Rosso, A.; Vertino, A.; Di Geronimo, I.; Sanfilippo, R.; Sciuto, F.; Di Geronimo, R.; Violanti, D.; Corselli, C.; Taviani, M.; Mastrototaro, F.; Tursi, A.
Thanatofacies and the skeletonized components of the living facies, from which they originate have been studied from the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) deep-water coral mound province. Faunal analysis was carried out by means of bottom sampling and underwater video observations, taking into account all benthic taxonomic groups, mostly corals, molluscs, serpulids, bryozoans, ostracods, foraminifers and barnacles, which permitted recognition of six different facies. These thanatofacies are easily distinguishable and appear to be largely corresponding and overlapping with related living facies. Some occur in mound areas, others in the intermound ones. They are as follows: the Framework-building Coral facies (FC), characterised by colonial corals, mostly Madrepora oculata; the Coral Rubble facies (CR), with proximal and distal aspects, characterised by large- to small-sized and densely to loosely packed coral fragments; the Solitary Coral facies (SC), dominated by different species depending on the availability and dimensions of hard exploitable surfaces; the Gryphus and Isidella facies (GI) in relatively coarse-grained bottoms; the Mollusc Mud facies (MM) and the Foraminifer Mud facies (FM) in comparably homogeneous silty bottoms. Facies distribution and spatial variability are discussed, in relation to hydrology and sea-floor topography. Furthermore, the SML facies are compared with living facies from the present-day Mediterranean and Pleistocene sediments of the same area. Data on bioclastic assemblages can serve for comparison with other recent aphotic, non-tropical carbonates.
Vieira Machado, Giseli Modolo; Albino, Jacqueline; Leal, Arthur Pereira; Bastos, Alex Cardoso
This study proposes a combination of sedimentological techniques as a tool to understand depositional palaeoenvironments. Grain size, mineralogy, compositional data, stratigraphic framework, degree of rounding, optical appearance and microtextures of quartz grains were analyzed; sub-surface sediments were collected from 4 boreholes spaced across coastal settings, from the beach towards the continent, from locations on the south-central coast of the state of Espírito Santo, southeast Brazil. Five palaeoenvironments were identified: fluvial (characterized by gravelly sand facies, composed predominantly of sub-angular and sub-rounded dirty quartz grains with microtexures caused by sudden impact and grain surfaces modified by chemical action, as well as other non-quartz terrigenous minerals); continental deposit with marine influence, such as an estuary (characterized by muddy sand facies, composed of immature grains with natural glow and non-abraded grains with a "fresh" clean surface, little to no chemical change, a few bioclastic fragments, carbonate nodules and grains embedded with carbonate); modern estuary (characterized by sandy mud facies, composed of mixed mature and immature quartz grains, chemically frosted, bioclastic fragments, carbonate nodules, and high organic matter content); bay (characterized by sandy mud and mud facies, composed predominantly of mature grains, highly chemically frosted, with microtextures clearly associated with post-depositional alteration, many bioclastic fragments, and organic matter); and beach (characterized by gravelly sand facies, composed predominantly of sub-rounded dirty grains, followed by shiny grains, with smooth edges, signs of former impact, little chemical dissolution on the quartz grain, and bioclastic fragments). The association between the degree of rounding, optical aspect and microtextures of quartz grains was essential to estimate the extent and strength of seawater intrusion in filling of the sedimentation
Yoon, H. I.; Khim, B. K.; Yoo, K.-C.; Bak, Y. S.; Lee, J. I.
