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Sample records for han optado por

  1. Little Hans: masculinity foretold.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Ken

    2009-07-01

    Joining the centennial reexamination of Freud's "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" (I909a), the author returns to Little Hans as the Ur psychoanalytic boy. Hans's construction and acts of consciousness continue to endow the psychoanalytic construct of masculinity with meaning. It is suggested that Freud moved in his discussion of the case to regulate the unsettled conditions of masculinity that he articulated through his clinical observations of Hans. The case is viewed as an exemplary illustration of how masculinity is foretold--a normative narrative that has changed little in the last 100 years. The author offers a contemporary view of masculinity as a dilemma of boundary--neither fully interior nor fully exterior, neither fully fantastic nor fully socially constructed.

  2. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  3. Hans Bethe's early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2012-10-01

    In 1937, two years after he moved to the US to escape Nazi persecution, the physicist Hans Bethe sent a letter to his mother in Germany. In it, he wrote, "I think I am about the leading theoretician in America. [Eugene] Wigner is certainly better and [Robert] Oppenheimer and [Edward] Teller probably just as good. But I do more and talk more and that counts too."

  4. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  5. Helping HAN for hybrid rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Ramohalli, K.; Dowler, W.

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyl amine nitrate (HAN) is a powerful oxidizer for hybrid rocket flight motors. Miscible with water up to 95% by mass, it also has high density and has been extensively characterized for materials compatibility, safety, transportation, storage and handling. Before any serious attempt to use the proposed oxidizer in hybrids, though, the usual performance figures must first be obtained. The simplest are time-independent, equilibrium rocket performance numbers that include chamber temperature, temperature at the nozzle throat, and key species in the exhaust. These numbers must be followed by several other important performance evaluation, including burning rates, pressure dependence, susceptibility to instabilities and temperature sensitivity.

  6. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  7. The “Clever Hans Phenomenon” revisited

    PubMed Central

    Samhita, Laasya; Gross, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    In the first decade of the 20th century, a horse named Hans drew worldwide attention in Berlin as the first and most famous “speaking” and thinking animal. Hans solved calculations by tapping numbers or letters with his hoof in order to answer questions. Later on, it turned out that the horse was able to give the correct answer by reading the microscopic signals in the face of the questioning person. This observation caused a revolution and as a consequence, experimenters avoided strictly any face-to-face contact in studies about cognitive abilities of animals—a fundamental lesson that is still not applied rigorously. PMID:24563716

  8. HAN-Based Monopropellant Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is sponsoring efforts to develop technology for high-performance, high-density, low-freezing point, low-hazards monopropellant systems. The program is focused on a family of monopropellant formulations composed of an aqueous solution of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and a fuel component. HAN-based monopropellants offer significant mass and volume savings to small (less than 100 kg) satellite for orbit raising and on-orbit propulsion applications. The low-hazards characteristics of HAN-based monopropellants make them attractive for applications where ground processing costs are a significant concern. A 1-lbf thruster has been demonstrated to a 20-kg satellite orbit insertion duty cycle, using a formulation compatible with currently available catalysts. To achieve specific impulse levels above those of hydrazine, catalyst materials that can withstand the high-temperature, corrosive combustion environment of HAN-based monopropellants have to be developed. There also needs to be work done to characterize propellant properties, burning behavior, and material compatibility. NASA is coordinating their monopropellant efforts with those of the United States Air Force.

  9. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997): A Tribute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Hans Eysenck, who died in September 1997, was one of the most well-known psychologists in the world. A believer that intelligence is genetically controlled, Eysenck recognized the need for scientific investigation in the study of intelligence and creativity. He was characterized by extraordinary creativity and commitment to his scientific message.…

  10. An interview with Mark G. Hans

    PubMed Central

    Bolognese, Ana Maria; Palomo, Juan Martin; Miyashita, Kunihiko; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans' Master's Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of "Essentials of Facial Growth", being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans's academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of Dental

  11. An interview with Mark G. Hans.

    PubMed

    Hans, Mark G; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans’ Master’s Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of “Essentials of Facial Growth”, being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans’s academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of

  12. An interview with Mark G. Hans.

    PubMed

    Hans, Mark G; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans’ Master’s Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of “Essentials of Facial Growth”, being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans’s academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of

  13. Nontoxic Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN) Monopropellant Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKechnie, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Nontoxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on HAN have superior performance as compared to hydrazine with enhanced specific impulse (Isp), higher density and volumetric impulse, lower melting point, and much lower toxicity. However, HAN-based monopropellants require higher chamber temperatures (2,083 K vs. 883 K) to combust. Current hydrazine-based combustion chamber technology (Inconel® or niobium C103 and silicide coating) and catalyst (Shell 405) are inadequate. In Phase I, state-of-the-art iridium-lined rhenium chambers and innovative new foam catalysts were demonstrated in pulse and 10-second firings. Phase II developed and tested a flight-weight thruster for an environmentally green monopropellant.

  14. Hans Zinsser: a tale of two cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    Hans Zinsser, president of the Society of American Bacteriologists in 1926, was known as much for his literary and textbook writing as for his scientific contributions. He was a widely known scientist and person of letters. His early interests in poetry and other forms of literature were maintained and developed during his career as a microbiologist, and his most enduring legacy is based on his writing about microbiology for a general readership as well as his reflective and philosophical autobiography. Images Figure 1 PMID:11049165

  15. HAN-based monopropellant assessment for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing cost of space missions, the need for increased mission performance, and concerns associated with environmental issues are changing rocket design and propellant selection criteria. Whereas a propellant's performance was once defined solely in terms of specific impulse and density, now environmental safety, operability, and cost are considered key drivers. Present emphasis on these considerations has heightened government and commercial launch sector interest in Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN)-based liquid propellants as options to provide simple, safe, reliable, low cost, and high performance monopropellant systems.

  16. Hans Bethe : Des etoiles a la bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Il comprit le premier comment brillent les etoiles. Il fut aussi de cette poignee de scientifiques qui, dans le secret de Los Alamos, mirent au point la tristement celebre bombe atomique. Hans Bethe est l'un des derniers geants qui auront marque la physique de ce siecle d'une empreinte indelebile. C'est dans le bureau 01 du prestigieux laboratoire Kellog de l'institut Caltech qu'il a bien voulu retracer pour nous son impressionnante carriere, et revenir sur les motivations qui ont guide ses pas.

  17. Hans Strahl's pioneering studies in comparative placentation.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M; Mess, A

    2010-10-01

    Hans Strahl, a contemporary of Duval and Hubrecht, made many important contributions to comparative placentation. Despite this he is not well known and some of his original observations tend to be attributed to later authors. Strahl published a classification of placental types based on their shape and relationship to maternal tissues. This greatly influenced the work of Otto Grosser, who became better known in part because his work was more accessible to other scientists and clinicians. Strahl described the development of the fetal membranes across a broad range of mammalian orders extending his observations beyond parturition to the post partum involution of the uterus. He paid close attention to structures designed for histotrophic nutrition including the areolae of moles, haemophagous organs of carnivores and tenrecs and chorionic vesicles of lemurs and lorises. We here provide a summary of some of the most important findings made by Strahl including work on placentation in carnivores and higher primates that remains unsurpassed.

  18. [Hans Jonas: Nature Conservation, Conservation of Life].

    PubMed

    Burgui Burgui, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses three of the problems that the German philosopher Hans Jonas studied. The first one addresses the need for a specific ethic dedicated to the moral dimension of environmental problems, from a different perspective to the traditional. The second problem is crucial in the discussion on environmental ethics: the value of the nature. Does the nature have an intrinsic value or an instrumental value only (to satisfy the interests of the human being)? The thesis of Jonas, which claimed that nature is a good in itself, were further elaborated here. And the third problem is the derivation of moral norms and the role of man in this ethic that recognizes a good in itself in nature. According to Jonas, the human being is not diminished by recognizing the intrinsic value of nature, since the man's uniqueness and value are unquestionable. From these three central issues, the paper highlights the importance of seeking the links between bioethics and environmental ethics to address the current environmental, social and economic crisis.

  19. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we

  20. Chemical study of the Chinese medicine Pi Han Yao

    PubMed Central

    PENG, TENG; ZHAO, FURONG; CHEN, XIAOYU; JIANG, GUIHUA; WANG, SHAONAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ivnestigate the chemical constituents of the Chinese medicine Pi Han Yao (Gueldenstaedtia delavayi Franch) decoction. Following this, the quantitative determination of the formononetin and maackiain content in Pi Han Yao was established. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectrometric data and chemical evidence. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of the formononetin and maackiain content in Pi Han Yao. Seven flavanones were isolated from the Pi Han Yao decoction. Five of the chemical structures were elucidated as 1, 7,2′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-isoflavanol; 2, maackiain; 3, formononetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside; 4, formononetin; and 5, 9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-adenosine. The other two compounds and their structures require further study. Additionally, the linear range of formononetin and maackiain were 0.03992–0.3992 and 0.0292–0.292 µg, and their recoveries were 100.31 and 100.44%. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1–5 were obtained from Pi Han Yao for the first time. The HPLC method use for determination of formononetin and maackiain in Pi Han Yao was simple, accurate and reliable. Findings from the present study suggest that these methods may be used to evaluate the quality of Pi Han Yao and provide an experience basis for quality standards of this medicinal material. PMID:26893842

  1. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative), GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST SHOWING SOCIAL HALL. - First Presbyterian Church, 101 Plymouth Avenue South, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  3. 78 FR 19062 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hans Richter: Encounters”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hans Richter: Encounters'' ACTION... ``Hans Richter: Encounters.'' The referenced notice is corrected to accommodate an additional object to... to be included in the exhibition ``Hans Richter: Encounters,'' imported from abroad for...

  4. Comustion of HAN-Based Monopropellant Droplets in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants that have many attractive characteristics and which display phenomena that differ significantly from other liquid monopropellants. They are composed primarily of HAN, H2O and a fuel species, often triethanolammonium nitrate (TEAN). HAN-based propellants have attracted attention as liquid gun propellants, and are attractive for NASA spacecraft propulsion applications. A representative propellant is XM46. This mixture is 60.8% HAN, 19.2% TEAN and 20% H2O by weight. Other HAN-based propellant mixtures are also of interest. For example, methanol and glycine have been investigated as potential fuel species for HAN-based monopropellants for thruster applications. In the present research, experimental and theoretical studies are performed on combustion of HAN-based monopropellant droplets. The fuel species considered are TEAN, methanol and glycine. Droplets initially in the mm size range are studied at pressures up to 30 atm. These pressures are applicable to spacecraft thruster applications. The droplets are placed in environments with various amounts of Ar, N2, O2, NO2 and N2O. Reduced gravity is employed to enable observations of burning rates and flame structures to be made without the complicating effects of buoyant and forced convection. Normal gravity experiments are also performed in this research program. The experiment goals are to provide accurate fundamental data on deflagration rates, gasphase temperature profiles, transient gas-phase flame behaviors, the onset of bubbling in droplets at lower pressures, and the low-pressure deflagration limit. Theoretical studies are performed to provide rational models of deflagration mechanisms of HAN-based liquid propellants. Besides advancing fundamental knowledge, this research should aid in applications (e.g., spacecraft thrusters and liquid propellant guns) of this unique class of monopropellants.

  5. Development of HAN-based Liquid Propellant Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisatsune, K.; Izumi, J.; Tsutaya, H.; Furukawa, K.

    2004-10-01

    Many of propellants that are applied to the conventional spacecraft propulsion system are toxic propellants. Because of its toxicity, considering the environmental pollution or safety on handling, it will be necessary to apply the "green" propellant to the spacecraft propulsion system. The purpose of this study is to apply HAN based liquid propellant (LP1846) to mono propellant thruster. Compared to the hydrazine that is used in conventional mono propellant thruster, HAN based propellant is not only lower toxic but also can obtain higher specific impulse. Moreover, HAN based propellant can be decomposed by the catalyst. It means there are the possibility of applying to the mono propellant thruster that can leads to the high reliability of the propulsion system.[1],[2] However, there are two technical subjects, to apply HAN based propellant to the mono propellant thruster. One is the high combustion temperature. The catalyst will be damaged under high temperature condition. The other is the low catalytic activity. It is the serious problem on application of HAN based propellant to the mono propellant thruster that is used for attitude control of spacecraft. To improve the catalytic activity of HAN based propellant, it is necessary to screen the best catalyst for HAN based propellant. The adsorption analysis is conducted by Monte Carlo Simulation to screen the catalyst metal for HAN and TEAN. The result of analysis shows the Iridium is the best catalyst metal for HAN and TEAN. Iridium is the catalyst metal that is used at conventional mono propellant thruster catalyst Shell405. Then, to confirm the result of analysis, the reaction test about catalyst is conducted. The result of this test is the same as the result of adsorption analysis. That means the adsorption analysis is effective in screening the catalyst metal. At the evaluating test, the various types of carrier of catalyst are also compared to Shell 405 to improve catalytic activity. The test result shows the

  6. Evaluation of HAN-TEAN Stabilizers using Microcalorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, Steven D.; Davis, Dennis D.; Chang, Craig H.; Baker, David L.

    1997-01-01

    HAN-TEAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate - triethanolammonium nitrate - in water) is being considered for various propellant applications. This propellant has advantages in terms of insensitivity to impact and fire, low vapor pressure and environmentally benign reaction products. One office concerns with HAN-TEAN is its stability and shelf-life, especially when contaminated with trace metals. Stabilizer systems, consisting of anti-oxidants and/or chealating agents were investigated for their ability to control the decomposition of HAN-TEAN. Isothermal microcalorimetry, an ultrasensitive heat measurement technique, was used to monitor the decomposition of HANTEAN at near ambient temperatures. Isothermal microcalorimetry measures the heat flow from a reaction vessel into a surrounding heat sink. Microcalorimetry is approximately 1,000 times more sensitive than accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for measuring heat flow. Samples of HAN-TEAN containing the stabilizers were spiked with 50 ppm iron and the heat evolution monitored for a period of at least 30 days. Ten stabilizer combinations were tested and the rates of HAN-TEAN decomposition were lowered by 74 to 95 percent in the presence of iron.

  7. Language, Literacy, and Nationalism: Taiwan's Orthographic Transition from the Perspective of Han Sphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiung, Wi-vun Taiffalo

    2007-01-01

    The Han sphere, including Vietnam, Korea, Japan, Taiwan and China, adopted Han characters and classical Han writing as the official written language before the 20th century. However, great changes came with the advent of the 20th century. After World War II, Han characters in Vietnam and Korea were officially replaced by the romanised "Chu Quoc…

  8. HAN-Based Monopropellant Propulsion System with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Oleson, Steven R.

    1997-01-01

    NASA is developing a new monopropellant propulsion system for small, cost-driven spacecraft with AV requirements in the range of 10-150 m/sec. This system is based on a hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)/water/fuel monopropellant blend which is extremely dense, environmentally benign, and promises good performance and simplicity. State-of-art (SOA) small spacecraft typically employ either hydrazine or high pressure stored gas. Herein, a 'typical' small satellite bus is used to illustrate how a HAN-based monopropellant propulsion system fulfills small satellite propulsion requirements by providing mass and/or volume savings of SOA hydrazine monopropellants with the cost benefits of a stored nitrogen gas.

