Gulick, Dawn T.; Yoder, Heather N.
An injury to the ACL can result in significant functional impairment. It has been estimated that more than 100,000 new ACL injuries occur each year. Surgeons employ numerous techniques for reconstruction of the ACL. Of critical importance is the source of the graft to replace the damaged ACL. The graft choices include autografts (the patient's own tissue), allografts (donor tendon), and synthetic/prosthetic ligaments. Tissue harvest sites for autografting include the middle third of the patella tendon, the quadriceps tendon, semitendinosus tendon, gracilis tendon, iliotibial band, tensor fascia lata, and the Achilles tendon. Selection of the type of graft material is predicated upon the tissue's ability to tolerate high levels of stress. Likewise, the clinical presentation and functional outcome is related to the graft material selected. This manuscript specifically examined the patella tendon and hamstring tendon grafts. Numerous manuscripts that studied the outcomes of these graft materials were compiled to help the clinician appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of each of the graft materials. Outcome measures such as thigh circumference, knee range of motion, isokinetic strength, knee stability, pain, and vertical jump/1-leg hop were incorporated. The purpose of this manuscript was to compare and contrast the clinical presentation of patients who underwent an ACL reconstruction using the patella tendon versus the hamstring tendons. This information can be valuable to the clinician when considering the rehabilitation protocol after ACL reconstruction. PMID:24701126
Maffulli, Nicola; Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Denaro, Vincenzo
Tears of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are common in the active population, especially in athletes. At present, several techniques for surgical repair and reconstruction are available. When reruptures occur, a reconstruction is mandatory. In the present paper, we describe a surgical technique for patellar and quadriceps tendon reconstruction using ipsilateral hamstring autograft. After routine hamstring tendon harvesting, the tendon ends are prepared using a whip stitch. A transverse tunnel is drilled in the midportion of the patella, the hamstring graft is passed through the patella, and firmly secured to the patellar tunnel openings with sutures. The details of the technique are fully described. Autologous ipsilateral hamstring tendon grafts provide a secure sound means to manage these challenging injuries.
Özdemir, Güzelali; Keskinöz, Elif N.; Tümentemur, Gamze; Gökkuş, Kemal; Demiralp, Bahtiyar
Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether or not there was any incompatibility between four-strand hamstring tendons taken from the same knee and the dimensions of the ACL and PCL. Methods. 15 fresh frozen cadaver hamstrings were prepared as four-strand grafts and measurements made of the ACL and PCL circumferences in the midsection were made in the narrowest part of the midsection. The cross-section areas and diameters were calculated with geometric calculations used to measure the cross-sectional area of cylinders. Accepting that the geometric insertions were elliptical, the length, width, and area were calculated for entry areas. Results. A significant relationship at 96.2% was determined between the ACL mid and the hamstring diameter. A significant relationship at 96.7% was determined between the ACL and the hamstring mid area. A significant relationship at 96.4% was determined between the PCL mid and the hamstring diameter. A significant relationship at 95.7% was determined between the PCL and the hamstring mid area. Conclusion. For the reconstruction of ACL and PCL, it was determined that there is less incompatibility between the four-strand hamstring tendons taken from the same knee and the dimensions of the midsection PCL compared to the ACL dimensions. PMID:28105419
Legnani, Claudio; Peretti, Giuseppe; Borgo, Enrico; Zini, Stefania; Ventura, Alberto
With the increasing number of primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions, the need for revision ACL surgery has risen over the past few years. The purpose of the present study is to retrospectively compare the clinical outcome of ipsilateral versus contralateral hamstring tendon autografts for ACL revision surgery, specifically with regard to patient satisfaction, post-operative functional outcomes, and return to sports. Between 2004 and 2011, 64 patients underwent ACL revision surgery. Forty-five were successfully recontacted and retrospectively reviewed at an average follow-up of 6.3 years. Twenty-two subjects underwent revision ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral autogenous hamstring tendon grafts; in 23 subjects contralateral hamstring were used for reconstruction. Clinical, arthrometric, and functional evaluations were performed. The Tegner activity level, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form were used. Objective evaluation included range of motion, Lachman test, pivot shift test and KT-1000 instrumented laxity testing. No major complications were reported. Follow-up examination showed that there were no significant differences in the IKDC and KOOS scores between the groups. No differences in anterior tibial translation as measured with KT-1000 arthrometer were reported between the groups, although there was a trend for more of the patients undergoing ipsilateral DGST reconstruction to have a glide on the pivot shift test. The percentage of patients returning to pre-injury level was high in both groups. The use of contralateral hamstring tendon autografts for ACL revision surgery produced similar subjective and objective outcomes at 6-years follow-up compared to revision with ipsilateral hamstring tendon autografts. Patients undergoing revision surgery with contralateral autografts experienced a quicker return to sports compared to patients who underwent
Ma, Yong; Murawski, Christopher D; Rahnemai-Azar, Amir Ata; Maldjian, Catherine; Lynch, Andrew D; Fu, Freddie H
The purpose of this study was to report the potential differences associated with graft maturity measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between quadriceps tendon with bone block and hamstring tendon autografts 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Twenty-six patients (15 male, 11 female; mean age 29.4 ± 17 years, range 13-46 years) who had undergone anatomic SB ACL reconstruction with either hamstring or quadriceps tendon with bone block autografts and had postoperative MRI 6 months after surgery. In 12 cases, the quadriceps tendon with bone block was used and hamstring in 14 cases. The signal/noise quotient was calculated to compare the difference between quadriceps tendon with bone block and hamstring autografts. Mean signal/noise quotient is lesser in quadriceps tendon with bone block (1.74 ± 0.39) compared with HS (2.44 ± 0.61) autografts (p = 0.020). For hamstring autograft, the distal region showed a significantly lower mean signal/noise quotient value compared with middle region, and the mean signal/noise quotient value in proximal region was the highest (distal vs middle p < 0.001; middle vs proximal p = 0.007; proximal vs distal p < 0.001). The mean signal/noise quotient of proximal region in quadriceps tendon with bone block autograft was lesser than that in hamstring. The middle region of the quadriceps tendon with bone block graft demonstrated the greatest signal/noise quotient [distal vs middle p = 0.001; middle vs proximal p = 0.027; proximal vs distal (n.s.)]. The maturity of quadriceps tendon with bone block was better in comparison with hamstring 6 months after anatomic SB ACL reconstruction. This study is clinically relevant in that modifying the individual rehabilitation according to the extent of graft maturity may be necessary to optimize patient function and prevent re-injury of the ACL graft.
Biuk, Egon; Zelić, Zoran; Rapan, Saša; Ćurić, Goran; Biuk, Dubravka; Radić, Radivoje
Two types of transplant are commonly used in the surgical management of anterior cruciate ligament lesions: the central part of the patellar ligament and quadruple tendons of the gracilis muscle and semitendinosus muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical characteristics of patellar ligament transplants and transplants of the quadruple tendons of the hamstring muscles under tensile force in the laboratory, and to compare the results in each group of samples. The study comprised 160 specimens: 40 specimens of gracilis muscle tendons, 40 of semitendinosus muscle tendons, 40 of quadruple tendons and 40 of the patellar ligament, approximately equally distributed according to sex, age (50-70 years) and the side of the body from which the specimen had been taken. The working curve analysis of the specimens under tensile load of a maximum force of 30N showed the least elongation (0.31%) in the quadruple tendon, followed by the gracilis muscle tendon (1.48%) and patellar ligament tendon (3.91%). The quadruple tendon specimen showed greater strength and higher elasticity compared with the patellar ligament specimen, which proved the starting hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fischer, Felix; Fink, Christian; Herbst, Elmar; Hoser, Christian; Hepperger, Caroline; Blank, Cornelia; Gföller, Peter
The aim of this study was to compare isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength in patients following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction who received either hamstring (HT) or quadriceps (QT) tendon autografts at two time intervals within the first year after surgery. One hundred twenty-four patients, 81 males (age 22.0 ± 6.2 years) and 43 females (age 20.9 ± 8.7 years), participated in this study. ACL reconstruction was performed with either quadriceps tendon autografts (QT; n = 61) or hamstring tendon autografts (HT; n = 63). Two isokinetic muscle strength tests (t1: 5.5 ± 1.2 months; t2: 7.6 ± 1.6 months) were performed at an angular velocity of 60°/s in both the injured and contralateral knees. An independent t test as well as a two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measurements was used. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. A statistically significant lower knee extensor strength was observed in the QT group within one year after surgery (p < 0.001). Additionally, data showed a significant higher H/Q ratio in QT patients compared to the HT group at t1 (p < 0.001) and t2 (p = 0.001) as well as a significant effect over time (p < 0.001) and interaction effect of time and graft (p = 0.007). Side-to-side values for extensor muscle strength were significantly (p < 0.001) greater in HT graft patients, while QT patients showed significantly (p < 0.001) greater values for flexor muscle strength at both time points of isokinetic testing, respectively. The results of this study indicate that graft choice has an impact on extensor strength in the first months after ACL reconstruction; however, there is no impact on flexor strength. The finding of a higher H/Q ratio in patients with QT grafts within the first months following surgery is possibly of clinical relevance. This may potentially be associated with lower stress on the maturing ACL graft. Furthermore, normal thigh strength can be restored
Kontogeorgakos, Vasileios; Koutalos, Antonios; Hantes, Michael; Manoudis, Gregory; Badras, Leonidas; Malizos, Konstantinos
A novel technique for managing ruptured tibialis anterior tendon complicated by infection and tendon substance loss in a young adult is described. A two-stage reconstruction technique with a silicon tube and tendon autograft was performed. At first, after local control of the infection, scar excision and placement of a silicone tube was performed. Ten weeks later, ipsilateral hamstrings tendons were harvested and bridged the 7 cm tendon gap. Eighteen months later, the patient has excellent clinical and functional outcome.
Gupta, Ravi; Kapoor, Dheeraj; Kapoor, Love; Malhotra, Anubhav; Masih, Gladson David; Kapoor, Anil; Joshi, Shweta
Pain in the immediate post-operative period after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery, apart from an unpleasant experience for the patient, can act as a barrier for static quadriceps contractions and optimum execution of the initial rehabilitation protocol resulting in slow recovery and a later return to full function for a sportsperson. There is no report in the literature comparing pain in the immediate post-operative period after using the two most widely used autografts, bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB) graft and hamstring graft. The present study compared the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score in the immediate post-operative period after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with the BPTB and hamstring autografts. Both groups consisted of 50 patients each. The mean age of the BPTB and hamstring cohorts was 26.9 ± 7.3 years (age range 18-59 years) and 26.7 ± 9.0 years (age range 17-52 years), respectively. Unpaired t test was applied to compare pain scores between the BPTB and hamstring cohorts. In the present study, patients in the BPTB cohort showed higher mean pain scores across all the post-operative time intervals except at 6 h. However, the difference in the mean VAS pain score at post-operative 6, 12,18, 24, 36 and 48 h in the two groups was statistically not significant (p value of 1, 0.665, 0.798, 0.377, 0.651 and 0.215 at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h, respectively). Our study concludes that the arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with BPTB autograft and hamstring autograft is associated with similar pain in the immediate post-operative period. As a result, aggressive physiotherapy regime is not affected by the type of graft being used for ACL reconstruction, as the pain scores in the immediate post-operative period are similar for both techniques. Clinical Trials Registry-India, CTRI/2016/01/006502.
Ishikura, Hisatoshi; Fukui, Naoshi; Takamure, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Satoru; Iwasawa, Mitsuyasu; Takagi, Kentaro; Horita, Ayako; Saito, Ikuo; Mori, Toshihito
Fracture of an ossified Achilles tendon is a rare entity, and no standard treatment has been established. This is the first report to describe the use of a hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap for Achilles tendon reconstruction. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with fracture of an ossified Achilles tendon. She presented to our clinic with acute right hindfoot pain, which started suddenly while going up the stairs. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive ossification on the right Achilles tendon extending over 14 cm in length; the ossification was fractured at 5 cm proximal to the calcaneus insertion. Surgical treatment included removal of the ossified tendon and reconstruction with an autologous hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap. One year after surgery, she was able to walk with little pain or discomfort and to stand on her right tiptoe. Our novel surgical procedure may be useful in the treatment of fractured ossified Achilles tendons and large Achilles tendon defects.
Samuelsen, Brian T; Webster, Kate E; Johnson, Nick R; Hewett, Timothy E; Krych, Aaron J
Bone-patellar tendon-bone (bone-tendon-bone) and four-strand hamstring tendon grafts (hamstring) are the most commonly utilized autografts for primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Existing clinical trials, registry studies, and meta-analyses offer conflicting opinions regarding the most favorable graft choice. Which graft type for ACL reconstruction (bone-tendon-bone or hamstring) has a higher risk of (1) graft rupture and/or (2) graft laxity? We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort studies, and high-quality national registry studies to compare the outcomes of primary ACL reconstruction with bone-tendon-bone autograft or hamstring autograft. Studies that compared these graft types were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library). Two independent reviewers utilized the Jadad scale for RCT study quality and the Modified Coleman Methodology Score for prospective comparative and registry study quality. The included studies were analyzed for the primary outcome measure of graft rupture with or without revision ACL surgery. In surviving grafts, secondary outcomes of graft laxity were quantified by KT1000/2000™ testing, a positive pivot shift test, and a positive Lachman test. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager. A total of 47,613 ACL reconstructions (39,768 bone-tendon-bone and 7845 hamstring) from 14 RCTs, 10 prospective comparative studies, and one high-quality national registry study were included in this meta-analysis. Mean age was 28 years in both groups. Sixty-three percent of patients in the bone-tendon-bone cohort were men versus 57% of patients in the hamstring cohort. Mean followup was 68 ± 55 months. Two hundred twelve of 7560 (2.80%) bone-tendon-bone grafts ruptured compared with 1123 of 39,510 (2.84%) in the hamstring group (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.96; p = 0.01). The number
Benfield, D; Otto, D D; Bagnall, K M; Raso, V J; Moussa, W; Amirfazli, A
In ACL reconstruction, stiffness and strength of a tendon graft complex are important features for knee stability and rehabilitation. The fixation between tendon and bone is known to be one of the weakest components of the graft complex. We examined the tensile load-displacement characteristics of looped semitendinosus tendons in a porcine femoral tunnel. Two groups of six cadaveric semitendinosus tendons and porcine femurs were tested, secured with either an aperture or non-aperture fixation method. Constructs were tested at 1 mm/s until failure in a materials testing machine, which allowed force and displacement data to be recorded. The non-aperture fixation group was significantly less stiff for the first 4 mm of displacement and had significantly higher ultimate failure loads. Provided that adequate ultimate strength can be achieved, stiffness properties of a tendon graft will be improved by using aperture fixation in femoral-site ACL reconstruction.
Beynnon, Bruce D; Johnson, Robert J; Fleming, Braden C; Kannus, Pekka; Kaplan, Michael; Samani, John; Renström, Per
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate replacement of a torn anterior cruciate ligament with either a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft or a two-strand semitendinosus-gracilis autograft to compare the results of clinical testing, patient satisfaction, activity level, functional status, and muscle strength. Fifty-six patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Twenty-eight underwent reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, and twenty-eight were treated with a two-strand semitendinosus-gracilis autograft. Patients were followed for an average of thirty-nine months (range, thirty-six to fifty-seven months). At the time of final follow-up, twenty-two patients in each group were evaluated in terms of clinical test findings, patient satisfaction, activity level, functional status, and isokinetic muscle strength. The objective outcome of replacement of the torn anterior cruciate ligament with a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft was superior to that obtained with a two-strand semitendinosus-gracilis graft. At the three-year follow-up interval, the patients in whom a hamstring graft had been used had an average of 4.4 mm of increased anterior knee laxity compared with the laxity of the contralateral, normal knee, whereas the patients in whom a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft had been used had an average of 1.1 mm of increased knee laxity. Fourteen percent (three) of the twenty-two patients with a hamstring graft had a mild pivot shift, and 27% (six) had a moderate pivot shift. Only 14% (three) of the twenty-two patients with a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft had a mild pivot shift, and none had a moderate pivot shift. At the same follow-up interval, the patients in whom a hamstring graft had been used had significantly lower peak knee-flexion strength than those who had a bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (p = 0.039). In contrast, the two treatments produced similar outcomes in
Heijne, Annette; Werner, Suzanne
The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate physical outcome after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with early versus late initiation of open kinetic chain (OKC) exercises for the quadriceps in patients operated on either patellar tendon or hamstring grafts. Sixty-eight patients, 36 males and 32 females, with either patellar tendon graft (34 patients) or hamstring graft (34 patients) were enrolled in this study. All patients were randomly allocated to either early (the 4th postoperative week) or late (the 12th postoperative week) start of OKC exercises for the quadriceps, resulting in four subgroups: patellar tendon reconstruction, early start (P4) or late start (P12) of OKC quadriceps exercises, hamstring tendon reconstruction, early start (H4) or late start (H12) of quadriceps OKC exercises. Prior to surgery and 3, 5 and 7 months later, assessments of range of motion (goniometer), anterior knee laxity (KT-1000), postural sway (KAT 2000), thigh muscle torques (Kin-Com dynamometer) and anterior knee pain (anterior knee pain score) were evaluated. No significant group differences were found in terms of range of motion 3, 5 and 7 months postoperatively. The H4 group showed a significantly higher mean difference of laxity over time of 1.0 mm (CI: 0.18-1.86) than the P4 group (P=0.04). Within the same type of surgery, the H4 against the H12, the mean difference over time was 1.2 mm (0.37-2.1) higher in the H4 group than in the H12 group (P=0.01). There were no significant group differences in terms of postural sway or anterior knee pain at the different test occasions. Significant differences in trends (changes over time) were found when comparing the four groups, for both quadriceps muscle torques (P<0.001) and hamstring muscle torques (P<0.001). All groups, except the P4 group, reached preoperative values of quadriceps muscle torques at the 7 months follow-up. In the H4 and the H12 groups, significantly lower hamstring muscle torques at
Zoran, Zelić; Ivan, Vidakovic; Egon, Biuk; Dubravka, Biuk; Vjekoslav, Wertheimer; Vjekoslav, Kolarević
Knee stability after surgical anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using quadrupled hamstring tendons graft (gracilis and semitendinosus) was compared with that using the middle third of the patellar ligament. All subjects participating in this study had ACL rupture diagnosed by clinical examination and MRI and underwent identical surgical procedure apart from the choice of graft. A total of 112 patients with either patellar ligament or quadrupled hamstring tendons graft were evaluated for 24 months following surgery. Patients were similar in terms of age, sex, activity level, knee instability level and rehabilitation programme. Clinical tests and a measuring instrument, the KT-1000 arthrometer, were used to evaluate knee stability after reconstruction. During the 24-month study there were no significant differences in clinical stability of the knee and the use of both grafts resulted in satisfactory knee stability. The difference between the groups according to the graft was noticed 6 months after reconstruction when the results obtained by a measuring instrument showed that knee stability was significantly higher with the patellar ligament graft (Fisher's exact test, p=0.022). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ohori, Tomoki; Mae, Tatsuo; Shino, Konsei; Tachibana, Yuta; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken
Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed computed tomography (CT) is crucial for the reliable and accurate evaluation of tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the tibial tunnel enlargement at the tunnel aperture and inside the tunnel and to clarify the morphological change at the tunnel footprint 1 year after the anatomic triple-bundle (ATB) ACL reconstruction using 3D CT models. Eighteen patients with unilateral ACL rupture were evaluated. The ATB ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus tendon autograft was performed. 3D computer models of the tibia and the three tibial tunnels were reconstructed from CT data obtained 3 weeks and 1 year after surgery. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the two anterior and the one posterior tunnels were measured at the tunnel aperture and 5 and 10 mm distal from the aperture and compared between the two periods. The locations of the center and the anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral edges of each tunnel footprint were also measured and compared between the two periods. The CSA of the posterior tunnel was significantly enlarged at the aperture by 40.4%, whereas that of the anterior tunnels did not change significantly, although the enlargement rate was 6.1%. On the other hand, the CSA was significantly reduced at 10 mm distal from the aperture in the anterior tunnels. The enlargement rate in the posterior tunnel was significantly greater than that in the anterior tunnels at the aperture. The center of the posterior tunnel footprint significantly shifted postero-laterally. The anterior and posterior edges of the posterior tunnel footprint demonstrated a significant posterior shift, while the lateral edge significantly shifted laterally. There was no significant shift of the center or all the edges of the anterior tunnels footprint. The posterior tibial tunnel was significantly enlarged at the aperture by 40% with the morphological change in the
Struewer, Johannes; Ziring, Ewgeni; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Schüttler, Karl F; Efe, Turgay
according to the Lysholm score (p < 0.05). Arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using either BPTB graft or hamstring graft in appropriately selected middle-aged patients results in patient satisfaction and good clinical results, with return to a reasonable level of activity regardless of surgical method and graft choice.
Sato, N.; Terauchi, M.; Kimura, M.; Takagishi, K.
We studied 79 patients with unilateral injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The patients were randomly allocated to reconstruction with autologous patellar bone-tendon-bone (BTB) grafts (49 knees) or hamstring tendon (ST) grafts (30 knees). We measured anterior tibial translation (ATT) during isokinetic concentric contraction exercise 18–20 months after surgery using a computerized electrogoniometer. In both groups the highest ATT during exercise was observed at a knee flexion of about 20° and was 13.5±3.0 mm in the BTB group and 13.9±3.4 mm in the ST group. There was no difference in the ATT between the reconstructed and healthy knees. For a range of knee flexion between 30 and 50° the ATT in the ST group was significantly higher on the reconstructed side than on the healthy side. In the BTB group, the mean ATT in the reconstructed group was similar to that on the healthy side at a knee flexion angle between 0 and 90°. PMID:16075231
Irvine, James N; Arner, Justin W; Thorhauer, Eric; Abebe, Ermias S; D'Auria, Jennifer; Schreiber, Verena M; Harner, Christopher D; Tashman, Scott
Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) grafts are generally believed to heal more quickly than soft tissue grafts after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, but little is known about the time course of healing or motion of the grafts within the bone tunnels. Graft-tunnel motion will be greater in hamstring (HS) grafts compared with BTB grafts and will be less at 1 year than at 6 weeks. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve patients underwent anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using HS or BTB autografts (6 per group) with six 0.8-mm tantalum beads embedded in each graft. Dynamic stereo x-ray images were collected at 6 weeks and 1 year during treadmill walking and stair descent and at 1 year during treadmill running. Tibiofemoral kinematics and bead positions were evaluated. Graft-tunnel motion was based on bead range of motion during the loading response phase (first 10%) of the gait cycle. During treadmill walking, there was no difference in femoral tunnel or tibial tunnel motion between BTB or HS grafts at 6 weeks (BTB vs HS: 2.00 ± 1.05 vs 1.25 ± 0.67 mm [femoral tunnel]; 1.20 ± 0.63 vs 1.27 ± 0.71 mm [tibial tunnel]), or 1 year (BTB vs HS: 1.62 ± 0.76 vs 1.08 ± 0.26 mm [femoral tunnel]; 1.58 ± 0.75 vs 1.68 ± 0.53 mm [tibial tunnel]). During stair descent, there was no difference in femoral or tibial tunnel motion between BTB and HS grafts at 6 weeks or 1 year. With running, there was no difference between graft types at 1 year. For all results, P values were > .05. Knee kinematics were consistent with the literature. During walking and stair descent, ACL reconstruction using suspensory fixation yielded no difference between graft types in femoral or tibial tunnel motion at 6 weeks or 1 year. All subjects were asymptomatic with knee kinematics similar to that of the literature. The significance of persistent, small (1 to 3 mm) movements at 1 year for healing or graft performance is unknown. These study results may have significant implications
Buescu, Cristian Tudor; Onutu, Adela Hilda; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald; Todor, Adrian
The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels and analgesic consumption after single bundle ACL reconstruction with free quadriceps tendon autograft versus hamstring tendon autograft. A total of 48 patients scheduled for anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction were randomized into two groups: the free quadriceps tendon autograft group (24 patients) and the hamstring tendons autograft group (24 patients). A basic multimodal analgesic postoperative program was used for all patients and rescue analgesia was provided with tramadol, at pain scores over 30 on the Visual Analog Scale. The time to the first rescue analgesic, the number of doses of tramadol and pain scores were recorded. The results within the same group were compared with the Wilcoxon signed test. Supplementary analgesic drug administration proved significantly higher in the group of subjects with hamstring grafts, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1.3) dose, compared to the group of subjects treated with a quadriceps graft, median = 0.5 (0.1.25) (p = 0.009). A significantly higher number of subjects with a quadriceps graft did not require any supplementary analgesic drug (50%) as compared with subjects with hamstring graft (13%; Z-statistics = 3.01, p = 0.002). The percentage of subjects who required a supplementary analgesic drug was 38% higher in the HT group compared with the FQT group. The use of the free quadriceps tendon autograft for ACL reconstruction leads to less pain and analgesic consumption in the immediate postoperative period compared with the use of hamstrings autograft. Level I Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a biomechanical cadaveric study of a rectangular quadriceps and bone--patellar tendon--bone graft configuration versus a round hamstring graft.
Herbort, Mirco; Tecklenburg, Katja; Zantop, Thore; Raschke, Michael J; Hoser, Christian; Schulze, Martin; Petersen, Wolf; Fink, Christian
The purposes of this study were to investigate anterior tibial translation under loading conditions after single-bundle (SB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a rectangular tunnel placement strategy with quadriceps and bone--patellar tendon--bone (BPTB) graft and to compare these data with a SB hamstring reconstruction with a round tunnel design. In 9 human cadaveric knees, the knee kinematics were examined with robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing. Within the same specimen, the knee kinematics under simulated pivot-shift and KT-1000 arthrometer (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) testing were determined at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion under different conditions: intact knee, ACL-deficient knee, and SB ACL-reconstructed knee. For the SB ACL-reconstructed knee, 3 different SB reconstruction techniques were used: a rectangular tunnel strategy (9 × 5 mm) with quadriceps graft, a rectangular tunnel strategy with BPTB graft, and a round tunnel strategy (7 mm) with hamstring graft. In a simulated Lachman test, a statistically significant difference was found at 0° and 15° of knee flexion between the rectangular reconstruction with quadriceps graft (5.1 ± 1.2 mm and 8.3 ± 2 mm, respectively) or BPTB graft (5.3 ± 1.5 mm and 8 ± 1.9 mm, respectively) and the reconstruction using hamstring graft (7.2 ± 1.4 mm and 12 ± 1.8 mm, respectively) (P = .032 and P = .033, respectively, at 0°; P = .023 and P = .02, respectively, at 15°). On the simulated pivot-shift test at 0° and 15°, rectangular ACL reconstruction with quadriceps graft (3.9 ± 2.1 mm and 6.5 ± 1.7 mm, respectively) or BPTB graft (4.2 ± 1.8 mm and 6.7 ± 1.7 mm, respectively) showed a significantly lower anterior tibial translation when compared with round tunnel reconstruction (5.5 ± 2.1 mm and 7.9 ± 1.9 mm, respectively) (P = .03 and P = .041, respectively, at 0°; P = .042 and P = .046, respectively, at 15°). Under simulated Lachman testing and pivot
Song, Eun Kyoo; Rowe, Sung Man; Chung, Jae Yoon; Moon, Eun Sun; Lee, Keun Bae
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is completed after implantation, when the graft material used undergoes extensive biologic remodelling and osteointegration. Failure of the osteointegration between the graft tendon and bone decreases the graft strength and induces anterior instability. We experienced 2 cases of failed osteointegration between tendon and bone after ACL reconstruction using 4 strands of the hamstring tendon. Surprisingly, osteointegration between the bone and tendon junction was not shown by intraoperative findings. The histologic findings also presented no evidence of osteointegration or biologic remodeling of the tendon. Two cases of failure of osteointegration are reported, with a review of the literature.
Suijkerbuijk, Mathijs A M; Reijman, Max; Lodewijks, Susanne J M; Punt, Jorien; Meuffels, Duncan E
Hamstring tendons are often used as autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, no systematic review has been performed describing consequences such as hamstring tendon regeneration rate and determinants of hamstring tendon regeneration. To summarize the current literature regarding hamstring tendon rate regeneration, the time course of regeneration, and determinants of hamstring regeneration. Systematic review. A search was performed in the Embase, Medline (OvidSP), Web of Science, Cochrane, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases up to June 2014 to identify relevant articles. A study was eligible if it met the following inclusion criteria: tendons were harvested, regeneration at harvest site was assessed, population size was at least 10 human subjects, full-text article was available, and the study design was either a randomized controlled trial, prospective cohort study, retrospective cohort study, or case control study. A risk of bias assessment of the eligible articles was determined. Data describing hamstring tendon regeneration rates were pooled per time period. A total of 18 publications met the inclusion criteria. The mean regeneration rate for the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons was, in all cases, 70% or higher. More than 1 year after harvesting, 79% (median [IQR], 80 [75.5-90]) of the semitendinosus tendons and 72% (median [IQR], 80 [61-88.5]) of the gracilis tendons were regenerated. No significant differences in regeneration rate could be found considering patient sex, age, height, weight, or duration of immobilization. Results did not clearly show whether absence of regeneration disadvantages the subsequent hamstring function. Five studies measured the regeneration rate at different moments in time. Hamstring tendons regenerated in the majority of patients after ACL reconstruction. The majority of the hamstring tendon regeneration was found to occur between 1 month and 1 year after harvest. No significant determinants for
D'Alessandro, Peter; Wake, Giulia; Annear, Peter
There is limited information in the literature regarding hamstring pain and muscle strains in patients following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring autograft. We sought to investigate whether dividing hamstring tendons distal to the musculotendinous junction rather than forcefully stripping tendons away from the muscle belly during graft harvest resulted in a lower incidence of hamstring pain, muscle strains, and leg flexion strength deficit following commencement of sport-specific training postoperatively. Patients were randomized to either the "Cut" or "Push" groups of hamstring tendon harvesting. All other operative techniques were uniform. A total of 34 (cut = 20, push = 14) patients had a mean follow-up of 30 months, and assessments were conducted by a blinded single practitioner. A customized hamstring strain questionnaire and visual analogue pain score provided information for the study's primary focus: evaluation of postoperative hamstring pain and muscle strains. Leg flexion strength was also measured and a full knee assessment was conducted. The Cincinnati sports activity rating scale (SARS) was used to account for varying degrees of sporting participation and intensity since reconstruction. The "Cut" group's mean visual analogue score was 10.05 mm, significantly lower than the "Push" group (24.66 mm, p = 0.0398). The Cut group also recorded a significant reduction in the incidence of hamstring strains following ACL reconstruction (5/20 patients 25%) compared with the Push group (7/14 patients 50%, p = 0.045). There was no difference in leg flexion strength between the groups. Of the patients who reported hamstring strains, there was no significant difference in the mean Cincinnati SARS between the groups, nor any difference in overall knee function. The incidence of hamstring pain and muscle strains was significantly reduced in patients receiving the "cut" technique of harvesting hamstring tendons in ACL reconstruction
Li, B; Shen, P; Wang, J-S; Wang, G -B; He, M; Bai, L -H
In the patients who have to be in supine position for most of the time after posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction, the tibia tends to shift backwards due to the gravity of the lower leg and the tensed hamstring muscle. To observe the effects of tibial support braces on rehabilitation after PCL reconstruction. Retrospective study. Inpatients. Thirty-nine patients were divided into regular brace (N.=18) and tibial support brace (N.=21) groups according to using different types of braces after PCL reconstruction. The follow-up time was more than 2 years in all patients. The function of the affected knee joint was evaluated with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity rating, range of motion (ROM) and kneelax arthrometer before and after PCL reconstruction, respectively. The function of the affected knee joint was significantly improved in both groups after PCL reconstruction. Compared with regular brace group, postoperative Lysholm and IKDC scores were significantly increased in tibial support brace group (P<0.05). However, there were no statistical differences in Tegner activity rating and ROM between regular brace group and tibial support brace group (P<0.05). Tibial support brace can obtain better therapeutic effects for PCL reconstruction. This study suggests that compared with regular brace, tibial support brace can significantly improve the mechanical stability and functional outcomes of the affected knee after PCL reconstruction.
Isokinetic dynamometer evaluation of the effects of early thigh diameter difference on thigh muscle strength in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft.
Kılınç, Bekir Eray; Kara, Adnan; Camur, Savas; Oc, Yunus; Celik, Haluk
After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, which muscle groups are more affected from frequently developing thigh muscle atrophy is a matter of debate. We evaluate the effect of thigh circumference difference between patients' knees who were administered the ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft and intact knees, on torque between the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. Fifty-five patients at least 6 months follow-up period available were included in our study. Power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups in patients' extremities were done by using isokinetic dynamometer. The maximum torque values at 60°/sec, 240°/sec in frequency, positions of flexion and extension were determined. In accordance with our findings it is still possible to encounter the thigh atrophy in average 28 months after ACL reconstruction surgery even under physical rehabilitation programs and appropriate follow-up. It is inevitable for the clinician to consider these changes in diagnosis and rehabilitation stages. It can't be ignored that muscle weakness mechanisms developing in the thigh circumference vary according to the thigh muscle group and knee flexors play an important role in thigh atrophy when determining an appropriate rehabilitation program after reconstruction application.
Kita, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yoshinari; Toritsuka, Yukiyoshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Uchida, Ryohei; Shiozaki, Yoshiki; Takao, Rikio; Horibe, Shuji
Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) for recurrent lateral patellar dislocation is gaining popularity. However, the morphological changes in the femoral tunnel after MPFL reconstruction are still not fully documented. This study used 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography to evaluate morphological changes in the femoral tunnel after MPFL reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft to investigate factors affecting the phenomenon and to elucidate whether it is associated with clinical outcomes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-three patients with recurrent patellar dislocation were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients included 6 males and 17 females with a mean age of 24 years (range, 14-53). The MPFL was reconstructed by creating 2 patellar bone sockets and 1 femoral bone socket anatomically under X-ray control, and the semitendinosus autograft was fixed with cortical suspension devices. Computed tomography scans obtained 3 weeks and 1 year after surgery were reconstructed into 3D constructs with a volume analyzer. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the aperture and inside the femoral tunnel were compared between the 2 time points. Likewise, the location of tunnel walls and center of the femoral tunnel footprint were evaluated. Relationships were assessed between femoral tunnel morphological changes and potential risk factors-such as age, body mass index, sex, femoral tunnel positioning, patellar height, sulcus angle, congruence angle, lateral tilt angle, degree of trochlear dysplasia, lateral deviation of the tibial tubercle, and Kujala score. No patient reported recurrence of patellar dislocation during the follow-up period. The CSA of the femoral tunnel aperture enlarged by 41.1% ± 34.7% ( P < .01). The center, anterior border, and proximal border of the femoral tunnel significantly shifted in the anterior direction ( P < .01). The distal border significantly shifted in both anterior and distal directions ( P < .01
ATBAŞI, ZAFER; ERÇIN, ERSIN; ERDEM, YUSUF; EMRE, TULUHAN YUNUS; ATILLA, HALIS ATIL; PARLAK, ADEM
Purpose the aim of this study was to assess the relationship of patient weight, height and body mass index (BMI) with the size of the quadrupled hamstring tendon used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods from patient records, we retrospectively assessed the weight, height, BMI and graft sizes of 126 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using a quadrupled hamstring tendon autograft between January 2010 and January 2013 at our institution. The data obtained from perioperative measurements were studied using correlation analysis. Results statistically significant relationships were found between patient height and graft diameter (p = 0.033, r = 0.19) and between patient weight and graft diameter (p < 0.0001, r = 0.33). No statistically significant relationships were found between graft diameter and BMI or between graft length and patient height, weight and BMI (p > 0.05). Conclusions patient height and weight were found to be related to quadrupled hamstring graft diameter in our patient population. BMI was not related to the quadrupled hamstring graft size. The exact size of the graft cannot be predicted preoperatively on the basis of these variables. Level of evidence Level IV, retrospective case series. PMID:28217655
Leiter, Jeff; Elkurbo, Mohamed; McRae, Sheila; Chiu, James; Froese, Warren; MacDonald, Peter
Large variation in tendon size between individuals makes hamstring graft diameter for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction unpredictable. Inadequate graft diameter may necessitate an alternative source of tissue requiring pre-operative planning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance image (MRI) measurements and clinical anthropometric data are predictive of hamstring tendon graft diameter. Data from 109 patients having ACL reconstruction with semitendinosus-gracilis (STGT) autograft were retrospectively evaluated. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the gracilis tendon (GT) and semitendinosus tendon (ST) were determined from pre-operative MRI scans. Variables included pre-operative height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age and gender; and intra-operative graft diameter. Correlations between anthropometric variables, hamstring tendons CSA and intra-operative graft diameter were calculated. Multiple stepwise regression was performed to assess the predictive value of these variables to graft diameter. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to evaluate the utility of MRI CSA measurements in accurately identifying inadequate graft diameter (<8 mm). All anthropometric variables were positively correlated with intraoperative graft diameter (p < 0.01). Semitendinosus-gracilis tendon CSA (p < 0.001) and STGT CSA and weight (p < 0.001) were significantly predictive models of graft diameter. Sensitivity and specificity were 79 and 74 %, respectively. The strongest indicators of a four-stranded STGT graft for primary ACL reconstruction were STGT CSA on MRI plus weight. Measurement of graft diameter can be performed pre-operatively via MRI to identify tendons that may be of inadequate size for ACL reconstruction. This can assist with surgical planning to determine the most appropriate graft choice. III.
Fritsch, Brett A; Mhaskar, Vikram A; An, Vincent Vinh Gia; Scholes, Corey
Objectives: Graft diameter is one variable that may affect outcome of ACL reconstruction. The ability to predict the size of a graft in a given patient pre-operatively may help guide graft selection and preparation technique. Various papers have correlated anthropometric data and MRI tendon measurements to intraoperative graft diameter, although no papers have investigated these together. The intra-operative diameter of a hamstring autograft will be influenced by graft preparation technique. Our study aimed to investigate the prediction of intraoperative graft diameter of 2 different graft construct techniques (4-strand semitendinosus versus quadrupled semitendinosus) using anthropometry and MRI measurements. Methods: Retrospective review of two groups of ACL reconstruction using different graft preparation techniques was performed. “Conventional” 4-strand gracilis + semitendinosus with fixed suspension at the femur and screw fixation at the tibia were compared with quadrupled semitendinosus grafts with adjustable suspensory fixation at each end (Graftlink). Cross-sectional areas (XSA) of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons was measured in the axial slice of a T2 weighted MRI image using a region-of-interest tool. Stepwise linear regression using intraoperative graft diameter as the dependant variable was performed using MRI XSA of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, gender and height as predictors. Results: 129 ACL Reconstruction in 127 patients were done in the time period, 89 of which were done conventionally, and 40 which employed the Graftlink construct. The median graft diameter in the Graftlink group (8.5mm IQR8-9) was greater than that of the conventional group (8mm, IQR 7.5-8) (p < 0.001). MRI XSA of semitendinosus and height were statistically significant predictors of diameter in the Graftlink group (R2 = 51%), whilst MRI XSA of semitendinosus + gracilis and gender were predictors in the conventional group (R2 = 36%). Conclusion: Graftlink
Correlation of tunnel widening and tunnel positioning with short-term functional outcomes in single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon versus hamstring graft: a prospective study.
Biswal, Udit Kumar; Balaji, Gopisankar; Nema, Sandeep; Poduval, Murali; Menon, Jagdish; Patro, Dilip Kumar
To study the correlation between tunnel widening and tunnel position with short-term functional outcomes post-ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon and hamstring autografts in young adults. A total of 33 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction between October 2013 and February 2015 were included and followed up for 6 months. A standardized surgical technique was used for each graft type. Intra-op arthroscopy findings and drilled tunnel diameters were noted. They were followed up for 3 and 6 months. Radiological assessment was done at 3 and 6 months with clinical score assessment at 6 months. At 6 months, clinical scores were comparable in both groups. Tunnel widening in both femoral and tibial tunnel at 3 and 6 months were significantly higher in STG group (p values <0.05). The rate of widening was higher in 0-3 months and reduced in 3-6 months. There was statistically significant negative correlation between femoral tunnel widening by CT and IKDC score at 6 months (p value 0.049). We found a positive correlation between posterior positioning of femoral tunnel and Lysholm and IKDC scores. The correlation with Lysholm scores was statistically significant (p value 0.046). To conclude, tunnel widening is more with hamstrings graft. Femoral tunnel widening has significant negative correlation with that of IKDC scores at 6 months. Posterior femoral tunnel positioning and Lysholm scores at 6 months had significant correlation.
Qi, Jin; Xia, Yayi; Wang, Yuliang; Zhao, Lin; Yao, Changjiang
To evaluate the effectiveness of hamstring tendon and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon autograft for Achilles tendon defects reconstruction. Between February 2009 and October 2011, 9 patients (9 feet) with Achilles tendon defect were treated with hamstring tendon and FHL tendon autograft. Of 9 cases, 6 were male and 3 were female with an average age of 43 years (range, 21-65 years), including 5 cases of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures caused by sport injury and 4 cases of Achilles tendon defects caused by resection of tendon lesion (2 cases of hyaline degeneration with necrosis, 1 case of giant cell tumor, and 1 case of chronic inflammation with hyaline degeneration). The disease duration ranged from 31 to 387 days (mean, 137.6 days). The defect length was 5 to 18 cm (mean, 8.6 cm). Functional exercise of the ankle began at 6 weeks after plaster fixation. Dehiscence and effusion occurred in 2 cases and plantar pain caused by injury of tibial nerve in 1 case; primary healing of wound was obtained in the other patients without complication. Nine patients were followed up 19.7 months on average (range, 13-25 months); no re-rupture was observed. There was no significant difference in the dorsal extension between at preoperation and at 1 year and last follow-up after operation (P > 0.05); the ankle plantar flexion at 1 year and last follow-up after operation was significantly larger than that at preoperation (P < 0.05). The ankle plantar flexion and dorsal extension at 1 year and last follow-up after operation were significantly larger than those at 3 months after operation (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between at 1 year and last follow-up (P > 0.05). American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and short-form 36 health survey scale (SF-36) scores were significantly increased at postoperation when compared with scores at preoperation (P < 0.05), and the scores at last follow-up were significantly higher than those at 3 months after
Piedade, Sérgio Rocha; Dal Fabbro, Inácio Maria; Mischan, Martha Maria; Piedade, Cezar; Maffulli, Nicola
Graft elongation might be a major reason for increased anterior laxity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study analyzed the force relaxation values and their stabilization when single strands of the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons underwent cyclic and static tensioning at 2.5% strain level, and compared the efficiency of static and cyclic tensioning in promoting force relaxation. Eighteen gracilis tendons and 18 semitendinosus tendons from nine male cadavers (mean age: 22.44years) were subjected to 10 in vitro cyclic loads at 2.5% strain level, or to a static load at 2.5% strain level. During cyclic loading, the reduction in force values tended to stabilize after the sixth cyclic load, while, in the case of static loading, this stabilization occurred by the second minute. Comparing static and cyclic loading, the gracilis tendon had similar mechanical responses in both conditions, while the semitendinosus tendon showed greater force relaxation in static compared with cyclic loading. Considering that the semitendinosus tendon is the main component of the hamstring graft, its biomechanical response to loading should guide the tensioning protocol. Therefore, static tensioning seems more effective for promoting force relaxation of the semitendinosus tendon than cyclic tensioning. The gracilis tendon showed a similar mechanical response to either tensioning protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Padua, Vitor Barion Castro; Nascimento, Paulo Emílio Dourado; Silva, Sergio Candido; de Gusmão Canuto, Sergio Marinho; Zuppi, Guilherme Nunes; de Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro
Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether harvesting of two hamstring tendons (semitendinosus and gracilis) has the same rate of nerve injury as harvesting of the semitendinosus tendon alone, used as a triple graft. Methods Changes in sensitivity relating to injury of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve were evaluated in 110 patients six months after they underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendons. They were divided into two groups: one in which only the semitendinosus was used and the other, the semitendinosus and gracilis. Results The group in which only the semitendinosus was used as a graft presented a nerve injury rate of 36.1%. In the group in which the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were used, 58.1% of the patients presented altered sensitivity. In the general assessment on all the patients, the nerve injury rate was 50.9%. Conclusion Harvesting the semitendinosus alone and using it in triple form is a viable option for ACL reconstruction and may give rise to fewer nerve injuries relating to branches of the saphenous nerve. PMID:26535201
de Padua, Vitor Barion Castro; Nascimento, Paulo Emílio Dourado; Silva, Sergio Candido; de Gusmão Canuto, Sergio Marinho; Zuppi, Guilherme Nunes; de Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro
The aim of this study was to assess whether harvesting of two hamstring tendons (semitendinosus and gracilis) has the same rate of nerve injury as harvesting of the semitendinosus tendon alone, used as a triple graft. Changes in sensitivity relating to injury of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve were evaluated in 110 patients six months after they underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendons. They were divided into two groups: one in which only the semitendinosus was used and the other, the semitendinosus and gracilis. The group in which only the semitendinosus was used as a graft presented a nerve injury rate of 36.1%. In the group in which the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were used, 58.1% of the patients presented altered sensitivity. In the general assessment on all the patients, the nerve injury rate was 50.9%. Harvesting the semitendinosus alone and using it in triple form is a viable option for ACL reconstruction and may give rise to fewer nerve injuries relating to branches of the saphenous nerve.
Geoghegan, John M; Geutjens, Guido G; Downing, Nicholas D; Colclough, Karen; King, Richard J
Hamstring autograft harvest for ACL reconstruction may have an effect on hip extension strength and this may be important especially in sports that involve high speed running such as soccer, rugby, American football and the sprint disciplines of track and field. This aspect of hamstring tendon harvesting has not been looked at before. We have performed a non-randomised prospective case control study comparing isokinetic hip extension strength following four strand semitendinosus and gracilis tendons (4SHS) and bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autografts in ACL reconstruction. Isokinetic hip extension was assessed at 3 and 12 months post-operatively using a Kin-Com machine at a speed of 30 degrees per second. Three months post-operatively there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the peak force of concentric hip extension in the 4SHS group. There was no evidence that hip extension is weaker following ACL reconstruction with 4SHS tendon autograft than ACL reconstruction with BPTB autograft at 12 months post-operatively. We find no contra-indication to the use of 4SHS tendon autografts in ACL reconstruction in patients who wish to preserve hip extension strength for their sporting activities.
Jakubietz, Michael G; Jakubietz, Danni F; Gruenert, Joerg G; Zahn, Robert; Meffert, Rainer H; Jakubietz, Rafael G
The reconstruction of tendon defects is challenging. The palmaris longus and plantaris tendon are generally considered best for tendon grafting. Only a few studies have examined whether these tendons, when present, meet criteria for successful grafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these tendons in regard to adequacy as tendon grafts. To evaluate adequacy for grafting, the palmaris longus and plantaris tendons were harvested from 92 arms and legs of 46 cadavers. Macroscopic evaluation and measurements concerning presence, length, and diameter of the tendons were obtained. Criteria for adequacy were a minimum length of 15 cm with diameter of 3 mm or, alternatively, 30 cm with a diameter of 1.5 mm. The palmaris longus tendon was present bilaterally in 36 cases and was absent bilaterally in 4 cases. The plantaris tendon was present bilaterally in 38 cases and absent bilaterally in 4 cases. In 29 cadavers, the palmaris longus tendon did not meet the criteria to be used as a tendon graft. Only in 8 cases were the tendons satisfactory for grafting bilaterally. The plantaris tendon met criteria for grafting in 20 cases bilaterally. In 17 cases, the tendons were considered inadequate bilaterally. Despite their presence, the palmaris longus and plantaris tendons are adequate for grafting less often than previously thought. In less than 50%, the tendons, although present, would serve as useful grafts. Our findings underscore the importance of choosing a second donor site before surgery in case the primarily selected tendon is not found to be suitable. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shakked, Rachel; Weinberg, Maxwell; Capo, Jason; Jazrawi, Laith; Strauss, Eric
With the increasing incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in women and younger patients, the optimal graft choice in the young female patient has become the subject of much debate. This study aimed to evaluate patient-reported outcomes, objective knee stability, complication rates, and the incidence of failure after ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft compared with hamstring (HS) autograft in young female patients. Female patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction with BPTB or HS autograft between ages 15 and 25 years were identified. Medical records were reviewed for postoperative complications and subsequent procedures on the operative knee. Patients were evaluated with functional surveys, physical examination including Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and arthrometric testing with a KT-1000 arthrometer. There were 37 patients in the BPTB group and 28 patients in the HS group. For patients who did not undergo revision, significant differences were not found in visual analog score (p = 0.94), Lysholm score (p = 0.81), Kujala score (p = 0.85), or Tegner level (p = 0.81). No difference was detected in the rate of return to a level of activity at or above the same level prior to injury (p = 0.31). Significantly more patients in the BPTB group were graded 1a Lachman and negative pivot shift compared with the HS group (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in mean side-to-side manual maximum arthrometric testing (p < 0.001). There were significantly fewer subsequent procedures and a lower rate of graft failures in the BPTB group. We detected no difference in subjective functional outcomes following ACL reconstruction. However, a higher failure rate in the HS reconstructions and greater laxity by arthrometric testing may indicate increased objective stability with the use of BPTB autograft in the young female patient population. The level of evidence for this article is
de Pádua, Vitor Barion Castro; Maldonado, Hilário; Vilela, Júlio César Rodrigues; Provenza, Alexandre Ribeira; Monteiro, Cleverson; de Oliveira Neto, Heleno Cavalcante
Objective: To compare ACL reconstruction with anatomical positioning of the tunnels using the hamstring or patellar tendons. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 52 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using the Chambat's technique, with anatomical positioning of the tunnels drilled outside in. They were divided into group A, with 27 patients, using the patellar tendon as a graft, and group B, with 25 patients, using the hamstring. Results: In group A 26 patients were very satisfied or satisfied and 1 unhappy, in group B. 25 patients were very satisfied or satisfied with the procedure (p = 0.990). According to the Lysholm scale, group A had a mean score of 96.11 and group B, 95.32 (p=0.594). In relation to preoperative IKDC, 100% of the patients in group A and 92% of those in group B were IKDC C or D (p = 0.221); in the assessment with a minimum of two-year follow-up, 96% of group A and 92% of group B were IKDC A or B (p = 0.256). The Lachman test, pivot shift, return to sports activities, and the comparative difference in anterior translation (RolimeterTM) also showed no statistically significant difference. In group A, 5 patients (18.5%) were unable to kneel on a hard surface, whereas no patient in group B had this complaint. Conclusion: The anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction presents similar results using the hamstring or patellar tendon with anatomical positioning of the tunnels. Drilling the femoral tunnel outside in is a reproducible and accurate option in the correct placement the femoral tunnel. PMID:27027082
El Shazly, Ossama; Abou El Soud, Maged M; El Mikkawy, Dalia M E; El Ganzoury, Ibrahim; Ibrahim, Ayman Mohamed
To evaluate the clinical and functional outcome of endoscopic-assisted reconstruction of chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon using free hamstring tendon autograft. We present a case series of 15 patients who had chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon (>6 weeks earlier) and underwent endoscopic-assisted reconstruction with a free hamstring autograft. The graft loop was passed through and fixed to the proximal stump of the tendon. The graft was then passed through suture to the distal stump and finally inserted into a tunnel in the anterior calcaneus to the Achilles tendon insertion and fixed with an bioabsorbable interference screw. The mean follow-up period was 27 months (SD, 3 months; range, 24 to 33 months). All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at follow-up 2 years postoperatively. All patients were functionally evaluated with the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score for the hindfoot preoperatively and postoperatively. Calf muscle power was evaluated by isokinetic strength testing at 2 years' follow-up. The mean size of the gap on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was 49 mm (SD, 9 mm). The mean preoperative AOFAS score was 32.6 (SD, 7.5). There was a statistically significant improvement in the postoperative AOFAS score after 2 years to 90.8 (SD, 3.54) (P < .05). The mean time of return to all daily activities (except running and other sports) was 12.6 weeks (SD, 1.39 weeks). Isokinetic testing showed a nonsignificant deficit (<10%) between the involved and uninvolved plantar flexors and dorsiflexors with regard to peak torque, average power, and total work. Endoscopic-assisted Achilles tendon reconstruction with free hamstring tendon autograft for chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon showed good to excellent results in all patients. Isokinetic testing showed a nonsignificant deficit between the involved and uninvolved sides at 2 years' follow-up. Level IV, therapeutic
Spoliti, Marco; Giai Via, Alessio; Padulo, Johnny; Oliva, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Maffulli, Nicola
Patellar tendon rupture is a serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its reconstruction in patients with chronic ruptures is technically demanding. This article reports the results of surgical reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon rupture in TKA using autologous hamstring tendons. Nine TKA patients (six women and three men) (mean age at index surgery 68 years) with chronic patellar tendon tears underwent reconstruction with ipsilateral hamstrings tendon, leaving the distal insertion in situ. The clinical diagnosis was supported by imaging (anterior-posterior and 30° flexion lateral radiographs). Insall-Salvati index, range of motion, and leg extension test were recorded preoperatively and at last follow-up. The modified Cincinnati rating system and the Kujala score were administered. The patients sustained the patellar tendon tear an average of 8 weeks before the procedure. At final follow-up of 4 years (range 2-8 years), the median of extension lag was 5° (range 0°-15°; DS = 5). The median of post-operative Insall-Salvati index was 1.4 (range 1.3-1.8; SD = 0.15; p = 0.002) compared to the preoperative index of 1.7 (range 1.5-2.2; SD = 0.23). The mean modified Cincinnati and Kujala scores significantly increased compared with the preoperative ones (p < 0.01). At final follow-up, all patients were able to walk without brace or aids, and they were satisfied with the procedure. Based on our retrospective study of nine patients, reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon rupture in TKA with autologous hamstring tendons is feasible and safe, and provides good functional recovery. Case series, Level IV.
Ellison, Philip; Mason, Lyndon William; Molloy, Andrew
Chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon (delayed diagnosis of more than 4 weeks) can result in retraction of the tendon and inadequate healing. Direct repair may not be possible and augmentation methods are challenging when the defect exceeds 5-6 cm, especially if the distal stump is grossly tendinopathic. We describe our method of Achilles tendon reconstruction with ipsilateral semitendinosis autograft and interference screw fixation in a patient with chronic rupture, a 9 cm defect and gross distal tendinopathy. Patient reported outcome measures consistently demonstrated improved health status at 12 months post surgery: MOXFQ-Index 38-25, EQ5D-5L 18-9, EQ VAS 70-90 and VISA-A 1-64. The patient was back to full daily function, could single leg heel raise and was gradually returning to sport. No complications or adverse events were recorded. Reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon with large defects and gross tendinopathy using an ipsilateral semitendinosis autograft and interference screw fixation can achieve satisfactory improvements in patient reported outcomes up to 1 year post-surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pennock, Andrew T; Ho, Brian; Parvanta, Kristina; Edmonds, Eric W; Chambers, Henry G; Roocroft, Joanna H; Bastrom, Tracey P
Small-diameter hamstring tendons are frequently encountered during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions in patients with short stature or those who are skeletally immature. The role of augmenting these small-diameter autografts with allograft is unclear. To assess clinical outcomes and failure rates in adolescent patients with small hamstring tendon autografts (<7 mm) that were either augmented with soft tissue allograft or accepted "as is" and not augmented. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective chart review of all primary ACL reconstructions performed with hamstring autografts identified 385 patients, of whom 50 (13%) had a quadrupled (semitendinosus-gracilis) graft size less than 7 mm. Patients were grouped based on the surgeon's preference either to augment these grafts with allograft (augmented group; n = 26) or to accept the smaller autograft (nonaugmented group; n = 24). Preoperative demographic, injury, and intraoperative data were documented. All patients were contacted to obtain information about outcome scores, subsequent procedures, and complications. Forty patients (20 in each group) were available for 2-year follow-up. The mean age of the entire cohort was 15.7 years (range, 12-18 years), and 38% were male. No between-group differences were found with respect to any of the preoperative or intraoperative variables except extremity side. The mean graft size for the augmented group was 8.9 mm and for the nonaugmented group was 6.4 mm. At a mean follow-up of 3 years, 6 (30%) of the patients in the augmented group had a graft failure, whereas only 1 (5%) in the nonaugmented group had a failure ( P = .04). Five of the 6 augmented failures occurred within 1 year of surgery, whereas the single failure in the nonaugmented group occurred 2.7years postoperatively. No differences were noted in the reported outcomes between patients in the augmented and nonaugmented groups who did not experience graft failure (Lysholm score, 88 vs 92
Cross, M J; Vandersluis, R; Wood, D; Banff, M
Complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in the adult is a rare injury. This report discusses complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in nine patients treated by late operative repair. All patients were referred from outside centers for a second opinion after failed nonoperative treatment. The diagnosis was made quite easily on clinical grounds and was confirmed at surgery. Surgical treatment in all cases consisted of reattachment of the hamstring tendons to the origin on the ischium, and in all cases it was necessary to perform neurolysis of the sciatic nerve. Good results were achieved in all cases, at follow-up all patients were satisfied with the surgery.
Gifstad, Tone; Foss, Olav A; Engebretsen, Lars; Lind, Martin; Forssblad, Magnus; Albrektsen, Grethe; Drogset, Jon Olav
A number of studies have found comparable results after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with patellar tendon autografts and hamstring autografts; however, few studies have been large enough to reveal differences in risk of revision with regard to clinical and demographic factors. To present the distribution of grafts for ACL reconstruction based on data in the Scandinavian ACL registries and to compare the risk of revision between patellar tendon autografts and hamstring autografts. Potential associations with other clinical and demographic factors were also explored. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 45,998 primary ACL reconstructions, including 6736 patellar tendon autografts and 38,666 hamstring autografts, were identified in the Scandinavian ACL registries. The overall median follow-up time was 3 years (range, 0-8 years). To compare the risk of revision between groups of patients, univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis (with log-rank test) and the Cox proportional hazard regression model were applied. The hazard rate ratio with 95% CI was reported as a measure of effect. Patellar tendon and hamstring autografts were used in 14.6% and 84.1% of the patients, respectively. The remaining patients received allografts, direct sutures, or other graft types (1.3%). The primary ACL injury occurred during soccer, team handball, or alpine activities in 67.5% of the patients in the patellar tendon group and 66.2% in the hamstring group. A total of 156 patients in the patellar tendon group and 1042 patients in the hamstring group underwent revision. The overall risk of revision was significantly lower in the patellar tendon group versus the hamstring group (hazard rate ratio = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.74), and it decreased with increasing age at surgery, although not strictly linearly. The lower risk of revision in the patellar tendon group was consistently observed across subgroups of patient sex, age, and concomitant cartilage injury (P > .05, test for
Biuk, Egon; Zelić, Zoran; Rapan, Saša; Lovric, Ivan; Biuk, Dubravka; Radic, Radivoje
The middle of the patellar ligament and the quadruple hamstring tendons (gracilis and semitendinosus) are two types of graft predominantly used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric characteristics of patellar ligament grafts and hamstring tendon grafts and to compare the results according to subject age and gender. The study was conducted on a total of 120 samples: 40 of gracilis tendon, 40 of semitendinosus tendon and 40 of patellar ligament, distributed equally according to gender, age (50-75 years) and the side of the body from which the sample was harvested. Morphometric and histological analyses showed that patellar ligament samples had less cross-sectional area than quadruple tendon samples (49.29 mm(2) compared with 51.46 mm(2), respectively). Sexual dimorphism was noticed in distal cross-sections of gracilis tendons (p=0.09), cross-sections of quadruple tendons (p=0.07) and patellar ligament samples (p=0.01) because of different muscular build. All samples obtained from male subjects had larger cross-sectional areas compared with the samples taken from females. Furthermore, samples obtained from subjects aged 60 years or under had larger cross-sectional areas than samples obtained from subjects aged at least 61 years for all types of graft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Meyer, Dominik C; Snedeker, Jess G; Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Farshad, Mazda
The tensile viscoelastic behaviour of tendon tissue is of central biomechanical importance and well examined. However, the viscoelastic tendon adaptation to external compression, such as when a tendon graft is fixated with an interference screw, has not been investigated before. Here, we quantify this adaptive behaviour in order to develop a new method to mechanically precondition tendon grafts and to better understand volumetric changes of tendinous tissue. The hypothesis of this study was that under compressive loads, tendon grafts will undergo a temporary volumetric (and therefore diametric) reduction, due to the extrusion of water from the tendon. Compressive testing was performed on a material testing machine and load applied through the use of a custom-made mould, with a semi-circular cross section to accommodate the tendon graft. The effects of different compressive forces on the length, diameter and weight of tendon grafts were measured by calipers and a weighing scale, respectively. Further, different strain rates (1 vs. 10 mm/min) (n = 6, per rate), compression method (steady compression vs. creep) (n = 15 for each method) and different compression durations (1, 5, 10 min) (n = 5 for each duration) were tested to identify the most effective combination to reduce graft size by preserving its macroscopic structure. The effect of compression on volume reduction (75 % of initial volume and weight) reached a plateau at 6,000 N on an 8-mm tendon bundle. Length thereby increased by approximately 10 %. Both steady compression and creeping were able to reduce dimensions of the graft; however, creeping was more effective. There was no difference in effect with different durations for compression (p > 0.05) in both methods. The viscoelastic behaviour of hamstring tendon grafts under pressure allows preconditioning of the grafts for reduction of volume and diameter and therefore to drill a smaller bone tunnel, retaining more of the original bone. At the same time
Alam, N; McGrouther, D A; Wong, J K F
We investigated the cellular biology of tendon grafting in a mouse model using green fluorescent protein mismatch grafting and quantitative immunohistochemistry of molecular markers for inflammation, proliferation, collagen synthesis, cell death, and myofibroblast/pericyte expression. We provide a detailed analysis of the healing characteristics during the phases of inflammation, synthesis, and remodelling. Our findings indicated that survival of the cells in the grafted tendon was finite. Syngenic and autologous grafts provoked a similar cellular reaction and all grafts healed. Cells in the graft contributed significantly to collagen synthesis and do have a role in healing.