Two gravity cores were collected from the South Scotia Sea located off the northern Antarctic Peninsula during the 2002/2003 Korea Antarctic Research Program (KARP) expedition to determine the late Quaternary climatic and oceanographic history. Reassessment of previous sedimentological, geochemical and micropaleontological analyses combined with established age model of AMS 14C dates represent the reliable record of late Pleistocene climatic/oceanographic change for the Scotia Sea region of Antarctica. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the South Scotia Sea received large amounts of sorted terrigenous sediments and some of the reworked diatom fossils emplaced by bottom currents from an extensively glaciated Weddell Sea continental margin. Drifting icebergs calved from the glacial fronts have dispersed glacial dropstones throughout the study area. The bottom current deposits during the glacial phase comprise two lithologic units: (1) bioturbated gravelly sandy mud (Facies 1), formed by sluggish bottom current caused by reduced dense-water production originated from the ice sheet on the Weddell Shelf, (2) indistinctly layered diatomaceous mud as shown by total organic carbon (TOC) highs in the Facies 1, deposited by sporadic bottom currents caused by intensified sea-ice formation in polynya during the glacial stage. The LGM is characterized by greater and longer sea-ice coverage and a restricted Weddell/Scotia summer communication, as evidenced by a relative decrease in percentage Thalssiosira antarctica and Chaetoceros resting spores, which are more abundant close to the Weddell Ice Shelf. Deglaciation (about 13,000-9000 14C yr BP) in the South Scotia Sea was characterized by increasing TOC, diatom abundance, and decreasing magnetic susceptibility and sand contents up core. At this time, subglacial meltwater streams began to emanate from the Weddell Ice Sheet with peak of ice rafting. Sediment-laden turbid plumes from melting glacier and deglaciated Weddell
Farquharson, Louise; Anthony, Katey Walter; Bigelow, Nancy; Edwards, Mary; Grosse, Guido
Thermokarst lakes develop as a result of the thaw and collapse of ice-rich, permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Of particular sedimentological importance are thermokarst lakes forming in late Pleistocene icy silt (yedoma), which dramatically alter the land surface by lowering surface elevation and redistributing upland sediment into lower basins. Our study provides the first description of yedoma thermokarst lake sedimentology based on the cross-basin sampling of an existing lake. We present lake sediment facies descriptions based on data from sediment cores from two thermokarst lakes of medium depth, Claudi and Jaeger (informal names), which formed in previously non thermokarst-affected upland yedoma on the northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. We identify four prominent facies using sedimentological, biogeochemical, and macrofossil indicators: a massive silt lacking aquatic macrofossils and other aquatic indicators situated below a sub-lacustrine unconformity (Facies 1); two basal deposits: interbedded organic silt and chaotic silt (Facies 2-3); and a silt-rich mud (Facies 4). Facies 1 is interpreted as yedoma that has thawed during lake formation. Facies 3 formed adjacent to the margin due to thaw and collapse events from the lake shore. Material from Facies 3 was reworked by wave action to form Facies 2 in a medium energy margin environment. Facies 4 formed in a lower energy environment toward the lake basin center. This facies classification and description should enhance our ability (i) to interpret the spatial and temporal development of lakes and (ii) to reconstruct long-term patterns of landscape change.
Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; House, P. Kyle; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wan, Elmira; Wahl, David B.
The Chemehuevi Formation forms a conspicuous, widespread, and correlative set of nonmarine sediments lining the valleys of the Colorado River and several of its larger tributaries in the Basin and Range geologic province. These sediments have been examined by geologists since J. S. Newberry visited the region in 1857 and are widely cited in the geologic literature; however their origin remains unresolved and their stratigraphic context has been confused by inconsistent nomenclature and by conflicting interpretations of their origin. This is one of the most prominent stratigraphic units along the river below the Grand Canyon, and the formation records an important event or set of events in the history of the Colorado River. Here we summarize what is known about these deposits throughout their range, present new stratigraphic, sedimentologic, topographic, and tephrochronologic data, and formally define them as a lithostratigraphic unit. The Chemehuevi Formation consists primarily of a bluff-forming mud facies, consisting of gypsum-bearing, horizontally bedded sand, silt, and clay, and a slope-forming sand facies containing poorly bedded, well sorted, quartz rich sand and scattered gravel. The sedimentary characteristics and fossil assemblages of the two facies types suggest that they were deposited in flood plain and channel environments, respectively. In addition to these two primary facies, we identify three other mappable facies in the formation: a thick-bedded rhythmite facies, now drowned by Lake Mead; a valley-margin facies containing abundant locally derived sediment; and several tributary facies consisting of mixed fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower parts of major tributary valleys. Observations from the subsurface and at outcrops near the elevation of the modern flood plain suggest that the formation also contains a regional basal gravel member. Surveys of numerous outcrops using high-precision GPS demonstrate that although the sand facies commonly
Yıldız, Ayşegül; Gürel, Ali; Dursun, Yusuf Gökhan
The diatom community and palaeoenvironmental properties of volcano genetic diatomite deposits that outcrop in the Karacaören (Nevşehir) area are described. Two stratigraphic sections were measured in the study area. One of these sections was measured in Quaternary lake units (K1), and the other in lacustrine sediments of the late Miocene-Pliocene Ürgüp Formation's Bayramhacılı Member (K2). According to stratigraphic and chemical characteristics of the sections, two distinct paleogeographic domains were determined in the study area. One of these, the shallow lacustrine to fluvial area (Quaternary) which is represented by an alternating sequence of diatomite, silt/mud, and tuffite. The other was the deeper lacustrine stage (late Miocene) which is represented by diatomites with some interbedded mud facies, chert and volcanics. From the diatomite samples of these sections, twenty-five species of 10 different diatom genera were identified. When evaluated together, the ecological properties and the distribution of numerical values of the determined diatom genera and species, showed that the study area's diatomite was generally deposited in shallow, high temperature, nutrient-rich water, where nitrogen and phosphorus were abundant and which was an alkaline (pH > 7) freshwater lake environment. Over time the pH value of the environment decreased (pH < 7), and the environment became acidic.