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Fall 1968 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative), VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF ENTRANCE DETAIL OF BARRY HOUSE AND SOUTH FACADE OF ELLWANGER AND BARRY OFFICE. - Patrick Barry House, 692 Mount Hope Avenue, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  10. Some Sound Changes in the Western Han Dialect of Shu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coblin, W. South

    1986-01-01

    The rhyming practices of Sima Xiangru and Wang Bao, early and mid-western Han poets of the Shu area, reveal details about the finals of their languages. Comparisons are made of similarities and differences of their dialects to that of a later compatriot, Yang Xiong. (Author/CB)

  11. ["Snow" and "Walpurgisnacht". Hans Castorp's exemplary maturation crises in "Zauberberg"].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, K; Walter, C

    1995-01-01

    On the occasion of a rather incidental visit in the sanatorium "Berghof" at Davos, Hans Castorp, the--as to his primary personality--asthenic and low-profile protagonist of the "Zauberberg" is gradually getting caught up in the maelstrom of the there prevailing timelessness and irresponsibility, this being interrupted solely by two tapering to crisis episodes: his amouressness to Mme. Chauchat as an erotic crisis and by the visionary daydream during a snowstorm about the abilities of men as a cognitive, mental crisis. Both events are triggered by a pathoid irritability, following the maxim of Th. Mann that illness, decay and death as borderline experiences may be the presupposition for cognition and reversal. Both crises end without consequences--the "Zauberberg" is the negation of the novel of education and development in the narrower sense. The unsuccessfulness and undecidedness of Hans Castorp's existence culminate in the open end of the novel, regarding his surviving on the battle field, and is in strict contrast to Adrian Leverkühn's determined autoinfection with Lues with the aim of artistic perfection and the creative break-through of "Doctor Faustus". Hans Castorp's regression and self-fragmentation within the decadent-morbid atmosphere of the sanatorium lead to his storming into the battles of the First World War as a last and existential crisis; it is here where finally the individual and national fate are merging. Hans Castorp becomes the paradigma of the German pre-war bourgeoisie and its crisis-prone development. PMID:7762259

  12. ["Snow" and "Walpurgisnacht". Hans Castorp's exemplary maturation crises in "Zauberberg"].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, K; Walter, C

    1995-01-01

    On the occasion of a rather incidental visit in the sanatorium "Berghof" at Davos, Hans Castorp, the--as to his primary personality--asthenic and low-profile protagonist of the "Zauberberg" is gradually getting caught up in the maelstrom of the there prevailing timelessness and irresponsibility, this being interrupted solely by two tapering to crisis episodes: his amouressness to Mme. Chauchat as an erotic crisis and by the visionary daydream during a snowstorm about the abilities of men as a cognitive, mental crisis. Both events are triggered by a pathoid irritability, following the maxim of Th. Mann that illness, decay and death as borderline experiences may be the presupposition for cognition and reversal. Both crises end without consequences--the "Zauberberg" is the negation of the novel of education and development in the narrower sense. The unsuccessfulness and undecidedness of Hans Castorp's existence culminate in the open end of the novel, regarding his surviving on the battle field, and is in strict contrast to Adrian Leverkühn's determined autoinfection with Lues with the aim of artistic perfection and the creative break-through of "Doctor Faustus". Hans Castorp's regression and self-fragmentation within the decadent-morbid atmosphere of the sanatorium lead to his storming into the battles of the First World War as a last and existential crisis; it is here where finally the individual and national fate are merging. Hans Castorp becomes the paradigma of the German pre-war bourgeoisie and its crisis-prone development.

  13. Combustion of Han-Based Monopropellant Droplets in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study combustion of monopropellant droplets and monopropellant droplet components in reduced-gravity environments so that spherical symmetry is strongly promoted. The experiments will use hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN, chemical formula NH3OHNO3) based monopropellants. This class of monopropellant is selected for study because of its current relevance and also because it is relatively benign and safe to work with. The experimental studies will allow for accurate determination of fundamental data on deflagration rates, gas-phase temperature profiles, transient gas-phase flame behaviors, the onset of bubbling in droplets at lower pressures, and the low-pressure deflagration limit. The theoretical studies will provide rational models of deflagration mechanisms of HAN-based liquid propellants. Besides advancing fundamental knowledge, the proposed research should aid in applications (e.g., spacecraft thrusters and liquid propellant guns) of this unique class of monopropellants.

  14. On the Reliability of Han Dynasty Solar Eclipse Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankenier, David W.

    2012-11-01

    The veracity of early Chinese records of astronomical observations has been questioned, principally based on two early studies from the 1950s, which suggested that political motives may have led scholar-officials at court to fabricate astral omens. Here I revisit the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) solar eclipse reports to determine whether the charge has merit for those first four centuries of the imperial period. All 127 dated solar eclipses reported in the official sources are checked for accuracy against the "Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses" produced by Espenak and Meeus (2009). The Han Dynasty records prove remarkably accurate. Copyists' errors do occur, but there are only rare instances of totally erroneous reports, none of which is provably the result of politically-motivated manipulation.

  15. Freud's Little Oedipus: Hans as exception to the oedipal rule.

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2008-09-01

    Freud's "The Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" is regarded by Freud and by analytic readers and commentators as a prototype of his conception of the oedipus complex. A literary methodology is used to show that the interpretation of the oedipus complex at work in Freud's text in fact differs from Freud's standard view of it. While studying the paper as text, not as case report, may obscure or distort some clinical matters, it is valuable in that it makes legible a sort of theoretical unconscious in the text. In contrast to Freud's typically tragic view of the oedipus complex (in the tradition of ancient Greek tragedy), the Hans study evokes a comic vision (in the tradition of Greek New Comedy). This comic vision allows Hans a happy imaginative ending to the oedipal dilemma, challenges certain epistemic pretensions, and emphasizes the oedipus complex as a set of abiding existential questions. Given the deep link between Freud"s oedipus concept and a tragic view of human life, this departure in the Hans paper is a fascinating anomaly.

  16. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  17. Freud's Little Oedipus: Hans as exception to the oedipal rule.

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2008-09-01

    Freud's "The Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" is regarded by Freud and by analytic readers and commentators as a prototype of his conception of the oedipus complex. A literary methodology is used to show that the interpretation of the oedipus complex at work in Freud's text in fact differs from Freud's standard view of it. While studying the paper as text, not as case report, may obscure or distort some clinical matters, it is valuable in that it makes legible a sort of theoretical unconscious in the text. In contrast to Freud's typically tragic view of the oedipus complex (in the tradition of ancient Greek tragedy), the Hans study evokes a comic vision (in the tradition of Greek New Comedy). This comic vision allows Hans a happy imaginative ending to the oedipal dilemma, challenges certain epistemic pretensions, and emphasizes the oedipus complex as a set of abiding existential questions. Given the deep link between Freud"s oedipus concept and a tragic view of human life, this departure in the Hans paper is a fascinating anomaly. PMID:18802132

  18. 78 FR 15802 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hans Richter: Encounters”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hans Richter: Encounters'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Hans Richter: Encounters,'' imported from abroad for...

  19. Dissolution of Plutonium Metal Using a HAN Process

    SciTech Connect

    CROWDER, MARKL.

    2004-06-30

    Thermal stability tests were conducted with a nitric acid (HNO3)/hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)/potassium fluoride (KF) solution. The solution has great potential for use in plutonium dissolution because of the small quantity of hydrogen and other offgases produced. Tests were carried out in a Reactive Systems Screening Tool (RSST). The RSST is a calorimeter equipped with temperature and pressure probes as well as a heater that can heat a liquid sample at a programmed rate. In most cases, the calorimeter was pressurized with nitrogen to reduce evaporation of the liquid sample during heating. For the proposed solution, an autocatalytic reaction occurred between 113 and 131 degrees Celsius with 300 psig or 50 psig nitrogen inside the RSST vapor space. At ambient pressure, the solution boiled at about 110 degrees Celsius. After extensive boiling, the concentrations of HNO3 and HAN increased and the autocatalytic reaction occurred. Tests were also conducted with 1000 ppm Fe present in the solution. The range of the autocatalytic reaction initiation temperature was reduced to 105-120.5 degrees Celsius. With iron at ambient pressure, boiling still occurred above 100 degrees Celsius prior to the autocatalytic reaction, which occurred at 108-109 degrees Celsius. These results demonstrated the stability of the proposed HAN flowsheet, for which the planned dissolving temperature is 50-60 degrees Celsius. Additional tests were carried out with more concentrated solutions to further characterize the autocatalytic reaction initiation temperature. Increasing the nitric acid concentration to 3M decreased the reaction initiation temperature to 102-103 degrees Celsius. Increasing the HAN concentration increased the temperature rise of the reaction from 10-30 degrees Celsius to greater than 40 degrees Celsius. Increasing both reactants-to 3M nitric acid and 0.9M HAN-yielded a reaction initiation temperature of 91 degrees Celsius (with or without iron), the lowest observed in this

  20. Association between TGFBR2 gene polymorphisms and congenital heart defects in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fuhua; Li, Li; Shen, Chong; Wang, Hairu; Chen, Jinfeng; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-31

    Antecedentes: Factor de crecimiento transformante receptor II (TGFBR2) es un componente clave de la via de señalización de TGF - .TGFBR2 puede ser detectado en la generación de corazón. Los embriones de ratón de TGFBR2 gene knockout mostraron defectos congénitos del corazon. Métodos: Hemos realizado un estudio de casos y controles para investigar la asociación entre polimorfismos del gen TGFBR2 y defectos congénitos del corazón en la población china han. 125 pacientes con defectos congénitos del corazón y 615 unrelated controles fueron reclutados. Marcado de dos polimorfismos de nucleótido único (tagsnps) en 5 ‘aguas arriba del gen TGFBR2 (rs6785358, - 3779a / g; rs764522, - 1444c / g) fueron seleccionados y genotipados por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) - polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción (RFLP) de ensayo. Resultados: Se observó una diferencia significativa en la distribución de genotipos entre pacientes con defectos congénitos del corazón y controles para SNP rs6785358 (P = 0043). La SNP rs6785358 el porteador del alelo G (AG / GG genotipo) mostraron un importante crecimiento y mayor riesgo de defectos congénitos del corazón en comparación con AA homocigotos (OR = 1.545, IC del 95%: 1.013–2.356). Más análisis por sexo estratificación indicó que los individuos con alelo G (AG / GG genotipo) para SNP rs6785358 tienen una mayor susceptibilidad a defectos congénitos del corazón (OR = 2.088, IC del 95%: 1.123-3.883, p = 0.019) en machos, pero no en las mujeres (OR = 1.195, IC del 95%: 0.666-2.146, p = 0.55). No hay significación estadística fue detectado en la distribución de los genotipos y frecuencias de alelos de SNP rs764522 entre pacientes y controles. Conclusión: Nuestros resultados sugieren que el SNP rs6785358 de gen TGFBR2 se asoció con un mayor riesgo de defectos congénitos del corazón en los chinos han hombres y más investigación estaría justificada.

  1. Release of ammonia from HAN-type PHA

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1992-06-10

    A preliminary design basis for ammonia scrubbers in the DWPF has been issued. This design basis is based on a theoretical model of ammonia evolution from the SRAT, SME and RCT. It is desirable to acquire actual process data on ammonia evolution prior to performing detailed design of scrubbers for DWPF. The evolution of ammonia from the SRAT and SME in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) was investigated during the HM4 run. In this run, Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA), which was made in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) using the HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process was used, thus resulting in PHA with a high concentration of ammonium ion.

  2. HANS SELYE 70 YEARS LATER: STEROIDS, STRESS ULCERS & H. PYLORI.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Sándor

    2014-03-30

    Although Hans Selye is mostly known for his discovery & development of the stress concept, he also introduced the first physiologically sound, structure-activity classification of steroids that was also based on the chemical structure of steroids in 1943. He not only introduced the names of glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids but discovered the anti- & pro-inflammatory properties, respectively, of these steroids in animal models. Furthermore, he not only described the first stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats (1936) & characterized the first human 'stress ulcers' during the air-raids in London during World War 11 (1943). Thus, Selye was a much more productive & creative scientist than it is generally considered. PMID:26118247

  3. HANS SELYE 70 YEARS LATER: STEROIDS, STRESS ULCERS & H. PYLORI.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Sándor

    2014-03-30

    Although Hans Selye is mostly known for his discovery & development of the stress concept, he also introduced the first physiologically sound, structure-activity classification of steroids that was also based on the chemical structure of steroids in 1943. He not only introduced the names of glucocorticoids & mineralocorticoids but discovered the anti- & pro-inflammatory properties, respectively, of these steroids in animal models. Furthermore, he not only described the first stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats (1936) & characterized the first human 'stress ulcers' during the air-raids in London during World War 11 (1943). Thus, Selye was a much more productive & creative scientist than it is generally considered.

  4. Ovarian proteomic study reveals the possible molecular mechanism for hyperprolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiangyang; Luo, Qingmiao; Zhao, Huijing; Qin, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Small Tail Han sheep is a widely bred farm animal in China which has attracted lots of attention due to their high prolificacy and year-round estrus. However, the molecular mechanism of its fecundity remains unrevealed. The FecB gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the ovulation rate and litter size of sheep. In the present study, we constructed an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis to compare the ovarian proteomes of FecB+FecB+ genotype Small Tail Han sheep ewes (Han ++), FecBBFecBB Han ewes (Han BB) and Dorset ewes (Dorset). Hundreds of differentially expressed proteins between each two groups were identified; GO and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the expressions of those proteins involved in ribosome assembly, protein translation and mTOR pathway between Dorset and both Han groups were highly different. Between Han ++ and Han BB groups, higher level of protein expressions were related to mitochondrial oxidation functions such as oxidoreductase activity, cytochrome-c oxidase activity and electron carrier activity. This was identified in Han BB group, which may contribute to the elevated ovulation rate of Han BB ewes. In conclusion, our work provided a prospective understanding of the molecular mechanism for high prolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep. PMID:27271055

  5. Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1735): his life and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Stanley A

    2010-01-01

    Sir Hans Sloane was born in Killyleagh, Co Down, the seventh and last son of Alexander Sloane. His father, who was of Scottish ancestry, had a long association with James Hamilton, Earl of Clanbrassil who had acquired the castle in Killyleagh and extensive estates in east Down. The Hamilton family took an interest in the education of the Sloane children, and much of the early tuition of Hans was conducted within the library of Killyleagh Castle. In 1679 he moved to London to study medicine and botany. In 1683, he continued his studies in Paris and Montpellier, and graduated from the University of Orange. On his return to London, he became a protégé of Thomas Sydenham. In 1687 he was appointed physician to the Duke of Albemarle and surgeon to the West Indies fleet. While in Jamaica he added countless specimens to his collections, continuing a lifetime passion. He also invented milk chocolate there. Following the untimely death of the duke, he returned to London and built up a fashionable medical practice. He married Elizabeth Langley, heiress of a wealthy city alderman, and widow of a sugar planter in Jamaica. They set up house in Great Russell Street. The family home accommodated his burgeoning collections of books, specimens and curiosities. In 1685 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, later becoming the honorary secretary and president. Following his death, his collections were bought for the nation and formed the foundation of the British Museum. PMID:20844729

  6. Molecular characterization of a Han Chinese family with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J F; Zhang, X; Ling, L

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been found to be associated with essential hypertension. Here, we report the clinical and molecular characterization of a three-generation Han Chinese family with maternally inherited hypertension. Most strikingly, this pedigree exhibited a high penetrance of hypertension. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genome showed the presence of a homoplasmic T16189C mutation in the D-loop and the intergenic CO2/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp common deletion, as well as a set of polymorphisms belonging to the East Asia haplogroup B5b1. The well-known T16189C mutation, which is in the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial control region, is implicated to be associated with a wide range of clinical disorders. Moreover, the genetic polymorphism 9-bp common deletion is found to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in the Han Chinese population. Thus, the combination of T16189C mutation and the 9-bp deletion may have caused mitochondrial dysfunction and contributed to the development of essential hypertension in this Chinese family. PMID:27323027

  7. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies.

  8. The anatomist Hans Elias: A Jewish German in exile.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, S

    2012-04-01

    Hans Elias (1907 to 1985) was an anatomist, an educator, a mathematician, a cinematographer, a painter, and a sculptor. Above all, he was a German of Jewish descent, who had to leave his home country because of the policies of the National Socialist (NS) regime. He spent his life in exile, first in Italy and then in the United States. His biography is exemplary for a generation of younger expatriates from National Socialist Germany who had to find a new professional career under difficult circumstances. Elias was a greatly productive morphologist whose artistic talent led to the foundation of the new science of stereology and made him an expert in scientific cinematography. He struggled hard to fulfill his own high expectations of himself in terms of his effectiveness as a scientist, educator, and politically acting man in this world. Throughout his life this strong-willed and outspoken man never lost his great fondness for Germany and many of its people, while reserving some of his sharpest criticism for fellow anatomists who were active in National Socialist Germany, among them his friend Hermann Stieve, Max Clara, and Heinrich von Hayek. Hans Elias' life is well documented in his unpublished diaries and memoirs, and thus allows fresh insights into a time period when some anatomists were among the first victims of NS policies and other anatomists became involved in the execution of such policies. PMID:22038841

  9. Radiolysis gases from nitric acid solutions containing HSA and HAN

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-28

    The concentration of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) in the radiolytically produced off-gas from 2.76-4.25M HNO{sub 3}/PU solutions has been found to be greatly reduced in the presence of sulfamic acid (HSA) and hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN). The H{sub 2} concentration ([H{sub 2}]) is reduced from 35 percent to about 4 percent by dilution caused from an increase in the production rates of nitrogen (N{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and oxygen (O{sub 2}) gases. The generation rate of H{sub 2} was not affected by HSA or HAN giving a measured radiolytic yield, G(H{sub 2}), value of 0.201 molecules/100 eV for 2.765M NO{sub 3}{sup -} solution (a value of 0.213 is predicted from previous data). The G(H{sub 2}) values are dependent on the solution nitrate concentration ([NO{sub 3}{sup -}]). The generation rates of N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} are not dependent on the [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in this narrow range, but are dependent on the presence of HSA and the concentration of HAN. The percentage [H{sub 2}] for the 2.5 to 3.0M NO{sub 3}{sup -} range expected in the off- from the FB-Line Pu{sup +3} Hold Tanks is conservatively estimated to be about 3.5 to 4.5 % for Pu + 3 solutions initially containing 0.023M HAN/0.165M HSA. The upper limit [H{sub 2}] may actually be about 4.1 % (4.3 % at 90 % confidence limits) but more {open_quotes}initial{close_quotes} off-gas rate data is needed at about 2.9M [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] in Pu{sup +3} solution for verification. Addition of ascorbic acid had no effect on the off-gas rate of Pu{sup +3} solutions containing HSA and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations higher than those expected in the hold tanks. The maximum {open_quotes}hold time{close_quotes} for 50 grams/liter Pu{sup +3}/0.165M HSA/0.023M HAN/2.5-3.0M HNO{sub 3} solution is 20.3{+-}2.1 days. After this time the HSA initially present will become exhausted and the [H{sub 2}] will increase to 35 %. This hold time may be longer in [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] < 3.0M, but again more study is needed.