Comin, Jules; Malliaras, Peter; Baquie, Peter; Barbour, Tim; Connell, David
The hamstring muscles are the most commonly injured muscle group in many different sports. Recovery time is often unpredictable and prolonged, and recurrent injury is common. Hamstring injuries that disrupt the central tendon enclosed within the muscle belly require a longer recovery time than do injuries involving only muscle, epimysial fascia, or the musculotendinous junction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Injury records from professional sports teams were reviewed to determine the length of recovery from each hamstring injury that occurred over a 24-month period. The integrity of the central tendon on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was retrospectively reviewed for each case. The association between central tendon disruption on MRI and recovery time was determined. There were 62 hamstring injuries included for analysis; 45 (72%) involved the biceps femoris, 11 (18%) involved the semimembranosus, and 6 (10%) involved the semitendinosus. Central tendon disruption was identified in 12 (45%) of the biceps femoris injuries and in none of the injuries to the other 2 muscles. Three of these injuries were treated surgically, with a median recovery time of 91 days. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) recovery times for those remaining biceps femoris injuries with and without central tendon disruption were 21 days (IQR, 9-28) and 72 days (IQR, 42-109), respectively (P < .01). Disruption of the central tendon in injuries to the biceps femoris results in a significantly longer recovery time than injuries that do not disrupt the central tendon. This highlights the distinction between injury to the hamstring muscle and injury to the hamstring tendon, which is underappreciated as being a distinct entity when injury involves the enclosed central portion of the tendon.
Minimally invasive semitendinosus tendon harvesting from the popliteal fossa versus conventional hamstring tendon harvesting for ACL reconstruction: A prospective, randomised controlled trial in 100 patients.
Franz, Wolfgang; Baumann, Andreas
This study aims to compare a technique for hamstring tendon harvesting from a postero-medial incision in the popliteal fossa with the conventional method. One hundred patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstruction were randomised to either have their tendon graft harvested from postero-medial (group 1) or via an antero-medial approach (group 2). Time for tendon harvest, length of skin incision and duration of tendon harvest were recorded as well as complications and sensory disturbances in the lower leg. Pain scores were documented on the VAS scale. Time for tendon harvesting averaged one minute 23 s in group 1 versus five minutes 20 s in group 2 (p<0.01). The skin incision measured 21 mm (group 1) versus 49 mm in group 2 (p<0.01). The length of the harvested tendon averaged 272 mm (group 1) and 292 mm in group 2 (p<0.01). There was one superficial wound infection in group 2 and none in group 1. Postoperative pain scores were similar in both groups. None of the patients in group 1 reported sensory disturbance in the lower leg, whilst seven patients in group 2 were found to have reduced sensation in the distribution of the saphenous nerve postoperatively (p<0.01). This study confirms that harvesting the semitendinosus tendon from postero-medial is quicker, results in a shorter scar and reduces the risk of injury to branches of the saphenous nerve. However, harvesting the tendon from postero-medial resulted in a shorter tendon graft. Level I (Randomised, controlled trial). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chong, Suri; Kwak, Dai-Soon; Balasubramanian, Dhanasekaraprabu; Song, Young Dong; Na, Young Gon; Kim, Tae Kyun
A new device (T-anchor) was developed for ACL reconstruction and is implanted via the outside-in technique using hamstring grafts. The purpose of this study was to compare the T-anchor with the EndoButton Direct. This study was conducted on 30 cadaveric knees (15 matched pairs). There were two groups of 15 each in the T-anchor and EndoButton Direct groups. After the harvest of grafts, fixation site profile and graft length were measured by loading the grafts onto both devices. They were then tested on a universal testing machine to assess elongation after cyclic loading, load to failure, ultimate load, and mode of failure. The fixation site profile was lower in the T-anchor group than in the EndoButton Direct group (2.3±0.4mm vs. 4.7±1.0mm, P<0.001). The length of the graft-device complex of the T-anchor specimens was longer than that of the EndoButton Direct specimens (125.0±8.9mm vs. 115.0±8.7mm, P<0.001). The mean cyclic elongation was lower for the T-anchor group when compared with the EndoButton Direct group (2.4±0.6mm vs. 3.9±2.6mm, P=0.015). There was no statistically significant difference in ultimate load and load to failure between the T-anchor and EndoButton Direct groups. For mode of failure, the T-anchor fared better (P=0.013) with all failures attributed to specimens. In this cadaveric study, the new device, T-anchor, performed better than the EndoButton Direct with respect to the above-mentioned study parameters except for ultimate load and load to failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chung, U S; Kim, J H; Seo, W S; Lee, K H
We evaluated the clinical outcome of tendon reconstruction using tendon graft or tendon transfer and the parameters related to clinical outcome in 51 wrists of 46 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with finger extensor tendon ruptures. At a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the mean metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint extension lag was 8 degrees (range, 0-45) and the mean visual analogue satisfaction scale was 74 (range, 10-100). Clinical outcome did not differ significantly between tendon grafting and tendon transfer. The MP joint extension lag correlated with the patient's satisfaction score, but the pulp-to-palm distance did not correlate with patient satisfaction. We conclude that both tendon grafting and tendon transfer are reliable reconstruction methods for ruptured finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid hands.
Ho, Sean Wei Loong; Tan, Teong Jin Lester; Lee, Keng Thiam
To evaluate whether pre-operative anthropometric data can predict the optimal diameter and length of hamstring tendon autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This was a cohort study that involved 169 patients who underwent single-bundle ACL reconstruction (single surgeon) with 4-stranded MM Gracilis and MM Semi-Tendinosus autografts. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), gender, race, age and -smoking status were recorded pre-operatively. Intra-operatively, the diameter and functional length of the 4-stranded autograft was recorded. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the anthropometric measurements and the length and diameter of the implanted autografts. The strongest correlation between 4-stranded hamstring autograft diameter was height and weight. This correlation was stronger in females than males. BMI had a moderate correlation with the diameter of the graft in females. Females had a significantly smaller graft both in diameter and length when compared with males. Linear regression models did not show any significant correlation between hamstring autograft length with height and weight (p>0.05). Simple regression analysis demonstrated that height and weight can be used to predict hamstring graft diameter. The following regression equation was obtained for females: Graft diameter=0.012+0.034*Height+0.026*Weight (R2=0.358, p=0.004) The following regression equation was obtained for males: Graft diameter=5.130+0.012*Height+0.007*Weight (R2=0.086, p=0.002). Pre-operative anthropometric data has a positive correlation with the diameter of 4 stranded hamstring autografts but no significant correlation with the length. This data can be utilised to predict the autograft diameter and may be useful for pre-operative planning and patient counseling for graft selection.
Richter, J; Volz, R; Immendörfer, M; Schulz, M
Reconstruction of the anterior talofibular (ATFL) and calcaneofibular (CFL) ligament in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability. Symptomatic chronic lateral ankle instability. Bony malalignment, advanced arthritic changes of the ankle joint, diabetic foot syndrome. Reconstruction of the ATFL and CFL with a free gracilisor or semitendinosus tendon graft through a V-shaped tunnel at the insertion site of the ATFL on the talar neck as well as a transfibular tunnel directed anterior to posterior through the fibula tip to a blind ending tunnel in the calcaneus at the insertion site of the CFL. Insertion of the graft through the talar tunnel, passing both graft ends through the fibular tunnel to the calcaneus. Fixation with a bioabsorbable screw. Short leg cast for 10-14 days and partial weight-bearing. Afterwards ankle brace for 6 weeks and functional physical therapy. From December 2003 to August 2005, reconstruction of the ATFL and CFL with a hamstring tendon autograft was performed in 20 patients with chronic lateral instability of the ankle joint. All patients were evaluated after a mean follow-up time of 1.8 years (15-36 months). Clinical evaluation referred to the AOFAS score. Stress radiography was performed for objective assessment of lateral ankle stability. Postoperatively 19 of 20 patients reported good subjective stability with no further ankle sprains. The mean postoperative AOFAS score was 92 of 100 points (72-100). Stress radiography showed a significant reduction of both lateral ankle instability and talar tilt.
Lohan, Anke; Stoll, Christiane; Albrecht, Marit; Denner, Andreas; John, Thilo; Krüger, Kay; Ertel, Wolfgang; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula
Tendon ruptures and defects remain major orthopaedic challenges. Tendon healing is a time-consuming process, which results in scar tissue with an altered biomechanical competence. Using a xenogeneic tendon extracellular matrix (ECM) as a natural scaffold, which can be reseeded with autologous human tenocytes, might be a promising approach to reconstruct damaged tendons. For this purpose, the porcine Achilles (AS) tendons serving as a scaffold were histologically characterized in comparison to human cell donor tendons. AS tendons were decellularized and then reseeded with primary human hamstring tenocytes using cell centrifuging, rotating culture and cell injection techniques. Vitality testing, histology and glycosaminoglycan/DNA quantifications were performed to document the success of tendon reseeding. Porcine AS tendons were characterized by a higher cell and sulfated glycosaminoglycan content than human cell donor tendons. Complete decellularization could be achieved, but led to a wash out of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Nevertheless, porcine tendon could be recellularized with vital human tenocytes. The recellularization led to a slight increase in cell number compared to the native tendon and some glycosaminoglycan recovery. This study indicates that porcine tendon can be de- and recellularized using adult human tenocytes. Future work should optimize cell distribution within the recellularized tendon ECM and consider tendon- and donor species-dependent differences.
Kjaergaard, J; Faunø, L Z; Faunø, P
Injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IPBSN), is known to cause regional hypoesthesia of the lower leg after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The aim of this study was to determine if the orientation of the graft harvest incision does influence the prevalence of postoperative hypoesthesia. Furthermore,to describe change, if any, of the hypoesthetic area, during the first postoperative year. Our hypothesis was that an oblique incision parallel to the nerve branch would reduce the incidence of this complication and the area with hypoesthesia after ACL reconstruction, compared to the vertical incision. Secondly, that the area with hypoesthesia is reduced over time. Fifty patients underwent a primary ACL reconstruction using hamstring graft. Twenty-five patients were operated using a vertical incision for graft harvest,and 25 were operated using a slightly oblique incision. Twelve days after surgery and at a one year follow-up the patients had their sensibility of the lower leg examined. We found that hypoesthesia is a common complication (88%) after hamstring ACL surgery. Change from vertical to slightly oblique incision did not reduce the morbidity.Furthermore, the area with sensory loss,felt by the patient shortly after surgery, was shown to decrease significantly by 46.3 percent after one year.
Galdi, Balazs; Reyes, Allan; Brabston, Eugene W.; Levine, William N.
Background: The anteromedial portal technique for drilling of the femoral tunnel during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been advocated by many surgeons as allowing improved access to the anatomical footprint. Furthermore, suspensory fixation of soft tissue grafts has become popularized because of complications associated with cross-pin fixation. Concerns regarding the use of both have recently arisen. Purpose: To raise awareness of the increased risk of graft failure when using the anteromedial portal technique with suspensory femoral fixation during ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: From November 1998 to August 2012, a total of 465 primary ACL reconstructions were performed using quadrupled hamstring autograft tendons, with drilling of the femoral tunnel performed via the transtibial portal. Graft fixation on the femur was achieved with cross-pin fixation, while interference screw fixation was used on the tibia. From September 2012 to October 2013, there were 69 reconstructions performed through an anteromedial portal. While there was no change in graft choice, a change was made to using suspensory femoral fixation. No other surgical or postoperative rehabilitation changes were made. Results: During the 14-year period in which ACL reconstructions were performed via the transtibial portal and with cross-pin fixation, 2 graft failures (0.4% failure rate) were reported. After switching to the anteromedial portal with suspensory fixation, 7 graft failures (10.1% failure rate) were reported over a 13-month period. These were 5 male and 2 female patients, with a mean age of 18.8 years—all elite athletes. The same surgical technique was used in all patients, and all patients had at least an 8 mm–diameter graft. Patients were cleared to return to sport at an average of 8.4 months postoperatively, after completing functional performance tests. Of the 7 patients, 6 sustained a rerupture of the graft within
Sandmann, G H; Hahn, D; Amereller, M; Siebenlist, S; Schwirtz, A; Imhoff, A B; Brucker, P U
Proximal hamstring tendon ruptures are commonly associated with a significant loss of function, and operative treatment is recommended in active patients. The objective was to evaluate objective/subjective functional results and return to sports following proximal hamstring tendon repair in the mid-term follow-up. 16 repairs of proximal hamstring ruptures were performed in 15 patients (9 males, 6 females). The average age at the time of injury was 47 years (range, 21-66). All patients were clinically examined at a mean follow-up of 56 months (range, 24-112 months). Validated patient-oriented assessment scores focussing on sports activity including the Lysholm Score, Tegner Activity Score, UCLA Activity Score, adapted WOMAC Score, and the VAS were evaluated as well as the return to sports. Isokinetic strength of both legs was tested using a rotational dynamometer. The Lysholm, Tegner, UCLA Activity Score and the adapted WOMAC demonstrated predominantly a return to a preinjury activity level at follow-up. Functional measurements of the operated leg showed similar results to the uninjured leg in knee extension and flexion strength (p>0.094). In return to sports, no signficant (p>0.05) differences concerning types or frequency were noted. The surgical repair of proximal hamstring tendon ruptures leads to constantly good functional results in the mid-term follow-up, where patients demonstrate similar isokinetic results in the healthy leg. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ćuti, Tomislav; Antunović, Maja; Marijanović, Inga; Ivković, Alan; Vukasović, Andreja; Matić, Igor; Pećina, Marko; Hudetz, Damir
The aim of this study is to examine the capacity of muscle tissue preserved on hamstring tendons forming candy-stripe grafts in order to improve tendon to bone ingrowth and ligamentization. We hypothesized that muscle tissue does possess a stem cell population that could enhance the healing process of the ACL graft when preserved on the tendons. Human samples from gracilis and semitendinosus muscles were collected during ACL surgery from ten patients and from these tissue samples human muscle-derived stem cells and tendon-derived stem cells were isolated and propagated. Both stem cell populations were in-vitro differentiated into osteogenic lineage. Alkaline phosphatase activity was determined at days zero and 14 of the osteogenic induction and von Kossa staining to assess mineralization of the cultures. Total RNA was collected from osteoblast cultures and real time quantitative PCR was performed. Western-blot for osteocalcin and collagen type I followed protein isolation. Immunofluorescence double labeling of pericytes in muscle and tendon tissue was performed. Mesenchymal stem cells from muscle and tendon tissue were isolated and expanded in cell culture. More time was needed to grow the tendon derived culture compared to muscle derived culture. Muscle derived stem cells exhibited more alkaline phosphatase actvity compared to tendon derived stem cells, whereas tendon derived stem cells formed more mineralized nodules after 14 days of osteoinduction. Muscle derived stem cells exhibited higher expression levels of bone sialoprotein, and tendon derived stem cells showed higher expression of dental-matrix-protein 1 and osteocalcin. Immunofluorescent staining against pericytes indicated that they are more abundant in muscle tissue. These results indicate that muscle tissue is a better source of stem cells than tendon tissue. Achievement of this study is proof that there is vast innate capacity of muscle tissue for enhancement of bone-tendon integration and
Ollivier, M; Sbihi, J; Sbihi, A; Pithioux, M; Parratte, S; Argenson, J-N
Intraarticular or periarticular injection of ropivacaine (RI) is an element of current knee surgery practices. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RI on the mechanical properties of hamstring tendons. We hypothesized that RI would have a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of periarticular soft tissues METHODS: A tensile test to failure was performed on 120 hamstring tendon segments harvested during ACL reconstruction surgery in 120 patients. Two sets of tensile tests were done. The first evaluated the effect of RI itself on the mechanical properties of tendons: 30 samples were soaked for 1hour in a 2% RI solution and compared to 30 samples soaked in a saline solution (control group). The second evaluated the effect of RI concentration on the mechanical properties of hamstring tendons: 30 samples were soaked for 1hour in a 2% RI solution and 30 samples were soaked in a 7.5% RI solution. In the first test, 29 samples from each group were analyzed as two samples (one in each group) failed at the grip interface. The specimens exposed to 2% RI had lower ultimate tensile strength (Δ=4.4MPa, P=0.001), strain energy (Δ=13MPa, P=0.001) and Young's modulus (Δ=1.6MPa, P=0.02) than the specimens in the control group. There was no significant difference in the strain at failure between groups (Δ=5%, P=0.3). In the second test, one specimen from the 7.5% RI group failed during the preloading and was excluded. There was no significant difference in terms of the load at failure and ultimate tensile stress (Δ=0.45MPa, P=0.6) and strain energy (Δ=0.49MPa, P=0.49) between the two groups. There were significant differences in terms of elongation at failure (Δ=28%, P=0.0003) and Young's modulus (Δ=2.6MPa, P=0.005), with the specimens exposed to 7.5% RI undergoing greater deformation and having a lower Young's modulus. While local RI injections are widely performed in clinical practice, the results of this in vitro study point to short
Bierry, Guillaume; Simeone, F Joseph; Borg-Stein, Joanne P; Clavert, Philippe; Palmer, William E
To evaluate continuity of the sacrotuberous ligament (STL) in normal and abnormal hamstring (HS) tendons on magnetic resonance (MR) images and to test the hypothesis that greater degrees of HS retraction are correlated with STL discontinuity. The institutional review board approved this retrospective HIPAA-compliant study and waived informed consent. Control cohort comprised 33 patients (mean age, 54.1 years) without HS abnormalities at hip MR arthrography. Study cohort comprised 100 patients (mean age, 55.3 years) with HS abnormalities at pelvic or hip MR imaging. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently assessed STL continuity with the ischium and semimembranosus (SM) and conjoined biceps femoris and semitendinosus (BF-ST) tendons and evaluated these tendons for tendinopathy, partial tear, or rupture. A third musculoskeletal radiologist measured retraction of ruptured tendons. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was calculated with weighted κ or intraclass correlation coefficients. HS abnormalities in the cohorts were compared with Mann-Whitney test. In patients with tendon rupture, relationships between qualitative (STL and HS attachments) and quantitative (tendon retraction measurements) data were analyzed with analysis of variance and linear regression with Bonferroni correction. STL was continuous with ischium in all patients. In control patients, STL was always continuous with BF-ST but never continuous with SM. In study patients, BF-ST tendon alone, SM tendon alone, and both BF-ST and SM tendons showed abnormalities in 17, six, and 77 patients, respectively. HS rupture occurred in 24 patients; it involved BF-ST tendon alone in 13 patients and both BF-ST and SM tendons in 11. STL was continuous with BF-ST tendon in 12 patients and discontinuous in 12 patients. Retraction of BF-ST tendon (mean, 33 mm; range, 5-81 mm) was independently correlated with STL continuity with BF-ST (P = .0001) and SM (P = .0004) tendon rupture. Retraction was significantly
Aglietti, Paolo; Giron, Francesco; Buzzi, Roberto; Biddau, Flavio; Sasso, Francesco
The choice of graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a matter of debate, with patellar and hamstring tendons being the two most popular autologous graft options. The objective of this study was to determine in a prospective, randomized clinical trial whether two grafts (bone-patellar tendon-bone or doubled hamstring tendons) fixed with modern devices affect the two-year minimum clinical and radiographic outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. One hundred and twenty patients with a chronic unilateral rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament underwent arthroscopically assisted reconstruction with use of either autologous bone-patellar tendon-bone or doubled hamstring tendon grafts, in a strictly alternating manner. Both groups were comparable with regard to demographic data, preoperative activity level, mechanism of injury, interval between the injury and the operation, and the amount of knee laxity present preoperatively. The same well-proven surgical technique and aggressive controlled rehabilitation was used. An independent observer, who was blinded with regard to the involved leg and the type of graft, performed the outcome assessment with use of a visual analog scale, the new International Knee Documentation Committee form, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, the Functional Knee Score for Anterior Knee Pain, and an arthrometric and an isokinetic dynamometric evaluation. Radiographs were also made. At the two-year follow-up evaluation, no differences were found in terms of the visual analog score, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, the new International Knee Documentation Committee subjective and objective evaluation scores, the KT-1000 side-to-side laxity measurements, the Functional Knee Score for Anterior Knee Pain, muscle strength recovery, or return to sports activities. In the bone-patellar tendon-bone group, we found a higher prevalence of postoperative kneeling discomfort (p < 0.01) and an
Spragg, Lindsey; Chen, Jason; Mirzayan, Raffy; Love, Rebecca; Maletis, Gregory
Hamstring autografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) have become popular in the past 2 decades; however, it is difficult to predict the diameter of the harvested tendons before surgery. Previous biomechanical studies have suggested that a smaller graft diameter leads to a lower load to failure, but clinical studies looking at various predictors for failure, including graft size, have been inconclusive. To evaluate the relationship of hamstring graft diameter to ACL revision within a large cohort of patients, while controlling for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and femoral and tibial fixation type. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A case-control study using patients registered in an ACLR registry was conducted. Revision was used as a marker for graft failure. A case was defined as a patient who underwent primary ACLR with a hamstring autograft that was revised during the study period (April 2006 to September 2012). Three controls, defined as patients who underwent primary ACLR with a hamstring autograft that was not revised, were matched to each of the cases according to age, sex, BMI, and femoral and tibial fixation type. Descriptive characteristics were employed, and conditional logistic regression was conducted to produce estimates of odds ratios and 95% CIs. A total of 124 cases and 367 controls were identified. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the distribution of sex (52.4% male vs 52.9% male, respectively; P = .932), median age (17.6 years [interquartile range (IQR), 15.9-20.4] vs 17.6 years [IQR, 15.9-20.4], respectively; P = .999), median BMI (23.4 kg/m(2) [IQR, 21.5-26.4] vs 23.4 kg/m(2) [IQR, 21.6-25.8], respectively; P = .954), femoral fixation (P = .459), and tibial fixation (P = .766). The mean (±SD) graft diameter was 7.9 ± 0.75 mm in the cases and 8.1 ± 0.73 mm in the controls. The likelihood of a patient needing revision ACLR in the study cohort was 0.82 times lower (95% CI
Kanamoto, Takashi; Tanaka, Yoshinari; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Kita, Keisuke; Amano, Hiroshi; Kusano, Masashi; Hirabayashi, Shinji; Horibe, Shuji
Anterior knee pain related to the donor site is a frequent complication of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft tissue. Even when hamstring tendon (HT) grafts are used instead, symptoms such as mild pain and discomfort can still occur. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiology of anterior knee symptoms after ACLR with HT autografts. Fifty-seven patients (22 men and 35 women; mean age, 24.7 years) who underwent anatomic double-bundle ACLR with HT autografts were examined 6 months post-operatively. The presence of anterior knee symptoms, anterior knee laxity, range of motion, and muscle strength were assessed. Changes in patellar tendon and infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) morphology and blood flow were also evaluated using ultrasound. Potential variables affecting the presence of anterior knee symptoms were subjected to univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors. Six months post-operatively, the total incidence of anterior knee symptoms was 56.1 % (32/57). According to univariate analysis, age, quadriceps strength, and increased blood flow in the IFP were significantly associated with the presence of anterior knee symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased blood flow in the IFP was an independent factor for the presence of anterior knee symptoms (odds ratio 5.0; 95 % confidence interval 1.3-19.9). There were no significant findings inside the patellar tendon. Increased blood flow in the IFP was identified as an independent factor for the presence of anterior knee symptoms 6 months after ACLR with HT autografts. The ultrasound evaluation can help to define precisely the origin of anterior knee symptoms after ACLR with HT autografts. Case series with no comparison groups, Level IV.
Uchida, Ryohei; Natsuume, Takashi; Yoneda, Kenji; Fuji, Takeshi
Insertional Achilles tendon injuries can be difficult to treat when minimal tendon tissue remains for anastomosis. Moreover, in the chronic case with tendon shortening, operative repair can be more difficult than acute rupture. It is particularly desirable to reinforce the tendons, in addition to performing primary repair, in patients with renal or systemic diseases because of the accelerated collagen degeneration. Many techniques have been described for the surgical management of Achilles tendon rupture; however, none has shown clear superiority. We report the case of a 50-year-old renal transplant patient with a spontaneous distal Achilles tendon injury that we repaired using the pull-out technique reinforced with an autologous semitendinosus graft. At 2 years postoperatively, the ankle-hindfoot scale score was 92 points, and the postoperative course was without complication. We believe that the free hamstring tendon autograft is advantageous for this repair, because it is easy to handle, has limited donor site morbidity, and preserves the structures around the ankle. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reina, Nicolas; Abbo, Olivier; Gomez-Brouchet, Anne; Chiron, Philippe; Moscovici, Jacques; Laffosse, Jean-Michel
The hamstring tendons, gracilis and semitendinosus are widely used in ligament and reconstructive surgery. Their accessory bands or insertions are technical pitfalls during harvesting. Thirty fresh cadaver knees have been studied, in order to 1) determine the anatomy of the bands of the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons, and, 2) to identify risk factors for failure during harvesting. Semitendinosus always had at least one band, sometimes two, strong, tendinous, and generally running to the fascia of gastrocnemius medialis to which they are attached, at an acute angle in a distal direction. Their presence is constant and they are only exceptionally found more than 100 mm from the tendon's tibial insertion. Gracilis shows the greatest anatomical variability, and over one quarter have no bands (although there may be as many as three). Their location, destination and angle of attachment to the tendon vary greatly. These bands are mainly aponeurotic and less strong, but must be carefully and widely dissected. Anatomical variability makes harvesting of pes anserinus tendons difficult. Three simple anatomical criteria have been highlighted that can be assessed by the surgeon during harvesting. The criteria are the insertion, the direction and the anatomical type of the bands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Logan, Martin; Williams, Andy; Myers, Peter
A 27-year-old man underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using 4-strand hamstring autograft with femoral and tibial interference screw fixation. Four weeks after surgery, he developed a discharging hematoma through the graft harvest-tibial tunnel incision, which persisted. The patient required further surgical intervention 7 weeks after the initial surgery. The wound was debrided, the tibial interference screw was removed, and the tibial tunnel was completely cleared of graft remnants. Arthroscopy of the knee was performed, in which the ACL graft appeared healthy and viable. No evidence of intra-articular sepsis was found. Postoperatively, the rehabilitation program was uneventful and, at 36 months, the patient has unrestricted activity and no clinical evidence of excessive ACL laxity. This case supports the importance of marginal articular surface healing of the ACL graft, suggesting that tibial intratunnel healing becomes redundant.
Ghebes, Corina Adriana; Kelder, Cindy; Schot, Thomas; Renard, Auke J; Pakvis, Dean F M; Fernandes, Hugo; Saris, Daniel B
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction involves the replacement of the torn ligament with a new graft, often a hamstring tendon (HT). Described as similar, the ACL and HT have intrinsic differences related to their distinct anatomical locations. From a cellular perspective, identifying these differences represents a step forward in the search for new cues that enhance recovery after the reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotype and multilineage potential of ACL- and HT-derived cells. ACL- and HT-derived cells were isolated from tissue harvest from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or ACL reconstruction. In total, three ACL and three HT donors were investigated. Cell morphology, self-renewal potential (CFU-F), surface marker profiling, expression of tendon/ligament-related markers (PCR) and multilineage potential were analysed for both cell types; both had fibroblast-like morphology and low self-renewal potential. No differences in the expression of tendon/ligament-related genes or a selected set of surface markers were observed between the two cell types. However, differences in their multilineage potential were observed: while ACL-derived cells showed a high potential to differentiate into chondrocytes and adipocytes, but not osteoblasts, HT-derived cells showed poor potential to form adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Our results demonstrated that HT-derived cells have low multilineage potential compared to ACL-derived cells, further highlighting the need for extrinsic signals to fully restore the function of the ACL upon reconstruction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Messedi, K.; Piétu, G.; Crenn, V.; Gouin, F.
Rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is considered an uncommon injury and a significant number of ruptures are missed or diagnosed late, leading to a chronic tear. We report an open reconstruction technique and its outcomes in a case of chronic and retracted PM tear. At the last follow-up (12 months), the patient was pain-free, with a visual analogic scale at 0 all the time. He was very satisfied concerning the cosmetic and clinical results. The constant score was 93%, the SST value 95%, and the Quick DASH score 4.5. MRI performed one year postoperatively confirmed the continuity between PM tendon and graft, even if the aspect of the distal tendon seemed to be thinner than normal PM tendon. The excellent clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up suggest that PM tear with major tendon retraction can be reliably reconstructed with hamstring autograft, using a bioabsorbable screw to optimize the fixation device. This technique has proven its simplicity and efficiency to fill the gap. PMID:28251005
Baverel, L; Messedi, K; Piétu, G; Crenn, V; Gouin, F
Rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is considered an uncommon injury and a significant number of ruptures are missed or diagnosed late, leading to a chronic tear. We report an open reconstruction technique and its outcomes in a case of chronic and retracted PM tear. At the last follow-up (12 months), the patient was pain-free, with a visual analogic scale at 0 all the time. He was very satisfied concerning the cosmetic and clinical results. The constant score was 93%, the SST value 95%, and the Quick DASH score 4.5. MRI performed one year postoperatively confirmed the continuity between PM tendon and graft, even if the aspect of the distal tendon seemed to be thinner than normal PM tendon. The excellent clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up suggest that PM tear with major tendon retraction can be reliably reconstructed with hamstring autograft, using a bioabsorbable screw to optimize the fixation device. This technique has proven its simplicity and efficiency to fill the gap.
Lim, Jit-Kheng; Hui, James; Li, Li; Thambyah, Ashvin; Goh, James; Lee, Eng-Hin
To study the effect of coating tendon grafts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the rate and quality of graft osteointegration in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Animal model. Bilateral ACL reconstructions using hamstring tendon autografts were performed on 48 adult rabbits. Grafts were coated with MSCs in a fibrin glue carrier in one limb, and fibrin glue only in the other. Assessment was done at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Histologic analysis was carried out using standard and immunohistochemical stains. Biomechanical testing of force and stiffness during loading to ultimate failure was performed. Control reconstructions showed mature scar tissue with some Sharpey's-like fibers spanning the tendon-bone interface at 8 weeks. The MSC-enhanced reconstructions had large areas of cartilage cells at the tendon-bone junction at 2 weeks. By 8 weeks, a mature zone of cartilage was seen gradually blending from bone into the tendon grafts. This zone stained strongly for type II collagen and showed histologic characteristics similar to normal rabbit ACL insertions. Biomechanically, there was no statistical difference between limbs at 2 and 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, the MSC-enhanced grafts had significantly higher failure load and stiffness. Coating of tendon grafts with MSCs results in healing by an intervening zone of cartilage resembling the chondral enthesis of normal ACL insertions rather than collagen fibers and scar tissue. MSC-enhanced ACL reconstructions perform significantly better than controls on biomechanical testing. Enhancement of tendon graft osteointegration with MSCs is a novel method offering the potential for more physiologic and biomechanically stronger ligament reconstructions.
Figueroa, D; Martínez, R; Calvo, R; Scheu, M; Gallegos, M; Vaisman, A; Martínez, C; González, A
For successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, revascularisation and histological maturation are necessary, as their failure can cause graft rupture. The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the histological maturation of early failed plasty (less than 12 months after surgery) and late failed plasty (more than 12 months after surgery) in patients with re-rupture after ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendons. A descriptive observational study was conducted on a consecutive series of 20 patients whose ACL reconstruction had failed. Graft biopsy samples were obtained during the revision surgery from the proximal, medial, and distal graft remnants. The samples were evaluated by light microscopy, and the vascularity and maturation of the samples were established by histological scoring. The most common aetiology of reconstruction failure (86.6%) was a specific event with non-contact mechanism. The patients with re-rupture of their ACL plasty less than 12 months after surgery had substance vessels that were less deep. The distal segment of the graft in those patients showed a delay in histological maturation with fewer collagen fibres. In patients whose ACL grafts failed less than 12 months after surgery, a lower distribution of blood vessels and collagen fibres was found that were less ordered in the distal graft. These results indicate a delay in maturation, which leads to a higher risk of graft failure. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; D'Adamio, Stefano; Diaz Balzani, Lorenzo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
To assess whether the portions of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons harvested for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have the potential to regenerate and, if so, to evaluate the histologic properties and actual function of this newly formed tissue. We performed a comprehensive search of CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and SPORTDiscus from inception of the databases to July 2014, using various combinations of keywords. Studies focusing on hamstring tendon and muscle regeneration through imaging and histology, as well as on the related functional outcomes, were selected. We included studies assessing evidence of tissue regeneration with imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, 3-dimensional computed tomography, ultrasonography) or with histologic examination of biopsy samples (or a combination thereof). Nineteen articles were included in this review, with a total of 400 patients observed. The overall rate of tissue regeneration was 86.0%, with similar values shown in most studies regardless of the methodology of the assessment. Biopsy confirmed that the tissue found at the site in 74% of the cases showed typical histologic features of the tendon. The mean modified Coleman Methodology Score of the studies included was 52.7 points, showing a modest methodologic quality for the studies published to date. In over 85% of the cases analyzed, regeneration signs of the harvested tendon were found through different imaging and histologic methodologies. A torque deficit in deep knee flexion is always present postoperatively, but the cause for this is still unclear. There is a need for better-designed trials featuring a higher level of evidence to further investigate this matter, and the effects of postoperative care and the surgical approach used on the regeneration process should be analyzed in the future. Level IV, systematic review of Level II, III, and IV
Maffulli, Nicola; Spiezia, Filippo; Testa, Vittorino; Capasso, Giovanni; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Denaro, Vincenzo
Chronic tears of the Achilles tendon with a tendon gap exceeding 6 cm are a surgical challenge. The purpose of this study is to report the long-term results of reconstruction of such chronic Achilles tendon ruptures with use of a free autologous gracilis tendon graft. Twenty-one patients underwent reconstruction of a chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon. Fifteen patients were available for clinical and functional assessment on the basis of anthropometric measurements, isometric strength testing, and the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score after a mean duration of follow-up of 10.9 years (range, eight to twelve years). All fifteen patients were able to walk on the tiptoes, and no patient used a heel lift or walked with a visible limp. At an average of 10.9 years of follow-up, the maximum calf circumference of the operatively treated leg remained substantially decreased and the operatively treated limb was significantly weaker than the contralateral, normal limb. Two patients had developed tendinopathy of the contralateral Achilles tendon, one had developed tendinopathy of the reconstructed tendon, and one had ruptured the contralateral Achilles tendon eight years after the index tear. The long-term results of treatment of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon with free gracilis tendon grafting showed that patients retained good functional results despite permanently impaired ankle plantar flexion strength and decreased calf circumference.
The objective of the two-staged flexor tendon method is to improve the predictability of final results in difficult problems dealing with tendon reconstruction. This article reviews the evolution and benefits of this procedure. It also considers the use of the technique to help deal with problems requiring pulley and skin reconstruction simultaneously with re-constituting the flexor tendon system.
Chu, Po-Jung; Lee, Hung-Maan; Hou, Yao-Tung; Hung, Sheng-Tsai; Chen, Jung-Kuei; Shih, Jui-Tien
Background The purpose of the study is to retrospectively review the clinical outcome of our study population of middle-aged RA patients who had suffered extensor-tendon rupture. We reported the outcome of autogenous palmaris tendon grafting of multiple extensor tendons at wrist level in 14 middle-aged rheumatoid patients. Methods Between Feb. 2000 to Feb. 2004, thirty-six ruptured wrist level extensor tendons were reconstructed in fourteen rheumatoid patients (11 women and three men) using autogenous palmaris longus tendon as a free interposition graft. In each case, the evaluation was based on both subjective and objective criteria, including the range of MCP joint flexion after surgery, the extension lag at the metacarpophalangeal joint before and after surgery, and the ability of the patient to work. Results and Discussion The average of follow-up was 54.1 months (range, 40 to 72 months). The average range of MCP joint flexion after reconstruction was 66°. The extension lag at the metacarpophalangeal joint significantly improved from a preoperative mean of 38° (range, 25°–60°) to a postoperative mean of 16° (range, 0°–30°). Subjectively all patients were satisfied with the clinical results, and achieved a return to their level of ability before tendon rupture. We found good functional results in our series of interposition grafting using palmaris longus to reconstruct extensor tendon defects in the rheumatoid patients. Conclusion Reconstruction for multiple tendon ruptures is a salvage procedure that is often associated with extensor lag and impairment of overall function. Early aggressive treatment of extensor tendon reconstruction using autogenous palmaris longus tendon as a free interposition graft in the rheumatoid wrist is another viable option to achieve good clinical functional result. PMID:18435845
van der Made, Anne D; Almusa, Emad; Whiteley, Rod; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; van Hellemondt, Frank; Tol, Johannes L
Hamstring injury with intramuscular tendon involvement is regarded as a serious injury with a delay in return to play (RTP) of more than 50 days and reinjury rates up to 63%. However, this reputation is based on retrospective case series with high risk of bias. Determine whether intramuscular tendon involvement is associated with delayed RTP and elevated rates of reinjury. MRI of male athletes with an acute hamstring injury was obtained within 5 days of injury. Evaluation included standardised MRI scoring and scoring of intramuscular tendon involvement. Time to RTP and reinjury rate were prospectively recorded. Out of 70 included participants, intramuscular tendon disruption was present in 29 (41.4%) injuries. Injuries without intramuscular tendon disruption had a mean time to RTP of 22.2±7.4 days. Injuries with <50%, 50%-99% and 100% disruption of tendon cross-sectional area had a mean time to RTP of 24.0±9.7, 25.3±8.6 and 31.6±10.9 days, respectively. Injuries with full-thickness disruption took longer to RTP compared with injuries without disruption (p=0.025). Longitudinal intramuscular tendon disruption was not significantly associated with time to RTP. Waviness was present in 17 (24.3%) injuries. Mean time to RTP for injuries without and with waviness was 22.6±7.5 and 30.2±10.8 days (p=0.014). There were 11 (15.7%) reinjuries within 12 months, five (17.2%) in the group with intramuscular tendon disruption and six (14.6%) in the group without intramuscular tendon disruption. Time to RTP for injuries with full-thickness disruption of the intramuscular tendon and waviness is significantly longer (by slightly more than 1 week) compared with injuries without intramuscular tendon involvement. However, due to the considerable overlap in time to RTP between groups with and without intramuscular tendon involvement, its clinical significance for the individual athlete is limited. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text
Dai, Chengliang; Wang, Fei; Wang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Ruipeng; Wang, Shengjie; Tang, Shiyu
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with six-strand hamstring tendon (HT) allograft versus bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allograft. The prospective randomized controlled trial was included 129 patients. Sixty-nine patients received reconstruction with six-strand HT allografts (HT group), whereas 60 patients with BPTB allografts (BPTB group). Outcome assessment included re-rupture findings, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores, Lysholm scores, KT-1000 arthrometer, Lachman test, pivot-shift test, range of motion (ROM) and single-leg hop test. At a mean follow-up of 52 months, 113 patients (HT group, 61 patients; BPTB group, 52 patients) completed a minimum 4-year follow-up. Four patients in HT group and six in BPTB group experienced ACL re-rupture (6.2 vs. 10.3 %) and received revision surgery. Significant between-group differences were observed in KT-1000 outcomes and pivot-shift test 1 (1.2 ± 1.5 vs. 1.8 ± 1.3, p = 0.025; positive rate 6.5 vs. 18.9 %, p = 0.036), 2 (1.1 ± 1.4 vs. 1.6 ± 1.2, p = 0.044; 8.1 vs. 20.7 %, p = 0.039), 4 (1.1 ± 1.5 vs. 1.7 ± 1.4, p = 0.031; 9.7 vs. 25 %, p = 0.012) years postoperatively. The outcomes between the two groups were comparable in terms of IKDC scores, Lysholm scores, Lachman test, ROM and single-leg hop test. Six-strand HT allograft achieved superior anteroposterior and rotational stability after single-bundle ACL reconstruction. It is a reasonable graft substitute for ACL reconstruction. II.
Naziri, Qais; Williams, Nadine; Hayes, Westley; Kapadia, Bhaveen H.; Chatterjee, Dipal; Urban, William P.
Background: With a recurrence rate of over 30%, techniques that offer stronger acromioclavicular (AC) joint reconstruction through increased graft strength may provide longevity. The purpose of our study was to determine the biomechanical strength of a novel tendon graft sutured throughout compared to a native tendon graft in Grade 3 anatomical AC joint reconstruction. Methods: For this in vitro experiment, nine paired (n = 18) embalmed cadaveric AC joints of three males and six females (age 86 years, range 51–94 years) were harvested. Anatomic repair with fresh bovine Achilles tendon grafts without bone block was simulated. Specimens were divided into two groups; with group 1 using grafts with ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture ran throughout the entire length. In group 2, reconstruction with only native allografts was performed. The distal scapula and humerus were casted in epoxy compound and mounted on the mechanical testing machine. Tensile tests were performed using a mechanical testing machine at the rate of 50 mm/min. Maximum load and displacement to failure were collected. Results: The average load to failure was significantly higher for group 1 compared to group 2, with mean values of 437.5 N ± 160.7 N and 94.4 N ± 43.6 N, (p = 0.001). The average displacement to failure was not significantly different, with 29.7 mm ± 10.6 mm in group 1 and 25 mm ± 9.1 mm in group 2 (p = 0.25). Conclusion: We conclude that a UHMWPE suture reinforced graft can provide a 3.6 times stronger AC joint reconstruction compared to a native graft. PMID:27163106
Onodera, Jun; Yasuda, Kazunori; Masuda, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Yoshie; Kitamura, Nobuto; Yagi, Tomonori; Kondo, Eiji
Background: Based on previous in vitro studies, it has been commonly believed that during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring tendon, the grafted tendon is shifted anteriorly in the tunnel permanently after the graft is anchored to the tunnel wall. However, this has not been proven by in vivo studies. Hypothesis: At 1 year after anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction, the grafted tendons may not be shifted anteriorly in the femoral tunnel but anchored to the bony wall at the center of the tunnel. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Participants consisted of 40 patients who underwent anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. The grafted tendons located in the femoral tunnel were examined 1 year after surgery using 2 different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols. In the first substudy, with 20 patients, the grafted tendon location was evaluated on an inclined sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) image taken using a standard T2-weighted protocol. In the second substudy with the remaining 20 patients, tendon location was evaluated on a pure axial MPR image taken using a VISTA (volume isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition) protocol. Results: On the inclined sagittal T2-weighted images of the anteromedial (AM) graft, the anterior width of the newly formed fibrous tissue, which surrounded the tendon graft, was significantly greater than the posterior width (P = .001). The center of the grafted tendon was slightly (mean, 2.5% of the tunnel diameter) but significantly (P = .0310) shifted posteriorly from the tunnel center. On the axial T2-VISTA images, the center of the AM graft was slightly but significantly shifted posteriorly (3.9%; P = .022) and medially (5.5%; P = .002) from the tunnel center. The center of the posterolateral (PL) graft was not significantly shifted to any direction from the center of the tunnel. Conclusion: The grafted tendons were not shifted anteriorly in the femoral tunnel 1 year
Ropiak, Christopher R; Bosco, Joseph A
Hamstring injuries are a frequent injury in athletes. Proximal injuries are common, ranging from strain to complete tear. Strains are managed nonoperatively, with rest followed by progressive stretching and strengthening. Reinjury is a concern. High grade complete tears are better managed surgically, with reattachment to the injured tendon or ischial tuberosity. Distal hamstring injury is usually associated with other knee injuries, and isolated injury is rare.
Cournapeau, J; Klouche, S; Hardy, P
In France, approximately 36,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgical procedures are performed every year. Technical progress, in particular arthroscopy, has made surgery more precise, but more expensive. In a context of healthcare cost containment, the increase in the cost of technology must be compared to the improved outcome for the patients. The main aim of this study was to determine all material costs related to ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons. This study also compared the material costs between the two arthroscopic techniques: standard or "all-inside". A retrospective study of material costs was performed in 2011. With the standard technique, the tibial tunnel was drilled from outside to inside, while with the all-inside technique two tunnels were drilled from inside to outside. All of the material used from the first swab to the final bandage was reported. It was classified into three categories: reusable arthroscopy material, disposable arthroscopic material, and disposable surgical supplies. The costs were those of our supplier in 2011 (Arthrex™) and based on Public Hospitals of Paris (AP-HP) public contract tariffs. Standard ligament reconstruction was less expensive than the all-inside technique: 791.59€ versus 931.06€ excluding taxes (hors taxes [HT]), respectively. The largest percentage of expenses was allocated to disposable material use (81 and 84%). Possible avenues of savings are limited: all the material used was necessary. To control costs, correct use and good maintenance of instruments are the most important elements. Level IV. Economic and decision analyses, retrospective study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Brukner, Peter; Connell, David
Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in 'muscle strain'. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh 'muscle strain'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Sarzaeem, Mohammad Mahdi; Lemraski, Mohammad Mahdi Bagherian; Safdari, Farshad
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes following reconstruction of the chronic Achilles tendon ruptures with large gaps (>6 cm) using free semitendinosus tendon graft transfer. There were 11 consecutive patients underwent the above-mentioned surgical technique for the treatment of chronically ruptured Achilles tendon contributed in current study and were followed up prospectively for a mean of 25 ± 3 months. The intraoperative tendon defect was greater than 6 cm in all of the patients. Functional and clinical assessment was performed using The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and Achilles Tendon Rupture Score (ATRS). The average AOFAS and ATRS improved significantly from 70 ± 5 and 32 ± 6 preoperatively, to 92 ± 5 and 89 ± 4 points post-operatively (P = 0.001). The range of dorsiflexion was significantly limited on the operated side (13 ± 4° vs. 17 ± 4°) (P = 0.04). All patients were able to stand on the tiptoe of injured leg, and no patient walked with a visible limp. Post-operative complications included one patient with symptomatic DVT and 2 patients with superficial infection treated nonoperatively. The technique offers good clinical and functional outcomes and is safe. Reconstruction of the chronic Achilles tendon ruptures with free semitendinosus tendon graft in patients with defects greater than 6 cm is recommended. IV.
Berruto, M; Howe, J G; Beynnon, B D; Johnson, R J; Nichols, C E; Pope, M H
The implantation of a free autogenous patellar tendon graft is the surgical technique that currently offers the best results in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, numerous aspects regarding both technique and postoperative rehabilitation can still be improved. The aim of this study was to measure the elongation of the patellar tendon in vivo in the operating room after reconstructive surgery, subjecting the knee to normal strain such as passive mobilization or anterior displacement of the tibia. Three volunteers were studied. Our results were different from those reported in a previous study conducted in vivo on a normal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In spite of the isometric position of the tendon, passive mobilization provoked a progressive increase in the elongation of the graft within each cycle of flexion-extension and between one cycle and the next. This also occurred during the Lachman test. These findings suggest that the graft undergoes a process of tensile adjustment when it is first put under strain. Continued elongation once this process appears stabilized raises doubts as to the reliability of isometric measuring devices.
Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Coons, David A
The purpose of this study was to determine the load to failure strengths and modes of failure of various commercially available tendon augmentation xenografts and allografts. Experimental laboratory study. GraftJacket (Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, TN), CuffPatch (Arthrotek, Warsaw, IN), Restore (Depuy, Warsaw, IN), Permacol (Tissue Science Laboratories, Covington, GA; licensed to Zimmer, Warsaw, IN), and TissueMend (TEI Biosciences, Boston, MA; licensed to Stryker Howmedica Osteonics, Kalamazoo, MI) measuring 2 x 5 cm were hydrated according to manufacturers guidelines, a horizontal mattress stitch 5-mm wide was placed 5 mm from the narrow edge of the graft. Tensile loads to failure were applied on the suture while an Instron machine held the graft material and mean loads to failure of the suture graft construct were obtained and modes of graft failure noted. The mean loads to failure were obtained: GraftJacket thin (157 N), GraftJacket MaxForce (182 N), GraftJacket Extreme (229 N), CuffPatch (32 N), Restore (38 N), Permacol (128 N), and TissueMend (70 to 76 N). Failure occurred principally by suture pull-through in all specimens and patterns tended to vary by implant type. CuffPatch and TissueMend tended to fail by isthmus pullout, whereas Restore and Graft jacket failed by end pullout. The tissues were statistically stratified into four groups depending on the material. Human skin (GraftJacket) was the strongest followed by porcine skin (Permacol) and bovine skin (TissueMend). Both in turn were stronger than the porcine small intestine submucosa (Restore and CuffPatch) (P < 0.001). Suture retention can be reliably tested with a narrow range of standard error utilizing this testing methodology. Skin has higher loads to failure than intestine submucosa. Failure modes differed significantly among the implant types, suggesting that suturing methods for each implant should be considered independently before use. These data cannot be interpreted to suggest
Background We developed a novel technique to improve tendon-bone attachment by hybridizing calcium phosphate (CaP) with a tendon graft using an alternate soaking process. However, the long-term result with regard to the interface between the tendon graft and the bone is unclear. Methods We analyzed bone tunnel enlargement by computed tomography and histological observation of the interface and the tendon graft with and without the CaP hybridization 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in goats using EndoButton and the postscrew technique (CaP, n = 4; control, n = 4). Results The tibial bone tunnel enlargement rates in the CaP group were lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In the CaP group, in the femoral and tibial bone tunnels at the anterior and posterior of the joint aperture site, direct insertion-like formation that contained a cartilage layer without tidemarks was more observed at the tendon-bone interface than in the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the gap area between the tendon graft and the bone was more observed at the femoral bone tunnel of the joint aperture site in the control group than in the CaP group (p < 0.05). The maturation of the tendon grafts determined using the ligament tissue maturation index was similar in both groups. Conclusions The CaP-hybridized tendon graft enhanced the tendon-bone healing 2 years after ACL reconstruction in goats. The use of CaP-hybridized tendon grafts can reduce the bone tunnel enlargement and gap area associated with the direct insertion-like formation in the interface near the joint. PMID:22166674
Hashimoto, Takahiro; Sun, Yu-Long; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng
For both tendon allografts and autografts, the surface, initially optimized for gliding, may not be ideal to facilitate tissue integration for graft healing to host tendon or bone. As a prelude to studying tendon-bone integration, we investigated the effect of surface treatments with trypsin or mechanical abrasion on cell attachment to the tendon surface in a canine ex vivo intrasynovial tendon tissue culture model. Intrasynovial tendon allograft surfaces were seeded with cells after the following treatments: (1) no treatment, (2) mechanical abrasion, (3) trypsin, and (4) abrasion and trypsin. The area covered by cells was determined using confocal laser microscopy at one and two weeks. Results were compared to untreated extrasynovial tendon. Additional tendons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. Tendons with trypsin treatment had significantly more surface coverage with cells than the other groups, after both one and two weeks of culture. In terms of the cellular shape and size, cells on tendons with trypsin treatment spread more and were more polygonal in shape, whereas tendons with mechanical abrasion with/without trypsin treatment contained smaller, more spindle-like cells. Surface roughening can affect cell behavior with topographical stimulation. Trypsin surface digestion exposes a mesh-like structure on the tendon surface, which could enhance cell adherence and, possibly, tendon/bone healing.
Leo, Brian M; Krill, Michael; Barksdale, Leticia; Alvarez-Pinzon, Andres M
To compare the revision rate and subjective outcome measures of autograft hamstring versus a soft tissue hybrid graft combining both autograft hamstring and tibialis allograft for isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A single-center retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative study of isolated ACL reconstruction revision rates for subjects who underwent arthroscopic reconstruction of the ACL using autograft hamstring or a soft tissue hybrid graft using both autograft hamstring and tibialis allograft was performed. Patients with isolated ACL tears were included and underwent anatomic single-bundle reconstruction using an independent tunnel drilling technique and a minimum of 24 months' follow-up. The primary outcome assessed was the presence or absence of ACL rerupture. Secondary clinical outcomes consisted of the International Knee Documentation Committee, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) ACL quality of life assessment, and the visual analog pain scale. Between February 2010 and April 2013, 95 patients with isolated ACL tears between ages 18 and 40 met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. Seventy-one autograft hamstring and 24 soft tissue hybrid graft ACL reconstructions were performed during the course of this study. The follow-up period was 24 to 32 months (mean 26.9 months). There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographics or Outerbridge classification. No statistically significant differences in ACL retears (5.6% auto, 4.2% hybrid; P = .57) were found between groups. Clinical International Knee Documentation Committee and UCLA ACL quality of life assessment improvement scores revealed no statistically significant differences in autograft and hybrid graft reconstructions (41 ± 11, 43 ± 13; P = .65) (38 ± 11, 40 ± 10; P = .23). The mean pain level decreased from 8.1 to 2.8 in the autograft group and 7.9 to 2.5 in the hybrid group (P = .18). The use of a hybrid soft tissue graft has a
Zaffagnini, Stefano; Bruni, Danilo; Marcheggiani Muccioli, Giulio Maria; Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Lopomo, Nicola; Bignozzi, Simone; Marcacci, Maurilio
The purpose of this study was to compare subjective, objective and radiographic outcome of the lateralized single-bundle bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft with a non-anatomical double-bundle hamstring tendons autograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction technique at long-term follow-up. Seventy-nine non-consecutive randomized patients (42 men; 37 women) with unilateral ACL insufficiency were prospectively evaluated, before and after ACL reconstruction by means of the above-mentioned techniques, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years (range 8-10 years; mean 8.6 years). In the double-bundle hamstrings technique, we used one tibial and one femoral tunnel combined with one "over-the-top" passage, cortical staple's fixation and we left intact hamstrings' tibial insertion. Patients were evaluated subjectively and objectively, using IKDC score, Tegner level, manual maximum displacement test with KT-2000™ arthrometer. Radiographic evaluation was performed according to IKDC grading system, and re-intervention rate for meniscal lesions was also recorded. The subjective and objective IKDC were similar in both groups while double-bundle hamstrings group showed significantly higher Tegner level (P = 0.0007), higher passive range of motion recovery (P = 0.0014), faster sport resumption (P = 0.0052), lower glide pivot-shift phenomenon (P = 0.0302) and lower re-intervention rate (P = 0.0116) compared with patellar tendon group. Radiographic evaluation showed significant lower objective degenerative changes in double-bundle hamstrings group at final follow-up (P = 0.0056). Although both techniques provide satisfactory results, double-bundle ACL reconstruction shows better functional results, with a faster return to sport activity, a lower re-operation rate and lower degenerative knee changes.
Maffulli, Nicola; Loppini, Mattia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Maffulli, Gayle D; Denaro, Vincenzo
Achilles tendon ruptures represent more than 40% of all tendon ruptures requiring surgical management. About 20% of acute Achilles tendon tears are not diagnosed at the time of injury and become chronic, necessitating more complicated management than fresh injuries. Several techniques for the reconstruction of chronic tears of the Achilles tendon have been described, but the superiority of one technique over the others has not been demonstrated. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft will result in improvement of the overall function with a low rate of complications. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2008 and 2010, the authors prospectively enrolled 28 consecutive patients (21 men and 7 women; median age, 46 years) with chronic closed ruptures of the Achilles tendon who had undergone reconstruction with a free semitendinosus tendon graft. They assessed the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), maximum calf circumference, and isometric plantarflexion strength before surgery and at the last follow-up. Outcome of surgery and rate of complications were also recorded. The median follow-up after surgery was 31.4 months. The overall result of surgery was excellent/good in 26 (93%) of 28 patients. The ATRS improved from 42 (range, 29-55) to 86 (range, 78-95) (P < .0001). In the operated leg, the maximum calf circumference and isometric plantarflexion strength were significantly improved after surgery (P < .0001); however, their values remained significantly lower than those of the opposite side (P < .0001). All patients were able to walk on tiptoes and returned to their preinjury working occupation. No infections were recorded. Mini-invasive reconstruction of the Achilles tendon, with a gap lesion larger than 6 cm, using the ipsilateral free semitendinosus tendon graft provides a significant improvement of symptoms and function, although calf
Brukner, Peter; Connell, David
Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in ‘muscle strain’. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thigh ‘muscle strain’. PMID:26519522
Massive irreparable rotator cuff tears can be reconstructed with latissimus dorsi tendon transfers (LDTT). Although uncommon, the natural length of the latissimus dorsi tendon (LDT) could be insufficient for transfer even after adequate soft tissue releases. Descriptions of cases where grafts were needed to lengthen the LDT are therefore rare. We located only two reports of the use of an acellular dermal matrix to increase effective tendon length in tendon transfers about the shoulder: (1) GraftJacket patch for a pectoralis major tendon reconstruction and (2) ArthroFlex® patch for LDTT. Both of these brands of allograft patches are obtained from human cadavers. These products are usually used to cover soft tissue repairs and offer supplemental support rather than for increasing tendon length. Extending the LDTT with GraftJacket to achieve adequate length, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 50-year-old male who had a massive, irreparable left shoulder rotator cuff tear that was reconstructed with a LDTT. The natural length of his LDT was insufficient for transfer. This unexpected situation was rectified by sewing two patches of GraftJacket to the LDT. The patient had greatly improved shoulder function at two-year follow-up. PMID:28194290
Jang, Eugene; Dy, Christopher J.
Purpose To investigate the graft length necessary to complete a distal radioulnar ligament reconstruction and assess the suitability of several tendon graft sources. Methods We measured the graft length needed to complete the distal radioulnar ligament reconstruction in 7 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens. The pure tendon lengths of 7 tendon graft sources were measured: palmaris longus, extensor indicis proprius, slips of extensor digiti minimi and abductor pollicis longus, and portions of flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, and extensor carpi ulnaris. A modified technique which allows for a shorter length of graft is also described, and the suitability of each graft source for this technique was assessed. Results The mean graft length needed to complete the original and modified reconstructions were 138 mm and 89 mm, respectively. The average length of the tendon graft when measured as pure tendon were: palmaris longus (127 mm), slip of extensor digiti minimi (112 mm), extensor indicis proprius (100 mm), partial flexor carpi radialis (87 mm), slip of abductor pollicis longus (69 mm), partial flexor carpi ulnaris (67 mm), and partial extensor carpi ulnaris (67 mm). The palmaris longus was too short for the original technique in the majority of specimens but was sufficient to complete the modified technique in every specimen that had a palmaris longus. Six specimens also had an extensor indicis proprius of suitable length for the modified technique. Discussion The length of donor graft required for the modified reconstruction was significantly less than that needed for the original reconstruction. Three specimens had no donor tendons sufficiently long to complete the original technique if a pure tendon graft were used, whereas the modified technique could be completed in all specimens. Clinical Relevance Many tendon graft sources in the upper extremity are of insufficient length to complete the distal radioulnar ligament reconstruction as described. A modified
Majewski, Martin; Porter, Ryan M.; Betz, Oliver B.; Betz, Volker M.; Clahsen, Harald; Flückiger, Rudolf; Evans, Christopher H.