Ihenyen, A. E.
The Western Nigerian continental shelf lies approximately between longitudes 2°42 ' and 5°00 ' E. It is a relatively gently sloping and narrow shelf, incised by two canyons, Avon and Mahin. The beaches between longitudes 2°42 ' and 4°30 ' E are sandy while Mahin Mud Beach is further to the east. The western sand deposits extend about 12 km offshore and are separated into two coast-parallel sand bodies by a narrow dark grey silt-mud facies, 1-2 km wide. Lekki lagoon is situated inland of the sandy beach-barrier systems near Lagos. This low energy tidal and freshwater lagoon is slowly silting up with river sediment; bottom sediment characteristics reflect influence of both fluvial transport and weak tidal current patterns. Mahin Mud Beach is starved of sand due to a lack of longshore drift as a result of the two canyons siphoning off arenaceous material. It is thus highly vulnerable to erosion and flooding. The two coast-parallel sand bodies in the west, combined with four preserved drowned coral reef systems, suggest that the post-Pleistocene sea level rise along the Western Nigerian shelf was punctuated by a number of sea level stillstands.
Nelson, C.H.; Lee, H.L. ); Twichell, D.C.; Schwab, W.C. ); Kenyon, N.H. )
Cores from a Mississippi outer-fan depositional lobe demonstrate that sublobes at the distal edge contain a complex local network of channelized-turbidite beds of graded sand and debris-flow beds of chaotic silt. Off-lobe basin plains lack siliciclastic coarse-grained beds. The basin-plain mud facies exhibit low acoustic backscatter on SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar images, whereas high acoustic backscatter is characteristic of the lobe sand and silt facies. The depth of the first sand-silt layer correlates with relative backscatter intensity and stratigraphic age of the distal sublobes (i.e., shallowest sand = highest backscatter and youngest sublobe). The high proportion (> 50%) of chaotic silt compared to graded sand in the distal, outer-fan sublobes may be related to the unstable, muddy, canyon-wall source areas of the extensive Mississippi delta-fed basin slope. A predominance of chaotic silt in cores or outcrops from outer-fan lobes thus may predict similar settings for ancient fans.
Nelson, C.H.; Baraza, J.; Maldonado, A.; Rodero, J.; Escutia, C.; Barber, J.H.
The late Quaternary pattern of sedimentary facies on the Spanish Gulf of Cadiz continental shelf results from an interaction between a number of controlling factors that are dominated by the Atlantic inflow currents flowing southeastward across the Cadiz shelf toward the Strait of Gibraltar. An inner shelf shoreface sand facies formed by shoaling waves is modified by the inflow currents to form a belt of sand dunes at 10-20 m that extends deeper and obliquely down paleo-valleys as a result of southward down-valley flow. A mid-shelf Holocene mud facies progrades offshore from river mouth sources, but Atlantic inflow currents cause extensive progradation along shelf toward the southeast. Increased inflow current speeds near the Strait of Gibraltar and the strong Mediterranean outflow currents there result in lack of mud deposition and development of a reworked transgressive sand dune facies across the entire southernmost shelf. At the outer shelf edge and underlying the mid-shelf mud and inner shelf sand facies is a late Pleistocene to Holocene transgressive sand sheet formed by the eustatic shoreline advance. The late Quaternary pattern of contourite deposits on the Spanish Gulf of Cadiz continental slope results from an interaction between linear diapiric ridges that are oblique to slope contours and the Mediterranean outflow current flowing northwestward parallel to the slope contours and down valleys between the ridges. Coincident with the northwestward decrease in outflow current speeds from the Strait there is the following northwestward gradation of contourite sediment facies: (1) upper slope sand to silt bed facies, (2) sand dune facies on the upstream mid-slope terrace, (3) large mud wave facies on the lower slope, (4) sediment drift facies banked against the diapiric ridges, and (5) valley facies between the ridges. The southeastern sediment drift facies closest to Gibraltar contains medium-fine sand beds interbedded with mud. The adjacent valley floor
Li, Shunli; Yu, Xinghe; Li, Shengli; Giles, Katherine A.
