example, ES cells and iPS cells are able to differentiate into any type of cell, whereas adult stem cells are more restricted in their potential. The promise of all stem cells for use ...

  15. STEM--Beyond the Acronym

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jo Anne

    2015-01-01

    When most educators think of STEM education, they think of fully integrated projects seamlessly combining all four disciplines--science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Although such transdisciplinary STEM units are ideal, writes Vasquez, they are not the only way to give students valuable STEM experiences. She gives examples of two…

  16. Fake news portrayals of stem cells and stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Murdoch, Blake; Caulfield, Timothy

    2017-10-01

    This study examines how stem cells and stem cell research are portrayed on websites deemed to be purveyors of distorted and dubious information. Content analysis was conducted on 224 articles from 2015 to 2016, compiled by searching with the keywords 'stem cell(s)' on a list of websites flagged for containing either 'fake' or 'junk science' news. Articles contained various exaggerated positive and negative claims about stem cells and stem cell science, health and science related conspiracy theories, and statements promoting fear and mistrust of conventional medicine. Findings demonstrate the existence of organized misinformation networks, which may lead the public away from accurate information and facilitate a polarization of public discourse.

  17. STEMMING the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Jim; Valentine, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…

  18. Bolden STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden visits with students from Albert Hill Middle School during a visit to the MathScience Innovation Center, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, in Richmond, Va. During his visit, Bolden highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. Photo Credit:(NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  19. Bolden STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students from Albert Hill Middle School during a visit to the MathScience Innovation Center, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, in Richmond, Va. During his talk, Bolden highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. Photo Credit (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  20. Helping STEM Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    STEM--the catchy shorthand for "science, technology, engineering and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in preparing students for an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But while the…

  1. "Excellence" in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    So what does it take to achieve excellence in STEM education? That is the title of the author's presentation delivered at International Technology and Engineering Educators Association's (ITEEA's) FTEE "Spirit of Excellence" Breakfast on March 16, 2012, in Long Beach, California. In preparation for this presentation, the author went back and read…

  2. Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Blaes, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis can occur as an isolated clinical syndrome or, more often, may be part of a more widespread encephalitis. Different antineuronal autoantibodies, such as anti-Hu, anti-Ri, and anti-Ma2 can be associated with the syndrome, and the most frequent tumors are lung and testicular cancer. Anti-Hu-associated brain stem encephalitis does not normally respond to immunotherapy; the syndrome may stabilize under tumor treatment. Brain stem encephalitis with anti-Ma2 often improves after immunotherapy and/or tumor therapy, whereas only a minority of anti-Ri positive patients respond to immunosuppressants or tumor treatment. The Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in children, almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, shows a good response to steroids, ACTH, and rituximab, some patients do respond to intravenous immunoglobulins or cyclophosphamide. In adults, OMS is mainly associated with small cell lung cancer or gynecological tumors and only a small part of the patients show improvement after immunotherapy. Earlier diagnosis and treatment seem to be one major problem to improve the prognosis of both, paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis, and OMS.

  3. A Problem with STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Striking differences between physics and biology have important implications for interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The author is a physicist with interdisciplinary connections. The research group in which he works, the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin, is…

  4. Helping STEM Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    STEM--shorthand for "science, technology, engineering, and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But building and implementing programs that…

  5. STEM Comes to Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moomaw, Sally; Davis, Jaumall A.

    2010-01-01

    Math and science and the related technology and engineering are natural pairings. These four disciplines form the acronym STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) and can be readily combined into an integrated curriculum for early childhood classrooms. Many educators believe that children learn best when disciplines are interconnected. An…

  6. NASA STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-19

    School children are taught to build their own spacecraft and habitat during a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Leland Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. NASA STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-19

    School children react to food shrinking in a vacuum chamber during an Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Integrated STEM Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicer, Ali; Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research identified a strong correlation between mathematics and science performance albeit for small samples of students. Even though there was a high correlation between mathematics and science performance, researchers examining students' STEM achievement investigated mathematics and science achievement separately. The present study…

  9. STEM Sense and Nonsense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    If you can believe the daily flood of mass media stories, journal articles, and white papers, the United States is facing a STEM worker crisis. Business leaders and politicians warn that the nation is falling hopelessly behind in the global economic race because our students are unprepared for and uninterested in science, technology, engineering,…

  10. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Panels participants, from left, Dr. John P. Holdren, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, former White House Science Fair participant Joey Hudy, Environmentalist and third-year law student at Elon University School of Law Tyrone Davis, White House innovation expert Cristin Dorgelo, and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Gill Pratt, take a question from the audience during the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Joey Hudy, Anthem, AZ, 16-year-old self-described “Maker” answers a question from the audience at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Joey sat with the First Lady at the President’s 2014 State of the Union Address after his first shot to fame in 2012 when he attended the White House Science Fair where the President took a turn using his “extreme marshmallow cannon” to launch a marshmallow across the East Room of the White House. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Montgomery Blair High School Student Newspaper “Silver Chips” Online Editor-in-Chief Aanchal Johri, right, and Photo Editor Emma Howells, left, from Silver Spring, MD. interview Joey Hudy, Anthem, AZ, 16-year-old self-described “Maker” at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Joey sat with the First Lady at the President’s 2014 State of the Union Address after his first shot to fame in 2012 when he attended the White House Science Fair where the President took a turn using his “extreme marshmallow cannon” to launch a marshmallow across the East Room of the White House. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    National Geographic Kids reporter Trevor Jehl, right, interviews Joey Hudy, Anthem, AZ, 16-year-old self-described “Maker” at the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Joey sat with the First Lady at the President’s 2014 State of the Union Address after his first shot to fame in 2012 when he attended the White House Science Fair where the President took a turn using his “extreme marshmallow cannon” to launch a marshmallow across the East Room of the White House. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. State of STEM (SoSTEM) Address

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    Environmentalist and third-year law student at Elon University School of Law Tyrone Davis is interviewed by TIME for Kids reporter Grace Clark ahead of the annual White House State of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (SoSTEM) address, Wednesday, Jan. 29, 2014, in the South Court Auditorium in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building on the White House complex in Washington. Davis sat with the First Lady at the President’s 2014 State of the Union Address. As a Fellow with the Environmental Defense Fund in 2010, he helped show Elizabeth City State University how to save more than $31,000 a year and 200 tons of carbon emissions reductions annually by using technology and efficiency solutions. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Stemming on STEM: A STEM Education Framework for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Jiwon; Taylor, Jonte C.

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased attention paid to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics also known as STEM. The focus on STEM has been both educational and occupational. Unfortunately, students with disabilities perform below their peers without disabilities in math and science. The authors discuss issues related to STEM and students with…

  16. Gravitropism in Leafy Dicot Stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    A polarizing research microscope with rotating stage and associated camera equipment were ordered, and techniques of fixation and preparation of specimens were perfected for studying possible changes in orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls of gravistimulated dicot stems. Acid ethephon solutions or acid without ethephon caused elongation of stem tissues where they were applied; stems bent away from the side of application. Acid solutions applied to the bottom of horizontal stems greatly delayed bending. Research in tissue sensitivity changes during gravitropic bending of soybean hypocotyls while immersed in auxin and in castor bean stems is also reported.

  17. Stem Cells in Mammalian Gonads.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji; Ding, Xinbao; Wang, Jian

    Stem cells have great value in clinical application because of their ability to self-renew and their potential to differentiate into many different cell types. Mammalian gonads, including testes for males and ovaries for females, are composed of germline and somatic cells. In male mammals, spermatogonial stem cells maintain spermatogenesis which occurs continuously in adult testis. Likewise, a growing body of evidence demonstrated that female germline stem cells could be found in mammalian ovaries. Meanwhile, prior studies have shown that somatic stem cells exist in both testes and ovaries. In this chapter, we focus on mammalian gonad stem cells and discuss their characteristics as well as differentiation potentials.

  18. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Richard L; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A; Vemuri, Mohan C; Boucher, Shayne E; Bickenbach, Jackie R; Kerr, Candace

    2013-02-01

    The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemistry of epidermal stem cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Richard L.; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A.; Vemuri, Mohan C.; Boucher, Shayne E.; Bickenbach, Jackie R.; Kerr, Candace

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. Scope of review A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. Major conclusions An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. General significance Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. PMID:22820019

  20. Materials as stem cell regulators

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  1. Ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, A G; Reimer, D; Sopper, S; Boesch, M; Martowicz, A; Roessler, J; Wiedemair, A M; Rumpold, H; Untergasser, G; Concin, N; Hofstetter, G; Muller-Holzner, E; Fiegl, H; Marth, C; Wolf, D; Pesta, M; Hatina, J

    2012-01-01

    Because of its semi-solid character in dissemination and growth, advanced ovarian cancer with its hundreds of peritoneal tumor nodules and plaques appears to be an excellent in vivo model for studying the cancer stem cell hypothesis. The most important obstacle, however, is to adequately define and isolate these tumor-initiating cells endowed with the properties of anoikis-resistance and unlimited self-renewal. Until now, no universal single marker or marker constellation has been found to faithfully isolate (ovarian) cancer stem cells. As these multipotent cells are known to possess highly elaborated efflux systems for cytotoxic agents, these pump systems have been exploited to outline putative stem cells as a side-population (SP) via dye exclusion analysis. Furthermore, the cells in question have been isolated via flow cytometry on the basis of cell surface markers thought to be characteristic for stem cells.In the Vienna variant of the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 a proof-of-principle model with both a stable SP and a stable ALDH1A1+ cell population was established. Double staining clearly revealed that both cell fractions were not identical. Of note, A2780V cells were negative for expression of surface markers CD44 and CD117 (c-kit). When cultured on monolayers of healthy human mesothelial cells, green-fluorescence-protein (GFP)-transfected SP of A2780V exhibited spheroid-formation, whereas non-side-population (NSP) developed a spare monolayer growing over the healthy mesothelium. Furthermore, A2780V SP was found to be partially resistant to platinum. However, this resistance could not be explained by over-expression of the "excision repair cross-complementation group 1" (ERCC1) gene, which is essentially involved in the repair of platinated DNA damage. ERCC1 was, nonetheless, over-expressed in A2780V cells grown as spheres under stem cell-selective conditions as compared to adherent monolayers cultured under differentiating conditions. The same was true for

  2. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2 .- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  3. A SNARE-Like Superfamily Protein SbSLSP from the Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Confers Salt and Drought Tolerance by Maintaining Membrane Stability, K+/Na+ Ratio, and Antioxidant Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dinkar; Yadav, Narendra Singh; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    About 1000 salt-responsive ESTs were identified from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata. Among these, a novel salt-inducible gene SbSLSP (Salicornia brachiata SNARE-like superfamily protein), showed up-regulation upon salinity and dehydration stress. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs related to abiotic stress in the putative promoter region supports our finding that SbSLSP gene is inducible by abiotic stress. The SbSLSP protein showed a high sequence identity to hypothetical/uncharacterized proteins from Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Eucalyptus grandis, and Prunus persica and with SNARE-like superfamily proteins from Zostera marina and Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatics analysis predicted a clathrin adaptor complex small-chain domain and N-myristoylation site in the SbSLSP protein. Subcellular localization studies indicated that the SbSLSP protein is mainly localized in the plasma membrane. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we establish that overexpression of SbSLSP resulted in elevated tolerance to salt and drought stress. The improved tolerance was confirmed by alterations in a range of physiological parameters, including high germination and survival rate, higher leaf chlorophyll contents, and reduced accumulation of Na+ ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, overexpressing lines also showed lower water loss, higher cell membrane stability, and increased accumulation of proline and ROS-scavenging enzymes. Overexpression of SbSLSP also enhanced the transcript levels of ROS-scavenging and signaling enzyme genes. This study is the first investigation of the function of the SbSLSP gene as a novel determinant of salinity/drought tolerance. The results suggest that SbSLSP could be a potential candidate to increase salinity and drought tolerance in crop plants for sustainable agriculture in semi-arid saline soil. PMID:27313584

  4. Bolden STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden speaks to students from Albert Hill Middle School during a visit to the MathScience Innovation Center, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, in Richmond, Va., as U.S. Sen. Mark Warner, D-Va., U.S. Rep. Bobby Scott, D-Va., seated, look on. During his talk, Administrator Bolden highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. (Photo Credit:NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  5. Bolden STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, holds a box of spiders as MathScience Innovation Center Instructor Rhonda Hawley describes them during a visit to the "Spider Room" at the center, Friday, Jan. 28. 2011, at the center in Richmond, Va. Earlier, Bolden spoke to students from Albert Hill Middle School, where he highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. (Photo Credit:NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  6. Global STEM Navigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalimonte, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    In the STEM classroom, students can work in collaborative teams to build those essential skills needed for the 21st-century world. In project-based learning (PBL), teams of four to six students are often randomly selected to describe a realistic situation that may occur in today's workplace; this may be done by counting off in fours, fives,…