Tendon rupture is a common injury. Inadequate endogenous repair often leaves patients symptomatic, with tendons susceptible to re-rupture. Administration of certain growth factors improves tendon healing in animal models, but their delivery remains a challenge. Here we evaluated the delivery of TGF-β1 to tendon defects by the implantation of genetically modified muscle grafts. Rat muscle biopsies were transduced with recombinant adenovirus encoding TGF-β1 and grafted onto surgically transected Achilles tendons in recipient animals. Tissue regenerates were compared to those of controls by biomechanical testing as well as histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. Healing was greatly accelerated when genetically modified grafts were implanted into tendon defects, with the resulting repair tissue gaining nearly normal histological appearance as early as 2 weeks postoperatively. This was associated with decreased deposition of type III collagen in favour of large fibre bundles indicative of type I collagen. These differences in tendon composition coincided with accelerated restoration of mechanical strength. Tendon thickness increased in gene-treated animals at weeks 1 and 2, but by week 8 became significantly lower than that of controls suggesting accelerated remodelling. Thus localised TGF-β1 delivery via adenovirus-modified muscle grafts improved tendon healing in this rat model and holds promise for clinical application. PMID:22354460
Lund, Bent; Nielsen, Torsten; Faunø, Peter; Christiansen, Svend Erik; Lind, Martin
The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to compare knee stability, kneeling pain, harvest site pain, sensitivity loss, and subjective clinical outcome after primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with either bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) or quadriceps tendon-bone (QTB) autografts in a noninferiority study design. From 2005 to 2009, a total of 51 patients were included in the present study. Inclusion criteria were isolated ACL injuries in adults. Twenty-five patients were randomized to BPTB grafts and 26 to QTB grafts. An independent examiner performed follow-up evaluations 1 and 2 years postoperatively. Anteroposterior knee laxity was measured with a KT-1000 arthrometer (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA). Anterior knee pain was assessed clinically and by knee-walking ability. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score were used for patient-evaluated outcome. Anterior knee laxity was equal between the 2 groups with KT-1000 values of 1.1 ± 1.4 mm and 0.8 ± 1.7 mm standard deviation (SD) at follow-up in QTB and BPTB groups, respectively (P = .65), whereas positive pivot shift test results were seen less frequently (14% compared with 38%, respectively; P = .03). Anterior kneeling pain, evaluated by the knee walking ability test, was significantly less in the QTB group, with only 7% of patients grading knee walking as difficult or impossible compared with 34% in the BPTB group. At 1 and 2 years' follow-up, there was no difference between the 2 groups in subjective patient-evaluated outcome. The IKDC score was 75 ± 13 patients and 76 ± 16 SD at 1-year follow-up in QTB and BPTB groups, respectively (P = .78). At 2 years, 12 patients were lost to follow-up, resulting in 18 in the BPTB group and 21 in the QTB group. The use of the QTB graft results in less kneeling pain, graft site pain, and sensitivity loss than seen with BPTB grafts; however, similar anterior knee
Mastrokalos, Dimitrios S; Paessler, Hans H
We report a case of a systemic allergic reaction to biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) interference screws after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. A 30-year-old patient complained of certain symptoms, such as an inability to focus mentally, rash on the right femur, chronic fatigue, decreased sex drive, and localized alopecia, 3 months after ACL reconstruction in the right knee. Two biodegradable PLLA interference screws had been used for proximal and distal graft fixation. Allergy testing showed a value of 7 in PLLA antigen. After removal of 1 screw in August 2000, the patient reported marked improvement, but some symptoms remained. In July 2001 he underwent arthroscopic revision ACL reconstruction with hamstrings via an implant-free technique with intensive debridement of the tunnels and removal of all scar tissue and screw rests. All symptoms disappeared, and the PLLA antigen number fell from 3 to "concentrate" 2 months postoperatively.
Wu, Jingheng; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Reisdorf, Ramona L.; An, Kai-Nan; Moran, Steven L.; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of modified repair techniques for flexor tendon reconstruction and the effects of surface modification using carbodiimide-derivatized synovial fluid plus gelatin (cd-SF-G), compared to the traditional repair techniques. The second and fifth digits from 16 canine forepaws were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) traditional graft repairs (TGR group) including distal Bunnell repair and proximal Pulvertaft weave repair; (2) modified graft repairs (MGR group) including distal graft bony attachment repair and proximal step-cut repair; (3) group TGR coated with cd-SF-G (TGR-C group); and (4) group MGR coated with cd-SF-G (MGR-C group). Digit normalized work of flexion (nWOF), ultimate failure strength, and stiffness were measured. The nWOF in MGR group was significantly less than TGR group (p < 0.05). The nWOF in groups treated with cd-SF-G was significantly less than their untreated counterparts (p < 0.05). Ultimate load to failure of the MGR-C group was significantly greater than the TGR-C group (p < 0.05), but no significant difference in stiffness was found between these two groups. The modified techniques cannot only improve tendon gliding abilities but can also improve breaking strength. Additionally, surface modification with cd-SF-G significantly decreased the work of flexion. PMID:25665071
Bryant, Adam L; Creaby, Mark W; Newton, Robert U; Steele, Julie R
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between knee functionality of anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients and hamstring antagonist torque generated during resisted knee extension. Cross-sectional. Laboratory based. Male ACLD subjects (n=10) (18-35 y) and 27 matched males who had undergone ACLR (14 patella tendon [PT] grafts and 13 combined semitendinosus/gracilis tendon grafts). Not applicable. Knee functionality was rated (0- to 100-point scale) by using the Cincinnati Knee Rating System. Using electromyography data from the semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris muscles, we created a mathematical model to estimate the opposing torque generated by the hamstrings during isokinetic knee extension in 10 degrees intervals from 80 degrees to 10 degrees knee flexion. Pearson product-moment correlations revealed that more functional ACLD subjects generated significantly (P<.05) higher hamstring antagonist torque throughout knee extension. In contrast, more functional PT subjects produced significantly lower hamstring antagonist torque at 80 degrees to 70 degrees knee flexion, whereas no significant associations were found between hamstring antagonist torque and knee functionality for the ST/gracilis tendon subjects. An increased hamstring antagonist torque generated by the more functional ACLD subjects, reflective of increased hamstring contractile force, is thought to represent a protective mechanism to compensate for mechanical instability. The restoration of anterior knee stability through ACLR negates the need for augmented hamstring antagonist torque.
Kamiński, A; Gut, G; Marowska, J; Lada-Kozłowska, M; Biwejnis, W; Zasacka, M
Patellar tendon auto- and allo-grafts are commonly used in orthopedic surgery for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL). Autografts are mainly used for primary reconstruction, while allografts are useful for revision surgery. To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission allografts should be radiation-sterilised. As radiation-sterilisation supposedly decreases the mechanical strength of tendon it is important to establish methods of allograft preservation and sterilisation assuring the best quality of grafts and their safety at the same time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the tensile strength of human patellar tendon (cut out as for ACL reconstruction), preserved by various methods (deep fresh freezing, glycerolisation, lyophilisation) and subsequently radiation-sterilised with doses of 0, 25, 50 or 100 kGy. Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. BTB grafts were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolisation or lyophilisation and were subsequently radiation-sterilised with doses of 0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 kGy. All samples were subjected to mechanical failure tensile tests with the use of Instron system in order to estimate their mechanical properties. All lyophilised grafts were rehydrated before performing of those tests. Obtained mechanical tests results of examined grafts suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not exclude their clinical application.
Jacobs, Cale A; Burnham, Jeremy M; Makhni, Eric; Malempati, Chaitu S; Swart, Eric; Johnson, Darren L
Younger patients and those with smaller hamstring autograft diameters have been shown to be at significantly greater risk of graft failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. To date, there is no information in the literature about the clinical success and/or cost-effectiveness of increasing graft diameter by augmenting with semitendinosus allograft tissue for younger patients. Hybrid hamstring grafts are a cost-effective treatment option because of a reduced rate of graft failure. Cohort study (economic and decision analysis); Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively identified patients younger than 18 years who had undergone ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon between 2010 and 2015. During this period, the operating surgeon's graft selection algorithm included the use of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autografts for the majority of patients younger than 18 years. However, hamstring autografts (hamstring) or hybrid hamstring autografts with allograft augment (hybrid) were used in skeletally immature patients and in those whom the surgeon felt might have greater difficulty with postoperative rehabilitation after BTB graft harvest. Patient demographics, graft type, graft diameter, the time the patient was cleared to return to activity, and the need for secondary surgical procedures were compared between the hamstring and hybrid groups. The clinical results were then used to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of hybrid grafts in this select group of young patients with an ACL injury or reconstruction. This study comprised 88 patients (hamstring group, n = 46; hybrid group, n = 42). The 2 groups did not differ in terms of age, sex, timing of return to activity, or prevalence of skeletally immature patients. Graft diameters were significantly smaller in the hamstring group (7.8 vs 9.9 mm; P < .001), which corresponded with a significantly greater rate of graft failure (13 of 46 [28.3%] vs 5 of 42 [11.9%]; P = .049). As a result of the
Rushton, Alison; Spencer, Simon
The growing evidence suggests that physiological mobilisation techniques influence the passive properties of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU). Techniques that combine a transverse directed force to the physiological technique attempt greater influence on biomechanical properties. No research has investigated the biomechanical effects of a technique with addition of a transverse directed force. This pilot study aimed to explore preliminary data of effectiveness of two techniques on longitudinal load (extensibility and passive resistance) in the hamstring MTU. A counterbalanced quasi-experimental same subject design using fifteen healthy subjects compared two conditions: physiological technique and a technique with addition of a transverse directed force. Passive resistance (torque, Nm) and extensibility (knee extension range of movement) of the hamstring MTU were recorded during and following both conditions. Paired t tests explored within and across condition comparisons, with Bonferroni adjustment to account for multiple analyses. Passive resistance demonstrated a significant reduction for the technique with addition of a transverse directed force (t = 4.26, p < 0.05) that may have contributed to the significant increase in extensibility (t = 8.48, p < 0.05). The data suggest that longitudinal load through the hamstring MTU during a physiological mobilisation can be increased by the application of a transverse directed force. This merits further research.
Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi
Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures. PMID:27872726
van der Made, A D; Wieldraaijer, T; Kerkhoffs, G M; Kleipool, R P; Engebretsen, L; van Dijk, C N; Golanó, P
The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe. Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45-98). Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens. No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy. IV.
Bryant, Adam L; Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao
The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) status on hamstring force steadiness, peak hamstring strength, quadriceps (antagonist) activation, and physical performance, and (ii) to evaluate the associations of physical performance with hamstring steadiness and hamstring strength. Thirteen subjects with unilateral deficiency of the ACL (ACLD), 39 matched subjects with unilateral reconstructed ACL (ACLR; n = 25 with bone-patella tendon-bone (ACLR-PT) graft and n = 14 with combined semitendinosus and gracilis tendon (ACLR-STGT) graft) and 33 control subjects participated. Each subject performed maximal-effort isokinetic knee flexion repetitions at 180° s(-1) with electromyography (EMG) electrodes attached to their medial and lateral quadriceps muscles. Physical performance was assessed using the single-limb long hop for distance. Wavelet-derived mean instantaneous frequency (Mif) of flexor torque-time curves was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (i.e., less smooth) in ACLR-STGT subjects compared to the ACLD, ACLR-PT and control subjects. No significant differences existed for peak hamstrings strength (i.e., peak torque produced) or quadriceps antagonist EMG activity. Positive correlations were identified between hamstrings force steadiness and quadriceps antagonist activity for ACLD (r = 0.797), ACLR-PT (r = 0.467), and ACLR-STGT (r = 0.628) subjects. For ACLR-STGT subjects, reduced hamstrings force steadiness associated with poorer long-hop performance (r = -0.695). Reduced steadiness amongst ACLR-STGT subjects may reflect motor output variability of the antagonist (i.e., quadriceps dyskinesia) and/or agonist musculature-a maladaptive feature which potentially contributes to poorer single-limb hop performance. Measures of hamstring force steadiness in combination with traditional measures of peak hamstring strength provide valuable clinical information regarding knee joint function following ACL
Cavaignac, Etienne; Coulin, Benoit; Tscholl, Philippe; Nik Mohd Fatmy, Nik; Duthon, Victoria; Menetrey, Jacques
The quadriceps tendon (QT) autograft is known as an effective graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and shows a similar functional outcome to the bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) in randomized controlled trials, with a lesser incidence of complications. Up until now, only 2 studies have compared QT to hamstring tendon (HT) autograft. The functional outcomes of the QT technique are at least as good as those of the HT technique, with the same morbidity. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Ninety-five patients underwent isolated ACL reconstruction between January 1 and December 31, 2012. Fifty underwent ACL reconstruction with the QT and 45 with the HT. The same surgical technique, fixation method, and postoperative protocol were used in both groups. The following parameters were evaluated: surgical revisions, functional outcome (Lysholm, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score [KOOS], Tegner, subjective International Knee Documentation Committee), joint stability (KT-1000, Lachman, pivot shift), anterior knee pain (Shelbourne-Trumper score), and isokinetic strength. Descriptive statistics are presented for these variables using the Student t test. Eighty-six patients (45 QT, 41 HT) were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 3.6 ± 0.4 years; minimum follow-up was 3 years. There were 4 reoperations in the QT group (including 1 ACL revision) and 3 in the HT group (including 2 ACL revisions) ( P > .05). The Lysholm (89 ± 6.9 vs 83.1 ± 5.3), KOOS Symptoms (90 ± 11.2 vs 81 ± 10.3), and KOOS Sport (82 ± 11.3 vs 67 ± 12.4) scores were significantly better in the QT group than in the HT group. In terms of stability, the mean side-to-side difference was 1.1 ± 0.9 mm for the QT group and 3.1 ± 1.3 mm for the HT group based on KT-1000 measurements ( P < .005). The negative Lachman component was higher in the QT group than in the HT group (90% vs 46%, P < .005). There was a trend for the negative pivot-shift component to be higher in the QT group
Maffulli, Nicola; Del Buono, Angelo; Spiezia, Filippo; Maffulli, Gayle D; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Denaro, Vincenzo
Less-extensive and gentler exposure and dissection of deep soft tissues could reduce the times of recovery and rehabilitation after Achilles tendon reconstruction. A minimally invasive semitendinosus autologous graft reconstruction of the Achilles tendon preserves skin integrity and reduces wound breakdown. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 26 patients underwent minimally invasive semitendinosus autologous graft reconstruction for chronic ruptures to the Achilles tendon. Patients underwent a comparison of preoperative versus postoperative maximum calf circumference and isometric plantarflexion strength and evaluation of postoperative complications. The Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) was administered at the final follow-up appointment. All patients were reviewed at an average of 8.2 years (range, 7-10 years) from surgery. No patient was lost to follow-up. At final follow-up, the maximum calf circumference was significantly higher than preoperatively but significantly lower than the contralateral side. The isometric plantarflexion strength in the operated leg was lower than in the uninjured one. The mean ATRS was 88. Two patients developed a superficial wound infection, both healing within 2 months from the index surgery after systemic antibiotics and local dressings. One patient developed scar adhesion to the distal wound. All patients returned to their preinjury working occupation; 22 patients returned to their preinjury level of activity at a mean of 6.7 months after surgery. This technique is minimally invasive, is safe, and allows most of the patients to return to preinjury daily and sport activities within 9 months from surgery.
Frois Temponi, Eduardo; de Carvalho, Lúcio Honório; da Silva Bernardes, Cláudio Otávio; Presses Teixeira, Bruno
Chronic patellar tendon rupture is a rare disabling injury that is technically difficult to repair. The true prevalence of this injury is unknown. Delayed reconstruction of chronic patellar tendon rupture has yielded suboptimal clinical and functional results. Many different surgical methods for reconstruction of chronic patellar tendon injury have been reported. In this report, we present a case with chronic patellar tendon injury that was addressed using a technique that had not previously been described in the literature, through combining procedures that had been described separately. The reconstruction method presented in this article has the advantages of being easy and reproducible, without a requirement of allografts.
Shoaib, Ahmed; Mishra, Viren
Surgical repair of symptomatic chronic Achilles tendon (TA) rupture is a challenging problem due to the presence of a large defect between tendon edges. We report the results of surgical repair of symptomatic chronic TA rupture by synthetic graft augmentation. Seven consecutive patients with a symptomatic chronic TA rupture underwent surgical repair by VY plasty and augmentation with bio-absorbable synthetic graft (Artelon(®)). In all patients, the intraoperative tendon gap after debridement was more than 5cm (Myerson Grade 3). The total duration of plaster immobilization was 10 weeks. The complications were recorded prospectively and functional outcome was assessed by AOFAS score and Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS). At a mean follow up of 29 months there was no re-rupture or deep infection. All patients reported good functional outcome as shown by AOFAS and ATRS scores. There were no graft related complications. At final follow up, six patients were able to do single stance heel raise however, calf wasting was noted in all patients. Tendon repair augmented by absorbable synthetic graft is an acceptable technique in Myerson Grade 3 chronic symptomatic TA ruptures. Level IV, Case series. Copyright © 2016 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pan, Weimin; Hu, Yunyu; Wei, Yiyong; Bi, Long; Li, Dan; Wang, Jun; Lv, Rong; Li, Jianwei; Cao, Zheng
The objective of the study was to discover whether recombined bone xenograft (RBX), a porous solid material, could augment healing of the tendon-to-bone interface after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. ACL reconstruction was performed bilaterally in 25 skeletally mature rabbits using long digital extensor tendon grafts. RBX was implanted into the treated knee, with the contralateral knee serving as control. Three rabbits were killed at postoperative weeks two, six and 12 for routine histology. The remaining 16 rabbits were killed at weeks six and 12, and their femur-graft-tibia complexes were harvested for mechanical testing. The treatment and control groups produced different histological findings at the interface between the tendon and bone. In the treatment group, large areas of chondrocyte-like cells were noted around the tendon-bone interface two weeks after the operation. At six weeks, more abundant bone formation was observed around the tendon. At 12 weeks, an immature neoenthesis structure was seen. In biomechanical evaluation six and 12 weeks after the operation, the ultimate strength of tendon in the bone tunnel was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group. RBX can augment the osteointegration of tendon to bone after ACL reconstruction.
Pan, Weimin; Wei, Yiyong; Bi, Long; Li, Dan; Wang, Jun; Lv, Rong; Li, Jianwei; Cao, Zheng
The objective of the study was to discover whether recombined bone xenograft (RBX), a porous solid material, could augment healing of the tendon-to-bone interface after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. ACL reconstruction was performed bilaterally in 25 skeletally mature rabbits using long digital extensor tendon grafts. RBX was implanted into the treated knee, with the contralateral knee serving as control. Three rabbits were killed at postoperative weeks two, six and 12 for routine histology. The remaining 16 rabbits were killed at weeks six and 12, and their femur-graft-tibia complexes were harvested for mechanical testing. The treatment and control groups produced different histological findings at the interface between the tendon and bone. In the treatment group, large areas of chondrocyte-like cells were noted around the tendon-bone interface two weeks after the operation. At six weeks, more abundant bone formation was observed around the tendon. At 12 weeks, an immature neoenthesis structure was seen. In biomechanical evaluation six and 12 weeks after the operation, the ultimate strength of tendon in the bone tunnel was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group. RBX can augment the osteointegration of tendon to bone after ACL reconstruction. PMID:19184009
Domnick, C; Herbort, M; Raschke, M J; Schliemann, B; Siebold, R; Śmigielski, R; Fink, C
The structural properties of hamstring tendon grafts were evaluated in a porcine model, after processing it to a flat shape, to better replace or augment anatomic flat structures (e.g. ACL, MPFL or MCL). In this biomechanical study, porcine flexor tendons were used which have a comparable shape to semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. One part of the tendon was prepared to a flat tendon construct by splitting the tendon longitudinally with a knife to half of the diameter of the tendon. The semi-split tendon was scratched out to a flat shape. The other matched part was tested in its original round shape. The tendons (n = 40) have been fixed in a uniaxial testing machine (Zwick/Roell) by cryo-clamps after preparing the fixed ends by 2-0 polyester sutures (2-0 Ethibond(®) EXCEL, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). In every specimen, there was a free 60-mm tendon part between both clamps. The tendons have been loaded to failure to evaluate typical biomechanical parameters such as stiffness, yield load and maximum load. No statistically significant differences (n.s.) regarding stiffness, yield load and maximum load between natively round and processed flat tendons could be detected. A prepared flat-shaped tendon does not show any different structural properties compared with an original round tendon. Therefore, a flat tendon seems to be a biomechanical stable graft option for anatomic reconstruction or augmentation of injured natively flat-shaped structures such as MCL, MPFL or ACL.
Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Orava, Sakari
Hamstring injuries are common, especially among athletes. A complete rupture of the proximal hamstring muscles requires surgical intervention. In this report we describe a reconstruction method for a complete proximal hamstring rupture using fascia lata autograft augmentation in addition to suture anchors. This method can be advocated in cases in which the primary repair has failed or in chronic injuries where a large defect between the distally retracted tendons and the ischial tuberosity prevents anatomic reinsertion. In our technique, a muscle-tendon flap is first created from the retracted tendon stump, turned proximally, and fixed to the ischial tuberosity by suture anchors. The fascia lata graft is then fixed from the midpart to the ischial tuberosity via the same sutures. The other sleeve of the graft is folded on the ventral side of the ruptured tendon stump and fixed by use of absorbable sutures. Then the other sleeve is folded on the dorsal side and fixed in the same manner. Finally, the fixation can still be reinforced with additional absorbable sutures passing through both sleeves of the graft, as well as the muscle-tendon bridge and the tendon stump.
Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Song, Bin; Chow, Dick Hokiu; Shu-Hang Yung, Patrick; Qin, Ling
How to enhance tendon graft incorporation into bone tunnels for achieving satisfactory healing outcomes in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is one of the most challenging clinical problems in orthopaedic sports medicine. Several studies have recently reported the beneficial effects of Mg implants in bone fracture healing, indicating the use potential of Mg devices in promoting the tendon graft osteointegration. Here, we developed an innovative Mg-based interference screws for fixation of the tendon graft in rabbits underwent ACLR and investigated the biological role of Mg-based implants in the graft healing. The titanium (Ti) interference screw was used as the control. We demonstrated that Mg interference screw significantly accelerated the incorporation of the tendon graft into bone tunnels via multiscale analytical methods including scanning electronic microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS), micro-hardness, micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (μFTIR), and histology. Our in vivo study showed that Mg implants enhanced the recruitment of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) towards peri-implant bone tissue, which may be ascribed to the upregulation of local TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB. Besides, the in vitro study revealed that higher Mg ions was beneficial to the improvement of capability in cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Thus, the enhancement in cell migration, cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs may contribute to an improved tendon graft osteointegration in the Mg group. Our findings in this work may further facilitate clinical applications of Mg-based interference screws for enhancing tendon graft-bone junction healing in patients indicated for ACLR. How to promote tendon-bone junction healing is one of the major challenging issues for satisfactory clinical outcomes in patients after ACL reconstruction. The improvement of bony ingrowth into the tendon graft-bone interface
Plante, Matthew J; Li, Xinning; Scully, Gail; Brown, Michael A; Busconi, Brian D; DeAngelis, Nicola A
Inadvertent contamination of the hamstring autograft during ACL reconstruction is infrequent, but can result in significant complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate bacterial contamination of hamstring autografts dropped onto the operating room floor and methods of graft decontamination. Hamstring tendons were harvested from patients. Excess tendon not used in the ACL procedure was divided into 6 segments. Segments were assigned to 6 groups (A through F, N = 30 in each group): group A: uncontaminated graft immediately postharvest (control), group B: graft dropped onto the floor (5 s), group C: graft dropped onto the floor (15 s). grafts in groups D to F were dropped onto floor for 15 s then rinsed with saline (group D), bacitracin solution (group E) or chlorhexidine 4 % solution (group F) for 3 min. All grafts were sent to the microbiology laboratory for anaerobic and aerobic cultures. Cultures were positive in 23 % of graft segments from group A (7/30), 33 % of grafts from group B (10/30), 23 % from group C (7/30), 30 % from group D (9/30) and 3 % from both group E (1/30) and group F (1/30). Sixteen unique organisms were identified, with Staphylococcus aureus as the most common isolate. Grafts rinsed in either bacitracin solution or 4 % chlorhexidine solutions were significantly less likely to be culture positive when compared to control graft segments (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between uncontaminated grafts retrieved in <5 versus 15 s from the floor. This study supports the practice of decontaminating a dropped ACL hamstring autograft using either 4 % chlorhexidine or bacitracin solution. Specimens should be retrieved sterilely and washed for at least 3 min. This study also demonstrates no advantage in retrieval time of less than 5 s as compared to 15 s for uncontaminated graft. Hamstring harvest in ACL reconstruction may result in positive cultures, thus routine soaking of the hamstring autograft
Bencardino, Jenny T; Mellado, José M
Hamstring injuries can be classified with regard to the site of involvement. Traumatic disorders at the proximal bone-tendon origin are best defined as avulsion injuries, such as ischial tuberosity fractures and hamstring tendon tears. Musculotendinous lesions include muscle strains and muscle contusions. Most hamstring injuries occur after in-direct trauma from excessive stretching or forceful contraction, leading to avulsion injuries or muscle strains and tears. Insufficient warm-up, lack of flexibility, inadequate muscle strength and endurance, or abnormal contraction and running may predispose to such injuries. In the event of blunt direct trauma, a muscle contusion, intramuscular hematoma, myositis ossificans, or compartment syndrome may develop.
Ono, Yohei; Dávalos Herrera, Diego Alejandro; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Boorman, Richard S.; Thornton, Gail M.; Lo, Ian K. Y.
Background: Arthroscopic repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears commonly retear. To improve healing rates, a number of different approaches have been utilized, including the use of grafts, which may enhance the biomechanical and biologic aspects of the repair construct. However, the outcomes after the use of grafts are diverse. Purpose: To systematically review the literature for large to massive rotator cuff tears to determine whether the use of grafts generally provides superior tendon healing and clinical outcomes to the repairs without grafts. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed. Clinical studies comparing the repairs with (graft group) and without grafts (control group) were included and analyzed. The primary outcome was tendon healing on either magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound. The secondary outcome measures included visual analog scale for pain, University of California at Los Angles (UCLA) score, and forward elevation range. Differences between groups in all outcome measures were statistically analyzed. Results: Six comparative studies (level of evidence 2 or 3) with 13 study groups were included. A total of 242 repairs in the graft group (mean age, 62.5 ± 4.6 years) and 185 repairs in the control group (mean age, 62.5 ± 5.0 years) were analyzed. The graft types utilized included autograft (fascia lata) in 1 study, allograft (human dermis) in 2 studies, xenograft (bovine pericardium, porcine small intestine submucosa) in 2 studies, synthetic graft (polypropylene) in 1 study, and a combination of autograft (the long head of biceps) and synthetic graft (polypropylene) in 1 study. The overall mean follow-up time was 28.4 ± 9.0 months. When 1 or 2 studies/study groups were excluded due to practical or statistical reasons, the graft group demonstrated significantly improved healing (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.58-3.90; P < .0001) and all clinical outcome measures at
Lee, Daniel K
Neglected Achilles tendon rupture injuries present surgical challenges because of the quality and quantity of tendon tissue during repair combined with the magnitude of mechanical forces placed on this tendon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an acellular human dermal tissue matrix, GRAFTJACKET, as an augmentation material in neglected Achilles tendon repair. Nine patients with neglected Achilles tendon ruptures were evaluated and followed up for a minimum of 20 months. Primary repair was followed by augmentation with the graft and suturing circumferentially around the tendon. Patients were placed in an early, functional rehabilitation program with postoperative evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 months. Outcome scores were calculated based on the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scoring system. At 20 to 30 months postoperative follow-up range, there has been no incidence of re-rupture or recurrent pain. The average return-to-activity time was 15.2 +/- 1.7 weeks. The results from this retrospective clinical series suggest that using an acellular human dermal tissue matrix to augment neglected Achilles tendon rupture primary repair offers desirable return-to-activity time points and viable surgical alternative over previously reported surgical options.
Piontek, Tomasz; Bąkowski, Paweł; Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Grygorowicz, Monika
Plantaris tendon, peronus brevis tendon and flexor hallucis longus tendon augmentation, commonly used in Achilles tendon rupture, often lead to weakening of injured foot and they require the immobilization after the surgery. It is essential to develop the technique, which gives no such limitation and allows for immediate functional improvement. We present our method of minimally invasive, endoscopic Achilles tendon reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendons with Endobutton stabilization. Posterolateral and posteromedial portals were made approximately 3 cm above the posterosuperior part of the calcaneus to clean the area of the Achilles tendon endoscopically. Then the hamstrings are harvested and prepared for the "Endobutton" system. A midline incision of the skin is performed approximately 1 cm above the posterosuperior part of the calcaneus to approach to the posterosuperior part of the calcaneus. Then under fluoroscopy the calcaneus was drilled through using K-wire. The distal end of the graft equipped with an Endobutton loop was entered into the drilled tunnel in the calcaneus. Later, 8 consecutive skin incisions are performed. Proximal ends of the graft were brought out through the native Achilles tendon reaching medial and lateral skin incisions. The final step was to transfer and tie the graft ends through the most proximal skin incision. This minimally invasive, endoscopic technique allows reconstruction of the Achilles tendon using semitendinosus and gracilis tendons with Endobutton stabilization and can be used in so-called "difficult", resistant cases as a "salvage procedure".
Mariani, P P; Adriani, E; Maresca, G
During arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction, passage of the graft into the knee joint may be difficult, especially when using the patellar tendon. Because of the angle of passage, the bone block ends may become entangled or caught on the superior edge of the posterior tibial tunnel when passing the graft from the tibia to the femur. The use of a blunt trocar through the posteromedial portal avoids impingement of the bone block against the edge of the tibial tunnel. This method uses the pulley principle and permits the graft to pass freely into the knee. This method has been used successfully by the authors in more than 40 PCL arthroscopic reconstructions.
Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Kan; Chai, Hao; Zhou, Mei; Bai, Jingping
Background The aim of this study was to determine if anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction by remnant preservation promotes cell proliferation, vascularization, proprioception recovery, and improved biomechanical properties of the tendon grafts. Material/Methods 75 New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into the control group (group A), conventional ACL reconstruction group (group B), ACL reconstruction using remnant preservation and graft through remnant sleeve technique group (group C), and ACL reconstruction using remnant preservation and remnant tensioning technique group (group D). The remnant and healing of tendon grafts in groups C and D were observed at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery, and the mRNA expression levels of VEGF, NT-3 and GAP-43 in ACL (group A) or tendon graft samples (groups B, C, and D) were determined by real-time PCR. Tendon graft cell count, microvessel density (MVD), and proprioceptors were determined by H&E staining, CD34, and S-100 immunohistochemical staining. The biomechanical properties of the tendon graft at week 12 in groups B, C, and D were examined by using a tensile strength test. Results Remnant and tendon grafts were not healed at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after the operation in groups C and D. VEGF, NT-3, and GAP-43 mRNA expressions in groups B, C, and D were higher than those in group A (P<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between groups B, C, and D (P>0.05). Furthermore, tendon graft cell count, MVD, proprioception, and biomechanical properties showed no significant differences (P>0.05) among groups B, C, and D at various time points. Conclusions There was no significant difference in cell proliferation, vascularization, proprioception recovery, or biomechanical properties of the tendon grafts between remnant-preserving and conventional ACL reconstruction methods. PMID:27669454
Conroy, Christine; Sethi, Paul; Macken, Craig; Wei, David; Kowalsky, Marc; Mirzayan, Raffy; Pauzenberger, Leo; Dyrna, Felix; Obopilwe, Elifho; Mazzocca, Augustus D
The majority of distal biceps tendon injuries can be repaired in a single procedure. In contrast, complete chronic tears with severe tendon substance deficiency and retraction often require tendon graft augmentation. In cases with extensive partial tears of the distal biceps, a human dermal allograft may be used as an alternative to restore tendon thickness and biomechanical integrity. Dermal graft augmentation will improve load to failure compared with nonaugmented repair in a tendon-deficient model. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-six matched specimens were organized into 1 of 4 groups: native tendon, native tendon with dermal graft augmentation, tendon with an attritional defect, and tendon with an attritional defect repaired with a graft. To mimic a chronic attritional biceps lesion, a defect was created by a complete tear, leaving 30% of the tendon's width intact. The repair technique in all groups consisted of cortical button and interference screw fixation. All specimens underwent cyclical loading for 3000 cycles and were then tested to failure; gap formation and peak load at failure were documented. The mean (±SD) load to failure (320.9 ± 49.1 N vs 348.8 ± 77.6 N, respectively; P = .38) and gap formation (displacement) (1.8 ± 1.4 mm vs 1.6 ± 1.1 mm, respectively; P = .38) did not differ between the native tendon groups with and without graft augmentation. In the tendon-deficient model, the mean load to failure was significantly improved with graft augmentation compared with no graft augmentation (282.1 ± 83.8 N vs 199.7 ± 45.5 N, respectively; P = .04), while the mean gap formation was significantly reduced (1.2 ± 1.0 mm vs 2.7 ± 1.4 mm, respectively; P = .04). The mean load to failure of the deficient tendon with graft augmentation (282.1 N) compared with the native tendon (348.8 N) was not significantly different ( P = .12). This indicates that the native tendon did not perform differently from the grafted deficient tendon. In a tendon
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed orthopedic procedures in the United States. Repair of the ACL often requires the use of autografts or allografts, and the RN first assistant (RNFA) often is the team member responsible for preparing the graft. Common grafts used in ACL repair include bone-patellar tendon-bone, hamstring, Achilles tendon, quadriceps tendon, and tibialis anterior tendon. The RNFA must be competent in preparing all of these grafts and in understanding the advantages and disadvantages of using each graft, such as the reasons for graft choice, and must ensure that all graft-related supplies and equipment are available and ready for use. The ability to prepare all graft types expands treatment options, reduces surgical time, and enhances the role of the RNFA.
Pan, Juan; Liu, Guo-Ming; Ning, Liang-Ju; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Jing-Cong; Huang, Fu-Guo; Qin, Ting-Wu
Although varieties of surgical repair techniques and materials have been used to repair rotator cuff defects, re-tearing frequently occurs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the postoperative outcomes of rotator cuff repairs with a decellularized tendon slices (DTSs) graft in a rabbit model. Large defects in the infraspinatus tendons were created bilaterally in 21 rabbits. The graft group underwent reconstruction of the defects with the DTSs grafts, while the defect group did not undergo any treatment. The specimens underwent histological observation, biomechanical testing, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. In addition, 2 rabbits that were not operated on were used for MRI detection as a normal reference. Histological analysis revealed that the graft promoted host cell ingrowth and tissue integration, and a tendon-like structure developed at 12 weeks. The ultimate tensile load had a significant difference between specimens at 4 and 12 weeks in the graft group, but there was no significant difference between the graft group and the defect group. In the graft group, the stiffness at 12 weeks was significantly greater than that at 4 or 8 weeks, and it was also greater than the stiffness in the defect group at 12 weeks. MRI demonstrated that the signal strength of the regenerative tissue from the graft group at 12 weeks was similar to that of normal infraspinatus tendon. The DTSs graft allowed for incorporation of host tendon and improved the biomechanical performance of the regenerative tendon. Therefore, the graft could be a promising bioscaffold to enhance the surgical repair of large rotator cuff defects and consequently improve the clinical outcome of rotator cuff tears.
Shin, Sang-Jin; Campbell, Sean; Scott, Jonathan; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q
The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel surgical technique for simultaneous anatomic reconstruction of the acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligaments using a single tendon graft and to compare its biomechanical characteristics to those of a coracoid cerclage reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligaments. Six matched pairs of human acromioclavicular joints with an average age of 54.8 ± 7.8 years were used. One shoulder from each pair received the single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction; the contralateral shoulder received the coracoid cerclage reconstruction. Bovine extensor tendon was used for both techniques. The single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction technique provided anatomic restoration of the two coracoclavicular ligaments and the superior and inferior acromioclavicular ligaments simultaneously using one coracoid hole, one acromion hole, and two clavicular holes with interference screws. Anterior-posterior and superior-inferior translations were quantified for all specimens before and after reconstruction, followed by load to failure testing. Following coracoid cerclage reconstruction, total anterior-posterior translation was significantly greater than intact (10.0 ± 5.7 mm; p = 0.008). Following single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction, there was no significant difference in anterior-posterior translation compared to intact (-1.6 ± 2.2 mm; n.s.). The coracoid cerclage technique demonstrated significantly greater anterior-posterior translation than the single tendon acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular technique (p = 0.007). Both techniques restored superior-inferior translation to the intact condition (n.s.). Ultimate load, deformation at ultimate load, and energy absorbed at ultimate load were significantly greater after acromioclavicular-coracoclavicular reconstruction than after coracoid cerclage reconstruction (p < 0.05). This novel single tendon
Jahani, S; Moslemi, H. R.; Dehghan, M. M.; Sedaghat, R; Mazaheri Nezhad, R; Rezaee Moghaddam, D
In this study, the role of local injection of butyric acid (BA) with autogenous omental graft was evaluated in healing of experimental Achilles tendon injury in rabbits. Nine adult male New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized and a partial thickness tenotomy was created on both hindlimbs. In treated group, omental graft was secured in place using BA soaked polygalactin 910 suture. In control group, the graft was sutured without BA. Butyric acid and normal saline were injected daily to treatment and control groups for three days, respectively. Based on the findings, on day 15 after injury, the tendon sections showed that healing rate in BA treated group was higher than that in control group. Furthermore, at days 28 and 45, comparison between BA treated and control groups demonstrated that BA increased the healing rate but with no significance. In summary, results of this study show that application of BA with autogenous omental graft can improve healing process of damaged Achilles tendon. PMID:27175160
Yoo, Yon-Sik; Seo, Young-Jin; Noh, Kyu-Cheol; Patro, Bishu Prasad; Kim, Do-Young
We describe a method of arthroscopically assisted, mini-open, anatomical reconstruction of the coracoclavicular ligament. This method restores both components of the native ligament with the aim of achieving maximum stability with minimal disruption of the normal anatomy. Using the same principles of ligament reconstruction that are employed in other joints, transosseous tunnels are created following the native footprints of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments and an autologous graft is fixed using a PEEK screw. Adequate healing of the ligament occurs within the bone, to prevent stress risers with an appropriate working length. This procedure is unique, as it replaces the torn ligament with a natural substitute, in the appropriate location, through a minimally invasive procedure. This technique would be suitable for treatment of patients with either grade III or V acute acromioclavicular dislocations. Clinical outcomes for the first 13 consecutive patients treated with this procedure are reported, revealing excellent satisfaction rates with a Constant score of 96.6 at final follow-up.
Moshiri, Ali; Oryan, Ahmad; Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid
Bovine platelet gel (BPG) is an accessible and cost-effective source of growth factors which may have a value in tendon regenerative medicine. We produced a collagen implant (CI) as a tendon proper, covered it with polydioxanone (PDS) sheath to simulate paratenon and finally embedded the BPG as an active source of growth factor within the bioimplant to test whether BPG would be able to accelerate and enhance tendon regeneration and repair. After in vitro characterization of the bioactive grafts, the grafts were implanted in rabbit large tendon defect model. Untreated tendons and tendons treated with either CI or CI-PDS were served as controls for the CI-PDS-BPG. The animals were investigated clinically, ultrasonographically and haematologically for 120 days. After euthanasia, dry matter content, water uptake and delivery characteristics and also gross morphological, histopathological and scanning electron microscopic features of the healing tendons were assessed. In vitro, the activated platelets in the scaffold, released their growth factors significantly more than the controls. BPG also increased cell viability, and enhanced cellular differentiation, maturation and proliferation inside the CI-PDS compared with the controls. In vivo, the BPG modulated inflammation, increased quality and rate of fibroplasia and produced a remodelled tendon that had significantly higher collagen content and superior collagen fibril and fibre differentiation than controls. Treatment also significantly improved tendon water uptake and delivery characteristics, animals’ serum PDGF level, CI-PDS biocompatibility and biodegradability and reduced peritendinous adhesions, muscle fibrosis and atrophy. BPG was effective on tendon healing and CI-PDS-BPG may be a valuable bioscaffold in tendon reconstructive surgery. PMID:25702535
Boileau, P; Rémi, M; Lemaire, M; Rousseau, P; Desnuelle, C; Argenson, C
Knee rehabilitation after ACL repair with bone-tendon-bone graft is still controversial. While there was a tendency to protect the graft and the donor site in the eighties, actual tendency is to propose more aggressive, so called accelerated rehabilitation protocol. An extensive analysis of the literature shows that this accelerated rehabilitation is justified because of histologic, biomechanic, surgical and clinical arguments. This accelerated rehabilitation is based on seven reasons, at least: 1) the necrosis of the graft, initially observed in animals, does not seem to be as important in humans as demonstrated by histological studies after in vivo biopsies; 2) the use of solid bone-tendon-bone graft, whose resistance is maximum in the early post-operative period and is superior to the resistance of the ACL; 3) the more precise positioning (more "isometric") because of optic magnification allowed by arthroscopy; 4) the absence of graft impingement, routinely controlled, because of a more posterior tibial placement of the graft and the eventual notch-plasty; 5) the solid and confident fixation of the graft because of interference screws; 6) anterior knee pain are less important when early constraints are applied on the knee; 7) finally, undisciplined and demanding patients who refuse all protection for the graft and the donor site, have good and stable results regarding stability of the knees. Early constraints on the knee after bone-tendon-bone graft and interference fixation give better tolerance on the extension mechanism without compromising integrity of the graft and knee stability. Appropriate level of constraints on the ACL graft and the donor site guides the collagenic reorganisation process. Early restoration of normal hyperextension, decreased knee pain and maintenance of muscular trophicity, allowing patients to go back to sport at 4 months, are the most evident benefits of this accelerated rehabilitation. These considerations cannot be applied to the
Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Fujie, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Hiromi; Fukagawa, Makoto; Nomura, Shunsuke; Sakane, Masataka
Background: We previously developed a novel technique using an alternate soaking process that improves tendon-bone healing by hybridizing the tendon graft with calcium phosphate (CaP). However, the effects of the CaP-hybridized tendon graft on anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remain unclear. Purpose: To determine the effects of CaP-hybridized tendon grafts compared with untreated tendon grafts 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a goat model. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Animals were divided into a CaP group (n = 5 goats) and a control group (n = 5 goats), and we analyzed (1) knee kinematics and in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N and internal tibial torque of 2.0 N·m in the grafts at full extension and at 60° and 90° of knee flexion, (2) the mean percentage of bone tunnel enlargement using computed tomography (CT), and (3) the histology of the tendon-bone interface. Results: The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads of 50 N at 60° and 90° of knee flexion in the CaP group were greater than those in the control group (P < .05). The red safranin-O–stained area, indicating glycosaminoglycans in the cartilage layers at the joint aperture sites of the anterior femoral and posterior tibial bone tunnel, was greater in the CaP group than that in the control group (P < .05). The lengths of the nonbonding gap area between the anterior femoral and posterior tibial bone tunnels in the control group were greater than those in the CaP group (P < .05). No significant difference could be detected in the mean percentage of bone tunnel enlargement between the 2 groups. Conclusion: The CaP-hybridized tendon graft enhanced tendon-bone healing at the joint aperture site in both anterior femoral and posterior tibial tunnels 6 months after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction in goats. The in situ forces under applied anterior tibial loads at greater
Howell, S M; Deutsch, M L
This study compared the differences in clinical outcome between an endoscopic (67 of 70) and two-incision (41 of 49) technique used to reconstruct tom anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) using a double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis (DLSTG) graft. In both techniques, the graft was placed without roof impingement, the looped end of the graft was fixed around a post with bone compaction, and the free ends were fixed with either double staples or a soft tissue washer(s). No graft required suture fixation. The postoperative treatment featured an aggressive rehabilitation protocol without a brace, and allowed unrestricted sports participation 4 months after reconstruction. Age, sex distribution, duration from injury to surgery, and preoperative laxity were not significantly different between treatment groups. The operative time for the endoscopic technique averaged 48 minutes less than the two-incision technique. There were no significant differences in thigh circumference, knee extension, stability, and the single leg hop test between the two treatment groups at 4 and 24 months. Ninety-one percent of the knees in the endoscopic group and 90% in the two-incision group had less than a 3 mm increase in anterior translation compared with the normal knee using the manual maximum test (KT-1000) and had either a normal or near normal knee (IKDC score) at 2 years. A second surgery for removal of painful, prominent hardware was required in 21% of the subjects in the endoscopic group and 12% of the subjects in the two-incision treatment group. Patients preferred the endoscopic technique because the result was more cosmetic and aggressive rehabilitation could be accomplished without the assistance of a physical therapist. Unfortunately, objective stability could not be restored in about 10% of knees with either technique. Reoperation for removal of prominent staples and washers continues to be the primary source of postoperative morbidity.
Rodger, M P; Theobald, P; Giddins, G
The ultimate tensile repair strength and gap formation of the pig extensor tendons repaired with a standard 4-strand Savage with epitendinous suture repair, was compared with a new technique of adding a vein sleeve. Force and displacement data were recorded, and video images during linear cyclic loading up to failure. At 35 N, video-graphic observation detected significantly smaller gap lengths in the standard and vein repair specimens compared with standard repair specimens (p = 0.047). The incidence of 3 mm gaps between the repaired tendon ends in the standard repair group was 20 %, but no 3 mm gaps were seen in the standard and vein specimens. The addition of a vein sleeve increased the ultimate tensile strength of the standard repair from 50.4 N (4.5) to 55.4 N (4.5); this was statistically significant (p = 0.03). This study demonstrated that the addition of a vein graft prevented gap formation and increased ultimate tensile strength of tendon repair.
Houle, J B; Letts, M; Yang, J
Children who sustain anterior cruciate disruption often are denied the standard reconstructive procedures because of the concern that drilling across the physis of the tibia and femur and compression from a tensioned graft will result in growth plate arrest. To test this concept and to assess whether a tendon placed in the tunnel would function in a manner similar to a fat graft after the resection of a physeal bar, tunnels were made across the proximal tibial physis and distal femoral physis in a group of immature rabbits. Four tunnel diameters were used from 1.95 to 3.97 mm, in three rabbits at each diameter, with patellar tendon autografts being used as the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in two of the animals. The knees were radiographed every 4 weeks, and the animals were euthanized 4 months after surgery. The surgically treated and control knees were salvaged, and each knee was examined grossly, radiographically, and histologically. Eight of the 11 animals had growth arrest of one or both physes. The larger the drill hole diameter the more marked was the deformity. The proximal tibial physis seemed to be the most vulnerable for growth arrest, occurring in eight of the knees. The insertion of a tendon did not seem to offer any protection to physeal arrest. Because of these findings, it is not recommended that tunnels involving 1% or more of the area of the physis be placed across the tibial and femoral physis to reconstruct the anterior cruciate in very skeletally immature children.
Hegazy, Galal; Safwat, Hesham; Seddik, Mahmoud; Al-shal, Ehab A.; Al-Sebai, Ibrahim; Negm, Mohame
Background: The optimal operative method for acromioclavicular joint reconstruction remains controversial. The modified Weaver-Dunn method is one of the most popular methods. Anatomic reconstruction of coracoclavicular ligaments with autogenous tendon grafts, widely used in treating chronic acromioclavicular joint instability, reportedly diminishes pain, eliminates sequelae, and improves function as well as strength. Objective: To compare clinical and radiologic outcomes between a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure and an anatomic coracoclavicular ligaments reconstruction technique using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft. Methods: Twenty patients (mean age, 39 years) with painful, chronic Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations were subjected to surgical reconstruction. In ten patients, a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure was performed, in the other ten patients; autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft was used. The mean time between injury and the index procedure was 18 month (range from 9 – 28). Clinical evaluation was performed using the Oxford Shoulder Score and Nottingham Clavicle Score after a mean follow-up time of 27.8 months. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were compared. Results: In the Weaver-Dunn group the Oxford Shoulder Score improved from 25±4 to 40±2 points. While the Nottingham Clavicle Score increased from 48±7 to 84±11. In semitendinosus tendon graft group, the Oxford Shoulder Score improved from 25±3 points to 50±2 points and the Nottingham Clavicle Score from 48±8 points to 95±8, respectively. Conclusion: Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the semitendinosus tendon graft achieved better Oxford Shoulder Score and Nottingham Clavicle Score compared to the modified Weaver-Dunn procedure. PMID:27347245
Hegazy, Galal; Safwat, Hesham; Seddik, Mahmoud; Al-Shal, Ehab A; Al-Sebai, Ibrahim; Negm, Mohame
The optimal operative method for acromioclavicular joint reconstruction remains controversial. The modified Weaver-Dunn method is one of the most popular methods. Anatomic reconstruction of coracoclavicular ligaments with autogenous tendon grafts, widely used in treating chronic acromioclavicular joint instability, reportedly diminishes pain, eliminates sequelae, and improves function as well as strength. To compare clinical and radiologic outcomes between a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure and an anatomic coracoclavicular ligaments reconstruction technique using autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft. Twenty patients (mean age, 39 years) with painful, chronic Rockwood type III acromioclavicular joint dislocations were subjected to surgical reconstruction. In ten patients, a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure was performed, in the other ten patients; autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft was used. The mean time between injury and the index procedure was 18 month (range from 9 - 28). Clinical evaluation was performed using the Oxford Shoulder Score and Nottingham Clavicle Score after a mean follow-up time of 27.8 months. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were compared. In the Weaver-Dunn group the Oxford Shoulder Score improved from 25±4 to 40±2 points. While the Nottingham Clavicle Score increased from 48±7 to 84±11. In semitendinosus tendon graft group, the Oxford Shoulder Score improved from 25±3 points to 50±2 points and the Nottingham Clavicle Score from 48±8 points to 95±8, respectively. Acromioclavicular joint reconstruction using the semitendinosus tendon graft achieved better Oxford Shoulder Score and Nottingham Clavicle Score compared to the modified Weaver-Dunn procedure.
Kienbock's disease can lead to unsalvageable collapse of the lunate due to avascular necrosis but with reasonably intact cartilage surfaces preserved at the head of the capitate and lunate fossa of the radius. An emerging alternative to traditional treatments for this stage is lunate implant arthroplasty with a hard material. Although, the problem of osteolysis previously seen with silicone implant arthroplasty is expected to be overcome, stabilization of both the implant and the carpus as a whole remains a challenge. The described surgical technique uses a double bundle tendon graft to stabilize the lunate implant against both excessive translational as well as sagittal plane rotational motions. The strategy also stabilizes the scaphoid and the carpus against intercalated segment instability and collapse.
Singh, Dhanpal; Kumar, K Arun; Dinesh, Mc; Raj, Ranju
Chronic triceps insufficiency, causing prolonged disability, occurs due to a missed diagnosis of an acute rupture. We report a 25 year old male with history of a significant fall sustaining multiple injuries. Since then, he had inability in extending his right elbow for which he sought intervention after a year. Diagnosis of triceps rupture was made clinicoradiologically and surgery was planned. Intraoperative findings revealed a deficient triceps with a fleck of avulsed bone from olecranon. Ipsilateral double tendon graft including extensor carpi radialis longus and palmaris longus were anchored to triceps and secured with the olecranon. Six-months follow revealed a complete active extension of elbow and a full function at the donor site.
Jacobi, Matthias; Magnussen, Robert A; Villa, Vincent; Demey, Guillaume; Neyret, Philippe
There is significant interest in the restoration of the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL when performing ACL reconstruction. Possible techniques include those utilizing two separate grafts with independent tunnels and those that attempt to mimic this anatomy with a single graft and fewer tunnels. Many of the latter techniques require specific instrumentation and are technically challenging. We demonstrate that the double-bundle anatomy of the native ACL can theoretically be mimicked by a single-bundle reconstruction. We performed single bundle ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) graft in two cadaveric knees. Both grafts were placed to mimic the native ACL footprints - one reconstruction was performed with rectangular bone blocks and oval tunnels and one was performed utilizing a standard BTB graft and round tunnels. Qualitative assessment of graft behavior was made as the knees were taken through a range of motion. The ACL graft was able to qualitatively mimic the behavior of the native ACL in both knees provided the bone blocks were correctly orientated. ACL reconstruction with a single BTB graft can qualitatively mimic the behavior of the two bundles of the native ACL. The key to ensuring this behavior was noted to be appropriate orientation of the graft in the tunnels. Quantitative biomechanical investigations are necessary to evaluate the impact of graft orientation on function.
Yu, Bing; Queen, Robin M; Abbey, Alicia N; Liu, Yu; Moorman, Claude T; Garrett, William E
Hamstring muscle strain injury is one of the most commonly seen injuries in sports such as track and field, soccer, football, and rugby. The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of hamstring muscle strain injuries during over ground sprinting by investigating hamstring muscle-tendon kinematics and muscle activation. Three-dimensional videographic and electromyographic (EMG) data were collected for 20 male runners, soccer or lacrosse players performing overground sprinting at their maximum effort. Hamstring muscle-tendon lengths, elongation velocities, and linear envelop EMG data were analyzed for a running gait cycle of the dominant leg. Hamstring muscles exhibited eccentric contractions during the late stance phase as well as during the late swing phase of overground sprinting. The peak eccentric contraction speeds of the hamstring muscles were significantly greater during the late swing phase than during the late stance phase (p=0.001) while the hamstring muscle-tendon lengths at the peak eccentric contraction speeds were significantly greater during the late stance phase than during the late swing phase (p=0.001). No significant differences existed in the maximum hamstring muscle-tendon lengths between the two eccentric contractions. The potential for hamstring muscle strain injury exists during the late stance phase as well as during the late swing phases of overground sprinting.
... have time to heal and rebuild strength. Poor flexibility. If you have poor flexibility, your muscles may not be able to bear ... how to perform specific exercises designed to improve flexibility and strengthen your hamstring muscles. Surgery If your ...
Guanche, Carlos A.
There is a continuum of hamstring injuries that can range from musculotendinous strains to avulsion injuries. Although the proximal hamstring complex has a strong bony attachment on the ischial tuberosity, hamstring injuries are common in athletic population and can affect all levels of athletes. Nonoperative treatment is mostly recommended in the setting of low-grade partial tears and insertional tendinosis. However, failure of nonoperative treatment of partial tears may benefit from surgical debridement and repair. The technique presented on this article allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now has been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. The procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:27011828
Luu, Cynthia A.; Larson, Ethan; Rankin, Timothy M.; Pappalardo, Jennifer L.; Slepian, Marvin J.
Summary: We report on the use of free fat grafting as a means of redistributing normal and shear stress after healing of plantar diabetic foot wounds. Although fat augmentation (lipofilling) has been described previously as an approach to supplement defects and prevent atrophy, including use as an adjunct to wound healing and to mitigate pain in the foot, we are unaware of any reports in the medical literature that have described its use in the high-risk diabetic foot in remission. An active 37-year-old man with type 2 diabetes and neuropathy presented with gangrene of his fifth ray, which was amputated. He subsequently developed a chronic styloid process ulceration that progressed despite treatment. We performed a tibialis anterior tendon transfer and total contact casting. He went on to heal but with residual fat pad atrophy and recalcitrant preulcerative lesions. We then used autologous fat grafting for the plantar atrophy. The patient was able to successfully transition to normal shoe gear after 4 weeks with successful engraftment without complication or recurrence of the wound at 6 weeks. This therapy may provide a promising adjunct to increase ulcer-free days to the patient in diabetic foot remission. PMID:27536489
Chen, Chih-Hwa; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Tsai, Ching-Lin; Yu, Chung-Ming; Lin, I-Hsuan; Hsiue, Ging-Ho
Tissue-engineered solutions for promoting the tendon graft incorporation within the bone tunnel appear to be promising. To determine the feasibility that conjugation of hyaluronic acid-tethered bone morphogenetic protein-2 can be used to stimulate periosteal progenitor cells direct fibrocartilagenous attachment and new bone formation in an extra-articular tendon-bone healing model. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 mature New Zealand White rabbits were used. The long digitorum extensor tendon was transplanted into a bone tunnel of the proximal tibia. The tendon was pulled through a drill hole in the proximal tibia and attached to the medial aspect of the tibia. Photopolymerizable hydrogel based on poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate with hyaluronic acid-tethered bone morphogenetic protein-2 was injected and photogelated in a bone tunnel. Histological and biomechanical examination of the tendon-bone interface was evaluated at postoperative weeks 3 and 6. Histological analysis showed an interface fibrocartilage and new bone formed by photoencapsulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and periosteal progenitor cells at 6 weeks. Biomechanical testing revealed higher maximum pullout strength and stiffness in experimental groups with a statistically significant difference at 3 and 6 weeks after tendon transplantation. The healing tendon-bone interface undergoes a gradual remodeling process; it appears that photoencapsulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and periosteal progenitor cells possesses a powerful inductive ability between the tendon and the bone to incorporate the healing in a rabbit model. Novel technologies, such as those described in this study, including photopolymerization and tissue engineering, may provide minimally invasive therapeutic procedures via arthroscopy to enhance biological healing after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.
Sasaki, Ken; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kazunari; Kubo, Seiji; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Keisuke; Tei, Katsumasa; Akisue, Toshihiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kurosaka, Masahiro
Whereas anterior cruciate ligament rupture usually requires reconstruction, the attachment between the tendon and the bone is the weakest region in the early posttransplantation period. In this process, the acquisition of appropriate vascularity is a key for early bone-tendon healing. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has an effect on the maturation of bone-tendon integration of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-eight healthy adult beagle dogs underwent bilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the ipsilateral flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and were divided into 2 groups. A granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-incorporated gelatin surrounded the graft in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor group, and the same gelatin without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was used as the control group. Assessment was done at 2 and 4 weeks. Histological analysis at week 2 demonstrated that, in addition to more Sharpey fibers, microvessels were significantly enhanced in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor group's grafts. Computed tomography at week 4 showed a significantly smaller tibial bone tunnel in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor group. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed significantly elevated messenger ribonucleic acid expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and osteocalcin in the tibial bone tunnel and graft compared with controls. Furthermore, biomechanical testing of force during loading to ultimate failure at week 4 demonstrated a significant increase in strength in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor group. This study demonstrated that a local application of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-incorporated gelatin significantly accelerates bone-tendon interface strength via enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has therapeutic potential in promoting an environment conductive to angiogenesis and
Díaz, Jorge Luis; Vega, Marcelo; Matesevach, Ivan
Objectives: describe our technique using hamstring graft that respects the proximal continuity of Semitendinosus and uses the superior biological potential of the distal periosteum., preserving and stressing the ST reinforce the retropulsión and dynamic control of external rotation of the knee. Here the technique, results, difficulties and foundations. Methods: The sample of this research was composed of 229 cases operated between 01/03/97 and 01/03/13 in Arthroscopy Private Center., 166 male and 63 female, the postop follow-up was 86 months. Evaluated with IKDC, Lysholm, Hamstring EMG. Comparative histology study in rabbits. Results: IKDC and Lysholm score showed 93% of very good results. Conclusion: Dynamic ACL reconstruction achieves a static-dynamic stabilization of the knee. Grafts have a plus in their biological potential (proximal continuity - osteo-periosteal insertion of the tendons in the femoral tunnel). The hamstring maintains its functionality (EMG). 93% satisfactory results (IKDC, Lysholm). It is a valid surgical option in ACL injuries.