The architecture and sedimentary characteristics of deep water deposition can reflect influences of sea-level change on depositional processes on the shelf edge, slope, and basin floor. Outcrops of the northern slope and basin floor of the Delaware Basin in west Texas are progressively exposed due to canyon incision and road cutting. The outcrops in the Delaware Basin were measured to characterize gravity flow deposits in deep water of the basin. Subsurface data from the East Ford and Red Tank fields in the central and northeastern Delaware Basin were used to study reservoir architectures and properties. Depositional models of deep water gravity flows at different stages of sea-level change were constructed on the basis of outcrop and subsurface data. In the falling-stage system tracts, sandy debris with collapses of reef carbonates are deposited on the slope, and high-density turbidites on the slope toe and basin floor. In the low-stand system tracts, deep water fans that consist of mixed sand/mud facies on the basin floor are comprised of high- to low-density turbidites. In the transgression and high-stand system tracts, channel-levee systems and elongate lobes of mud-rich calciturbidite deposits formed as a result of sea level rise and scarcity of sandy sediment supply. For the reservoir architecture, the fan-like debris and high-density turbidites show high net-to-gross ratio of 62 %, which indicates the sandiest reservoirs for hydrocarbon accumulation. Lobe-like deep water fans with net-to-gross ratio of 57 % facilitate the formation of high quality sandy reservoirs. The channel-levee systems with muddy calciturbidites have low net-to-gross ratio of 30 %.
Shevenell, A.; Ishman, S. E.; Domack, E. W.; Leventer, A.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Vadman, K. J.
Marine-terminating ice regulates the mass balance and stability of Antarctica's ice sheets and, ultimately, global sea level. However, predictions of future ice sheet response to climate change are limited by short observational time-series and the complexity of associated forcings and feedbacks. Here, we present new chronologic and multiproxy data from 7 marine sediment records from the outer to inner shelf down the axis of the Anvers Island Trough and into Palmer Deep that better constrain the timing and rate of ice retreat and improve understanding of the mechanisms driving deglaciation of this hypothesized paleo-ice stream. The retreat chronology is based on 16 CaCO3 (foraminifer and mollusk) and 45 ramped pyrolysis (acid-insoluble organic matter) AMS 14C dates. Radiocarbon dates from the laminated diatom ooze and mud facies immediately above the glacial diamicton indicate that deglaciation of the mid-Anvers Island Trough post-dated the Palmer Deep deglaciation by ~2000 uncorrected 14C years and that collapse of the mid-shelf system was rapid, if not instantaneous. The laminated facies, present throughout the suite of cores, is consistent with the calving bay reentrant model for deglaciation. However, this facies is limited (~15 couplets) on the mid-shelf and expanded (~127 couplets) on the inner-shelf, suggesting regional differences in calving bay duration. Planktic and benthic foraminifer isotopes, together with foraminifer and diatom assemblages, and biogeochemical data provide evidence for the presence of warmer nutrient-rich modified Circumpolar Deep Water throughout the Anvers Island Trough during deglaciation. The observed retreat complexity may relate to a hypothesized mid-shelf ice-dome system and requires additional geological and geophysical data to understand ice retreat patterns south and west of Palmer Deep. Such data will provide important new constraints for ice sheet models.
Wood, S.H. )
The top of a buried fine-grained delta system of paleo- Lake Idaho' is detected by high-resolution seismic profiles, 300 m beneath the western Snake River Plain near Caldwell, Idaho. Characteristic 3--5[degree] dip of seismic reflectors in the prodelta-mud facies plus electrical-resistivity logs and cuttings from a 670-m well show a 150-m coarsening-upward prodelta sequence overlain by well-sorted fine sand and thin mud layers. Slope and vertical relief (compaction corrected) of prodelta clinoforms indicate the delta was prograding north into a lake basin 250-m deep. Elevation of the top of the delta front is a measure of a paleolake stand. The detected buried delta front is presently at 405 m elevation, about 500 m below what is regarded as the last high lake stand (elev. 850--975 m). The present low elevation of the delta front is partly explained by about 300 m of downward tectonic movement on faults and about 200 m of subsidence by basin-sediment compaction with respect to the basin margins. Distribution of lake deposits around the northwest end of the lake indicates the lake level reached 850--975 m elevation about 2 million years ago. Location of the former outlet of Lake Idaho' and the ancestral Snake River is still a puzzle. Present geomorphology suggests that about 2 million years ago a southward-migrating, ancestral Hells Canyon tributary of the Columbia-Salmon Rivers system captured the lake drainage by overflow of a sill at Dead Indian Ridge near Weiser, Idaho. Hells Canyon and the enlarged Snake River subsequently cut down about 215 m to the present river elevation of 635 m at Dead Indian Ridge.