  7. Diversifying the STEM pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Boelter, Christina; Link, Tanja C.; Perry, Brea L.; Leukefeld, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Structured Abstract Purpose The current paper focuses on the description and evaluation of a two-year STEM intervention targeting underserved middle schools students from minority and low SES backgrounds. Design/methodology/approach Middle school students from low-income and minority backgrounds (n = 166) were targeted to participate in a two-year, intensive, hands-on science and technology intervention to increase their interest in biomedical and health sciences. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from TRY-IT! Students as well as a control group that did not participate in the intervention, teachers, and parents to assess changes in attitudes and knowledge with respect to a variety of STEM-related topics. Findings Quantitative analyses did not reveal significant long-lasting differences between the TRY-IT! and the control group, thus providing a mixed assessment of the effectiveness of the intervention. However, qualitative student responses collected during the second year of participation revealed positive attitudes toward the program experience and benefits of their exposure to science. In light of these findings, insights drawn from reflecting on successes and challenges experienced during the course of planning and implementing the study are provided to guide future programs and research. Originality/value The intervention was developed in response to the continued under representation of minority and lower SES individuals in STEM careers. An effort to boost positive attitudes toward science and math, as well as confidence in the accessibility of STEM careers among this population is important given the promising outlook of this career field compared to others for future generations. PMID:28553067

  8. NASA STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-19

    NASA Astronaut and Associate Administrator for Education, Leland Melvin, talks to school children during an Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. NASA STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-19

    School children are photographed by their parents during a hands-on experience with a mock spacesuit during a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Leland Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. NASA STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-19

    School children are given a hands-on experience with a mock spacesuit during a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Leland Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. NASA STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-19

    School children watch a TV program showing how the Mars rover Curiosity landed on Mars during an Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education event held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Arlington, VA on Saturday, Jan. 19, 2013. Students were able to meet with Astronaut Melvin, conduct experiments, build their own space jab, and touch a mockup space suit. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Stem cells in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ruixia; Li, Junqin; Niu, Xuping; Liu, Ruifeng; Chang, Wenjuan; Zhao, Xincheng; Wang, Qiang; Li, Xinhua; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Kaiming

    2017-06-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic relapsing inflammatory disease. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it is commonly accepted that the development of psoriasis is a result of multi-system interactions among the epidermis, dermis, blood vessels, immune system, neuroendocrine system, metabolic system, and hematopoietic system. Many cell types have been confirmed to participate in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here, we review the stem cell abnormalities related to psoriasis that have been investigated recently. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and Treatment with Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Barut Selver, Özlem; Yağcı, Ayşe; Eğrilmez, Sait; Gürdal, Mehmet; Palamar, Melis; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Ateş, Utku; Veral, Ali; Güven, Çağrı; Wolosin, Jose Mario

    2017-10-01

    The cornea is the outermost tissue of the eye and it must be transparent for the maintenance of good visual function. The superficial epithelium of the cornea, which is renewed continuously by corneal stem cells, plays a critical role in the permanence of this transparency. These stem cells are localized at the cornea-conjunctival transition zone, referred to as the limbus. When this zone is affected/destroyed, limbal stem cell deficiency ensues. Loss of limbal stem cell function allows colonization of the corneal surface by conjunctival epithelium. Over 6 million people worldwide are affected by corneal blindness, and limbal stem cell deficiency is one of the main causes. Fortunately, it is becoming possible to recover vision by autologous transplantation of limbal cells obtained from the contralateral eye in unilateral cases. Due to the potential risks to the donor eye, only a small amount of tissue can be obtained, in which only 1-2% of the limbal epithelial cells are actually limbal stem cells. Vigorous attempts are being made to expand limbal stem cells in culture to preserve or even enrich the stem cell population. Ex vivo expanded limbal stem cell treatment in limbal stem cell deficiency was first reported in 1997. In the 20 years since, various protocols have been developed for the cultivation of limbal epithelial cells. It is still not clear which method promotes effective stem cell viability and this remains a subject of ongoing research. The most preferred technique for limbal cell culture is the explant culture model. In this approach, a small donor eye limbal biopsy is placed as an explant onto a biocompatible substrate (preferably human amniotic membrane) for expansion. The outgrowth (cultivated limbal epithelial cells) is then surgically transferred to the recipient eye. Due to changing regulations concerning cell-based therapy, the implementation of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice using

  15. Characterization of Amniotic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Chika; Zhou, Kaixuan; Takeda, Yuji; Fathy, Moustafa; Okabe, Motonori; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nakamura, Yukio; Kato, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The amnion membrane is developed from embryo-derived cells, and amniotic cells have been shown to exhibit multidifferentiation potential. These cells represent a desirable source for stem cells for a variety of reasons. However, to date very few molecular analyses of amnion-derived cells have been reported, and efficient markers for isolating the stem cells remain unclear. This paper assesses the characterization of amnion-derived cells as stem cells by examining stemness marker expressions for amnion-derived epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative PCR. Flow cytometry revealed that amnion epithelial cells expressed CD133, CD 271, and TRA-1-60, whereas mecenchymal cells expressed CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105. Immunohistochemistry showed that both cells expressed the stemness markers Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and SSEA4. Stemness genes' expression in amnion epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, fibroblast, bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was compared by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amnion-derived epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Klf4 more than bone marrow–derived MSCs. The sorted TRA1-60–positive cells expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Klf4 more than unsorted cells or TRA1-60–negative cells. TRA1-60 can be a marker for isolating amnion epithelial stem cells. PMID:25068631

  16. Contrasting views on STEM employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew; Huber, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In reply to “Unemployed and STEM” (Careers, May pp46-47), in which Penny Jackson described how her efforts to find a job in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) met with little success at first, even though she has a BSc in physics and a Master's in accelerator science. And in reply to “STEM paradox revisited” (Editorial, June p15), on why employers are expressing concerns about STEM shortages at a time when many recent STEM graduates are struggling to find jobs.

  17. STEm Minority Graduate Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Kaen E

    ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee's chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcingmore » students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit it's a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years the

  18. Bolden STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, shares a laugh with U.S. Sen. Mark Warner, D-Va., center and U.S. Rep. Bobby Scott, D-Va., prior to an event at the MathScience Innovation Center, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, in Richmond, Va. Bolden later spoke to students from Albert Hill Middle School highlighting the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. (Photo Credit:NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  19. Bolden STEM Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-28

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, right, counts down along with others as U.S. Sen. Mark Warner, D-Va., readies to launch a paper rocket as U.S. Rep. Bobby Scott, D-Va., third right, looks on, Friday, Jan. 28, 2011, at the MathScience Innovation Center in Richmond, Va. Earlier, Bolden, spoke to students from Albert Hill Middle School where he highlighted the importance of science, technology, engineering and math, or STEM, as he shared his life experiences with the students. (Photo Credit:NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  20. Aging, metabolism and stem cells: Spotlight on muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    García-Prat, Laura; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-04-15

    All tissues and organs undergo a progressive regenerative decline as they age. This decline has been mainly attributed to loss of stem cell number and/or function, and both stem cell-intrinsic changes and alterations in local niches and/or systemic environment over time are known to contribute to the stem cell aging phenotype. Advancing in the molecular understanding of the deterioration of stem cell cells with aging is key for targeting the specific causes of tissue regenerative dysfunction at advanced stages of life. Here, we revise exciting recent findings on why stem cells age and the consequences on tissue regeneration, with a special focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle. We also highlight newly identified common molecular pathways affecting diverse types of aging stem cells, such as altered proteostasis, metabolism, or senescence entry, and discuss the questions raised by these findings. Finally, we comment on emerging stem cell rejuvenation strategies, principally emanating from studies on muscle stem cells, which will surely burst tissue regeneration research for future benefit of the increasing human aging population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are STEM High School Students Entering the STEM Pipeline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, M. Suzanne; Patel, Nimisha H.; Lindsey, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the career skills and interests for students in two STEM schools to national data. Students completed the KUDER skills assessment and career planning online tools. Results were compared across school, grade level, and sex. The results provided evidence that STEM high school students expressed career intents in predominately…

  2. 6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  3. 5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  4. STEM TIPS: Supporting the Beginning Secondary STEM Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Griff; Dana, Thomas; LaFramenta, Joanne; Adams, Thomasenia Lott; Arnold, Jason Dean

    2016-01-01

    The STEM TIPS mobile-ready support platform gives institutions or school districts the ability to provide immediate and customized mentoring to teachers through multiple tiers of web-based support and resources. Using the results of a needs assessment, STEM TIPS was created and launched in partnership with 18 Florida school districts. Further…

  5. Whose STEM? Disrupting the Gender Crisis within STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heybach, Jessica; Pickup, Austin

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges implicit understandings of scientific inquiry and gender within contemporary responses to the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Failing to recognize the gendered history of science, and thus STEM disciplines, we argue that much research and curricular interventions are…

  6. Learning for STEM Literacy: STEM Literacy for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We are in the STEM generation whose comprehensive purpose is to resolve (1) societal needs for new technological and scientific advances; (2) economic needs for national security; and (3) personal needs to become a fulfilled, productive, knowledgeable citizen. STEM specifically refers to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, but now…

  7. International Society for Stem Cell Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell and regenerative medicine community. More stem cell research Take a closer look Recent Blogs View All ... nonprofit organization & the voice of the stem cell research community The International Society for Stem Cell Research ( ...

  8. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The generative economic power and social influence of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has made the production of a capable science and engineering workforce a priority among business and policy leaders. They are rightly concerned that without a robust STEM workforce, the nation will become less competitive in the global…

  9. Building STEM Opportunities for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon J.; Peters-Burton, Erin; Ford, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In response to a report from the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, President Obama issued a challenge to the U.S. education system to create more than 1,000 new STEM-focused schools, including 200 high schools. Inclusive STEM-focused high schools--which focus their efforts on females, minorities, and students who are…

  10. Engaging Students in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, T. J.; Odell, M. R. L.

    2014-01-01

    With the "flattening" of the global economy in the 21st century, the teaching of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has taken on new importance as economic competition has become truly global. STEM education has evolved into a meta-discipline, an integrated effort that removes the traditional barriers between these…

  11. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  12. Deconstruction Geography: A STEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlhar, Adam M.; Duffield, Stacy K.

    2015-01-01

    This article will define the engineering design process used to create an integrated curriculum at STEM Center Middle School, and it features the planning, implementation, and revision of the Deconstruction Geography unit. The Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Center opened in the fall of 2009 as a way to relieve overcrowding at the…

  13. Ethical Reasoning in STEM Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekerek, Mehmet; Karakaya, Ferhat; Tekerek, Betül

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine ethical reasoning of lecturers in STEM disciplines in terms of several independent variables (gender, working another institution, age, academic title, academic discipline, service period). This study was designed as a survey research. Lecturers in STEM disciplines in Kahramanmaras Sutçuimam University were…

  14. AccessSTEM: Building Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DO-IT, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A series of activities were undertaken to understand the underrepresentation of people with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and increase their participation in these fields. "AccessSTEM" collaborated with key stakeholders to conduct a "Capacity-Building Institute"…

  15. Bone marrow (stem cell) donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000839.htm Bone marrow (stem cell) donation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... cells are more likely to help patients than stem cells from older people. People who register must either: Use a cotton swab to take a sample of ...

  16. Bi-stem gripping apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.

  17. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  18. Suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1 (SKD1) interacts with RING-type ubiquitin ligase and sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase (SnRK1) in the halophyte ice plant

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chih-Pin; Li, Chang-Hua; Jou, Yingtzy; Chen, Yu-Chan; Lin, Ya-Chung; Yang, Fang-Yu; Huang, Nu-Chuan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2013-01-01

    SKD1 (suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1) is an AAA-type ATPase that functions as a molecular motor. It was previously shown that SKD1 accumulates in epidermal bladder cells of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. SKD1 knock-down Arabidopsis mutants showed an imbalanced Na+/K+ ratio under salt stress. Two enzymes involved in protein post-translational modifications that physically interacted with McSKD1 were identified. McCPN1 (copine 1), a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, has an N-terminal myristoylation site that links to the plasma membrane, a central copine domain that interacts with McSKD1, and a C-terminal RING domain that catalyses protein ubiquitination. In vitro ubiquitination assay demonstrated that McCPN1 was capable of mediating ubiquitination of McSKD1. McSnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that contains an N-terminal STKc catalytic domain to phosphorylate McSKD1, and C-terminal UBA and KA1 domains to interact with McSKD1. The transcript and protein levels of McSnRK1 increased as NaCl concentrations increased. The formation of an SKD1–SnRK1–CPN1 ternary complex was demonstrated by yeast three-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. It was found that McSKD1 preferentially interacts with McSnRK1 in the cytosol, and salt induced the re-distribution of McSKD1 and McSnRK1 towards the plasma membrane via the microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequently interacted with RING-type E3 McCPN1. The potential effects of ubiquitination and phosphorylation on McSKD1, such as changes in the ATPase activity and cellular localization, and how they relate to the functions of SKD1 in the maintenance of Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress, are discussed. PMID:23580756

  19. An Actin Depolymerizing Factor from the Halophyte Smooth Cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora (SaADF2) is Superior to its Rice homolog (OsADF2) in Conferring Drought and Salt Tolerance when Constitutively Overexpressed in Rice.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sonali; Mangu, Venkata; Sanchez, Luis; Bedre, Renesh; Joshi, Rohit; Rajasekaran, Kanniah; Baisakh, Niranjan