Direct Lentiviral-Cyclooxygenase 2 Application to the Tendon-Bone Interface Promotes Osteointegration and Enhances Return of the Pull-Out Tensile Strength of the Tendon Graft in a Rat Model of Biceps Tenodesis
Wergedal, Jon E.; Stiffel, Virginia; Lau, Kin-Hing William
This study sought to determine if direct application of the lentiviral (LV)-cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) vector to the tendon-bone interface would promote osteointegration of the tendon graft in a rat model of biceps tenodesis. The LV-COX2 gene transfer strategy was chosen for investigation because a similar COX2 gene transfer strategy promoted bony bridging of the fracture gap during bone repair, which involves similar histologic transitions that occur in osteointegration. Briefly, a 1.14-mm diameter tunnel was drilled in the mid-groove of the humerus of adult Fischer 344 rats. The LV-COX2 or βgal control vector was applied directly into the bone tunnel and onto the end of the tendon graft, which was then pulled into the bone tunnel. A poly-L-lactide pin was press-fitted into the tunnel as interference fixation. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 5, or 8 weeks for histology analysis of osteointegration. The LV-COX2 gene transfer strategy enhanced neo-chondrogenesis at the tendon-bone interface but with only marginal effect on de novo bone formation. The tendon-bone interface of the LV-COX2-treated tenodesis showed the well-defined tendon-to-fibrocartilage-to-bone histologic transitions that are indicative of osteointegration of the tendon graft. The LV-COX2 in vivo gene transfer strategy also significantly enhanced angiogenesis at the tendon-bone interface. To determine if the increased osteointegration was translated into an improved pull-out mechanical strength property, the pull-out tensile strength of the LV-COX2-treated tendon grafts was determined with a pull-out mechanical testing assay. The LV-COX2 strategy yielded a significant improvement in the return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft after 8 weeks. In conclusion, the COX2-based in vivo gene transfer strategy enhanced angiogenesis, osteointegration and improved return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft. Thus, this strategy has great potential to be developed into an effective therapy to
Direct lentiviral-cyclooxygenase 2 application to the tendon-bone interface promotes osteointegration and enhances return of the pull-out tensile strength of the tendon graft in a rat model of biceps tenodesis.
Rundle, Charles H; Chen, Shin-Tai; Coen, Michael J; Wergedal, Jon E; Stiffel, Virginia; Lau, Kin-Hing William
This study sought to determine if direct application of the lentiviral (LV)-cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) vector to the tendon-bone interface would promote osteointegration of the tendon graft in a rat model of biceps tenodesis. The LV-COX2 gene transfer strategy was chosen for investigation because a similar COX2 gene transfer strategy promoted bony bridging of the fracture gap during bone repair, which involves similar histologic transitions that occur in osteointegration. Briefly, a 1.14-mm diameter tunnel was drilled in the mid-groove of the humerus of adult Fischer 344 rats. The LV-COX2 or βgal control vector was applied directly into the bone tunnel and onto the end of the tendon graft, which was then pulled into the bone tunnel. A poly-L-lactide pin was press-fitted into the tunnel as interference fixation. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 5, or 8 weeks for histology analysis of osteointegration. The LV-COX2 gene transfer strategy enhanced neo-chondrogenesis at the tendon-bone interface but with only marginal effect on de novo bone formation. The tendon-bone interface of the LV-COX2-treated tenodesis showed the well-defined tendon-to-fibrocartilage-to-bone histologic transitions that are indicative of osteointegration of the tendon graft. The LV-COX2 in vivo gene transfer strategy also significantly enhanced angiogenesis at the tendon-bone interface. To determine if the increased osteointegration was translated into an improved pull-out mechanical strength property, the pull-out tensile strength of the LV-COX2-treated tendon grafts was determined with a pull-out mechanical testing assay. The LV-COX2 strategy yielded a significant improvement in the return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft after 8 weeks. In conclusion, the COX2-based in vivo gene transfer strategy enhanced angiogenesis, osteointegration and improved return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft. Thus, this strategy has great potential to be developed into an effective therapy to
Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Monteiro, Diego Antico; Dias, Leonardo; Correia, Dárcio Maurício; Cohen, Moisés; Forgas, Andrea
Objective: this study aims to compare the arthrometric and isokinetic examination results from two types of autologous grafts: the central third of the patellar ligament and a graft formed by the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, within the same rehabilitation protocol, six months after the surgery. Methods: the results from examinations carried out on 63 patients were analyzed. These patients were divided in two groups: one group of 30 patients who received a patellar tendon graft and another group of 33 patients who received a graft from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles. Both the grafts were attached in the same way, with Endobutton™ for suspensory fixation to the femur and a bioabsorbable interference screw for fixation in the tibial tunnel. Results: arthrometry 30 did not present any statistical difference between the two study groups. On the other hand, the isokinetic evaluation showed that the patellar tendon group had a larger mean peak torque of flexion and greater extension deficit, while the semitendinosus/gracilis group had a better mean flexion/extension ratio and greater percentage of flexion deficit. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when measuring peak torque extension. Conclusion: therefore, when the patellar tendon was used, there was greater extensor deficit and, when the semitendinosus/gracilis tendons were used, there was greater flexor deficit. PMID:27004173
Jones, Kristofer J.; Lazaro, Lionel E.; Taylor, Samuel; Pardee, Nadine C.; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Hannafin, Jo A.; Warren, Russell F.; Lorich, Dean G.
Objectives: Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft remains a favored graft source for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction despite problems related to donor-site morbidity. Patellar devascularization has been proposed as a source of anterior knee pain following vascular disruption from traumatic injury (fracture) or surgical procedures involving the patella (total knee arthroplasty); however, no study has investigated the effect of BPTB harvest on patellar vascularity. Recent anatomic studies have suggested that the dominant arterial supply enters the patella through the inferior pole. We hypothesized that BPTB harvest can significantly diminish patellar vascularity following graft harvest. Methods: Nine matched pair cadaveric knee specimens (mean age 47.4 years) were dissected and cannulated at the superficial femoral, anterior tibialis, and posterior tibialis arteries. A single knee was randomly selected to undergo bone graft harvest. The contralateral knee was left intact to serve as a control. Gadolinium (Gd-DPTA) was injected into each knee and MRI signal enhancement was quantified to determine differences in osseous uptake between the two knees. Following MRI assessment, each matched pair was injected with a urethane polymer compound and dissected to correlate vessel disruption with MRI findings. Results: Graft harvest resulted in a mean 31% (range, 7.1-69.5%) decrease in signal enhancement when compared to the matched control. MRI assessment revealed two predominant patterns of vessel entry for the dominant inferior arterial supply. In one pattern, the vessel entered the inferomedial aspect (∼7 o’clock) of the distal patellar pole and was disrupted by bone graft harvest in two matched pairs (2/9, 22%). In the second pattern, the predominant vessel entered further medial (∼8 o’clock) and was not disrupted in 7 matched pairs. The mean decrease in gadolinium uptake following disruption of the predominant vessel measured 56% (range, 42
Gut, Grzegorz; Marowska, Joanna; Jastrzebska, Anna; Olender, Ewa; Kamiński, Artur
To avoid the risk of infectious disease transmission from donor to recipient, allografts should be terminally sterilized. In the previous paper (Kaminski et al. in Cell Tissue Bank 10:215-219, 2009) we presented the effect of various methods of preservation (deep fresh freezing, glycerolization, lyophilization), followed by irradiation with different doses of electron beam (EB), on material (intrinsic) mechanical properties of human patellar tendons cut out as for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, obtained in failure tensile test. As structural mechanical properties are equally important to predict the behaviour of the graft as a whole functional unit, the purpose of the present paper was to show the results for failure load and elongation, obtained in the same experiment. Paired Bone-Tendon-Bone grafts (BTB) were prepared from cadaveric human patella tendons with both patellar and tibial attachments. They were preserved by deep freezing, glycerolization or lyophilization and subsequently EB-irradiated with the doses of 25, 35, 50 or 100 kGy (fresh-frozen grafts) or a single dose of 35 kGy (glycerolized and lyophilized grafts). Each experimental (irradiated) group was provided with control (non-irradiated), donor-matched group. The specimens from all groups were subjected to mechanical failure tensile test with the use of Instron system in order to measure their structural properties (failure load and elongation). All lyophilized grafts were rehydrated before mechanical testing. In our study we did not observe significant deterioration of structural mechanical properties of BTB grafts processed by fresh-freezing and then terminal sterilized with growing doses of EB up to 100 kGy. In contrast, BTB grafts processed by glycerolization or lyophilization and irradiated with 35 kGy showed significant decrease of failure load. Obtained results suggest that deep-frozen irradiated grafts retain their initial mechanical properties to an extent which does not
Macaulay, Alec A.; Perfetti, Dean C.; Levine, William N.
Context: Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common surgical procedure; however, there is no consensus to what the best graft option is to replace the injured ACL. The main options available consist of allografts and autografts, which include patellar tendon, hamstring tendon, and quadriceps tendon autografts. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched in August 2010 for English-language articles pertaining to ACL grafts. Results: Postoperative outcome variables were analyzed to determine similarities and differences among the different graft options. These variables include stability, strength, function, return to sports, patient satisfaction, complications, and cost. Conclusions: Both allografts and the 3 main options for autografts can provide excellent results in ACL reconstruction and lead to a high percentage of satisfied patients. However, differences exist among the graft choices. Both the similarities and the differences are important to discuss with a patient who will be undergoing ACL reconstruction so that he or she has the best information available when making a choice of graft. PMID:23016071
Estrada-Malacón, Ciro Arturo; García-Estrada, Gustavo Adolfo
The calcaneal tendon lesion is very important due to the role of this tendon on gait performance, therefore a treatment strategy allowing the patient to resume activities of daily living as soon as possible is of the utmost importance. Treatment with a surgical approach involving the lateral peroneus brevis tendon facilitates bipodal support and immediate rehabilitation allowing the patient to resume activities of daily living as soon as possible.
Gigante, Antonio; Bottegoni, Carlo; Milano, Giuseppe; Riccio, Michele; Dei Giudici, Luca
Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has limited durability and is not indicated in young patients with high functional demands. We developed a new technique for repairing massive rotator cuff tears by semitendinosus and gracilis myotendinous grafting. This novel therapeutic option allows massive rotator cuff tears to be repaired using autologous material that is adequate and adaptable, making it possible to cover any width of defect. The technique is low-invasive and not technically demanding, with minimal donor site morbidity.
Kawano, Cezar Teruyuki; de Moraes Barros Fucs, Patrícia Maria; Severino, Nilson Roberto
Pretensioning of the flexor tendon graft of the knee is used to improve the stability of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. The objective was to demonstrate the pretensioning of grafts of the semitendinosus and gracilis in situ with range of flexion and extension of 0-110°, and determine the appropriate number of cycles in two types of femoral fixation. ACL reconstruction was performed in 60 patients, aged 16-48 years, 90% male, with 50% right knees and 50% left knees, divided into two groups of 30 patients: One with the femur fixed using interference screws (direct form) and the other with the transcondylar cross-pin screw (from a distance). Total length of the grafts, their circumference and the measurements on the radiographs of length of the grafts submitted to pretensioning and the measurements with ten, 25 and 50 cycles of flexion and extension were determined. There was no significant difference in relation to the total tendon lengths and their circumferences. The lengths of the portions submitted to pretensioning were significantly different: 7.90 cm for the interference and 10.92 cm for the transcondylar (mean). After tensioning, in the interference and transcondylar groups, respectively, lengthening was 3.57 mm/3.97 mm with ten, 6.30 mm/7.03 mm with 25, and 6.83 mm/7.7 mm with 50 cycles. The greater the length of the graft, the greater the lengthening on pretensioning throughout the substance; the shorter the length, the earlier the end of the lengthening was achieved, close to 25 cycles; more than ten cycles were necessary, 25 being sufficient.
Schache, Anthony G; Wrigley, Tim V; Baker, Richard; Pandy, Marcus G
Hamstring strains are common injuries, the majority of which occur whilst sprinting. An understanding of the biomechanical circumstances that cause the hamstrings to fail during sprinting is required to improve rehabilitation specificity. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the biomechanics of an acute hamstring strain. Bilateral kinematic and ground reaction force data were captured from a sprinting athlete prior to and immediately following a right hamstring strain. Ten sprinting trials were collected: nine normal (pre-injury) trials and one injury trial. Joint angles, torques and powers as well as hamstring muscle-tendon unit lengths were computed using a three-dimensional biomechanical model. For the pre-injury trials, the right leg compared to the left displayed greater knee extension and hamstring muscle-tendon unit length during terminal swing, an increased vertical ground reaction force peak and loading rate, and an increased peak hip extensor torque and peak hip power generation during initial stance. For the injury trial, significant biomechanical reactions were evident in response to the right hamstring strain, most notably for the right leg during the proceeding swing phase after the onset of the injury. The earliest kinematic deviations in response to the injury were displayed by the trunk and pelvis during right mid-stance. Taking into account neuromuscular latencies and electromechanical delays, the stimulus for the injury must have occurred prior to right foot-strike during the swing phase of the sprinting cycle. It is concluded that hamstring strains during sprinting most likely occur during terminal swing as a consequence of an eccentric contraction.
Haas, Franz; Seibert, Franz J; Koch, Horst; Hubmer, Martin; Moshammer, Harald E T; Pierer, Gerhard; Scharnagl, Erwin
A new approach to reconstruction of the Achilles tendon and overlying soft tissue is presented. A fascia lata graft is used to reconstruct the tendon and is enwrapped by the fascia that is included in a fasciocutaneous lateral arm flap. Five patients were treated with this technique; three of them after surgical Achilles tendon repair, rerupture, and consecutive infection, one after a full-thickness burn with loss of the tendon and one with a history of ochronosis and necrosis of the whole tendon and overlying soft tissue. There were no anastomotic complications and all flaps healed primarily. Functional evaluation with the Cybex II dynamometer was done at least 49 months after reconstruction. A good functional and cosmetic result was obtained in all patients and donor site morbidity was acceptable. These results are well within the results of other surgical treatment options reported in the literature.
Fauno, Peter; Kaalund, Søren
To compare the incidence of tunnel widening (TW) in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring graft using either (group A) transfemoral fixation implant (Transfix; Arthrex, Naples, FL) and an interference screw (Arthrex) in the tibial tunnel or (group B) extracortical fixation (EndoButton; Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA) in the femur and bicortical screw and washer distal to the tibial tunnel. Prospective randomized study. One hundred patients were included and randomized and 87 patients were assessed at a 1-year follow-up. The evaluation included standardized radiographs, KT-1000 data, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) ratings, and Lysholm score. The diameter of the tunnel at the 1 year follow-up was, after correction for magnification, compared with the tunnel diameter of the radiograph from 2 weeks postoperatively. A more than 2-mm enlargement was considered TW. In group A in which transfixation in the femur and interference screw in the tibia was used, 7 of 41 patients had developed femoral TW and 5 of 41 tibial TW. In group B, 20 of 46 patients had TW in the femur and 16 of 46 in the tibia (P < .05, chi-square test). No significant difference was found with respect to Lysholm score, IKDC, or arthrometric evaluation. There was a significant reduction of TW in both the femur and the tibia using fixation points close to the joint, compared with the system where the distance between the fixation points is long. We conclude that the position of the fixation sites and type of fixation device are major factors in the development of TW after ACL surgery. Level I, therapeutic study in a prospective randomized clinical trial.
Context: There is a wide spectrum of hamstring-related injuries that can occur in the athlete. Accurate diagnosis is imperative to prevent delayed return to sport, injury recurrence, and accurate clinical decision making regarding the most efficacious treatment. Evidence Acquisition: This review highlights current evidence related to the diagnosis and treatment of hamstring-related injuries in athletes. Data sources were limited to peer-reviewed publications indexed in MEDLINE from 1988 through May 2011. Results: An accurate diagnostic process for athletes with posterior thigh–related complaints should include a detailed and discriminative history, followed by a thorough clinical examination. Diagnostic imaging should be utilized when considering hamstring avulsion or ischial apophyseal avulsion. Diagnostic imaging may also be needed to further define the cause of referred posterior thigh pain. Conclusions: Differentiating acute hamstring strains, hamstring tendon avulsions, ischial apophyseal avulsions, proximal hamstring tendinopathies, and referred posterior thigh pain is critical in determining the most appropriate treatment and expediting safe return to play. PMID:23016076
Lee, Jun Hee; Burm, Jin Sik; Kang, Sang Yoon; Yang, Won Yong
Full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs) are generally considered unreliable for coverage of full-thickness finger defects with bone or tendon exposure, and there are few clinical reports of its use in this context. However, animal studies have shown that an FTSG can survive over an avascular area ranging up to 12 mm in diameter. In our experience, the width of the exposed bones or tendons in full-thickness finger defects is <7 mm. Therefore, we covered the bone- or tendon-exposed defects of 16 fingers of 10 patients with FTSGs. The surgical objectives were healthy granulation tissue formation in the wound bed, marginal de-epithelization of the normal skin surrounding the defect, preservation of the subdermal plexus of the central graft, and partial excision of the dermis along the graft margin. The donor site was the mastoid for small defects and the groin for large defects. Most of the grafts (15 of 16 fingers) survived without significant surgical complications and achieved satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. Minor complications included partial graft loss in one patient, a minimal extension deformity in two patients, a depression deformity in one patient, and mild hyperpigmentation in four patients. We observed excellent graft survival with this method with no additional surgical injury of the normal finger, satisfactory functional and aesthetic outcomes, and no need for secondary debulking procedures. Potential disadvantages include an insufficient volume of soft tissue and graft hyperpigmentation. Therefore, FTSGs may be an option for treatment of full-thickness finger defects with bone or tendon exposure.
Kuang, Guan-Ming; Yau, W P; Lu, William W; Chiu, K Y
Healing of soft tissue tendon grafts within the bone tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is known to be slower than that of bone-patellar tendon-bone grafts. There are attempts to accelerate healing of the graft within the bone tunnel. One of the methods is the use of strontium-enriched calcium phosphate cement (Sr-CPC). Early results in animal studies have been encouraging, although it is not known whether the accelerated healing was solely caused by the effect of strontium within the cement or by the calcium phosphate cement (CPC) itself. There would be differences between Sr-CPC and conventional CPC in terms of the effect on healing of soft tissue tendon grafts within the bone tunnels in ACL reconstruction. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 30 single-bundle ACL reconstruction procedures were performed in 15 rabbits with the use of an Achilles tendon allograft. The graft on the left limb was coated with Sr-CPC, while that on the right limb was coated with CPC. Three animals each were sacrificed for histological and histomorphometric analyses at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery. In the Sr-CPC group, early formation of Sharpey fibers was present at 6 weeks after surgery, while early remodeling of a graft-fibrocartilage-bone junction was noted at 12 weeks. In the CPC group, early formation of Sharpey fibers was only found at 9 to 12 weeks after surgery. At 24 weeks, a direct enthesis was found in both groups. According to the histomorphometric score, graft healing in the Sr-CPC group took place 3 weeks faster than that in the CPC group at and before 12 weeks; however, there was no difference between the groups at 24 weeks. The local application of strontium in a CPC system leads to accelerated graft healing within the bone tunnels. The use of Sr-CPC to enhance graft-bone healing may improve the clinical results of ACL reconstruction using soft tissue tendon grafts. © 2014 The Author(s).
Chong, Alphonsus K S; Riboh, Jonathan; Smith, R Lane; Lindsey, Derek P; Pham, Hung M; Chang, James
Tissue engineering of flexor tendons requires scaffolds with adequate strength and biocompatibility. The biomechanical properties of acellularized and reseeded flexor tendon scaffolds are unknown. Acellularized tendons and reseeded constructs were tested to determine whether the treatment process had altered their biomechanical properties. Rabbit flexor tendons were acellularized using a freeze-thaw cycle followed by trypsin and Triton-X treatment. Complete acellularization of the tendon samples was confirmed by histology and by attempting to obtain viable cells by trypsin treatment of acellularized tendon. Reseeded constructs were obtained by incubating acellularized tendons in a tenocyte suspension. Tensile testing was performed to compare the ultimate tensile stress and elastic modulus of acellularized tendons and reseeded flexor tendon constructs to control flexor tendons. The treatment protocol successfully acellularized flexor tendons. No cells were seen within the tendon on histologic assessment, and no viable cells could be obtained from acellularized tendon. Acellularized tendon was successfully reseeded with tenocytes, although cell adhesion was limited to the surface of the tendon scaffold. Tensile testing showed that acellularized tendon had the same ultimate stress and elastic modulus as normal tendons. Reseeded tendons had the same elastic modulus as normal tendons, but hind-paw tendon constructs showed a decrease in ultimate stress compared with normal tendons (50.09 MPa versus 66.01 MPa, p = 0.026). Acellularized flexor tendons are a potential high-strength scaffold for flexor tendon tissue engineering. This approach of acellularization and reseeding of flexor tendons may provide additional intrasynovial graft material for hand reconstruction.
GIGANTE, ANTONIO; BOTTEGONI, CARLO; MILANO, GIUSEPPE; RICCIO, MICHELE; DEI GIUDICI, LUCA
Massive rotator cuff tears are difficult to treat surgically due to retraction, degeneration and fraying of the ends of torn tendons, severe fatty infiltration and atrophy of the respective muscles. Procedures developed to close the gap between the rotator cuff and the greater tuberosity of the humerus, such as soft tissue release may be inadequate for large tears. Human or porcine dermal allografts still have uncertain benefits, and tendon transfers seem to be associated with poor outcomes, donor site morbidity and altered mechanics. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has limited durability and is not indicated in young patients with high functional demands. We developed a new technique for repairing massive rotator cuff tears by semitendinosus and gracilis myotendinous grafting. This novel therapeutic option allows massive rotator cuff tears to be repaired using autologous material that is adequate and adaptable, making it possible to cover any width of defect. The technique is low-invasive and not technically demanding, with minimal donor site morbidity. PMID:27900313
Vaquero, J; Vidal, C; Cubillo, A
The new biodegradable interference screws offer very many advantages for anterior cruciate ligament replacement with patellar tendon. However, their radiolucency makes it impossible to identify the anchorage sites. We describe an imaging technique of the plasty and its anchorage sites by means of a radiopaque contrast that is commonly used in radiology (Iopamidol; Bracco, Milan, Italy). It is an easy technique that does not extend the time of surgery, it is harmless, and allows us to identify malpositioning or impingement of the plasty.
Neuwirth, M; Bürger, H; Palle, W; Rab, M
Secondary reconstructions of isolated and combined tendon defects are still a challenge for plastic surgeons. Due to its reliable anatomy, reconstructive potential and low donor-site morbidity, the medial femoral condyle is an ideal area for harvesting isolated and combined tendon flaps. This study evaluates our preliminary results with the vascularized adductor magnus tendon flap. The study included six patients who received a vascularized tendon flap (upper extremity: three patients; lower extremity: three patients) from 2011 to 2015. For three patients, the adductor magnus tendon was used as a single flap; for the other three patients, the tendon was included in a composite flap. A retrospective chart review provided the patients' demographic data, surgical details and the post-operative course. The further objective and patient-reported outcome was evaluated with a long-term follow-up. All of the free vascularized flaps healed without complications and with good vascularization upon duplex ultrasonography. One patient did, however, require revision surgery in the late post-operative course. At the end point, all patients showed good functional results without any donor-site morbidity. For carefully selected isolated and combined tendon defects on the upper and lower extremities, the vascularized adductor magnus tendon flap provides a reliable and versatile method for microsurgical reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ho, Pak-cheong; Wong, Clara Wing-yee; Tse, Wing-lim
Background Both the dorsal and the volar portion of the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) are major stabilizers of the scapholunate (SL) joint. Most reconstruction methods to restore SL stability do not address the volar constraints and frequently fail to reduce the SL gapping. Wrist arthroscopy allows a complete evaluation of the SL interval, accompanying ligament status, and associated SL advanced collapse (SLAC) wrist changes. It enables simultaneous reconstruction of the dorsal and palmar SL ligaments anatomically with the use tendon graft in a boxlike structure. Materials and Methods From October 2002 to June 2012, the treatment method was applied in 17 patients of chronic SL instability of average duration of 9.5 months (range 1.5–18 months). There were three Geissler grade 3 and 14 grade 4 instability cases. The average preoperative SL interval was 4.9 mm (range 3–9 mm). Dorsal intercalated segment instability (DISI) deformity was present in 13 patients. Six patients had stage 1 SLAC wrist change radiologically. Concomitant procedures were performed in four patients. Description of Technique With the assistance of arthroscopy and intraoperative imaging as a guide, a combined limited dorsal and volar incision exposed the dorsal and palmar SL interval without violating the wrist joint capsule. Bone tunnels of 2.4 mm were made on the proximal scaphoid and lunate. A palmaris longus tendon graft was delivered through the wrist capsule and the bone tunnels to reduce and connect the two bones in a boxlike fashion. Once the joint diastasis is reduced and any DISI malrotation corrected, the tendon graft was knotted and sutured on the dorsal surface of the SL joint extra-capsularly in a shoe-lacing manner. The scaphocapitate joint was transfixed with Kirschner wires (K-wires) to protect the reconstruction for 6–8 weeks. Results The average follow-up was 48.3 months (range 11–132 months). Thirteen returned to their preinjury job level
Han, Fei; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Yaying; Lin, Chao; Zhao, Peng; Chen, Jiwu
Hamstring tendon autograft is a routine graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, ways of improving the healing between the tendon and bone is often overlooked in clinical practice. This issue can be addressed by using a biomimetic scaffold. Herein, a biomimetic nanofiber membrane of polycaprolactone/nanohydroxyapatite/collagen (PCL/nHAp/Col) is fabricated that mimics the composition of native bone tissue for promoting tendon-bone healing. This membrane has good cytocompatibility, allowing for osteoblast cell adhesion and growth and bone formation. As a result, MC3T3 cells reveal a higher mineralization level in PCL/nHAp/Col membrane compared with PCL membrane alone. Further in vivo studies in ACL reconstruction in a rabbit model shows that PCL/nHAp/Col-wrapped tendon may afford superior tissue integration to nonwrapped tendon in the interface between the tendon and host bone as well as improved mechanical strength. This study shows that PCL/nHAp/Col nanofiber membrane wrapping of autologous tendon is effective for improving tendon healing with host bone in ACL reconstruction.
Suh, Dong Won; Han, Seung Beom; Yeo, Woo Jin; Lee, Won Hee; Kwon, Jae Ho; Kyung, Bong Soo
Background: Tunnel widening (TW) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can be a serious complication, and there is controversy over how to prevent it. This study aimed to suggest surgical approaches to prevent TW using an allo-Achilles tendon graft, and then to evaluate TW after these surgical tips were applied. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients underwent ACL reconstruction with an allo-Achilles tendon graft. Four surgical approaches were used: Making a tibial tunnel by bone impaction, intraarticular reamer application, bone portion application for the femoral tunnel, and an additional bone plug application for the tibial tunnel. After more than 1-year, followup radiographs including anteroposterior and lateral views were taken in 29 patients encompassing thirty knees. The diameter of the tunnels at postoperation day 1 (POD1) and at followup was measured and compared. Results: In 18 knees (60%), there were no visible femoral tunnel margins on the radiographs at POD1 or followup. In the other 12 cases, which had visible femoral tunnel margins on followup radiographs, the mean femoral tunnel diameter was 8.6 mm. In the tibial tunnel, the mean diameters did not increase on all three levels (proximal, middle, and distal), and there was no statistically significant difference between the diameters at POD1 and followup. Conclusion: The suggested tips for surgery involving an allo-Achilles tendon graft can effectively prevent TW after ACL reconstruction according to this case series. These surgical tips can prevent TW. PMID:28400663
Choi, Nam Hong; Lim, Seok Min; Lee, Sang Young; Lim, Tae Kang
This study was conducted to report loss of reduction and complications after single-tunnel coracoclavicular (CC) ligament reconstruction with autogenous semitendinosus tendon graft for acute acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations. This retrospective study included patients with acute, unstable AC dislocations (surgery within 6 weeks after trauma). We excluded patients with chronic injury and distal clavicle fractures with CC ligaments disruption. We measured the CC distance on anteroposterior radiographs of both clavicles, preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at the final follow-up visit. We evaluated clinical outcomes using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment and the University of California, Los Angeles Shoulder Rating Scale scores and perioperative complications. There were 30 patients (27 men and 3 women) with mean age of 41 years (range, 19-70 years). The mean follow-up period was 31 months (range, 12-186 months). Mean CC distance was 15.5 ± 3.7 mm (84% ± 14% of the contralateral shoulder) preoperatively, 8.9 ± 2.6 mm (9% ± 40%) immediately postoperatively (P < .001), and 10.6 ± 3.3 mm (24% ± 39%) at the final assessment (P < .001), showing an increase of the CC distance during the follow-up. Loss of reduction (defined as >25% increase of CC distance) developed in 14 patients (47%), and complications occurred in 6 patients (20%), including 3 distal clavicle fractures through the tunnel. Final clinical scores were significantly lower in patients with complications (27 vs. 33 of the University of California, Los Angeles assessment [P < .001] and 81 vs. 95 of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder assessment [P < .001]). In acute AC joint dislocation, single-tunnel CC ligament reconstruction using autogenous tendon graft resulted in loss of reduction rate of 47% and a complication rate of 20%. The development of complications adversely affected clinical outcomes
Askling, C; Tengvar, M; Saartok, T; Thorstensson, A
Hamstring strains are common injuries in sports. Knowledge about their etiology and localization is, however, limited. The two cases described here both had acute hamstring strains, but the etiologies were entirely different. The sprinter was injured when running at maximal speed, whereas the hamstring strain in the dancer occurred during slow stretching. Also the anatomical localizations of the injuries clearly differed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed pathological changes in the distal semitendinosus muscle in the sprinter and the proximal tendon of the semimembranosus muscle in the dancer. Subjectively, both athletes severely underestimated the recovery time. These case observations suggest a possible link between etiology and localization of hamstring strains.
Broadhead, Matthew L.; Singla, Animesh A.; Bertollo, Nicky; Broe, David; Walsh, William R.
Hamstring tendon autografts are used for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. This study tested the hypothesis that a 5-strand hamstring autograft construct is superior in strength to a 4-strand construct. Four-strand and 5-strand tendon grafts constructs were prepared from ovine flexor tendons and then tested in a uniaxial electromechanical load system with suspensory fixation. The 4-strand and 5-strand constructs were pre-conditioned, stress-relaxed and loaded to ultimate failure. Stress-relaxation, stiffness and ultimate load were compared using a one-way ANOVA. There were no statistical differences in stress-relaxation, initial stiffness, secondary stiffness or ultimate load between 4-strand and 5-strand split tendon graft constructs. Inconsistent failure patterns for both 4-strand and 5-strand constructs were observed. The additional strand in the 5-strand construct may be shielded from stress with additional weakness secondary to the use of suspensory fixation. The potential biological benefit of religamentization and bony integration, with more autologous tissue in the intra-articular space and bony tunnels remains unknown. PMID:28286624
Calapodopulos, Constantino Jorge; Nogueira, Marcelo Corvino; Eustáquio, José Martins Juliano; Calapodopulos Júnior, Constantino Jorge; Rodrigues, Oreston Alves
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the surgical technique using the quadriceps tendon as a graft in static reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament. Methods This was a prospective case series study in which the participants were 22 patients with a diagnosis of recurrent patellar dislocation without any other anatomical alterations that required surgical treatment. The functional results from the technique were evaluated using clinical data and the Lysholm questionnaire, one year after the operation. Results It was observed that the patients were predominantly female (86%) and under 21 years of age (73%), just like in the literature. At the first annual return after the surgery, there was no significant pain on medium efforts, no loss of range of motion and a positive apprehension test. According to the questionnaire used, the results were graded as good. The patients who reported having severe pain on greater effort were involved in employment-related legal disputes. Conclusion This technique showed low morbidity and good functional results over the short term. PMID:27069888
Georgoulis, A D; Ristanis, S; Papadonikolakis, A; Tsepis, E; Moebius, U; Moraiti, C; Stergiou, N
Although the scar tissue, which heals the donor site defect, has different elasticity from the neighbouring patellar tissue, it remains unclear if this scar tissue can lead to the changes of the electromechanical delay (EMD) of the knee extensor muscles. If such changes do exist, they can possibly affect both the utilization of the stored energy in the series elastic component, as well as the optimal performance of the knee joint movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of harvesting the patellar tendon during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and the associated patellar tendon scar tissue development on the EMD of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. Seventeen patients who underwent an ACL reconstruction using the medial third of the patellar tendon were divided in two groups based upon their post-operative time interval. Maximal voluntary contraction from the knee extensors, surface EMG activity, and ultrasonographic measurements of the patellar tendon cross-section area were obtained from both knees. Our results revealed that no significant changes for the maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensors and for the EMD of the RF and the VM muscles due to patellar scar tissue development after harvesting the tendon for ACL reconstruction. The EMD, as a component of the stretch reflex, is important for the utilization of the stored energy in the series elastic component and thus, optimal sports performance. However, from our results, it can be implied that the ACL reconstruction using a patellar tendon graft would not impair sports performance as far as EMD is concerned.
Pan, Weimin; Wei, Yiyong; Zhou, Li; Li, Dan
This study was to compare effect of osteointegration of grafted tendon in bone tunnels between injected calcium phosphate cement (ICPC) and injected fibrin sealant (IFS) combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. ACL reconstruction was performed bilaterally in 51 rabbits. ICPC-BMP composite was injected into one knee, with the contralateral knee IFS-BMP composite. The rabbits were killed at postoperative weeks 2, 6, and 12 for testing. Histological observations showed the ICPC composite gradually increased the new bone formation during the whole healing process, while the IFS composite had a burst effect on enhancing the healing of tendon-to-bone at 2 and 6 weeks. By 12 weeks, there was more new cartilage and new bone in the interface in the ICPC-bBMP group. Micro-CT showed that the values of BMD in the ICPC-bBMP group were lower than those in the IFS-bBMP group at 6 weeks, while the values in the ICPC-bBMP group were higher than those in the IFS-bBMP group at 12 weeks (p > 0.05). Fluorescent labels showed that the rate of new bone formation of IFS-BMP composite was significantly higher than that of ICPC composite at 6 weeks (3.45 ± 0.62 µm/day vs. 2.93 ± 0.51 µm/day), but the rate was decreased compared with ICPC composite at 12 weeks (2.58 ± 0.72 µm/day vs. 3.05 ± 0.68 µm/day; p < 0.05). Biomechanically, the ultimate failure load in the ICPC-BMP group was always higher than that in the IFS-BMP group. It is evident that the ICPC composite achieved a more prolonged osteogenic effect than that by IFS composite. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Shetty, Nagraj S; Yoo, Yon S; Kim, Do Y; Lee, Sang S; Jeong, Un S
We describe a technique of open anatomical coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction restoring both parts of the native ligament, aiming at achieving maximum stability of the acromioclavicular joint without disturbing the normal anatomy. Using the same anatomical principle of ligament reconstruction as in other joints, transosseous tunnels are created at the native footprints of the conoid and trapezoid ligaments. An autologous graft is fixed using an Endobutton continuous loop and a PEEK screw; adequate healing of the ligament is ensured with an appropriate working length. Although an open procedure, this technique offers several advantages. It can be easily reproduced using basic anatomical principles and simple cost-effective instrumentation. The implant does not have to be removed, important anatomical structures are respected, normal acromioclavicular joint kinematics are restored, the scar is cosmetically acceptable and post-operative morbidity is very low.
... mild muscle strain or pull Grade 2 -- partial muscle tear Grade 3 -- complete muscle tear Recovery time depends on the grade of the ... be healing as expected. Alternative Names Pulled hamstring muscle; Sprain - ... Ali K, Leland JM. Hamstring strains and tears in the athlete. Clin Sports Med . 2012;31( ...
Obey, Mitchel R; Broski, Stephen M; Spinner, Robert J; Collins, Mark S; Krych, Aaron J
The adductor magnus (AM) has historically been a potential source of confusion in patients with suspected proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. To investigate the anatomic characteristics of the AM, including its osseous origin, anatomic dimensions, and relationship to the proximal hamstring tendons. Descriptive laboratory study. Dissection of the AM origin was performed in 11 (8 cadavers) fresh-frozen hip-to-foot cadaveric hemipelvis specimens. The gross anatomy and architecture of the proximal hamstring and AM tendons were studied. After dissecting the hamstring tendons away from their origin, the dimension, shape, and orientation of the tendon footprints on the ischial tuberosity were determined. The AM was identified in all cadaveric specimens. The mean tendon thickness (anterior to posterior [AP]) was 5.7 ± 2.9 mm. The mean tendon width (medial to lateral [ML]) was 7.1 ± 2.2 mm. The mean tendon length was 13.1 ± 8.7 cm. The mean footprint height (AP dimension) was 12.1 ± 2.9 mm, and mean footprint width (ML dimension) was 17.3 ± 7.1 mm. The mean distance between the AM footprint and the most medial aspect of the conjoint tendon footprint was 8.5 ± 4.2 mm. Tendon measurements demonstrated a considerable degree of both intra- and interspecimen variability. The AM tendon is consistently present just medial to the conjoint tendon at the ischial tuberosity, representing the lateral-most portion of the AM muscle. This study found wide variation in the dimensional characteristics of the AM tendon between specimens. Its shape and location can mimic the appearance of an intact hamstring (conjoint or semimembranosus) tendon intraoperatively or on diagnostic imaging, potentially misleading surgeons and radiologists. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the AM tendon anatomy, footprint anatomy, and its relationship to the hamstring muscle complex is paramount when planning surgical approach and technique. The reported data may aid surgeons in more accurate recognition
Effects of knee immobilization on morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex after hamstring harvesting for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: evaluation using three-dimensional computed tomography.
Nakamae, Atsuo; Deie, Masataka; Adachi, Nobuo; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Nishimori, Makoto; Ochi, Mitsuo
It is desirable to maintain the morphology of the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex after tendon harvesting for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of knee immobilization on morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex. In total, 39 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with autologous semitendinosus tendons were included in this study. After surgery, the knee was immobilized for 3 days in 1 group of patients (group 1; 24 patients; control group) and for a longer period (10-14 days) in the other group (group 2; 15 patients). Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) examination was performed at 6 and/or 12 months after the surgery for all patients. Morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex (proximal shift of the semitendinosus muscle-tendon junction, width of the regenerated semitendinosus tendons, re-insertion sites of the regenerated tendons, and rate of semitendinosus tendon regeneration) were evaluated. Successful regeneration of the semitendinosus tendon was confirmed in all patients in group 2. In group 1, 3D CT showed that regeneration of the semitendinosus tendon was unsuccessful in 1 of the 24 patients. The average length of the proximal shift of the semitendinosus muscle-tendon junction was 7.3 ± 2.5 cm in group 1 and 7.2 ± 1.9 cm in group 2. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to the morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex. This study showed that the structure of regenerated tendons could be clearly identified in 38 of 39 cases (97.4%) after ACL reconstruction. However, prolonged knee immobilization (10-14 days) could not prevent morphological changes in the semitendinosus muscle-tendon complex.
Kastenskov, Christian; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard; Ovesen, Janne; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff
The aim was to report the long-term functional and radiologic outcomes in patients treated for recurrent posterolateral elbow joint instability using an ipsilateral triceps tendon graft. We included 18 patients previously treated for posterolateral elbow joint instability and evaluated for clinical results in 2003. Fifteen patients were examined with a mean follow-up period of 19 years (range, 17-22 years). We performed the clinical follow-up with clinical examination of stability, range of motion, pain score on a visual analog scale, Mayo Elbow Performance Score, and Danish version of Oxford Elbow Score. Furthermore, conventional anteroposterior and side-view radiographs of the elbow were obtained to evaluate osteoarthritis, calcifications in the ligaments, and joint subluxation. We evaluated the radiographs by the size of osteophytes, joint space narrowing, and subchondral sclerosis and classified the findings into 3 categories: no osteoarthritis, osteoarthritis, and severe osteoarthritis. All patients had a clinically stable elbow. None had pain while inactive or locking of the joint, and 4 had decreased range of motion. Two patients had a positive pivot-shift stress test, indicating laxity. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 93 (range, 70-100). The mean Oxford Elbow Score was 45. We observed 5 patients with osteoarthritis and 1 patient with severe osteoarthritis. The technique reported by Olsen and Søjbjerg in 2003 gives good long-term results in the treatment of symptomatic posterolateral elbow joint instability, though the development of elbow joint osteoarthritis may decrease the surgical result in the coming years. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahn, Jin Hwan; Jeong, Hwa Jae; Lee, Yong Seuk; Park, Jai Hyung; Lee, Jin Ho; Ko, Taeg Su
The purposes of this study were as follows: 1) to determine the correlation between the bending angle of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft at the femoral tunnel and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity of the ACL graft and 2) to analyze the difference in the MRI signal intensity of the reconstructed ACL graft in different areas of the graft after single-bundle hamstring autograft ACL (SB ACL) reconstruction using an outside-in (OI) technique with bone-sparing retro-reaming. Thirty-eight patients who underwent SB ACL reconstruction with the hamstring tendon autograft using the OI technique were enrolled in this study. All patients were assessed using three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) to evaluate femoral tunnel factors, including tunnel placement, tunnel length, tunnel diameter, and femoral tunnel bending angle. At a mean of 6.3±0.8months after surgery, 3.0-T MRI was used to evaluate the graft signal intensity using signal/noise quotient for high-signal-intensity lesions. Among various femoral tunnel factors, only the femoral tunnel bending angle in the coronal plane was significantly (p=0.003) correlated with the signal/noise quotient of the femoral intraosseous graft. The femoral intraosseous graft had significantly (p=0.009) higher signal intensity than the other graft zone. Five cases (13.2%) showed high-signal-intensity zones around the femoral tunnel but not around the tibial tunnel. After ACL reconstruction using the OI technique, the graft bending angle was found to be significantly correlated with the femoral intraosseous graft signal intensity, indicating that increased signal intensity by acute graft bending might be related to the maturation of the graft. This was a retrospective comparative study with Level III evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Despite increased knowledge of hamstring muscle injuries, the incidence has not diminished. We now know that not all hamstring injuries are the same and that certain types of injuries require prolonged rehabilitation and return to play. The slow stretch type of injury and injuries involving the central tendon both require longer times to return to play. A number of factors have been proposed as being indicators of time taken to return to play, but the evidence for these is conflicting. Recurrence rates remain high and it is now thought that strength deficits may be an important factor. Strengthening exercise should be performed with the hamstrings in a lengthened position. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injection in the treatment of hamstring injuries so at this stage we cannot advise their use. Various tests have been proposed as predictors of hamstring injury and the use of the Nordboard is an interesting addition to the testing process. Prevention of these injuries is the ultimate aim and there is increasing evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises are effective in reducing the incidence. PMID:26105015
Hyrkas, Jukka; Antti-Poika, Ilkka; Virkki, Liisa M; Ogino, Daisuke; Konttinen, Yrjo T
We report how scapholunate (SL) lesions found during arthroscopy were treated using a new palmar operation based on the use of a tendon loop formed using the palmaris longus tendon, with promising preliminary results. Scapholunate instability induced by hyperextension injury was diagnosed and graded arthroscopically. Volar capsuloplasty was then done by free tendon graft in the same session in 31 patients with grades II-IV scapholunate instability. Half of the patients operated on had a normal range of movement, and all except one had flexion-extension of at least 75% of the normal. Half of the patients had no pain or limitations of the use of the wrist, and although half the patients had some pain on exertion, not one had severe pain. These results are comparable to, or even better than, those reported using other methods of repair. The combined procedure saves money, diminishes the total recuperation time and, as autologous tissues are used for the repair, secondary operations for removal of the implant are unnecessary. This method seems to be a useful adjunct to the types of operative treatment available, although it is apparently not suitable in static grade IV SL instability.
Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter
Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student's t-test. The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength and conditioning coach and
Tsaklis, Panagiotis; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Korakakis, Vasileios; Tsapralis, Kyriakos; Pyne, Debasish; Malliaras, Peter
Background Hamstring injuries are common in many sports, including track and field. Strains occur in different parts of the hamstring muscle but very little is known about whether common hamstring loading exercises specifically load different hamstring components. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation of different components of the hamstring muscle during common hamstring loading exercises. Methods Twenty elite female track and field athletes were recruited into this study, which had a single-sample, repeated-measures design. Each athlete performed ten hamstring loading exercises, and an electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from the biceps femoris and semitendinosus components of the hamstring. Hamstring EMG during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was used to normalize the mean data across ten repetitions of each exercise. An electrogoniometer synchronized to the EMG was used to determine whether peak EMG activity occurred during muscle-tendon unit lengthening, shortening, or no change in length. Mean EMG values were compared between the two recording sites for each exercise using the Student’s t-test. Results The lunge, dead lift, and kettle swings were low intensity (<50% MVIC) and all showed higher EMG activity for semitendinosus than for biceps femoris. Bridge was low but approaching medium intensity, and the TRX, hamstring bridge, and hamstring curl were all medium intensity exercises (≥50% or <80% MVIC). The Nordic, fitball, and slide leg exercises were all high intensity exercises. Only the fitball exercise showed higher EMG activity in the biceps femoris compared with the semitendinosus. Only lunge and kettle swings showed peak EMG in the muscle-tendon unit lengthening phase and both these exercises involved faster speed. Conclusion Some exercises selectively activated the lateral and medial distal hamstrings. Low, medium, and high intensity exercises were demonstrated. This information enables the clinician, strength
Arnold, M P; Burger, L D; Wirz, D; Goepfert, B; Hirschmann, M T
The purpose was to investigate graft slippage and ultimate load to failure of a femoral press-fit fixation technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Nine fresh-frozen knees were used. Standardized harvesting of the B-PT-B graft was performed. The femora were cemented into steel rods, and a tunnel was drilled outside-in into the native ACL footprint and expanded using a manual mill bit. The femoral bone block was fixed press-fit. To pull the free end of the graft, it was fixed to a mechanical testing machine using a deep-freezing technique. A motion capture system was used to assess three-dimensional micro-motion. After preconditioning of the graft, 1000 cycles of tensile loading were applied. Finally, an ultimate load to failure test was performed. Graft slippage in mm ultimate load to failure as well as type of failure was noted. In six of the nine measured specimens, a typical pattern of graft slippage was observed during cyclic loading. For technical reasons, the results of three knees had to be discarded. 78.6 % of total graft slippage occurred in the first 100 cycles. Once the block had settled, graft slippage converged to zero, highlighting the importance of initial preconditioning of the graft in the clinical setting. Graft slippage after 1000 cycles varied around 3.4 ± 3.2 mm (R = 1.3-9.8 mm) between the specimens. Ultimate loading (n = 9) revealed two characteristic patterns of failure. In four knees, the tendon ruptured, while in five knees the bone block was pulled out of the femoral tunnel. The median ultimate load to failure was 852 N (R = 448-1349 N). The implant-free femoral press-fit fixation provided adequate primary stability with ultimate load to failure pull forces at least equal to published results for interference screws; hence, its clinical application is shown to be safe.
Coen, Michael J; Chen, Shin-Tai; Rundle, Charles H; Wergedal, Jon E; Lau, Kin-Hing William
The present study aimed to develop a rat model of biceps tenodesis and to assess the feasibility of a lentiviral (LV)-based bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 in vivo gene transfer strategy for healing of biceps tenodesis. A rat model of biceps tenodesis was developed with an interference-fit open surgical technique. A LV vector expressing a BMP4 gene or β-galactosidase (β-gal) control gene was applied to the bone tunnel and the tendon graft before its insertion into the bone tunnel. Osteointegration was assessed by histology and pull-out tensile strength was measured by a biomechanical test suitable for small rat biceps tendon grafts. Neo-chondrogenesis was seen at the tendon-bone interface of LV-BMP4-treated but not control rats. The LV-BMP4-treated rats showed 32% (p < 0.05) more newly-formed trabecular bone at the tendon-bone junction than the LV-β-gal-treated controls after 3 weeks. However, the sites of neo-chondrogenesis and new bone formation in the LV-BMP4-treated tenodesis were highly spotty. Although the LV-BMP4 strategy did not promote bony integration of the tendon graft, it yielded a 29.5 ± 11.8% (p = 0.066) increase in improvement the pull-out strength of rat biceps tendons compared to the LV-β-gal treatment after 5 weeks. Although the LV-BMP4 in vivo gene transfer strategy did not enhance osteointegration of the tendon graft, it yielded a marked improvement in the return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft. This presumably was largely a result of the bone formation effect of BMP4 that traps or anchors the tendon graft onto the bony tunnel. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Beynnon, B D; Meriam, C M; Ryder, S H; Fleming, B C; Johnson, R J
The long-term success of a hamstring tendon graft depends not only on the type of device that is used for fixation but also on the mechanical interlocking of the soft tissue between the fixation device and bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of screw insertion torque on the structural properties of soft tissue fixed to bone with a spiked metal washer. Two bovine tendons, one similar in size to a human semitendinosus tendon and the other similar in size to a human gracilis tendon, were secured to a bovine femur using a figure-of-8 technique with screws and metal spiked washers. A single load to failure was applied at 25 mm/sec. A significant positive linear correlation was observed between fixation screw insertion torque magnitude and the ultimate failure load value. An increase in the fixation screw insertion torque produced an increase in the ultimate failure load value. Similarly, there was a significant positive linear correlation between fixation screw insertion torque magnitude and the average maximum linear load value. No relationship was detected between screw insertion torque magnitude and the linear stiffness values of the tendon-fixation construct, indicating that a reproducible model was used. This study demonstrates that screw insertion torque is an important variable that controls the initial strength of soft tissue fixation to bone.
Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Mascarenhas, Randy; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Bach, Bernard R
To compare outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring autograft versus soft-tissue allograft by systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review of randomized controlled studies comparing hamstring autograft with soft-tissue allograft in ACL reconstruction was performed. Studies were identified by strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Descriptive statistics were reported. Where possible, the data were pooled and a meta-analysis was performed using RevMan software (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark). Dichotomous data were reported as risk ratios, whereas continuous data were reported as standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed by use of I(2) for each meta-analysis. Study methodologic quality was analyzed with the Modified Coleman Methodology Score and Jadad scale. Five studies with 504 combined patients (251 autograft and 253 allograft; 374 male and 130 female patients) with a mean age of 29.9 ± 2.2 years were included. The allografts used were fresh-frozen hamstring, irradiated hamstring, mixture of fresh-frozen and cryopreserved hamstring, fresh-frozen tibialis anterior, and fresh-frozen Achilles tendon grafts without bone blocks. The mean follow-up period was 47.4 ± 26.9 months, with a mean follow-up rate of 83.3% ± 8.6%. Two studies found a longer operative time with autograft than with allograft (77.1 ± 2.0 minutes v 59.9 ± 0.9 minutes, P = .008). Meta-analysis showed no statistically significant differences between autografts and allografts for any outcome measures (P > .05 for all tests). One study found significantly greater laxity for irradiated allograft than for autograft. The methodologic quality of the 5 studies was poor, with a mean Modified Coleman Methodology Score of 54.4 ± 6.9 and mean Jadad score of 1.6 ± 1.5. On the basis of this systematic review and meta-analysis of 5 randomized controlled trials, there is
Harvey, Margaret Ann; Singh, Hardeep; Obopilwe, Elifho; Charette, Ryan; Miller, Suzanne
Background: Proximal hamstring repair for complete ruptures has become a common treatment. There is no consensus in the literature about postoperative rehabilitation protocols following proximal hamstring repair. Some protocols describe bracing to prevent hip flexion or knee extension while others describe no immobilization. There are currently no biomechanical studies evaluating proximal hamstring repairs; nor are there any studies evaluating the effect of different hip flexion angles on these repairs. Hypothesis: As hip flexion increases from 0° to 90°, there will be a greater gap with cyclical loading. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Proximal hamstring insertions were detached from the ischial tuberosity in 24 cadavers and were repaired with 3 single-loaded suture anchors in the hamstring footprint with a Krakow suture technique. Cyclic loading from 10 to 125 N at 1 Hz was then performed for 0°, 45°, and 90° of hip flexion for 1500 cycles. Gap formation, stiffness, yield load, ultimate load, and energy to ultimate load were compared between groups using paired t tests. Results: Cyclic loading demonstrated the least amount of gap formation (P < .05) at 0° of hip flexion (2.39 mm) and most at 90° of hip flexion (4.19 mm). There was no significant difference in ultimate load between hip flexion angles (326, 309, and 338 N at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively). The most common mode of failure occurred with knot/suture failure (n = 17). Conclusion: Increasing hip flexion from 0° to 90° increases the displacement across proximal hamstring repairs. Postoperative bracing that limits hip flexion should be considered. Clinical Relevance: Repetitive motion involving hip flexion after a proximal hamstring repair may cause compromise of the repair. PMID:26665049
Dejour, D; Potel, J-F; Gaudot, F; Panisset, J-C; Condouret, J
This study is a synthesis of three series. The first study was prospective on 418 patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear (group I). Two population of ACL ruptures were identified. One population with a postero-lateral bundle preserved in 16%, the mean medial anterior tibial translation side to side was 4.97 mm, the Lachman test was delayed in 40% with no or glide pivot shift in 73%. The second population with a complete ACL tear had a mean medial anterior tibial translation side to side of 7.93 mm, the Lachman test was soft in 98% with gross pivot shift in 80%. The second study was a retrospective study on 258 patients (group II) at 26 months follow-up, it correlated the impact of the type of graft on the clinical objective and subjective results. Twenty-eight percent had anterior knee pain, 33% for the patellar tendon and 25% for the hamstrings, the subjective IKDC was significantly lower for the painful knees, and 68% of the patellar tendon had a hypoesthesia and only 32% for the hamstrings. The ability to walk on the knee was 68% for the hamstrings and 35% for the patellar tendon. The third study was retrospective on 127 patients, 24 months after ACL reconstruction (group III), all were tested on a isokinetic machine for the extensor, the flexor and the internal rotator. In the total population, a 10% extensor and flexor deficit and a 5% rotator deficit was noted. A significant difference between patellar tendon and hamstrings in terms of muscular recovery was found. It pointed out that a more specific rehabilitation should be done on the hamstring group. The muscular recovery was correlated to the highest subjective score. This study allowed the surgeon to be more specific in the ACL tear definition, to adapt the graft choice to the type of sport activity but also to the type of work the patient does and finally to modify the rehabilitation protocol for the hamstring technique.
Clark, Brett B; Jaffe, David; Henn, R Frank; Lovering, Richard M
Muscle strains are one of the most common complaints treated by physicians. High-force lengthening contractions can produce very high forces resulting in pain and tissue damage; such strains are the most common cause of muscle injuries. The hamstring muscles are particularly susceptible as they cross two joints and regularly perform lengthening contractions during running. We describe a patient with return to full function after a large hamstring tear. We report the case of a 26-year-old man who presented 1 year after a noncontact, left-sided proximal hamstring tear incurred while sprinting. He received no medical treatment or formal rehabilitation. He was able to return to all sports and activities 1 to 2 months after injury, but noted a persistent deformity of the proximal thigh, which led him to seek evaluation. Physical examination, MRI functional tests, and specific muscle tests 1 year after his injury documented a major hamstring tear at the musculotendinous junction with muscle retraction, but no avulsion of the proximal tendon attachment. Surgery often is recommended for major proximal hamstring tendon tears, especially when more than one tendon of origin is ruptured from the ischial tuberosity. Myotendinous tears are treated nonoperatively, but may be associated with decreased strength, prolonged recovery, and recurrence. We describe the case of a young man who sustained a hamstring tear, with retraction, at the proximal myotendinous junction, where the biceps femoris and semitendinosus arise from the conjoint tendon. He achieved full functional recovery without medical attention, but had a persistent cosmetic deformity and slight hamstring tightness. This case suggests a benign natural history for this injury and the appropriateness of noninvasive treatment.
Broski, Stephen M; Murthy, Naveen S; Krych, Aaron J; Obey, Mitchel R; Collins, Mark S
To examine the anatomic MRI characteristics of the adductor magnus mini hamstring (AMMH) and explore its involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. An IRB-approved retrospective review of patients undergoing "hamstring protocol" MRI between March 2009 and June 2014 was performed. Two musculoskeletal radiologists recorded multiple AMMH anatomic characteristics and involvement in cases of hamstring avulsion. Seventy-six AMMHs were analyzed in 66 patients [35 females and 31 males, mean age 49.3 ± 15.2 years (range 17-81)]. Eleven percent of AMMHs were poorly visualized, 51 % visualized, and 37 % well visualized. Seven percent demonstrated round, 73 % ovoid, and 21 % flat/lenticular tendon morphologies. Most (88 %) demonstrated typical origins. Average cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22.4 ± 10.6 mm² (range 6-56), diameter was 7.2 ± 2.5 mm (range 2.9-15), medial distance from the semimembranosus tendon was 7.5 ± 2.5 mm (range 3-14), and tendon length was 6.8 ± 3.3 cm (range 1.2-14.1). There was no gender difference in AMMH anatomic measurements or correlation between age and CSA or diameter. Of 17 complete hamstring avulsion cases, the AMMH was intact in 13, partially torn in 3, and completely torn in 1. The AMMH is a constant finding with variable anatomic characteristics. It is visualized or well visualized by MRI in 88 % of cases and is a sizable tendon located in close proximity to the semimembranosus tendon. Because it is uncommonly completely torn (6 %) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion, radiologists should be aware of its presence and appearance to avoid diagnostic confusion.
Hamer, Merlin Jake; Caputo, Andrew E
Chronic biceps tendon ruptures typically involve tendon retraction, scarring, and even compromised tissue. Indirect repair, such as tenodesis to the brachialis, does not provide optimal functional recovery. Chronic biceps tendon ruptures can be reconstructed with autogenous grafts (semitendinosis, tensor fascia lata) or allografts (typically Achilles tendon). The complications associated with these grafts include harvest site morbidity and graft incorporation. Using a vascularized local soft tissue source could minimize complications of graft reconstructions. The authors provide a novel reconstructive technique, reconstruction using the lacertus fibrosis, as a local graft source for chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures.
Luis, Guntur E; Yong, Chee-Khuen; Singh, Deepak A; Sengupta, S; Choon, David SK
Background Acromioclavicular injuries are common in sports medicine. Surgical intervention is generally advocated for chronic instability of Rockwood grade III and more severe injuries. Various methods of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction and augmentation have been described. The objective of this study is to compare the biomechanical properties of a novel palmaris-longus tendon reconstruction with those of the native AC+CC ligaments, the modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction, the ACJ capsuloligamentous complex repair, screw and clavicle hook plate augmentation. Hypothesis There is no difference, biomechanically, amongst the various reconstruction and augmentative methods. Study Design Controlled laboratory cadaveric study. Methods 54 cadaveric native (acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular) ligaments were tested using the Instron machine. Superior loading was performed in the 6 groups: 1) in the intact states, 2) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction (WD), 3) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with acromioclavicular joint capsuloligamentous repair (WD.ACJ), 4) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with clavicular hook plate augmentation (WD.CP) or 5) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with coracoclavicular screw augmentation (WD.BS) and 6) after modified Weaver-Dunn reconstruction with mersilene tape-palmaris-longus tendon graft reconstruction (WD. PLmt). Posterior-anterior (horizontal) loading was similarly performed in all groups, except groups 4 and 5. The respective failure loads, stiffnesses, displacements at failure and modes of failure were recorded. Data analysis was carried out using a one-way ANOVA, with Student's unpaired t-test for unpaired data (S-PLUS statistical package 2005). Results Native ligaments were the strongest and stiffest when compared to other modes of reconstruction and augmentation except coracoclavicular screw, in both posterior-anterior and superior directions (p < 0.005). WD.ACJ provided additional
Ruzzini, Laura; Abbruzzese, Franca; Rainer, Alberto; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Trombetta, Marcella; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
The present study evaluated the presence of stem cells in hamstring tendons from adult subjects of different ages. The aim was to isolate, characterize and expand these cells in vitro, and to evaluate whether cell activities are influenced by age. Tendon stem cells (TSCs) were isolated through magnetic sorting from the hamstring tendons of six patients. TSC percentage, morphology and clonogenic potential were evaluated, as well as the expression of specific surface markers. TSC multi-potency was also investigated as a function of age, and quantitative polimerase chain reaction was used to evaluate gene expression of TSCs cultured in suitable differentiating media. The presence of easily harvestable stem cell population within adult human hamstring tendons was demonstrated. These cells exhibit features such as clonogenicity, multi-potency and mesenchymal stem cells markers expression. The age-related variations in human TSCs affect the number of isolated cells and their self-renewal potential, while multi-potency assays are not influenced by tendon ageing, even though cells from younger individuals expressed higher levels of osteogenic and adipogenic genes, while chondrogenic genes were highly expressed in cells from older individuals. These results may open new opportunities to study TSCs to better understand tendon physiology, healing and pathological processes such as tendinopathy and degenerative age-related changes opening new frontiers in the management of tendinopathy and tendon ruptures.