Chang, Tae Soo; Ha, Hun Jun; Chun, Seung Soo
The Heuksan mud belt (hereafter HMB) is 20~50 km wide, ~200 km long, and ~50 m thick, having accumulated in the course of the Holocene transgression on the tide-dominated epicontinental shelf southwest of Korea. The internal architecture of the HMB is characterized by offshore prograding clinoforms. Of particular interest are the depositional processes responsible for this anomalously thick mud accumulation within a relatively short period of time. Tidal currents are important in the dispersal of mud in the HMB, although these alone cannot explain such an enormous mud deposit. In order to understand the formative processes of the HMB, a detailed sedimentary facies analysis, including high-resolution grain-size measurements, has been conducted on more than 30 short cores and three long drill cores recovered from the mud belt. Five major mud facies were identified. Of these, mud sequences showing a thickening-thinning trend of alternating silt and clay laminae suggestive of a tidal origin occur dominantly at inner to mid shelf locations. By contrast, internally structureless muds with sharp bases and no bioturbation, which are interpreted of representing fluid-mud deposits, are widespread at mid to outer shelf locations. Wave-generated mud ripples and storm beds on the inner shelf suggest that storm waves in winter resuspend previously deposited mud to form near-bed fluid-mud suspensions with resulting gravity-driven mud transport across the low-gradient outer shelf. This previously not recognized process is probably a major factor controlling depositional processes on the giant mud belt, enabling rapid accumulation and offshore progradation even during transgression, i.e., at times of sea-level rise.
Bastos, Alex Cardoso; Costa Moscon, Daphnne Moraes; Carmo, Dannilo; Neto, José Antonio Baptista; da Silva Quaresma, Valéria
Sediment dynamics in wave-dominated coastal embayments are generally controlled by seasonal meteorological conditions, storms having a particularly strong influence. In the present study, such hydrodynamic processes and associated deposits have been investigated in a coastal embayment located along the southeast coast of Brazil, i.e. Espírito Santo Bay, in the winter (June/July) of 2008. The bay has undergone a series of human interventions that have altered the local hydrodynamic processes and, consequently, the sediment transport patterns. Facies distribution and sediment dynamics were examined by acoustic seabed mapping, sediment and core sampling, hydrodynamic measurements and sand transport modelling. The results show that sediment distribution can be described in terms of nearshore and offshore zones. The offshore bay sector is predominantly composed of "palimpsest" lithoclastic medium-coarse sands deposited in the course of the early Holocene transgression that peaked about 5,000 years ago. In the inner bay or nearshore zone (up to depths of 4-8 m), these older transgressive deposits are today overlain by a thin (up to 30-cm-thick) and partly patchy blanket of younger regressive fine sand/muddy fine sands. Both coarse- and fine-grained facies are being reworked during high-energy events (Hs>1.5 m) when fine sediment is resuspended, weak tide-induced drift currents causing the sand patches to be displaced. The coarser sediment, by contrast, is mobilized as bedload to produce wave ripples with spacings of up to 1.2 m. These processes lead to a sharp spatial delimitation between a fine sand/mud facies and a rippled coarse sand facies. The fine sand patches have a relief of about 20-30 cm and reveal a typical internal tempestite depositional sequence. Fair-weather wave-induced sediment transport (Hs<1 m), supported by weak tidal currents, seems to only affect the fine sediment facies. Sediment dynamics in Espírito Santo Bay is thus essentially controlled by
Margalef, Olga; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Giralt, Santiago; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Joosten, Hans; Rull, Valentí; Buchaca, Teresa; Hernández, Armand; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Moreno, Ana; Sáez, Alberto
The Rano Aroi mire on Easter Island (also known as Rapa Nui; 27°09‧S, 109°27‧W, 430 m above sea level) provides a unique non-marine record in the central South Pacific Ocean for reconstructing Late Pleistocene environmental changes. The results of a multiproxy study on two cores from the center and margin of the Rano Aroi mire, including peat stratigraphy, facies analysis, elemental and isotope geochemistry on bulk organic matter, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning and macrofossil analysis, were used to infer past water levels and vegetation changes. The chronology was based on 18 14C AMS dates for the upper 8.7 m. The extrapolated age for the base of the sequence is 70 kyr, which implies that this record is the oldest paleolimnological record on Easter Island. The recovered Rano Aroi sequence consists of a radicel peat formed primarily from the remains of sedges, grasses and Polygonaceae that have accumulated since Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 4 (70 kyr BP) to the present. From 60 to 40 kyr BP (MIS 3), high precipitation/runoff events were recorded as organic mud facies with lighter δ13C, low C/N values and high Ti content, indicating higher detritic input to the mire. A gradual shift in δ13C bulk organic matter from - 14% to - 26%, recorded between 50 and 45 cal kyr BP, suggests a progressive change in local peat-forming vegetation from C4 to C3 plant types. Post-depositional Ca and Fe enrichment during sub-aerial peat exposure and very low sedimentation rates indicate lower water tables during Late MIS 3 (39-31 cal kyr BP). During MIS 2 (27.8-19 cal kyr BP), peat production rates were very low, most likely due to cold temperatures, as reconstructed from other Easter Island records during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Geochemical and macrofossil evidence shows that peat accumulation reactivates at approximately 17.5 cal kyr BP, reaching the highest accumulation rates at 14 cal kyr BP. Peat accretion decreased from 5.0 to 2.5 cal kyr BP, coinciding
Herrera, D. A.; Ortega, B.; Caballero, M.; Lozano, S.; Pi, T.; Brown, E. T.