    2018-05-31

    Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) maintain the cellular actin network dynamics by regulating severing and disassembly of actin filaments in response to environmental cues. An ADF isolated from a monocot halophyte, Spartina alterniflora (SaADF2) imparted significantly higher level of drought and salinity tolerance when expressed in rice than its rice homologue OsADF2. SaADF2 differs from OsADF2 by a few amino acid residues, including a substitution in the regulatory phosphorylation site serine-6, which accounted for its weak interaction with OsCDPK6 (calcium dependent protein kinase), thus resulting in an increased efficacy of SaADF2 and enhanced cellular actin dynamics. SaADF2 overexpression preserved the actin filament organization better in rice protoplasts under desiccation stress. The predicted tertiary structure of SaADF2 showed a longer F-loop than OsADF2 that could have contributed to higher actin-binding affinity and rapid F-actin depolymerization in vitro by SaADF2. Rice transgenics constitutively overexpressing SaADF2 (SaADF2-OE) showed better growth, relative water content, and photosynthetic and agronomic yield under drought conditions than wild-type (WT) and OsADF2 overexpressers (OsADF2-OE). SaADF2-OE preserved intact grana structure after prolonged drought stress, whereas WT and OsADF2-OE presented highly damaged and disorganized grana stacking. The possible role of ADF2 in transactivation was hypothesized from the comparative transcriptome analyses, which showed significant differential expression of stress-related genes including interacting partners of ADF2 in overexpressers. Identification of a complex, differential interactome decorating or regulating stress-modulated cytoskeleton driven by ADF isoforms will lead us to key pathways that could be potential target for genome engineering to improve abiotic stress tolerance in agricultural crops. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright

  20. Suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1 (SKD1) interacts with RING-type ubiquitin ligase and sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase (SnRK1) in the halophyte ice plant.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chih-Pin; Li, Chang-Hua; Jou, Yingtzy; Chen, Yu-Chan; Lin, Ya-Chung; Yang, Fang-Yu; Huang, Nu-Chuan; Yen, Hungchen Emilie

    2013-05-01

    SKD1 (suppressor of K+ transport growth defect 1) is an AAA-type ATPase that functions as a molecular motor. It was previously shown that SKD1 accumulates in epidermal bladder cells of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. SKD1 knock-down Arabidopsis mutants showed an imbalanced Na+/K+ ratio under salt stress. Two enzymes involved in protein post-translational modifications that physically interacted with McSKD1 were identified. McCPN1 (copine 1), a RING-type ubiquitin ligase, has an N-terminal myristoylation site that links to the plasma membrane, a central copine domain that interacts with McSKD1, and a C-terminal RING domain that catalyses protein ubiquitination. In vitro ubiquitination assay demonstrated that McCPN1 was capable of mediating ubiquitination of McSKD1. McSnRK1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that contains an N-terminal STKc catalytic domain to phosphorylate McSKD1, and C-terminal UBA and KA1 domains to interact with McSKD1. The transcript and protein levels of McSnRK1 increased as NaCl concentrations increased. The formation of an SKD1-SnRK1-CPN1 ternary complex was demonstrated by yeast three-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation. It was found that McSKD1 preferentially interacts with McSnRK1 in the cytosol, and salt induced the re-distribution of McSKD1 and McSnRK1 towards the plasma membrane via the microtubule cytoskeleton and subsequently interacted with RING-type E3 McCPN1. The potential effects of ubiquitination and phosphorylation on McSKD1, such as changes in the ATPase activity and cellular localization, and how they relate to the functions of SKD1 in the maintenance of Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress, are discussed.

  1. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  2. Leaving STEM: STEM Ph.D. Holders in Non-STEM Careers. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Berger, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    During the last few decades, national, state, and institutional-level initiatives have been implemented to build and expand the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce by recruiting and retaining groups of individuals that have been traditionally underrepresented in STEM in higher education. The underlying theory of…

  3. STEM crisis or STEM surplus? Yes and yes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi; Larson, Richard C

    2015-05-01

    The last decade has seen considerable concern regarding a shortage of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers to meet the demands of the labor market. At the same time, many experts have presented evidence of a STEM worker surplus. A comprehensive literature review, in conjunction with employment statistics, newspaper articles, and our own interviews with company recruiters, reveals a significant heterogeneity in the STEM labor market: the academic sector is generally oversupplied, while the government sector and private industry have shortages in specific areas.

  4. STEM crisis or STEM surplus? Yes and yes

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yi; Larson, Richard C.

    2018-01-01

    The last decade has seen considerable concern regarding a shortage of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workers to meet the demands of the labor market. At the same time, many experts have presented evidence of a STEM worker surplus. A comprehensive literature review, in conjunction with employment statistics, newspaper articles, and our own interviews with company recruiters, reveals a significant heterogeneity in the STEM labor market: the academic sector is generally oversupplied, while the government sector and private industry have shortages in specific areas. PMID:29422698

  5. Technology-Supported Science Instruction through Integrated STEM Guitar Building: The Case for STEM and Non-STEM Instructor Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauze, Sean; French, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    With a national emphasis on integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education in K-16 courses, incorporating technology in a meaningful way is critical. This research examines whether STEM and non-STEM teachers were able to incorporate technology in STEM courses successfully with sufficient professional development. The…

  6. Stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zuba-Surma, Ewa K; Józkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Józef

    2011-11-01

    Multiple populations of stem cells have been indicated to potentially participate in regeneration of injured organs. Especially, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and recently inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPS) receive a marked attention from scientists and clinicians for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferative and differentiation capacities. Despite that ESC and iPS cells are expected to give rise into multiple regenerative applications when their side effects are overcame during appropriate preparation procedures, in fact their most recent application of human ESC may, however, reside in their use as a tool in drug development and disease modeling. This review focuses on the applications of stem cells in pharmaceutical biotechnology. We discuss possible relevance of pluripotent cell stem populations in developing physiological models for any human tissue cell type useful for pharmacological, metabolic and toxicity evaluation necessary in the earliest steps of drug development. The present models applied for preclinical drug testing consist of primary cells or immortalized cell lines that show limitations in terms of accessibility or relevance to their in vivo counterparts. The availability of renewable human cells with functional similarities to their in vivo counterparts is the first landmark for a new generation of cell-based assays. We discuss the approaches for using stem cells as valuable physiological targets of drug activity which may increase the strength of target validation and efficacy potentially resulting in introducing new safer remedies into clinical trials and the marketplace. Moreover, we discuss the possible applications of stem cells for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The knowledge about the mechanisms governing the development and progression of multitude disorders which would come from the cellular models established based on stem cells, may give rise to new therapeutical strategies for such diseases. All

  7. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A; Baldini, N; Cenni, E; Gomez-Barrena, E; Granchi, D; Kassem, M; Konttinen, Y T; Mustafa, K; Pioletti, D P; Sillat, T; Finne-Wistrand, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopaedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and foetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem cells, use of platelet-rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed. PMID:21129153

  8. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  9. The STEM Initiative: Constraints and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschbach, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable national interest in STEM initiatives, but yet there is little discussion concerning what STEM means in terms of a curriculum concept to be applied to school programming. This article focuses on STEM as a curriculum concept. First, STEM programming is discussed in terms of separate subjects, correlated and broad fields…

  10. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other than...

  12. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other than...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other than...

  15. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other than...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  18. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  19. Expanding STEM opportunities through inclusive STEM-focused high schools.

    PubMed

    Means, Barbara; Wang, Haiwen; Wei, Xin; Lynch, Sharon; Peters, Vanessa; Young, Viki; Allen, Carrie

    2017-09-01

    Inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs) (where STEM is science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) admit students on the basis of interest rather than competitive examination. This study examines the central assumption behind these schools-that they provide students from subgroups underrepresented in STEM with experiences that equip them academically and attitudinally to enter and stay in the STEM pipeline. Hierarchical modeling was applied to data from student surveys and state longitudinal data records for 5113 students graduating from 39 ISHSs and 22 comprehensive high schools in North Carolina and Texas. Compared to peers from the same demographic group with similar Grade 8 achievement levels, underrepresented minority and female ISHS students in both states were more likely to undertake advanced STEM coursework. Hispanics in Texas and females in both states expressed more STEM career interest in Grade 12 if they attended an ISHS. Positive relationships between ISHS attendance and grade point average were found in the total sample and each subgroup in North Carolina. Positive ISHS advantages in terms of test scores for the total student sample were found for science in both states and for mathematics in Texas. For the various student subgroups, test score differences favored the ISHS samples but attained statistical significance only for African Americans' science achievement scores in the Texas study.

  20. [Progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Libin; Zhu, He; Hao, Jie; Zhou, Qi

    2015-06-01

    Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all types of cells in the body and therefore have great application potential in regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. In recent years, stem cell technology has made great progress, and induced pluripotent stem cell technology revolutionizes the whole stem cell field. At the same time, stem cell research in our country has also achieved great progress and becomes an indispensable power in the worldwide stem cell research field. This review mainly focuses on the research progress in stem cells and regenerative medicine in our country since the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technology, including induced pluripotent stem cells, transdifferentiation, haploid stem cells, and new gene editing tools.

  1. Stem cells: sources and applications.

    PubMed

    Vats, A; Tolley, N S; Polak, J M; Buttery, L D K

    2002-08-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary area of research aimed at regeneration of tissues and restoration of function of organs through implantation of cells/tissues grown outside the body, or stimulating cells to grow into implanted matrix. In this short review, some of the most recent developments in the use of stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration will be discussed. There is no doubt that stem cells derived from adult and embryonic sources hold great therapeutic potential but it is clear that there is still much research required before their use is commonplace. There is much debate over adult versus embryonic stem cells and whether both are required. It is probably too early to disregard one or other of these cell sources. With regard to embryonic stem cells, the major concern relates to the ethics of their creation and the proposed practice of therapeutic cloning.

  2. Megakaryocytopoiesis in Stem Cell Transplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    megakaryocyte production by at least 3-fold by a still unknown mechanism. We were able to rule out any role of stromal concentrations of thrombopoietin, interleukins 3 and 6, stem cell factor and heparan sulfates on this enhancing effect.

  3. Progress in myeloma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Richard Dela; Tricot, Guido; Zangari, Maurizio; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the United States and affects about 4 in 100,000 Americans. Even though much progress has been made in MM therapy, MM remains an incurable disease for the vast majority of patients. The existence of MM stem cell is considered one of the major causes of MM drug-resistance, leading to relapse. This highlights the importance and urgency of developing approaches to target MM stem cells. However, very little is known about the molecular characteristics of the MM stem cells, which makes it difficult to target MM stem cells therapeutically. Evidence of the existence of a myeloma stem cell has been provided by Matsui et al. showing that the CD138- and CD20+ fraction, which is a minor population of the MM cells, has a greater clonogenic potential and has the phenotype of a memory B-cell (CD19+, CD27+). In this review, we report recent progress of cell surface markers in cancer stem cells, especially in myeloma and the molecular mechanisms related to drug resistance and myeloma disease progression. PMID:22432075

  4. Diabetes and Stem Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Fujimaki, Shin; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Takemasa, Tohru; Asashima, Makoto; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer's disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment. PMID:26075247

  5. Drosophila's contribution to stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyanesh

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of Drosophila stem cells with striking similarities to mammalian stem cells has brought new hope for stem cell research. Recent developments in Drosophila stem cell research is bringing wider opportunities for contemporary stem cell biologists. In this regard, Drosophila germ cells are becoming a popular model of stem cell research. In several cases, genes that controlled Drosophila stem cells were later discovered to have functional homologs in mammalian stem cells. Like mammals, Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs) are controlled by both intrinsic as well as external signals. Inside the Drosophila testes, germline and somatic stem cells form a cluster of cells (the hub). Hub cells depend on JAK-STAT signaling, and, in absence of this signal, they do not self-renew. In Drosophila, significant changes occur within the stem cell niche that contributes to a decline in stem cell number over time. In case of aging Drosophila, somatic niche cells show reduced DE-cadherin and unpaired (Upd) proteins. Unpaired proteins are known to directly decrease stem cell number within the niches, and, overexpression of upd within niche cells restored GSCs in older males also . Stem cells in the midgut of Drosophila are also very promising. Reduced Notch signaling was found to increase the number of midgut progenitor cells. On the other hand, activation of the Notch pathway decreased proliferation of these cells. Further research in this area should lead to the discovery of additional factors that regulate stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila.