  10. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  11. [Hans Selye, the grandmaster of creativity and originality].

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Árpád

    2015-08-30

    Hans Selye, the father of the stress concept, was a giant of science of the twentieth century. Beyond his best-known work on stress, he also made several discoveries on various other fields of experimental medicine. He described and characterized various pluricausal diseases. In addition, he made pivotal contributions to the broad field of endocrinology, especially to the classification of steroids and to our better understanding of their mode of action. He developed surgical technics and experimental animal models suitable for studying the pathogenesis and prevention of human diseases. Selye was an extremely well educated, highly intelligent and disciplined individual, an original and creative scientist, an outstanding teacher, a philosopher, a prolific author, a fabulous communicator and a gifted organizer successfully establishing, developing and managing a major academic research institution, the word-famous Institute of Experimental Medicine and Surgery of the University of Montreal. PMID:26299830

  12. [Hans Selye, the grandmaster of creativity and originality].

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Árpád

    2015-08-30

    Hans Selye, the father of the stress concept, was a giant of science of the twentieth century. Beyond his best-known work on stress, he also made several discoveries on various other fields of experimental medicine. He described and characterized various pluricausal diseases. In addition, he made pivotal contributions to the broad field of endocrinology, especially to the classification of steroids and to our better understanding of their mode of action. He developed surgical technics and experimental animal models suitable for studying the pathogenesis and prevention of human diseases. Selye was an extremely well educated, highly intelligent and disciplined individual, an original and creative scientist, an outstanding teacher, a philosopher, a prolific author, a fabulous communicator and a gifted organizer successfully establishing, developing and managing a major academic research institution, the word-famous Institute of Experimental Medicine and Surgery of the University of Montreal.

  13. No increase in criminal convictions in Hans Asperger's original cohort.

    PubMed

    Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happé, Francesca

    2010-06-01

    Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic psychopathy" or features of the disorder in Austria. The mean percentage of registered convictions was similar to that in the general male population of Austria over the studied time period. A qualitative assessment of offence types in Asperger's former patients suggests that the nature of offences does not differ from that in the general population. In this original cohort of Asperger's patients, convictions were no more common than in the general male population.

  14. Hans Christian Jacobaeus: Inventor of human laparoscopy and thoracoscopy.

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, Martin; Kwon, S T; Langbein, S; Kamp, S; Häcker, Axel; Alken, Peter

    2006-11-01

    Hans Christian Jacobaeus performed the first clinical laparoscopic surgery in Stockholm. This pioneering procedure was based on the animal experiments of Georg Kelling (1866-1945), a German physician from Dresden, who performed the first laparoscopic intervention in 1901 using a Nitz cystoscope in a dog. In 1910, Jacobaeus published his initial experiences with laparoscopic surgery in the Münchner Medizinischen Wochenschrift under the title "The Possibilities for Performing Cystoscopy in Examinations of Serous Cavities." He used this technique for diagnostic purposes in undefined abdominal complaints and functional impairment. Jacobaeus was the first who pointed out the possibility of injuring organs, especially the intestines, by inserting the trocar. In 1910, Jacobaeus recognized the immense diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of laparoscopic surgery, as well as its difficulties and limits. He also was the first to realize the need for initial endoscopic training in animals and corpses. He promoted the development of special laparoscopic instruments to optimize and simplify the procedure. PMID:17144849

  15. [The psychobiology of Hans Lungwitz (1881-1967)].

    PubMed

    Becker, Reinhold

    2003-01-01

    Hans Lungwitz began to formulate his concept of philosophical and medical anthropology in 1924, and continued to develop it until his death in 1967. From his long experience as a neurologist, he arrived at a comprehensive theory of psychobiology which describes mental processes as biological / physiological function of neural structures in the human brain. Lungwitz's approach to holistic biological view of thought and experience to brain function and reflex behaviour, and provides a holistic biological view of the human brain, free from metaphysics. This is shown here as: the subject-object-relationship, the human being described as a reflex system; the psychobiology of language and speech; the way a person perceives (Weltanschauung); illness as infantilism in general and recover therefrom, especially in the context of treatment by the method of cognitive therapy, inaugurated by Lungwitz.

  16. Hans Christian Jacobaeus: Inventor of human laparoscopy and thoracoscopy.

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, Martin; Kwon, S T; Langbein, S; Kamp, S; Häcker, Axel; Alken, Peter

    2006-11-01

    Hans Christian Jacobaeus performed the first clinical laparoscopic surgery in Stockholm. This pioneering procedure was based on the animal experiments of Georg Kelling (1866-1945), a German physician from Dresden, who performed the first laparoscopic intervention in 1901 using a Nitz cystoscope in a dog. In 1910, Jacobaeus published his initial experiences with laparoscopic surgery in the Münchner Medizinischen Wochenschrift under the title "The Possibilities for Performing Cystoscopy in Examinations of Serous Cavities." He used this technique for diagnostic purposes in undefined abdominal complaints and functional impairment. Jacobaeus was the first who pointed out the possibility of injuring organs, especially the intestines, by inserting the trocar. In 1910, Jacobaeus recognized the immense diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of laparoscopic surgery, as well as its difficulties and limits. He also was the first to realize the need for initial endoscopic training in animals and corpses. He promoted the development of special laparoscopic instruments to optimize and simplify the procedure.

  17. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 36 in the Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Guo, Yuh-Cherng; Hsiao, Cheng-Tsung; Liu, Guan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the genetic and clinical characteristics of the GGCCTG hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the nucleolar protein 56 gene (NOP56) in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), sporadic ataxia, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Taiwan. Methods: We conducted clinical and molecular genetic studies of 109 probands with molecularly unassigned SCA from 512 SCA pedigrees, 323 healthy controls, 502 patients with sporadic ataxia syndromes, and 144 patients with ALS. Repeat-primed PCR assays and PCR-fragment analysis for the number of short hexanucleotide repeats (<40 units) were performed to ascertain NOP56 hexanucleotide repeat expansion. Genotyping included 8 microsatellite markers and 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms flanking NOP56 and covering a region of 1.8 Mb to assess a possible founder effect. Results: Eleven individuals from 3 SCA pedigrees have the NOP56 repeat expansions. The 3 pedigrees share a common haplotype spanning 5.3 kb flanking the NOP56 repeat expansions, suggesting a founder effect of spinocerebellar ataxia type 36 (SCA36) in the Han Chinese. The average age at symptom onset was 44.8 ± 3.8 years with truncal ataxia as the initial manifestation. Common features included slowly progressive truncal/limb ataxia, dysarthria, generalized hyperreflexia, and hearing impairment. Evidence of lower motor neuron involvement, including atrophy and fasciculation in the limb muscles and tongue, was mostly found in patients with prolonged disease duration. NOP56 repeat expansion was not detected in controls or patients with sporadic ataxic syndromes or ALS. Conclusions: SCA36 is an uncommon subtype, which accounted for 0.6% (3/512) of SCA cases in the Han Chinese population. PMID:27123487

  18. STR polymorphisms of the Henan population and investigation of the Central Plains Han origin of Chaoshanese.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Na; Hu, Sheng-Ping; Feng, Guo-Ying

    2009-08-01

    Allele frequencies for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were obtained from a Chinese Han population in Henan province of middle China. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for the STR loci except for D3S1358. The 15 STR loci are potentially useful for paternity testing and forensic casework in the Henan population. A phylogenetic tree based on CODIS STR allele frequencies of 25 Han populations revealed noticeable but far less clear distinctions between southern and northern Chinese populations; the Henan Han population was located at an intermediate position between south and north Chinese Han populations, relatively closer to Chaoshan and Minnan Han. Moreover, admixture analysis showed a large proportion of Central Plains Han origin in Chaoshanese and Minnanese. Admixture and phylogenetic analysis also reflected the genetic similarity shared by these two groups.

  19. Risks associated with premature ovarian failure in Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huidan; Chen, Haitao; Qin, Yingying; Shi, Zhuqing; Zhao, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianfeng; Ma, Bowen; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-04-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between demographic characteristics, past medical history, general lifestyle habits and susceptibility of premature ovarian failure (POF) in Han Chinese population was investigated. Five hundred and fifty-three patients with POF and 400 women with normal ovarian function were recruited. A questionnaire was designed to gather information from responders. Logistic regression was carried out to calculate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and P-values. History of pelvic surgery, mumps, having relatives with menstrual abnormalities and exposure to chemical agents were significantly associated with increased risk of POF (OR 5.53 [2.15 to 14.23]; 3.26 [2.38 to 4.47]; 28.12 [8.84 to 89.46]; 4.47 [2.09 to 9.58]). Vegetarian diet, tea and mineral water consumption reduced the risk of POF (OR 0.27 [0.19 to 0.37]; 0.04 [0.03 to 0.07]; 0.63 [0.47 to 0.85], respectively). Heredity, pelvic surgery, mumps and exposure to chemical agents were identified as risk factors for POF, whereas vegetarian diet, tea consumption and mineral water drinking were protective. Therefore, genetic consultation could help those women whose relatives manifested an early or premature menopause to avoid the consequences of possible premature ovarian function cessation. Avoidance of exposure to endocrine disrupters and flavonoids intake should be considered.

  20. Hans Loewald, psychoanalysis, and the project of autonomy.

    PubMed

    Whitebook, Joel

    2008-12-01

    For some time psychoanalysts have tended to view Freud's cultural writings--concerning modernity, secularism, science, and religion--disparagingly, seeing them as the unscientific speculations of a misguided genius. But the questions Freud explored in those works are pressing topics that deserve serious attention. Just as fascism provided the historical context in which the critical theorists of the Frankfurt School developed a psychoanalytic social theory in the 1930s and 1940s, so the rise of fundamentalism demands a similar effort today. The "project of autonomy" conceptualized by the psychoanalyst-philosopher Castoriadis can be used to situate psychoanalysis in its broader historical context, as part of the emancipatory movement of modernity, and to elucidate fundamentalism as an attempt to turn back that project and reinstate the values of premodern traditional societies. Because the widespread aversion to secularism today is in no small degree the responsibility of secularists themselves--Freud's relatively crude and simplistic disregard of some of the deepest yearnings of humankind is a case in point--it is time to formulate, using the work of Hans Loewald, a more sensitive and sophisticated psychoanalytic view of religion. Yet psychoanalytic secularists must avoid overcompensating for past mistakes by giving too much ground to antisecularists. The legitimate desire to do justice to religion must not trump the need to advance the project of autonomy as a first priority. PMID:19037118

  1. Hans Küpper discusses science and venture capital.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hans

    2004-11-01

    Hans Küpper has over 30 years of experience in the biotechnology industry in areas from research to R&D management, technology assessment and business acquisitions. He received his PhD in 1974 from the University of Heidelberg. After additional academic research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA and at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, he joined Biogen in 1980. Here, he held various R&D positions, the last of which was Assistant Research Director. In 1985, he joined Behringwerke AG, Marburg, to build up and head the company's Molecular Biology Department and thereafter became Head of R&D of the Immunology/Oncology Business Unit. In 1999 he joined Global Life Science Ventures at their Munich office. Dr Küpper is the author of numerous publications and patents/applications and has also served as a consultant to the Pharmaceutical Industry and the European Commission. He is a board member of several early stage companies in the life sciences.

  2. [Hans von Hattingberg between psychoanalysis and National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Keifenheim, Katharina Eva

    2011-01-01

    Hans von Hattingberg (1879-1944) worked as a neurologist and psychoanalyst in Munich and Berlin from about 1910 to 1944. He was a prolific writer, but met with increasing disapproval from Freud and his circle. An advocate of the union of different psychotherapeutic schools, he was initially a marginal figure in the professional field. With Hitler's rise to power his career prospered: He was offered the position of a lecturer for psychotherapy and became head of the research department at the "Göring Institute". He came to prominence with his writings on the "Neue deutsche Seelenheilkunde" despite the fact that this was never his preferred topic. The main themes of his publications were marriage, love and female emancipation. Those works contain only little of the standard Nazi ideology of the time. Not only was Hattingberg never a member of the NSDAP (the ruling party), but in some respects he could conceivably be considered a member of the resistance. The article outlines the most important stages of Hattingberg's life and focuses on the question of how he positioned himself after 1933, when it became vital for him to reconcile psychoanalysis and National Socialism.

  3. Hans Loewald, psychoanalysis, and the project of autonomy.

    PubMed

    Whitebook, Joel

    2008-12-01

    For some time psychoanalysts have tended to view Freud's cultural writings--concerning modernity, secularism, science, and religion--disparagingly, seeing them as the unscientific speculations of a misguided genius. But the questions Freud explored in those works are pressing topics that deserve serious attention. Just as fascism provided the historical context in which the critical theorists of the Frankfurt School developed a psychoanalytic social theory in the 1930s and 1940s, so the rise of fundamentalism demands a similar effort today. The "project of autonomy" conceptualized by the psychoanalyst-philosopher Castoriadis can be used to situate psychoanalysis in its broader historical context, as part of the emancipatory movement of modernity, and to elucidate fundamentalism as an attempt to turn back that project and reinstate the values of premodern traditional societies. Because the widespread aversion to secularism today is in no small degree the responsibility of secularists themselves--Freud's relatively crude and simplistic disregard of some of the deepest yearnings of humankind is a case in point--it is time to formulate, using the work of Hans Loewald, a more sensitive and sophisticated psychoanalytic view of religion. Yet psychoanalytic secularists must avoid overcompensating for past mistakes by giving too much ground to antisecularists. The legitimate desire to do justice to religion must not trump the need to advance the project of autonomy as a first priority.

  4. Type 2 Diabetes in Han Chinese in Hubei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo Saif Dehwah, Mustafa; Shuang, Zhang; Yan, Wang; Chan, Peng; Huang, Qing-Yang

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese in Hubei. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptorγ2 (PPARγ2) is a nuclear receptor plays a key role in regulation of adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are various studies have provided evidence for the association between common Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the results are controversial and depend on ethnicity. So we conducted a case-control association study among 330 T2DM patients and 212 controls with family-based and random case-control designs. The genotypes of the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism were detected by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFL) method. The result indicated that the Pro12 allele was associated with type 2 diabetes in this study population.

  5. Hans Küpper discusses science and venture capital.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hans

    2004-11-01

    Hans Küpper has over 30 years of experience in the biotechnology industry in areas from research to R&D management, technology assessment and business acquisitions. He received his PhD in 1974 from the University of Heidelberg. After additional academic research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the USA and at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, he joined Biogen in 1980. Here, he held various R&D positions, the last of which was Assistant Research Director. In 1985, he joined Behringwerke AG, Marburg, to build up and head the company's Molecular Biology Department and thereafter became Head of R&D of the Immunology/Oncology Business Unit. In 1999 he joined Global Life Science Ventures at their Munich office. Dr Küpper is the author of numerous publications and patents/applications and has also served as a consultant to the Pharmaceutical Industry and the European Commission. He is a board member of several early stage companies in the life sciences. PMID:15501722

  6. Primo-Vascular System as Presented by Bong Han Kim

    PubMed Central

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; Sorokulova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s Bong Han Kim discovered and characterized a new vascular system. He was able to differentiate it clearly from vascular blood and lymph systems by the use of a variety of methods, which were available to him in the mid-20th century. He gave detailed characterization of the system and created comprehensive diagrams and photographs in his publications. He demonstrated that this system is composed of nodes and vessels, and it was responsible for tissue regeneration. However, he did not disclose in detail his methods. Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists. The stains that Kim used had been perfected and had been in use for more than 100 years. Therefore, the names of the stains were directed to the explicit protocols for the usage with the particular cells or molecules. Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method. In this present work, we have been able to disclose staining methods used by Kim. PMID:26379743

  7. Actual use scene of Han-Character for proper name and coded character set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    This article discusses the following two issues. One is overview of standardization of Han-Character in coded character set including Universal coded character set (ISO/IEC 10646), with the relation to Japanese language policy of the government. The other is the difference and particularity of Han-Character usage for proper name and difficulty to implement in ICT systems.