Chalco lake is located SE of the outskirts of Mexico City, at the central part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Previous studies show the importance of this lacustrine sequence as an archive of paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes. A set of five cores up to 122 m depth were drilled in the basin, in order to analyze the sedimentary record and to extent the previous knowledge of past environmental changes in central Mexico. As an initial step, in this work we present the identification and classification of sedimentary facies. Preliminary paleomagnetism analyses recognize the possible record of the Blake Event (ca. 120 kyr BP), and suggest that the sequence might span the last 240 kyr. In this case, variations in sedimentary facies could reflect the conditions of the MIS 1-7. The facies are mostly diatom ooze, carbonate mud, organic rich silt and volcaniclastic, both massive and laminated, and massive dark gray to reddish brown silt. From 1 to 8 m depth dominates the organic rich silt facies, which correlates with the MIS 1. Intercalations of reddish brown and grayish brown silt facies, between 8 to 60 m depth, indicate changes occurred during MIS 2 to 5d. Between 60-75 m depth the sequence is characterized by dark grayish silty clay facies, which possibly coincide with the MIS 5e. At 79 m depth (ca. 130 kyr BP) we found struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O), which may be related to dry conditions. The laminated diatom ooze facies dominates between 90 to 122 m depth and indicates rhythmic changes in the sediment deposition of the basin. The volcaniclastic facies is represented by lapilli and ash deposits in more than 100 individual tephra layers of both mafic and felsic composition. Some of them correspond to main volcanic eruptions, as the Upper Toluca Pumice (13,500 cal yr BP), from the Nevado de Toluca volcano and the Pómez con Andesita (17,700 cal yr BP) from the Popocatépetl volcano. The carbonate mud facies is composed of calcite and siderite, with frequent
Lantzsch, Hendrik; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Henrich, Rüdiger
Based on a well-established stratigraphic framework and 47 AMS- 14C dated sediment cores, the distribution of facies types on the NW Iberian margin is analysed in response to the last deglacial sea-level rise, thus providing a case study on the sedimentary evolution of a high-energy, low-accumulation shelf system. Altogether, four main types of sedimentary facies are defined. (1) A gravel-dominated facies occurs mostly as time-transgressive ravinement beds, which initially developed as shoreface and storm deposits in shallow waters on the outer shelf during the last sea-level lowstand; (2) A widespread, time-transgressive mixed siliceous/biogenic-carbonaceous sand facies indicates areas of moderate hydrodynamic regimes, high contribution of reworked shelf material, and fluvial supply to the shelf; (3) A glaucony-containing sand facies in a stationary position on the outer shelf formed mostly during the last-glacial sea-level rise by reworking of older deposits as well as authigenic mineral formation; and (4) A mud facies is mostly restricted to confined Holocene fine-grained depocentres, which are located in mid-shelf position. The observed spatial and temporal distribution of these facies types on the high-energy, low-accumulation NW Iberian shelf was essentially controlled by the local interplay of sediment supply, shelf morphology, and strength of the hydrodynamic system. These patterns are in contrast to high-accumulation systems where extensive sediment supply is the dominant factor on the facies distribution. This study emphasises the importance of large-scale erosion and material recycling on the sedimentary buildup during the deglacial drowning of the shelf. The presence of a homogenous and up to 15-m thick transgressive cover above a lag horizon contradicts the common assumption of sparse and laterally confined sediment accumulation on high-energy shelf systems during deglacial sea-level rise. In contrast to this extensive sand cover, laterally very
Rhodes, B.; Jankaew, K.; Kirby, M.; Schmidt, J.; Choowong, M.