  6. Drosophila's contribution to stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gyanesh

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of Drosophila stem cells with striking similarities to mammalian stem cells has brought new hope for stem cell research. Recent developments in Drosophila stem cell research is bringing wider opportunities for contemporary stem cell biologists. In this regard, Drosophila germ cells are becoming a popular model of stem cell research. In several cases, genes that controlled Drosophila stem cells were later discovered to have functional homologs in mammalian stem cells. Like mammals, Drosophila germline stem cells (GSCs) are controlled by both intrinsic as well as external signals. Inside the Drosophila testes, germline and somatic stem cells form a cluster of cells (the hub). Hub cells depend on JAK-STAT signaling, and, in absence of this signal, they do not self-renew. In Drosophila, significant changes occur within the stem cell niche that contributes to a decline in stem cell number over time. In case of aging Drosophila, somatic niche cells show reduced DE-cadherin and unpaired (Upd) proteins. Unpaired proteins are known to directly decrease stem cell number within the niches, and, overexpression of upd within niche cells restored GSCs in older males also . Stem cells in the midgut of Drosophila are also very promising. Reduced Notch signaling was found to increase the number of midgut progenitor cells. On the other hand, activation of the Notch pathway decreased proliferation of these cells. Further research in this area should lead to the discovery of additional factors that regulate stem and progenitor cells in Drosophila. PMID:26180635

  7. Stem cells in cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death among people in industrialized nations. Although the heart has some ability to regenerate after infarction, myocardial restoration is inadequate. Consequently, investigators are currently exploring the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), skeletal myoblasts and adult bone marrow stem cells to limit infarct size. hESCs are pluripotent cells that can regenerate myocardium in infarcted hearts, attenuate heart remodeling and contribute to left ventricle (LV) systolic force development. Since hESCs can form heart teratomas, investigators are differentiating hESCs toward cardiac progenitor cells prior to transplantation into hearts. Large quantities of hESCs cardiac progenitor cells, however, must be generated, immune rejection must be prevented and grafts must survive over the long term to significantly improve myocardial performance. Transplanted autologous skeletal myoblasts can survive in infarcted myocardium in small numbers, proliferate, differentiate into skeletal myofibers and increase the LV ejection fraction. These cells, however, do not form electromechanical connections with host cardiomyocytes. Consequently, electrical re-entry can occur and cause cardiac arrhythmias. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells contain hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. In several meta-analyses, patients with coronary disease who received autologous bone marrow cells by intracoronary injection show significant 3.7% (range: 1.9-5.4%) increases in LV ejection fraction, decreases in LV end-systolic volume of -4.8 ml (range: -1.4 to -8.2 ml) and reductions in infarct size of 5.5% (-1.9 to -9.1%), without experiencing arrhythmias. Bone marrow cells appear to release biologically active factors that limit myocardial damage. Unfortunately, bone marrow cells from patients with chronic diseases propagate poorly and can die prematurely. Substantial challenges must be addressed and resolved to advance the use of stem cells

  8. Stem cells therapy for ALS.

    PubMed

    Mazzini, Letizia; Vescovi, Angelo; Cantello, Roberto; Gelati, Maurizio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowledge on the molecular basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) having quickly progressed over the last few years, such discoveries have not yet translated into new therapeutics. With the advancement of stem cell technologies there is hope for stem cell therapeutics as novel treatments for ALS. We discuss in detail the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells in preclinical and clinical works. Moreover, we address many open questions in clinical translation. SC therapy is a potentially promising new treatment for ALS and the need to better understand how to develop cell-based experimental treatments, and how to implement them in clinical trials, becomes more pressing. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural fetal stem cells have emerged as safe and potentially effective cell types, but there is a need to carry out appropriately designed experimental studies to verify their long-term safety and possibly efficacy. Moreover, the cost-benefit analysis of the results must take into account the quality of life of the patients as a major end point. It is our opinion that a multicenter international clinical program aime d at fine-tuning and coordinating transplantation procedures and protocols is mandatory.

  9. Stem Cells in Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Haudenschild, Dominik R.; Wegner, Adam M.; Klineberg, Eric O.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Review of literature. Objectives: This review of literature investigates the application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in spinal fusion, highlights potential uses in the development of bone grafts, and discusses limitations based on both preclinical and clinical models. Methods: A review of literature was conducted looking at current studies using stem cells for augmentation of spinal fusion in both animal and human models. Results: Eleven preclinical studies were found that used various animal models. Average fusion rates across studies were 59.8% for autograft and 73.7% for stem cell–based grafts. Outcomes included manual palpation and stressing of the fusion, radiography, micro–computed tomography (μCT), and histological analysis. Fifteen clinical studies, 7 prospective and 8 retrospective, were found. Fusion rates ranged from 60% to 100%, averaging 87.1% in experimental groups and 87.2% in autograft control groups. Conclusions: It appears that there is minimal clinical difference between commercially available stem cells and bone marrow aspirates indicating that MSCs may be a good choice in a patient with poor marrow quality. Overcoming morbidity and limitations of autograft for spinal fusion, remains a significant problem for spinal surgeons and further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of stem cells in augmenting spinal fusion. PMID:29238646

  10. Influence of students' STEM self-efficacy on STEM and physics career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Lilia; Rahman, Norshariani Abd; Ramli, Nor Aidillina Mohd; Mohtar, Lilia Ellany

    2018-01-01

    Interest towards STEM and STEM careers is declining worldwide. Among the STEM related careers, the physics discipline has been the most affected in terms of numbers and imbalance of gender. This study investigates the role of self-efficacy in STEM towards STEM careers and Physics career based on gender and types of school. Findings showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between students' STEM self-efficacy and interest towards all disciplines in STEM and Physics career. Boys showed high level of self-efficacy in engineering discipline while the girls' associate more with science. Students from boarding schools showed higher self-efficacy and interest towards STEM careers compared to students from public schools. An implication of the study is that self-efficacy and interest in STEM careers are enhanced through engagement with STEM activities in and outside of school. Emphasis should be given to the role of counselors in making STEM careers relevant to students.

  11. Nanotechniques Inactivate Cancer Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltsev, Anatoliy N.; Babenko, Natalya N.; Gaevskaya, Yulia A.; Bondarovich, Nikolay A.; Dubrava, Tatiana G.; Ostankov, Maksim V.; Chelombitko, Olga V.; Malyukin, Yuriy V.; Klochkov, Vladimir K.; Kavok, Nataliya S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the tasks of current oncology is identification of cancer stem cells and search of therapeutic means capable of their specific inhibition. The paper presents the data on phenotype characteristics of Ehrlich carcinoma cells as convenient and easy-to-follow model of tumor growth. The evidence of cancer stem cells as a part of Ehrlich carcinoma and significance of CD44+ and CD44- subpopulations in maintaining the growth of this type of tumor were demonstrated. A high (tenfold) tumorigenic activity of the Ehrlich carcinoma CD44+ cells if compared to CD44- cells was proven. In this pair of comparison, the CD44+ cells had a higher potential of generating in peritoneal cavity of CD44high, CD44+CD24-, CD44+CD24+ cell subpopulations, highlighting the presence of cancer stem cells in a pool of CD44+ cells.

  12. Kidney regeneration and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takaori, Koji; Yanagita, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The kidney has the capacity to recover from ischemic and toxic insults. Although there has been debate about the origin of cells that replace injured epithelial cells, it is now widely recognized that intrinsic surviving tubular cells are responsible for the repair. On the other hand, the cells, which have stem cell-like characteristics, have been isolated in the kidney using various methods, but it remains unknown if these stem cells actually exist in the adult kidney and if they are involved in kidney regeneration. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of kidney regeneration and the contribution of renal stem cells. We also discuss possible therapeutic applications to kidney disease. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Stem Cells and Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Fernanda M.P.; Santos, Anderson K.; Gomes, Dawidson A.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Gomes, Katia N.; Ladeira, Luiz O.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in stem cell research is linked to the promise of developing treatments for many lifethreatening, debilitating diseases, and for cell replacement therapies. However, performing these therapeutic innovations with safety will only be possible when an accurate knowledge about the molecular signals that promote the desired cell fate is reached. Among these signals are transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i. Acting as an intracellular messenger, Ca2+ has a key role in cell signaling pathways in various differentiation stages of stem cells. The aim of this chapter is to present a broad overview of various moments in which Ca2+-mediated signaling is essential for the maintenance of stem cells and for promoting their development and differentiation, also focusing on their therapeutic potential. PMID:22453975

  14. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  15. Stem cells and calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Santos, Anderson K; Gomes, Dawidson A; da Silva, Saulo L; Gomes, Katia N; Ladeira, Luiz O; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2012-01-01

    The increasing interest in stem cell research is linked to the promise of developing treatments for many lifethreatening, debilitating diseases, and for cell replacement therapies. However, performing these therapeutic innovations with safety will only be possible when an accurate knowledge about the molecular signals that promote the desired cell fate is reached. Among these signals are transient changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i). Acting as an intracellular messenger, Ca(2+) has a key role in cell signaling pathways in various differentiation stages of stem cells. The aim of this chapter is to present a broad overview of various moments in which Ca(2+)-mediated signaling is essential for the maintenance of stem cells and for promoting their development and differentiation, also focusing on their therapeutic potential.

  16. Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toggle Nav Nine Things To Know About Stem Cell Treatments Home > Stem Cells and Medicine > Nine Things ... About Stem Cell Treatments Many clinics offering stem cell treatments make claims that are not supported by ...

  17. STEM Education is Missing This.......

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Laura; Johnson, Milton; Miller, Alexandra; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    STEM education gets a lot of attention in schools, media, politics, and funding. But while the acronym grows from STEM to STEAM to STREAM, we still see a lack of student participation in real science, using big data and building partnerships with professionals in the field, and real student growth in science achievement. After the NITARP experience, we believe that NITARP is a rich, demanding, and authentic experience for dedicated teachers and students that provides a caliber of learning that is hard, if not impossible, to achieve in the traditional classroom. This poster looks at what STEM still needs to be and become for it to be the driving force behind greater student involvement, interest, and increased academic performance in the sciences. We focus on our own experiences and that of our students; our different teaching backgrounds and school environments; and the effects we see on our students using traditional and new STEM education and participation in the NITARP program. We come from backgrounds and situations that range from urban to rural, middle to high school, wide socioeconomic variety, gender differences, as well as different exposures to STEM opportunities. We propose that traditional and current standards for STEM education are falling short of what is needed for students to truly experience, understand, and gain the skills to accurately apply and advance in science. Incoming and current science teachers at all levels are not provided with quality, realistic, or applicable preparation. NITARP is truly a STEM experience because it actually integrates the 4 fields and provides opportunities for students to experience the overlap of the 4 fields in an authentic way. The deep, long term exposure to authentic research and technology as well as opportunity to talk with working scientists in a variety of fields have a huge impact on the students and teachers alike. Exposure to programs and experiences like NITARP are needed to help drive and support STEM

  18. Problematizing the STEM Pipeline Metaphor: Is the STEM Pipeline Metaphor Serving Our Students and the STEM Workforce?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannady, Matthew A.; Greenwald, Eric; Harris, Kimberly N.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers often use the metaphor of an ever-narrowing pipeline to describe the trajectory to a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) degree or career. This study interrogates the appropriateness of the STEM pipeline as the dominant frame for understanding and making policies related to STEM career trajectories.…

  19. Lgr proteins in epithelial stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Barker, Nick; Tan, Shawna; Clevers, Hans

    2013-06-01

    The ultimate success of global efforts to exploit adult stem cells for regenerative medicine will depend heavily on the availability of robust, highly selective stem cell surface markers that facilitate the isolation of stem cells from human tissues. Any subsequent expansion or manipulation of isolated stem cells will also require an intimate knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate these cells, to ensure maintenance of their regenerative capacities and to minimize the risk of introducing undesirable growth traits that could pose health risks for patients. A subclass of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor (Lgr) proteins has recently gained prominence as adult stem cell markers with crucial roles in maintaining stem cell functions. Here, we discuss the major impact that their discovery has had on our understanding of adult stem cell biology in various self-renewing tissues and in accelerating progress towards the development of effective stem cell therapies.

  20. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... Considering becoming a bone marrow or a blood stem cell donor? View this video on YouTube. Follow a ...

  1. 7 CFR 30.4 - Stemmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.4 Stemmed. A form of leaf tobacco consisting of a collection of leaves from which the stems or midribs have...

  2. 7 CFR 30.4 - Stemmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.4 Stemmed. A form of leaf tobacco consisting of a collection of leaves from which the stems or midribs have...

  3. 7 CFR 30.4 - Stemmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.4 Stemmed. A form of leaf tobacco consisting of a collection of leaves from which the stems or midribs have...

  4. 7 CFR 30.4 - Stemmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.4 Stemmed. A form of leaf tobacco consisting of a collection of leaves from which the stems or midribs have...

  5. 7 CFR 30.4 - Stemmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.4 Stemmed. A form of leaf tobacco consisting of a collection of leaves from which the stems or midribs have...

  6. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the boxed section below for more advice. Stem Cell Uses and FDA Regulation The FDA has the ...

  7. Making STEM Fun: How to Organize a STEM Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberly E. Bryant; Hardin, Stacey E.

    2013-01-01

    The work from the University of Central Florida's STEM summer camp (sponsored by Workforce Central Florida) is shared. The camps targeted low-SES schools with a high percentage of students on free and reduced lunch as well as high percentages of students with. Students were given preassessments and postassessments to gauge their knowledge of and…

  8. STEM-focused High Schools as a Strategy for Enhancing Readiness for Postsecondary STEM Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Barbara; Wang, Haiwen; Young, Viki; Peters, Vanessa L.; Lynch, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    The logic underlying inclusive STEM high schools (ISHSs) posits that requiring all students to take advanced college preparatory STEM courses while providing student-centered, reform-oriented instruction, ample student supports, and real-world STEM experiences and role models will prepare and inspire students admitted on the basis of STEM interest…

  9. STEM Learning through Engineering Design: Impact on Middle Secondary Students' Interest towards STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahali, Edy Hafizan Mohd; Halim, Lilia; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Osman, Kamisah; Zulkifeli, Mohd Afendi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify students' changes of (i) interest toward STEM subjects and (ii) interest to pursuing STEM career after participating in non-formal integrated STEM education programme. The programme exposed students with integrated STEM education through project based learning involving the application of five phases…

  10. STEM Education: Attracting and Retaining Female Students in Secondary STEM Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruff, Zachary A.