  8. The regulation of HanA during heterocyst development in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing-Jing; Shi, Lei; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li

    2014-10-01

    In response to deprivation of combined nitrogen, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 develops heterocyst, which is specifically involved in the nitrogen fixation. In this study, we focused on the regulation of HanA, a histone-like protein, in heterocyst development. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay results showed that NtcA, a global nitrogen regulator necessary for heterocyst differentiation, could bind to two NtcA-binding motifs in the hanA promoter region. qPCR results also showed that NtcA may regulate the expression of hanA. By using the hanA promoter-controlled gfp as a reporter gene and performing western blot we found that the amount of HanA in mature heterocysts was decreased gradually.

  9. 'Little Hans': from his phobic episode to becoming an opera director.

    PubMed

    Vives, Jean-Michel

    2012-08-01

    'Little Hans' is one of the most highly commented cases in the psychoanalytic literature. His work as an opera director from 1925 in Europe and then in the United States of America is much less well known. This may seem especially surprising given that Freud very soon detects Hans's emerging interest in this subject. Yet Freud does not mention it either in 1909 when he reports the case, or when Hans visits him in 1922, even though Hans had already decided to become an opera director at this point. The author of this article endeavours to show how this artistic choice could be understood as a way of accommodating, in a double transference relationship with Freud and with his father, the unanalysed residue of the 'Krawall' (a term invented by Hans) and 'the black thing', both of which appeared during the phobic period.

  10. The regulation of HanA during heterocyst development in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing-Jing; Shi, Lei; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li

    2014-10-01

    In response to deprivation of combined nitrogen, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 develops heterocyst, which is specifically involved in the nitrogen fixation. In this study, we focused on the regulation of HanA, a histone-like protein, in heterocyst development. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay results showed that NtcA, a global nitrogen regulator necessary for heterocyst differentiation, could bind to two NtcA-binding motifs in the hanA promoter region. qPCR results also showed that NtcA may regulate the expression of hanA. By using the hanA promoter-controlled gfp as a reporter gene and performing western blot we found that the amount of HanA in mature heterocysts was decreased gradually. PMID:24980942

  11. Hans H. Ussing--scientific work: contemporary significance and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-11-13

    As a zoologist, Hans H. Ussing began his scientific career by studying the marine plankton fauna in East Greenland. This brought him in contact with August Krogh at the time George de Hevesy, Niels Bohr and Krogh planned the application of artificial radioactive isotopes for studying the dynamic state of the living organism. Following his studies of protein turnover of body tissues with deuterium-labeled amino acids, Ussing initiated a new era of studies of transport across epithelial membranes. Theoretical difficulties in the interpretation of tracer fluxes resulted in novel concepts such as exchange diffusion, unidirectional fluxes, flux-ratio equation, and solvent drag. Combining methods of biophysics with radioactive isotope technology, Ussing introduced and defined the phrases 'short-circuit current', 'active transport pathway' and 'shunt pathway', and with frog skin as experimental model, he unambiguously proved active transport of sodium ions. Conceived in his electric circuit analogue of frog skin, Ussing associated transepithelial ion fluxes with the hitherto puzzling 'bioelectric potentials'. The two-membrane hypothesis of frog skin initiated the study of epithelial transport at the cellular level and raised new questions about cellular mechanisms of actions of hormones and drugs. His theoretical treatment of osmotic water fluxes versus fluxes of deuterium labeled water resulted in the discovery of epithelial water channels. His discovery of paracellular transport in frog skin bridged studies of high and low resistance epithelia and generalized the description of epithelial transport. He devoted the last decade of his scientific life to solute-coupled water transport. He introduced the sodium recirculation theory of isotonic transport, and in an experimental study, he obtained the evidence for recirculation of sodium ions in toad small intestine. In penetrating analyses of essential aspects of epithelial membrane transport, Ussing provided insights of

  12. Polymorphisms at the TNF locus in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Fei, Bao-Ying; Deng, Chang-Sheng; Xia, Bing; Zhu, You-Qing; Crusius, J Bart A; Peña, A Salvador

    2002-01-01

    One hundred sixty-four unrelated healthy individuals from Chinese Han population were investigated in order to define the distribution of eight polymorphic loci within the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene cluster and determine their relationship between the high polymorphic microsatellite TNFa, b, d, and other elements. The cloning and sequencing for five microsatellites were simultaneously done. In this study, the distribution of TNF alleles apparently vary from other ethnic groups. A new allele was detected and confirmed. It should be emphasized that a very strong association between TNFd8 and TNFe4 is reported and d8e4 haplotype appears to be specific to the population studied. In addition, five extended haplotypes were established in this population: a6b5c1d8e4TNF308-1TNF-betaNco1-1TNFAspH1-2, a2b1c2d5e1TNF308-1TNF-betaNco1-2TNFAspH1-2, a11b4c1d4e3TNF308-1TNF-betaNco1-2TNFAspH1-1, a10b4c1d4e3TNF308-1TNF-betaNco1-2TNFAspH1-1, and a2b3c1d2e3TNF308-2TNFAspH1-2. Data suggest that important ethnic differences may exist and that it is a necessary initiative for further research.

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus Infection is Associated with Essential Hypertension in Kazakh and Han Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Na; Li, Jia-wei; Liu, Yong-min; Zhong, Hua; Wang, La-mei; Deng, Feng-mei; Qu, Yuan-yuan; Hui, Jing; Cheng, Jiang; Tang, Bin; Huang, Gang; Guo, Shu-xia; Li, Xin-zhi; Wei, Li-li; He, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to study the association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and hypertension in Kazakh and Han populations from Xinjiang Province, China. Material/Methods We analyzed data on 800 Kazakhs (467 hypertension patients and 333 healthy control participants) and 800 Hans (482 hypertension patients and 318 healthy control participants) aged 18–84 years old. ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were applied for determining CMV infection and glycoprotein B (gB) genotypes, respectively. Results Serologic evidence of CMV infection was obtained for 95.4% and 90.1% of the Kazakhs and Hans, respectively. The CMV seroprevalence rates among the Kazakh and Han participants with hypertension were 96.8% and 89.8%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed statistically significant independent associations between CMV seropositivity and hypertension in Kazakh males and between CMV antibody titers and hypertension in Hans; significant relationships also existed between CMV antibody titers and blood pressure in Hans. In Kazakhs, 3 CMV gB genotypes were identified: gB2 and genotype mixtures gB1+gB2 and gB2+gB3. In Hans, 4 CMV gB genotypes were identified: gB1, gB2, gB1+gB2, and gB2+gB3. Of the 4 studied genotypes, gB2+gB3 showed a significant independent association with hypertension in Kazakh females. Conclusions CMV infection is associated with essential hypertension in Kazakh males and Hans in Xinjiang. CMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in Kazakh males, and CMV antibody titers are associated with blood pressure and hypertension in Han males and females. Moreover, the CMV gB2+gB3 genotype mixture is associated independently with essential hypertension in Kazakh females. PMID:25448630

  14. Genomic dissection of population substructure of Han Chinese and its implication in association studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuhua; Yin, Xianyong; Li, Shilin; Jin, Wenfei; Lou, Haiyi; Yang, Ling; Gong, Xiaohong; Wang, Hongyan; Shen, Yiping; Pan, Xuedong; He, Yungang; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Yi; Fu, Wenqing; An, Yu; Wang, Jiucun; Tan, Jingze; Qian, Ji; Chen, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yangfei; Zhang, Xuejun; Wu, Bailin; Jin, Li

    2009-12-01

    To date, most genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and studies of fine-scale population structure have been conducted primarily on Europeans. Han Chinese, the largest ethnic group in the world, composing 20% of the entire global human population, is largely underrepresented in such studies. A well-recognized challenge is the fact that population structure can cause spurious associations in GWAS. In this study, we examined population substructures in a diverse set of over 1700 Han Chinese samples collected from 26 regions across China, each genotyped at approximately 160K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our results showed that the Han Chinese population is intricately substructured, with the main observed clusters corresponding roughly to northern Han, central Han, and southern Han. However, simulated case-control studies showed that genetic differentiation among these clusters, although very small (F(ST) = 0.0002 approximately 0.0009), is sufficient to lead to an inflated rate of false-positive results even when the sample size is moderate. The top two SNPs with the greatest frequency differences between the northern Han and southern Han clusters (F(ST) > 0.06) were found in the FADS2 gene, which associates with the fatty acid composition in phospholipids, and in the HLA complex P5 gene (HCP5), which associates with HIV infection, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that most differentiated genes among clusters are involved in cardiac arteriopathy (p < 10(-101)). These signals indicating significant differences among Han Chinese subpopulations should be carefully explained in case they are also detected in association studies, especially when sample sources are diverse. PMID:19944404

  15. [A color analysis of the Han dynasty's Yangling Tombs colored pottery figurine by spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Zheng, L; Dang, G

    2000-06-01

    Many colored pottery figurines have been discovered from Yangling Tombs in which Han Jingdi, Qi LIU, the fourth emperor of Xi Han dynasty was buried together with his Wang empress. They were of important academic and aesthetic value. The analysis of the colored pottery figurines from Yangling Tombs of Han Dynasty was realized by X-ray diffraction, emission spectrum, infrared spectrum, X-ray fluorescence and fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy(FORS). Consequent results showed that the colored components were respectively mercuric(II) sulphide(HgS), ferric(III) oxide(Fe2O3), and Carbon(C), among which mercuric(II) sulphide was an artificial pigment.

  16. [Physician satire and patient scorn in Hans Sachs' old Nürnberg and the physicians].

    PubMed

    Sauerbeck, K O

    1993-01-01

    Among the best poems of Hans Sachs quite a few describe patient-physician relationships in 16th century Nuremberg. These poems offer a vivid impression of the technical aspects as well as of the social context of medical treatment at the time. Hans Sachs ridiculed the doctors and their patients, implying that everybody attempted to cheat the other side, and he provides evidence of a great influence of charlatans on the country population. The poems of Hans Sachs are extraordinary pieces or art; their aesthetics, though, appear unusual to us today. Medical satire is part of all European cultures, and has been written throughout medical history. Most motives of later satires focussing on physicians may be traced to Hans Sachs' poetry.

  17. From Abrupt Change to the Future (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, T.

    2009-04-01

    The award of the Oeschger Medal 2009 is a particular honor and pleasure for me as I was given the chance to take over from Hans Oeschger the lead of a wonderful Institute at the University of Bern in 1993. Very apprehensive first, in front of the huge expectations and challenges, I quickly found dear colleagues, close collaborators and extremely supportive staff who all dedicated their time and creativity to work for the common goal of better understanding the Earth System, its variations in the past and its sensitivity to perturbations that man is inflicting on it today. Although met with innate skepticism first by the experimental physicists, our efforts in modelling, particularly the approach of using climate models of reduced complexity, quickly paid off and provided added value to the hard won data and measurements from polar ice cores. It is clear that modelling in such a diverse environment is so much more stimulating and enriching than working on a sophisticated parameterisation in a big modelling centre. Simple models have suggested that the Earth System may have limited stability and that rather fundamental changes could be triggered by the increase of greenhouse gases. However, it is the unique results from polar ice cores, particularly from Greenland that showed that, indeed, the Earth System has limited stability and can react in extremely abrupt ways to changes in forcing. Likewise, the Antarctic ice cores have provided one of the corner stones of our knowledge about climate change: Concentrations of CO2 are today 29% higher than ever during the last 800,000 years. These two fundamental insights from the paleoclimatic archive call for accelerated research into the sensitivity of the climate system and its components to perturbations, as well as the investigation of feedback mechanisms in the biogeochemical cycles that are disturbed by the input of CO2 into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels and land use change. Our research has only scratched the

  18. Implicit Trust between the Uyghur and the Han in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueting; Fang, Huizhen; Yang, Shengmin; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Trust is a vital lubricant that increases the sense of security in social interactions. In this study, we investigated the intergroup trust between the Uyghur and the Han, the two largest ethnic groups in Xinjiang, China, with a Go/No-Go Association Task. Specifically, we instructed Uyghur and Han participants to respond to ethnic faces (Uyghur vs. Han) and trust/distrust words and measured the strength of the automatic associations between the faces and words for both in-group and out-group pairs. As expected, both ethnic groups showed implicit in-group trust and out-group distrust, but the Han group demonstrated stronger in-group trust and out-group distrust toward the Uyghur than the Uyghur group toward the Han. However, the magnitude of distrust of the Han toward the Uyghur was small to medium as compared with that reported by other intergroup relationship research. In addition, participant geographic location was associated with out-group distrust. These findings offer implications for developing effective strategies to encourage trust between conflicting groups. PMID:23977155

  19. Research on the Solar Eclipse Records in the Wuxingzhi of Both {Han} Dynasties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the paper Lianghan Rishi Kao (inspect the solar-eclipse records in Both {Han} dynasties) written by {Zhu Wenxin} when compared the solar-eclipse records with those in the book Zhongguo Gudai Tianxiang Jilu Zong ji (collection of Chinese ancient astronomical records), and find 38 (61) records with the same dates in Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty, equal to 70% (85%) of total. Our results have 42 (61) with the same dates in Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty as just 78% (85%) of the total. There are totally 126 solar-eclipse records in the Wuxingzhi of both {Han} Dynasties. We confirm that there are 21 no occurred, 7 invisible in the capital then, 9 occurred before sunrise, 1 after sunset, and the left 88 are seen, occupying 70% as usually occurred in the capital area. With the help of our transformation platform as from Chinese ancient 60-day-cycle style dates to Gregorian calendar dates, we check the date records of solar eclipses in the Wuxingzhi of both {Han} dynasties, and then review the accuracy of the calendar. The standard errors of month and day are respectively 0.31 month (0.17 month) and 0.97 day (0.74 day) in the Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty. At the same time, the standard errors of solar location of the records are determined, they are 11.08° (6.63°) in Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty, and after excluding the possible misrecords the accuracy changes to 9.30° (3.59°). If the Juxing (key star of this constellation) was the same in both {Han} dynasties, the average value of observation error of solar location in Eastern {Han} dynasty is 2.8°, far better than 8.2° in Western {Han} dynasty. Otherwise, they most likely appear in some constellations with larger deviation. We try to determine the Δ T (ET-UT) value of solar-eclipse records with the magnitude descriptions, and at the same time, it is concluded that the magnitude of Ji (total eclipse) is 0.969-1.0, Jijin (the sun is covered almost all) is 0.829-0.985, and

  20. Comparison of Genetic Variants in Cancer-Related Genes between Chinese Hui and Han Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chaoyong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ma, Xixian; Yang, Ming; Wang, Zhizhong; Dong, Ying; Yang, Ting; Yang, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese Hui population, as the second largest minority ethnic group in China, may have a different genetic background from Han people because of its unique demographic history. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic differences between Han and Hui Chinese from the Ningxia region of China by comparing eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms in cancer-related genes. Methods DNA samples were collected from 99 Hui and 145 Han people from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China, and SNPs were detected using an improved multiplex ligase detection reaction method. Genotyping data from six 1000 Genomes Project population samples (99 Utah residents with northern and western European ancestry (CEU), 107 Toscani in Italy (TSI), 108 Yoruba in Ibadan (YRI), 61 of African ancestry in the southwestern US (ASW), 103 Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB), and 104 Japanese in Tokyo (JPT)) were also included in this study. Differences in the distribution of alleles among the populations were assessed using χ2 tests, and FST was used to measure the degree of population differentiation. Results We found that the genetic diversity of many SNPs in cancer-related genes in the Hui Chinese in Ningxia was different from that in the Han Chinese in Ningxia. For example, the allele frequencies of four SNPs (rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498, and rs753955) showed different genetic distributions (p<0.05) between Chinese Ningxia Han and Chinese Ningxia Hui. Five SNPs (rs730506, rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498 and rs753955) had different FST values (FST>0.000) between the Hui and Han populations. Conclusions These results suggest that some SNPs associated with cancer-related genes vary among different Chinese ethnic groups. We suggest that population differences should be carefully considered in evaluating cancer risk and prognosis as well as the efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:26683024

  1. Comparative Analysis of Gut Microbiota of Native Tibetan and Han Populations Living at Different Altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Dan, Zeng; Gesang, Luobu; Wang, Hong; Zhou, Yongjian; Du, Yanlei; Ren, Yi; Shi, Yixiang; Nie, Yuqiang

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the composition of gut microbiota are still only partly understood but appear to include environmental, cultural, and genetic factors. In order to obtain more insight into the relative importance of these factors, we analyzed the microbiome composition in subjects of Tibetan or Han descent living at different altitudes. DNA was isolated from stool samples. Using polymerase chain reaction methodology, the 16S rRNA V1–V3 regions were amplified and the sequence information was analyzed by principal coordinates analysis and Lefse analyses. Contrasting the Tibetan and Han populations both living at the 3600 m altitude, we found that the Tibetan microbiome is characterized by a relative abundance of Prevotella whereas the Han stool was enriched in Bacteroides. Comparing the microbiome of Han stool obtained from populations living at different altitudes revealed a more energy efficient flora in samples from those living at higher altitude relative to their lower-altitude counterparts. Comparison of the stool microbiome of Tibetan herders living at 4800 m to rural Tibetans living at 3600 m altitude shows that the former have a flora enriched in butyrate-producing bacteria, possibly in response to the harsher environment that these herders face. Thus, the study shows that both altitude and genetic/cultural background have a significant influence on microbiome composition, and it represents the first attempt to compare stool microbiota of Tibetan and Han populations in relation to altitude. PMID:27232599

  2. Attachment and sibling rivalry in Little Hans: the fantasy of the two giraffes revisited.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Freud's interpretation of Little Hans's "phantasy of the two giraffes" is pivotal to his oedipal analysis that Hans has inchoate desires for sexual intercourse with his mother. Bowlby argued that Freud's focus on his oedipal theory led him to ignore preoedipal attachment-related factors that have equal plausibility in explaining the clinical data. However, Bowlby did not attempt to apply the attachment perspective to the interpretation of Hans's fantasies that form the core of the case material. A microanalysis of Hans's giraffe fantasy and the evidence used to support Freud's claims about it yields an attachment-based sibling rivalry account arguably of greater explanatory power than the oedipal account. Consistent with Bowlby's hypothesis, the evidence suggests that Hans's giraffe fantasy is about the sibling rivalry triangle involved in caregiver attachment access, rather than (or in addition to) the oedipal triangle. The issue of multiple levels of meaning and the methodological challenges raised by multiple determination is also considered. The giraffe fantasy's attachment-theoretic explanation encourages a rethinking of this classic case and strengthens Bowlby's claim that the case is fruitfully viewed from an attachment perspective.