A tidal channel at Thap Lamu feeds a mangrove-fringed lagoon that extends several kilometers inland. The December 2004 tsunami swept up the channel and devastated the mangrove forest, on the channel's western side. The tsunami leveled a swath of mangroves between 10-100 m and blanketed the leveled area with sediment consisting of several centimeters of fine-to-medium grained sand, angular coral-gravel, and randomly dispersed, macerated shells. The distribution of the 2004 tsunami deposit suggests that the mangroves dissipated the wave's energy such that virtually no sediment coarser than mud entered the living mangrove forest. We collected several sediment cores along two transects across the damaged zone. In core 06-1, collected 20 m inland of the tidal channel, mangrove peat extends to a depth of about 1.5 m. This peat is underlain by massive clay-rich mud. We interpret this boundary as representing a transgression of the mangrove forest across a lagoon perhaps in response to a long-term Holocene sea-level drop. Also in this core is a zone of matrix-supported coral and shell gravel, which straddles the mangrove-lagoon boundary. This zone extends to a depth of nearly 2 m within the lagoonal mud. We collected two additional cores from 70 m (06-2) and 100 m (06-3) inland from core 06-1. These cores penetrate approximately 2.5 m of peat underlain by lagoonal mud. The thicker peat in cores 06-2 and 06-3 represents an earlier Holocene encroachment of the mangrove forest at these sites. Both cores also penetrate the coral-gravel layer at 1.5-2 m depth; however, unlike core 06-1, here the gravel lies wholly within peat. Correlation of this deposit between cores suggests that the coral-gravel layer crosscuts the peat/lagoonal-mud-facies boundary, thus weakening a hypothesis that the coral-gravel layer represents an environmental boundary. Rather, we hypothesize that this coral-gravel layer represents a paleotsunami deposit. Preliminary AMS 14C dating indicates that this
Edwards, J.H.; Harrison, S.E.; Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.; Twichell, D.C.
Seismic reflection profiles and vibracores have revealed that an inner shelf, sand-ridge field has developed over the past few thousand years situated on an elevated, broad bedrock terrace. This terrace extends seaward of a major headland associated with the modern barrier-island coastline of west-central Florida. The overall geologic setting is a low-energy, sediment-starved, mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner continental shelf supporting a thin sedimentary veneer. This veneer is arranged in a series of subparallel, shore-oblique, and to a minor extent, shore-parallel sand ridges. Seven major facies are present beneath the ridges, including a basal Neogene limestone gravel facies and a blue-green clay facies indicative of dominantly authigenic sedimentation. A major sequence boundary separates these older units from Holocene age, organic-rich mud facies (marsh), which grades upward into a muddy sand facies (lagoon or shallow open shelf/seagrass meadows). Cores reveal that the muddy shelf facies is either in sharp contact or grades upward into a shelly sand facies (ravinement or sudden termination of seagrass meadows). The shelly sand facies grades upward to a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies, which forms the sand ridges themselves. This mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies differs from the sediment on the beach and shoreface, suggesting insignificant sediment exchange between the offshore ridges and the modern coastline. Additionally, the lack of early Holocene, pre-ridge facies in the troughs between the ridges suggests that the ridges themselves do not migrate laterally extensively. Radiocarbon dating has indicated that these sand ridges can form relatively quickly (???1.3 ka) on relatively low-energy inner shelves once open-marine conditions are available, and that frequent, high-energy, storm-dominated conditions are not necessarily required. We suggest that the two inner shelf depositional models presented (open-shelf vs. migrating barrier-island) may
Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Sol-Ip
The marco-tide, open-coast Gochang beach, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, was studied in terms of four season variations in surface sediment and sedimentary environment. During the four seasons of winter (February), spring (May), summer (August), and fall (November) in 2014 year, surface sediments of total 252 sites were sampled across three survey lines, consisting of 21 sites at 30 m intervals in each transverse line to the coast, respectively. The Gochang beach comprises the Dongho, Kwangseungri, and Myeongsasipri beaches from north to south. The pocket-type Dongho beach is mainly composed of very fine sands to very coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. The average of grain size is the coarsest in the winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel trend of fine and medium sands during the four seasons. During the winter, the upper tidal flat was dominated by medium sand, while the lower tidal flat was dominated by find sand. The surface sediments of the Kwangseungri beach are mainly composed of fine-grained sands, and the mean grain size is the coarsest in winter. Grain-size distribution shows a uni-mode pattern in the four seasons. Mud facies partly exist in spring and summer seasons, whereas it is rarely shown in autumn and winter. The spatial distribution of surface sediments shows a coast-parallel trend of fine to coarse sand during the four seasons. The Myeongsasipri beach is mainly composed of very fine sands to very coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. Grain-size distribution shows a weak bi-modal trend in the autumn and a uni-mode pattern in the spring, summer and winter. The mean grain size of the winter is the coarsest among those of four seasons. The spatial distribution of four seasons also shows a coast-parallel trend. During the four seasons of 2014 year in the Gochang beach, overall distribution of the grain sizes represents a fining trend from upper to lower tidal