    2017-01-01

    This narrative case study examines a high achieving STEM based high school and its ability to attract, retains, and engage female students. Given the recent importance placed on STEM graduates and STEM careers it is important for schools to understand how they can engage traditionally underserved minorities in STEM fields. The research used a…

  11. College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

  12. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Matz, Ethan L; Terlecki, Ryan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jackson, John; Atala, Anthony

    2018-04-06

    The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) is substantial and continues to rise. Current therapeutics for ED consist of oral medications, intracavernosal injections, vacuum erection devices, and penile implants. While such options may manage the disease state, none of these modalities, however, restore function. Stem cell therapy has been evaluated for erectile restoration in animal models. These cells have been derived from multiple tissues, have varied potential, and may function via local engraftment or paracrine signaling. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) have both been used in these models with noteworthy effects. Herein, we will review the pathophysiology of ED, animal models, current and novel stem-cell based therapeutics, clinical trials and areas for future research. The relevant literature and contemporary data using keywords, "stem cells and erectile dysfunction" was reviewed. Examination of evidence supporting the association between erectile dysfunction and adipose derived stem cells, bone marrow derived stem cells, placental stem cells, urine stem cells and stem cell therapy respectively. Placental-derived stem cells and urine-derived stem cells possess many similar properties as BMSC and ASC, but the methods of acquisition are favorable. Human clinical trials have already demonstrated successful use of stem cells for improvement of erectile function. The future of stem cell research is constantly being evaluated, although, the evidence suggests a place for stem cells in erectile dysfunction therapeutics. Matz EL, Terlecki R, Zhang Y, et al. Stem Cell Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev 2018;XX:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of Metastatic Tumor Stem Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    addition to a tumor stem cell , an existence of a metastatic stem cell is predicted. Despite the critical importance of the concept, this idea has not been...isolating stem cell population from a unique set of breast tumor cell lines and by examining their metastatic behavior in an animal model. The overall...will (i) isolate stem - cell population from non-metastatic and metastatic cells of a pair of syngenic breast tumor cell lines, and test their metastatic

  14. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    PubMed

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  15. Developing Effective STEM Professional Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Zanj K.; Reeve, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    To help the United States stay globally competitive in terms of innovation and invention, the teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become a priority in P-12 education today. As the need for students to become stronger in STEM grows, so does the need for well-qualified STEM teachers who understand what is needed…

  16. Facilitating Teaching and Learning across STEM Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejiwale, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The reformation of the contents for instruction across STEM fields has changed the role of STEM educators from being a "dictator" in the classroom/laboratory to a facilitator of students' activities. More important, this new paradigm and professional orientation for STEM educators is no more limited to delivering instruction intuitively, but with…

  17. Engineering Replacement Tissues with Amniotic Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    compression. J Biomech, 2010. 43(13): p. 2516-23. 17. Gadjanski, I., K. Spiller, and G. Vunjak- Novakovic , Time-dependent processes in stem cell-based...16. Gadjanski, I., K. Spiller, and G. Vunjak- Novakovic , Time-dependent processes in stem cell-based tissue engineering of articular cartilage. Stem

  18. A State Policymaker's STEM Playbook. Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinth, Jennifer; Goetz, Tami

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has captured the attention of state policymakers who are concerned about equitable access to high-quality educational experiences and preparing and inspiring students to pursue STEM careers. Yet in many states, STEM policymaking efforts have not achieved their intended return on investment…

  19. Who Teaches the "STE" in STEM?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Scott

    2015-01-01

    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) is a buzzword in America (Ames, 2013; Woodruff, 2013). With recent pushes from the federal government (Obama, 2013) the educational landscape is changing, with an increased emphasis on STEM (Noddings, 2013; Obama, 2013). However, a clear definition of who teaches each aspect of STEM does not exist…

  20. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  1. Advancing STEM Education: A 2020 Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2010-01-01

    STEM (an acronym for science, technology, engineering and mathematics) had its origins in the 1990s at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and has been used as a generic label for any event, policy, program, or practice that involves one or several of the STEM disciplines. However, a recent survey on the "perception of STEM" found that most…

  2. Enhancing the Psychology STEM Student Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kimberley M.

    2017-01-01

    Psychology is a valuable Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) discipline, but one which could do far more at communicating its value to the wider public. This paper discusses how popular initiatives, such as "The University of Northampton's STEM Champions" programme, enhance psychology's STEM membership, while…

  3. Advancing Elementary and Middle School STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    2017-01-01

    Navigating the current STEM agendas and debates is complex and challenging. Perspectives on the nature of STEM education and how it should be implemented without losing discipline integrity, approaches to incorporating the arts (STEAM) and how equity in access to STEM education can be increased are just a few of the many issues faced by…

  4. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water stemming bags shall be tamped to fill the entire cross sectional area of the borehole. (c... water stemming bag shall be within 1/4 of an inch of the diameter of the drill bit used to drill the borehole. (h) Water stemming bags shall be constructed of tear-resistant and flame-resistant material and...

  5. Understanding the STEM Pipeline. Working Paper 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Tim R.

    2015-01-01

    I investigate the determinants of high school completion and college attendance, the likelihood of taking science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) courses in the first year of college and the probability of earning a degree in a STEM field. The focus is on women and minorities, who tend to be underrepresented in STEM fields. Tracking four…

  6. The Top STEM Degree Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a list of the top Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) degree producers in the U.S. This list is broken down into seven categories: (1) Total Minority Research/Scholarship and Other Doctoral: Mathematics and Statistics; (2) Total Minority Bachelors: Biological and Biomedical Sciences; (3) Total Minority…

  7. STEM and Career Exploratory Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Darrell

    2010-01-01

    Districts face increasing pressure to improve students' mastery of curriculum in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Yet the number of students enrolling in science and math courses drops dramatically in middle and high school. At Sylvester Middle School, Chinook Middle School and Cascade Middle School of the…

  8. Ignite Zeal for STEM Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating business skills such as problem-solving, public presentations, collaboration, and self-direction into STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) subjects is an excellent way to build students' enthusiasm for these disciplines. When educators add workplace internships to the learning experience, they are well on their way…

  9. Stem Cells for Osteochondral Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Canadas, Raphaël F; Pirraco, Rogério P; Oliveira, J Miguel; Reis, Rui L; Marques, Alexandra P

    2018-01-01

    Stem cell research plays a central role in the future of medicine, which is mainly dependent on the advances on regenerative medicine (RM), specifically in the disciplines of tissue engineering (TE) and cellular therapeutics. All RM strategies depend upon the harnessing, stimulation, or guidance of endogenous developmental or repair processes in which cells have an important role. Among the most clinically challenging disorders, cartilage degeneration, which also affects subchondral bone becoming an osteochondral (OC) defect, is one of the most demanding. Although primary cells have been clinically applied, stem cells are currently seen as the promising tool of RM-related research because of its availability, in vitro proliferation ability, pluri- or multipotency, and immunosuppressive features. Being the OC unit, a transition from the bone to cartilage, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main focus for OC regeneration. Promising alternatives, which can also be obtained from the patient or at banks and have great differentiation potential toward a wide range of specific cell types, have been reported. Still, ethical concerns and tumorigenic risk are currently under discussion and assessment. In this book chapter, we revise the existing stem cell-based approaches for engineering bone and cartilage, focusing on cell therapy and TE. Furthermore, 3D OC composites based on cell co-cultures are described. Finally, future directions and challenges still to be faced are critically discussed.

  10. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  11. Stem Deformity in Black Cherry

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Rexrode

    1978-01-01

    A 2-year study of stem deformity in black cherry on the Allegheny and Monongahela National Forests revealed that insects, disease, frost, and browsing by deer were the major sources of injury to the terminal shoots of seedlings and saplings. Twenty-seven species of insects from 19 families and 5 orders were associated with young black cherry trees. Of these species,...

  12. Integrating Technology in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Priya; Appelbaum, Sarah; Kim, Heejoo; Zhao, Jinhui; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2015-01-01

    Students have access to the Internet at their fingertips via e-tablets and smart phones. However, the STEM fields are struggling to remain relevant in students' lives outside the classroom. In an effort to improve high school science curricula and to keep students engaged in the classroom, we developed a technology-rich bioengineering summer…

  13. Bioinspiring an Interest in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laut, Jeffrey; Bartolini, Tiziana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Attracting K-12 students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is viewed as a critical element for benefiting both the economy and society. This paper describes an outreach program, conducted in a Brooklyn, New York, USA, public middle school, aimed at educating students in mechatronics, biology, and…

  14. Toward a Federal STEM Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Key New England industries including information technology, defense technology, biotechnology, environmental services, health care and university research rely upon people with skills in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. Yet, just 20 percent of New England high school students who took the SATs in 2005 indicated a desire to…

  15. Cyberinfrastructure for Undergraduate STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaid, Samar

    2013-01-01

    Cyberinfrastructure (CI) is a term that usually appears in scientific research, but rarely to be noticed as a scientific education tool. In this paper, I describe a transformative Cyberinfrastructure-based strategy to improve Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education at one of the historically black colleges. This strategy…

  16. A STEM Exploration with Gears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deis, Timothy; Julius, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Science, engineering, and mathematics are fields that many students see as separate entities. But if these fields are combined with technology, they become STEM. This investigation provides a context and allows students to explore mathematics, science, and engineering within that context. It requires students to model with mathematics and find…

  17. STEM Education: Proceed with Caution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, P. John

    2011-01-01

    The STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) movement has developed from a non-educational rationale. Although some think it may enliven the delivery of maths and science in classrooms, the social and economic rationales are those that have initiated this movement. Spurred on by the global financial crisis, it is hoped that…

  18. Going beyond Fun in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittinsky, Todd L.; Diamante, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The United States education system must improve its ability to produce scientists, engineers, and programmers. Despite numerous national, state, and local efforts to make the study of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects more fun in K-12, initial interest in those subjects drops off precipitously in middle and later…

  19. Inspiring Girls in STEM Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elson, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In her science teaching, Jane Elson had always treated the boys and girls the same but, having become conscious of how important it is for girls to see and experience female role models in science, she decided that for one specific event she would give the girls the opportunity to see the range of careers that studying STEM (science technology,…

  20. Polymer microarray technology for stem cell engineering

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Robert; Jia, Jia; Mei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in developing soluble factors (e.g., small molecules and growth factors) to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activity has limited the realization of the enormous potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to a large number of materials properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties of materials) that can affect stem cell fate. This makes it challenging to design biomaterials to direct stem cell behavior. To address this, polymer microarray technology has been developed to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. In this article, we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Statement of significance Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing chemically defined media to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of the suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activities has been limiting the realization of the potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to the number of variables in material properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties) that can affect stem cells. Polymer microarray technology has shown to be a powerful tool to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. Here we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. PMID:26497624

  1. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Lange, Kenneth L

    2011-12-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth-death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the τ-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives

  2. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Lange, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tools are birth–death Markov chains in continuous time. In this framework, we investigate the extinction times of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells. Application of extreme value theory from mathematical statistics yields an accurate asymptotic distribution and corresponding moments for both extinction times. We compare these distributions for the two cell populations as a function of the killing rates. Perhaps a more telling comparison involves the number of normal stem cells NH at the extinction time of the cancer stem cells. Conditioning on the asymptotic time to extinction of the cancer stem cells allows us to calculate the asymptotic mean and variance of NH. The full distribution of NH can be retrieved by the finite Fourier transform and, in some parameter regimes, by an eigenfunction expansion. Finally, we discuss the impact of quiescence (the resting state) on stem cell dynamics. Quiescence can act as a sanctuary for cancer stem cells and imperils the proposed therapy. We approach the complication of quiescence via multitype branching process models and stochastic simulation. Improvements to the τ-leaping method of stochastic simulation make it a versatile tool in this context. We conclude that the proposed therapy must target quiescent cancer stem cells as well as actively dividing cancer stem cells. The current cancer models demonstrate the virtue of attacking the same quantitative questions from a variety of modeling, mathematical, and computational perspectives

  3. The Effect of STEM Learning through the Project of Designing Boat Model toward Student STEM Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tati, T.; Firman, H.; Riandi, R.

    2017-09-01

    STEM Learning focusses on development of STEM-literate society, the research about implementation of STEM learning to develope students’ STEM literacy is still limited. This study is aimed to examine the effect of implementation STEM learning through the project of designing boat model on students STEM literacy in energy topic. The method of this study was a quasi-experiment with non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design. There were two classes involved, the experiment class used Project Based Learning with STEM approach and control class used Project-Based Learning without STEM approach. A STEM Literacy test instrument was developed to measure students STEM literacy which consists of science literacy, mathematics literacy, and technology-engineering literacy. The analysis showed that there were significant differences on improvement science literacy, mathematics technology-engineering between experiment class and control class with effect size more than 0.8 (large effect). The difference of improvement of STEM literacy between experiment class and control class is caused by the existence of design engineering activity which required students to apply the knowledge from every field of STEM. The challenge that was faced in STEM learning through design engineering activity was how to give the students practice to integrate STEM field in solving the problems. In additional, most of the students gave positive response toward implementation of STEM learning through design boat model project.

  4. Embryonic Stem Cell Patents and Human Dignity

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the assertion that human embryonic stem cells patents are immoral because they violate human dignity. After analyzing the concept of human dignity and its role in bioethics debates, this article argues that patents on human embryos or totipotent embryonic stem cells violate human dignity, but that patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells do not. Since patents on pluripotent or multipotent stem cells may still threaten human dignity by encouraging people to treat embryos as property, patent agencies should carefully monitor and control these patents to ensure that patents are not inadvertently awarded on embryos or totipotent stem cells. PMID:17922198

  5. Technology, Theory, and Practice in Interdisciplinary STEM Programs: Connecting STEM and Non­-STEM Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansiquot, Reneta D., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights models for promoting interdisciplinary thinking and an appreciation for interdisciplinary understanding among students in STEM-related fields. Students majoring in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics often perceive that courses in their major are not related to the general education liberal arts courses required…

  6. Exploring Student Engagement in STEM Education: An Examination of STEM Schools, STEM Programs, and Traditional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, M. Suzanne; Patel, Nimisha H.