Cervellin, M; de Girolamo, L; Bait, C; Denti, M; Volpi, P
Bone-patellar tendon-bone technique (BPTB) for anterior cruciate ligament injuries is associated with a higher risk of donor-site morbidity. To evaluate whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP), due to its anti-inflammatory properties and capacity to stimulate tissue regeneration, was able to reduce the anterior knee pain, the kneeling pain, and donor-site morbidity, as evidenced by evaluation of VISA and VAS scoring scales and MRI analysis of the tendon and bone defect, we performed a clinical randomized controlled study where PRP gel was applied to donor site after ACL reconstruction with BPTB. Forty young athletes with the indication of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon grafts were randomly assigned to group A (n = 20 patients, control group) or group B (n = 20 patients, PRP group). The autologous PRP gel was applied to both the patellar and tendon bone plug harvest site and stabilized by the peritenon suture. At 12-month follow-up, all patients underwent clinical examination and VAS and VISA questionnaires, respectively, evaluating the average daily pain of the knee and the pain during particular activities involving the knee, were filled. MRI at the same time point was also performed. VISA scores were significantly higher in the patients treated with PRP (84.5 ± 11.8 and 97.8 ± 2.5 for group A and for group B; P = 0.041), whereas no significant difference in postoperative VAS scores between the two groups was observed (1 ± 1.4 and 0.6 ± 0.9 for group A and group B, n.s.). In 85% of PRP group patients, the tibial and patellar bone defect was satisfactorily filled by new bony tissue (>70% of bone gap filled), whereas this percentage was just of 60% in control group patients, but this difference was not statistically significant. The study shows the usefulness of PRP in reducing subjective pain at the donor-site level after ACL reconstruction with BPTB. However, this approach deserves further investigations to confirm PRP efficacy and to
Luna-Pizarro, Daniel; Rodríguez-Cabrera, Rafael; Pérez-Hernández, Jorge; Moreno-Delgado, Francisco
We undertook this study to evaluate the clinical and functional effect of hydrodissetion of the paratendon in the postoperative period of patients submitted to surgery of reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. A non-controlled clinical study was conducted at the Unidad de Alta Especialidad de Ortopedia y Traumatología "Magdalena de las Salinas," Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City. Twenty two patients and 23 controls were included. Surgical intervention consisted of a bone-tendon-bone technique with hydrodissection and without hydrodissection of the paratendon. The following results were obtained: functionality of the knee, pain, extension and flexion. Male: 20 vs. 22; female: 2 vs. 1 (p = 0.581), age: 29 +/- 4.6 years vs. 26 +/- 6.2 (0.946); weight: 68 +/- 8.8 vs. 72 +/- 6.2 (p = 0.190); height: 1.60 m +/- 4.8 vs. 1.62 m +/- 7.5 (p =0.909). Side: right: 5 vs. 5; left: 17 vs. 18 (p = 0.937). Evaluation scale of Knee Index: 84 +/- 4 vs. 70 +/- 8; pain: 10 days: 3.7 +/- 1.6 vs. 6.2 +/- 1.4, 4 weeks: 1.3 +/- 1.6 vs. 4.1 +/- 2.1 (p <0.001) flexion: 95 +/- 6.7 degrees vs. 86 +/- 6.1 degrees (p <0.001) group of hydrodissection vs. no hydrodissection, respectively. In the immediate postoperative period (4 weeks), pain is diminished and range of mobility increases as a result of the decrease of pain.
Bellini, Davide; Cencetti, Claudia; Sacchetta, Anna Cristina; Battista, Angela Maria; Martinelli, Andrea; Mazzucco, Laura; Scotto D'Abusco, Anna; Matricardi, Pietro
With the aim to obtain a scaffold with improved mechanical properties with respect to collagen for tendon augmentation and regeneration, a novel collagen-based material was prepared via heterogeneous phase derivatization of type I collagen sponges using polylactic acid. Compared to the untreated collagen, the functionalized sponge (Coll-PLA) was characterized by higher tensile properties and lower swelling capability; the degradation rate of Coll-PLA, in the presence of collagenase, was lower than that of the untreated collagen sponge. These results are related to an increased hydrophobic character of the collagen matrix due to the presence of PLA chains. In vitro tests, performed with human primary fibroblasts, showed that cell adhesion and proliferation rate on Coll-PLA were comparable to those obtained with the non-functionalized collagen. These findings suggest that the new biomaterial could be suitable as scaffold in tendon augmentation and regeneration.
Zhang, Xin; Ma, Yong; Fu, Xin; Liu, Qiang; Shao, Zhenxing; Dai, Linghui; Pi, Yanbin; Hu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiying; Duan, Xiaoning; Chen, Wenqing; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Chunyan; Ao, Yingfang
Runx2 is a powerful osteo-inductive factor and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent. However, it is unknown whether Runx2-overexpressing ADSCs (Runx2-ADSCs) could promote anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We evaluated the effect of Runx2-ADSCs on ACL reconstruction in vitro and in vivo. mRNA expressions of osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and collagen I (COLI) increased over time in Runx2-ADSCs. Runx2 overexpression inhibited LPL and PPARγ mRNA expressions. Runx2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity markedly. In nude mice injected with Runx2-ADSCs, promoted bone formation was detected by X-rays 8 weeks after injection. The healing of tendon-to-bone in a rabbit model of ACL reconstruction treated with Runx2-ADSCs, fibrin glue only and an RNAi targeting Runx2, was evaluated with CT 3D reconstruction, histological analysis and biomechanical methods. CT showed a greater degree of new bone formation around the bone tunnel in the group treated with Runx2-ADSCs compared with the fibrin glue group and RNAi Runx2 group. Histology showed that treatment with Runx2-ADSCs led to a rapid and significant increase at the tendon-to-bone compared with the control groups. Biomechanical tests demonstrated higher tendon pullout strength in the Runx2-ADSCs group at early time points. The healing of the attachment in ACL reconstruction was enhanced by Runx2-ADSCs.
Garrett, W E; Califf, J C; Bassett, F H
This study reports the histochemical fiber type composition of the human hamstring muscles. Muscle specimens from necropsy specimens were obtained from seven locations in the hamstring, four locations in the quadriceps, and one location in the adductor magnus. The hamstring muscles are shown to have a relatively high proportion of Type II fibers. Type II fibers are more involved with exercise of higher intensity and force production and it is postulated that the hamstrings are capable of high intrinsic force production. The hamstrings are two-joint muscles and are, therefore, subject to increased stretch and force production extrinsically by motion at the hip and knee. It is proposed that high levels of tension in the hamstrings produced by intrinsic force production and extrinsic stretch may make them prone to injury in periods of intense muscular activity. This proposal is also relevant to other frequent athletic muscle injuries.
van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Harlaar, Jaap
Children with cerebral palsy often walk with reduced knee extension in terminal swing, which can be associated with short length or slow lengthening velocity of hamstrings muscles during gait. This study investigated the role of two factors that may contribute to such short and slow hamstrings: walking speed and spasticity. 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy and 11 matched typically developing children walked at comfortable, slow, and fast walking speed. Semitendinosus muscle-tendon length and velocity during gait were calculated using musculoskeletal modeling. Spasticity of the hamstrings was tested in physical examination. Peak hamstrings length increased only slightly with walking speed, while peak hamstrings lengthening velocity increased strongly. After controlling for these effects of walking speed, spastic hamstrings acted at considerably shorter length and slower velocity during gait than normal, while non-spastic hamstrings did not (all P<0.001). These data are important as a reference for valid interpretation of hamstrings length and velocity data in gait analyses at different walking speeds. The results indicate that the presence of spasticity is associated with reduced hamstrings length and lengthening velocity during gait, even at constant walking speed.
Cobanoglu, Mutlu; Ozgezmez, Ferit Tufan; Omurlu, Imran Kurt; Ozkan, Ilhan; Savk, Sevki Oner; Cullu, Emre
Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with ST autograft is sometimes unsuccessful because of harvested thin graft. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a useful tool to evaluate the thickness of the graft. This study is performed to evaluate whether there is any correlation between diameters and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the semitendinosus tendon (ST) on the preoperative magnetic MRI and the diameter of the 4-stranded ST autograft in ACL reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients who underwent single-bundle ACL reconstruction with 4-stranded ST for full-thickness ACL ruptures were included in this study. Anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) diameters of ST at the levels of the joint line (JL) and femoral physeal line (PL), and also CSA at these levels were measured on T2-weighted fat-suppressed MRI examinations. The data obtained were compared with intraoperatively measured diameters of 4-stranded ST autograft. Correlations between variables were evaluated using Spearman's rho. Receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve statistics were used to evaluate the cut-off value for the correlation between 4-stranded ST graft diameter of 8 mm and CSA (mm2) on MRI. Results: On MRI measurements, no correlation was found between AP diameters at the level of the JL and 4-stranded ST diameter (P = 0.180). However, correlations were found between diameter of 4-stranded ST and ML diameter at the level of JL (P = 0.003) and PL (P = 0.002), AP diameter at the level of the PL (P = 0.009), CSA at the level of the JL (P < 0.001) and at the level of PL (P < 0.001). Correlation between the diameter of 4-stranded ST and CSA at both levels was more significant than that between AP-ML diameters of ST and diameter of autograft. The cut-off value for the 8 mm diameter CSA of 4-stranded ST was 5.9 mm2 at the JL and 8.99 mm2 at the PL. Conclusion: Preoperative MRI evaluation of CSA at the JL of the ST is a reliable parameter to
Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Is Associated With Significantly Reduced ACL Graft Rupture Rates at a Minimum Follow-up of 2 Years: A Prospective Comparative Study of 502 Patients From the SANTI Study Group.
Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Saithna, Adnan; Cavalier, Maxime; Kajetanek, Charles; Temponi, Eduardo Frois; Daggett, Matt; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Thaunat, Mathieu
Graft failure and low rates of return to sport are major concerns after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, particularly in a population at risk. To evaluate the association between reconstruction techniques and subsequent graft rupture and return-to-sport rates in patients aged 16 to 30 years participating in pivoting sports. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A prospective study of patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (B-PT-B) graft, quadrupled hamstring tendon (4HT) graft, or hamstring tendon graft combined with anterolateral ligament reconstruction (HT+ALL) was conducted by the Scientific ACL NeTwork International (SANTI) Study Group. Survivorship data from Kaplan-Meier analysis were analyzed in multivariate Cox regression models to identify the prognosticators of graft ruptures and return to sport. Five hundred two patients (mean age, 22.4 ± 4.0 years) with a mean follow-up of 38.4 ± 8.5 months (range, 24-54 months) were included. There were 105 B-PT-B, 176 4HT, and 221 HT+ALL grafts. The mean postoperative scores at latest follow-up were the following: Lysholm: 92.4 ± 8.6, Tegner: 7.4 ± 2.1, and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC): 86.8 ± 10.5 for B-PT-B grafts; Lysholm: 91.3 ± 9.9, Tegner: 6.6 ± 1.8, and subjective IKDC: 85.4 ± 10.4 for 4HT grafts; and Lysholm: 91.9 ± 10.2, Tegner: 7.0 ± 2.0, and subjective IKDC: 81.8 ± 13.1 for HT+ALL grafts. The mean side-to-side laxity was 0.6 ± 0.9 mm for B-PT-B grafts, 0.6 ± 1.0 mm for 4HT grafts, and 0.5 ± 0.8 mm for HT+ALL grafts. At a mean follow-up of 38.4 months, the graft rupture rates were 10.77% (range, 6.60%-17.32%) for 4HT grafts, 16.77% (range, 9.99%-27.40%) for B-PT-B grafts, and 4.13% (range, 2.17%-7.80%) for HT+ALL grafts. The rate of graft failure with HT+ALL grafts was 2.5 times less than with B-PT-B grafts (hazard ratio [HR], 0.393; 95% CI, 0.153-0.953) and 3.1 times less than with 4HT grafts (HR, 0.327; 95
Abourezk, Matthew N; Ithurburn, Matthew P; McNally, Michael P; Thoma, Louise M; Briggs, Matthew S; Hewett, Timothy E; Spindler, Kurt P; Kaeding, Christopher C; Schmitt, Laura C
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using a hamstring tendon autograft often results in hamstring muscle strength asymmetry. However, the effect of hamstring muscle strength asymmetry on knee mechanics has not been reported. Participants with hamstring strength asymmetry would demonstrate altered involved limb knee mechanics during walking and jogging compared with those with more symmetric hamstring strength at least 2 years after ACLR with a hamstring tendon autograft. Controlled laboratory study. There were a total of 45 participants at least 2 years after ACLR (22 male, 23 female; mean time after ACLR, 34.6 months). A limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated for isometric hamstring strength to subdivide the sample into symmetric hamstring (SH) (LSI ≥90%; n = 18) and asymmetric hamstring (AH) (LSI <85%; n = 18) groups. Involved knee kinematic and kinetic data were collected using 3-dimensional motion analysis during gait and jogging. Peak sagittal-, frontal-, and transverse-plane knee angles and sagittal-plane knee moments and knee powers were calculated. Independent-samples t tests and analyses of covariance were used to compare involved knee kinematic and kinetic variables between the groups. There were no differences in sagittal- and frontal-plane knee angles between the groups ( P > .05 for all). The AH group demonstrated decreased tibial internal rotation during weight acceptance during gait ( P = .01) and increased tibial external rotation during jogging at initial contact ( P = .03) and during weight acceptance ( P = .02) compared with the SH group. In addition, the AH group demonstrated decreased peak negative knee power during midstance ( P = .01) during gait compared with the SH group, after controlling for gait speed, which differed between groups. Participants with hamstring strength asymmetry showed altered involved knee mechanics in the sagittal plane during gait and in the transverse plane during gait and jogging compared with those
de Visser, H M; Reijman, M; Heijboer, M P; Bos, P K
Although recurrent hamstring injury is a frequent problem with a significant impact on athletes, data on factors determining the risk for a recurrent hamstring injury are scarce. To systematically review the literature and provide an overview of risk factors for re-injury of acute hamstring muscle injuries. Prospective studies on risk factors for re-injury following acute hamstring injuries were systematically reviewed. Medical databases and reference lists of the included articles were searched. Two reviewers independently selected potential studies and assessed methodological quality; one reviewer extracted the data. A best-evidence synthesis of all studied risk factors was performed. Of the 131 articles identified, five prospective follow-up studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. These studies reported a recurrence incidence of 13.9-63.3% in the same playing season up to 2 years after initial injury. Limited evidence for three risk factors and one protective factor for recurrent hamstring injury was found; patients with a recurrent hamstring injury had an initial injury with a larger volume size as measured on MRI (47.03 vs 12.42 cm(3)), more often had a Grade 1 initial trauma (Grade 0: 0-30.4%; Grade 1: 60.9-100%; Grade 2: 8.7%) and more often had a previous ipsilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (66.6% vs 17.1%) independent of graft selection. Athletes in a rehabilitation programme with agility/stabilisation exercises rather than strength/stretching exercises had a lower risk for re-injury (7.7% vs 70%). No significant relationship with re-injury was found for 11 related determinants. There was conflicting evidence that a larger cross-sectional area is a risk factor for recurrent hamstring injury. There is limited evidence that athletes with a larger volume size of initial trauma, a Grade 1 hamstring injury and a previous ipsilateral ACL reconstruction are at increased risk for recurrent hamstring injury. Athletes seem to be at lower
Storey, R N; Meikle, G R; Stringer, M D; Woodley, S J
The proximal musculo-tendinous junction (MTJ) is a common site of hamstring strain injury but the anatomy of this region is not well defined. A morphometric analysis of the proximal MTJs of biceps femoris long head (BFlh), semitendinosus (ST), and semimembranosus (SM) was undertaken from dissection of 10 thighs from five male cadavers and magnetic resonance imaging of 20 thighs of 10 active young men. The length, volume, and cross-sectional area of the proximal tendon, MTJ and muscle belly, and muscle-tendon interface area were calculated. In both groups, MTJs were reconstructed three-dimensionally. The proximal tendons and MTJs were expansive, particularly within SM and BFlh. Morphology varied between muscles although length measurements within individual muscles were similar in cadavers and young men. Semimembranosus had the longest proximal tendon (cadavers: mean 33.6 ± 2.0 cm; young men: mean 31.7 ± 1.6 cm) and MTJ (>20 cm in both groups) and the greatest muscle-tendon interface area, followed by BFlh and ST. Mean muscle belly volumes were more than three times greater in young men than elderly male cadavers (P < 0.001). These unique morphometric data contribute to a better understanding of hamstring anatomy, an important factor in the pathogenesis of hamstring strain injury. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... tendon. It can occur as a result of injury, overuse, or with aging as the tendon loses elasticity. Any action that places prolonged repetitive strain on the forearm muscles can cause tendonitis. The ...
Dunne, Jonathan A; Wilks, Daniel J; Rawlins, Jeremy M
The dorsalis pedis flap has reliable vascularity; however, its use is limited by reports of donor site morbidity including infection, delayed healing, exposure of tendons, and later contractures. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate its continued role in lower limb trauma when the donor site is reconstructed with MatriDerm to avoid complications. A 65-year-old man presented with a displaced, Gustilo 3b open transverse fracture of his left distal fibula. He had a 2 cm(2) open wound over his lateral malleolus. Following review of possible local options, a dorsalis pedis fasciocutaneous flap was deemed best for coverage, and the donor site was closed with 1-mm MatriDerm dermal matrix and a 6/1000 inch split-thickness skin graft (STSG) in a single stage. Three months postoperatively, the foot had excellent function and cosmesis, with toes in a neutral position and a full range of movement. The dorsalis pedis flap is a valuable reconstructive option for defects of the foot and ankle. Its major limitation donor site morbidity can be overcome by the additional application of a dermal substitute such as MatriDerm under the STSG.
Dunne, Jonathan A.; Wilks, Daniel J.; Rawlins, Jeremy M.
Objective: The dorsalis pedis flap has reliable vascularity; however, its use is limited by reports of donor site morbidity including infection, delayed healing, exposure of tendons, and later contractures. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate its continued role in lower limb trauma when the donor site is reconstructed with MatriDerm to avoid complications. Methods: A 65-year-old man presented with a displaced, Gustilo 3b open transverse fracture of his left distal fibula. He had a 2 cm2 open wound over his lateral malleolus. Results: Following review of possible local options, a dorsalis pedis fasciocutaneous flap was deemed best for coverage, and the donor site was closed with 1-mm MatriDerm dermal matrix and a 6/1000 inch split-thickness skin graft (STSG) in a single stage. Three months postoperatively, the foot had excellent function and cosmesis, with toes in a neutral position and a full range of movement. Conclusions: The dorsalis pedis flap is a valuable reconstructive option for defects of the foot and ankle. Its major limitation donor site morbidity can be overcome by the additional application of a dermal substitute such as MatriDerm under the STSG. PMID:24917893
Le Sant, Guillaume; Ates, Filiz; Brasseur, Jean-Louis; Nordez, Antoine
Introduction The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography. Methods/Results The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion) on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%), semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2%) and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%), but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%). Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh. Conclusion This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury. PMID:26418862
Mahalingam, Vasudevan D; Behbahani-Nejad, Nilofar; Horine, Storm V; Olsen, Tyler J; Smietana, Michael J; Wojtys, Edward M; Wellik, Deneen M; Arruda, Ellen M; Larkin, Lisa M
The use of autografts versus allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is controversial. The current popular options for ACL reconstruction are patellar tendon or hamstring autografts, yet advances in allograft technologies have made allogeneic grafts a favorable option for repair tissue. Despite this, the mismatched biomechanical properties and risk of osteoarthritis resulting from the current graft technologies have prompted the investigation of new tissue sources for ACL reconstruction. Previous work by our lab has demonstrated that tissue-engineered bone-ligament-bone (BLB) constructs generated from an allogeneic cell source develop structural and functional properties similar to those of native ACL and vascular and neural structures that exceed those of autologous patellar tendon grafts. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered ligament constructs fabricated from autologous versus allogeneic cell sources. Our preliminary results demonstrate that 6 months postimplantation, our tissue-engineered auto- and allogeneic BLB grafts show similar histological and mechanical outcomes indicating that the autologous grafts are a viable option for ACL reconstruction. These data indicate that our tissue-engineered autologous ligament graft could be used in clinical situations where immune rejection and disease transmission may preclude allograft use.
Mohtadi, Nicholas; Barber, Rhamona; Chan, Denise; Paolucci, Elizabeth Oddone
Complications/adverse events of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery are underreported, despite pooled level 1 data in systematic reviews. All adverse events/complications occurring within a 2-year postoperative period after primary ACL reconstruction, as part of a large randomized clinical trial (RCT), were identified and described. Prospective, double-blind randomized clinical trial. Patients and the independent trained examiner were blinded to treatment allocation. University-based orthopedic referral practice. Three hundred thirty patients (14-50 years; 183 males) with isolated ACL deficiency were intraoperatively randomized to ACL reconstruction with 1 autograft type. Graft harvest and arthroscopic portal incisions were identical. Patients were equally distributed to patellar tendon (PT), quadruple-stranded hamstring tendon (HT), and double-bundle (DB) hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction. Adverse events/complications were patient reported, documented, and diagnoses confirmed. Two major complications occurred: pulmonary embolism and septic arthritis. Twenty-four patients (7.3%) required repeat surgery, including 25 separate operations: PT = 7 (6.4%), HT = 9 (8.2%), and DB = 8 (7.3%). Repeat surgery was performed for meniscal tears (3.6%; n = 12), intra-articular scarring (2.7%; n = 9), chondral pathology (0.6%; n = 2), and wound dehiscence (0.3%; n = 1). Other complications included wound problems, sensory nerve damage, muscle tendon injury, tibial periostitis, and suspected meniscal tears and chondral lesions. Overall, more complications occurred in the HT/DB groups (PT = 24; HT = 31; DB = 45), but more PT patients complained of moderate or severe kneeling pain (PT = 17; HT = 9; DB = 4) at 2 years. Overall, ACL reconstructive surgery is safe. Major complications were uncommon. Secondary surgery was necessary 7.3% of the time for complications/adverse events (excluding graft reinjury or revisions) within the first 2 years. Level 1 (therapeutic studies
van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A
In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 450 male first-class amateur soccer players (mean age, 24.5 years). Hamstring flexibility was measured by performing the sit-and-reach test (SRT). The relationship between hamstring flexibility and the occurrence of hamstring injuries in the following year, while adjusting for the possible confounding effects of age and previous hamstring injuries, was determined with a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 450 soccer players, 21.8% reported a hamstring injury in the previous year. The mean (±SD) baseline score for the SRT was 21.2 ± 9.2 cm. During the 1-year follow-up period, 23 participants (5.1%) suffered a hamstring injury. In the multivariate analysis, while adjusting for age and previous injuries, no significant relationship was found between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries ( P = .493). In this group of soccer players, hamstring flexibility (measured with the SRT) was not related to hamstring injuries. Age and previous hamstring injuries as possible confounders did not appear to influence this relationship. Other etiological factors need to be examined to further elucidate the mechanism of hamstring injuries.
Cox, Charles L.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Leonard, James P.; Morris, Brent J.; Dunn, Warren R.; Reinke, Emily K.
Background: Bioabsorbable interference screws are used frequently for graft fixation in ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction. The resorption properties of many available screws that are marketed as bioabsorbable are not well defined. The CALAXO (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy) and MILAGRO (DePuy Synthes) bioabsorbable screws contain polymers of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) plus additives to encourage osseointegration over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties and compare patient-reported outcomes at a minimum of two years of follow-up after ACL reconstruction using CALAXO or MILAGRO bioabsorbable interference screws. Methods: A cohort of patients who underwent ACL reconstruction in which the fixation used was either CALAXO or MILAGRO screws returned for repeat radiographs for evaluation of tunnel widening, repeat MRI for evaluation of graft integrity and screw breakdown, and completion of the pain and symptom items of the KOOS (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) questionnaire. Results: At a mean of three years (range, 2.5 to 4.0 years) after surgery, thirty-one patients with sixty-two CALAXO screws and thirty-six patients with seventy-two MILAGRO screws returned for repeat evaluation. Two blinded, independent reviewers found no significant differences between the two screw types when comparing radiographs for tibial or femoral tunnel widening or MRIs for graft integrity, tibial and femoral foreign body reactions, or femoral screw degradation. Both reviewers found a significant difference between the two screw types when comparing tibial screw degradation properties (p < 0.01). All analyzed CALAXO screws were rated as partially intact or degraded; the MILAGRO screws were more likely to be rated as intact. No significant differences were noted between the two screw types when comparing the two KOOS subscales. Conclusions: CALAXO screws in the tibial tunnel were more likely
Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Hickey, Jack; Duhig, Steven J; Shield, Anthony J
Are eccentric hamstring strength and between-limb imbalance in eccentric strength, measured during the Nordic hamstring exercise, risk factors for hamstring strain injury (HSI)? Elite Australian footballers (n = 210) from five different teams participated. Eccentric hamstring strength during the Nordic exercise was obtained at the commencement and conclusion of preseason training and at the midpoint of the season. Injury history and demographic data were also collected. Reports on prospectively occurring HSI were completed by the team medical staff. Relative risk (RR) was determined for univariate data, and logistic regression was employed for multivariate data. Twenty-eight new HSI were recorded. Eccentric hamstring strength below 256 N at the start of the preseason and 279 N at the end of the preseason increased the risk of future HSI 2.7-fold (RR, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.5; P = 0.006) and 4.3-fold (RR, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 11.0; P = 0.002), respectively. Between-limb imbalance in strength of greater than 10% did not increase the risk of future HSI. Univariate analysis did not reveal a significantly greater RR for future HSI in athletes who had sustained a lower limb injury of any kind within the last 12 months. Logistic regression revealed interactions between both athlete age and history of HSI with eccentric hamstring strength, whereby the likelihood of future HSI in older athletes or athletes with a history of HSI was reduced if an athlete had high levels of eccentric strength. Low levels of eccentric hamstring strength increased the risk of future HSI. Interaction effects suggest that the additional risk of future HSI associated with advancing age or previous injury was mitigated by higher levels of eccentric hamstring strength.
Feucht, Matthias J; Plath, Johannes E; Seppel, Gernot; Hinterwimmer, Stefan; Imhoff, Andreas B; Brucker, Peter U
The current study was undertaken to better define the gross anatomical and dimensional characteristics of the proximal hamstring origin. Twelve paired whole-lower extremities from six embalmed cadavers were dissected. The gross anatomy of the proximal hamstrings was studied. With the tendons attached to the ischial tuberosity, the width and thickness of each tendon was measured 1 cm distally to their origin, and the distance from the most proximal border of the common origin of the semitendinosus (ST) and long head of the biceps (LB) to their distal junction was assessed. After removal of the hamstring group, the shape, orientation, and dimension of the tendon footprints were determined. One cadaver demonstrated unique anatomy, which was considered as an anatomic variant and was therefore excluded from the study group. The ST and LB had a common origin on the posterolateral aspect of the ischial tuberosity (ST/LB), whereas the semimembranosus (SM) had a separated origin at the anterolateral aspect. The mean distance from the most proximal border of the ST/LB origin to the distal junction was 10.0 ± 1.3 cm. The shape of both footprints was longitudinal-oval, with the longitudinal axes of the SM and ST/LB footprints parallel aligned. Mean tendon width was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm for the common ST/LB complex and 4.2 ± 0.9 cm for the SM (p = 0.009). The corresponding values for tendon thickness were 1.0 ± 0.3 cm (ST/LB) and 0.8 ± 0.2 cm (SM), respectively (n.s.). Mean footprint length was 3.9 ± 0.4 cm for ST/LB and 4.5 ± 0.5 cm for SM (p = 0.002). The corresponding values for footprint height were 1.4 ± 0.5 cm (ST/LB) and 1.2 ± 0.3 cm (SM), respectively (n.s.). The ST and LB had a common origin, whereas the SM originated separately. The site of origin of both tendons was the lateral aspect of the ischial tuberosity, with the SM footprint lying directly anterior to the footprint of the ST/LB complex. The footprint of the SM was significantly wider than the footprint of
DeBruyne, Danielle M; Dewhurst, Marina M; Fischer, Katelyn M; Wojtanowski, Michael S; Durall, Chris
Clinical Scenario: Increasing the length of the muscle-tendon unit may prevent musculotendinous injury. Various methods have been proposed to increase muscle-tendon flexibility, including self-mobilization using foam rollers or roller massagers, although the effectiveness of these devices is uncertain. This review was conducted to determine if the use of foam rollers or roller massagers to improve hamstrings flexibility is supported by moderate- to high-quality evidence.
Wu, Fan; Nerlich, Michael; Docheva, Denitsa
Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring joint movement. With advanced age, tendons become more prone to degeneration followed by injuries. Tendon repair often requires lengthy periods of rehabilitation, especially in elderly patients. Existing medical and surgical treatments often fail to regain full tendon function. The development of novel treatment methods has been hampered due to limited understanding of basic tendon biology. Recently, it was discovered that tendons, similar to other mesenchymal tissues, contain tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) which possess the common stem cell properties. The current strategies for enhancing tendon repair consist mainly of applying stem cells, growth factors, natural and artificial biomaterials alone or in combination. In this review, we summarise the basic biology of tendon tissues and provide an update on the latest repair proposals for tendon tears. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:332-342. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160075 PMID:28828182
Struewer, Johannes; Frangen, Thomas Manfred; Ishaque, Bernd; Bliemel, Christopher; Efe, Turgay; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Ziring, Ewgeni
The aim of this investigation was to study patient-reported long-term clinical outcome, instrumental stablitity and prevalence of radiological osteoarthritis (OA) a minimum of ten years after isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. An average of 13.5 years after ACL reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) autograft, 73 patients were evaluated. Inclusion criteria consisted of an isolated ACL rupture and reconstruction with BPTB graft with no associated intra-articular lesions, in particular, cartilage alterations or meniscal lesions. Clinical assessment was performed using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) and Tegner and Lysholm scores. Instrumental anterior laxity testing was carried out with the KT-1000™ arthrometer. Degree of degenerative changes and prevalence of OA were determined using the Kellgren- Lawrence scale. Mean follow-up was 13.5 years. Mean age was 43.8 years. About 75% of patients were graded A or B according to the IKDC score. The Lysholm score was 90.2 ± 4.8. Radiological assessment reported degenerative changes of grade II OA in 54.2% of patients. Prevalence of grades III or IV OA was found in 20%. The incidence of OA was significantly correlated with stability and function at long-term follow-up. Arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using BPTB autograft resulted in a high degree of patient satisfaction and good clinical results on long-term follow-up. A higher degree of OA developed in 20% of patients and was significantly correlated with increased anterior laxity at long-term follow-up.
Cavadas, P C; Pérez-García, A; Thione, A; Lorca-García, C
The reconstruction of finger flexor tendons with vascularized flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon grafts (flaps) based on the ulnar vessels as a single stage is not a popular technique. We reviewed 40 flexor tendon reconstructions (four flexor pollicis longus and 36 finger flexors) with vascularized FDS tendon grafts in 38 consecutive patients. The donor tendons were transferred based on the ulnar vessels as a single-stage procedure (37 pedicled flaps, three free flaps). Four patients required composite tendon and skin island transfer. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, and functional results were evaluated using a total active range of motion score. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factors that could be associated with the postoperative total active range of motion. The average postoperative total active range of motion (excluding the thumbs) was 178.05° (SD 50°). The total active range of motion was significantly lower for patients who were reconstructed with free flaps and for those who required composite tendon and skin island flap. Age, right or left hand, donor/motor tendon and pulley reconstruction had no linear effect on total active range of motion. Overall results were comparable with a published series on staged tendon grafting but with a lower complication rate. Vascularized pedicled tendon grafts/flaps are useful in the reconstruction of defects of finger flexor tendons in a single stage, although its role in the reconstructive armamentarium remains to be clearly established.
Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan; Thelen, Darryl G.; Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J.
Objective The objective of this study was to use MR imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. Materials and Methods MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I/II hamstring strain injury between 5-23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon/scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon (PSMT) and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon (PBFT). Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Results Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The thirteen subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p<0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. Conclusion The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running, and may contribute to re-injury risk. PMID:18649077
Silder, Amy; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Thelen, Darryl G; Enright, Timothy; Tuite, Michael J
The objective of this study was to use magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate long-term changes in muscle and tendon morphology following a hamstring strain injury. MR images were obtained from 14 athletes who sustained a clinically diagnosed grade I-II hamstring strain injury between 5 and 23 months prior as well as five healthy controls. Qualitative bilateral comparisons were used to assess the presence of fatty infiltration and changes in morphology that may have arisen as a result of the previous injury. Hamstring muscle and tendon-scar volumes were quantified in both limbs for the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), biceps femoris short head (BFSH), the proximal semimembranosus tendon, and the proximal conjoint biceps femoris and semitendinosus tendon. Differences in muscle and tendon volume between limbs were statistically compared between the previously injured and healthy control subjects. Increased low-intensity signal was present along the musculotendon junction adjacent to the site of presumed prior injury for 11 of the 14 subjects, suggestive of persistent scar tissue. The 13 subjects with biceps femoris injuries displayed a significant decrease in BFLH volume (p < 0.01), often accompanied by an increase in BFSH volume. Two of these subjects also presented with fatty infiltration within the previously injured BFLH. The results of this study provide evidence of long-term musculotendon remodeling following a hamstring strain injury. Additionally, many athletes are likely returning to sport with residual atrophy of the BFLH and/or hypertrophy of the BFSH. It is possible that long-term changes in musculotendon structure following injury alters contraction mechanics during functional movement, such as running and may contribute to reinjury risk.
Lu, Hui; Yang, Hu; Shen, Hui; Ye, Ganmin; Lin, Xiang-Jin
Abstract Corticosteroid injections for hand tendinitis can lead to a rare significant complication of tendon spontaneous rupture. However, only sporadic cases were reported in the literature before. This study was designed to gauge the clinical effect of tendon repair in patients of tendon spontaneous rupture after corticosteroid injection and analyze our experience. This was a retrospective observational study of 13 patients (8 women and 5 men) operated between July 2011 and December 2015 for tendon spontaneous rupture after corticosteroid injection. Demographic data, clinical features, imaging data, and surgical treatments were carefully reviewed. The average age was 52.308 ± 15.381 years (range 29–71). The average injection times were 2.538 ± 1.664 times (range 1–6). The average rupture time (after last injection) was 10.923 ± 9.500 weeks (range 3–32). Nine patients were treated by tendon suture (69% of cases), and 4 patients were treated by tendon grafting (31% of cases). All patients received follow-up in our outpatient clinic. The sites of the tendon rupture (15 tendons of 13 patients had involved) include extensor pollicis longus (6 tendons, 40% of cases), extensor digiti quinti and extensor digiti minimi (4 tendons, 27% of cases), ring finger of extensor digitorum communis (3 tendons, 20% of cases), and middle finger of extensor digitorum communis (2 tendons, 13% of cases). Two patients who had tendon adhesion (15% of cases) were treated by tendon release. One patient who had tendon rerupture (8% of cases) was treated by tendon grafting. No patient had complications of infections, vascular, or nerve injury. Tendon spontaneous rupture is a serious complication after corticosteroid injection for tendinitis. Rigid standard of corticosteroid injection is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging was contributory to preoperative assess tendon defect and can be used to monitor healing quality of tendons during the follow-up. PMID:27741145
Lempainen, Lasse; Johansson, Kristian; Banke, Ingo J.; Ranne, Juha; Mäkelä, Keijo; Sarimo, Janne; Niemi, Pekka; Orava, Sakari
Summary Background: proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) is a disabilitating disease often causing underperformance in the athletically demanding patients. The main symptom of PHT is lower gluteal pain especially during running or while prolonged sitting. Mainly affecting athletically active individuals, PHT is a considerable challenge for treating health care professionals. Purpose: this paper aims to concisely present the literature on PHT to guide health care professionals treating these patients and doing research on the subject. Methods: we reviewed the literature on PHT through literature search of scientific journal databases. Conclusions: as a tendinopathic pathology, it is a rather recently discovered exertion injury. As with other chronic tendon overuse injuries, current treatment strategies are unspecific with uncertain outcomes due to the unknown etiology of the tendon degeneration. Diagnostic features as well as both operative and non-operative treatments are evaluated from a clinical perspective, providing up to date information for clinicians and sports medicine therapists dealing with hamstring problems. Level of evidence: V. PMID:25878983
Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn
Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R.
Ernlund, Lucio; Vieira, Lucas de Almeida
Hamstring (HS) muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification. Many classification systems have been proposed; the current classifications aim to describe the injury and correlate it to the prognosis. The treatment is conservative, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase followed by a muscle rehabilitation program. Proximal avulsions have shown better results with surgical repair. When the patient is pain free, shows recovery of strength and muscle flexibility, and can perform the sport's movements, he/she is able to return to play. Prevention programs based on eccentric strengthening of the muscles have been indicated both to prevent the initial injury as well as preventing recurrence.
Should the Ipsilateral Hamstrings Be Used for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Case of Medial Collateral Ligament Insufficiency? Biomechanical Investigation Regarding Dynamic Stabilization of the Medial Compartment by the Hamstring Muscles.
Herbort, Mirco; Michel, Philipp; Raschke, Michael J; Vogel, Nils; Schulze, Martin; Zoll, Alexander; Fink, Christian; Petersen, Wolf; Domnick, Christoph
Semitendinosus and gracilis muscles are frequently harvested for autologous tendon grafts for cruciate ligament reconstruction. This study investigated the joint-stabilizing effects of these hamstring muscles in cases of insufficiency of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). First, both the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles can actively stabilize the joint against valgus moments in the MCL-deficient knee. Second, the stabilizing influence of these muscles decreases with an increasing knee flexion angle. Controlled laboratory study. The kinematics was examined in 10 fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees using a robotic/universal force moment sensor system and an optical tracking system. The knee kinematics under 5- and 10-N·m valgus moments were determined in the different flexion angles of the (1) MCL-intact and (2) MCL-deficient knee using the following simulated muscle loads: (1) 0-N (idle) load, (2) 200-N semitendinosus (ST) load, and (3) 280-N (200/80-N) combined semitendinosus/gracilis (STGT) load. Cutting the MCL increased the valgus angle under all tested conditions and angles compared with the MCL-intact knee by 4.3° to 8.1° for the 5-N·m valgus moment and 6.5° to 11.9° for the 10-N·m valgus moment ( P < .01). The applied 200-N simulated ST load reduced the valgus angle significantly at 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30° of flexion under 5- and 10-N·m valgus moments ( P < .05). At 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion, these values were close to those for the MCL-intact joint under the respective moments (both P > .05). The combined 280-N simulated STGT load significantly reduced the valgus angle in 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion under 5- and 10-N·m valgus moments ( P < .05) to values near those for the intact joint (5 N·m: 0°, 10°; 10 N·m: 0°, 10°, 20°; P > .05). In 60° and 90° of flexion, ST and STGT loads did not decrease the resulting valgus angle of the MCL-deficient knee without hamstring loads ( P > .05 vs deficient; P = .0001 vs intact). In this
... You Prevent Achilles Tendonitis? Take these steps to reduce your risk of Achilles tendonitis: Stay in good shape year-round and try to keep your muscles as strong as they can be. Strong, flexible muscles work more efficiently and put less stress on your tendon. Increase the intensity and length ...
Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Soo-Han
[Purpose] This research explored the positive effects of self-myofascial release on hamstring muscular flexibility and proprioception and investigated the effectiveness of the stretch combined with therapeutic ultrasound. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 30 healthy university students with no history of pain in the Achilles tendon or hamstring within the recent 6 months. Each participant completed two experiments. In the first experiment (MS), they completed self-myofascial stretching using a foam roller for 7 days. In the second experiment (MSU), the same participants performed the self-myofascial stretching after the 15-minute application of ultrasound. This study involved a pre- and post-test on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. [Results] The use of self-myofascial stretching in the MS experiment had a significant effect on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. However, the addition of ultrasound in the MSU experiment had no additive effect. [Conclusion] Self-myofascial stretching immediately increased hamstring muscle flexibility and improved hip joint proprioception, but the addition of pre-stretch ultra sound provided no further benefit.
Cho, Sung-Hak; Kim, Soo-Han
[Purpose] This research explored the positive effects of self-myofascial release on hamstring muscular flexibility and proprioception and investigated the effectiveness of the stretch combined with therapeutic ultrasound. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 30 healthy university students with no history of pain in the Achilles tendon or hamstring within the recent 6 months. Each participant completed two experiments. In the first experiment (MS), they completed self-myofascial stretching using a foam roller for 7 days. In the second experiment (MSU), the same participants performed the self-myofascial stretching after the 15-minute application of ultrasound. This study involved a pre- and post-test on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. [Results] The use of self-myofascial stretching in the MS experiment had a significant effect on hamstring muscle flexibility and hip joint proprioception. However, the addition of ultrasound in the MSU experiment had no additive effect. [Conclusion] Self-myofascial stretching immediately increased hamstring muscle flexibility and improved hip joint proprioception, but the addition of pre-stretch ultra sound provided no further benefit. PMID:27390420
Buscayret, C; Buscayret, F; Farenq, C
We examined a reconstruction technique for tears of the anterior cruciate ligament using the hamstring tendons. The tendons were harvested en bloc, leaving the tibial insertion intact. Three intra-articular strands (two semitendinous and one gracilis) and lateral tenodesis were used with continuity via the gracilis. The intra-articular procedure was performed arthroscopically with tunneling laterally to medially to achieve the best position. Ligamentoplasty was performed in 262 cases. Outcome was satisfactory. This method preserves the lateral iliotibial sheath and spares the extensors apparatus. It is particularly interesting for reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament tears when a lateral tenodesis appears to be necessary.
Nomura, Y; Kuramochi, R; Fukubayashi, T
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between knee flexor strength and hamstring muscle morphology after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the semitendinosus (ST) tendon and to determine the causative factors of decreased knee flexor muscle strength. Fourteen male and ten female patients who resumed sports activities after surgery participated in the experiment. Isometric knee flexion torque was measured at 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°, and 105° of knee flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to calculate ST muscle length and hamstring muscle volume, and to confirm the status of ST tendon regeneration. The correlation between the MRI findings and flexor strength was analyzed. Regenerated ST tendon was confirmed in 21 of the 24 patients, but muscle volume (87.6%) and muscle length (74.5%) of the ST in the operated limb were significantly smaller than those in the normal limb. The percentage of the knee flexion torque of the operated limb compared with that of the normal was apparently lower at 105° (69.1%) and 90° (68.6%) than at 60° (84.4%). Tendon regeneration, ST muscle shortening, and ST muscle atrophy correlated with decreased knee flexion torque. These results indicated that preserving the morphology of the ST muscle-tendon complex is important.
Ashaolu, J. O.; Osinuga, T. S.; Ukwenya, V. O.; Makinde, E. O.; Adekanmbi, A. J.
We evaluated the morphological framework of the pes anserinus in both knees of ten Nigerian cadavers and we observed high degree of variability in its morphology and location. The pes anserinus inserted specifically on the superior half of the media border of the tibia, as far inferiorly as 124.44 mm to the tibial tuberosity (prolonged insertion). The insertion was also joined to the part of tibia close to the tibia tuberosity (90%) and to the fascia cruris (10%). The initial insertion point of the pes anserinus was always found at the level of the tibia tuberosity. We found out that accessory bands of sartorius, gracilis, or semitendinosus were part of the pes anserinus in 95% of all occasions studied whereas the combined occurrence of monotendinosus sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus tendons was found in only 5% of all occasions. The pes anserinus did not conform to the layered pattern and the tendons of sartorius, gracilis, or semitendinosus were short. The inferior prolongation of the pes anserinus connotes extended surface area of attachment to support the mechanical pull from the hamstring muscles. This information will be useful in precise location and grafting of the pes anserinus. PMID:26246910
Ashaolu, J O; Osinuga, T S; Ukwenya, V O; Makinde, E O; Adekanmbi, A J
We evaluated the morphological framework of the pes anserinus in both knees of ten Nigerian cadavers and we observed high degree of variability in its morphology and location. The pes anserinus inserted specifically on the superior half of the media border of the tibia, as far inferiorly as 124.44 mm to the tibial tuberosity (prolonged insertion). The insertion was also joined to the part of tibia close to the tibia tuberosity (90%) and to the fascia cruris (10%). The initial insertion point of the pes anserinus was always found at the level of the tibia tuberosity. We found out that accessory bands of sartorius, gracilis, or semitendinosus were part of the pes anserinus in 95% of all occasions studied whereas the combined occurrence of monotendinosus sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus tendons was found in only 5% of all occasions. The pes anserinus did not conform to the layered pattern and the tendons of sartorius, gracilis, or semitendinosus were short. The inferior prolongation of the pes anserinus connotes extended surface area of attachment to support the mechanical pull from the hamstring muscles. This information will be useful in precise location and grafting of the pes anserinus.
In a Level III, single center, retrospective, nonrandomized observational study, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction revision rates and patient-reported outcomes were found to be similar at 2-year follow-up when using autograft hamstrings versus a hybrid graft (autograft and nonirradiated allograft), with both groups reporting low levels of revisions and excellent outcomes. Despite previous published data that were cause for concern, a study in this issue provides support for use of a hybrid graft technique when encountering the challenging situation of a diminutive hamstring autograft when performing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gidwani, Sam; Bircher, Martin D
INTRODUCTION Injuries to the origin of the hamstring muscles usually occur in athletes and can result in an avulsion fracture of the ischium, an avulsion of the ischial apophysis, or a pure avulsion of the hamstring tendons themselves, depending on the patient' sage. These are rare injuries in the general population and are often initially misdiagnosed as a simple ‘hamstring pull’, leading to the development of chronic pain and disability. PATIENTS AND METHODS We present a retrospective case series of the 12 patients with such injuies who presented or were referred consecutively to the senior author between 1997 and 2006. RESULTS There was a significant delay (5 months to 12 years) in the diagnosis of the injury in 8 of the 12 patients. Five of these 8 patients required more extensive surgery than would otherwise have been required as a result of this delay, but all recovered well. The sporting career of one of the remaining three patients had already been brought to an end by her injury and the subsequent disability, and she elected not to have surgery. Of the four patients who were diagnosed acutely, three required surgery, and all four had an excellent result. CONCLUSIONS Injuries to the hamstring origin are rare and are often initially misdiagnosed as a simple ‘hamstring pull’, leading to the development of chronic pain and disability. Displaced injuries of the ischial apophysis and pure tendon avulsions are probably best treated surgically in the acute setting. As a result of our experience with these patients, we have produced a management algorithm. PMID:17535619
Tresoldi, Ilaria; Oliva, Francesco; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea
The structure of a tendon is an important example of complexity of ECM three-dimensional organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a macromolecular network with both structural and regulatory functions. ECM components belong to four major types of macromolecules: the collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. Tendons are made by a fibrous, compact connective tissue that connect muscle to bone designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Here we show the ultrastructural features of tendon's components.
Goossens, L; Witvrouw, E; Vanden Bossche, L; De Clercq, D
Hamstring injuries have not been under research in physical education teacher education (PETE) students so far. Within the frame of the development of an injury prevention program, for this study we conducted an analysis of modifiable risk factors for hamstring injuries in PETE students. Hamstring injuries of 102 freshmen bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Eighty-one students completed maximum muscle strength tests of hip extensors, hamstrings, quadriceps (isometric) and hamstrings (eccentric) at the start of the academic year. Sixty-nine of the latter completed a single leg hop for distance (SLHD). Risk factors for hamstring injuries were statistically detected using logistic regression. Sixteen hamstring injuries (0.16 injuries/student/academic year; 0.46 injuries/1000 h) occurred to 10 participants. Eight cases were included in the risk factor analysis. Lower eccentric hamstring strength (odds ratio (ODD) = 0.977; p = 0.043), higher isometric/eccentric hamstring strength ratio (ODD = 970.500; p = 0.019) and lower score on the SLHD (ODD = 0.884; p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for hamstring injury. A combination of eccentric hamstring strength test and SLHD could give a good risk analysis of hamstring injuries in PETE students. This might offer great perspectives for easily applicable screening in a clinical setting.
Yamazaki, H; Kato, H; Hata, Y; Nakatsuchi, Y; Tsuchikane, A
We analysed 21 patients with closed rupture of the flexor tendons caused by carpal bone and joint disorders. The tendon that ruptured depended on the location of the bone perforation into the carpal tunnel. Radiocarpal arthrography was performed in 13 patients and capsular perforation was demonstrated by contrast medium leakage into the carpal canal in 11 patients. This proved a useful diagnostic test. The flexor tendon(s) were reconstructed with free tendon graft in 17 patients, cross-over transfer of flexor tendons from adjacent digits in two and buddying to an adjacent flexor tendon in one patient. Postoperative total active range of motion in the fingers after 13 free tendon graft reconstructions averaged 213 degrees (range 170-265 degrees ). The active range of motion of the thumb-interphalangeal joint after free tendon graft reconstruction in three cases improved from 0 degrees to 33 degrees on average (range 10 degrees -40 degrees ).
... up. Tight calf muscles or muscles that lack flexibility decrease a person's range of motion and put an extra strain on the tendon. Running or exercising on a hard or uneven surface or doing lunges or plyometrics without adequate training. A traumatic injury to the Achilles tendon. How ...
Romanini, Emilio; D'Angelo, Franca; De Masi, Salvatore; Adriani, Ezio; Magaletti, Massimiliano; Lacorte, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Paola; Sagliocca, Luciano; Morciano, Cristina; Mele, Alfonso
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgical reconstruction is performed with the use of an autogenic, allogenic or synthetic graft. The document issued by the Italian National Guidelines System (SNLG, Sistema Nazionale Linee Guida) at the National Institute of Health aims to guide orthopaedic surgeons in selecting the optimal graft for ACL reconstruction using an evidence-based approach. A monodisciplinary panel was formed to define a restricted number of clinical questions, develop specific search strategies and critically appraise the literature using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) method. The final draft was shared by the panel and then sent to four external referees to assess its readability and clarity, its clinical relevance and the feasibility of recommendations. autograft shows moderate superiority compared with allograft, in relation to the relevant outcomes and the quality of selected evidence, after an appropriate risk-benefit assessment. Allograft shows higher failure rate and higher risk of infection. The panel recommends use of autografts; patellar tendon should be the first choice, due to its higher stability, while use of hamstring is indicated for subjects for whom knee pain can represent a particular problem (e.g., some categories of workers). autograft shows better performance compared with allograft and no significant heterogeneity in relation to relevant outcomes. The GRADE method allowed collation of all the information needed to draw up the recommendations, and to highlight the core points for discussion.
Zwick, Ernst B; Svehlík, Martin; Steinwender, Gerhard; Saraph, Vinay; Linhart, Wolfgang E
Hyperextension of the knee in stance (knee recurvatum) is a common disorder in patients with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). A group 35 children with CP (47 lower limbs) was divided into two subgroups according to the timing of maximum knee extension during the stance phase of gait. Gait analysis and musculoskeletal modelling data were compared with a control group of 12 normally developing children. We observed no difference in kinematics between the CP groups who showed an equinus position of the foot at initial contact. Both groups showed increased external extensor moments across the knee. The muscle-tendon lengths of the hamstrings were abnormally long at initial contact, and in both recurvatum groups, contracted faster compared with the control group. Surface electromyography revealed prolonged activity of the hamstrings in stance and early activation in swing. Abnormally long hamstrings at initial contact together with equinus position of the foot are the main causes of genu recurvatum in children with CP.
The Andrew J. Weiland Medal is presented each year by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand and the American Foundation for Surgery of the Hand for a body of work related to hand surgery research. This essay, awarded the Weiland Medal in 2011, focuses on the clinical need for flexor tendon reconstruction and on investigations into flexor tendon biology. Reconstruction of the upper extremity is limited by 2 major problems after injury or degeneration of the flexor tendons. First, adhesions formed after flexor tendon repair can cause decreased postoperative range of motion and hand function. Second, tendon losses can result from trauma and degenerative diseases, necessitating additional tendon graft material. Tendon adhesions are even more prevalent after tendon grafting; therefore these 2 problems are interrelated and lead to considerable disability. The total costs in terms of disability and inability to return to work are enormous. In this essay, published work from the past 12 years in our basic science laboratory is summarized and presented with the common theme of using molecular techniques to understand the cellular process of flexor tendon wound healing and to create substances and materials to improve tendon repair and regeneration. These are efforts to address 2 interrelated and clinically relevant problems that all hand surgeons face in their practice. Copyright Â© 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mansour, Alfred A; Genuario, James W; Young, Jason P; Murphy, Todd P; Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F
Although hamstring strains are common among professional football players, proximal tendon avulsions are relatively rare. Surgical repair is recommended, but there is no evidence on professional football players return to play (RTP). We hypothesized that surgical reattachment of complete proximal hamstring ruptures in these athletes would enable successful RTP. Ten proximal hamstring avulsions were identified in 10 National Football League (NFL) players between 1990 and 2008. Participating team physicians retrospectively reviewed each player's training room and clinical records, operative notes, and imaging studies. The ruptures were identified and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 10 injuries, 9 had palpable defects. Each of the ruptures was managed with surgical fixation within 10 days of injury. All of the players reported full return of strength and attempted to resume play at the beginning of the following season, with 9 of the 10 actually returning to play. However, despite having no limitations related to the surgical repair, only 5 of the 10 athletes played in more than 1 game. Most NFL players who undergo acute surgical repair of complete proximal hamstring ruptures are able to RTP, but results are mixed regarding long-term participation. This finding may indicate that this injury is a marker for elite-level physical deterioration.
Sole, Gisela; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Nicholson, Helen; Sullivan, S John
The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of gluteal and thigh muscles of sportspeople with a recent hamstring injury with uninjured controls during a weight-bearing task. Cross-sectional. University laboratory. 16 participants with a hamstring injury (hamstring-injured group, HG) and 18 control participants (control group (CG)) participated in the study. The EMG activity of gluteal, quadriceps and hamstring muscles was recorded during a movement from double- to single-leg movement using surface electrodes. The EMG onsets of biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were significantly earlier for the HG injured and the uninjured sides in preparation for single-leg standing when compared with the CG average. There were no differences in onsets for the gluteal and quadriceps muscles when comparing the injured or uninjured legs of the HG to the bilateral average of the CG. The earlier onset of the injured and the uninjured hamstrings in preparation for single leg stance of the HG in comparison with the CG suggests an alteration in the motor control of these muscles. Altered neuromuscular control following a hamstring injury may be a factor to be considered in the rehabilitation of hamstring injuries.
Copland, Spencer T; Tipton, John S; Fields, Karl B
Hamstring tears are exceedingly common in a variety of athletic populations and contribute to a significant amount of morbidity and time lost from sport. Many modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors have been identified with hamstring injury. There is strong evidence that Nordic hamstring exercises can decrease the risk of hamstring injury, limited evidence that sports specific anaerobic interval training and isokinetic strengthening can reduce injury rates, and limited evidence that daily static stretching after injury can increase recovery rate. The majority of medical, surgical, and rehabilitative intervention studies have limitations based on the total number of hamstring injuries included in a given study, reliance on retrospective cohort studies, and conclusions based on case series that limit the utility of the information. Most do not provide a level of evidence greater than expert opinion.
Screen, H R C; Toorani, S; Shelton, J C
Tendons experience widely varying loading conditions in vivo. They may be categorised by their function as either positional tendons, which are used for intricate movements and experience lower stress, or as energy storage tendons which act as highly stressed springs during locomotion. Structural and compositional differences between tendons are thought to enable an optimisation of their properties to suit their functional environment. However, little is known about structure-function relationships in tendon. This study adopts porcine flexor and extensor tendon fascicles as examples of high stress and low stress tendons, comparing their mechanical behaviour at the micro-level in order to understand their stress relaxation response. Stress-relaxation was shown to occur predominantly through sliding between collagen fibres. However, in the more highly stressed flexor tendon fascicles, more fibre reorganisation was evident when the tissue was exposed to low strains. By contrast, the low load extensor tendon fascicles appears to have less capacity for fibre reorganisation or shearing than the energy storage tendon, relying more heavily on fibril level relaxation. The extensor fascicles were also unable to sustain loads without rapid and complete stress relaxation. These findings highlight the need to optimise tendon repair solutions for specific tendons, and match tendon properties when using grafts in tendon repairs.
Mazurek, Tomasz; Strankowski, Michał; Ceynowa, Marcin; Rocławski, Marek
This study compared the maximum load, stress, elongation at failure and the mode of failure of three kinds of tendons most frequently used for tendon grafting and tendon transfers, using the Pulvertaft weave suture. Sixty tendons were used from fresh human cadaver upper and lower extremities. The performed repairs included: 9 specimens of flexor digitorum superficialis or profundus tendon with flexor digitorum superficialis or profundus tendon (thick-thick suture), 10 specimens of flexor digitorum superficialis or profundus tendon with palmaris longus tendon (thick-medium thin suture), and 10 specimens of flexor digitorum superficialis or profundus tendon with plantaris tendon (thick-thin suture). Material testing machine was used to test repairs to failure. The mean maximum load at failure increased with the thickness of donor tendon. For the thick-thick specimen, the maximum load at failure was 125 newtons (N), for the thick-medium thin specimen it was 86,8N, and for the thick-thin it was 65,2N. These differences were all statistically significant. The active rehabilitation protocol is possible only with thick-thick connections used, the strength of the thick-medium thin connection is on the border of indications for the active rehabilitation protocol, and the thick-thin connection strength is sufficient only for the passive rehabilitation protocol. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Inoue, Hajime
A 54-year-old woman who had been treated for rheumatoid arthritis for 12 years developed spontaneous multiple flexor tendon ruptures during a 5-month period. Radiography revealed volar subluxation of the lunate bone. Surgery was performed 5 months after the first onset of tendon rupture. All eight flexors, except the flexor pollicis longus tendons, had ruptured, and the damage resembled spaghetti. Four flexor digitorum profundus tendons were reconstructed by bridge graft using their respective sublimis tendons. Wrist joint fusion and tenolysis were performed 3 months after the first operation. Each finger achieved a good range of motion 2 years and 6 months after the second operation.
Nourissat, Geoffroy; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine
Tendon is a crucial component of the musculoskeletal system. Tendons connect muscle to bone and transmit forces to produce motion. Chronic and acute tendon injuries are very common and result in considerable pain and disability. The management of tendon injuries remains a challenge for clinicians. Effective treatments for tendon injuries are lacking because the understanding of tendon biology lags behind that of the other components of the musculoskeletal system. Animal and cellular models have been developed to study tendon-cell differentiation and tendon repair following injury. These studies have highlighted specific growth factors and transcription factors involved in tenogenesis during developmental and repair processes. Mechanical factors also seem to be essential for tendon development, homeostasis and repair. Mechanical signals are transduced via molecular signalling pathways that trigger adaptive responses in the tendon. Understanding the links between the mechanical and biological parameters involved in tendon development, homeostasis and repair is prerequisite for the identification of effective treatments for chronic and acute tendon injuries.