  3. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of the Han River basin, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jong-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Chang, Ho-Wan

    2007-10-01

    SummaryThe Han River, the largest river in South Korea draining approximately 26,000 km 2, comprises two major tributaries: the North and the South Han Rivers. Seasonal and spatial variations in the major ion chemistry and isotope compositions of the Han River were monitored for one year at 14-23 locations, covering about 80% of the entire drainage basin. Compared to the South Han River (SHR), the North Han River (NHR) was much lower in total dissolved solids (TDS), Sr, and major ion concentrations, but higher in Si concentration, δ 34S SO 4 values, and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios. These observations suggest strong influence of prevailing rock types in the drainage basins on the chemical and isotopic compositions of the river waters. These are silicate rocks in the NHR basin and carbonate rocks in the SHR basin. The headwaters of the NHR basin, where several flood control dams have been constructed, show enrichment in deuterium and oxygen-18, indicating evaporative loss. The δ 34S SO 4 data suggest dissolved sulfates in the NHR and SHR are mostly derived from atmospheric deposition, and variable mixtures of atmospheric deposition and sulfide oxidation, respectively. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios are much higher in the NHR (0.71793-0.72722) than in the SHR (0.71495-0.71785) with one exception, indicating weathering of Precambrian and Mesozoic granitic rocks and marine carbonates, respectively.

  4. Dynamic comparison of genetic diversity in a Small Tail Han sheep population using meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    E, G X; Huang, Y F; Zhao, Y J; He, J N; Liu, N; Zhong, T; Ma, Y H; Qiu, X Y; Chen, L P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the dynamic diversity of Small Tail Han sheep in its main producing areas between different years, and provide a basis for a breeding and genetic resources conservation strategy. For this purpose, 15 microsatellites were genotyped for Small Tail Han Sheep sampled in 2014 from Heze, China, and a comparative analysis of these data with those from a previous study was undertaken using meta-analysis. The results reveal that inbreeding has caused a reduction in diversity of Small Tail Han Sheep from 2008 to 2014. Overall, our results are helpful in understanding the dynamic change in diversity, as well as providing information for a conservation strategy for this population. PMID:26600520

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms predisposing to asthma in children of Mauritian Indian and Chinese Han ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Ramphul, K; Lv, J; Hua, L; Liu, Q H; Fang, D Z; Ji, R X; Bao, Y X

    2014-05-01

    Our objective was to investigate the distributions of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) MS4A2 E237G, MS4A2 C-109T, ADRB2 R16G, IL4RA I75V, IL4 C-590T, and IL13 C1923T in Mauritian Indian and Chinese Han children with asthma. This case-control association study enrolled 382 unrelated Mauritian Indian children, 193 with asthma and 189 healthy controls, and 384 unrelated Chinese Han children, 192 with asthma and 192 healthy controls. The SNP loci were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the Chinese Han samples and TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR for the Mauritian Indian samples. In the Mauritian Indian children, there was a significant difference in the distribution of IL13 C1923T between the asthma and control groups (P=0.033). The frequency of IL13 C1923T T/T in the Mauritian Indian asthma group was significantly higher than in the control group [odds ratio (OR)=2.119, 95% confidence interval=1.048-4.285]. The Chinese Han children with asthma had significantly higher frequencies of MS4A2 C-109T T/T (OR=1.961, P=0.001) and ADRB2 R16G A/A (OR=2.575, P=0.000) than the control group. The IL13 C1923T locus predisposed to asthma in Mauritian Indian children, which represents an ethnic difference from the Chinese Han population. The MS4A2 C-109T T/T and ADRB2 R16G A/A genotypes were associated with asthma in the Chinese Han children.

  6. Hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness in Tibetan compared with Han residents of 3,658 m.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J; Droma, T; Sun, S; Janes, C; McCullough, R E; McCullough, R G; Cymerman, A; Huang, S Y; Reeves, J T; Moore, L G

    1993-01-01

    Lifelong high-altitude residents of North and South America acquire blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses and exhibit decreased ventilation compared with acclimatized newcomers. The ventilatory characteristics of Himalayan high-altitude residents are of interest in the light of their reportedly lower hemoglobin levels and legendary exercise performance. Until recently, Sherpas have been the only Himalayan population available for study. To determine whether Tibetans exhibited levels of ventilation and hypoxic ventilatory drives that were as great as acclimatized newcomers, we compared 27 lifelong Tibetan residents of Lhasa, Tibet, China (3,658 m) with 30 acclimatized Han ("Chinese") newcomers matched for age, body size, and extent of exercise training. During room air breathing, minute ventilation was greater in the Tibetan than in the Han young men because of an increased respiratory frequency, but arterial O2 saturation and end-tidal PCO2 did not differ, indicating similar levels of effective alveolar ventilation. The Tibetan subjects had higher hypoxic ventilatory response shape parameter A values and hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness than the Han subjects. Among the Han subjects, duration of high-altitude residence correlated with the degree of blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory drive. Paradoxically, hyperoxia (inspired O2 fraction 0.70) increased minute ventilation and decreased end-tidal PCO2 in the Tibetan but not in the Han men. We concluded that lifelong Tibetan residents of high altitude neither hypoventilated nor exhibited blunted hypoxic ventilatory responses compared with acclimatized Han newcomers, suggesting that the effects of lifelong high-altitude residence on ventilation and ventilatory response to hypoxia differ in Tibetan compared with other high-altitude populations.

  7. Microbial community development on the surface of Hans and Werenskiold Glaciers (Svalbard, Arctic): a comparison.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Górniak, Dorota; Świątecki, Aleksander; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Szatraj, Katarzyna; Zdanowski, Marek K

    2015-09-01

    Surface ice and cryoconite holes of two types of polythermal Svalbard Glaciers (Hans Glacier--grounded tidewater glacier and Werenskiold Glacier-land-based valley glacier) were investigated in terms of chemical composition, microbial abundance and diversity. Gathered data served to describe supraglacial habitats and to compare microbe-environment interactions on those different type glaciers. Hans Glacier samples displayed elevated nutrient levels (DOC, nitrogen and seston) compared to Werenskiold Glacier. Adjacent tundra formations, bird nesting sites and marine aerosol were candidates for allochtonic enrichment sources. Microbial numbers were comparable on both glaciers, with surface ice containing cells in the range of 10(4) mL(-1) and cryoconite sediment 10(8) g(-1) dry weight. Denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis band-based clustering revealed differences between glaciers in terms of dominant bacterial taxa structure. Microbial community on Werenskiold Glacier benefited from the snow-released substances. On Hans Glacier, this effect was not as pronounced, affecting mainly the photoautotrophs. Over-fertilization of Hans Glacier surface was proposed as the major factor, desensitizing the microbial community to the snow melt event. Nitrogen emerged as a limiting factor in surface ice habitats, especially to Eukaryotic algae. PMID:26104673

  8. Building Empire through Argumentation: Debating Salt and Iron in Western Han China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Xiaoye

    2010-01-01

    The history of American imperialism, as well as China's strong presence on the contemporary global scene, should encourage American scholars of rhetoric to look beyond the nation-state and study other rhetorical traditions such as Chinese practices of argument. A debate during the Western Han dynasty over the country's economic policies…

  9. Validating GWAS-Identified Risk Loci for Alzheimer's Disease in Han Chinese Populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Zhen; Bi, Rui; Hu, Qiu-Xiang; Xiang, Qun; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Zhang, Wen; Ma, Xiaohong; Guo, Wanjun; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Liansheng; Ni, Peiyan; Li, Mingli; Fang, Yiru; Li, Tao; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many novel susceptible genes/loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, most of these studies were conducted in European and populations of European origin, and limited studies have been performed in Han Chinese. In this study, we genotyped 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight GWAS-reported AD risk genes in 1509 individuals comprising two independent Han Chinese case-control cohorts. Four SNPs (rs11234495, rs592297, rs676733, and rs3851179) in the PICALM gene were significantly associated with late-onset (LO)-AD in populations from Southwest China, whereas SNPs rs744373 (BIN1), rs9331942 (CLU), and rs670139 (MS4A4E) were linked to LO-AD in populations from East China. In the combined Han Chinese population, positive associations were observed between PICALM, CLU, MS4A4E genes, and LO-AD. The association between rs3851179 (PICALM), rs744373 (BIN1), and AD was further confirmed by meta-analysis of Asian populations. Our study verified the association between PICALM, BIN1, CLU, and MS4A4E variants and AD susceptibility in Han Chinese populations. We also discerned some regional differences concerning AD susceptibility SNPs.

  10. Collaboration, Reputation, and Ethics in American Academic Life: Hans H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Guy; Vidich, Arthur J.

    Using the collaboration between sociologist C. Wright Mills and Hans H. Gerth and their studies of the work of Max Weber as a point of departure for a sustained discussion of academic ethics, this book explores how concealment, secrecy, and deception contribute to the building of academic reputation and how the balance of knowledge and power in a…

  11. Brief Report: No Increase in Criminal Convictions in Hans Asperger's Original Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic psychopathy" or features of the…

  12. Influence of Environmental Variables on the Distribution of Macrobenthos in the Han River Estuary, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ok Hwan; Lee, Hyung-Gon; Lee, Jae-Hac

    2012-12-01

    We compared environmental effects on the macrobenthic community of the Han River Estuary in summer, when freshwater input from the Han River increased, and in spring, when freshwater input decreased. Field samples were taken from the upper region of the Shingok reservoir to the southern area of Ganghwado at 18 sampling sites after rainy (August 2006) and dry (March 2007) seasons. Macrobenthic fauna were collected using a Van Veen Grab (0.025 m2 and 0.1 m2) and environmental factors were measured simultaneously. Dominant species of macrobenthic fauna and the macrobenthic community were divided into two areas, the area of the Han River with no salinity (< 0.1 psu) and the southern part of Ganghwado with salinity (> 20 psu). The dominant species Byblis japonicus appeared at Junruri in the dry season. The distributions of two polychaetes, Hediste japonica and Nephtys caeca, were divided into the lower and upper areas of the Singok submerged weir. BIO-ENV (the matching of biotic to environmental patterns) analysis revealed that salinity was the most important factor affecting macrobenthic communities in the Han River Estuary, with other factors such as sediment grain size, bottom dissolved oxygen, and total organic carbon of sediment being secondary.

  13. The Relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's Concept of Tradition to the Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiviskä, Anniina

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Anniina Leiviskä argues that the educational relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's concept of tradition has remained unacknowledged because of the conservatism that has been associated with Gadamer's hermeneutics, particularly his notion of tradition. Therefore, Leiviskä seeks to reveal the reflective, nonconservative nature of…

  14. Microbial community development on the surface of Hans and Werenskiold Glaciers (Svalbard, Arctic): a comparison.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Górniak, Dorota; Świątecki, Aleksander; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Szatraj, Katarzyna; Zdanowski, Marek K

    2015-09-01

    Surface ice and cryoconite holes of two types of polythermal Svalbard Glaciers (Hans Glacier--grounded tidewater glacier and Werenskiold Glacier-land-based valley glacier) were investigated in terms of chemical composition, microbial abundance and diversity. Gathered data served to describe supraglacial habitats and to compare microbe-environment interactions on those different type glaciers. Hans Glacier samples displayed elevated nutrient levels (DOC, nitrogen and seston) compared to Werenskiold Glacier. Adjacent tundra formations, bird nesting sites and marine aerosol were candidates for allochtonic enrichment sources. Microbial numbers were comparable on both glaciers, with surface ice containing cells in the range of 10(4) mL(-1) and cryoconite sediment 10(8) g(-1) dry weight. Denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis band-based clustering revealed differences between glaciers in terms of dominant bacterial taxa structure. Microbial community on Werenskiold Glacier benefited from the snow-released substances. On Hans Glacier, this effect was not as pronounced, affecting mainly the photoautotrophs. Over-fertilization of Hans Glacier surface was proposed as the major factor, desensitizing the microbial community to the snow melt event. Nitrogen emerged as a limiting factor in surface ice habitats, especially to Eukaryotic algae.

  15. Antisocial Behavior in Children and Hans Eysenck's Biosocial Theory of Personality: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Dawn E.; Center, David B.

    This paper examines antisocial behavior in children and youth in relation to the biosocial personality theory of Hans Eysenck. It explains Eysenck's theory, which includes a significant role for biological factors in the development of antisocial behavior. The theory holds that three temperament traits--Psychoticism (P), Extroversion (E), and…

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference. PMID:26839545

  18. GDF9 as a candidate gene for prolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Chu, M X; Yang, J; Feng, T; Cao, G L; Fang, L; Di, R; Huang, D W; Tang, Q Q; Ma, Y H; Li, K; Li, N

    2011-11-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) which controls the fecundity of Belclare, Cambridge, Santa Ines, Moghani, Ghezel and Thoka ewes was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of Small Tail Han sheep. According to the sequence of ovine GDF9 gene, six pairs of primers were designed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms of two exons of GDF9 gene in both high fecundity breed (Small Tail Han sheep) and low fecundity breed (Dorset sheep) by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Only the products amplified by primers 2-1 and 2-2 displayed polymorphisms. For primer 2-1, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were detected in both sheep breeds. Sequencing revealed one silent mutation (G477A) in exon 2 of GDF9 gene in the BB genotype in comparison with the AA, which was known as G3 mutation of GDF9 gene in Belclare and Cambridge ewes. The relationship of least squares means for litter size was AA > AB > BB in Small Tail Han sheep (P > 0.05). For primer 2-2, two genotypes (CC and CD) were detected in both sheep breeds. Sequencing revealed one novel single nucleotide mutation (G729T) in exon 2 of GDF9 gene in the CD genotype in comparison with the CC, which resulted in an amino acid change (Gln243His). The ewes with mutation heterozygous genotype CD had 0.77 (P < 0.01) lambs more than those with wild type CC in Small Tail Han sheep. These results preliminarily indicated that allele D of GDF9 gene was a potential genetic marker for improving litter size in Small Tail Han sheep.