    2017-01-01

    High school students' perceptions and experiences regarding student engagement were investigated using 32 focus group sessions across 4 different types of STEM education settings in 2 metropolitan areas in the Midwest. Students' understandings and experiences related to student engagement were reflected via 5 categories: students' thinking of…

  7. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor); Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  8. Redox regulation of plant stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jian; Dong, Zhicheng; Wu, Haijun; Tian, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-10-02

    Despite the importance of stem cells in plant and animal development, the common mechanisms of stem cell maintenance in both systems have remained elusive. Recently, the importance of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) signaling in priming stem cell differentiation has been extensively studied in animals. Here, we show that different forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have antagonistic roles in plant stem cell regulation, which were established by distinct spatiotemporal patterns of ROS-metabolizing enzymes. The superoxide anion (O2·-) is markedly enriched in stem cells to activate WUSCHEL and maintain stemness, whereas H 2 O 2 is more abundant in the differentiating peripheral zone to promote stem cell differentiation. Moreover, H 2 O 2 negatively regulates O2·- biosynthesis in stem cells, and increasing H 2 O 2 levels or scavenging O2·- leads to the termination of stem cells. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for ROS-mediated control of plant stem cell fate and demonstrate that the balance between O2·- and H 2 O 2 is key to stem cell maintenance and differentiation. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Stem cells in the Drosophila digestive system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiankun; Chauhan, Chhavi; Hou, Steven X

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by continuously replenishing damaged, aged and dead cells in any organism. Five types of region and organ-specific multipotent adult stem cells have been identified in the Drosophila digestive system: intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the posterior midgut; hindgut intestinal stem cells (HISCs) at the midgut/hindgut junction; renal and nephric stem cells (RNSCs) in the Malpighian Tubules; type I gastric stem cells (GaSCs) at foregut/midgut junction; and type II gastric stem cells (GSSCs) at the middle of the midgut. Despite the fact that each type of stem cell is unique to a particular organ, they share common molecular markers and some regulatory signaling pathways. Due to the simpler tissue structure, ease of performing genetic analysis, and availability of abundant mutants, Drosophila serves as an elegant and powerful model system to study complex stem cell biology. The recent discoveries, particularly in the Drosophila ISC system, have greatly advanced our understanding of stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and the role of stem cells play in tissue homeostasis/regeneration and adaptive tissue growth.

  10. Cancer stem cells and differentiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiong; Jin, Xun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2017-10-01

    Cancer stem cells can generate tumors from only a small number of cells, whereas differentiated cancer cells cannot. The prominent feature of cancer stem cells is its ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple types of cancer cells. Cancer stem cells have several distinct tumorigenic abilities, including stem cell signal transduction, tumorigenicity, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer drugs, which are regulated by genetic or epigenetic changes. Like normal adult stem cells involved in various developmental processes and tissue homeostasis, cancer stem cells maintain their self-renewal capacity by activating multiple stem cell signaling pathways and inhibiting differentiation signaling pathways during cancer initiation and progression. Recently, many studies have focused on targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate malignancies by regulating stem cell signaling pathways, and products of some of these strategies are in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we describe the crucial features of cancer stem cells related to tumor relapse and drug resistance, as well as the new therapeutic strategy to target cancer stem cells named "differentiation therapy."

  11. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  12. Stem cells in gastroenterology and hepatology

    PubMed Central

    Quante, Michael; Wang, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract and liver depends on stem cells with properties of longevity, self-renewal and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential esophageal, gastric, intestinal, colonic, hepatic and pancreatic stem cells provides hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the potential to give rise to any cell type in the human body, but their therapeutic application remains challenging. The use of adult or tissue-restricted stem cells is emerging as another possible approach for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. The same self-renewal properties that allow stem cells to remain immortal and generate any tissue can occasionally make their proliferation difficult to control and make them susceptible to malignant transformation. This Review provides an overview of the different types of stem cell, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells in the fields of gastroenterology and hepatology and summarizing the potential benefits and risks of using stems cells to treat gastroenterological and liver disorders. PMID:19884893

  13. Establishment of mouse expanded potential stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuefei; Antunes, Liliana; Yu, Yong; Zhu, Zhexin; Wang, Juexuan; Kolodziejczyk, Aleksandra A.; Campos, Lia S.; Wang, Cui; Yang, Fengtang; Zhong, Zhen; Fu, Beiyuan; Eckersley-Maslin, Melanie A.; Woods, Michael; Tanaka, Yosuke; Chen, Xi; Wilkinson, Adam C.; Bussell, James; White, Jacqui; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Reik, Wolf; Göttgens, Berthold; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Tam, Patrick P. L.; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Zou, Xiangang; Lu, Liming; Liu, Pentao

    2018-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells derived from the epiblast1 contribute to the somatic lineages and the germline but are excluded from the extra-embryonic tissues that are derived from the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm2 upon reintroduction to the blastocyst. Here we report that cultures of expanded potential stem cells can be established from individual eight-cell blastomeres, and by direct conversion of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Remarkably, a single expanded potential stem cell can contribute both to the embryo proper and to the trophectoderm lineages in a chimaera assay. Bona fide trophoblast stem cell lines and extra-embryonic endoderm stem cells can be directly derived from expanded potential stem cells in vitro. Molecular analyses of the epigenome and single-cell transcriptome reveal enrichment for blastomere-specific signature and a dynamic DNA methylome in expanded potential stem cells. The generation of mouse expanded potential stem cells highlights the feasibility of establishing expanded potential stem cells for other mammalian species. PMID:29019987

  14. Stem cells news update: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sc

    2013-12-01

    This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy.

  15. Stem Cells News Update: A Personal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wong, SC

    2013-01-01

    This article is a follow-up to a previous Commentary published in 2011. It updates some of the events mentioned in that Commentary and continues with more interesting and exciting news on stem cell research and the emerging field of Regenerative Medicine. Some of the news includes: 1) the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka; 2) the cloning of human embryonic stem cells; 3) the continued search for truly pluripotent adult stem cells via in vitro and in vivo protocols; 4) the breakthrough in organ replacements; 5) the global stem cell race; 6) the global stem cell cryo-preservation business; 7) the worldwide stem cell donor registries, and 8) the issue of government regulation on stem cell therapy. PMID:24778557

  16. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future.

  17. Stem cell facelift: between reality and fiction.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Saad, Dibo A

    2013-03-01

    Stem cells are "big business" throughout medical technology, and their potential application in cosmetic procedures is no exception. One of the latest nonsurgical facial treatments (and new catchphrases) in plastic surgery is the "stem cell facelift." It is evident from the currently available scientific literature that the use of stem cell therapy for facial rejuvenation is limited to the theoretical induction of skin tightening and can in no way be equated to a facelift. In fact, what is advertised and promoted as a new and original technique of stem cell facelifting is mostly stem cell-enriched lipofilling. Despite encouraging data suggesting that adult stem cells hold promise for future applications, the data from clinical evidence available today do not substantiate the marketing and promotional claims being made to patients. To claim that the "stem cell facelift" is a complete facial rejuvenation procedure surgery is unethical.

  18. Mismatch repair deficient hematopoietic stem cells are preleukemic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Stanton L.

    2017-01-01

    Whereas transformation events in hematopoietic malignancies may occur at different developmental stages, the initial mutation originates in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), creating a preleukemic stem cell (PLSC). Subsequent mutations at either stem cell or progenitor cell levels transform the PLSC into lymphoma/leukemia initiating cells (LIC). Thymic lymphomas have been thought to develop from developing thymocytes. T cell progenitors are generated from HSCs in the bone marrow (BM), but maturation and proliferation of T cells as well as T-lymphomagenesis depends on both regulatory mechanisms and microenvironment within the thymus. We studied PLSC linked to thymic lymphomas. In this study, we use MSH2-/- mice as a model to investigate the existence of PLSC and the evolution of PLSC to LIC. Following BM transplantation, we found that MSH2-/- BM cells from young mice are able to fully reconstitute multiple hematopoietic lineages of lethally irradiated wild-type recipients. However, all recipients developed thymic lymphomas within three and four months post transplantation. Transplantation of different fractions of BM cells or thymocytes from young health MSH2-/- mice showed that an HSC enriched fraction always reconstituted hematopoiesis followed by lymphoma development. In addition, lymphomas did not occur in thymectomized recipients of MSH2-/- BM. These results suggest that HSCs with DNA repair defects such as MSH2-/- are PLSCs because they retain hematopoietic function, but also carry an obligate lymphomagenic potential within their T-cell progeny that is dependent on the thymic microenvironment. PMID:28767666

  19. Informal STEM Education in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chell, K.

    2010-12-01

    Tourism in Antarctica has increased dramatically with tens of thousands of tourists visiting the White Continent each year. Tourism cruises to Antarctica offer a unique educational experience for lay people through informal science-technology-engineering-mathematics (STEM) education. Passengers attend numerous scientific lectures that cover topics such as the geology of Antarctica, plate tectonics, glaciology, and climate change. Furthermore, tourists experience the geology and glaciology first hand during shore excursions. Currently, the grand challenges facing our global society are closely connected to the Earth sciences. Issues such as energy, climate change, water security, and natural hazards, are consistently on the legislative docket of policymakers around the world. However, the majority of the world’s population is uninformed about the role Earth sciences play in their everyday lives. Tourism in Antarctica provides opportunities for informal STEM learning and, as a result, tourists leave with a better understanding and greater appreciation for both Antarctica and Earth sciences.

  20. Mitophagy in hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Aashish; Kundu, Mondira

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are inherently quiescent and self-renewing, yet can differentiate and commit to multiple blood cell types. Intracellular mitochondrial content is dynamic, and there is an increase in mitochondrial content during differentiation and lineage commitment in HSCs. HSCs reside in a hypoxic niche within the bone marrow and rely heavily on glycolysis, while differentiated and committed progenitors rely on oxidative phosphorylation. Increased oxidative phosphorylation during differentiation and commitment is not only due to increased mitochondrial content but also due to changes in mitochondrial cytosolic distribution and efficiency. These changes in the intracellular mitochondrial landscape contribute signals toward regulating differentiation and commitment. Thus, a functional relationship exists between the mitochondria in HSCs and the state of the HSCs (i.e., stemness vs. differentiated). This review focuses on how autophagy-mediated mitochondrial clearance (i.e., mitophagy) may affect HSC mitochondrial content, thereby influencing the fate of HSCs and maintenance of hematopoietic homeostasis. PMID:24135495

  1. Klotho, stem cells, and aging.

    PubMed

    Bian, Ao; Neyra, Javier A; Zhan, Ming; Hu, Ming Chang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and progressive biological process involving dysfunction and eventually destruction of every tissue and organ. This process is driven by a tightly regulated and complex interplay between genetic and acquired factors. Klotho is an antiaging gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane protein, klotho, which serves as an aging suppressor through a wide variety of mechanisms, such as antioxidation, antisenescence, antiautophagy, and modulation of many signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor and Wnt. Klotho deficiency activates Wnt expression and activity contributing to senescence and depletion of stem cells, which consequently triggers tissue atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, the klotho protein was shown to suppress Wnt-signaling transduction, and inhibit cell senescence and preserve stem cells. A better understanding of the potential effects of klotho on stem cells could offer novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of klotho deficiency-related aging and disease. The klotho protein may be a promising therapeutic agent for aging and aging-related disorders.

  2. Curved-stem Hip Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Hip resurfacing is an attractive concept because it preserves rather than removes the femoral head and neck. Most early designs had high failure rates, but one unique design had a femoral stem. Because that particular device appeared to have better implant survival, this study assessed the clinical outcome and long-term survivorship of a hip resurfacing prosthesis. Four hundred forty-five patients (561 hips) were retrospectively reviewed after a minimum of 20 years’ followup or until death; 23 additional patients were lost to followup. Patients received a metal femoral prosthesis with a small curved stem. Three types of acetabular reconstructions were used: (1) cemented polyurethane; (2) metal-on-metal; and (3) polyethylene secured with cement or used as the liner of a two-piece porous-coated implant. Long-term results were favorable with the metal-on-metal combination only. The mean overall Harris hip score was 92 at 2 years of followup. None of the 121 patients (133 hips) who received metal-on-metal articulation experienced failure. The failure rate with polyurethane was 100%, and the failure rate with cemented polyethylene was 41%. Hip resurfacing with a curved-stem femoral component had a durable clinical outcome when a metal-on-metal articulation was used. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18338217

  3. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Yin, Perry T; Han, Edward; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2016-01-07

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Perry T.; Han, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer. PMID:25772134

  5. Therapeutic potential of dental stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Chalisserry, Elna Paul; Nam, Seung Yun; Park, Sang Hyug; Anil, Sukumaran

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell biology has become an important field in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapy since the discovery and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been isolated from human dental tissues, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, dental follicle progenitor cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Dental stem cells are relatively easily obtainable and exhibit high plasticity and multipotential capabilities. The dental stem cells represent a gold standard for neural-crest-derived bone reconstruction in humans and can be used for the repair of body defects in low-risk autologous therapeutic strategies. The bioengineering technologies developed for tooth regeneration will make substantial contributions to understand the developmental process and will encourage future organ replacement by regenerative therapies in a wide variety of organs such as the liver, kidney, and heart. The concept of developing tooth banking and preservation of dental stem cells is promising. Further research in the area has the potential to herald a new dawn in effective treatment of notoriously difficult diseases which could prove highly beneficial to mankind in the long run. PMID:28616151

  6. Alignment of Hands-on STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-12-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in activities such as an after-school robotics program. Both groups are compared and contrasted with a third group of high school students admitted at the eleventh grade to an academy of mathematics and science. All students were assessed using the same science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) dispositions instrument. Findings indicate that the after-school group whose participants self-selected STEM engagement activities, and the self-selected academy of mathematics and science group, each had highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to those of STEM professionals, while a subset of the middle school whole-classroom energy monitoring group that reported high interest in STEM as a career, also possessed highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to the STEM Professionals group. The authors conclude that several different kinds of hands-on STEM engagement activities are likely to foster or maintain positive STEM dispositions at the middle school and high school levels, and that these highly positive levels of dispositions can be viewed as a target toward which projects seeking to interest mainstream secondary students in STEM majors in college and STEM careers, can hope to aspire. Gender findings regarding STEM dispositions are also reported for these groups.