Battermann, N; Appell, H-J; Dargel, J; Koebke, J
Muscle strain injuries are common in sports, and a high incidence is reported for the hamstring muscles, especially in the proximal region, where the long head of the biceps femoris muscle is most frequently affected. To look for some architectural peculiarities, which would make this muscle vulnerable, 101 legs of embalmed human cadavers were dissected and descriptively examined, morphometric data were obtained in the proximal region, and slices of plastinated specimens were microscopically examined. The 3 muscles composing the proximal hamstring complex are partly twisted around each other and possess common fibrous adhesions. Biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles form a common head, to which the ST contributes the majority of fascicles extending 9 cm down from the ischiac tuberosity, thereby attaching to the common tendon at a remarkable pennation angle. The first BF fascicles origin from the common tendon only at 6 cm distance from the ischiac tuberosity. It is concluded that the high incidence of proximal BF strains may be a misinterpretation due to insufficient imaging and the complex architecture. It is suggested that the pennation angle at which the ST inserts to the common tendon makes this muscle especially vulnerable for strains during forced eccentric contractions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Schache, Anthony G; Crossley, Kay M; Macindoe, Ian G; Fahrner, Brendan B; Pandy, Marcus G
To demonstrate the potential for a simple clinical test of hamstring muscle strength to identify susceptibility to muscle strain injury. A single-case design was used; specifically, an elite-level male Australian Rules football player performed bilateral isometric maximum voluntary contractions of the hamstring muscles on a weekly basis for a period of 5 weeks preceding a right hamstring muscle strain injury. Minimal asymmetry (no greater than ±1.2% difference) was evident in the hamstring isometric maximum voluntary contractions during the first 4 weeks, but 5 days prior to injury, the right hamstring isometric maximum voluntary contraction was reduced by 10.9% compared to the left. Measuring asymmetry in isometric maximum voluntary contractions of the hamstring muscles may be a useful clinical test to identify susceptibility to muscle strain injury.
Sugiura, Yusaku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sato, Yamato
Background: No studies have been reported on how strength, agility, and flexibility training reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in sprinters. Therefore, a program for preventing hamstring injury in these athletes has not been established. Purpose: To document the incidence of hamstring injuries during times when different prevention strategies were employed to see whether a particular prevention program reduced their occurrence. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The study subjects were a total of 613 collegiate male sprinters trained by the same coach over 24 seasons. Tow training was used throughout the research period as a normal sprint training method. The hamstring injury prevention program evolved over time. From 1988 to 1991 (period 1), prevention focused on strength training alone; from 1992 to 1999 (period 2), a combination of strength and agility training was used; and from 2000 to 2011 (period 3), the program incorporated strength, agility, and flexibility training. The incidence of hamstring injuries was compared for each of the 3 prevention strategies. Results: The incidence of hamstring injuries per athlete-seasons was 137.9 for period 1, 60.6 for period 2, and 6.7 for period 3. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of hamstring injury according to the different prevention programs (χ2(2) = 31.78, P < .001, effect size: Cramer V = 0.23, 1 − β = 0.999). Residual analysis showed that the number of hamstring injuries for period 1 was significantly greater than the expected value (P < .01), whereas that for period 3 was significantly lower than the expected value (P < .01). Conclusion: The incidence of hamstring injuries in sprinters decreased as agility and flexibility were added to strength training. PMID:28210652
Ali, Kashif; Leland, J Martin
Hamstring injuries continue to be very common for both elite and amateur athletes. Given their high recurrence rate, the ability to treat these injuries effectively is critical to helping athletes return to their previous level of activity without putting them at risk for future injury. Most hamstring strains can be treated with initial pain control and a course of rehabilitation focused on a gradual return to activity. However, an exact, evidence-based rehabilitation protocol has yet to be studied. Although surgery is rare and reserved for complete hamstring ruptures, results show high patient satisfaction and ability to return to play.
Fournier-Farley, Camille; Lamontagne, Martin; Gendron, Patrick; Gagnon, Dany H
It is important for clinicians to rely on suitable prognosis factors after hamstring injuries because of the high incidence of these injuries and time away from athletic activities. To summarize the current literature on factors that influence return to play after a hamstring injury in athletes. Systematic review. A computer-assisted literature search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase, and EBM Reviews databases (and a manual search of the reference lists of all selected articles) was conducted using keywords related to hamstring injuries and return to play. The literature review criteria included (1) patients with an acute hamstring or posterior thigh injury; (2) a randomized controlled trial, cohort study, case-control study, case series, or prospective or retrospective design; (3) information on rehabilitation, physical therapy, clinical assessment, imaging techniques, and return to play; and (4) studies written in English or French. The search strategy identified 914 potential articles, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria. In terms of the clinical assessment, the following factors were associated with a longer recovery time: stretching-type injuries, recreational-level sports, structural versus functional injuries, greater range of motion deficit with the hip flexed at 90°, time to first consultation >1 week, increased pain on the visual analog scale, and >1 day to be able to walk pain free after the injury. As for magnetic resonance imaging studies, the following factors correlated with a longer recovery time: positive findings; higher grade of injury; muscle involvement >75%; complete transection; retraction; central tendon disruption of the biceps femoris; proximal tendon involvement; shorter distance to the ischial tuberosity; length of the hamstring injury; and depth, volume, and large cross-sectional area. With respect to ultrasound studies, the following factors were associated with a poor prognosis: large cross-sectional area, injury outside the
Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Silder, Amy; Sherry, Marc A; Tuite, Michael J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C
Hamstring strain reinjury rates can reach 30% within the initial 2 wk after return to sport (RTS). Incomplete recovery of strength may be a contributing factor. However, relative strength of the injured and unaffected limbs at RTS is currently unknown.The purpose was to characterize hamstring strength and morphology at the time of RTS and 6 months later. Twenty-five athletes who experienced an acute hamstring strain injury participated after completion of a controlled rehabilitation program. Bilateral isokinetic strength testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at RTS and 6 months later. Strength (knee flexion peak torque, work, and angle of peak torque) and MRI (muscle and tendon volumes) measures were compared between limbs and over time using repeated-measures ANOVA. The injured limb showed a peak torque deficit of 9.6% compared to the uninjured limb at RTS (60°·s, P < 0.001) but not 6 months after. The knee flexion angle of peak torque decreased over time for both limbs (60°·s, P < 0.001). MRI revealed that 20.4% of the muscle cross-sectional area showed signs of edema at RTS with full resolution by the 6-month follow-up. Tendon volume of the injured limb tended to increase over time (P = 0.108), whereas muscle volume decreased between 4% and 5% in both limbs (P < 0.001). Residual edema and deficits in isokinetic knee flexion strength were present at RTS but resolved during the subsequent 6 months. This occurred despite MRI evidence of scar tissue formation (increased tendon volume) and muscle atrophy, suggesting that neuromuscular factors may contribute to the return of strength.
Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Silder, Amy; Sherry, Marc A; Tuite, Michael J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C
Hamstring strain re-injury rates can reach 30% within the initial two weeks following return to sport (RTS). Incomplete recovery of strength may be a contributing factor. However, relative strength of the injured and unaffected limbs at RTS is currently unknown. PURPOSE: Characterize hamstring strength and morphology at the time of RTS and six months later. METHODS: Twenty-five athletes that experienced an acute hamstring strain injury participated, following completion of a controlled rehabilitation program. Bilateral isokinetic strength testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at RTS and 6-months later. Strength (knee flexion peak torque, work, angle of peak torque) and MRI (muscle and tendon volumes) measures were compared between limbs and over time using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: The injured limb showed a peak torque deficit of 9.6% compared to the uninjured limb at RTS (60°/s, p<0.001), but not 6-months following. The knee flexion angle of peak torque decreased over time for both limbs (60°/s, p<0.001). MRI revealed that 20.4% of the muscle cross-sectional area showed signs of edema at RTS with full resolution by the 6-month follow-up. Tendon volume of the injured limb tended to increase over time (p=0.108), while muscle volume decreased 4–5% in both limbs (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Residual edema and deficits in isokinetic knee flexion strength were present at RTS, but resolved during the subsequent six months. This occurred despite MRI evidence of scar tissue formation (increased tendon volume) and muscle atrophy, suggesting that neuromuscular factors may contribute to the return of strength. PMID:23059864
Ferreira, Marcio de Castro; Zidan, Flavio Ferreira; Miduati, Francini Belluci; Fortuna, Caio Cesar; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Abdalla, Rene Jorge
Recent anatomical and biomechanical studies on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have shown that this structure has an important function in relation to joint stability, especially when associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the criteria for its reconstruction have not yet been fully established and the surgical techniques that have been described present variations regarding anatomical points and fixation materials. This study presents a reproducible technique for ALL and ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons, in which three interference screws are used for fixation.
Walton, Christine; Li, Zhi; Pennings, Amanda; Agur, Anne; Elmaraghy, Amr
Background Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon from its osseous attachment is most often treated with operative intervention. Knowledge of the overall tendon morphology as well as the orientation of the collagenous fibers throughout the musculotendinous junction are key to intraoperative decision making and surgical technique in both the acute and chronic setting. Unfortunately, there is little information available in the literature. Purpose To comprehensively describe the morphology of the distal biceps tendon. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods The distal biceps terminal musculature, musculotendinous junction, and tendon were digitized in 10 cadaveric specimens and data reconstructed using 3-dimensional modeling. Results The average length, width, and thickness of the external distal biceps tendon were found to be 63.0, 6.0, and 3.0 mm, respectively. A unique expansion of the tendon fibers within the distal muscle was characterized, creating a thick collagenous network along the central component between the long and short heads. Conclusion This study documents the morphologic parameters of the native distal biceps tendon. Reconstruction may be necessary, especially in chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures, if the remaining tendon morphology is significantly compromised compared with the native distal biceps tendon. Knowledge of normal anatomical distal biceps tendon parameters may also guide the selection of a substitute graft with similar morphological characteristics. Clinical Relevance A thorough description of distal biceps tendon morphology is important to guide intraoperative decision making between primary repair and reconstruction and to better select the most appropriate graft. The detailed description of the tendinous expansion into the muscle may provide insight into better graft-weaving and suture-grasping techniques to maximize proximal graft incorporation. PMID:26665092
Valle, Xavier; L Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume
Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP.
Valle, Xavier; L.Tol, Johannes; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil; Malliaras, Peter; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Rizo, Vicenc; Moreno, Marcel; Jardi, Jaume
Context: Hamstring acute muscle injuries are prevalent in several sports including AFL football (Australian Football League), sprinting and soccer, and are often associated with prolonged time away from sport. Evidence Acquisition: In response to this, research into prevention and management of hamstring injury has increased, but epidemiological data shows no decline in injury and re-injury rates, suggesting that rehabilitation programs and return to play (RTP) criteria have to be improved. There continues to be a lack of consensus regarding how to assess performance, recovery and readiness to RTP, following hamstring strain injury. Results: The aim of this paper was to propose rehabilitation protocol for hamstring muscle injuries based on current basic science and research knowledge regarding injury demographics and management options. Conclusions: Criteria-based (subjective and objective) progression through the rehabilitation program will be outlined along with exercises for each phase, from initial injury to RTP. PMID:26715969
... the area to see if there are any injuries to nerves and blood vessels. When the repair is complete, the wound is closed. If the tendon damage is too severe, the repair and reconstruction ... to repair part of the injury. Another surgery will be done at a later ...
Delahunt, Eamonn; McGroarty, Mark; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano
To investigate the kinematic and muscle activation adaptations during performance of the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) to a 6-week eccentric hamstring training programme using the NHE as the sole mode of exercise. Twenty-nine healthy males were randomly allocated to a control (CG) or intervention (IG) group. The IG participated in a 6-week eccentric hamstring exercise programme using the NHE. The findings of the present study were that a 6-week eccentric hamstring training programme improved eccentric hamstring muscle strength (202.4 vs. 177.4 nm, p = 0.0002, Cohen's d = 0.97) and optimized kinematic (longer control of the forward fall component of the NHE, 68.1° vs. 73.7°, p = 0.022, Cohen's d = 0.90) and neuromuscular parameters (increased electromyographic activity of the hamstrings, 83.2 vs. 56.6 % and 92.0 vs. 54.2 %, p < 0.05, Cohen's d > 1.25) associated with NHE performance. This study provides some insight into potential mechanisms by which an eccentric hamstring exercise programme utilizing the NHE as the mode of exercise may result in an improvement in hamstring muscle control during eccentric contractions.
Takata, Yasushi; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki
Disruption of the knee extensor mechanism is a serious disorder that requires prompt treatment. It often occurs in the form of a patellar tendon rupture. It may occur in association with systemic disease or after administration of corticosteroids or fluoroquinolones. These conditions can cause tendon weakness, and consequent ruptures usually require both repair and augmentation. This paper reports on repair and augmentation for treating patellar tendon rupture in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). We report a patellar tendon rupture in a 27-year-old man with EDS, which occurred in the midsubstance of the patella. As the patient has tendon weakness, extensive repair will increase the risk of patella baja, and the use of end-to-end suturing technique alone will not be enough to prevent a rupture recurring; however, augmentation could be used to address the tendon weakness. Repair of the rupture and augmentation with hamstring tendon was performed. One year after the surgery, the patient was able to move his knee joint without pain and had an active range of motion of 0° (passive 20°)-145°. He was able to perform a straight leg raise without an extension lag. Repair and augmentation with hamstring tendon was an effective treatment option for patellar tendon rupture in a patient with EDS.
Zacharia, Balaji; Puthezhath, Kishore
Swan neck thumb deformity can be caused by osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, tendon transfers and paralytic diseases. Abductor pollicis longus is one of the major stabilizing tendon of the carpometacarpal joint of thumb. To the best of our knowledge, swan neck thumb deformity owing to division of abductor pollicis longus tendon is rare. In this article, we describe a case of isolated division of abductor pollicis longus tendon presenting with swan-neck deformity of thumb and discuss the mechanism, management and outcome. The patient was treated by repair of the divided tendon using palmaris longus tendon graft. At approximately 107 weeks following treatment, the patient was having full range of thumb movement and the deformity completely disappeared. We also describe the unusual mechanism whereby an isolated division of abductor pollicis longus tendon results in swan neck thumb deformity. Level of clinical evidence IV.
Palmer, Jeremiah E; Russell, Joseph P; Grieshober, Jason; Iacangelo, Abigail; Ellison, Benjamin A; Lease, T Dylan; Kim, Hyunchul; Henn, R Frank; Hsieh, Adam H
Allograft tendons are frequently used for ligament reconstruction about the knee, but they entail availability and cost challenges. The identification of other tissues that demonstrate equivalent performance to preferred tendons would improve limitations. Hypothesis/Purpose: We compared the biomechanical properties of 4 soft tissue allograft tendons: tibialis anterior (TA), tibialis posterior (TP), peroneus longus (PL), and semitendinosus (ST). We hypothesized that allograft properties would be similar when standardized by the looped diameter. Controlled laboratory study. This study consisted of 2 arms evaluating large and small looped-diameter grafts: experiment A consisted of TA, TP, and PL tendons (n = 47 each) with larger looped diameters of 9.0 to 9.5 mm, and experiment B consisted of TA, TP, PL, and ST tendons (n = 53 each) with smaller looped diameters of 7.0 to 7.5 mm. Each specimen underwent mechanical testing to measure the modulus of elasticity (E), ultimate tensile force (UTF), maximal elongation at failure, ultimate tensile stress (UTS), and ultimate tensile strain (UTε). Experiment A: No significant differences were noted among tendons for UTF, maximal elongation at failure, and UTϵ. UTS was significantly higher for the PL (54 MPa) compared with the TA (44 MPa) and TP (43 MPa) tendons. E was significantly higher for the PL (501 MPa) compared with the TP (416 MPa) tendons. Equivalence testing showed that the TP and PL tendon properties were equivalent or superior to those of the TA tendons for all outcomes. Experiment B: All groups exhibited a similar E. UTF was again highest in the PL tendons (2294 N) but was significantly different from only the ST tendons (1915 N). UTϵ was significantly higher for the ST (0.22) compared with the TA (0.19) and TP (0.19) tendons. Equivalence testing showed that the TA, TP, and PL tendon properties were equivalent or superior to those of the ST tendons. Compared with TA tendons, TP and PL tendons of a given looped
Kuang, Guan-Ming; Yau, W P; Lu, William W; Chiu, K Y
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a soft tissue autograft (hamstring autograft) has grown in popularity in the last 10 years. However, the issues of a relatively long healing time and an inferior histological healing result in terms of Sharpey-like fibers connection in soft tissue grafts are still unsolved. To obtain a promising outcome in the long run, prompt osteointegration of the tendon graft within the bone tunnel is essential. In recent decades, numerous methods have been reported to enhance osteointegration of soft tissue graft in the bone tunnel. In this article, we review the current literature in this research area, mainly focusing on strategies applied to the local bone tunnel environment. Biological strategies such as stem cell and gene transfer technology, as well as the local application of specific growth factors have been reported to yield exciting results. The use of biological bone substitute and physical stimulation also obtained promising results. Artificially engineered tissue has promise as a solution to the problem of donor site morbidity. Despite these encouraging results, the current available evidence is still experimental. Further clinical studies in terms of randomized control trial in the future should be conducted to extrapolate these basic science study findings into clinical practice.
Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W
Flexor tendon injuries still remain a challenging condition to manage to ensure optimal outcome for the patient. Since the first flexor tendon repair was described by Kirchmayr in 1917, several approaches to flexor tendon injury have enabled successful repairs rates of 70-90%. Primary surgical repair results in better functional outcome compared to secondary repair or tendon graft surgery. Flexor tendon injury repair has been extensively researched and the literature demonstrates successful repair requires minimal gapping at the repair site or interference with tendon vascularity, secure suture knots, smooth junction of tendon end and having sufficient strength for healing. However, the exact surgical approach to achieve success being currently used among surgeons is still controversial. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the results of studies demonstrating the current knowledge regarding the optimal approach for flexor tendon repair. Post-operative rehabilitation for flexor tendon surgery is another area, which has caused extensive debate in hand surgery. The trend to more active mobilisation protocols seems to be favoured but further study in this area is needed to find the protocol, which achieves function and gliding but avoids rupture of the tendons. Lastly despite success following surgery complications commonly still occur post surgery, including adhesion formation, tendon rupture and stiffness of the joints. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the appropriate management of these difficulties post surgery. New techniques in management of flexor tendon will also be discussed including external laser devices, addition of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:22431948
tibial fixation screw had to be removed under local anaesthesia in 10 patients. Conclusions The described ACL reconstruction technique represents a promising alternative to previously described procedures in the treatment of children and adolescents with open growth plates. Using quadriceps tendon future graft availability is not compromised, as the most frequently used autograft-source, ipsilateral hamstring tendons, remains untouched. PMID:21477319
Ono, T; Higashihara, A; Shinohara, J; Hirose, N; Fukubayashi, T
The purpose of this study was to identify the period of the gait cycle during which the hamstring muscles were likely injured by estimating the magnitude of tensile force in each muscle during overground sprinting. We conducted three-dimensional motion analysis of 12 male athletes performing overground sprinting at their maximal speed and calculated the hamstring muscle-tendon length and joint angles of the right limb throughout a gait cycle during which the ground reaction force was measured. Electromyographic activity during sprinting was recorded for the biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus muscles of ipsilateral limb. We estimated the magnitude of tensile force in each muscle by using the length change occurred in the musculotendon and normalized electromyographic activity value. The study found a quick increase of estimated tensile force in the biceps femoris long head during the early stance phase of the gait cycle during which the increased hip flexion angle and ground reaction force occurred at the same time. This study provides quantitative data of tensile force in the hamstring muscles suggesting that the biceps femoris long head muscle is susceptible to a strain injury during the early stance phase of the sprinting gait cycle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Hangody, Gy; Pánics, G; Szebényi, G; Kiss, R; Hangody, L; Pap, K
The goal of the study was to find a proper technique to fix tendon grafts into an INSTRON loading machine. From 8 human cadavers, 40 grafts were collected. We removed the bone-patella tendon-bone grafts, the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, the quadriceps tendon-bone grafts, the Achilles tendons, and the peroneus longus tendons from each lower extremity. We tested the tendon grafts with five different types of fixation devices: surgical thread (Premicron 3), general mounting clamp, wire mesh, cement fixation, and a modified clamp for an INSTRON loading machine. The mean failure load in case of surgical thread fixation was (381N ± 26N). The results with the general clamp were (527N ± 45N). The wire meshes were more promising (750N ± 21N), but did not reach the outcomes we desired. Easy slippages of the ends of the tendons from the cement encasements were observed (253N ± 18N). We then began to use Shi's clamp that could produce 977N ± 416N peak force. We combined Shi's clamp with freezing of the graft and the rupture of the tendon itself demonstrated an average force of 2198 N ± 773N. We determined that our modified frozen clamp fixed the specimens against high tensile forces.
Cushman, Daniel; Rho, Monica E
Case report. Proximal hamstring tendinopathy in runners is characterized by pain with passive hip flexion with the knee extended, active hip extension, and pain with sitting. Relatively little literature exists on the condition, and publications on nonsurgical treatment protocols are even more scarce. Surgical intervention, which comprises the majority of literature for treatment of this condition, is an option for cases that fail to respond to nonsurgical treatment. The patient was a 34-year-old, otherwise healthy male triathlete with unilateral proximal hamstring tendinopathy diagnosed by ultrasound, who had pain only with running and prolonged sitting. After he failed to respond to 4 weeks of eccentric knee flexion and lumbopelvic musculature strengthening exercises, an eccentric hip extensor strengthening program using a treadmill was initiated. This treadmill exercise was performed on a daily basis, in addition to a lumbopelvic musculature strengthening program. The patient noted a decrease in pain within 2 weeks of initiating the new exercise, and was able to return to gradual running after 4 weeks and to speed training after 12 weeks. He returned to competition shortly thereafter and had no recurrence for 12 months after the initiation of therapy. His score on the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-proximal hamstring tendons improved from 23 on initial presentation to 83 at 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. We described the management of a triathlete with subacute proximal hamstring tendinopathy, who responded well to nonsurgical treatment using eccentric hip extension strengthening using a treadmill. Therapy, level 4.
... Basic types of peroneal tendon injuries are tendonitis, tears and subluxation. Tendonitis is an inflammation of one ... include: Pain Swelling Warm to the touch Acute tears are caused by repetitive activity or trauma. Immediate ...
Achilles tendon rupture Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Achilles (uh-KILL-eez) tendon rupture is an injury that affects the back ... but it can happen to anyone. The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord that connects the ...
Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...
Ardern, Clare L; Pizzari, Tania; Wollin, Martin R; Webster, Kate E
The aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic thigh muscle strength profile of professional male football players in Australia. Concentric (60° and 240°·s(-1)) and eccentric (30° and 120°·s(-1)) hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic strength was measured with a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. The primary variables were bilateral concentric and eccentric hamstring and quadriceps peak torque ratios, concentric hamstring-quadriceps peak torque ratios, and mixed ratios (eccentric hamstring 30°·s(-1) ÷ concentric quadriceps 240°·s(-1)). Hamstring strength imbalance was defined as deficits in any 2 of: bilateral concentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, bilateral eccentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, concentric hamstring-quadriceps ratio <0.47, and mixed ratio <0.80. Fifty-five strength tests involving 42 players were conducted. Ten players (24%) were identified as having hamstring strength imbalance. Athletes with strength imbalance had significantly reduced concentric and eccentric bilateral hamstring peak torque ratios at all angular velocities tested; and reduced eccentric quadriceps peak torque (30°·s(-1)) in their stance leg, compared with those without strength imbalance. Approximately, 1 in 4 players had preseason hamstring strength imbalance; and all strength deficits were observed in the stance leg. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings strength imbalance may impact in-season football performance and could have implications for the future risk of injury.
Okech, William; Kuo, Catherine K
Adult tendons fail to regenerate normal tissue after injury, and instead form dysfunctional scar tissue with abnormal mechanical properties. Surgical repair with grafts is the current standard to treat injuries, but faces significant limitations including pain and high rates of re-injury. To address this, we aim to regenerate new, normal tendons to replace dysfunctional tendons. A common approach to tendon tissue engineering is to design scaffolds and bioreactors based on adult tendon properties that can direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. Despite significant progress, advances have been limited due, in part, to a need for markers and potent induction cues. Our goal is to develop novel tendon tissue engineering approaches informed by embryonic tendon development. We are characterizing structure-property relationships of embryonic tendon to identify design parameters for three-dimensional scaffolds and bioreactor mechanical loading systems to direct adult stem cell tenogenesis. We will review studies in which we quantified changes in the mechanical and biochemical properties of tendon during embryonic development and elucidated specific mechanisms of functional property elaboration. We then examined the effects of these mechanical and biochemical factors on embryonic tendon cell behavior. Using custom-designed bioreactors, we also examined the effects of dynamic mechanical loading and growth factor treatment on embryonic tendon cells. Our findings have established cues to induce tenogenesis as well as metrics to evaluate differentiation. We finish by discussing how we have evaluated the tenogenic differentiation potential of adult stem cells by comparing their responses to that of embryonic tendon cells in these culture systems.
Vadalà, A; Iorio, R; Bonifazi, A M; Bolle, G; Ferretti, A
A 27-year-old professional martial arts athlete experienced recurrent right knee patellar tendon rupture on three occasions. He underwent two operations for complete patellar tendon rupture: an end-to-end tenorrhaphy the first time, and revision with a bone-patellar-tendon (BPT) allograft. After the third episode, he was referred to our department, where we performed a surgical reconstruction with the use of hamstring pro-patellar tendon, in a figure-of-eight configuration, followed by a careful rehabilitation protocol. Clinical and radiological follow-ups were realized at 1, 3, and 6 months and 1 and 2 years postop, with an accurate physical examination, the use of recognized international outcome scores, and radiograph and MRI studies. As far as we know, this is the first paper to report a re-revision of a patellar tendon rupture.
Bottagisio, Marta; Lovati, Arianna B
Tendon is a connective tissue mainly composed of collagen fibers with peculiar mechanical properties essential to functional movements. The increasing incidence of tendon traumatic injuries and ruptures-associated or not with the loss of tissue-falls on the growing interest in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of animal models is mandatory to deepen the knowledge of the tendon healing response to severe damages or acute transections. Thus, the selection of preclinical models is crucial to ensure a successful translation of effective and safe innovative treatments to the clinical practice. The current review is focused on animal models of tendon ruptures and lacerations or defective injuries with large tissue loss that require surgical approaches or grafting procedures. Data published between 2000 and 2016 were examined. The analyzed articles were compiled from Pub Med-NCBI using search terms, including animal model(s) AND tendon augmentation OR tendon substitute(s) OR tendon substitution OR tendon replacement OR tendon graft(s) OR tendon defect(s) OR tendon rupture(s). This article presents the existing preclinical models - considering their advantages and disadvantages-in which translational progresses have been made by using bioactive sutures or tissue engineering that combines biomaterials with cells and growth factors to efficiently treat transections or large defects of Achilles and flexor tendons.
Struewer, Johannes; Efe, Turgay; Frangen, Thomas Manfred; Schwarting, Tim; Buecking, Benjamin; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Schüttler, Karl Friedrich; Ziring, Ewgeni
The aim of the present study was to evaluate incidence, degree and impact of tibial tunnel widening (TW) on patient-reported long-term clinical outcome, knee joint stability and prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) after isolated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. On average, 13.5 years after ACL reconstruction via patella-bone-tendon-bone autograft, 73 patients have been re-evaluated. Inclusion criteria consisted of an isolated anterior cruciate ligament rupture and reconstruction, a minimum of 10-year follow-up and no previous anterior cruciate ligament repair or associated intra-articular lesions. Clinical evaluation was performed via the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score and the Tegner and Lysholm scores. Instrumental anterior laxity testing was carried out with the KT-1000™ arthrometer. The degree of degenerative changes and the prevalence of osteoarthritis were assessed with the Kellgren-Lawrence score. Tibial tunnel enlargement was radiographically evaluated on both antero-posterior and lateral views under establishment of 4 degrees of tibial tunnel widening by measuring the actual tunnel diameters in mm on the sclerotic margins of the inserted tunnels on 3 different points (T1-T3). Afterwards, a conversion of the absolute values in mm into a 4 staged ratio, based on the comparison to the results of the initial drill-width, should provide a better quantification and statistical analysis. Evaluation was performed postoperatively as well as on 2 year follow-up and 13 years after ACL reconstruction. Minimum follow-up was 10 years. 75% of patients were graded A or B according to IKDC score. The mean Lysholm score was 90.2±4.8 (25-100). Radiological assessment on long-term follow-up showed in 45% a grade I, in 24% a grade II, in 17% a grade III and in additional 12% a grade IV enlargement of the tibial tunnel. No evident progression of TW was found in comparison to the 2 year results. Radiological evaluation revealed
Zhang, Xinzhi; Bogdanowicz, Danielle; Erisken, Cevat; Lee, Nancy M; Lu, Helen H
Rotator cuff tears represent the most common shoulder injuries in the United States. The debilitating effect of this degenerative condition coupled with the high incidence of failure associated with existing graft choices underscores the clinical need for alternative grafting solutions. The 2 critical design criteria for the ideal tendon graft would require the graft to not only exhibit physiologically relevant mechanical properties but also be able to facilitate functional graft integration by promoting the regeneration of the native tendon-to-bone interface. Centered on these design goals, this review will highlight current approaches to functional and integrative tendon repair. In particular, the application of biomimetic design principles through the use of nanofiber- and nanocomposite-based scaffolds for tendon tissue engineering will be discussed. This review will begin with nanofiber-based approaches to functional tendon repair, followed by a section highlighting the exciting research on tendon-to-bone interface regeneration, with an emphasis on implementation of strategic biomimicry in nanofiber scaffold design and the concomitant formation of graded multi-tissue systems for integrative soft-tissue repair. This review will conclude with a summary and discussion of future directions.
Zhang, Xinzhi; Bogdanowicz, Danielle; Erisken, Cevat; Lee, Nancy M.; Lu, Helen H.
Rotator cuff tears represent the most common shoulder injuries in the United States. The debilitating effect of this degenerative condition coupled with the high incidence of failure associated with existing graft choices underscore the clinical need for alternative grafting solutions. The two critical design criteria for the ideal tendon graft would require the graft to not only exhibit physiologically relevant mechanical properties but also be able to facilitate functional graft integration by promoting the regeneration of the native tendon-to-bone interface. Centered on these design goals, this review will highlight current approaches to functional and integrative tendon repair. In particular, the application of biomimetic design principles through the use of nanofiber- and nanocomposite-based scaffolds for tendon tissue engineering will be discussed. This review will begin with nanofiber-based approaches to functional tendon repair, followed by a section highlighting the exciting research on tendon-to-bone interface regeneration, with an emphasis on implementation of strategic biomimicry in nanofiber scaffold design and the concomitant formation of graded multi-tissue systems for integrative soft tissue repair. This review will conclude with a summary and future directions section. PMID:22244070
Gardner, E M H; VonderHeide, N; Fisher, R; Brooker, G; Yates, P J
Bacterial contamination of tendon allografts at the completion of processing has historically been about 2 %, with tendons that are found to be culture positive being discarded. Treatment of tendon allograft with hydrogen peroxide at the beginning of tissue processing may reduce bacterial contamination, however, the potential side effects of hydrogen peroxide treatment include hydrolysis of the collagen and this may alter the mechanical properties of the graft. Pairs of human tendons were used. One was washed in 3 % hydrogen peroxide for 5 min and the untreated tendon was used as a control. The ultimate tensile strength of the tendons was determined using a material testing machine. A freeze clamp technique was used to hold the tendons securely at the high loads required to cause tendon failure. There was no statistical difference in the ultimate tensile strength between the treated and untreated tendons. Mean strength ranged from Extensor Hallucis Longus at 588 Newtons to Tibialis Posterior at 2,366 Newtons. Hydrogen peroxide washing may reduce bacterial contamination of tendon allograft and does not affect the strength of the tendon.
Does eccentric muscle training of hamstring muscles reduce the rate of hamstring injuries in male soccer players? Cluster randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation. The 5 top men's soccer divisions in Denmark. First team squad soccer players from teams in the top 5 national soccer divisions were included. Players who joined a team after the start of the trial were excluded. Randomisation of 54 teams allocated 26 to the intervention group and 28 to a control group. Both groups followed their usual training program. In addition, the intervention group completed 27 sessions of the eccentric hamstring muscle training in a 10-week period during the midseason break, and once a week in the second half of the season. The hamstring exercise (the Nordic curl) involves the player using hamstrings to resist forward falling of the trunk from a kneeling position. Players completed 2-3 sets of 5-12 repetitions of the exercise for 1-3 sessions per week. The primary outcome was the number of overall, new, and recurrent acute hamstring injuries during one full soccer season. A hamstring injury was defined as any acute physical complaint in the region of the posterior thigh sustained during a soccer match or training. Recurrence of an injury already reported in the trial period was not included to avoid recording the same injury more than once. 50 teams with 942 players completed the study. At the end of the season, there had been 15 hamstring injuries (12 new, 3 recurrent) in the eccentric hamstring exercise group and 52 injuries (32 new, 20 recurrent) in the control group. The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent 1 hamstring injury (new or recurrent) was 13 (95% CI 9 to 23). The NNT to prevent 1 new injury was 25 (95% CI 15 to 72) and the NNT for recurrent injury was 3 (95% CI 2 to 6). Apart from short term muscle soreness no adverse events were reported in the exercise group. An eccentric strengthening exercise program for the hamstring muscles that can be
Ahmad, Christopher S; Redler, Lauren H; Ciccotti, Michael G; Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Bradley, James
Muscle injuries are the most common injuries in sports, with hamstring injuries accounting for 29% of all injuries in athletes. These injuries lead to prolonged impairment and have a reinjury risk of 12% to 31%. They range from mild muscle damage without loss of structural integrity to complete muscle tearing with fiber disruption. Novel MRI scores are increasingly being used and allow a more precise prediction of return to sport. In this article, the authors review the history, mechanisms of injury, and classification systems for hamstring injuries as well as present the latest evidence related to the management of hamstring injuries, including intramuscular and both proximal and distal insertional injuries. Indications for surgical treatment of certain proximal and distal avulsions, biological augmentation to the nonoperative treatment of midsubstance injuries, and advances in risk reduction and injury prevention are discussed.
Askling, Carl M; Tengvar, Magnus; Tarassova, Olga; Thorstensson, Alf
Hamstring strain is a common injury in sprinters and jumpers, and therefore time to return to sport and secondary prevention become of particular concern. To compare the effectiveness of two rehabilitation protocols after acute hamstring injury in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers by evaluating time needed to return to full participation in the training process. Prospective randomised comparison of two rehabilitation protocols. Fifty-six Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers with acute hamstring injury, verified by MRI, were randomly assigned to one of two rehabilitation protocols. Twenty-eight athletes were assigned to a protocol emphasising lengthening exercises, L-protocol, and 28 athletes to a protocol consisting of conventional exercises, C-protocol. The outcome measure was the number of days to return to full training. Re-injuries were registered during a period of 12 months after return. Time to return was significantly shorter for the athletes in the L-protocol, mean 49 days (1SD±26, range 18-107 days), compared with the C-protocol, mean 86 days (1SD±34, range 26-140 days). Irrespective of protocol, hamstring injuries where the proximal free tendon was involved took a significantly longer time to return than injuries that did not involve the free tendon, L-protocol: mean 73 vs 31 days and C-protocol: mean 116 vs 63 days, respectively. Two reinjuries were registered, both in the C-protocol. A rehabilitation protocol emphasising lengthening type of exercises is more effective than a protocol containing conventional exercises in promoting time to return in Swedish elite sprinters and jumpers.
Askling, Carl M; Tengvar, Magnus; Saartok, Tönu; Thorstensson, Alf
Hamstring strains can be of 2 types with different injury mechanisms, 1 occurring during high-speed running and the other during stretching exercises. A stretching type of injury to the proximal rear thigh may involve specific muscle-tendon structures that could affect recovery time. Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Fifteen professional dancers with acute first-time hamstring strains were prospectively included in the study. All subjects were examined, clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging, on 4 occasions after injury: at day 2 to 4, 10, 21, and 42. The clinical follow-up period was 2 years. All dancers were injured during slow hip-flexion movements with extended knee and experienced relatively mild acute symptoms. All injuries were located proximally in the posterior thigh close to the ischial tuberosity. The injury involved the semimembranosus (87%), quadratus femoris (87%), and adductor magnus (33%). All injuries to the semimembranosus involved its proximal free tendon. There were no significant correlations between clinical or magnetic resonance imaging parameters and the time to return to preinjury level (median, 50 weeks; range, 30-76 weeks). Stretching exercises can give rise to a specific type of strain injury to the posterior thigh. A precise history and careful palpation provide the clinician enough information to predict a prolonged time until return to preinjury level. One factor underlying prolonged recovery time could be the involvement of the free tendon of the semimembranosus muscle.
Erickson, Brandon J; Zaferiou, Antonia; Chalmers, Peter N; Ruby, Deana; Malloy, Phillip; Luchetti, Timothy J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A
Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among baseball players of all levels. There are several graft choices in performing UCLR, one of which is a hamstring (gracilis or semitendinosus) autograft. It is unclear whether the hamstring muscle from a pitcher's drive leg (ipsilateral side of the UCLR) or landing leg (contralateral side of the UCLR) is more active during the pitching motion. We hypothesized that the landing leg semitendinosus will be more electromyographically active than the drive leg. Healthy, elite male pitchers aged 16-21 years were recruited. Sixteen pitchers (average age, 17.6 ± 1.6 years; 67% threw right handed) underwent electromyographic analysis. Pitchers threw 5 fastballs at 100% effort from the wind-up with electromyographic analysis of every pitch. Activation of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris in both legs was compared within pitchers and between pitchers. Hamstring activity was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg during each phase and in sum, although the difference was significant only during the double support phase (P = .021). On within-pitcher analysis, 14 of 16 pitchers had significantly more sum hamstring activity in the drive leg than in the landing leg (P = .043). During the baseball pitch, muscle activity of the semitendinosus was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg in most pitchers. Surgeons performing UCLR using hamstring autograft should consider harvesting the graft from the pitcher's landing leg to minimize disruption to the athlete's pitching motion. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thorfinn, Johan; Saber, Sepideh; Angelidis, Ioannis K; Ki, Sae H; Zhang, Andrew Y; Chong, Alphonsus K; Pham, Hung M; Lee, Gordon K; Chang, James
Tissue-engineered tendon material may address tendon shortages in mutilating hand injuries. Tenocytes from rabbit flexor tendon can be successfully seeded onto acellularized tendons that are used as tendon constructs. These constructs in vivo exhibit a population of tenocyte-like cells; however, it is not known to what extent these cells are of donor or recipient origin. Furthermore, the temporal distribution is also not known. Tenocytes from New Zealand male rabbits were cultured and seeded onto acellularized rabbit forepaw flexor tendons (n = 48). These tendon constructs were transplanted into female recipients. Tendons were examined after 3, 6, 12, and 30 weeks using fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect the Y chromosome in the male donor cells. One unseeded, acellularized allograft in each animal was used as a control. The donor male tenocytes populate the epitenon and endotenon of the grafts at greater numbers than the recipient female tenocytes at 3 and 6 weeks. The donor and recipient tenocytes are present jointly in the grafts until 12 weeks. At 30 weeks, nearly all cells are recipient tenocyte-like cells. Donor male cells survive in decreasing numbers over time until 30 weeks. The presence of cells in tissue-engineered tendon grafts has been shown in prior studies to add to the strength of the constructs in vitro. This study shows that recipient cells can migrate into and repopulate the tendon construct. Cell seeding onto tendon material may create stronger constructs that will allow the initiation of motion earlier.
Sherry, Marc A; Johnston, Tyler S; Heiderscheit, Bryan C
Acute hamstring injuries are responsible for significant time loss for athletes. As there are a multitude of injury mechanisms, thorough evaluation is imperative for determining the appropriate plan of care and adequate rehabilitation is required to reduce the risk of recurrent injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kumazaki, T; Ehara, Y; Sakai, T
The hamstring muscles were analyzed anatomically and physiologically to clarify the specific reasons for the incidence of muscle strain of the hamstrings. For the anatomical study, hamstring muscles of 13 embalmed cadavers were dissected. For the physiological study, the knee flexor torque and surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were measured during isometric contraction of hamstring muscles in 10 healthy adults. The biceps femoris muscle long head (BF-L) and semimembranosus muscle (SM) had hemi-pennate architecture and their fiber length per total muscle length (FL/TML) was smaller than that of semtendinosus muscle (ST) and biceps femoris muscle short head (BF-S) with other architecture. The decrease of total muscle length per fiber length (ΔTML/FL) was larger in BF-L and SM than in ST and BF-S. The EMG activities at 0° of knee angle were at maximal compared with other knee angles and were of similar level in BF-L, in SM and in ST, whereas they were considerably smaller in BF-S. The EMG at 0° of knee angle activity per physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was about 1.6 times greater in BF-L than in SM. These results indicate the highest risk of muscle strain was in BF-L followed by SM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.
Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)
Small, K; McNaughton, L R; Greig, M; Lohkamp, M; Lovell, R
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a multi-directional soccer-specific fatigue protocol on sprinting kinematics in relation to hamstring injury risk. Nine semi-professional soccer players (Mean +/- SD: Age: 21.3 +/- 2.9 year; Height 185.0 +/- 8.7 cm; Body Mass 81.6 +/- 6.7 kg) completed the SAFT(90); a multi-directional, intermittent 90 min exercise protocol representative of soccer match-play. The 10m sprint times and three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded using a high-speed motion capture system (Qualisys Track Manager) every 15 min during the SAFT(90). A significant time dependent increase was observed in sprint time during the SAFT(90) (P<0.01) with a corresponding significant decrease in stride length (P<0.01). Analysis of the kinematic sprint data revealed significantly reduced combined maximal hip flexion and knee extension angle, indicating reduced hamstring length, between pre-exercise and half-time (P<0.01) and pre-exercise and full-time (P<0.05). These findings revealed that the SAFT(90) produced time dependent impairments in sprinting performance and kinematics of technique which may result from shorter hamstring muscle length. Alterations in sprinting technique may have implications for the increased predisposition to hamstring strain injury during the latter stages of soccer match-play.
Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.
Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)
Lui, Tun Hing
Tendon adhesion is one of the most common causes of disability following tendon surgery. A case of extensive peritendinous adhesions of the Achilles tendon and tibialis posterior tendon after compound rupture of the tendons was reported. This was managed by endoscopic adhesiolysis of both tendons. The endoscopic approach allows early postoperative mobilisation which can relieve the tendon adhesion. PMID:24045762
Sun, Chuan-Xiu; He, Sheng-Wei; Fang, Xu; Mi, Li-Dong; Du, Guang-Yu; Sun, Xue-Gang
To evaluate the clinical efficacy of autologous semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafting with anchor repair for the treatment of chronic achilles tendon rupture and severe scarring. From April 2010 to October 2012,26 patients with chronic achilles tendon rupture(with Myerson type III ) and severe scarring were treated with autologous semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafting with anchor repair. There were 19 males and 7 females,with an average age of 32 years old (ranged, 22 to 47 years). The time from injury to surgery was from 3 to 12 months (7 months on average). The plantar flexion strength of all injuried feet attenuated and single heel rise test were positive in 26 cases before operation. Plaster immobilization and routine rehabilitation therapy were performed after operation. Clinical effects were evaluated by Arner-lindholm criterion and complications were observed after operation. All the patients were followed up from 12 to 24 months with a mean of 16 months. No complications such as achilles tendon re-rupture, wound infection, etc were found during follow-up period. According to the Arner-Lindholm standard, 15 cases got excellent results and 11 good. Using autologous semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafts with anchor repair to treat chronic achilles tendon rupture and severe scarring is a perfect surgical procedure.
Lovati, Arianna B.; Bottagisio, Marta; Moretti, Matteo
Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution. PMID:26880985
Strickland, J W
In this five-part series, we have attempted to review our current understanding of flexor tendon anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, healing and adhesion formation around a repaired tendon. The methods of acute flexor tendon repair, conventional free tendon grafting, staged flexor tendon reconstruction and pulley restoration have been discussed as well as flexor tenolysis, rehabilitation and results. From these articles it may be seen that flexor tendon surgery is a complex and difficult art which requires a thorough appreciation of the normal flexor tendon system, the exact status of that system following injury and a strong understanding of the techniques which may be best utilized to restore flexor tendon function. The procedures described require both technical skill and experience and postoperative therapy programs must be carefully instituted based on the unique status of each patient. With the important advances occurring in many areas of flexor tendon surgery, it is realistic to believe that in the near future the techniques described in these articles may be substantially altered and modified. Results will continue to improve until the patient and surgeon can realistically expect to return most digits to nearly full function after flexor tendon interruption.
Cohen, Steven B.; Towers, Jeffrey D.; Zoga, Adam; Irrgang, Jay J.; Makda, Junaid; Deluca, Peter F.; Bradley, James P.
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for detailed evaluation of hamstring injuries; however, there is no classification that allows prediction of return to play. Purpose: To correlate time for return to play in professional football players with MRI findings after acute hamstring strains and to create an MRI scoring scale predictive of return to sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Methods: Thirty-eight professional football players (43 cases) sustained acute hamstring strains with MRI evaluation. Records were retrospectively reviewed, and MRIs were evaluated by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists, graded with a traditional radiologic grade, and scored with a new MRI score. Results were correlated with games missed. Results: Players missed 2.6 ± 3.1 games. Based on MRI, the hamstring injury involved the biceps femoris long head in 34 cases and the proximal and distal hamstrings in 25 and 22 cases, respectively. When < 50% of the muscle was involved, the average number of games missed was 1.8; if > 75%, then 3.2. Ten players had retraction, missing 5.5 games. By MRI, grade I injuries yielded an average of 1.1 missed games; grade II, 1.7; and grade III, 6.4. Players who missed 0 or 1 game had an MRI score of 8.2; 2 or 3 games, 11.1; and 4 or more games, 13.9. Conclusions: Rapid return to play (< 1 week) occurred with isolated long head of biceps femoris injures with < 50% of involvement and minimal perimuscular edema, correlating to grade I radiologic strain (MRI score < 10). Prolonged recovery (missing > 2 or 3 games) occurs with multiple muscle injury, injuries distal to musculotendinous junction, short head of biceps injury, > 75% involvement, retraction, circumferential edema, and grade III radiologic strain (MRI score > 15). Clinical Relevance: MRI grade and this new MRI score are useful in determining severity of injury and games missed—and, ideally, predicting time missed from sports. PMID:23016038
Shepherd, Jennifer H; Legerlotz, Kirsten; Demirci, Taylan; Klemt, Christian; Riley, Graham P; Screen, Hazel RC
Most overuse tendinopathies are thought to be associated with repeated microstrain below the failure threshold, analogous to the fatigue failure that affects materials placed under repetitive loading. Investigating the progression of fatigue damage within tendons is therefore of critical importance. There are obvious challenges associated with the sourcing of human tendon samples for in vitro analysis so animal models are regularly adopted. However, data indicates that fatigue life varies significantly between tendons of different species and with different stresses in life. Positional tendons such as rat tail tendon or the bovine digital extensor are commonly applied in in vitro studies of tendon overuse, but there is no evidence to suggest their behaviour is indicative of the types of human tendon particularly prone to overuse injuries. In this study, the fatigue response of the largely positional digital extensor and the more energy storing deep digital flexor tendon of the bovine hoof were compared to the semitendinosus tendon of the human hamstring. Fascicles from each tendon type were subjected to either stress or strain controlled fatigue loading (cyclic creep or cyclic stress relaxation respectively). Gross fascicle mechanics were monitored after cyclic stress relaxation and the mean number of cycles to failure investigated with creep loading. Bovine extensor fascicles demonstrated the poorest fatigue response, while the energy storing human semitendinosus was the most fatigue resistant. Despite the superior fatigue response of the energy storing tendons, confocal imaging suggested a similar degree of damage in all three tendon types; it appears the more energy storing tendons are better able to withstand damage without detriment to mechanics. PMID:24285289
Shepherd, Jennifer H; Legerlotz, Kirsten; Demirci, Taylan; Klemt, Christian; Riley, Graham P; Screen, Hazel R C
Most overuse tendinopathies are thought to be associated with repeated microstrain below the failure threshold, analogous to the fatigue failure that affects materials placed under repetitive loading. Investigating the progression of fatigue damage within tendons is therefore of critical importance. There are obvious challenges associated with the sourcing of human tendon samples for in vitro analysis so animal models are regularly adopted. However, data indicates that fatigue life varies significantly between tendons of different species and with different stresses in life. Positional tendons such as rat tail tendon or the bovine digital extensor are commonly applied in in vitro studies of tendon overuse, but there is no evidence to suggest their behaviour is indicative of the types of human tendon particularly prone to overuse injuries. In this study, the fatigue response of the largely positional digital extensor and the more energy storing deep digital flexor tendon of the bovine hoof were compared to the semitendinosus tendon of the human hamstring. Fascicles from each tendon type were subjected to either stress or strain controlled fatigue loading (cyclic creep or cyclic stress relaxation respectively). Gross fascicle mechanics were monitored after cyclic stress relaxation and the mean number of cycles to failure investigated with creep loading. Bovine extensor fascicles demonstrated the poorest fatigue response, while the energy storing human semitendinosus was the most fatigue resistant. Despite the superior fatigue response of the energy storing tendons, confocal imaging suggested a similar degree of damage in all three tendon types; it appears the more energy storing tendons are better able to withstand damage without detriment to mechanics.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Wei, Zhuang; Kirk, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
Background Using allograft is an attractive alternative for flexor tendon reconstruction because of the lack of donor morbidity, and better matching to the intrasynovial environment. The purpose of this study was to use biolubricant molecules to modify the graft surface to decrease adhesions and improve digit function. Methods 28 flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from the 2nd and 5th digits of 14 dogs were first lacerated and repaired to create a model with repair failure and scar digit for tendon reconstruction. Six weeks after the initial surgery, the tendons were reconstructed with FDP allograft tendons obtained from canine cadavers. One graft tendon in each dog was treated with saline as a control and the other was treated with gelatin, carbodiimide derivatized, hyaluronic acid and lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin). Six weeks postoperatively, digit function, graft mechanics, and biology were analyzed. Results Allograft tendons treated with cd-HA-Lubricin had decreased adhesions at the proximal tendon/graft repair and within flexor sheath, improved digit function, and increased graft gliding ability. The treatment also reduced the strength at the distal tendon to bone repair, but the distal attachment rupture rate was similar for both graft types. Histology showed that viable cells migrated to the allograft, but these were limited to the tendon surface. Conclusion cd-HA-Lubricin treatment of tendon allograft improves digit functional outcomes after flexor tendon reconstruction. However, delayed bone-tendon healing should be a caution. Furthermore, the cell infiltration into the allograft tendons substance should be a target for future studies, to shorten the allograft self-regeneration period. PMID:24445876
Zhao, Chunfeng; Wei, Zhuang; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory D; Moran, Steven L; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C
Using allograft is an attractive alternative for flexor tendon reconstruction because of the lack of donor-site morbidity, and better matching to the intrasynovial environment. The purpose of this study was to use biological lubricant molecules to modify the graft surface to decrease adhesions and improve digit function. Twenty-eight flexor digitorum profundus tendons from the second and fifth digits of 14 dogs were lacerated and repaired to create a model with repair failure and scar digit for tendon reconstruction. Six weeks after the initial operation, the tendons were reconstructed with flexor digitorum profundus allograft tendons obtained from canine cadavers. One graft tendon in each dog was treated with saline as a control and the other was treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin plus lubricin. Six weeks postoperatively, digit function, graft mechanics, and biology were analyzed. Allograft tendons treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid-lubricin had decreased adhesions at the proximal tendon/graft repair and within the flexor sheath, improved digit function, and increased graft gliding ability. The treatment also reduced the strength at the distal tendon-to-bone repair, but the distal attachment rupture rate was similar for both graft types. Histologic evaluation showed that viable cells migrated to the allograft, but these were limited to the tendon surface. Carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid-lubricin treatment of tendon allograft improves digit functional outcomes after flexor tendon reconstruction. However, delayed bone-to-tendon healing should be a caution. Furthermore, the cell infiltration into the allograft tendon substance should be a target for future studies, to shorten the allograft self-regeneration period.
Kryger, Gil S; Chong, Alphonsus K S; Costa, Melinda; Pham, Hung; Bates, Steven J; Chang, James
Tissue-engineered tendon grafts will meet an important clinical need. To engineer tendons, we used acellularized allogeneic tendon as scaffold material. To determine the ideal cell type to seed the scaffolds, we studied in vitro characteristics of epitenon tenocytes, tendon sheath fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and adipoderived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Subsequently, we implanted reseeded acellularized tendons in vivo as flexor tendon grafts. Tenocytes, sheath fibroblasts, BMSCs, and ASCs were obtained from adult rabbits. For all cell lines, collagen 1, 2, and 3 immunocytochemistry was performed, and proliferation was assessed by hemacytometry and senescence by beta-galactosidase staining. Flexor tendons were acellularized after harvest. Tendons were assessed by histology after in vitro reseeding with each of the cell types after 1, 4, and 8 weeks. Finally, reseeded tendons and controls were implanted in a flexor profundus tendon defect. After 6 weeks, the reseeded tendons were harvested and assessed by histology. Statistical analysis for cell proliferation was performed using analysis of variance and t-tests with Bonferroni correction. All cell types had similar collagen expression. Cell proliferation was higher in ASCs in late passage compared with early passage and in ASCs compared with epitenon tenocytes at late passage. The other cell types were similar in growth characteristics. No senescence was detected. In vitro assessment of reseeded constructs showed the presence of cells on the construct surface. In vivo assessment after implantation showed viable cells seen within the tendon architecture in all cell types. This study suggests that the four cell types may be successfully used to engineer tendons. Adipoderived mesenchymal stem cells proliferate faster in cell culture, but the cell types were similar in other respects. All could be used to successfully repopulate acellularized tendon in vivo as flexor tendon grafts.
Bowman, Karl F; Cohen, Steven B; Bradley, James P
Partial tears of the hamstring muscle origin represent a challenging clinical problem to the patient and orthopaedic surgeon. Although nonoperative treatment is frequently met with limited success, there is a paucity of data on the efficacy of surgical management for partial proximal hamstring tears in the active and athletic population. To evaluate the results of an anatomic repair for partial tears of the hamstring muscle origin in athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The records of 17 patients with partial tears of the proximal hamstring origin were reviewed after institutional review board approval was obtained. All patients were treated with open debridement and primary tendon repair after failure of at least 6 months of nonoperative therapy. Clinical and operative records, radiographs, and magnetic resonance images were reviewed for all patients. A patient-reported outcomes survey was completed by 14 patients that included the Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS), Marx activity rating scale, custom LEFS and Marx scales, and subjective patient satisfaction scores. Early and late postoperative complications were recorded. There were 3 male and 14 female patients; their average age was 43 years (range, 19-64 years) and average follow-up was 32 months (range, 12-51 months). There were 2 collegiate athletes (field hockey, track), 14 amateur athletes (distance running, waterskiing, tennis), and a professional bodybuilder. Postoperative LEFS was 73.3 ± 9.9 (range, 50-80) and custom LEFS was 66.7 ± 17.0 (range, 37-80) of a maximum 80 points. The most commonly reported difficulty was with prolonged sitting and explosive direction change while running. The average Marx score was 6.5 ± 5.3 (range, 0-16) of a maximum 16, correlating with a greater return to recreational running activities in this patient cohort than regular participation in pivoting or cutting sports. Marx custom scores were 20 of a maximum 20 in all patients, demonstrating no disability in
Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael; Vaisman, Alex; Meleán, Patricio; Figueroa, Francisco
Graft tensioning is a controversial issue in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) that has not achieved consensus between peers. The purpose of this study is to determine if after tensioning tendon length and resistance to maximal load changes. We performed an in vitro study with 50 porcine extensors tendons. The first group (P=25) was tensioned with 80 N (19.97 lb) for 10 min, using an ACL graft preparation board. The second group (C=25) was used as control and was not tensioned. The average initial (groups P and C) and post tensioning tendon length (group C) were measured; the average initial and post tensioning tendon diameter were measured as well. All samples were fixated in a tube-clamp system connected to a tension sensor. The samples were stressed with continuous and progressive tension until ultimate failure at maximum load (UFML) occurs. The initial mean length was: P before tensioning=13.4 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 10.5-16.5); P after tensioning=13.8 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 11.5-16.5); C=13 mm+/-1.35 mm (p=0.005). The mean diameter was: P=5.6 mm (4.5-6); C=5.5 mm (range 4.5-6) (p>0.05). The UFML was: P=189.7 N (114-336); C=229.9 N (143-365) (p=0.029). Tendon tensioning with 80 N for 10 min produced 3% average elongation. These could be beneficial in ACLR since tendon tensioning decreases elongation of the graft after fixation. Regardless, tendon tensioning is not innocuous since it diminishes their resistance when continuously stressed until complete failure occurs.
Alberti, Kyle A.; Sun, Jeong-Yun; Illeperuma, Widusha R.; Suo, Zhigang; Xu, Qiaobing
Purpose A strong isotropic material that is both biocompatible and biodegradable is desired for many biomedical applications, including rotator cuff repair, tendon and ligament repair, vascular grafting, among others. Recently, we developed a technique, called “bioskiving” to create novel 2D and 3D constructs from decellularized tendon, using a combination of mechanical sectioning, and layered stacking and rolling. The unidirectionally aligned collagen nanofibers (derived from sections of decellularized tendon) offer good mechanical properties to the constructs compared with those fabricated from reconstituted collagen. Methods In this paper, we studied the effect that several variables have on the mechanical properties of structures fabricated from tendon slices, including crosslinking density and the orientation in which the fibers are stacked. Results We observed that following stacking and crosslinking, the strength of the constructs is significantly improved, with crosslinked sections having an ultimate tens ile strength over 20 times greater than non-crosslinked samples, and a modulus nearly 50 times higher. The mechanism of the mechanical failure mode of the tendon constructs with or without crosslinking was also investigated. Conclusions The strength and fiber organization, combined with the ability to introduce transversely isotropic mechanical properties makes the laminar tendon composites a biocompatiable material that may find future use in a number of biomedical and tissue engineering applications. PMID:25691802
Areeudomwong, Pattanasin; Oatyimprai, Ketsarakon; Pathumb, Saranchana
Background Neurodynamics intervention is known to increase apparent muscle extensibility, but information regarding hamstring responses after a neurodynamic sliders (NS) technique is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of NS on apparent hamstring extensibility and activity in footballers with hamstring tightness. Methods Forty eligible healthy male footballers with hamstring tightness were each randomly allocated to either a 4-week NS technique or a control group (CG) receiving placebo shortwave intervention. Knee extension angles were measured with the passive knee extension test, and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of hamstrings was measured by a surface electromyography at baseline and after intervention sessions. Results The results showed that NS produced a statistically and clinically significant increase in knee extension angle compared to CG (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference between the groups receiving MVIC of hamstrings. Within group comparison, NS also provided a significant increase in knee extension angle (P < 0.001), whereas the control group did not. There was no change in hamstring MVIC in either group after intervention. Conclusions The findings of this study reveal that four weeks of NS technique improved apparent hamstring extensibility but did not change the hamstring activity in footballers with hamstring tightness. PMID:28090180
Netscher, David T; Badal, Justin J
We review different causes, diagnoses, and treatment options of closed flexor tendon disruptions in the hand. A classification of closed tendon ruptures based on their mechanism includes traumatic tendon avulsion, spontaneous midsubstance rupture, attrition rupture, infiltrative tenosynovial rupture, and iatrogenic. Certain conditions result in tendon disruption inflicted by more than 1 of these etiologies. In rheumatoid arthritis, tendon rupture may result from attrition on an exposed rough surface, proliferative tenosynovial tendon infiltration, or steroid use. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cohen, Daniel D; Zhao, Bingnan; Okwera, Brian; Matthews, Martyn J; Delextrat, Anne
To evaluate the effect of simulated soccer on the hamstrings eccentric torque-angle profile and angle of peak torque (APTeccH), and on the hamstrings:quadriceps torque ratio at specific joint angles (ASHecc:Qcon). The authors assessed dominant-limb isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee flexion and concentric knee extension at 120°/s in 9 semiprofessional male soccer players immediately before and after they completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). The LIST resulted in significant decreases in eccentric hamstrings torque at 60°, 50°, and 10° and a significant (21.8%) decrease in ASHecc:Qcon at 10° (P < .05). APTeccH increased from 7.1° ± 1.0° to 18.8° ± 4.2° (P < .05). Eccentric hamstrings peak torque significantly declined from 185.1 ± 70.4 N·m pre-LIST to 150.9 ± 58.5 N·m post-LIST (P = .002), but there were no significant changes in hamstrings or quadriceps concentric peak torque (P = .312, .169, respectively). Simulated soccer results in a selective loss of eccentric hamstrings torque and hamstrings-to-quadriceps muscle balance at an extended joint position and a shift in the eccentric hamstrings APT to a shorter length, changes that could increase vulnerability to hamstrings injury. These findings suggest that injury-risk screening could be improved by evaluating the eccentric hamstrings torque-angle profile and hamstrings strength-endurance and that the development of hamstrings fatigue resistance and long-length eccentric strength may reduce injury incidence.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Kirk, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
We assessed surface coating with carbodiimide derivatized hyaluronic acid combined with lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin) as a way to improve extrasynovial tendon surface quality and, consequently, the functional results in flexor tendon reconstruction, using a canine in vivo model. The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from 14 dogs were reconstructed with autologs peroneus longus (PL) tendons 6 weeks after a failed primary repair. One digit was treated with cd-HA-Lubricin, and the other was treated with saline as the control. Six weeks following grafting, the digits and graft tendons were functionally and histologically evaluated. Adhesion score, normalized work of flexion, graft friction in zone II, and adhesion breaking strength at the proximal repair site in zone III were all lower in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated group compared to the control group. The strength at the distal tendon/bone interface was decreased in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated grafts compared to the control grafts. Histology showed inferior healing in the cd-HA-Lubricin group at both proximal and distal repair sites. However, cd-HA-Lubricin treatment did not result in any gap or rupture at either the proximal or distal repair sites. These results demonstrate that cd-HA-Lubricin can eliminate graft adhesions and improve digit function, but that treatment may have an adverse effect on tendon healing. PMID:23335124
Steiner, Adrian; Anderson, David E; Desrochers, André
Contracted flexor tendon leading to flexural deformity is a common congenital defect in cattle. Arthrogryposis is a congenital syndrome of persistent joint contracture that occurs frequently in Europe as a consequence of Schmallenberg virus infection of the dam. Spastic paresis has a hereditary component, and affected cattle should not be used for breeding purposes. The most common tendon avulsion involves the deep digital flexor tendon. Tendon disruptions may be successfully managed by tenorrhaphy and external coaptation or by external coaptation alone. Medical management alone is unlikely to be effective for purulent tenosynovitis.