  19. Sleep structure and periodic breathing in Tibetans and Han at simulated altitude of 5000 m.

    PubMed

    Pływaczewski, Robert; Wu, Tian Yi; Wang, Xiano Qin; Cheng, Haui Wei; Sliwiński, Paweł Siwiski; Zieliński, Jan

    2003-07-16

    Tibetans are the oldest population living permanently at high altitude. They possess several adaptations to low oxygen pressure that improve oxygen transport. We hypothesised that native Tibetans have mechanisms allowing them to maintain a better sleep structure and oxygenation during sleep at high altitude than newcomers from lower altitudes acclimatised to living at high altitude. We studied eight healthy young Tibetans, aged 26+/-7 years, and six healthy young Han aged 30.5+/-4 years. All subjects were living on the Tibetan plateau at an altitude of around 4000 m. Investigations were performed in Xining at an altitude of 2261 m, PB=581 mmHg. Two full polysomnographies (PSG) were performed in a hypobaric chamber, one at the ambient altitude, the second during acute exposure to the simulated altitude of 5000 m (PB=405 mmHg). Both PSG were done on the same night using split night design. At 2261 m no differences in sleep structure, breathing pattern during sleep or oxygenation were found, except a higher number of arousals and awakenings in Han (P<0.002). At 5000 m Tibetans had a longer sleep time (P=0.002), shorter stage 1 non-REM sleep (P<0.001) and longer stage 2 non-REM sleep than Han (P<0.001). Tibetans showed a trend to have more periodic breathing (PB) and higher mean arterial blood saturation than Han (NS). Our data suggest that Tibetans preserved better sleep structure and arterial blood oxygenation than Han during acute exposure to the simulated altitude of 5000 m.

  20. "Our Good Han Mothers": Observations from the Xinjiang Class at the Qingshan Superior Secondary School of Wuxi Municipality, Jiangsu Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Jiaqing; Yang, Xiaohu

    2010-01-01

    Instrumental to the successful running of the Xinjiang Classes are its teachers, many of whom are Han Chinese. This article explores the important roles teachers of the Xinjiang Class play in the lives of Xinjiang Class students inside and outside of the classroom. From homesickness, to hygiene, to scholastic endeavors, Han teacher-mothers…

  1. Mild cognitive impairment risk factor survey of the Xinjiang Uyghur and Han elderly

    PubMed Central

    Keyimu, Kabinuer; Zhou, Xiao-Hui; Miao, Hai-Jun; Zou, Ting

    2015-01-01

    To understand risk factors of the Xinjiang Uyghur, Han two ethnic elderly with mild cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment, MCI), and provide evidence for in-depth study of the causes and prevention of MCI. The MCI epidemiological survey was based on Xinjiang Uyghur and Han residents with 60 years of age or older. The total number of participants is 5398, including 3931 Uyghur residents, and 1467 Han residents. There are 456 participants with MMSE score 2 points above the demarcation points, excluded from the survey for dementia, cerebrovascular disease and other central nervous system disorders, according to case-control study method of random selection in epidemiological survey. In accordance with the clinical diagnostic criteria of MCI, which is from Disorder Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (the revised version of the fourth edition (DSM-IV) from of the American Psychiatric Association, there are 305 cases of MCI, including 159 cases of Han, 146 cases of Uyghur. In the Han groups: univariate analysis showed a correlation (P < 0.05) between sex, age, blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-ch) and MCI. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed: age, hypertension, TG, LDL-ch (increased) may increase the risk of MCI (OR values were: 1.115, 1.981, 1.315, 1.495, with P < 0.05). In the Uyghur groups: univariate analysis showed a correlation (P < 0.05) between age, gender, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC, LDL-ch and MCI. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed: age, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC, LDL-ch (increased), women have a higher risk of MCI (OR values were: 1.063, 2.145, 2.879, 2.078, 1.429, 1.485, 0.462, P < 0.05). Age, hypertension, TG and LDL-ch are risk factors of MCI for Han population, while age, hypertension, abnormal glucose metabolism, TG, TC and LDL-ch are risk factors of MCI for Uyghur population. PMID:26550345

  2. Angiogenin gene polymorphism: A risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the northern Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongli; Fan, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yingshuang

    2013-12-25

    Angiogenin is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Here, we quenced the coding region of the angiogenin gene in genomic DNA from 207 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (129 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and 78 diabetic non-neuropathy patients) and 268 healthy controls. All subjects were from the Han population of northern China. No mutations were found. We then compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the angiogenin synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs11701 between the diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and controls, and between the diabetic neuropathy and non-neuropathy patients, using a case-control design. We detected no statistically significant genetic associations. Angiogenin may not be associated with genetic susceptibility to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the Han population of northern China.

  3. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.

  4. Genetic polymorphism of 17 Y-STR loci in Han Chinese living in Lanzhou.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-bing; Yang, Xin; Ha, Fei; Zhang, Zi-long

    2013-12-01

    The genetic polymorphism across 17 Y-STR loci in a population of Han Chinese in Lanzhou was investigated. Haplotypes and allele frequencies for the 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448 were determined in 500 healthy unrelated autochthonous males from Lanzhou. The results showed that no shared haplotypes were observed. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.3987 (DYS391) to 0.9740 (DYS385a,b). It was concluded that these loci will be very useful for human identification in forensic cases and paternity tests within the Han Chinese population inhabiting Lanzhou.

  5. Genetic polymorphism of 17 Y-STR loci in Han Chinese living in Lanzhou.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-bing; Yang, Xin; Ha, Fei; Zhang, Zi-long

    2013-12-01

    The genetic polymorphism across 17 Y-STR loci in a population of Han Chinese in Lanzhou was investigated. Haplotypes and allele frequencies for the 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448 were determined in 500 healthy unrelated autochthonous males from Lanzhou. The results showed that no shared haplotypes were observed. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.3987 (DYS391) to 0.9740 (DYS385a,b). It was concluded that these loci will be very useful for human identification in forensic cases and paternity tests within the Han Chinese population inhabiting Lanzhou. PMID:24337856

  6. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties. PMID:24989803

  7. Analysis of the private, collective, and relational self-cognitions among Han and Tibetan Chinese.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Mamat, Marhaba; Shang, Rui; Zhang, Tianyang; Li, Hao; Wang, Yao; Luo, Wei; Wu, Yanhong

    2014-08-01

    Differences in the concepts of private, collective, and relational selves between two Chinese ethnic groups, the Han and Tibetan-adhering to the philosophies of Confucianism and Tibetan Buddhism, respectively-were examined. 128 students (54 men, 74 women; M age = 20.9 yr., SD = 2.2) completed the revised Twenty Statements Test and self-reference paradigm. Study 1 found that for Han participants relational and private selves were ranked similarly and as more important than the collective self. Studies 2 and 3 found that adjective words describing private and relational selves were recalled in greater proportions than words describing the collective self. Tibetan participants showed no significant differences between the three self-cognitions. The findings correspond to differences in self-identity among these two subcultures. PMID:25153957

  8. Association between polymorphisms in PDCD1 gene and aplastic anemia in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zixia; Miao, Miao; Qiu, Yuhua; Qin, Zhenghong; Wang, Jin; Jiang, Yiguo; Ming, Zhijun; Zhang, Xueguang

    2013-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1, encoded by PDCD1) has been reported to be associated with several autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Graves' disease and multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to study the correlation between PD-1 gene polymorphism and aplastic anemia in a Chinese Han population, two SNPs, PD-1.1 G/A (rs36084323) and PD-1.6 G/A (rs10204525), were genotyped in 166 patients with aplastic anemia and 144 healthy controls by direct sequencing. All genotype distributions in both patients and controls were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Associations of genotypes and alleles with aplastic anemia were analyzed. The results suggested that the G allele of PD-1.1 was associated with an increased risk for aplastic anemia, while SNP of PD-1.6 was not associated with aplastic anemia in a Chinese Han population. PMID:23373967

  9. More heritability probably captured by psoriasis genome-wide association study in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Long; Liu, Lu; Cheng, Yuyan; Lin, Yan; Shen, Changbing; Zhu, Caihong; Yang, Sen; Yin, Xianyong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2015-11-15

    Missing heritability is a common problem in genome-wide association studies in complex diseases/traits. To quantify the unbiased heritability estimate, we applied the phenotype correlation-genotype correlation regression in psoriasis genome-wide association data in Han Chinese which comprises 1139 cases and 1132 controls. We estimated that 45.7% heritability of psoriasis in Han Chinese were captured by common variants (s.e.=12.5%), which reinforced that the majority of psoriasis heritability can be covered by common variants in genome-wide association data (68.2%). The results provided evidence that the heritability covered by psoriasis genome-wide genotyping data was probably underestimated in previous restricted maximum likelihood method. Our study highlights the broad role of common variants in the etiology of psoriasis and sheds light on the possibility to identify more common variants of small effect by increasing the sample size in psoriasis genome-wide association studies.

  10. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure. PMID:27483472

  11. Dr. Hans Rosling, Keynote - 2013 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit

    SciTech Connect

    Rosling, Hans

    2014-03-06

    The fourth annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2013. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Dr. Hans Rosling (Professor, International Health, Karolinska Institute; Edutainer, Gapminder.org), gave this keynote address.

  12. Dr. Hans Rosling, Keynote - 2013 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit

    ScienceCinema

    Rosling, Hans (Professor, International Health, Karolinska Institute; Edutainer, Gapminder.org)

    2016-07-12

    The fourth annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2013. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. Dr. Hans Rosling (Professor, International Health, Karolinska Institute; Edutainer, Gapminder.org), gave this keynote address.

  13. Polymorphism analysis of 15 STR loci in a large sample of Guangdong (Southern China) Han population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Lu, Huijie; Qiu, Pingming; Yang, Xingyi; Liu, Chao

    2015-11-01

    AmpFℓSTR Sinofiler PCR Amplification Kit is specially developed for Chinese forensic laboratories, but there are little population-genetic data about this kit for Southern China. This kit contains 15 STR loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, D18S51, D6S1043, D12S391, D5S818 and FGA. We have conducted genotyping experiments on the 15 STR loci in 5234 unrelated individuals from Guangdong (Southern China). We observed a total of 243 alleles in the group with the allelic frequency values ranging from less than 0.0001 to 0.3686. Our statistic analysis indicates that the 15 STR loci conform to the Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium (p>0.05). The highest polymorphism was found at D6S1043 locus and the lowest was found at D3S1358. The combined power of discrimination reached 0.99999999999999999977431 and the combined probability of paternity exclusion reached 0.999999721 for 15 STR loci. Guangdong Han population had significant differences compared with Shaanxi, Shandong and Henan province of Northern China. A Neighbor-joining tree indicates that the Guangdong Han has a close genetic relationship with the Yunnan population. Significant differences were found between Guangdong Han population and other reported populations (Japanese, Philippine, African American, Caucasian, Hispanic and Western Romanian) at 2-11 STR loci. The results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies. The present findings indicate that all the 15 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Han population of Guangdong.

  14. The MTHFR C677T Polymorphism and Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Tao, Chuanyuan; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Yunke; Zheng, Jun; Fang, Yuan; Lin, Sen; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism has been speculated to be and extensively investigated as a risk factor for various vascular diseases, including intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, results from published studies regarding the role of C677T polymorphism in ICH risk in Chinese populations were contradictory rather than conclusive. Material/Methods In this study, a total of 180 ICH patients and 180 matched controls of Chinese Han ethnicity were enrolled. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction (PCR-LDR). A meta-analysis was conducted by combining our data with previous relevant studies in Chinese populations. Results In our case-control study, similar allele frequency (p=0.492) and genotype distribution (p=0.748) of MTHFR C677T polymorphism were detected between ICH patients and controls. Further analysis based on hematoma location did not show a significant association. When combined with previous studies, however, C677T polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk for ICH in Chinese populations (recessive model: OR=1.57, 95%CI=1.29–1.91). When focusing on the Han ethnicity, carriers of the TT genotype had an increased risk of ICH (recessive model: OR=1.36, 95%CI=1.05–1.75). Conclusions In this case-control study we did not observe that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with ICH risk in people of Chinese Han ethnicity. However, when combined with previous published studies, a significant association of C677T polymorphism with an increased risk of ICH was detected in Chinese populations, and also in the subgroup analysis focusing on Han ethnicity. PMID:26757363

  15. Hans Bethe and Physics in/of the 20th Century

    SciTech Connect

    Schweber, Silvan

    2012-12-12

    I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.

  16. [A peculiar man - about Hans Selye, as reflected in his Hungarian connections].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Katalin

    2015-08-30

    Hans Selye made a great impact on the Hungarian medical, scientific and public life. His first Hungarian publication about the alarm-reaction appeared 1938 in the Orvosi Hetilap. His Hungarian relationship was quite extensive after the war as he published, gave lectures, and accepted Hungarian students for specialized training in his Canadian institute saw. The rich documents in archives about Selye are currently being processed and those will surely shed light on Selye's life in further details.

  17. Association of the NOTCH4 Gene Polymorphism rs204993 with Schizophrenia in the Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Fan, Qian Rui; Li, Wen Hao; Lu, Ning; Fu, Dong Ke; Kang, Yan Jie; Wang, Na; Li, Teng; Wen, Xiao Peng; Li, Da Xu

    2015-01-01

    NOTCH4 regulates signaling pathways associated with neuronal maturation, a process involved in the development and patterning of the central nervous system. The NOTCH4 gene has also been identified as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SCZ). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between NOTCH4 polymorphisms and SCZ in the Chinese Han population. The rs2071287 and rs204993 polymorphisms of the NOTCH4 gene were analyzed in 443 patients with SCZ and 628 controls of Han Chinese descent. Single SNP allele-, genotype-, and gender-specific associations were analyzed using different models (i.e., additive, dominant, and recessive models). This association study revealed that the rs204993 polymorphism is significantly associated with susceptibility for SCZ and that the AA genotype of rs204993 is associated with a higher risk for SCZ (P = 0.027; OR = 1.460; 95% CI, 1.043-2.054). Our data are consistent with those obtained in previous studies that suggested that rs204993 is associated with SCZ and that the AA genotype of rs204993 demonstrates a higher risk. Further large-scale association analyses in Han Chinese populations are warranted. PMID:26605328

  18. Variants in 9p21 Predicts Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jinjin; Su, Li; Zeng, Ying; Tang, Xiaojun; Wei, Jie; Wang, Long; Zhou, Li

    2016-09-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies identified the common genetic variants in 9p21 were associated with the coronary artery disease (CAD). However, whether this locus could predict the severity of CAD in Chinese Han population is unclear. 499 CAD patients who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) have been enrolled for this study. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs2383207 and rs2383206 in 9p21 were genotyped in 499 CAG cases and 1519 controls in Chinese Han population. The gene dosage of 9p21 was stratified by the degree of vascular lesions and tested for association with the severity of CAD. Rs2383207 and rs2383206 demonstrated significant associations with 2-vessel and 3-vessel disease (P = 2.0×10(-3) and 1.9×10(-4) , respectively). GG genotypes of rs2383206 occurred higher proportion of left main trunk (LM) disease (P = 6.0×10(-3) ). GG genotypes of rs2383207 occurred higher proportion of left anterior descending artery disease (LAD) and right CAD (RCA) (P = 2.7×10(-6) and 1.6×10(-4) , respectively). The risk allele G of rs2383207 was associated with severity of CAD estimated by the Gensini score (P = 3.6×10(-5) ). Rs2383207 may strongly influence the development of CAD in Chinese Han population. The gene dosage in 9p21 could predict the severity of CAD. PMID:27461153

  19. Normal Values of Hertel Exophthalmometry in a Chinese Han Population from Shenyang, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Xin; Wu, Di; Di, Xin; Guan, Haixia; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Aims of this study were to determine the normal range of absolute and relative Hertel exophthalmometric values (EVs) in a Chinese Han population. This population-based cross-sectional study consisted of 2010 healthy Han Chinese (1051 females and 959 males) aged between 8–87 years living in Shenyang, Northeast China, including 515 children (aged 8–14 years), 517 teenagers (aged 15–19 years), 582 adults (aged 20–69 years) and 396 elderly (aged 70–87 years). A Hertel exophthalmometer was used by the same physician for the measurement of EV and inter-orbital distance (IOD). For the entire study population, the Hertel EVs ranged from 10 mm to 22 mm; the mean EVs for the left eye (OS) and right eye (OD) were 15.0 ± 1.9 mm and 15.0 ± 2.0 mm, respectively; the upper normal limits of the EVs (mean + 2 SD) for OS and OD were 18.8 mm and 19.0 mm, respectively; the mean relative EV was 0.20 ± 0.43 mm. Age, but not sex, had a significant effect on the EV. We concluded that our study provides normative ophthalmic data in a Chinese Han population. The normal EVs, asymmetry and IOD values have been established for clinical reference. PMID:25703959

  20. The chronological age estimation of third molar mineralization of Han population in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Qing, Maofeng; Qiu, Lihua; Gao, Zhi; Bhandari, Kishor

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the chronology of third molar mineralization in Han population of southwestern China and find its unique characteristics so that it would provide a reference in several legal cases like forensic age estimation. The study used Demirjian's staging method to study 2192 orthopantomograms of 984 male and 1208 female subjects aged between 8 and 25 years. The statistical data was analyzed by Student's t test and ANOVA. The conclusions of the study are: (1) The chronological mineralization age of third molars of Han population in Southwestern China is similar to the Turkish and the Japanese, was earlier than the Austrian and Han of South China, but later than the Spanish. (2) The mineralization timing of the third molars between two sides in maxilla or mandible has no significant differences in the same gender group. (3) There is no significant difference in mineralization of third molars between male and female, except for tooth 48 in Demirjian's stage E. (4) The mineralization of third molar in maxilla is earlier than mandible.