Efflorescent crusts at the Eagle Borax spring in Death Valley, California, contain an array of rare Mg and K borate minerals, several of which are only known from one or two other localities. The Mg- and/or K-bearing borates include aristarainite, hydroboracite, kaliborite, mcallisterite, pinnoite, rivadavite, and santite. Ulexite and probertite also occur in the area, although their distribution is different from that of the Mg and K borates. Other evaporite minerals in the spring vicinity include halite, thenardite, eugsterite, gypsum-anhydrite, hexahydrite, and bloedite. Whereas the first five of these minerals are found throughout Death Valley, the last two Mg sulfates are more restricted in occurrence and are indicative of Mg-enriched ground water. Mineral associations observed at the Eagle Borax spring, and at many other borate deposits worldwide, can be explained by the chemical fractionation of borate-precipitating waters during the course of evaporative concentration. The Mg sulfate and Mg borate minerals in the Eagle Borax efflorescent crusts point to the fractionation of Ca by the operation of a chemical divide involving Ca carbonate and Na-Ca borate precipitation in the subsurface sediments. At many other borate mining localities, the occurrence of ulexite in both Na borate (borax-kernite) and Ca borate (ulexite-colemanite) deposits similarly reflects ulexite's coprecipitation with Ca carbonate at an early concentration stage. Such ulexite may perhaps be converted to colemanite by later reaction with the coexisting Ca carbonate - the latter providing the additional Ca2+ ions needed for the conversion. Mg and Ca-Mg borates are the expected late-stage concentration products of waters forming ulexite-colemanite deposits and are therefore most likely to occur in the marginal zones or nearby mud facies of ulexite-colemanite orebodies. Under some circumstances, Mg and Ca-Mg borates might provide a useful prospecting guide for ulexite-colemanite deposits
Hernández, Armand; Doolittle, Sara; Bao, Roberto; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Rubio-Inglés, Maria J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Marques, Helena S.; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago
four main climatic (and NAO) stages since 600 cal years BP have been established. The first stage (1350-1460 AD) correspond to dark-brown to black mud facies with high values in lake productivity and moderately shallow waters, which however represent the deepest condition during the studied interval. Mineralogical composition and high organic matter content also suggest a humid climate with abundant precipitations that might be related to a predominantly NAO- phase. The second stage, spanning between 1460 and 1800 AD, is represented by a similar facies presented by the previous phase. This stage is however characterized by a transitional period from a wet to more arid climate, probably related to a change in NAO conditions (from NAO- to NAO+), with lower values of lake productivity and lake level than the previous stage. From 1800 AD until 1930 AD (third stage) banded brown to pale-brown silty and muddy facies were deposited. During this stage the lowest lake water table and productivity in the whole sequence were reached suggesting a predominantly NAO+ phase in concordance with instrumental NAO records. However, heavy rainfall catastrophic events are recorded in the sequence as very coarse (gravely) alluvial intervals that may be related with intense NAO- negative winters or alternatively to autumn Tropical Storms that can reach the archipelago. Finally, the uppermost interval of the sequence is composed by brown to ochre massive mud. A lake level rise and a progressive increase in the productivity suggest a relatively humid fourth stage from AD 1930 until present, a period characterized with more NAO- values.
Rodríguez Germade, Isabel; Fátima López Rodríguez, Carmen; Rubio, Belén.; Comas, Menchu; Rey, Daniel; Vilas, Federico; Álvarez, Paula
sulphate- reduction in the mud facies, indicate a high organic matter accumulation or a quite decreased oxygenation in the bottom. In contrast to the more hemipelagic facies, significant S peaks were detected in mud volcanoes associated facies. This finding is consistent with the occurrence of redox-sensitive elements peaks such as Cu and Zn in this facies, suggesting the presence of sulphidic phases in the anoxic levels. In general terms, these kind of analysis provide us valuable information to study the meaning of diagenetic reactions related to organic matter degradation and its importance in the ocean global cycles. We can also study the distribution of several important paleo-environmental proxies which allow us to know the climate history and to understand the environmental change. This work was supported by projects PGIDIT06TAM31201PR of the Xunta de Galicia and TOPOSED-PROX and PROMARES and SAGAS CTM2005-08071-C03-01 and MICINN of the Spanish Government.. Isabel Rodríguez Germade thanks the support from the Spanish MEC through a PhD fellosship