Salisbury, S T Samuel; Buckley, C Paul; Zavatsky, Amy B
A study was made of the deformation of tendons when compressed transverse to the fiber-aligned axis. Bovine digital extensor tendons were compression tested between flat rigid plates. The methods included: in situ image-based measurement of tendon cross-sectional shapes, after preconditioning but immediately prior to testing; multiple constant-load creep/recovery tests applied to each tendon at increasing loads; and measurements of the resulting tendon displacements in both transverse directions. In these tests, friction resisted axial stretch of the tendon during compression, giving approximately plane-strain conditions. This, together with the assumption of a form of anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model proposed previously for tendon, justified modeling the isochronal response of tendon as that of an isotropic, slightly compressible, neo-Hookean solid. Inverse analysis, using finite-element (FE) simulations of the experiments and 10 s isochronal creep displacement data, gave values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of this solid of 0.31 MPa and 0.49, respectively, for an idealized tendon shape and averaged data for all the tendons and E = 0.14 and 0.10 MPa for two specific tendons using their actual measured geometry. The compression load versus displacement curves, as measured and as simulated, showed varying degrees of stiffening with increasing load. This can be attributed mostly to geometrical changes in tendon cross section under load, varying according to the initial 3D shape of the tendon.
Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis") which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be paid to augment tendon to bone insertion (TBI) healing. Apart from surgical fixation, biological and biophysical interventions have been studied aiming at regeneration of TBI healing complex, especially the regeneration of interpositioned fibrocartilage and new bone at the healing junction. This paper described the biology and the factors influencing TBI healing using patella-patellar tendon (PPT) healing and tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction as examples. Recent development in the improvement of TBI healing and directions for future studies were also reviewed and discussed. PMID:20727196
Dierckman, Brian D.; Guanche, Carlos A.
With the significant increase in use of the arthroscope around the hip have come several less invasive techniques to manage pathologies around this joint. This technical note with a video details one such technique that allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now have been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. This procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:23766996
Brockett, Camilla L; Morgan, David L; Proske, Uwe
Eccentric exercise, where the contracting muscle is lengthened, produces microscopic damage in muscle fibers, and sensations of stiffness and soreness, the next day. These normally resolve within a week. A more major sports injury is the muscle strain. Because strain injuries are known to occur during eccentric contractions, it is hypothesized that the microscopic damage from eccentric exercise can, at times, progress to a muscle strain. As the amount of microscopic damage depends on the muscle's optimum length for active tension, it is further proposed that optimum length is a measure of susceptibility for muscle strains. The athletes most at risk of a hamstring strain are those with a previous history of such injuries. Here the prediction is tested that optimum lengths of previously injured hamstrings are shorter and therefore more prone to eccentric damage than uninjured muscles. Mean optimum angle for peak torque in a previously injured muscle of nine athletes with a history of unilateral hamstring strains was compared with the uninjured muscle of the other leg and with muscles of 18 uninjured athletes. Optimum angle was determined with isokinetic dynamometry. In previously injured muscles, torque peaked at significantly shorter lengths than for uninjured muscles. Peak torque and quadriceps:hamstrings torque ratios were not significantly different. The shorter optimum of previously injured muscles makes them more prone to damage from eccentric exercise than uninjured muscles and this may account for the high reinjury rate. The shorter optimum may reflect the muscle's preinjury state or be a consequence of the healing process. To reduce the incidence of strain injuries, it is recommended that a combined program of eccentric exercise and muscle testing be carried out.
Real-time ultrasonography (US) using linear-array probes and a stand-off pad as a ''waterpath'' was performed to evaluate the Achilles tendon in 67 patients (including 24 athletes) believed to have acute or chronic traumatic or inflammatory pathologic conditions. Tendons in 23 patients appeared normal on US scans. The 44 abnormal tendons comprised five complete and four partial ruptures, seven instances of postoperative change, and 28 cases of tendonitis. US depiction of the inner structure of the tendon resulted in the diagnosis of focal abnormalities, including partial ruptures, nodules, and calcifications. Tendonitis was characterized by enlargement and decreased echogenicity of the tendon. The normal US appearance of the Achilles tendon is described.
Stolarz, Mateusz; Ficek, Krzysztof; Binkowski, Marcin; Wróbel, Zygmunt
Nowadays, bone tunnel enlargement (BTE) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is a well-known phenomenon. It has been identified, investigated and described by many authors during the last thirty years. Nevertheless, the etiology of bone tunnel enlargement still remains unclear. It is known that the causes are multifactorial and may include the surgical technique, the method of fixation, materials used, type of graft as well as biological factors. Due to the recent popularization of the use of hamstring grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, the bone tunnel enlargement phenomenon is becoming increasingly common. In this review article, the authors focus on compiling current knowledge about the etiology, diagnosis, and the possibility of reducing the occurrence of this phenomenon by using the latest methods of supporting reconstruction surgery.
Moltubakk, M M; Eriksrud, O; Paulsen, G; Seynnes, O R; Bojsen-Møller, J
The purpose of this study was to examine whether athletes with highly flexible hamstring muscle-tendon units display different passive and contractile mechanical properties compared with controls. Flexibility, passive, and active torque-angle properties were assessed in 21 female elite rhythmic gymnasts and 16 female age-matched athletes. Passive resistance to stretch was measured during knee extension with the hip fixed at 100° of flexion. Concentric isokinetic maximal voluntary knee flexion and extension torques were measured at 60°/s in the same position. Tests of flexibility and passive resistance to stretch indicated a greater flexibility in the gymnasts. Despite no differences between groups in knee flexion and extension peak torque, gymnasts reached knee flexion peak torque at more extended positions (longer muscle lengths) and displayed significantly different torque-angle relations. When active torque was corrected for passive resistance to stretch, differences increased, gymnasts producing more work, and maintaining ≥ 70% of peak torque over a larger range of joint excursion. In conclusion, individuals with a higher flexibility of the hamstrings MTU present a different torque-angle profile, favoring the production of flexion torque toward extended knee positions, displaying larger functional range of motion and a higher mechanical work output during knee flexion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Seon, Jong Keun; Yoon, Taek Rim; Park, Sang Jin
Eleven skeletally immature adolescents underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a transphyseal tibial and femoral tunnel. An autologous quadrupled hamstring tendon was used in all cases and the average follow-up was 77.7 months. Clinical results were evaluated using Lysholm knee scores and a return to pre-injury sports activities. Radiological results were evaluated using side-to-side differences of instrumented laxities and growth disturbances compared with the uninjured side on final follow-up orthoroentgenograms. The mean Lysholm score was 97.8 (range 94-100) and mean side-to-side laxity difference was 2.4 mm (range 1-4). Ten of 11 patients returned to pre-injury sports activity. No patient had a leg length discrepancy of over 1 cm or a significant abnormal angular deformity of the knee joint. Therefore, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the transphyseal tunnel and hamstring autograft in skeletally immature adolescents is believed to be a reliable treatment method, which is not associated with significant leg length discrepancy or abnormal angular deformity of the knee joint. PMID:16361818
Guler, Olcay; Mahırogulları, Mahir; Mutlu, Serhat; Cercı, Mehmet H; Seker, Ali; Cakmak, Selami
When treating anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, the position of the ACL graft plays a key role in regaining postoperative knee function and physiologic kinematics. In this study, we aimed to compare graft angle, graft position in tibial tunnel, and tibial and femoral tunnel positions in patients operated with anteromedial (AM) and transtibial (TT) methods to those of contralateral healthy knees. Forty-eight patients who underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with ipsilateral hamstring tendon autograft were included. Of these, 23 and 25 were treated by AM and TT techniques, respectively. MRI was performed at 18.4 and 19.7 months postoperatively in AM and TT groups. Graft angles, graft positions in the tibial tunnel and alignment of tibial and femoral tunnels were noted and compared in these two groups. The sagittal graft insertion tibia midpoint distance (SGON) has been used for evaluation of graft position in tunnel. Sagittal ACL graft angles in operated and healthy knees of AM patients were 57.78° and 46.80° (p < 0.01). With respect to TT patients, ACL graft angle was 58.87° and 70.04° on sagittal and frontal planes in operated knees versus 47.38° and 61.82° in healthy knees (p < 0.001). ACL graft angle was significantly different between the groups on both sagittal and frontal planes (p < 0.001). Sagittal graft insertion tibia midpoint distance ratio was 0.51 and 0.48 % in the operated and healthy knees of AM group (p < 0.001) and 0.51 and 0.48 % in TT group (p < 0.001). Sagittal tibial tunnel midpoint distance ratio did not differ from sagittal graft insertion tibia midpoint distance of healthy knees in either group. Femoral tunnel clock position was better in AM [right knee 10:19 o'clock-face position (310° ± 4°); left knee 1:40 (50° ± 3°)] compared with TT group [right knee 10:48 (324° ± 5°); left knee 1:04 (32° ± 4°)]. With respect to the sagittal plane, the anterior-posterior position of femoral tunnel was
Rust, David A; Giveans, M Russell; Stone, Rebecca M; Samuelson, Kathryn M; Larson, Christopher M
There are limited data regarding outcomes and return to sports after surgery for acute versus chronic proximal hamstring ruptures. Surgery for chronic proximal hamstring ruptures leads to improved outcomes and return to sports but at a lower level than with acute repair. Proximal hamstring reconstruction with an Achilles allograft for chronic ruptures is successful when direct repair is not possible. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 72 patients with a traumatic proximal hamstring rupture (51 acute, 21 chronic) underwent either direct tendon repair with suture anchors (n = 58) or Achilles allograft tendon reconstruction (n = 14). Results from the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) for activities of daily living (ADL) and sports-related activities, Short Form-12 (SF-12), visual analog scale (VAS), and a patient satisfaction questionnaire were obtained. The mean time to surgery in the chronic group was 441.4 days versus 17.8 days in the acute group. At a mean follow-up of 45 months, patients with chronic tears had inferior sports activity scores (70.2% vs 80.3%, respectively; P = .026) and a trend for decreased ADL scores (86.5% vs 93.3%, respectively; P = .085) compared with those with acute tears. Patients with chronic tears, however, reported significant improvements postoperatively for both sports activity scores (30.3% to 70.2%; P < .01) and ADL scores (56.1% to 86.5%; P < .01). Greater than 5 to 6 cm of retraction in the chronic group was predictive of the need for allograft reconstruction (P = .015) and resulted in ADL and sports activity scores equal to those of chronic repair (P = .507 and P = .904, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups in SF-12, VAS, or patient satisfaction outcomes (mean, 85.2% satisfaction overall). Acute repair was superior to chronic surgery with regard to return to sports. Acute and chronic proximal hamstring repair and allograft reconstruction had favorable
Youngstrom, Daniel W; Rajpar, Ibtesam; Kaplan, David L; Barrett, Jennifer G
There is significant clinical demand for functional tendon grafts in human and veterinary medicine. Tissue engineering techniques combining cells, scaffolds, and environmental stimuli may circumvent the shortcomings of traditional transplantation processes. In this study, the influence of cyclic mechanical stimulation on graft maturation and cellular phenotype was assessed in an equine model. Decellularized tendon scaffolds from four equine sources were seeded with syngeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and subjected to 0%, 3%, or 5% strain at 0.33 Hz for up to 1 h daily for 11 days. Cells cultured at 3% strain integrated deep into their scaffolds, altered extracellular matrix composition, adopted tendon-like gene expression profiles, and increased construct elastic modulus and ultimate tensile strength to native levels. This bioreactor protocol is therefore suitable for cultivating replacement tendon material or as an in vitro model for studying differentiation of stem cells toward tendon. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sakabe, Tomoya; Sakai, Takao
Introduction Tendons establish specific connections between muscles and the skeleton by transferring contraction forces from skeletal muscle to bone thereby allowing body movement. Tendon physiology and pathology are heavily dependent on mechanical stimuli. Tendon injuries clinically represent a serious and still unresolved problem since damaged tendon tissues heal very slowly and no surgical treatment can restore a damaged tendon to its normal structural integrity and mechanical strength. Understanding how mechanical stimuli regulate tendon tissue homeostasis and regeneration will improve the treatment of adult tendon injuries that still pose a great challenge in today's medicine. Source of data This review summarizes the current status of tendon treatment and discusses new directions from the point of view of cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine approach. We searched the available literature using PubMed for relevant original articles and reviews. Growing points Identification of tendon cell markers has enabled us to study precisely tendon healing and homeostasis. Clinically, tissue engineering for tendon injuries is an emerging technology comprising elements from the fields of cellular source, scaffold materials, growth factors/cytokines and gene delivering systems. Areas timely for developing research The clinical settings to establish appropriate microenvironment for injured tendons with the combination of these novel cellular- and molecular-based scaffolds will be critical for the treatment. PMID:21729872
Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A.; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H.
Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135
Domnick, C; Wieskötter, B; Raschke, M J; Schulze, M; Kronenberg, D; Wefelmeier, M; Langer, M F; Herbort, M
Porcine flexor tendons, bovine extensor tendons, and human (semitendinosus) tendons are frequently used as substitutes for human ACL grafts in biomechanical in vitro studies. This study compares the biomechanical properties and structural differences of these tendons. In this biomechanical study, fresh-frozen porcine flexor tendons, bovine extensor tendons, and human semitendinosus tendons were used (n = 36). The tendons were mounted in a uniaxial testing machine (Zwick/Roell) with cryo-clamps, leaving a 60 mm tendon part free between the two clamps. Specimens have been loaded to failure to evaluate the biomechanical parameters stiffness, yield load, and maximum load. A Total Collagen Assay Kit was used to detect differences in the total collagen type I concentration (n = 30). A one-way ANOVA was performed to detect differences in the means. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in the stiffness between the groups (bovine 194 ± 43 N/mm, porcine 211 ± 63 N/mm, and human cadaveric 208 ± 58 N/mm). The yield and maximum loads were high (>1000 N) in all groups, but they were significantly increased in both animal specimens (means of 1681-1795 N) compared with human cadaveric specimen (means of 1289-1406 N; p < 0.01). No difference in the collagen type I concentration was detected (N.S.). Porcine flexor and bovine extensor tendons are eligible substitutes with similar stiffness and high failure loads compared with human cadaveric semitendinosus tendons in in vitro studies.
Hannah, Ricci; Minshull, Claire; Smith, Stephanie L; Folland, Jonathan P
Explosive neuromuscular performance refers to the ability to rapidly increase force in response to neuromuscular activation. The lower explosive force production of the hamstrings relative to the quadriceps could compromise knee joint stability and increase the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. However, the time course of the rise in explosive force of the hamstrings and quadriceps from their initial activation, and thus the explosive hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H/Q) force ratio, has not been documented. The neuromuscular performance of 20 untrained males was assessed during a series of isometric knee flexion and extension contractions, with force and surface EMG of the hamstrings and quadriceps recorded during explosive and maximum voluntary contractions. Hamstrings force was expressed relative to quadriceps force to produce hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios of explosive H/Q force and H/Q maximum voluntary force. For the explosive contractions, agonist electromechanical delay (EMD), agonist and antagonist neural activation were assessed. The quadriceps was 79% stronger than the hamstrings, but quadriceps explosive force was up to 480% greater than the hamstrings from 25 to 50 ms after first activation. Consequently, the explosive H/Q force ratio was very low at 25 and 50 ms (0%-17%) and significantly different from H/Q maximum voluntary force ratio (56%). Hamstrings EMD was 95% greater than quadriceps EMD (44.0 vs 22.6 ms), resulting in a 21-ms later onset of force in the hamstrings that appeared to explain the low explosive H/Q force ratio in the early phase of activation. Prolonged hamstrings EMD appears to impair early phase (0-50 ms) explosive force production relative to the quadriceps and may render the knee unstable and prone to anterior cruciate ligament injury during this period.
Flexor tendon pulley has been very early noticed and described. Terminology usually accepted recognizes 6 arcifom pulleys (A0 to A5) and 3 cruciform pulleys (C1 to C3). Anatomy and physiology of this flexor tendon gliding and reflection system at the level of the digital sheet are exposed. The integrity necessity of this system became obvious regarding the flexor tendons repair. Four main pathologies may be concerned: the trigger finger congenital or progressive, due to a chondroid metaplasia of the A1 pulley; tenosynovial ganglions arising at the weak point between A1 and A2 pulley; lesions of the flexor tendon sheet during traumatic lacerations or surgical repairs; quite experimental lesions creating isolated ruptures of one or several pulleys which occur during sport practice, especially high level rock climbing. The repair techniques are exposed to allow to graduate and hierarchy the reparation technique regarding the pathology. A2 and A4 repair is always indicated. The best reconstruction material is an extensor retinaculum graft. But its poor surface available often draws to use conventional palmaris longus free graft.
Askling, Carl M; Tengvar, Magnus; Saartok, Tönu; Thorstensson, Alf
Hamstring strains can be of at least 2 types, 1 occurring during high-speed running and the other during motions in which the hamstring muscles reach extreme lengths, as documented for sprinters and dancers. Hamstring strains in different sports, with similar injury situations to dancers, also show similarities in symptoms, injury location, and recovery time. Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 4. Thirty subjects from 21 different sports were prospectively included. All subjects were examined clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The follow-up period lasted until the subjects returned to or finished their sport activity. All injuries occurred during movements reaching a position with combined extensive hip flexion and knee extension. They were located proximally in the posterior thigh, close to the ischial tuberosity. The injuries were often complex, but 83% involved the semimembranosus and its proximal free tendon. Fourteen subjects (47%) decided to end their sports activity. For the remaining 16 subjects, the median time for return to sport was 31 weeks (range, 9-104). There were no significant correlations between specific clinical or MRI parameters and time to return to sport. In different sports, an injury situation in which the hamstring muscles reach extensive length causes a specific injury to the proximal posterior thigh, earlier described in dancers. Because of the prolonged recovery time associated with this type of injury, correct diagnosis, based on history and palpation, and adequate information to the subject are essential.
Bucknor, Matthew D; Steinbach, Lynne S; Saloner, David; Chin, Cynthia T
Extraspinal sciatica can present unique challenges in clinical diagnosis and management. In this study, the authors evaluated qualitative and quantitative patterns of sciatica-related pathology at the ischial tuberosity on MR neurography (MRN) studies performed for chronic extraspinal sciatica. Lumbosacral MRN studies obtained in 14 patients at the University of California, San Francisco between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had been referred by neurosurgeons or neurologists for chronic unilateral sciatica (≥ 3 months), and the MRN reports described asymmetrical increased T2 signal within the sciatic nerve at the level of the ischial tuberosity. MRN studies were also performed prospectively in 6 healthy volunteers. Sciatic nerve T2 signal intensity (SI) and cross-sectional area at the ischial tuberosity were calculated and compared between the 2 sides in all 20 subjects. The same measurements were also performed at the sciatic notch as an internal reference. Adjacent musculoskeletal pathology was compared between the 2 sides in all subjects. Seven of the 9 patients for whom detailed histories were available had a specific history of injury or trauma near the proximal hamstring preceding the onset of sciatica. Eight of the 14 patients also demonstrated soft-tissue abnormalities adjacent to the proximal hamstring origin. The remaining 6 had normal muscles, tendons, and marrow in the region of the ischial tuberosity. There was a significant difference in sciatic nerve SI and size between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides at the level of the ischial tuberosity, with a mean adjusted SI of 1.38 compared with 1.00 (p < 0.001) and a mean cross-sectional nerve area of 0.66 versus 0.54 cm(2) (p = 0.002). The control group demonstrated symmetrical adjusted SI and sciatic nerve size. This study suggests that chronic sciatic neuropathy can be seen at the ischial tuberosity in the setting of prior proximal hamstring tendon injury or adjacent
Bottagisio, M; Pellegata, A F; Boschetti, F; Ferroni, M; Moretti, M; Lovati, A B
Tendon ruptures and/or large losses remain to be a great clinical challenge and often require full replacement of the damaged tissue. The use of auto- and allografts or engineered scaffolds is an established approach to restore severe tendon injuries. However, these grafts are commonly related to scarce biocompatibility, site morbidity, chronic inflammation and poor biomechanical properties. Recently, the decellularisation techniques of allo- or xenografts using specific detergents have been studied and have been found to generate biocompatible substitutes that resemble the native tissue. This study aims to identify a novel decellularisation protocol for large equine tendons that would produce an extracellular matrix scaffold suitable for the regeneration of injured tendons in humans. Specifically, equine tendons were treated either with tri (n-butyl) phosphate alone, or associated to multiple concentrations of peracetic acid (1, 3 and 5 %), which has never before been tested in vitro.Samples were then analysed by histology and with biochemical, biomechanical, and cytotoxicity tests. The best decellularisation protocol, resulting from these examinations, was selected and the chosen scaffold was re-seeded with murine fibroblasts. Resulting grafts were tested for cell viability, histologic analysis, DNA and collagen content. The results identified 1 % tri (n-butyl) phosphate combined with 3 % peracetic acid as the most suitable decellularised matrix in terms of biochemical and biomechanical properties. Moreover, the non-cytotoxic nature of the decellularised matrix allowed for good fibroblast reseeding, thus demonstrating a biocompatible matrix that will be suitable for tendon tissue engineering and hopefully as substitutes in severe tendon damages.
Weinfeld, Steven B
Achilles tendon disorders include tendinosis, paratenonitis, insertional tendinitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, and frank rupture. Patients present with pain and swelling in the posterior aspect of the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are helpful in confirming the diagnosis and guiding treatment. Nonsurgical management of Achilles tendon disorders includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, bracing, and footwear modification. Surgical treatment includes debridement of the diseased area of the tendon with direct repair. Tendon transfer may be necessary to augment the strength of the Achilles tendon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...
Raghavan, Shyam S; Woon, Colin Y L; Kraus, Armin; Megerle, Kai; Choi, Matthew S S; Pridgen, Brian C; Pham, Hung; Chang, James
In mutilating hand injuries, tissue engineered tendon grafts may provide a reconstructive solution. We have previously described a method to decellularize cadaveric human flexor tendons while preserving mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity and strength of these grafts when implanted into an immunocompetent rat model. Cadaveric human flexor tendons were divided into two groups. Group 1 was untreated, and Group 2 was decellularized by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both groups were then analyzed for the presence of major histocompatibility complexes by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Pair-matched tendons from each group were then placed into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue and anchored to the spinal ligaments of Wistar rats for 2 or 4 weeks, and harvested. The infiltration of B-cells and macrophages was determined using IHC. The explants where then subjected to mechanical testing to determine the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elastic modulus (EM). Statistical analysis was performed using a paired Student's t-test. The decellularization protocol successfully removed cells and MHC-1 complexes. At 2 weeks after implantation, there was increased infiltration of B-cells in Group 1 (untreated) compared with Group 2 (acellular), both in the capsule and tendon substance. There was improved ultimate tensile stress (UTS, 42.7 ± 8.3 vs. 22.8 ± 7.8 MPa, p<0.05) and EM (830.2 ± 206.7 vs. 421.2 ± 171.3 MPa, p<0.05) in tendons that were decellularized. At 4 weeks, there was continued B-cell infiltration in Group 1 (untreated) compared with Group 2 (acellular). There was no appreciable difference in macrophage infiltration at both time points. At 4 weeks Group 2 (acellular) demonstrated persistently greater UTS (40.5 ± 9.1 vs. 14.6 ± 4.2 MPa, p<0.05) and EM (454.05 ± 101.5 vs. 204.6 ± 91.3 MPa, p<0.05) compared with Group 1
Fyfe, Jackson J; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J
Hamstring strain injuries are amongst the most common and problematic injuries in a wide range of sports that involve high speed running. The comparatively high rate of hamstring injury recurrence is arguably the most concerning aspect of these injuries. A number of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors are proposed to predispose athletes to hamstring strains. Potentially, the persistence of risk factors and the development of maladaptations following injury may explain injury recurrence. Here, the role of neuromuscular inhibition following injury is discussed as a potential mechanism for several maladaptations associated with hamstring re-injury. These maladaptations include eccentric hamstring weakness, selective hamstring atrophy and shifts in the knee flexor torque-joint angle relationship. Current evidence indicates that athletes return to competition after hamstring injury having developed maladaptations that predispose them to further injury. When rehabilitating athletes to return to competition following hamstring strain injury, the role of neuromuscular inhibition in re-injury should be considered. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the basis of research, the following characteristics appear to be important factors relative to precluding hamstring strains in sprinters: bilaterality relative to hamstring and quadricep strength development, optimum strength ratios between ipsilateral antagonists throughout the range of movement, and above-normal hip-joint flexibility. (JD)
On the basis of research, the following characteristics appear to be important factors relative to precluding hamstring strains in sprinters: bilaterality relative to hamstring and quadricep strength development, optimum strength ratios between ipsilateral antagonists throughout the range of movement, and above-normal hip-joint flexibility. (JD)
Gabbe, B; Finch, C; Bennell, K; Wajswelner, H
Objectives: To identify risk factors for hamstring injury at the community level of Australian football. Methods: A total of 126 community level Australian football players participated in this prospective cohort study. To provide baseline measurements, they completed a questionnaire and had a musculoskeletal screen during the 2000 preseason. All were monitored over the season. Injury surveillance and exposure data were collected for the full season. Survival analysis was used to identify independent predictors of hamstring injury. Results: A hamstring injury was the first injury of the season in 20 players (16%). After adjustment for exposure, increasing age and decreased quadriceps flexibility were identified as significant independent predictors of the time to sustaining a hamstring injury. Older age (⩾23 years) was associated with an increased risk of hamstring injury (RR 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 14.0; p = 0.044). Players with increased quadriceps flexibility (as measured by the modified Thomas test) were less likely to sustain a hamstring injury (RR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8; p = 0.022). Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used in the development of hamstring injury prevention strategies and to identify Australian football players at increased risk of hamstring injury. PMID:15665208
Wild, Catherine Y; Steele, Julie R; Munro, Bridget J
Women sustain more anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures than men, and this gender disparity is apparent from pubertal onset. Although the hamstring muscles play a vital role in ACL protection during landing by restraining anterior tibial motion relative to the femur, it is unknown whether hamstring strength affects landing biomechanics during a functional movement. This study aimed to determine whether pubescent girls with lower hamstring strength displayed different lower limb biomechanics when landing from a leap compared with girls with higher hamstring strength. Thirty-three healthy girls, age 10-13 yr, in Tanner stage II (pubertal onset) and 4-6 months from their peak height velocity were recruited. The concentric and the eccentric isokinetic strength of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles were assessed. On the basis of peak concentric hamstrings torque, participants were divided into a lower (peak torque < 45 N·m) and higher (peak torque > 60 N·m) strength group. Participants performed a functional landing movement, during which ground reaction forces (1000 Hz), lower limb electromyography (1000 Hz), and kinematic data (100 Hz) were collected. Girls with lower hamstring strength displayed significantly (P < 0.05) greater knee abduction alignment, reduced hip abduction moments, and greater ACL loading at the time of the peak anteroposterior ground reaction forces compared with their stronger counterparts. Girls with reduced hamstring strength appear to have a decreased capacity to control lower limb frontal plane alignment. This reduced capacity appears to contribute to increased ACL loading and, in turn, increased potential for injury.
CUSHMAN, DANIEL; RHO, MONICA E.
STUDY DESIGN Case report. BACKGROUND Proximal hamstring tendinopathy in runners is characterized by pain with passive hip flexion with the knee extended, active hip extension, and pain with sitting. Relatively little literature exists on the condition, and publications on nonsurgical treatment protocols are even more scarce. Surgical intervention, which comprises the majority of literature for treatment of this condition, is an option for cases that fail to respond to nonsurgical treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION The patient was a 34-year-old, otherwise healthy male triathlete with unilateral proximal hamstring tendinopathy diagnosed by ultrasound, who had pain only with running and prolonged sitting. After he failed to respond to 4 weeks of eccentric knee flexion and lumbopelvic musculature strengthening exercises, an eccentric hip extensor strengthening program using a treadmill was initiated. This treadmill exercise was performed on a daily basis, in addition to a lumbopelvic musculature strengthening program. OUTCOMES The patient noted a decrease in pain within 2 weeks of initiating the new exercise, and was able to return to gradual running after 4 weeks and to speed training after 12 weeks. He returned to competition shortly thereafter and had no recurrence for 12 months after the initiation of therapy. His score on the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-proximal hamstring tendons improved from 23 on initial presentation to 83 at 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. DISCUSSION We described the management of a triathlete with subacute proximal hamstring tendinopathy, who responded well to nonsurgical treatment using eccentric hip extension strengthening using a treadmill. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 4. PMID:25996362
Qu, Jin; van Alphen, Nick A.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Schmid, Thomas M.; Zhao, Chunfeng
The purpose of the current study was to develop a novel technology to enhance tendon-to-bone interface healing by trypsinizing and mineralizing (TM) an intrasynovial tendon allograft in a rabbit bone tunnel model. Eight rabbit flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were used to optimize the trypsinization process. An additional 24 FDP tendons were stratified into control and TM groups; in each group, 4 tendons were used for in vitro evaluation of TM and 8 were transplanted into proximal tibial bone tunnels in rabbits. The samples were evaluated histologically and with mechanical testing at postoperative week 8. Maximum failure strength and linear stiffness were not significantly different between the control and TM tendons. A thin fibrous band of scar tissue formed at the graft-to-bone interface in the control group. However, only the TM group showed obvious new bone formation inside the tendon graft and a visible fibrocartilage layer at the bone tunnel entrance. This study is the first to explore effects of TM on the intrasynovial allograft healing to a bone tunnel. TM showed beneficial effects on chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and integration of the intrasynovial tendon graft, but mechanical strength was the same as the control tendons in this short-term in vivo study. PMID:25611186
Qu, Jin; van Alphen, Nick A; Thoreson, Andrew R; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Schmid, Thomas M; Zhao, Chunfeng
The purpose of the current study was to develop a novel technology to enhance tendon-to-bone interface healing by trypsinizing and mineralizing (TM) an intrasynovial tendon allograft in a rabbit bone tunnel model. Eight rabbit flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were used to optimize the trypsinization process. An additional 24 FDP tendons were stratified into control and TM groups; in each group, 4 tendons were used for in vitro evaluation of TM and 8 were transplanted into proximal tibial bone tunnels in rabbits. The samples were evaluated histologically and with mechanical testing at postoperative week 8. Maximum failure strength and linear stiffness were not significantly different between the control and TM tendons. A thin fibrous band of scar tissue formed at the graft-to-bone interface in the control group. However, only the TM group showed obvious new bone formation inside the tendon graft and a visible fibrocartilage layer at the bone tunnel entrance. This study is the first to explore effects of TM on the intrasynovial allograft healing to a bone tunnel. TM showed beneficial effects on chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and integration of the intrasynovial tendon graft, but mechanical strength was the same as the control tendons in this short-term in vivo study.
Giusti, Betti; Pepe, Guglielmina
Tendons among connective tissue, mainly collagen, contain also elastic fibers (EF) made of fibrillin 1, fibrillin 2 and elastin that are broadly distributed in tendons and represent 1–2% of the dried mass of the tendon. Only in the last years, studies on structure and function of EF in tendons have been performed. Aim of this review is to revise data on the organization of EF in tendons, in particular fibrillin structure and function, and on the clinical manifestations associated to alterations of EF in tendons. Indeed, microfibrils may contribute to tendon mechanics; therefore, their alterations may cause joint hypermobility and contractures which have been found to be clinical features in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Beals syndrome. The two diseases are caused by mutations in genes FBN1 and FBN2 encoding fibrillin 1 and fibrillin 2, respectively. PMID:27812333
Mizera, R; Harcuba, R; Kratochvíl, J
Proximal hamstring avulsion is an uncommon muscle injury with a lack of consensus on indications and the timing and technique of surgery. Poor clinical symptoms and difficulties in the diagnostic process can lead to a false diagnosis. The authors present three cases of proximal hamstring avulsion, two complete and one partial ruptures of the biceps femoris muscle. MRI and ultrasound scans were used for optimal treatment alignment. Acute surgery reconstruction (< 4 weeks) was done in two patients. Re-attachment of the full thickness ruptures was performed to the original place and secured by suture anchors, the partial rupture was fixed by a simple suture. Two patients were free of any symptoms at 6 months after surgery, the last one had pain in the subgluteal area and a mild deficit in hamstring strength. Two interesting systematic reviews published on the treatment of proximal hamstring avulsion are discussed in the final part of the paper. Key words: hamstring, rupture, avulsion.
Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkataramani, Hari; Latheef, Latheesh; Bhardwaj, Praveen
Loss of Achilles tendon combined with overlying soft tissue loss is a challenging problem. Multiple techniques like tendon graft with coverage by soft tissue flap or composite flaps have been used. All these options are technically demanding. Reports do exist whereby muscle flaps bridging the defect used as cover in course of time could transmit the tendon force across the defect. We are presenting a case where a free gracilis muscle flap used to cover the soft tissue defect at the Achilles tendon at 2 years follow up provided stable cover and produced active function of the Achilles tendon allowing the patient to stand tip toe. Mechanism of its action has been analysed by MRI and M-mode ultrasound. While in primary Achilles tendon injury reconstruction is still the recommended option, in complex situations mere filling of the gap with the flap without formal reconstruction of the tendon could give good functional outcome. This technique can be used in demanding situations.
Miller, Suzanne L; Webb, Gavin R
semitendinosus and biceps femoris have a common tendon of origin on the ischium, and the semimembranosus originates just laterally. The proximal origin of the hamstrings has intimate relationships with the inferior gluteal nerve and artery and the sciatic nerve, which may be at risk during surgical dissection and retraction.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Shimura, Haruhiko; Reisdorf, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
The purpose of the study was to test a novel treatment that carbodiimide-derivatized-hyaluronic acid-lubricin (cd-HA-lubricin) combined cell-based therapy in an immobilized flexor tendon repair in a canine model. Seventy-eight flexor tendons from 39 dogs were transected. One tendon was treated with cd-HA-lubricin plus an interpositional graft of 8 × 105 BMSCs and GDF-5. The other tendon was repaired without treatment. After 21 day of immobilization, 19 dogs were sacrificed; the remaining 20 dogs underwent a 21-day rehabilitation protocol before euthanasia. The work of flexion, tendon gliding resistance, and adhesion score in treated tendons were significantly less than the untreated tendons (p < 0.05). The failure strength of the untreated tendons was higher than the treated tendons at 21 and 42 days (p < 0.05). However, there is no significant difference in stiffness between two groups at day 42. Histologic analysis of treated tendons showed a smooth surface and viable transplanted cells 42 days after the repair, whereas untreated tendons showed severe adhesion formation around the repair site. The combination of lubricant and cell treatment resulted in significantly improved digit function, reduced adhesion formation. This novel treatment can address the unmet needs of patients who are unable to commence an early mobilization protocol after flexor tendon repair. PMID:26177854
Bhaskar, Prajwal; Bosworth, Lucy A; Wong, Richard; O'brien, Marie A; Kriel, Haydn; Smit, Eugene; McGrouther, Duncan A; Wong, Jason K; Cartmell, Sarah H
The functional replacement of tendon represents an unmet clinical need in situations of tendon rupture, tendon grafting, and complex tendon reconstruction, as usually there is a finite source of healthy tendon to use as donors. The microfibrous architecture of tendon is critical to the function of tendon. This study investigates the use of electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds as potential biomaterial substitutes for tendon grafts. We assessed the performance of two electrospinning manufacturers (small- and large-scale) and the effect of two sterilization techniques-gamma irradiation and ethanol submersion-on cell response to these electrospun scaffolds after their implantation into a murine tendon model. Cell infiltration and proliferation analyses were undertaken to determine the effect on cell response within the implant over a 6-week period. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize inflammatory response and healing characteristics (proliferation, collagen deposition, myofibroblast activity, and apoptosis). Neither the sterilization techniques nor the manufacturer was observed to significantly affect the cell response to the scaffold. At each time point, cell response was similar to the autograft control. This suggests that ethanol submersion can be used for research purposes and that the scaffold can be easily reproduced by a large-scale manufacturer. These results further imply that this electrospun scaffold may provide an alternative to autograft, thus eliminating the need for sourcing healthy tendon tissue from a secondary site. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 389-397, 2017.
Snoeck, O; Beyer, B; Feipel, V; Salvia, P; Sterckx, J-L; Rooze, M; Van Sint Jan, S
Semitendinosus and gracilis muscles whose tendons are used in surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament maintain their contractile ability, and a limited decrease of hamstring muscles force is observed postoperatively despite important changes. The goal was to quantify the influence of the myofascial structures on excursions and moment arms of knee muscles to attempt explaining the above-mentioned post-surgical observations. Hamstring harvesting procedures were performed by a senior orthopaedic surgeon on seven lower limbs from fresh-frozen specimens. Femoro-tibial kinematics and tendons excursion were simultaneously recorded at each steps of the surgery. No significant difference was demonstrated for excursions and moment arms after tenotomies and gracilis tendon harvesting (P≥0.05). The first significant semitendinosus excursion (P<1.17×10(-4)) and moment arm (P<6.88×10(-5)) decrease was observed after semitendinosus tendon harvesting (46% of the initial excursion). Gracilis and semitendinosus myofascial pathway is crucial for force transmission towards the knee joint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McAllister, Matt J; Hammond, Kelley G; Schilling, Brian K; Ferreria, Lucas C; Reed, Jacob P; Weiss, Lawrence W
The dorsal muscles of the lower torso and extremities have often been denoted the "posterior chain." These muscles are used to support the thoracic and lumbar spine and peripheral joints, including the hip, knee, and ankle on the dorsal aspect of the body. This study investigated the relative muscle activity of the hamstring group and selected surrounding musculature during the leg curl, good morning, glute-ham raise, and Romanian deadlift (RDL). Twelve healthy, weight-trained men performed duplicate trials of single repetitions at 85% 1-repetition maximum for each lift in random order, during which surface electromyography and joint angle data were obtained. Repeated measures analysis of variance across the 4 exercises was performed to compare the activity from the erector spinae (ES), gluteus medius (GMed), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas). Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were noted in eccentric muscle activity between exercise for the MGas (p < 0.027), ST (p < 0.001), BF (p < 0.001), and ES (p = 0.032), and in concentric muscle activity, for the ES (p < 0.001), BF (p = 0.010), ST (p = 0.009), MGas (p < 0.001), and the GMed (p = 0.018). Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed significant pairwise differences during eccentric actions for the BF, ST, and MGas. Post hoc analysis also revealed significant pairwise differences during concentric actions for the ES, BF, ST, MGas, and GMed. Each of these showed effect sizes that are large or greater. The main findings of this investigation are that the ST is substantially more active than the BF among all exercises, and hamstring activity was maximized in the RDL and glute-ham raise. Therefore, athletes and coaches who seek to maximize the involvement of the hamstring musculature should consider focusing on the glute-ham raise and RDL.
Lutti Guerra de Aguiar Zink, Frederico; Glória Mendonça, Danilo; Kelly Bittar, Cintia; Luís Amim Zabeu, José; Salomão, Osny; Egydio de Carvalho Junior, Antonio; Tarso Torquato, Marcelo; Cerqueira de Moraes Filho, Décio
Objective To demonstrate the results obtained from foot and ankle tendon reconstructions using the tendon of the semitendinosus muscle. The clinical results, the patient's degree of satisfaction and complications in the graft donor and recipient areas were evaluated. Methods This was a retrospective study in which the medical files of 38 patients who underwent this surgical procedure between 2006 and 2010 were surveyed. The functional results from this technique, the complications in the donor and recipient areas and the patients’ degree of satisfaction were evaluated. Results Three patients presented complications in the recipient area (skin necrosis); one patient showed complications in the donor area (pain and insensitivity); and all patients had satisfactory functional results, with complete range of motion. Conclusion The semitendinosus muscle is a good option for treatments for foot and ankle tendon injuries. PMID:26229856
Maniar, Nirav; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Timmins, Ryan G; Opar, David A
To systematically review the evidence base related to hamstring strength and flexibility in previously injured hamstrings. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was conducted of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and EMBASE from inception to August 2015. Full-text English articles which included studies which assessed at least one measure of hamstring strength or flexibility in men and women with prior hamstring strain injury within 24 months of the testing date. Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. Previously injured legs demonstrated deficits across several variables. Lower isometric strength was found <7 days postinjury (d=-1.72), but this did not persist beyond 7 days after injury. The passive straight leg raise was restricted at multiple time points after injury (<10 days, d=-1.12; 10-20 days, d=-0.74; 20-30 days, d=-0.40), but not after 40-50 days postinjury. Deficits remained after return to play in isokinetically measured concentric (60°/s, d=-0.33) and Nordic eccentric knee flexor strength (d=-0.39). The conventional hamstring to quadricep strength ratios were also reduced well after return to play (60:60°/s, d=-0.32; 240:240°/s, d=-0.43) and functional (30:240°/s, d=-0.88), but these effects were inconsistent across measurement methods. After hamstring strain, acute isometric and passive straight leg raise deficits resolve within 20-50 days. Deficits in eccentric and concentric strength and strength ratios persist after return to play, but this effect was inconsistent across measurement methods. Flexibility and isometric strength should be monitored throughout rehabilitation, but dynamic strength should be assessed at and following return to play. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Sole, Gisela; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Nicholson, Helen D; Sullivan, S John
Cross-sectional, controlled laboratory study. To determine whether thigh muscle isokinetic torque patterns and activity, measured by electromyography (EMG), of individuals with hamstring injury differ from control individuals. Neuromuscular control during thigh muscle strength assessment following hamstring injuries has not been reported. Fifteen athletes with prior hamstring injury (hamstring-injured group [HG]) were compared to 15 uninjured athletes (control group [CG]). The injuries were incurred 6 weeks to 12 months prior to participation, and all injured athletes had returned to at least partial training. Participants performed 5 isokinetic concentric extensor, concentric flexor, and eccentric flexor torque tests at 60°/s in the seated position. Peak torque was determined for each contraction type, as well as average torque for each of 4 time-based movement quartiles. EMG root-mean-squares were calculated in these movement quartiles for the biceps femoris and medial hamstrings. No significant differences were found for peak torque for all contractions, when comparing HG injured and uninjured sides to CG bilateral averages. The HG injured limb eccentric flexor torque was significantly lower in the fourth quartile (approximately 25° to 5° knee flexion, hamstring lengthened range) compared to the CG bilateral average (P = .025). Eccentric flexor biceps femoris and hamstrings EMG root-mean-squares of the HG injured and the uninjured sides were significantly lower in the second to fourth quartiles (towards the lengthened range), compared to the CG bilateral averages (P<.05). Decreased strength and EMG activation in a lengthened hamstrings range for the athletes with prior hamstring injury suggested a change in neuromuscular control. Lengthened range assessment of isokinetic eccentric flexor torque may be useful for the assessment of athletes with a prior injury; however, results should be confirmed with prospective studies.
Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Grainger, A J
MRI and ultrasound are now widely used for the assessment of tendon and ligament abnormalities. Healthy tendons and ligaments contain high levels of collagen with a structured orientation, which gives rise to their characteristic normal imaging appearances as well as causing particular imaging artefacts. Changes to ligaments and tendons as a result of disease and injury can be demonstrated using both ultrasound and MRI. These have been validated against surgical and histological findings. Novel imaging techniques are being developed that may improve the ability of MRI and ultrasound to assess tendon and ligament disease. PMID:22553301
O'Brien, Etienne J O; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Hart, David A
Heterotopic tendon mineralization (ossification or calcification), which may be a feature of tendinopathy or which may develop following surgical trauma (repair or graft harvest), has not received much attention. The purpose of this article is to review the prevalence, mechanisms and consequences of heterotopic tendon mineralization and to identify the gaps in our current understanding. We focus on endochondral heterotopic ossification and draw on knowledge of the mechanisms of this process in other tissues and conditions. Finally, we introduce a novel murine Achilles tendon needle injury model, which will enable us to further study the mechanisms and biomechanical consequences of tendon mineralization. PMID:22974213
Oberhofer, Katja; Hosseini Nasab, S. H.; Schütz, Pascal; Postolka, Barbara; Snedeker, Jess G.; Taylor, William R.; List, Renate
Summary Background: The goal of this review is to summarise and discuss the reported influence of muscle-tendon forces on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading during the jump-landing task by means of biomechanical analyses of the healthy knee. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using different combinations of the terms “knee”, “ligament”, “load”, “tension “, “length”, “strain”, “elongation” and “lengthening”. 26 original articles (n=16 in vitro studies; n=10 in situ studies) were identified which complied with all inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results: No apparent trend was found between ACL loading and the ratio between hamstrings and quadriceps muscle-tendon forces prior to or during landing. Four in vitro studies reported reduced peak ACL strain if the quadriceps force was increased; while one in vitro study and one in situ study reported reduced ACL loading if the hamstrings force was increased. A meta-analysis of the reported results was not possible because of the heterogeneity of the confounding factors. Conclusion: The reported results suggest that increased hip flexion during landing may help in reducing ACL strain by lengthening the hamstrings, and thus increasing its passive resistance to stretch. Furthermore, it appears that increased tensile stiffness of the quadriceps may help in stabilising the knee joint during landing, and thus protecting the passive soft-tissue structures from overloading. Level of evidence: Ib. PMID:28717620
Park, Moon Seok; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, B S Myoung Yl; Lee, Kyoung Min
This study was undertaken to determine the effect of distal hamstring lengthening (DHL) on hip and knee sagittal kinematics, and to investigate the validity of modeled hamstring length for clinical use. Patient group consisted of 28 patients (56 limbs, mean age 7.4 years) with spastic diplegia who underwent bilateral DHL and tendo-Achilles lengthening with/without rectus femoris transfer (RFT) (DHL+RFT subgroup, 40 limbs; DHL subgroup, 16 limbs). Kinematic data was obtained by gait analysis, and hamstring lengths were obtained using a musculoskeletal modeling technique. Postoperatively, knee extension improved (p<0.001) without aggravating anterior pelvic tilt (p=0.565). However, DHL aggravated anterior pelvic tilt in the DHL subgroup (2.2 degrees, p=0.011). In terms of concurrent validity, hamstring length was found to be correlated with mean pelvic tilt (r=0.798, p<0.001) and popliteal angle (r=-0.425, p=0.001), but the correlation between hamstring length and knee flexion at initial contact was minimal (r=0.068, p=0.753). In terms of construct validity, DHL did not lengthen mean hamstring length (p=0.918). In conclusion, DHL appeared to significantly improve knee motion in patients with spastic diplegia. Furthermore, DHL did not increase pelvic tilt, when performed with RFT. Modeled hamstring length is believed to have limited validity in patients with cerebral palsy, because it does not reflect knee kinematics or postoperative change when DHL was combined with multilevel surgery.
Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Maríe C; Puentedura, Emilio J; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco
Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3 × 2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested.
Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Maríe C.; Puentedura, Emilio J.; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco
Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3 × 2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested. PMID:26464889
Pillukat, T; Fuhrmann, R; Windolf, J; van Schoonhoven, J
Properly gliding flexor tendons is mandatory for the normal functioning of the finger and thumb. Any damage to tendons, tendon sheath or adjacent tissue can lead to the formation of adhesions that inhibit the normal gliding function. If adhesions limit the digital function and adequate hand therapy does not provide further progress, then surgical intervention should be considered. The authors' strategy and treatment algorithm for flexor tenolysis are presented in the context of the current literature. There is no absolute indication for flexor tenolysis. The decision should be made in a motivated patient who has access to adequate postoperative hand therapy. It should be based on healed fractures and osteotomies, mature soft tissue coverage, intact tendons and gliding tissues, and a full range of passive flexion, and preferably extension of the affected joints. The principle of flexor tenolysis is the consequent resection of all adhesive tissue around the tendon inside and outside the tendon sheath, with preservation of as many pulley sections as possible. Therefore, extensive approaches are frequently necessary. Arthrolysis and the resolution of unfavorable scars, the resection of scarred lumbricals, and pulley reconstruction are additional procedures that are frequently performed. In the literature, improvement in the range of motion is between 59 and 84 %. Good and excellent functional results are reported in 60-80 % of the cases. Nevertheless, in selected cases, functional deterioration occurs. Flexor tendon ruptures after tenolysis were observed in 0-8 % of the patients. With regard to complications such as secondary tendon ruptures, loss of pulleys, and scar formation, flexor tenolysis is part of a reconstructive ladder that includes further procedures. In the case of failure or complications, salvage procedures such as arthrodesis, amputation, and ray resection or staged flexor tendon reconstruction including tendon grafting are recommended. After
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of hamstring stretching on leg rotation during active knee extension. [Subjects] Subjects were 100 bilateral legs of 50 healthy women without articular disease. [Methods] Hamstring hardness, leg rotation and muscle activities of the knee extensors during active knee extension were measured before and after hamstring stretching. [Results] Hamstring hardness was significantly decreased after hamstring stretching. The leg rotation angle, variation in leg rotation angle, variation in leg external rotation angle, and muscle activities of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were significantly increased after hamstring stretching. A moderate positive correlation was found between variation in leg rotation and variation in muscle hardness in hamstring. [Conclusion] Leg rotation during active knee extension was increased by hamstring stretching. Hamstring stretching would be effective as a pretreatment for restoring proper leg rotation when knee extension is conducted as a therapeutic exercise.
Chu, Samuel K.; Rho, Monica E.
Hamstring injuries are very common in athletes. Acute hamstring strains can occur with high-speed running or with excessive hamstring lengthening. Athletes with proximal hamstring tendinopathy often do not report a specific inciting event; instead they develop the pathology from chronic overuse. A thorough history and examination is important to determine the appropriate diagnosis and rule out other causes of posterior thigh pain. Conservative management of hamstring strains involves a rehabilitation protocol that gradually increases intensity, range of motion and progresses to sport-specific and neuromuscular control exercises. Eccentric strengthening exercises are used for management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Studies investigating corticosteroid and platelet-rich plasma injections have mixed results. MRI and ultrasound are effective for identification of hamstring strains and tendinopathy, but have not demonstrated correlation with return to play. The article focuses on diagnosis, treatment and return to play considerations for acute hamstring strains and proximal hamstring tendinopathy in the athlete. PMID:27172083
Chu, Samuel K; Rho, Monica E
Hamstring injuries are very common in athletes. Acute hamstring strains can occur with high-speed running or with excessive hamstring lengthening. Athletes with proximal hamstring tendinopathy often do not report a specific inciting event; instead, they develop the pathology from chronic overuse. A thorough history and physical examination is important to determine the appropriate diagnosis and rule out other causes of posterior thigh pain. Conservative management of hamstring strains involves a rehabilitation protocol that gradually increases intensity and range of motion, and progresses to sport-specific and neuromuscular control exercises. Eccentric strengthening exercises are used for management of proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Studies investigating corticosteroid and platelet-rich plasma injections have mixed results. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are effective for identification of hamstring strains and tendinopathy but have not demonstrated correlation with return to play. The article focuses on diagnosis, treatment, and return-to-play considerations for acute hamstring strains and proximal hamstring tendinopathy in the athlete.
Autograft - bone; Allograft - bone; Fracture - bone graft; Surgery - bone graft; Autologous bone graft ... Fuse joints to prevent movement Repair broken bones (fractures) that have bone loss Repair injured bone that ...
Dauty, Marc; Menu, Pierre; Fouasson-Chailloux, Alban; Ferréol, Sophie; Dubois, Charles
previous studies investigating the ability of isokinetic strength ratios to predict hamstring injuries in soccer players have reported conflicting results. to determine if isokinetic ratios are able to predict hamstring injury occurring during the season in professional soccer players. case-control study; 3. from 2001 to 2011, 350 isokinetic tests were performed in 136 professional soccer players at the beginning of the soccer season. Fifty-seven players suffered hamstring injury during the season that followed the isokinetic tests. These players were compared with the 79 uninjured players. The bilateral concentric ratio (hamstring-to-hamstring), ipsilateral concentric ratio (hamstring-to-quadriceps), and mixed ratio (eccentric/concentric hamstring-to-quadriceps) were studied. The predictive ability of each ratio was established based on the likelihood ratio and post-test probability. the mixed ratio (30 eccentric/240 concentric hamstring-to-quadriceps) <0.8, ipsilateral ratio (180 concentric hamstring-to-quadriceps) <0.47, and bilateral ratio (60 concentric hamstring-to-hamstring) <0.85 were the most predictive of hamstring injury. The ipsilateral ratio <0.47 allowed prediction of the severity of the hamstring injury, and was also influenced by the length of time since administration of the isokinetic tests. isokinetic ratios are useful for predicting the likelihood of hamstring injury in professional soccer players during the competitive season.
Dauty, Marc; Menu, Pierre; Fouasson-Chailloux, Alban; Ferréol, Sophie; Dubois, Charles
Summary Objectives previous studies investigating the ability of isokinetic strength ratios to predict hamstring injuries in soccer players have reported conflicting results. Hypothesis to determine if isokinetic ratios are able to predict hamstring injury occurring during the season in professional soccer players. Study Design case-control study; Level of evidence: 3. Methods from 2001 to 2011, 350 isokinetic tests were performed in 136 professional soccer players at the beginning of the soccer season. Fifty-seven players suffered hamstring injury during the season that followed the isokinetic tests. These players were compared with the 79 uninjured players. The bilateral concentric ratio (hamstring-to-hamstring), ipsilateral concentric ratio (hamstring-to-quadriceps), and mixed ratio (eccentric/concentric hamstring-to-quadriceps) were studied. The predictive ability of each ratio was established based on the likelihood ratio and post-test probability. Results the mixed ratio (30 eccentric/240 concentric hamstring-to-quadriceps) <0.8, ipsilateral ratio (180 concentric hamstring-to-quadriceps) <0.47, and bilateral ratio (60 concentric hamstring-to-hamstring) <0.85 were the most predictive of hamstring injury. The ipsilateral ratio <0.47 allowed prediction of the severity of the hamstring injury, and was also influenced by the length of time since administration of the isokinetic tests. Conclusion isokinetic ratios are useful for predicting the likelihood of hamstring injury in professional soccer players during the competitive season. PMID:27331039
Veljkovic, Andrea; Lansang, Edward; Lau, Johnny
Flexible forefoot deformities, such as hallux varus, clawed hallux, hammer toes, and angular lesser toe deformities, can be treated effectively with tendon transfers. Based on the presentation of the flexible forefoot deformities, tendon transfers can be used as the primary treatment or as adjuncts to bony procedures when there are components of fixed deformities.
The purpose of this study was to quantify strain and elongation of the long head of the biceps femoris (BFlh) and the semitendinosus (ST) tendon/aponeurosis. Forty participants performed passive knee extension trials from 90° of knee flexion to full extension (0°) followed by ramp isometric contractions of the knee flexors at 0°, 45° and 90° of knee flexion. Two ultrasound probes were used to visualize the displacement of BFlh and ST tendon/aponeurosis. Three-way analysis of variance designs indicated that: (a) Tendon/aponeurosis (passive) elongation and strain were higher for the BFlh than the ST as the knee was passively extended (p<0.05), (b) contraction at each angular position was accompanied by a smaller BFlh tendon/aponeurosis (active) strain and elongation than the ST at higher levels of effort (p<0.05) and (c) combined (passive and active) strain was significantly higher for the BFlh than ST during ramp contraction at 0° but the opposite was observed for the 45° and 90° flexion angle tests (p<0.05). Passive elongation of tendon/aponeurosis has an important effect on the tendon/aponeurosis behavior of the hamstrings and may contribute to a different loading of muscle fibers and tendinous tissue between BFlh and ST.
The tibialis posterior tendon is the largest and anteriormost tendon in the medial ankle. It produces plantar flexion and supination of the ankle and stabilizes the plantar vault. Sonographic assessment of this tendon is done with high-frequency, linear-array transducers; an optimal examination requires transverse retromalleolar, longitudinal retromalleolar, and distal longitudinal scans, as well as dynamic studies. Disorders of the posterior tibial tendon include chronic tendinopathy with progressive rupture, tenosynovitis, acute rupture, dislocation and instability, enthesopathies. The most common lesion is a progressive "chewing gum" lesion that develops in a setting of chronic tendinopathy; it is usually seen in overweight women over 50 years of age with valgus flat feet. Medial ankle pain must also be carefully investigated, and the presence of instability assessed with dynamic maneuvers (forced inversion, or dorsiflexion) of the foot. Sonography plays an important role in the investigation of disorders involving the posterior tibial tendon.
Bourne, Matthew N; Williams, Morgan D; Opar, David A; Al Najjar, Aiman; Kerr, Graham K; Shield, Anthony J
To determine which strength training exercises selectively activate the biceps femoris long head (BFLongHead) muscle. We recruited 24 recreationally active men for this two-part observational study. Part 1: We explored the amplitudes and the ratios of lateral (BF) to medial hamstring (MH) normalised electromyography (nEMG) during the concentric and eccentric phases of 10 common strength training exercises. Part 2: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the spatial patterns of hamstring activation during two exercises which (1) most selectively and (2) least selectively activated the BF in part 1. Eccentrically, the largest BF/MH nEMG ratio occurred in the 45° hip-extension exercise; the lowest was in the Nordic hamstring (Nordic) and bent-knee bridge exercises. Concentrically, the highest BF/MH nEMG ratio occurred during the lunge and 45° hip extension; the lowest was during the leg curl and bent-knee bridge. fMRI revealed a greater BF(LongHead) to semitendinosus activation ratio in the 45° hip extension than the Nordic (p<0.001). The T2 increase after hip extension for BFLongHead, semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles was greater than that for BFShortHead (p<0.001). During the Nordic, the T2 increase was greater for the semitendinosus than for the other hamstring muscles (p≤0.002). We highlight the heterogeneity of hamstring activation patterns in different tasks. Hip-extension exercise selectively activates the long hamstrings, and the Nordic exercise preferentially recruits the semitendinosus. These findings have implications for strategies to prevent hamstring injury as well as potentially for clinicians targeting specific hamstring components for treatment (mechanotherapy). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
de Mos, Marieke; Koevoet, Wendy J L M; Jahr, Holger; Verstegen, Monique M A; Heijboer, Marinus P; Kops, Nicole; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Weinans, Harrie; Verhaar, Jan A N; van Osch, Gerjo J V M
Tendinosis lesions show an increase of glycosaminoglycan amount, calcifications, and lipid accumulation. Therefore, altered cellular differentiation might play a role in the etiology of tendinosis. This study investigates whether adolescent human tendon tissue contains a population of cells with intrinsic differentiation potential. Cells derived from adolescent non-degenerative hamstring tendons were characterized by immunohistochemistry and FACS-analysis. Cells were cultured for 21 days in osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic medium and phenotypical evaluation was carried out by immunohistochemical and qPCR analysis. The results were compared with the results of similar experiments on adult bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs). Tendon-derived cells stained D7-FIB (fibroblast-marker) positive, but alpha-SMA (marker for smooth muscle cells and pericytes) negative. Tendon-derived cells were 99% negative for CD34 (endothelial cell marker), and 73% positive for CD105 (mesenchymal progenitor-cell marker). In adipogenic medium, intracellular lipid vacuoles were visible and tendon-derived fibroblasts showed upregulation of adipogenic markers FABP4 (fatty-acid binding protein 4) and PPARG (peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma). In chondrogenic medium, some cells stained positive for collagen 2 and tendon-derived fibroblasts showed upregulation of collagen 2 and collagen 10. In osteogenic medium Von Kossa staining showed calcium deposition although osteogenic markers remained unaltered. Tendon-derived cells and BMCSs behaved largely comparable, although some distinct differences were present between the two cell populations. This study suggests that our population of explanted human tendon cells has an intrinsic differentiation potential. These results support the hypothesis that there might be a role for altered tendon-cell differentiation in the pathophysiology of tendinosis.