  1. Lack of Association of the CD247 SNP rs2056626 with Systemic Sclerosis in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiucun; Yi, Lin; Guo, Xinjian; He, Dongyi; Li, Hongyi; Guo, Gang; Wang, Yi; Zou, Hejian; Gu, Yuanhui; Tu, Wenzhen; Wu, Wenyu; Yang, Li; Xiao, Rong; Lai, Syeling; Assassi, Shervin; Mayes, Maureen D; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex disease involving multiple genetic factors. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) indicated that CD247 was strongly associated with SSc, which was subsequently confirmed in a SSc cohort of European population. However, genetic heterogeneity in different ethnic populations may significantly impact the complex trait of SSc. The studies herein aimed to examine whether the SSc-associated SNP rs2056626 of CD247 identified in Caucasian is also associated with Han Chinese SSc. A Han Chinese cohort consisting of 387 SSc patients and 523 healthy controls were examined in the studies. TaqMan assays were performed to examine the SNP. Exact p-values were obtained (Fisher’s test) from 2x2 tables of allele counts and disease status. The results showed that there was no association between rs2056626 of CD247 and SSc or any SSc subtypes of Han Chinese. The negative results are important in understanding genetics of SSc in different ethnic populations, which further suggest complex nature of genetics of SSc. PMID:25317213

  2. Net Phosphorus Requirements of Dorper×Thin-tailed Han Crossbred Ram Lambs.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shoukun; Xu, Guishan; Jiang, Chenggang; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Naifeng; Ma, Tao; Lou, Can; Diao, Qiyu

    2013-09-01

    A comparative slaughter trial was conducted to estimate the phosphorus (P) requirement for maintenance and growth of crossbred lambs of Dorper with a Chinese indigenous sheep breed, thin-tailed Han sheep. Thirty-five Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred, noncastrated ram lambs (20.3±0.22 kg of shrunk body weight (SBW)) were used. Seven lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 20 kg SBW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 28 kg SBW. The remaining 21 sheep were randomly divided into 3 groups with 7 sheep each and subject to the same diet of either 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake. The 3 groups were slaughtered when the sheep fed ad libitum reached 35 kg of SBW. Body P contents were determined after slaughter. The results showed that the net P requirement for maintenance was 30.0 mg/kg of empty body weight (EBW) or 23.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and the P requirement for growth decreased from 5.3 to 5.0 g/kg of EBW gain as the lamb grew from 20 to 35 kg. The net P requirement for growth of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs was lower than that of sheep adopted by the American nutritional system.

  3. Net Phosphorus Requirements of Dorper×Thin-tailed Han Crossbred Ram Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shoukun; Xu, Guishan; Jiang, Chenggang; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhang, Naifeng; Ma, Tao; Lou, Can; Diao, Qiyu

    2013-01-01

    A comparative slaughter trial was conducted to estimate the phosphorus (P) requirement for maintenance and growth of crossbred lambs of Dorper with a Chinese indigenous sheep breed, thin-tailed Han sheep. Thirty-five Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred, noncastrated ram lambs (20.3±0.22 kg of shrunk body weight (SBW)) were used. Seven lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 20 kg SBW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet for ad libitum intake and slaughtered at 28 kg SBW. The remaining 21 sheep were randomly divided into 3 groups with 7 sheep each and subject to the same diet of either 70 or 40% of ad libitum intake. The 3 groups were slaughtered when the sheep fed ad libitum reached 35 kg of SBW. Body P contents were determined after slaughter. The results showed that the net P requirement for maintenance was 30.0 mg/kg of empty body weight (EBW) or 23.4 mg/kg body weight (BW), and the P requirement for growth decreased from 5.3 to 5.0 g/kg of EBW gain as the lamb grew from 20 to 35 kg. The net P requirement for growth of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ram lambs was lower than that of sheep adopted by the American nutritional system. PMID:25049910

  4. [The prevalence, prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic during the Han-Tang Period].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2013-03-01

    About 21 times of cattle epidemic with rather strong infectivity happened during the Han-Tang Period, including 6 in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 2 in the Jin Dynasty, 4 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 8 in the Tang Dynasty and 1in the Five Dynasty. Most of them were spread along the Yellow River and the northern region of the Huai River. The type of cattle epidemic included the acute cattle plague, cattle bovine mange, cattle yellow fever and cattle rotten hoof disease, etc. Its occurrence and prevalence brought a serious influentce on the society of the Han and Tang Dynasties, causing massive mortality of farm cattle, and then the shortage of animal power, and threatening the agriculture, which drew the attention of the governments, physicians, agriculturists, astrologists and Taoists. The medical measures and economic measures were adopted for the prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic. Especially, prescriptions in the books of medicine and agriculture exerted positive effects on the containment of cattle epidemic. On the other hand, its prevalence and the mass mortality of farm cattle, in a way, promoted, to certain extent, the improvement of the government's function of relief, the updating of the methods of agriculture and the creation of new farm tools, and being regarded as a main cause for the technological innovation of agriculture.

  5. [Mode and size of HPA-typed platelet apheresis donor bank in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu-Dong

    2010-08-01

    This study was purposed to determine the mode and size of human platelet antigens (HPA) typed platelet apheresis donor bank. The published data of HPA distribution collected from Chinese Han population of 16 provinces were analyzed. The combined data were tested with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results showed that the bb homozygote was not detected in HPA-1, -4, -6, -10, and b gene was not found in HPA-7-9, 11-14, -16. There were 648 combined HPA 1-16 genotypes in Chinese Han population, and the cumulative frequency of 42 combinations higher than 0.001 were 0.9763. The highest frequency (0.2012) in combination was HPA-(7-8-9-11-12-13-14-16) aa - (1-4-5-6-10) aa-2aa-3ab-15ab. The probability of HPA dual antigen mismatch in HPA-15, -3 and -2 was higher than the 0.1, and the probability in the HPA-1, -5, and -6 was between 0.01 - 0.1. The probability of full-match in HPA1-16 antigens was 0.3195 in Chinese Han population after the random blood transfusion. According to the curve drawn by donor number (N) versus frequency (F), the regression equation LogN = -0.4394 x Ln (F) +0.4324 was derived at P = 95%. If the derived frequency (product of HPA frequency and ABO frequency) is 0.005, then the N should be 576.07 at least in Chinese Han population. It is concluded that the mode of regional, multi-center database of HPA-typed platelet apheresis donor bank may be acceptable in Chinese Han population, and the suitable number of HPA-typed platelet donor in one bank may be 600. Therefore, the bank can be used to treat the platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) caused by HPA-15, 3 and 2 mismatch mainly, and can be expanded effectively in similar genetic background to deal with the low-frequency HPA antigens mismatch. The number of HPA-typed platelet apheresis donor influences not only on the frequency of HPA, but also on the frequency of ABO group.

  6. Chronological age estimation of third molar mineralization of Han in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dong Lin; Wu, Zhi Ling; Cui, Min Yi

    2010-03-01

    In order to study the chronology of age of third molar mineralization of Han in southern China, Demirjian staging method was used to determine the stage of four third molars (18, 28, 38, 48) mineralization in 3,100 Han in southern China aged 4.1-26.9 years based on radiological evidence from digital orthopantomograms. The mean age of the 3,100 patients was 15.96 +/- 4.73 years, including 1,200 male (mean age, 15.32 +/- 4.62) and 1,900 female (mean age, 16.35 +/- 4.76). Results show that there was no significant difference in mineralization between 18 and 28 and 38 and 48 of male or female. However, significant difference was observed between 28 and 38 of female at stage C; 28 was 0.25 years earlier than 38. In male, at stage G, 38 was 0.61 years earlier than 28, and 48 was 0.62 years earlier than 18. At stages D, E, F, G, and H, male 48 was 0.34, 0.66, 0.72, 1.34, and 0.76 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages A, D, E, F, G, and H, male 38 was 0.73, 0.26, 0.56, 0.91, 1.29, and 0.70 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages B, E, F, G, and H, the mineralization mean age of male 18 was 0.54, 0.50, 0.76, 0.92, and 0.58 years earlier than that of female, respectively. At stages E, F, G, and H, the mineralization mean age of male 28 was 0.51, 0.76, 0.92, and 0.49 years earlier than that of female, respectively. After reviewing the literature, the chronological mineralization age of 48, at stages D to G, of Han in southern China was 1 to 4.6 years earlier than that of Japanese and 1 to 3 years earlier than that of German. The mean age at stage H of 48 of Han in southern China was similar to Turkish, Black African, Japanese, and German, but was later than Spanish. Finally, the conclusions are: (1) in the same gender group of Han in southern China, the mineralization ages between two sides in upper or lower jaw are very similar, and (2) the chronology mean age and complete time of third molar mineralization of male were earlier than

  7. [Wuwei Handai yijian (Wuwei Medical Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty) as evidential material for exploring the origin of Shang han Za bing Lun (Treatise on cold pathogenic and miscellaneous disease)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-chang; Sun, Qi-bin; Yang, Fu-de

    2006-04-01

    Since there are only very few Chinese medical literature in the Han and preceding dynasties extant, it is very difficult to investigate the origins of both the herbs and formulas in the book Shanghan Zabing Lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic and Miscellaneous Disease) and the status of that of the contemporary period. The Chinese medical bamboo slips of the Han dynasty unearthed from the tombs in Wuwei, Gansu Province in 1972, had been speculated by archeologists to be a medical literature written in the early period of the Eastern Han Dynasty, or, 150 years earlier than the time Zhang Zhongjing's book written at the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, Thus, it can provide evidence for the study on the source of herbs and formulas in Shanghan Zabing Lun. PMID:17096981

  8. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  9. Adsorption and decomposition of monopropellant molecule HAN on Pd(100) and Ir(100) surfaces: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sourav; Shetty, Sharath A.; Gowrav, M. N.; Oommen, Charlie; Bhattacharya, Atanu

    2016-11-01

    We have performed density functional theory calculations with the generalized gradient approximation to investigate the catalytic decomposition reactions of one of the most promising monopropellants, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN), on two catalytically active single crystal Pd(100) and Ir(100) surfaces, aiming at exploring different reaction pathways and reactivities of these two surfaces towards the catalytic decomposition of HAN. We find that the HAN molecule binds both the Pd(100) and Ir(100) surfaces molecularly in different orientations with respect to the surface. The HONO elimination is found to possess the lowest activation energy on the Pd(100) surface; whereas, NO2 elimination is predicted to show the lowest activation energy on the Ir(100) surface. Exothermicities associated with different reaction steps are also discussed. This is the first theoretical report on the catalytic decomposition reactions of the HAN molecule on the single crystal Pd(100) and the Ir(100) surfaces using the periodic DFT calculations.

  10. A genome-based study of the Muslim Hui community and the Han population of Liaoning Province, PR China.

    PubMed

    Black, M L; Wang, W; Bittles, A H

    2001-12-01

    To investigate the proposed historical origins of the Hui, a Chinese Muslim minority resident in Liaoning Province, PR China, DNA samples obtained from 53 individuals were analyzed at ten autosomal and six Y-chromosome microsatellite loci. As reference sources, equivalent samples were investigated from the coresident Han majority population. Both the Hui and the Han exhibited appreciable genetic heterogeneity in terms of the size, number, and size range of alleles, suggestive of population substructure resulting from their particular cultural and historical backgrounds. The contrast in the patterns of autosomal and Y-chromosome diversity of the two communities was obvious. Analysis of molecular variance showed that only 4.6% of total autosomal molecular variance was due to differences between the Hui and Han. The comparable value for Y-chromosome haplotype distributions of 14.0% indicated that the Hui and Han of Liaoning have separate paternal genetic histories. PMID:11804196

  11. [A fourth-generation doctor - Hans Selye and his origins from Felvidék (today Slovakia)].

    PubMed

    Kiss, László

    2016-08-01

    Hans Selye regarded himself as the fourth generation of medical dynasty, but in his books he did not name his ancestors. Based on facts from archives and contemporary literature the author demonstrated that the grandfather of Hans Selye was called Schlesinger and he worked in Pruszka (county Trencsén; (today: Pruské, county Trenčín, Slovakia) as a district physician. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1331-1333. PMID:27523317

  12. Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ping; Yin, Rui-Xing; Huang, Ke-Ke; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Dong-Feng; Li, Hui; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions. PMID:24195066

  13. Association of the KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and Serum Lipid Levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han Populations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping; Yin, Rui-Xing; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Guo, Tao; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Wu, Dong-Feng; Li, Hui; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the rs4731702 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 727 subjects of Mulao and 740 subjects of Han Chinese were included. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Mulao, whereas they had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han (P < 0.05) than the T allele noncarriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the T allele carriers had higher HDL-C, LDL-C, and ApoAI levels in Mulao males and lower ApoAI levels and ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Han males than the T allele noncarriers. The subjects with TT genotype in Han females also had higher total cholesterol, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB levels than the subjects with CT or CC genotype. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. The differences in the association of KLF14 rs4731702 SNP and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different gene-environmental interactions. PMID:24195066

  14. HLA-G coding region and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) in two Chinese Han populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Yi; Tian, Wei; Liu, Xue Xiang; Li, Li Xin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, exons 2-4 and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G gene were investigated for 201 and 104 healthy unrelated Han samples recruited from Hunan Province, southern China and central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China, respectively, using sequence-based typing and cloning methods. Totally 12 HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 9 variable sites in 3'UTR, 8 3'UTR haplotypes and 15 HLA-G extended haplotypes (EHs) incorporating the coding region and 3'UTR were observed. Very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between HLA-A and HLA-G, and between HLA-G coding region and 3'UTR in each population (all global P=0.0000). Seven HLA-A-G haplotypes showed significant LD in both populations. Three HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 4 polymorphic sites in the 3'UTR, 3 3'UTR haplotypes and 4 HLA-G EHs differed significantly in their distributions between the 2 Chinese Han populations (all P≤0.0001). There was evidence for balancing selection acting on HLA-G 3'UTR positions +3010, +3142 and +3187 in the two populations. The NJ dendrograms demonstrated the existence of two basic HLA-G lineages and indicated that, HLA-G*01:01:01, the most common HLA-G allele, formed a separate lineage from other alleles. Our results shed new lights into HLA-G genetics among Chinese Han populations. The findings reported here are of importance for future studies related to post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G allelic expression and the potential role of HLA-G in disease association in populations of Chinese ancestry. PMID:27262928

  15. FCRL3 Gene Polymorphisms Confer Autoimmunity Risk for Allergic Rhinitis in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zheng; Hong, Su-Ling; Ke, Xia; Shen, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Di; Hu, Guo-Hua; Kang, Hou-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Heredity and environmental exposures may contribute to a predisposition to allergic rhinitis (AR). Autoimmunity may also involve into this pathologic process. FCRL3 (Fc receptor-like 3 gene), a novel immunoregulatory gene, has recently been reported to play a role in autoimmune diseases. Objective This study was performed to evaluate the potential association of FCRL3 polymorphisms with AR in a Chinese Han population. Methods Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms of FCRL3, rs945635, rs3761959, rs7522061, rs10489678 and rs7528684 were genotyped in 540 AR patients and 600 healthy controls using a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were compared between patients and controls using the χ2 test. The online software platform SHEsis was used to analyze their haplotypes. Results This study identified three strong risk SNPs rs7528684, rs10489678, rs7522061 and one weak risk SNP rs945635 of FCRL3 in Chinese Han AR patients. For rs7528684, a significantly increased prevalence of the AA genotype and A allele in AR patients was recorded. The frequency of the GG genotype and G allele of rs10489678 was markedly higher in AR patients than those in controls. For rs7522061, a higher frequency of the TT genotype, and a lower frequency of the CT genotype were found in AR patients. Concerning rs945635, a lower frequency of the CC genotype, and a higher frequency of G allele were observed in AR patients. According to the analysis of the three strong positive SNPs, the haplotype of AGT increased significantly in AR cases (AR = 38.8%, Controls = 24.3%, P = 8.29×10-14, OR [95% CI] 1.978 [1.652~2.368]). Conclusions This study found a significant association between the SNPs in FCRL3 gene and AR in Chinese Han patients. The results suggest these gene polymorphisms might be the autoimmunity risk for AR. PMID:25594855

  16. HLA-G coding region and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) in two Chinese Han populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Yi; Tian, Wei; Liu, Xue Xiang; Li, Li Xin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, exons 2-4 and 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G gene were investigated for 201 and 104 healthy unrelated Han samples recruited from Hunan Province, southern China and central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China, respectively, using sequence-based typing and cloning methods. Totally 12 HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 9 variable sites in 3'UTR, 8 3'UTR haplotypes and 15 HLA-G extended haplotypes (EHs) incorporating the coding region and 3'UTR were observed. Very strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between HLA-A and HLA-G, and between HLA-G coding region and 3'UTR in each population (all global P=0.0000). Seven HLA-A-G haplotypes showed significant LD in both populations. Three HLA-G alleles in the coding region, 4 polymorphic sites in the 3'UTR, 3 3'UTR haplotypes and 4 HLA-G EHs differed significantly in their distributions between the 2 Chinese Han populations (all P≤0.0001). There was evidence for balancing selection acting on HLA-G 3'UTR positions +3010, +3142 and +3187 in the two populations. The NJ dendrograms demonstrated the existence of two basic HLA-G lineages and indicated that, HLA-G*01:01:01, the most common HLA-G allele, formed a separate lineage from other alleles. Our results shed new lights into HLA-G genetics among Chinese Han populations. The findings reported here are of importance for future studies related to post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G allelic expression and the potential role of HLA-G in disease association in populations of Chinese ancestry.