  7. Increasing College Students' Interest and Engagement in STEM: A Comparison of Strategies for Challenging STEM Stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jiyun Elizabeth L.

    Increasing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates has become an important part of the education agenda in the U.S. in recent years. Stereotypes about STEM (i.e., belief that STEM abilities are innate, and that European American men are best suited for STEM) have been identified as one of the critical factors that may contribute to low recruitment and retention of STEM students. Drawing from the literatures on biological essentialism and role models, this study compared different strategies for challenging STEM stereotypes among undergraduate students in STEM and non-STEM fields. STEM stereotypes were challenged directly with research articles that provided non-biological explanations for STEM success and interest (a strategy used in the essentialism research) and indirectly with biographies of successful STEM role models who are underrepresented in their field and who succeeded through hard work (a strategy used in the role model research). Contrary to the predictions, exposure to the role model biographies, research articles, or combination of both did not have statistically significant effects on participants' reported STEM interest and academic intentions. Possible explanations for the lack of significant findings as well as suggestions for developing effective interventions to promote STEM engagement among students are discussed.

  8. Application of Graphene Based Nanotechnology in Stem Cells Research.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shanshan; Zeng, Yongxiang; Yang, Shuying; Qin, Han; Cai, He; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The past several years have witnessed significant advances in stem cell therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Graphene, with its unique properties such as high electrical conductivity, elasticity and good molecule absorption, have potential for creating the next generation of biomaterials. This review summarizes the interrelationship between graphene and stem cells. The analysis of graphene when applied on mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, human adipose-derived stem cells and cancer stem cells, and how graphene influences cell behavior and differentiation are discussed in details.

  9. Intestinal stem cells and their defining niche.

    PubMed

    Tan, David Wei-Min; Barker, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a classic example of a rapidly self-renewing tissue fueled by dedicated resident stem cells. These stem cells reside at the crypt base, generating committed progeny that mature into the various functional epithelial lineages while following a rapid migratory path toward the villi. Two models of intestinal stem cell location were proposed half a century ago and data have been presented in support of both models, dividing the scientific community. Molecular markers have been identified and validated using new techniques such as in vivo lineage tracing and ex vivo organoid culture. The intestinal stem cell niche comprises both epithelial cells, in particular the Paneth cell, and the stromal compartment, where cell-associated ligands and soluble factors regulate stem cell behavior. This review highlights the recent advances in identifying and characterizing the intestinal stem cells and their defining niche. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetics of Gonadal Stem Cell Renewal

    PubMed Central

    Greenspan, Leah Joy; de Cuevas, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are necessary for the maintenance of many adult tissues. Signals within the stem cell microenvironment, or niche, regulate the self-renewal and differentiation capability of these cells. Misregulation of these signals through mutation or damage can lead to overgrowth or depletion of different stem cell pools. In this review, we focus on the Drosophila testis and ovary, both of which contain well-defined niches, as well as the mouse testis, which has become a more approachable stem cell system with recent technical advances. We discuss the signals that regulate gonadal stem cells in their niches, how these signals mediate self-renewal and differentiation under homeostatic conditions, and how stress, whether from mutations or damage, can cause changes in cell fate and drive stem cell competition. PMID:26355592

  11. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  12. Stem cells--clinical application and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Michael; Zeus, Tobias; Strauer, Bodo Eckehard

    2002-11-01

    Augmentation of myocardial performance in experimental models of therapeutic infarction and heart failure has been achieved by transplantation of exogenous cells into damaged myocardium. The quest for suitable donor cells has prompted research into the use of both embryonic stem cells and adult somatic stem cells. Recently, there has been a growing body of evidence that multipotent somatic stem cells in adult bone marrow exhibit tremendous functional plasticity and can reprogram in a new environmental tissue niche to give rise to cell lineages specific for new organ site. This phenomenon has made huge impact on myocardial biology, while multipotent adult bone marrow hematopoeitic stem cells and mesechymal stem cells can repopulate infarcted rodent myocardium and differentiate into both cardiomyocytes and new blood vessels. These data, coupled with the identification of a putative primitive cardiac stem cell population in the adult human heart, may open the way for novel therapeutic modalities for enhancing myocardial performance and treating heart failure.

  13. Cell motion predicts human epidermal stemness

    PubMed Central

    Toki, Fujio; Tate, Sota; Imai, Matome; Matsushita, Natsuki; Shiraishi, Ken; Sayama, Koji; Toki, Hiroshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Image-based identification of cultured stem cells and noninvasive evaluation of their proliferative capacity advance cell therapy and stem cell research. Here we demonstrate that human keratinocyte stem cells can be identified in situ by analyzing cell motion during their cultivation. Modeling experiments suggested that the clonal type of cultured human clonogenic keratinocytes can be efficiently determined by analysis of early cell movement. Image analysis experiments demonstrated that keratinocyte stem cells indeed display a unique rotational movement that can be identified as early as the two-cell stage colony. We also demonstrate that α6 integrin is required for both rotational and collective cell motion. Our experiments provide, for the first time, strong evidence that cell motion and epidermal stemness are linked. We conclude that early identification of human keratinocyte stem cells by image analysis of cell movement is a valid parameter for quality control of cultured keratinocytes for transplantation. PMID:25897083

  14. Progeroid syndromes: models for stem cell aging?

    PubMed

    Bellantuono, I; Sanguinetti, G; Keith, W N

    2012-02-01

    Stem cells are responsible for tissue repair and maintenance and it is assumed that changes observed in the stem cell compartment with age underlie the concomitant decline in tissue function. Studies in murine models have highlighted the importance of intrinsic changes occurring in stem cells with age. They have also drawn the attention to other factors, such as changes in the local or systemic environment as the primary cause of stem cell dysfunction. Whilst knowledge in murine models has been advancing rapidly there has been little translation of these data to human aging. This is most likely due to the difficulties of testing the regenerative capacity of human stem cells in vivo and to substantial differences in the aging phenotype within humans. Here we summarize evidence to show how progeroid syndromes, integrated with other models, can be valuable tools in addressing questions about the role of stem cell aging in human degenerative diseases of older age and the molecular pathways involved.

  15. Coming out in STEM: Factors affecting retention of sexual minority STEM students

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Bryce E.

    2018-01-01

    Using a national longitudinal survey data set from the Higher Education Research Institute, this study tested whether students who identified as a sexual minority (for example, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer) were more or less likely to persist after 4 years in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, as opposed to switching to a non-STEM program, compared to their heterosexual peers. A multilevel regression model controlling for various experiences and characteristics previously determined to predict retention in STEM demonstrated that, net of these variables, sexual minority students were 8% less likely to be retained in STEM compared to switching into a non-STEM program. Despite this finding, sexual minority STEM students were more likely to report participating in undergraduate research programs, and the gender disparity in STEM retention appears to be reversed for sexual minority STEM students. PMID:29546240

  16. InsightSTEM Campus Ambassadors: A Global Student Network to Promote Exploration in STEM Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; InsightSTEM Campus Ambassadors

    2016-06-01

    InsightSTEM has the mission to democratize STEM knowledge worldwide. Here, we present our InsightSTEM Campus Ambassadors program, and our growing global network of students worldwide. Our Campus Ambassadors are committed to advancing their careers in STEM fields, and in promoting exploration in STEM education -- while developing education and outreach skills that they can use during their student years, and moving forwards in their careers. We discuss the challenges of operating a remote student network worldwide, including addressing the needs of students in many different settings, on every continent. We illustrate how we can capture the passions of STEM students in allowing others to explore STEM knowledge. We explain how we deliver "profession development" for our cadre students, and leave them with education and outreach skills that move beyond "showing up and giving a PowerPoint presentation" to developing strategies to really engage multiple audiences in the exploration of STEM knowledge.

  17. The Efficacy of a Student Organization for STEM Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwaikinda, Sekela R.; Aruguete, Mara S.

    2016-01-01

    Our study tests the effectiveness of STEM Alliance, a student organization aimed at increasing academic and social support for students pursuing STEM majors. STEM Alliance offered weekly, extracurricular activities aimed at preparing students for graduate school and STEM careers. Students attending STEM Alliance events showed greater academic and…

  18. Northeast Tennessee Educators' Perception of STEM Education Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kristin Beard

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative nonexperimental survey study was developed to investigate Northeast Tennessee K-8 educators' perceptions of STEM education. This study was an examination of current perceptions of STEM education. Perceived need, current implementation practices, access to STEM resources, definition of STEM, and the current condition of STEM in…

  19. Stem cell sources for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Riazi, Ali M; Kwon, Sarah Y; Stanford, William L

    2009-01-01

    Tissue-resident stem cells or primitive progenitors play an integral role in homeostasis of most organ systems. Recent developments in methodologies to isolate and culture embryonic and somatic stem cells have many new applications poised for clinical and preclinical trials, which will enable the potential of regenerative medicine to be realized. Here, we overview the current progress in therapeutic applications of various stem cells and discuss technical and social hurdles that must be overcome for their potential to be realized.

  20. A Basal Stem Canker of Sugar Maple

    Treesearch

    Kenneth J. Jr. Kessler

    1969-01-01

    A basal stem canker of sugar maple is common on trees in lightly stocked stands and on trees on the north side of roads and other clearings in the Lake States. The cankers are usually elongate, usually encompass about one-fourth of the stem circumference, and face the south. Most cankers originate following logging of old-growth stands on stems that had been present...

  1. Programming Retinal Stem Cells into Cone Photoreceptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0566 TITLE: Programming Retinal Stem Cells into Cone Photoreceptors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joseph A. Brzezinski IV...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Programming Retinal Stem Cells into Cone Photoreceptors 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0566 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...to program human stem cells directly into cones. Using RNA-seq, we identified several genes that are upregulated in advance of the earliest

  2. Spermatogonial stem cell regulation and spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Bart T.; Gassei, Kathrin; Orwig, Kyle E.

    2010-01-01

    This article will provide an updated review of spermatogonial stem cells and their role in maintaining the spermatogenic lineage. Experimental tools used to study spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) will be described, along with research using these tools to enhance our understanding of stem cell biology and spermatogenesis. Increased knowledge about the biology of SSCs improves our capacity to manipulate these cells for practical application. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future directions for fundamental investigation and practical applications of SSCs. PMID:20403877

  3. NASA team hosts STEM-Ulate actvities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    Young visitors to NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center prepare to launch 'stomp rockets' during STEM-Ulate to Innovate activities at the facility July 13. The NASA Foundations of Influence, Relationships, Success and Teamwork (FIRST) Team sponsored STEM-Ulate to Innovate for more than 100 children ages 9-11. Children from area Boys & Girls Clubs participated in hands-on activities, presentations and demonstrations by professional engineers, all designed to promote the relevance of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM).

  4. STEM Focus in Innoventure Competition Theme

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-03-31

    This report documents the inclusion of the STEM focus in the annual competition theme for the Innoventure youth project. The STEM concepts have always played a part in the selection of the theme. However, this year, STEM is intentionally mentioned in the description of the theme to emphasize the importance of these concepts. This work is a part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant.

  5. Salt tolerance, salt accumulation, and ionic homeostasis in an epidermal bladder-cell-less mutant of the common ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    PubMed

    Agarie, Sakae; Shimoda, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Yumi; Baumann, Kathleen; Sunagawa, Haruki; Kondo, Ayumu; Ueno, Osamu; Nakahara, Teruhisa; Nose, Akihiro; Cushman, John C

    2007-01-01

    The aerial surfaces of the common or crystalline ice plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L., a halophytic, facultative crassulacean acid metabolism species, are covered with specialized trichome cells called epidermal bladder cells (EBCs). EBCs are thought to serve as a peripheral salinity and/or water storage organ to improve survival under high salinity or water deficit stress conditions. However, the exact contribution of EBCs to salt tolerance in the ice plant remains poorly understood. An M. crystallinum mutant lacking EBCs was isolated from plant collections mutagenized by fast neutron irradiation. Light and electron microscopy revealed that mutant plants lacked EBCs on all surfaces of leaves and stems. Dry weight gain of aerial parts of the mutant was almost half that of wild-type plants after 3 weeks of growth at 400 mM NaCl. The EBC mutant also showed reduced leaf succulence and leaf and stem water contents compared with wild-type plants. Aerial tissues of wild-type plants had approximately 1.5-fold higher Na(+) and Cl(-) content than the mutant grown under 400 mM NaCl for 2 weeks. Na(+) and Cl(-) partitioning into EBCs of wild-type plants resulted in lower concentrations of these ions in photosynthetically active leaf tissues than in leaves of the EBC-less mutant, particularly under conditions of high salt stress. Potassium, nitrate, and phosphate ion content decreased with incorporation of NaCl into tissues in both the wild type and the mutant, but the ratios of Na(+)/K(+) and Cl(-)/NO(3)(-)content were maintained only in the leaf and stem tissues of wild-type plants. The EBC mutant showed significant impairment in plant productivity under salt stress as evaluated by seed pod and seed number and average seed weight. These results clearly show that EBCs contribute to succulence by serving as a water storage reservoir and to salt tolerance by maintaining ion sequestration and homeostasis within photosynthetically active tissues of M. crystallinum.