Drake, David B; Tilt, Alexandra C; DeGeorge, Brent R
Flexor tendon injuries continue to pose a significant challenge to the hand surgeon. In particular, chronic tendon ruptures with adhesions of the tendons and sheath, damage or loss of the intrasynovial flexor tendons in zone II, and combined soft tissue and bone injuries present especially difficult problems for restoring satisfactory digital function. This challenge in flexor tendon reconstruction has motivated hand surgeons to explore and develop novel solutions for nearly a century. Recent advances and techniques in processing and decellularizing allograft human flexor tendon constructs may prove to be a new horizon for tendon reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moretti, L; Vicenti, G; Abate, A; Pesce, V; Moretti, B
Patellar tendon rerupture is a relatively uncommon condition that severely compromises the function of the extensor mechanism of the knee. Few cases described in the literature does not show a unique mode of treatment for this type of lesion. We report the case of a young athlete with traumatic patellar tendon rerupture. The first rupture was treated with the use of Statak anchors. Following a second rerupture incident as a result of a sporting accodent, the tendon was reconstructed with the use of an autologous graft tendon of semitendinosus and biological augmentation with gracilis tendon. For both tendons the distal insertion part was preserved to facilitate the healing process. The treatment was completed with the application of a neutralization cerclage wire and with local injection of plateket reach plasma (PRP). At 12 months follow up, a full recovery of the structure and function of the extensor mechanism was observed and the patient was able to resume normal sports competitive activity.
Nicholson, Luke T.; DiSegna, Steven; Newman, Joel S.; Miller, Suzanne L.
Background: Proximal hamstring tendinopathy is an uncommon but debilitating cause of posterior thigh pain in athletes subjected to repetitive eccentric hamstring contraction, such as runners. Minimal data exist evaluating treatment options for proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Purpose: This retrospective study evaluates the effectiveness of fluoroscopically guided corticosteroid injections in treating proximal hamstring tendinopathy. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eighteen athletes with 22 cases of magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed proximal hamstring tendinopathy were treated with corticosteroid injection and later contacted to evaluate the efficacy of the injection with the use of a questionnaire. Results: The visual analog score decreased from 7.22 preinjection to 3.94 postinjection (P < .001), level of athletic participation increased from 28.76% to 68.82% (P < .001) at a mean follow-up of 21 months, and 38.8% of patients experienced complete resolution at a mean follow-up of 24.8 months. The mean lower extremity function score at the time of follow-up was 60. Conclusion: A trial of fluoroscopically guided corticosteroid injection is warranted in patients presenting with symptoms of proximal hamstring tendinopathy refractory to conservative therapy. PMID:26535310
White, Kristin E.
Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of 3 female long distance runners with high hamstring tendinopathy. Clinical Features Three female runners presented to a chiropractic office with proximal hamstring pain that was aggravated by running. Increasing mileage, hills, and/or interval training preceded the onset of symptoms in each case. The subjects all displayed weakness of the hip abductors, pelvic joint dysfunction, hamstring tightness, and ischial tuberosity tenderness. Other clinical findings included overpronation, proprioceptive weakness, and lumbar dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome All 3 patients were treated with Graston Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization, lumbopelvic manipulation, and electrical muscle stimulation with ultrasound. Active exercise focused on hamstring stretching and strengthening, gluteal strengthening, and proprioceptive training. The 3 runners seen in this clinic had resolution of hamstring pain in an average of 13 treatments and were able to continue competing without restriction. Conclusion Runners with high hamstring tendinopathy may respond favorably to conservative chiropractic treatment and active rehabilitation with minimal time off of training. PMID:22014863
Arnason, A; Andersen, T E; Holme, I; Engebretsen, L; Bahr, R
The purpose was to test the effect of eccentric strength training and flexibility training on the incidence of hamstring strains in soccer. Hamstring strains and player exposure were registered prospectively during four consecutive soccer seasons (1999-2002) for 17-30 elite soccer teams from Iceland and Norway. The first two seasons were used as baseline, while intervention programs consisting of warm-up stretching, flexibility and/or eccentric strength training were introduced during the 2001 and 2002 seasons. During the intervention seasons, 48% of the teams selected to use the intervention programs. There was no difference in the incidence of hamstring strains between teams that used the flexibility training program and those who did not [relative risk (RR)=1.53, P=0.22], nor was there a difference compared with the baseline data (RR=0.89, P=0.75). The incidence of hamstring strains was lower in teams who used the eccentric training program compared with teams that did not use the program (RR=0.43, P=0.01), as well as compared with baseline data for the same intervention teams (RR=0.42, P=0.009). Eccentric strength training with Nordic hamstring lowers combined with warm-up stretching appears to reduce the risk of hamstring strains, while no effect was detected from flexibility training alone. These results should be verified in randomized clinical trials.
Aggen, Peter D; Reuteman, Paul
Resident's case report There have been only a few case reports in the literature mentioning sciatic nerve injury following a hamstring tear. In previous cases surgical intervention was performed to debride scar tissue around the sciatic nerve with the goal of full return to function for the patient. The purpose of this case report is to describe the conservative interventions that allowed for recovery from a hamstring tear with sciatic nerve involvement. The subject was a 53 year old female who developed foot drop and weakness in the common fibular nerve distribution following a grade 3 hamstring injury sustained during Nordic skiing. Nerve function and strength gradually returned over the course of several months of conservative rehabilitation which included on neural gliding and strengthening exercises. At 18 months post injury, the subject had returned to 95% of full sport function and 98% of full function with activities of daily living, as rated by the Hip Outcome Scale, and had full strength with manual muscle testing. Isokinetic testing revealed strength deficits of 11-23% in knee flexion peak torque at 60 degrees/second and 180 degrees/second respectively. Sciatic nerve injury is a rare, but important potential consequence of severe hamstring strains. Clinicians should be cognizant of the potential injury to the nerve tissue following hamstring strains, so they may be dealt with in a prompt and appropriate manner. The use of neural gliding may be worth considering for a prophylactic effect following hamstring strains.
Arumugam, Ashokan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Woodley, Stephanie; Sole, Gisela
There is evidence that applying a pelvic compression belt (PCB) can decrease hamstring and lumbar muscle electromyographic activity and increase gluteus maximus activity in healthy women during walking. Increased isokinetic eccentric hamstring strength in the terminal range (25 ° - 5 °) of knee extension has been reported with the use of such a belt in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries. However, it is unknown whether wearing a pelvic belt alters activity of the hamstrings in sportsmen during walking. To examine the effects of wearing a PCB on electromyographic activity of the hamstring and lumbopelvic muscles during walking in sportsmen with and without hamstring injuries. Randomised crossover, cross-sectional study. Thirty uninjured sportsmen (23.53 ± 3.68 years) and 20 sportsmen with hamstring injuries (22.00 ± 1.45 years) sustained within the previous 12 months participated in this study. Electromyographic amplitudes of the hamstrings, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and lumbar multifidus were monitored during defined phases of walking and normalised to maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Within-group comparisons [PCB vs. no PCB] for the normalised electromyographic amplitudes were performed for each muscle group using paired t tests. Electromyographic change scores [belt - no belt] were calculated and compared between the two groups with independent t tests. No significant change was evident in hamstring activity for either group while walking with the PCB (p > 0.050). However, with the PCB, gluteus medius activity (p ≤ 0.028) increased in both groups, while gluteus maximus activity increased (p = 0.025) and multifidus activity decreased (p < 0.001) in the control group. The magnitude of change induced by the PCB in gluteus medius activity was similar between groups (p = 0.760). No statistically significant baseline differences in no belt scores were evident between groups for the investigated muscles (p ≥ 0
Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng
Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a “bone-to-bone” interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into 5 groups: 1) normal FDP tendon, 2) CaP (Non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), 3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), 4) CaPFetuin (Non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and 5) CaPEXTFetuin (Extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200 μm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction. PMID:23939935
Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng
Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a "bone-to-bone" interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into five groups: (1) normal FDP tendon, (2) CaP (non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), (3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2 HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), (4) CaPFetuin (non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and (5) CaPEXTFetuin (extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200 µm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction.
Time to return to full training is delayed and recurrence rate is higher in intratendinous ('c') acute hamstring injury in elite track and field athletes: clinical application of the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification.
Pollock, Noel; Patel, Anish; Chakraverty, Julian; Suokas, Anu; James, Stephen L J; Chakraverty, Robin
The British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification describes acute muscle injuries and their anatomical site within muscle based on MRI parameters of injury extent. It grades injuries from 0 to 4 and classifies location based on a myofascial (a), musculotendinous (b) or intratendinous (c) description. This is a retrospective cohort study that assessed time to return to full training (TRFT) and injury recurrence in the different British Athletics classifications for hamstring injuries sustained by elite track and field (T&F) athletes over a 4-year period. The electronic medical records (EMRs) of 230 elite British T&F athletes were reviewed. Athletes who sustained an acute hamstring injury, with MRI investigation within 7 days of injury, were included. MRI were graded by two musculoskeletal radiologists using the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. The EMRs were reviewed by 2 sports physicians, blinded to the new classification; TRFT and injury recurrence were recorded. There were 65 hamstring injuries in 44 athletes (24±4.4 years; 28 male, 16 female). TRFT differed among grades (p<0.001). Grade 3 injuries and 'c' injuries took significantly longer and grade 0 injuries took less TRFT. There were 12 re-injuries; the injury recurrence rate was significantly higher in intratendinous (c) injuries (p<0.001). There was no difference in re-injury rate between number grades 1-3, hamstring muscle affected, location (proximal vs central vs distal), age or sex. This study describes the clinical application of the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Different categories of hamstring injuries had different TRFT and recurrence rate. Hamstring injuries that extend into the tendon ('c') are more prone to re-injury and delay TRFT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Abate, Michele; Salini, Vincenzo; Andia, Isabel
Several epidemiological and clinical observations have definitely demonstrated that obesity has harmful effects on tendons. The pathogenesis of tendon damage is multi-factorial. In addition to overload, attributable to the increased body weight, which significantly affects load-bearing tendons, systemic factors play a relevant role. Several bioactive peptides (chemerin, leptin, adiponectin and others) are released by adipocytes, and influence tendon structure by means of negative activities on mesenchymal cells. The ensuing systemic state of chronic, sub-clinic, low-grade inflammation can damage tendon structure. Metabolic disorders (diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and dislipidemia), frequently associated with visceral adiposity, are concurrent pathogenetic factors. Indeed, high glucose levels increase the formation of Advanced Glycation End-products, which in turn form stable covalent cross-links within collagen fibers, modifying their structure and functionality.Sport activities, so useful for preventing important cardiovascular complications, may be detrimental for tendons if they are submitted to intense acute or chronic overload. Therefore, two caution rules are mandatory: first, to engage in personalized soft training program, and secondly to follow regular check-up for tendon pathology.
Davda, Kinner; Malhotra, Karan; O’Donnell, Paul; Singh, Dishan; Cullen, Nicholas
Pathological abnormality of the peroneal tendons is an under-appreciated source of lateral hindfoot pain and dysfunction that can be difficult to distinguish from lateral ankle ligament injuries. Enclosed within the lateral compartment of the leg, the peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilisers. Pathology of the tendons falls into three broad categories: tendinitis and tenosynovitis, tendon subluxation and dislocation, and tendon splits and tears. These can be associated with ankle instability, hindfoot deformity and anomalous anatomy such as a low lying peroneus brevis or peroneus quartus. A thorough clinical examination should include an assessment of foot type (cavus or planovalgus), palpation of the peronei in the retromalleolar groove on resisted ankle dorsiflexion and eversion as well as testing of lateral ankle ligaments. Imaging including radiographs, ultrasound and MRI will help determine the diagnosis. Treatment recommendations for these disorders are primarily based on case series and expert opinion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the peroneal tendons, and to present both conservative and operative management options of peroneal tendon lesions. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:281-292. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160047 PMID:28736620
Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I
To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children.
Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T.; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G.; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; Witbreuk, Melinda M.; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald
To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children. PMID:27861523
Sugiura, Yusaku; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiichi
Prospective cohort study. In this prospective cohort study of elite sprinters, muscle strength of the hip extensors, as well as of the knee extensors and flexors, was measured to determine a possible relationship between strength deficits and subsequent hamstring injury within 12 months of testing. The method used for testing muscle strength simulated the specific muscle action during late swing and early contact phases when sprinting. There have been no prospective studies in elite sprinters that examine the concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of the hip extensors and the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in a manner that reflects their actions in late swing or early contact phases of sprinting. Consequently, the causal relationship between hip and thigh muscle strength and hamstring injury in elite sprinters may not be fully understood. Isokinetic testing was performed on 30 male elite sprinters to assess hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscle strength. The occurrence of hamstring injury among the subjects was determined during the year following the muscle strength measurements. The strength of the hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscles, as well as the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors- quadriceps ratios were compared. Hamstring injury occurred in 6 subjects during the 1-year period. Isokinetic testing at a speed of 60 degrees /s revealed weakness of the injured limb with eccentric action of the hamstring muscles and during concentric action of the hip extensors. When performing a side-to-side comparison for the injured sprinters, the hamstring injury always occurred on the weaker side. Differences in the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors-quadriceps strength ratios were also evident between uninjured and injured limbs, and this was attributable to deficits in hamstring strength. Hamstring injury in elite sprinters was associated with weakness during eccentric action of the hamstrings and weakness during concentric action of
Askling, Carl M; Tengvar, Magnus; Saartok, Tönu; Thorstensson, Alf
Hamstring muscle strain is one of the most common injuries in sports. Still, knowledge is limited about the progression of clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and their association with recovery time in athletes. Knowing the anatomical location and extent of an acute first-time hamstring strain in athletes is critical for the prognosis of recovery time. Case series (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Eighteen elite sprinters with acute first-time hamstring strains were prospectively included in the study. All subjects were examined, clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging, on 4 occasions after injury: at day 2 to 4, 10, 21, and 42. The clinical follow-up period was 2 years. All sprinters were injured during competitive sprinting, and the primary injuries were all located in the long head of the biceps femoris muscle. There was an association between the time to return to pre-injury level (median, 16; range, 6-50 weeks) and the extent of the injury, as indicated by the magnetic resonance imaging parameters. Involvement of the proximal free tendon, as estimated by MRI, and proximity to the ischial tuberosity, as estimated both by palpation and magnetic resonance imaging, were associated with longer time to return to pre-injury level. Careful palpation during the first 3 weeks after injury and magnetic resonance imaging investigation performed during the first 6 weeks after injury provide valuable information that can be used to predict the time to return to pre-injury level of performance in elite sprinting.
Bhaskar, Prajwal; Bosworth, Lucy A.; Wong, Richard; O'brien, Marie A.; Kriel, Haydn; Smit, Eugene; McGrouther, Duncan A.; Wong, Jason K.
Abstract The functional replacement of tendon represents an unmet clinical need in situations of tendon rupture, tendon grafting, and complex tendon reconstruction, as usually there is a finite source of healthy tendon to use as donors. The microfibrous architecture of tendon is critical to the function of tendon. This study investigates the use of electrospun poly(ɛ‐caprolactone) scaffolds as potential biomaterial substitutes for tendon grafts. We assessed the performance of two electrospinning manufacturers (small‐ and large‐scale) and the effect of two sterilization techniques—gamma irradiation and ethanol submersion—on cell response to these electrospun scaffolds after their implantation into a murine tendon model. Cell infiltration and proliferation analyses were undertaken to determine the effect on cell response within the implant over a 6‐week period. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to characterize inflammatory response and healing characteristics (proliferation, collagen deposition, myofibroblast activity, and apoptosis). Neither the sterilization techniques nor the manufacturer was observed to significantly affect the cell response to the scaffold. At each time point, cell response was similar to the autograft control. This suggests that ethanol submersion can be used for research purposes and that the scaffold can be easily reproduced by a large‐scale manufacturer. These results further imply that this electrospun scaffold may provide an alternative to autograft, thus eliminating the need for sourcing healthy tendon tissue from a secondary site. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 389–397, 2017. PMID:27649836
Schache, Anthony G; Dorn, Tim W; Blanch, Peter D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Pandy, Marcus G
An understanding of hamstring mechanics during sprinting is important for elucidating why these muscles are so vulnerable to acute strain-type injury. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to quantify the biomechanical load (specifically, musculotendon strain, velocity, force, power, and work) experienced by the hamstrings across a full stride cycle; and second, to determine how these parameters differ for each hamstring muscle (i.e., semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris long head (BF), biceps femoris short head (BF)). Full-body kinematics and ground reaction force data were recorded simultaneously from seven subjects while sprinting on an indoor running track. Experimental data were integrated with a three-dimensional musculoskeletal computer model comprised of 12 body segments and 92 musculotendon structures. The model was used in conjunction with an optimization algorithm to calculate musculotendon strain, velocity, force, power, and work for the hamstrings. SM, ST, and BF all reached peak strain, produced peak force, and formed much negative work (energy absorption) during terminal swing. The biomechanical load differed for each hamstring muscle: BF exhibited the largest peak strain, ST displayed the greatest lengthening velocity, and SM produced the highest peak force, absorbed and generated the most power, and performed the largest amount of positive and negative work. As peak musculotendon force and strain for BF, ST, and SM occurred around the same time during terminal swing, it is suggested that this period in the stride cycle may be when the biarticular hamstrings are at greatest injury risk. On this basis, hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programs should preferentially target strengthening exercises that involve eccentric contractions performed with high loads at longer musculotendon lengths.
Prior, Mathew; Guerin, Michelle; Grimmer, Karen
Background: Hamstring strain injury is a common problem within sport. Despite research interest, knowledge of risks for and management of hamstring strain is limited, as evidenced by high injury rates. Objective: To present the current best evidence for hamstring strain injury risk factors and the management of hamstring strain injury. Methods: MEDLINE, AMED, SportDiscus, and AUSPORT databases were searched (key terms “hamstring” and “strain,” “injury,” “pull,” or “tear”) to identify relevant literature published between 1982 and 2007 in the English language. Studies of adult athlete populations (older than 18 years) pertaining to hamstring strain incidence, prevalence, and/or intervening management of hamstring strain injury were included. Articles were limited to full-text randomized, controlled studies or cohort studies. Twenty-four articles were included. Articles were critically appraised using the McMaster Quantitative Review Guidelines instrument. Data pertaining to injury rates and return to sport outcomes were extracted. Each author undertook independent appraisal of a random selection of articles after establishing inter-rater agreement of appraisal. Results: Previous strain, older age, and ethnicity were consistently reported as significant risks for injury, as was competing in higher levels of competition. Associations with strength and flexibility were conflicting. Functional rehabilitation interventions had preventive effects and resulted in significantly earlier return to sport. Additionally, weak evidence existed for other interventions. Conclusion: Current evidence is inconclusive regarding most interventions for hamstring strain injury, while the effect of potentially modifiable risks is unclear. Further high-quality prospective studies into potential risks and management are required to provide a better framework within which to target interventions. PMID:23015867
van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A; Backx, Frank J G
Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injuries in soccer, and they have a high rate of recurrence. Eccentric hamstrings strength is recognized as an important modifiable risk factor. This led to the development of prevention exercises such as the nordic hamstring exercise (NHE). The effectiveness of the NHE on hamstring injury prevention has never been investigated in amateur soccer. To investigate the preventive effect of the NHE on the incidence and severity of hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Male amateur soccer players (age, mean ± SD, 24.5 ± 3.8 years) from 40 teams were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 20 teams, 292 players) or control group (n = 20 teams, 287 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform 25 sessions of NHE in a 13-week period. Both the intervention and control groups performed regular soccer training and were followed for hamstring injury incidence and severity during the 2013 calendar year. At baseline, personal characteristics (eg, age, injury history, field position) were gathered from all participants via a questionnaire. Primary outcome was injury incidence. Secondary outcomes were injury severity and compliance with the intervention protocol. A total of 38 hamstring injuries were recorded, affecting 36 of 579 players (6.2%). The overall injury incidence rate was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6-0.8) per 1000 player hours, 0.33 (95% CI, 0.25-0.46) in training, and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.82-1.94) in matches. Injury incidence rates were significantly different between the intervention (0.25; 95% CI, 0.19-0.35) and control groups (0.8; 95% CI, 0.61-1.15), χ(2)(1, n = 579) = 7.865; P = .005. The risk for hamstring injuries was reduced in the intervention group compared with the control group (odds ratio, 0.282; 95% CI, 0.110-0.721) and was statistically significant (P = .005). No statistically significant differences were identified between the intervention and
Massoud, Elsayed Ibraheem Elsayed
Operative intervention is the preferred option for management of the neglected laceration of the Achilles tendon. However, the commonly used techniques rarely follow the principles of the regenerative medicine for the restoration of the lost tissue. This study postulated that incorporation of the autogenous tendon graft would properly progress when the interplay between mechanical loading and healing phases was correctly applied. A prospective study included 15 patients who were treated for neglected Achilles tendon laceration using the technique of lengthening of the proximal tendon stump. An absorbable reinforcement suture was used for control of the mechanical environment at the suture lines. By an average 5 years of the prospective follow-up, all the repaired tendons had restored continuity and length. The calf circumference equalized to the uninjured side in 12 patients. However, 3 patients had calf atrophy but they improved compared to the preoperative measurements. Sonogram confirmed the restoration of the normal thickness and the gliding characteristics of the repaired tendon. The technique restored continuity and tension of the repaired tendon, preserved the calf circumference, and prevented peritendinous adhesions. The absorbable reinforcement suture spontaneously allowed for the mechanical loading of the grafted tendon. Level IV, case series.
Kumar, N; Sharma, A K; Sharma, A K; Kumar, S
The efficacy of carbon fibres and plasma-preserved tendon allografts for gap repair in the superficial digital flexor tendon in the mid-metatarsal region was evaluated in 12 crossbred calves. Experimental tenectomies were performed, followed by implantation of carbon fibres in group I (12 legs) and plasma-preserved tendon allografts in group II (12 legs). Gross observations in group I showed filling of the defect with granulation tissue with more vascularity on day 7, which was less prominent at day 14. On day 30, the neotendon formed was slightly thicker and comparable to normal tendon in appearance and texture. On day 90, it exhibited all the characteristics of a fully developed tendon. Whereas, in group II increased vascularity at the site and encapsulation of the graft with connective tissue in early periods was observed. The gap between graft and host was filled with fibrous connective tissue. Peritendinous adhesions were maximum on day 7 which were gradually reduced in both groups. Microscopically, an acute inflammatory reaction in the periphery of carbon fibres was observed on day 7. Immature fibroblasts were arranged in a haphazard pattern at this stage. By day 14, numerous newly formed capillaries and comparatively more mature fibroblasts were present in between and around the carbon fibres which were aligning parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tendon. By day 30 the healing tissue exhibited longitudinal orientation of collagen fibres and was at a more advance stage of maturation. By day 90, the neotendon formed simulated the picture of normal tendon. In the grafted tendon group, there was normal healing tissue at the functional sites between host and grafted tendon. The fibroblastic activity appeared to be both extrinsic and intrinsic in origin. The connective tissue had invaded the graft to a variable distance and there was resorption of graft which was replaced by newly formed connective tissue on day 90. Scanning electron microscopic observation
Sugimoto, Dai; Heyworth, Benton E.; Collines, Sara; Kocher, Mininder S.; Micheli, Lyle J.
Objectives: The influence of graft type and gender in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has not been adequately studied in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to compare parameters of early lower extremity functional recovery among three cohorts of pediatric patients under 15 years-old: pediatric males who underwent ACLR with hamstring grafts (PM w/HS), pediatric females with hamstring grafts (PF w/HS), and pediatric males with IT band graft (PM w/ITB). Methods: A prospective cohort study design was used. At 6-month post-operative visits following ACLR, thigh circumference, knee ROM (extension and flexion), strength (quadriceps, hamstrings, hip abductors, and hip extensors), Y-balance (anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial reach), and functional hop tests (single, triple, cross-over, and 6 meter timed hops) were assessed in all ACL-R under 15 years-old. Limb symmetry index was used to compare deficits between involved and uninvolved limb between the three graft groups (PM w/HS, PF w/HS, and PM w/ITB). There was an inadequate number of pediatric females who underwent ITB ACL-R for analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc correction was employed. Results: A total of 87 pediatric ACLR patients (PM w/HS: N=20, Age:14.3±1.1; PF w/HS: N=33, Age:13.9±0.7; PM w/ITB: N=34, Age:13.2±1.3) were examined. There was no statistically significant difference in ROM and Y-balance tests performance between the cohorts. Of the various additional comparisons analyzed, only the following findings were statistically significant: (a) PM w/HS demonstrated greater thigh circumference deficits (-3.7% relative to healthy limb) than PM w/ITB (-1.5% relative to healthy limb, p=0.024); (b) PM w/HS group showed greater hamstring strength deficits (-34.1% relative to healthy limb) than PM w/ITB (-7.1% relative to healthy limb, p=0.001). The hamstring strength deficits of PF w/HS (-13.3% relative to healthy limb) were not statistically different
Dumbre Patil, Sampat Shivajirao; Dumbre Patil, Vaishali Sampat; Basa, Vikas Rajeshwarrao; Dombale, Ajay Birappa
Chronic Achilles tendon ruptures are associated with considerable functional morbidity. When treated operatively, debridement of degenerated tendon ends may create large defects. Various procedures to reconstruct large defects have been described. We present a simple technique in which an autologous semitendinosus tendon graft is used to reconstruct defects larger than 5 cm in chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to describe our operative technique and its functional outcome. Achilles ruptures of more than 6 weeks duration were considered for the study. We treated 35 patients (20 males, 15 females) with symptomatic chronic Achilles tendon ruptures. The mean age was 47.4 years (range, 30 to 59). The smallest defect that we had reconstructed was 5 cm, and the largest was 9 cm in length. The average follow-up duration was 30.7 months (range, 20 to 42). Postoperatively, the strength of gastrocsoleus was measured by manual muscle testing (MMT) in non-weight-bearing and weight-bearing positions. All operated patients showed satisfactory functional outcome, good soft tissue healing, and no reruptures. The preoperative weight-bearing MMT of 2/5 improved to 4/5 or 5/5 postoperatively. In all patients, postoperative non-weight-bearing MMT was 5/5. All patients returned to their prerupture daily activity. We present a technique that is simple, with low morbidity. We believe it is a valuable option especially when allografts are not available. It is inexpensive as suture anchors or tenodesis screws are not used. This can be a useful option if other tendons (flexor hallucis longus, peroneus brevis, etc) are not available for transfer. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2014.
... the eyeball. A tendon serves to move the bone or structure. A ligament is a fibrous connective tissue which attaches bone to bone, and usually serves to hold structures together and keep them stable.
Tearing and inflammation of the tendons of the shoulder muscles can occur in sports which require the ... pitching, swimming, and lifting weights. Most often the shoulder will heal if a break is taken from ...
... teens, biceps tendonitis is usually an overuse injury. Baseball pitchers, swimmers, tennis players, and people who have ... But if you swim or play tennis or baseball, that might not be an option! If your ...
... shoes with proper cushioning in the heels. Increase training intensity slowly. Achilles tendon injuries commonly occur after abruptly increasing training intensity. Increase the distance, duration and frequency of your ...
... your primary doctor. Treatments of the Ankle Achilles Tendinosis Surgery Achilles Tendon Rupture Surgery Ankle Arthrodesis Ankle ... for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus Insertional Achilles Tendinosis Surgery Lateral Ankle Ligament Reconstruction Lateral Ankle Stabilization ...
Thangarajah, Tanujan; Shahbazi, Shirin; Pendegrass, Catherine J; Lambert, Simon; Alexander, Susan; Blunn, Gordon W
Tendon-bone healing following rotator cuff repairs is mainly impaired by poor tissue quality. Demineralised bone matrix promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface but its role in the treatment of tendon tears with retraction has not been investigated. We hypothesized that cortical demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells will result in improved function and restoration of the tendon-bone interface with no difference between xenogenic and allogenic scaffolds. In an ovine model, the patellar tendon was detached from the tibial tuberosity and a complete distal tendon transverse defect measuring 1 cm was created. Suture anchors were used to reattach the tendon and xenogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5), or allogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5) were used to bridge the defect. Graft incorporation into the tendon and its effect on regeneration of the enthesis was assessed using histomorphometry. Force plate analysis was used to assess functional recovery. Compared to the xenograft, the allograft was associated with significantly higher functional weight bearing at 6 (P = 0.047), 9 (P = 0.028), and 12 weeks (P = 0.009). In the allogenic group this was accompanied by greater remodeling of the demineralised bone matrix into tendon-like tissue in the region of the defect (p = 0.015), and a more direct type of enthesis characterized by significantly more fibrocartilage (p = 0.039). No failures of tendon-bone healing were noted in either group. Demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface in an ovine model of acute tendon retraction, with superior mechanical and histological results associated with use of an allograft.
Background Tendon-bone healing following rotator cuff repairs is mainly impaired by poor tissue quality. Demineralised bone matrix promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface but its role in the treatment of tendon tears with retraction has not been investigated. We hypothesized that cortical demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells will result in improved function and restoration of the tendon-bone interface with no difference between xenogenic and allogenic scaffolds. Materials and Methods In an ovine model, the patellar tendon was detached from the tibial tuberosity and a complete distal tendon transverse defect measuring 1 cm was created. Suture anchors were used to reattach the tendon and xenogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5), or allogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5) were used to bridge the defect. Graft incorporation into the tendon and its effect on regeneration of the enthesis was assessed using histomorphometry. Force plate analysis was used to assess functional recovery. Results Compared to the xenograft, the allograft was associated with significantly higher functional weight bearing at 6 (P = 0.047), 9 (P = 0.028), and 12 weeks (P = 0.009). In the allogenic group this was accompanied by greater remodeling of the demineralised bone matrix into tendon-like tissue in the region of the defect (p = 0.015), and a more direct type of enthesis characterized by significantly more fibrocartilage (p = 0.039). No failures of tendon-bone healing were noted in either group. Conclusion Demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface in an ovine model of acute tendon retraction, with superior mechanical and histological results associated with use of an allograft. PMID:27606597
Basamania CJ: Incidence of major tendon ruptures and anterior cruciate ligament tears in US Army soldiers, Am J Sports Med2007; 35(8):1308-1314. 2... ligament or meniscus in is measurement is relatively independent of knee flex o of less than 0.80 indicates patella alta (Fig. Fig. 4: MRI of left...risk of tendon rupture after fluoroquinolone therapy , and requested that pharmaceutical manufacturers include boxed warnings. In healthy adults
Marshall, Paul W M; Lovell, Ric; Knox, Michael F; Brennan, Scott L; Siegler, Jason C
The Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a bodyweight movement commonly prescribed to increase eccentric hamstring strength and reduce the incidence of strain injury in sport. This study examined hamstring fatigue and muscle activation responses throughout 6 sets of 5 repetitions of the NHE. Ten amateur-level soccer players performed a single session of 6 sets of 5 repetitions of NHE. Maximal eccentric and concentric torque output (in newton meters) was measured after every set. Hamstrings electromyograms (EMG) were measured during all maximal contractions and exercise repetitions. Hamstring maximal eccentric torque was reduced throughout the range of motion after only a single set of NHE between 7.9 and 17.1% (p ≤ 0.05), with further reductions in subsequent sets. Similarly, maximal concentric torque reductions between 7.8 and 17.2% were observed throughout the range of motion after 1 set of NHE (p ≤ 0.05). During the descent phase of the NHE repetitions, hamstring muscle activity progressively increased as the number of sets performed increased. These increases were observed in the first half of the range of motion. During the ascent phase, biceps femoris muscle activity but not medial hamstrings was reduced from the start of exercise during latter sets of repetitions. These data provide unique insight into the extent of fatigue induced from a bodyweight only exercise after a single set of 5 repetitions. Strength and conditioning coaches need to be aware of the speed and extent of fatigue induced from NHE, particularly in practical settings in which this exercise is now prescribed before sport-specific training sessions (i.e., the FIFA-11 before soccer training).
Sconce, Emma; Jones, Paul; Turner, Ellena; Comfort, Paul; Graham-Smith, Philip
Hamstring injury-risk assessment has primarily been investigated using isokinetic dynamometry. However, practical issues such as cost and availability limit the widespread application of isokinetics for injury-risk assessment; thus, field-based alternatives for assessing eccentric hamstring strength are needed. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the angle achieved during Nordic hamstring lowers (break-point angle) as a field-based test for eccentric hamstring strength. Exploratory study. Laboratory. Sixteen male (n = 7) and female (n = 9) soccer players (mean ± SD age 24 ± 6 y, height 1.77 ± 0.12 m, and body mass 68.5 ± 16.5 kg) acted as subjects for the study. The authors explored relationships between the Nordic break-point angle (the point at which the subject can no longer resist the increasing gravitational moment during a Nordic hamstring lower) measured from video and isokinetic peak torque and angle of peak torque of right- and left-knee flexors. The results revealed a meaningful relationship between eccentric knee-flexor peak torque (average of right and left limbs) and the Nordic break-point angle (r = -.808, r2 = 65%, P < .00001). However, there was a weak relationship observed (r = .480, r2 = 23%, P = .06) between break-point angle and the angle of peak torque (average of right and left limbs). The results suggest that the break-point angle achieved during Nordic hamstring lowers could be used as a field-based assessment of eccentric hamstring strength.
Kaminski, Thomas W.; Wabbersen, Chuck V.; Murphy, Robert M.
Objective: Hamstring injuries can be quite debilitating and often result in chronic problems. Eccentric muscle actions are often the last line of defense against muscle injury and ligament disruption. Traditionally, the focus of hamstring strength rehabilitation has been on concentric muscle actions. The purpose of our study was to compare hamstring muscle strength gains in concentric and eccentric hamstring strength training. Design and Setting: A randomized-group design was used to examine differences in 1-repetition maximum (1 RM) and isokinetic strength values among 3 groups of subjects. Subjects were tested in a biomechanics laboratory using an isokinetic dynamometer, while training was carried out in a physical therapy outpatient clinic. Subjects: Twenty-seven healthy male subjects (age = 22.9 ± 3.1 years, wt = 81.8 ± 12.9 kg, ht = 178.6 ± 7.2 cm) participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: eccentric training, concentric training, or control. Measurements: Subjects performed hamstring curls using an isotonic weight training device. Pretest 1 RM weight values were determined for all subjects using a standardized 1 RM protocol. In addition, maximum concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength values for knee-flexion strength were determined. Control group subjects refrained from weight training for 6 weeks. Subjects in the training groups trained 2 days per week for 6 weeks (12 sessions). After 6 weeks of training, all subjects returned for 1RM and isokinetic posttesting. Results: The concentric group improved 19%, while the eccentric group improved 29%. The control group subjects did not show any significant change over the 6 weeks. In addition, there were improvements in eccentric isokinetic peak torque/ body weight ratios at both 60 °s and 180° from pretesting to posttesting in the eccentric training group only. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of isotonic strength training on the
Hosman, Allard J; de Kleuver, Marinus; Anderson, Patricia G; van Limbeek, Jacques; Langeloo, Danielle D; Veth, René P; Slot, Gerard H
A historic cohort study of the sagittal alignment in 33 consecutive patients with surgically corrected thoracic Scheuermann kyphosis. To determine if postsurgical imbalance, sagittal malalignment, and decreased lumbar-pelvic range of motion in patients with thoracic Scheuermann kyphosis is related to tight hamstrings. Tight hamstrings are a frequent sign in Scheuermann kyphosis. The importance of tight hamstrings in the surgical management of Scheuermann kyphosis has not yet been studied. Thirty-three patients with Scheuermann kyphosis were managed by surgical correction and fusion. Tight hamstrings, lumbar-pelvic range of motion, and sagittal balance were evaluated. Sixteen patients had tight hamstrings, and 17 patients had nontight hamstrings. Hamstrings were considered tight if the popliteal angle was >30 degrees. Patients with tight hamstrings have a significantly greater risk of postoperative imbalance (P = 0.05), and these patients can only compensate for this risk by reducing their lumbar lordosis (P = 0.0227). Furthermore, the limitations in the lumbar and pelvic range of motion are predicted by tight hamstrings (P
Ge, Yunshen; Li, Hong; Tao, Hongyue; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Jiwu; Chen, Shiyi
The purpose of the study is to compare tendon-bone healing between autograft tendons and allograft tendons after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 36 participants (18 with autograft and 18 with allograft reconstruction) underwent MRI scans at least 2 years after the ACL reconstruction operation. Oblique axial images were obtained on three-dimensional dual-echo steady-state images and imported into solid modelling software for three-dimensional model reconstruction of the bone tunnel. The graft signal intensity in the tunnel, tendon-bone interface, tunnel morphology, and tunnel area was analysed using the Siemens software packages to determine the tendon-bone healing between the groups. For the tunnel morphology, both groups exhibited bone tunnel enlargement either at the femoral or tibial tunnel aperture. For the tendon-bone interface, one patient in the autograft group and two patients in the allograft group exhibited a significant fibrous scar tissue bands at the tendon-bone interface. The graft signal/noise quotient values of the allograft group were higher than the autograft group. However, there was no significant difference in the tunnel area between the allograft group and the autograft group. Although the autograft tendons exhibited a better remodelling effect than did the allograft tendons in the bone tunnel, there was no significant difference in the tendon-bone healing between the autograft tendons and the allograft tendons postoperatively. These findings indicate that the biomechanical effect of graft motion may play a significant role in the tunnel aperture. III.
Guex, Kenny; Millet, Grégoire P
High-speed running accounts for the majority of hamstring strains in many sports. The terminal swing phase is believed to be the most hazardous as the hamstrings are undergoing an active lengthening contraction in a long muscle length position. Prevention-based strength training mainly focuses on eccentric exercises. However, it appears crucial to integrate other parameters than the contraction type. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present a conceptual framework based on six key parameters (contraction type, load, range of motion, angular velocity, uni-/bilateral exercises, kinetic chain) for the hamstring's strength exercise for strain prevention. Based on the biomechanical parameters of sprinting, it is proposed to use high-load eccentric contractions. The movement should be performed at a slow to moderate angular velocity and focused at the knee joint, while the hip is kept in a large flexion position in order to reach a greater elongation stress of the hamstrings than in the terminal swing phase. In this way, we believe that, during sprinting, athletes would be better trained to brake the knee extension effectively in the whole range of motion without overstretch of the hamstrings. Finally, based on its functional application, unilateral open kinetic chain should be preferred.
Aldret, Randy L; Trahan, Brittany A; Davis, Greggory; Campbell, Brian; Bellar, David M
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriateness of using an elastic hamstring assistance device to reduce perceived levels of soreness, increase isometric strength, increase passive range of motion, and decrease biomarkers of muscle damage after eccentric exercise, specifically, downhill running This study was conducted in a university exercise physiology laboratory placing sixteen apparently healthy males (X = 21.6 ± 2.5 years) into two groups using a pre-test/post-test design. Pre-intervention measures taken included participants’ body height, body mass, body fat, capillary blood samples, VO2max, isometric hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion and passive hamstring range of motion. Post-intervention measures included blood biomarkers, passive range of motion, the perceived level of soreness and isometric strength. An analysis of normality of data was initially conducted followed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) of hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion, blood myoglobin and passive range of motion of the hamstrings. Statistically significant changes were noted in subject-perceived muscle soreness and isometric strength at 90 degrees at the 24-hour post-exercise trial measure between the two groups. Results would suggest the findings could be explained by the decrease in muscle soreness from utilizing the device during the exercise trial. Further research should be conducted to address sample size issues and to determine if the results are comparable on different surfaces. PMID:28713460
Aldret, Randy L; Trahan, Brittany A; Davis, Greggory; Campbell, Brian; Bellar, David M
The purpose of this study was to determine the appropriateness of using an elastic hamstring assistance device to reduce perceived levels of soreness, increase isometric strength, increase passive range of motion, and decrease biomarkers of muscle damage after eccentric exercise, specifically, downhill running This study was conducted in a university exercise physiology laboratory placing sixteen apparently healthy males (X = 21.6 ± 2.5 years) into two groups using a pre-test/post-test design. Pre-intervention measures taken included participants' body height, body mass, body fat, capillary blood samples, VO2max, isometric hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion and passive hamstring range of motion. Post-intervention measures included blood biomarkers, passive range of motion, the perceived level of soreness and isometric strength. An analysis of normality of data was initially conducted followed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) of hamstring strength at 45 and 90 degrees of flexion, blood myoglobin and passive range of motion of the hamstrings. Statistically significant changes were noted in subject-perceived muscle soreness and isometric strength at 90 degrees at the 24-hour post-exercise trial measure between the two groups. Results would suggest the findings could be explained by the decrease in muscle soreness from utilizing the device during the exercise trial. Further research should be conducted to address sample size issues and to determine if the results are comparable on different surfaces.
Labovitz, Jonathan M; Yu, Jenny; Kim, Chul
The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if hamstring tightness was an increased risk in plantar fasciitis. It was thought that there is an increased risk of plantar fasciitis when hamstring tightness is present. A total of 105 patients (68 women, 37 men) were included in the study, 79 of whom were diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and the presence of plantar fasciitis, equinus, and calcaneal spurs were assessed. The popliteal angle was measured using standard diagnostic techniques. Without controlling for covariates, BMI, the presence of a calcaneal spur, tightness in the gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius-soleus, and hamstring all had statistically significant association with plantar fasciitis. After controlling for covariates, patients with hamstring tightness were about 8.7 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis (P < .0001). Patients with BMI >35 were approximately 2.4 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis compared with those with BMI <35 (P = .04). This study demonstrates that hamstring tightness plays a significant role in the presence of plantar fasciitis and should be addressed along with equinus and obesity when providing treatment to patients with this diagnosis.
Crema, Michel D; Guermazi, Ali; Tol, Johannes L; Niu, Jingbo; Hamilton, Bruce; Roemer, Frank W
To describe in detail the anatomic distribution of acute hamstring injuries in football players, and to assess the relationship between location and extent of edema and tears, all based on findings from MRI. Retrospective observational study. We included 275 consecutive male football players who had sustained acute hamstring injuries and had positive findings on MRI. For each subject, lesions were recorded at specific locations of the hamstring muscles, which were divided into proximal or distal: free tendon, myotendinous junction, muscle belly, and myofascial junction locations. For each lesion, we assessed the largest cross-sectional area of edema and/or tears. We calculated the prevalence of injuries by location. The relationships between locations and extent of edema and tears were assessed using a one-sample t-test, with significance set at p<0.05. The long head of biceps femoris (LHBF) was most commonly affected (56.5%). Overall, injuries were most common in the myotendinous junction and in proximal locations. The proximal myotendinous junction was associated with a greater extent of edema in the LHBF and semitendinosus (ST) muscles (p<0.05). Proximal locations in the LHBF had larger edema than distal locations (p<0.05). Distal locations in the ST muscle had larger tears than proximal locations (p<0.05). The proximal myotendinous junction (LHBF and ST muscles) and proximal locations (LHBF muscle) are more commonly affected and are associated with a greater extent of edema in acute hamstring muscle injury. Distal locations (ST muscle), however, seem to be more commonly associated with larger tears. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anderson, David E; Desrochers, André; St Jean, Guy
This article describes tendon disorders in cattle and treatments for such disorders. Tendon injuries causing loss of a production animal or a decreased level of production result in significant economic loss to the cattle producer. Tendon disorders may be congenital or acquired. Congenital abnormalities may include tendon laxity, contracted tendons, or tendon displacement. Acquired tendon disorders may include tendon laxity, contracture, luxation, tendinitis, laceration, avulsion, rupture, and tenosynovitis.
Stathopoulos, Ioannis P; Raptis, Konstantinos; Ballas, Efstathios G; Spyridonos, Sarantis-Petros G
Dislocation/subluxation of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (ECU) tendon is a rare condition in the general population, but is a common problem among athletes that subject their wrists to forceful rotational movements. Pain and snapping sensation at the dorsoulnar aspect of the wrist especially during supination are the predominant symptoms that often necessitate surgical intervention. We present a case of a professional water-polo athlete with recurrent ECU tendon dislocation, in whom a combination of direct repair of the tendon's subsheath and reinforcement with an extensor retinaculum graft led to definitive resolution of her symptoms and resulted in her uneventful return to high-level sport activities 4 months postoperatively. The treatment of symptomatic ECU instability is still controversial, especially for acute dislocations. Depending on the type of injury many surgical techniques have been proposed. Combination of direct repair of the tendon's subsheath and reinforcement with an extensor retinaculum graft is a reliable option.
Murchison, Nicholas D; Price, Brian A; Conner, David A; Keene, Douglas R; Olson, Eric N; Tabin, Clifford J; Schweitzer, Ronen
The scleraxis (Scx) gene, encoding a bHLH transcription factor, is expressed in the progenitors and cells of all tendon tissues. To determine Scx function, we produced a mutant null allele. Scx-/- mice were viable, but showed severe tendon defects, which manifested in a drastically limited use of all paws and back muscles and a complete inability to move the tail. Interestingly, although the differentiation of all force-transmitting and intermuscular tendons was disrupted, other categories of tendons, the function of which is mainly to anchor muscles to the skeleton, were less affected and remained functional, enabling the viability of Scx-/- mutants. The force-transmitting tendons of the limbs and tail varied in the severity to which they were affected, ranging from dramatic failure of progenitor differentiation resulting in the loss of segments or complete tendons, to the formation of small and poorly organized tendons. Tendon progenitors appeared normal in Scx-/- embryos and a phenotype resulting from a failure in the condensation of tendon progenitors to give rise to distinct tendons was first detected at embryonic day (E)13.5. In the tendons that persisted in Scx-/- mutants, we found a reduced and less organized tendon matrix and disorganization at the cellular level that led to intermixing of tenocytes and endotenon cells. The phenotype of Scx-/- mutants emphasizes the diversity of tendon tissues and represents the first molecular insight into the important process of tendon differentiation.
Camarda, Lawrence; Giambartino, Sebastian; Lauria, Michele; Saporito, Michele; Triolo, Vito; D’Arienzo, Michele
Summary Background The purpose of the present study was to compare the operative time for graft preparation using different techniques for graft suturing. Material and methods Flexor profundus tendons were harvested from fresh pig hind-leg trotters. Three different suture techniques were investigated: the Krackow stitch (K), the Whipstitch (W), and the Modified Finger-Trap suture (MFT). Tendons were sutured starting at 10 mm from the distal free end of the tendon. The suture configurations of the Krackow stitch and Whipstitch were completed with five suture throws. According to the MFT technique, the suture was wrapped five times around the tendon over a distance of 30 mm. The time required to perform a complete suture on each tendon was measured. Five independent examiners of different levels of training measured the time required for graft preparation during 3 separate occasions to determine intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility. Results The mean time required for graft preparation following the Krackow technique was 69.1 seconds ± 18.3 SD (range 31.8–120). The Whipstitch technique took an average of 59.9 seconds ± 21.2 SD (range 27–93). The MFT suture required a mean of 29.3 seconds ± 11.4 SD for completing the suture (range 21.6–33). In all examiners the time required to complete the MFT suture was significantly less than the other suture techniques (p < 0.05). Intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficients for each examiner ranged from 0.72 to 0.83. Conclusion Low graft preparation time is required to complete a MFT suture in a porcine tendon model. Further, time required for graft preparation using the MFT was shorter than other suturing techniques such as the Krackow and Whipstitch techniques. Clinical relevance The MFT suture could be used for graft set-up with the main advantage of reducing the time required in comparison with other suture techniques. PMID:27900298
Verdiyeva, Gunay; Koshy, Kiron; Glibbery, Natalia; Mann, Haroon; Seifalian, Alexander M
Tendon injuries are a common and rising occurrence, associated with significant impairment to quality of life and financial burden to the healthcare system. Clinically, they represent an unresolved problem, due to poor natural tendon healing and the inability of current treatment strategies to restore the tendon to its native state. Tissue engineering offers a promising alternative, with the incorporation of scaffolds, cells and growth factors to support the complete regeneration of the tendon. The materials used in tendon engineering to date have provided significant advances in structural integrity and biological compatibility and in many cases the results obtained are superior to those observed in natural healing. However, grafts fail to reproduce the qualities of the pre-injured tendon and each has weaknesses subject to its constituent parts. Furthermore, many materials and cell types are being investigated concurrently, with seemingly little association or comparison between research results. In this review the properties of the most-investigated and effective components have been appraised in light of the surrounding literature, with research from early in-vitro experiments to clinical trials being discussed. Extensive comparisons have been made between scaffolds, cell types and growth factors used, listing strengths and weaknesses to provide a stable platform for future research. Promising future endeavours are also described in the field of nanocomposite material science, stem cell sources and growth factors, which may bypass weaknesses found in individual elements. The future of tendon engineering looks bright, with growing understanding in material technology, cell and growth factor application and encouraging recent advances bringing us ever closer to regenerating the native tendon.
Landvater, S J; Renström, P A
Achilles tendon ruptures can be treated nonsurgically in the nonathletic or low-end recreational athletic patient, particularly those more than 50 years of age, provided the treating physician does not delay in the diagnosis and treatment (preferably less than 48 hrs and possibly less than 1 week). The patient should be advised of the higher incidence of re-rupture of the tendon when treated nonsurgically. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients who are young and athletic. This is particularly true because the major criticism of surgical treatment has been the complication rate, which has decreased to a low level and to a mild degree, usually not significantly affecting the repair over time. Surgical treatment in these individuals seems to be superior not only in regard to re-rupture but also in assuring the correct apposition of the tendon ends and in placing the necessary tension on the tendon to secure appropriate orientation of the collagen fibers. This in turn allows them to regain full strength, power, endurance, and an early return to sports. Surgery is also recommended for late diagnosed ruptures where there is significant lengthening of the tendon. Surgical technique should involve a medial incision to avoid the sural nerve, absorbable suture, and augmentation with fascia or tendon where there is a gap or late rupture. Postoperatively, the immobilization should be 7 to 10 days in a splint. A walking boot with early motion in plantar flexion or a short leg cast with the tendon under slight tension should thereafter be used for 4 to 5 weeks. An early and well-supervised rehabilitation program should be initiated to restore the patient to the preinjury activity level.
Monaco, Nathan A.; Dwyer, C. Liam; Ferikes, Alex J.; Lubahn, John D.
Background: Volar plate fixation with locked screws has become the preferred treatment of displaced distal radius fractures that cannot be managed nonoperatively. This treatment, however, is not without complication. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of hand surgeons, over a 12-month period, have experienced a tendon complication when using volar plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Methods: A total of 3022 hand surgeons were e-mailed a link to an online questionnaire regarding their observation and treatment of tendon injuries associated with volar plating of distal radius fractures. Responses were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 596 (20%) respondents, 199 (33%) surgeons reported encountering at least one flexor tendon injury after distal radius volar plating over the past year of practice. The flexor pollicis longus was the most commonly reported tendon injury (254, 75%). Palmaris longus grafting (118, 37%) and tendon transfer (114, 36%) were the most often reported treatments following this complication. A total of 216 respondents (36%) also encountered 324 cases of extensor tendon rupture after volar plating of distal radius fractures, with tendon transfer (88%) being the preferred treatment option. Conclusions: Both flexor and extensor tendon ruptures can be seen after volar plating of distal radius fractures. Surgeons should be aware of these complications. Critical assessment of hardware position at the time of index procedure is recommended to avoid complications. Long-term studies are needed to standardize approaches to managing tendon rupture following volar plating of distal radius fractures. PMID:27698628
Study Design: Resident's case report Background: There have been only a few case reports in the literature mentioning sciatic nerve injury following a hamstring tear. In previous cases surgical intervention was performed to debride scar tissue around the sciatic nerve with the goal of full return to function for the patient. Objectives: The purpose of this case report is to describe the conservative interventions that allowed for recovery from a hamstring tear with sciatic nerve involvement. Case Description: The subject was a 53 year old female who developed foot drop and weakness in the common fibular nerve distribution following a grade 3 hamstring injury sustained during Nordic skiing. Nerve function and strength gradually returned over the course of several months of conservative rehabilitation which included on neural gliding and strengthening exercises. Outcomes: At 18 months post injury, the subject had returned to 95% of full sport function and 98% of full function with activities of daily living, as rated by the Hip Outcome Scale, and had full strength with manual muscle testing. Isokinetic testing revealed strength deficits of 11–23% in knee flexion peak torque at 60 degrees/second and 180 degrees/second respectively. Discussion: Sciatic nerve injury is a rare, but important potential consequence of severe hamstring strains. Clinicians should be cognizant of the potential injury to the nerve tissue following hamstring strains, so they may be dealt with in a prompt and appropriate manner. The use of neural gliding may be worth considering for a prophylactic effect following hamstring strains. PMID:21589670
Kujala, U M; Orava, S; Järvinen, M
Pre-exercise stretching and adequate warm-up are important in the prevention of hamstring injuries. A previous mild injury or fatigue may increase the risk of injury. Hamstring muscle tear is typically partial and takes place during eccentric exercise when the muscle develops tension while lengthening, but variation in injury mechanisms is possible. Diagnosis of typical hamstring muscle injury is usually based on typical injury mechanism and clinical findings of local pain and loss of function. Diagnosis of avulsion in the ischial tuberosity, with the need for longer immobilisation, and a complete rupture of the hamstring origin, in which immediate operative treatment is necessary, poses a challenge to the treating physician. X-rays, ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be helpful in differential diagnostics. After first aid with rest, compression, cold and elevation, the treatment of hamstring muscle injury must be tailored to the grade of injury. Conservative treatment is based on a knowledge of the biological background of the healing process of the muscle. Experimental studies have shown that a short period of immobilisation is needed to accelerate formation of the granulation tissue matrix following injury. The length of the immobilisation is, however, dependent on the grade of injury and should be optimised so that the scar can bear the pulling forces operating on it without re-rupture. Mobilisation, on the other hand, is required in order to regain the original strength of the muscle and to achieve good final results in resorption of the connective tissue scar and re-capillarisation of the damaged area. Another important aim of mobilisation--especially in sports medical practice--is to avoid muscle atrophy and loss of strength and extensibility, which rapidly result from prolonged immobilisation. Complete ruptures with loss of function should be operated on, as should cases resistant to conservative therapy in which, in the late phase of
Deren, Matthew E; Mitchell, Charles H; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C
Distal scaphoid excision is one treatment option for osteoarthritis of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT) joint following failure of conservative measures. Potential complications of this procedure include injury to the carpal ligaments, cartilage, and radial artery. A single case was identified by the senior author, and the medical record was reviewed for surgical notes, progress notes, and radiographs. A 68-year-old male sustained ruptures of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger 3 years following a distal scaphoid excision for symptomatic STT osteoarthritis. He required a flexor tendon reconstruction using the remaining FDS tendon for graft incorporated with a Pulvertaft weave. His midcarpal pain continued after recovery of his index finger function, eventually requiring a 4-corner fusion of the wrist. Flexor tendon rupture is a previously unreported complication of distal scaphoid excision for STT arthritis.
Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Daggett, Matt; Gardon, Roland; Pupim, Barbara; Clechet, Julien; Thaunat, Mathieu
Background: Hamstring injury is the most common muscular lesion in athletes. The conservative treatment is well described, and surgical management is often indicated for proximal tendinous avulsions. To our knowledge, no surgical treatment has been proposed for failure of conservative treatment in musculotendinous hamstring lesions. Purpose: To describe the surgical management of proximal and distal hamstring musculotendinous junction lesions in professional athletes after failure of conservative treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A consecutive series of 10 professional athletes, including 4 soccer players, 4 rugby players, and 2 handball players, underwent surgical intervention between October 2010 and June 2014 for the treatment of recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injuries. All athletes had failed at least 3 months of conservative treatment for a recurrent musculotendinous hamstring injury. Surgical resection of the musculotendinous scar tissue was performed using a longitudinal muscular suture. Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Marx scores were obtained at the 3-month follow-up, and a final phone interview was completed to determine recurrence of hamstring injury and return to previous level of play. Results: The mean age at surgery was 25.2 years (range, 19-35 years). The musculotendinous hamstring lesions involved 8 semitendinosus and 2 biceps femoris, with 6 injuries located proximally and 4 distally. Conservative treatment lasted a mean 5.1 months (range, 3-9 months) after last recurrence, and the patients had an average of 2.7 (range, 2-5) separate incidents of injury recurrence before surgical intervention was decided upon. At the 3-month follow-up, all patients had Marx activity scores of 16 and LEFS scores of 80. All 10 patients returned to the same level of play at a mean 3.4 months (range, 2-5 months). At a mean follow-up of 28.7 months, none of the athletes had suffered a recurrence. No surgical
... ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this page, ... often painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider ...
van der Horst, Nick; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Petersen, Jesper; Goedhart, Edwin A; Backx, Frank J G
Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in male amateur soccer players and have a high rate of recurrence, often despite extensive treatment and long rehabilitation periods. Eccentric strength and flexibility are recognised as important modifiable risk factors, which have led to the development of eccentric hamstring exercises, such as the Nordic hamstring exercise. As the effectiveness of the Nordic hamstring exercise in reducing hamstring injuries has never been investigated in amateur soccer players, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of this exercise on the incidence and severity of hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. An additional aim is to determine whether flexibility is associated with hamstring injuries. Cluster-randomised controlled trial with soccer teams as the unit of cluster. Dutch male amateur soccer players, aged 18-40 years, were allocated to an intervention or control group. Both study groups continued regular soccer training during 2013, but the intervention group additionally performed the Nordic hamstring exercise (25 sessions over 13 weeks). Primary outcomes are the incidence of initial and recurrent hamstring injury and injury severity. Secondary outcomes are hamstring-and-lower-back flexibility and compliance. Compliance to the intervention protocol was also monitored. Eccentric hamstring strength exercises are hypothesised to reduce the incidence of hamstring injury among male amateur soccer players by 70%. The prevention of such injuries will be beneficial to soccer players, clubs, football associations, health insurance companies and society. NTR3664. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Tabuchi, K; Soejima, T; Kanazawa, T; Noguchi, K; Nagata, K
The purpose of this study was to evaluate chronological changes in the collagen-type composition at tendon-bone interface during tendon-bone healing and to clarify the continuity between Sharpey-like fibres and inner fibres of the tendon. Male white rabbits were used to create an extra-articular bone-tendon graft model by grafting the extensor digitorum longus into a bone tunnel. Three rabbits were killed at two, four, eight, 12 and 26 weeks post-operatively. Elastica van Gieson staining was used to colour 5 µm coronal sections, which were examined under optical and polarised light microscopy. Immunostaining for type I, II and III collagen was also performed. Sharpey-like fibres comprised of type III collagen in the early phase were gradually replaced by type I collagen from 12 weeks onwards, until continuity between the Sharpey-like fibres and inner fibres of the tendon was achieved by 26 weeks. Even in rabbits, which heal faster than humans, an observation period of at least 12 to 26 weeks is required, because the collagen-type composition of the Sharpey-like fibre bone-tendon connection may have insufficient pullout strength during this period. These results suggest that caution is necessary when permitting post-operative activity in humans who have undergone intra-bone tunnel grafts.