  6. [Embryonic stem cells and therapeutic cloning].

    PubMed

    Sunde, A; Eftedal, I

    2001-08-30

    Increased interest in the therapeutic use of human stem cells has emerged following significant progress in ongoing research. The cloning of a sheep, the isolation of human embryonic stem cells, and the discovery that adult stem cells may be reprogrammed taken together give substance to hopes that novel principles of treatment may be developed for a variety of serious conditions. Embryonic stem cells are derived from pre-embryos at the blastocyst stage and may give rise to all bodily tissues and cells. Animal models have demonstrated that embryonic stem cells when transplanted into adult hosts may differentiate and develop into cells and tissues applicable for treatment of a variety of conditions, including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, spinal injuries, cardiac stroke and cancer. Transplanted embryonic stem cells are exposed to immune reactions similar to those acting on organ transplants, hence immunosuppression of the recipient is generally required. It is, however, possible to obtain embryonic stem cells that are genetically identical to the patient's own cells by means of therapeutic cloning techniques. The nucleus from a somatic cell is transferred into an egg after removal of the egg's own genetic material. Under specific condition the egg will use genetic information from the somatic cell in organising the formation of a blastocyst which in turn generates embryonic stem cells. These cells have a genetic composition identical to that of the patient and are suitable for stem cell therapy.

  7. Designing an Optimized Novel Femoral Stem

    PubMed Central

    Babaniamansour, Parto; Ebrahimian-Hosseinabadi, Mehdi; Zargar-Kharazi, Anousheh

    2017-01-01

    Background: After total hip arthroplasty, there would be some problems for the patients. Implant loosening is one of the significant problems which results in thigh pain and even revision surgery. Difference between Young's modulus of bone-metal is the cause of stress shielding, atrophy, and subsequent implant loosening. Materials and Methods: In this paper, femoral stem stiffness is reduced by novel biomechanical and biomaterial design which includes using proper design parameters, coating it with porous surface, and modeling the sketch by the software. Parametric design of femoral stem is done on the basis of clinical reports. Results: Optimized model for femoral stem is proposed. Curved tapered stem with trapezoidal cross-section and particular neck and offset is designed. Fully porous surface is suggested. Moreover, Designed femoral stem analysis showed the Ti6Al4V stem which is covered with layer of 1.5 mm in thickness and 50% of porosity is as stiff as 77 GPa that is 30% less than the stem without any porosity. Porous surface of designed stem makes it fix biologically; thus, prosthesis loosening probability decreases. Conclusion: By optimizing femoral stem geometry (size and shape) and also making a porous surface, which had an intermediate stiffness of bone and implant, a more efficient hip joint prosthesis with more durability fixation was achieved due to better stress transmission from implant to the bone. PMID:28840118

  8. Effect of aging on stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abu Shufian Ishtiaq; Sheng, Matilda HC; Wasnik, Samiksha; Baylink, David J; Lau, Kin-Hing William

    2017-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells have the remarkable self-renewal ability and are capable of differentiating into multiple diverse cells. There is increasing evidence that the aging process can have adverse effects on stem cells. As stem cells age, their renewal ability deteriorates and their ability to differentiate into the various cell types is altered. Accordingly, it is suggested aging-induced deterioration of stem cell functions may play a key role in the pathophysiology of the various aging-associated disorders. Understanding the role of the aging process in deterioration of stem cell function is crucial, not only in understanding the pathophysiology of aging-associated disorders, but also in future development of novel effective stem cell-based therapies to treat aging-associated diseases. This review article first focuses on the basis of the various aging disease-related stem cell dysfunction. It then addresses the several concepts on the potential mechanism that causes aging-related stem cell dysfunction. It also briefly discusses the current potential therapies under development for aging-associated stem cell defects. PMID:28261550

  9. Deubiquitylating enzymes as cancer stem cell therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Haq, Saba; Suresh, Bharathi; Ramakrishna, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    The focus of basic and applied research on core stem cell transcription factors has paved the way to initial delineation of their characteristics, their regulatory mechanisms, and the applicability of their regulatory proteins for protein-induced pluripotent stem cells (protein-IPSC) generation and in further clinical settings. Striking parallels have been observed between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and stem cells. For the maintenance of stem cells and CSC pluripotency and differentiation, post translational modifications (i.e., ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation) are tightly regulated, as these modifications result in a variety of stem cell fates. The identification of deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) involved in the regulation of core stem cell transcription factors and CSC-related proteins might contribute to providing novel insights into the implications of DUB regulatory mechanisms for governing cellular reprogramming and carcinogenesis. Moreover, we propose the novel possibility of applying DUBs coupled with core transcription factors to improve protein-iPSC generation efficiency. Additionally, this review article further illustrates the potential of applying DUB inhibitors as a novel therapeutic intervention for targeting CSCs. Thus, defining DUBs as core pharmacological targets implies that future endeavors to develop their inhibitors may revolutionize our ability to regulate stem cell maintenance and differentiation, somatic cell reprogramming, and cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In search of adult renal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Anglani, F; Forino, M; Del Prete, D; Tosetto, E; Torregrossa, R; D'Angelo, A

    2004-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of adult stem cells in the treatment of chronic degenerative diseases has becoming increasingly evident over the last few years. Significant attention is currently being paid to the development of novel treatments for acute and chronic kidney diseases too. To date, promising sources of stem cells for renal therapies include adult bone marrow stem cells and the kidney precursors present in the early embryo. Both cells have clearly demonstrated their ability to differentiate into the kidney's specialized structures. Adult renal stem cells have yet to be identified, but the papilla is where the stem cell niche is probably located. Now we need to isolate and characterize the fraction of papillary cells that constitute the putative renal stem cells. Our growing understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind kidney regeneration and repair processes - together with a knowledge of the embryonic origin of renal cells - should induce us, however, to bear in mind that in the kidney, as in other mesenchymal tissues, the need for a real stem cell compartment might be less important than the phenotypic flexibility of tubular cells. Thus, by displaying their plasticity during kidney maintenance and repair, terminally differentiated cells may well function as multipotent stem cells despite being at a later stage of maturation than adult stem cells. One of the major tasks of Regenerative Medicine will be to disclose the molecular mechanisms underlying renal tubular plasticity and to exploit its biological and therapeutic potential.

  11. Stem cells: science, policy, and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Gerald D.; Fischbach, Ruth L.

    2004-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells offer the promise of a new regenerative medicine in which damaged adult cells can be replaced with new cells. Research is needed to determine the most viable stem cell lines and reliable ways to promote the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into specific cell types (neurons, muscle cells, etc.). To create new cell lines, it is necessary to destroy preimplantation blastocysts. This has led to an intense debate that threatens to limit embryonic stem cell research. The profound ethical issues raised call for informed, dispassionate debate. PMID:15545983

  12. Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Kerativitayanan, Punyavee; Carrow, James K; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-05

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Synergistic interactions between nanomaterials and stem cell engineering offer numerous possibilities to address some of the daunting challenges in regenerative medicine, such as controlling trigger differentiation, immune reactions, limited supply of stem cells, and engineering complex tissue structures. Specifically, the interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment play key roles in controlling stem cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. However, the interactions between nanomaterials and stem cells are not well understood, and the effects of the nanomaterials shape, surface morphology, and chemical functionality on cellular processes need critical evaluation. In this Review, focus is put on recent development in nanomaterial-stem cell interactions, with specific emphasis on their application in regenerative medicine. Further, the emerging technologies based on nanomaterials developed over the past decade for stem cell engineering are reviewed, as well as the potential applications of these nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, stem cell isolation, and drug/gene delivery. It is anticipated that the enhanced understanding of nanomaterial-stem cell interactions will facilitate improved biomaterial design for a range of biomedical and biotechnological applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Stem-Cell Therapy Advances in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Songlin

    2018-02-01

    Stem-cell therapy is a promising method for treating patients with a wide range of diseases and injuries. Increasing government funding of scientific research has promoted rapid developments in stem-cell research in China, as evidenced by the substantial increase in the number and quality of publications in the past 5 years. Multiple high-quality studies have been performed in China that concern cell reprogramming, stem-cell homeostasis, gene modifications, and immunomodulation. The number of translation studies, including basic and preclinical investigations, has also increased. Around 100 stem-cell banks have been established in China, 10 stem-cell drugs are currently in the approval process, and >400 stem cell-based clinical trials are currently registered in China. With continued state funding, advanced biotechnical support, and the development of regulatory standards for the clinical application of stem cells, further innovations are expected that will lead to a boom in stem-cell therapies. This review highlights recent achievements in stem-cell research in China and discusses future prospects.

  14. Genetic and epigenetic instability of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Karthyayani; Li, Yuan-Sheng; Hsieh, Dean-Kuo; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Recently, research on stem cells has been receiving an increasing amount of attention, both for its advantages and disadvantages. Genetic and epigenetic instabilities among stem cells have been a recurring obstacle to progress in regenerative medicine using stem cells. Various reports have stated that these instabilities can transform stem cells when transferred in vivo and thus have the potential to develop tumors. Previous research has shown that various extrinsic and intrinsic factors can contribute to the stability of stem cells. The extrinsic factors include growth supplements, growth factors, oxygen tension, passage technique, and cryopreservation. Controlling these factors based on previous reports may assist researchers in developing strategies for the production and clinical application of "safe" stem cells. On the other hand, the intrinsic factors can be unpredictable and uncontrollable; therefore, to ensure the successful use of stem cells in regenerative medicine, it is imperative to develop and implement appropriate strategies and technique for culturing stem cells and to confirm the genetic and epigenetic safety of these stem cells before employing them in clinical trials.

  15. [Bioethical challenges of stem cell tourism].

    PubMed

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Erices, Alejandro; Santos, Manuel J

    2013-08-01

    Stem cells have drawn extraordinary attention from scientists and the general public due to their potential to generate effective therapies for incurable diseases. At the same time, the production of embryonic stem cells involves a serious ethical issue concerning the destruction of human embryos. Although adult stem cells and induced pluripotential cells do not pose this ethical objection, there are other bioethical challenges common to all types of stem cells related particularly to the clinical use of stem cells. Their clinical use should be based on clinical trials, and in special situations, medical innovation, both of which have particular ethical dimensions. The media has raised unfounded expectations in patients and the public about the real clinical benefits of stem cells. At the same time, the number of unregulated clinics is increasing around the world, making direct offers through Internet of unproven stem cell therapies that attract desperate patients that have not found solutions in standard medicine. This is what is called stem cells tourism. This article reviews this situation, its consequences and the need for international cooperation to establish effective regulations to prevent the exploitation of patients and to endanger the prestige of legitimate stem cell research.

  16. Effects of nanotopography on stem cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Liao, Susan; Ng, Clarisse Ch; Chan, Casey K; Raghunath, Michael; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2009-12-31

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can self renew indefinitely and differentiate into several somatic cells given the correct environmental cues. In the stem cell niche, stem cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are crucial for different cellular functions, such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Recently, in addition to chemical surface modifications, the importance of nanometric scale surface topography and roughness of biomaterials has increasingly becoming recognized as a crucial factor for cell survival and host tissue acceptance in synthetic ECMs. This review describes the influence of nanotopography on stem cell phenotypes.

  17. Hardwiring stem cell communication through tissue structure

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. PMID:26967287

  18. Troubling STEM: Making a Case for an Ethics/STEM Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of a STEM-based (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) activity in a teacher education science methods class, the author examines the need for ethics education to be partnered with STEM education. To make the case, the origin of the STEM initiative, undertaken and strongly supported by both US government and…

  19. STEM Field Persistence: The Impact of Engagement on Postsecondary STEM Persistence for Underrepresented Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Persistence studies in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields indicate that the pipeline to degree attainment is "leaky" and underrepresented minorities are not persisting in the STEM fields. Those students who do not persist in the STEM fields either migrate to other fields of study or drop out of higher education…

  20. Operation STEM: Increasing Success and Improving Retention among Mathematically Underprepared Students in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Susan D.; Van Sickle, Jenna; Holcomb, John P.; Jackson, Debbie K.; Resnick, Andrew H.; Duffy, Stephen F.; Sridhar, Nigamanth; Marquard, Antoinette M.; Quinn, Candice M.

    2017-01-01

    In 2012, Cleveland State University implemented a comprehensive program, called Operation STEM (OpSTEM), funded by two National Science Foundation grants, federal work study, and Cleveland State University. Its goal is to increase retention and graduation rates among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students by helping them…