  17. Environmental Risk Factors in Han and Uyghur Children with Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Yun; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have been conducted to explore risk factors for dyslexia. However, most studies examining dyslexia have been skewed toward Western countries, and few have considered two nationalities simultaneously. This study focused on differences in dyslexia prevalence and potential environmental risk factors between Han and Uyghur children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kashgar and Aksu, cities in Xinjiang province, China. A two-stage sampling strategy was used to recruit 2,854 students in grades 3–6 from 5 primary schools in 5 districts; 2,348 valid student questionnaires were included in the analysis. Dyslexia checklists for Chinese and Uyghur children and pupil rating scales were used to identify children with dyslexia. Questions related to the home literacy environment and reading ability were used to evaluate potential environmental risk factors. Single factor analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine prevalence and risk factors for dyslexia. Results Dyslexia prevalence differed significantly between Han (3.9%) and Uyghur (7.0%) children (P < 0.05), and the boy-to-girl diagnosis ratio was almost 2:1. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that ethnic differences in dyslexia prevalence between Han and Uyghur children could have occurred because of factors such as mother’s occupation (P = 0.02, OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01–0.68) and the frequency with which parents told stories (P = 0.00, OR = 4.50, 95% CI = 1.67–12.11). Conclusions The prevalence of dyslexia was high in all children, particularly those in the Uyghur group. Environmental factors could have been responsible for some of the differences observed. The results contribute to the early identification and management of dyslexia in children from these two groups and research examining developmental dyslexia and differences in racial genetics. PMID:27416106

  18. Greater maximal O2 uptakes and vital capacities in Tibetan than Han residents of Lhasa.

    PubMed

    Sun, S F; Droma, T S; Zhang, J G; Tao, J X; Huang, S Y; McCullough, R G; McCullough, R E; Reeves, C S; Reeves, J T; Moore, L G

    1990-02-01

    Maximal O2 uptake provides an index of the integrated functioning of the O2 transport system. Whether lifelong high altitude residents have greater maximal exercise capacities than acclimatized newcomers is of interest for determining whether years to generations of high altitude exposure influence maximal O2 uptake and, if so, what components of O2 transport are involved. We studied 16 Tibetan lifelong residents of Lhasa, Tibet, China (3658 m) and 20 Han ("Chinese") 8 +/- 1 year residents of the same altitude who were matched for age, height, weight and lack of exercise training. At maximal effort, the Tibetans compared to the Hans had greater O2 uptakes (51 +/- 1 vs 46 +/- 1 ml STPD.min-1.(kg bw)-1, P less than 0.05), exercise workloads (177 +/- 5 vs 155 +/- 6 watts, P less than 0.05), minute ventilations (149 +/- 6 vs 126 +/- 4 IBTPS/min, P less than 0.01) and O2 pulse (15.2 +/- 0.4 vs 13.3 +/- 0.5 ml O2 consumption/heart beat, P less than 0.05). Equally high heart rates were present at maximal effort (191 +/- 3 vs 187 +/- 3 beats/min, P = NS), supporting the likelihood that true maxima were achieved in both groups. The greater minute ventilation in the Tibetans resulted from greater tidal volume and the greater maximal tidal volume correlated positively with the resting vital capacity. We concluded that the Tibetans achieved a higher maximal O2 uptake than the Hans, implying an increased capacity for O2 transport to the working muscle.

  19. Copy number variation in Han Chinese individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions with a demonstrated genetic etiology. Rare (<1% frequency) copy number variations (CNVs) account for a proportion of the genetic events involved, but the contribution of these events in non-European ASD populations has not been well studied. Here, we report on rare CNVs detected in a cohort of individuals with ASD of Han Chinese background. Methods DNA samples were obtained from 104 ASD probands and their parents who were recruited from Harbin, China. Samples were genotyped on the Affymetrix CytoScan HD platform. Rare CNVs were identified by comparing data with 873 technology-matched controls from Ontario and 1,235 additional population controls of Han Chinese ethnicity. Results Of the probands, 8.6% had at least 1 de novo CNV (overlapping the GIGYF2, SPRY1, 16p13.3, 16p11.2, 17p13.3-17p13.2, DMD, and NAP1L6 genes/loci). Rare inherited CNVs affected other plausible neurodevelopmental candidate genes including GRID2, LINGO2, and SLC39A12. A 24-kb duplication was also identified at YWHAE, a gene previously implicated in ASD and other developmental disorders. This duplication is observed at a similar frequency in cases and in population controls and is likely a benign Asian-specific copy number polymorphism. Conclusions Our findings help define genomic features relevant to ASD in the Han Chinese and emphasize the importance of using ancestry-matched controls in medical genetic interpretations. PMID:25170348

  20. [Customs, habits and medical culture in the Qin-Han Periods].

    PubMed

    Zheng, H

    1994-01-01

    The unity of Qin-Han feudal dynasties improves the development of society, flourishes the economy and creates a good environment for friendly communication and fusion of customs among all nationalities, exerting positive and active influence on medicine. Analyses are made on the relation between customs and habits, and medical culture. it is stressed that not all customs are in line with science. Some of them might even be superstitious or anti-scientific. However, in some sense, it is the soil for the advent of medical and health care issues. PMID:11615220

  1. A comprehensive analysis of NDST3 for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, C; Lu, W; Wang, Z; Ni, J; Zhang, J; Tang, W; Fang, Y

    2016-01-01

    A novel susceptibility locus (rs11098403) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) was identified in an Ashkenazi Jewish population by a recent large-scale genome-wide association study. The rs11098403 is located in the vicinity of the gene encoding N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (heparan glucosaminyl) 3, (NDST3). This study aimed to replicate the results in a Han Chinese population and then potentially extend these findings. We performed a two-stage study to investigate the association of NDST3 with the schizophrenia and BD risk in the Han Chinese. In stage 1, a total of 632 patients with schizophrenia, 654 patients with BD and 684 healthy controls were recruited from the Shanghai region. In stage 2, 522 schizophrenia patients and 547 normal subjects were enrolled from the Hangzhou region. Then, we conducted a meta-analysis based on the present literature. In stage 1, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11098403 showed a significant association with schizophrenia (corrected P=0.005). The frequency of the rs11098403 G allele was significantly lower among schizophrenia patients than among the controls (odds ratio (OR)=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55−0.84, corrected P=0.002). No significant difference was observed in individual SNP marker genotypes or allele distributions between the BD and control groups. In stage 2, the association of rs11098403 with schizophrenia could be validated (genotypic P=0.001 and allelic P=0.0003). After pooling all data from 1861 patients with schizophrenia and 2081 controls, we observed a significant association of the rs11098403 G allele with schizophrenia (Z=5.56, P<0.001), with an OR=0.70 (95% CI: 0.61−0.79). Then, we performed an expression quantitative trait loci analysis to investigate the functional effect of rs11098403 on NDST3 expression in the brain. We observed a significant association of rs11098403 with NDST3 expression in the hippocampus (P=0.027), although the significance did not survive after

  2. A comprehensive analysis of NDST3 for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Lu, W; Wang, Z; Ni, J; Zhang, J; Tang, W; Fang, Y

    2016-01-05

    A novel susceptibility locus (rs11098403) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) was identified in an Ashkenazi Jewish population by a recent large-scale genome-wide association study. The rs11098403 is located in the vicinity of the gene encoding N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (heparan glucosaminyl) 3, (NDST3). This study aimed to replicate the results in a Han Chinese population and then potentially extend these findings. We performed a two-stage study to investigate the association of NDST3 with the schizophrenia and BD risk in the Han Chinese. In stage 1, a total of 632 patients with schizophrenia, 654 patients with BD and 684 healthy controls were recruited from the Shanghai region. In stage 2, 522 schizophrenia patients and 547 normal subjects were enrolled from the Hangzhou region. Then, we conducted a meta-analysis based on the present literature. In stage 1, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11098403 showed a significant association with schizophrenia (corrected P=0.005). The frequency of the rs11098403 G allele was significantly lower among schizophrenia patients than among the controls (odds ratio (OR)=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.84, corrected P=0.002). No significant difference was observed in individual SNP marker genotypes or allele distributions between the BD and control groups. In stage 2, the association of rs11098403 with schizophrenia could be validated (genotypic P=0.001 and allelic P=0.0003). After pooling all data from 1861 patients with schizophrenia and 2081 controls, we observed a significant association of the rs11098403 G allele with schizophrenia (Z=5.56, P<0.001), with an OR=0.70 (95% CI: 0.61-0.79). Then, we performed an expression quantitative trait loci analysis to investigate the functional effect of rs11098403 on NDST3 expression in the brain. We observed a significant association of rs11098403 with NDST3 expression in the hippocampus (P=0.027), although the significance did not survive after

  3. Quantitative candidate gene association studies of metabolic traits in Han Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Wei, F J; Cai, C Y; Yu, P; Lv, J; Ling, C; Shi, W T; Jiao, H X; Chang, B C; Yang, F H; Tian, Y; Li, M S; Wang, Y H; Zou, L; Shi, J M; Chen, L M; Li, W D

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many loci associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hyperuricemia, and obesity in various ethnic populations. However, quantitative traits have been less well investigated in Han Chinese T2DM populations. We investigated the association between candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and metabolic syndrome-related quantitative traits in Han Chinese T2DM subjects. Unrelated Han Chinese T2DM patients (1975) were recruited. Eighty-six SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with quantitative traits including lipid profiles, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum uric acid (SUA), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma glucose [fasting plasma glucose (FPG)], plasma glucose 120 min post-OGTT (P2PG; OGTT = oral glucose tolerance test), and insulin resistance-related traits. We found that CAMTA1, ABI2, VHL, KAT2B, PKHD1, ESR1, TOX, SLC30A8, SFI1, and MYH9 polymorphisms were associated with HbA1c, FPG, and/or P2PG; GCK, HHEX, TCF7L2, KCNQ1, and TBX5 polymorphisms were associated with insulin resistance-related traits; ABCG2, SLC2A9, and PKHD1 polymorphisms were associated with SUA; CAMTA1, VHL, KAT2B, PON1, NUB1, SLITRK5, SMAD3, FTO, FANCA, and PCSK2 polymorphisms were associated with blood lipid traits; CAMTA1, SPAG16, TOX, KCNQ1, ACACB, and MYH9 polymorphisms were associated with blood pressure; and UBE2E3, SPAG16, SLC2A9, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, SMAD3, and PNPLA3 polymorphisms were associated with BMI (all P values <0.05). Some of the candidate genes were associated with metabolic and anthropometric traits in T2DM in Han Chinese. Although none of these associations reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)), genes and loci identified in this study are worthy of further replication and investigation. PMID:26634513

  4. Shaping biomedical objects across history and philosophy:a conversation with Hans-Jörg Rheinberger.

    PubMed

    García-Sancho, Miguel; González-Silva, Matiana; Jesús Santesmases, María; Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Historical epistemology, according to the historian of science Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, is a space through which "to take experimental laboratory work into the realm of philosophy". This key concept, together with the crucial events and challenges of his career, were discussed in a public conversation which took place on the occasion of Rheinberger's retirement. By making sense of natural phenomena in the laboratory, the act of experimenting shapes the object; it is this shaping which became the core of Rheinberger's own research across biology and philosophy into history. For his intellectual agenda, a history of the life sciences so constructed became "epistemologically demanding".

  5. [Sigmund Freud and Hans Blüher in up to now unpublished letters].

    PubMed

    Neubauer, J

    1996-02-01

    In the years 1912 and 1913 there occured an epistolary encounter between the founder-father of psychoanalysis and the young Hans Bluher who had been active in the Wandervogel movement, a German youth movement with strong traditionalist and nationalist leanings. Their correspondence centered around the evaluation of male homosexuality, a point on which Freud and Bluher were not in entire agreement. In his introduction Neubauer outlines the intellectual nub of this debate and sketches Bluher's later career and his gradual transformation into a biologistically motivated anti-Semite completely and utterly disowned by Freud.

  6. Vision improvement in a Taiwanese (Han Chinese) family with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Zin; Pang, Cheng-Yoong; Chen, Shee-Ping; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2012-12-01

    In this report, we describe a Taiwanese (Han Chinese) family with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. The family carried a mitochondrial DNA mutation (mtDNA m.14484T>C) associated with spontaneous visual improvement. A 15-year-old boy from this family was diagnosed with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy 6 months after losing his vision. His vision recovered after 8 months of supportive treatment. His mother, older brother, and two sisters also had the same mutation and had previously experienced vision loss. In this family, there was no male predominance.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms of cell adhesion molecules in Behcet’s disease in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minming; Zhang, Lijun; Yu, Hongsong; Hu, Jiayue; Cao, Qingfeng; Huang, Guo; Huang, Yang; Yuan, Gangxiang; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are involved in various immune-mediated diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CAMs with Behçet’s disease (BD) in a Chinese Han population. A two-stage association study was carried out in 1149 BD patients and 2107 normal controls. Genotyping of 43 SNPs was performed using MassARRAY System (Sequenom), polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and TaqMan SNP assays. The expression of CD6 and CD11c was examined by real-time PCR and cytokine production was measured by ELISA. A significantly higher frequency of the CT genotype, and a lower frequency of the CC genotype and C allele of CD6 rs11230563 were observed in BD as compared with controls. Analysis of CD11c rs2929 showed that patients with BD had a significantly higher frequency of the GG genotype and G allele, and a lower frequency of the AG genotype as compared with controls. Functional experiments showed an increased CD11c expression and increased production of TNF-α and IL-1beta by LPS stimulated PBMCs in GG carriers of CD11c rs2929 compared to AA/AG carriers. Our study provides evidence that CD6 and CD11c are involved in the susceptibility to BD in a Chinese Han population. PMID:27108704

  8. Female Specific Association between NNMT Gene and Schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guo-xia; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Zhuang-wei; Sun, Mao; Wu, Dan; Chen, Xin-yu; Wu, Yuan-ming

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that alterations in one carbon metabolism might play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SZ). Nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is one of the key enzymes of one-carbon metabolism. To examine whether NNMT gene was associated with SZ in Han Chinese population, we selected seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NNMT gene, and investigated its association with SZ from a cohort of 42 SZ patients and 86 healthy controls by Mass-ARRAY technology. Statistical analyses revealed that one (rs694539) of the SNPs in the female subgroup showed significant difference between SZ patients and controls both in genotypic (p= 0.0170) and allelic frequencies (p = 0.0059). We also found that the frequency of haplotype 'A G G C T C T' in the female patients was significantly higher than in controls (p=0.0015). Our results suggest that NNMT rs694539 may have a role in the etiology of SZ in a Han Chinese female population. PMID:25317069

  9. Chromatin remodeling gene EZH2 involved in the genetic etiology of autism in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; You, Yang; Yue, Weihua; Yu, Hao; Lu, Tianlan; Wu, Zhiliu; Jia, Meixiang; Ruan, Yanyan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Dai; Wang, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Epigenetic factors play a critical role in the etiology of ASD. Enhancer of zest homolog 2 (EZH2), which encodes a histone methyltransferase, plays an important role in the process of chromatin remodeling during neurodevelopment. Further, EZH2 is located in chromosome 7q35-36, which is one of the linkage regions for autism. However, the genetic relationship between autism and EZH2 remains unclear. To investigate the association between EZH2 and autism in Chinese Han population, we performed a family-based association study between autism and three tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that covered 95.4% of the whole region of EZH2. In the discovery cohort of 239 trios, two SNPs (rs740949 and rs6464926) showed a significant association with autism. To decrease false positive results, we expanded the sample size to 427 trios. A SNP (rs6464926) was significantly associated with autism even after Bonferroni correction (p=0.008). Haplotype G-T (rs740949 and rs6464926) was a risk factor for autism (Z=2.655, p=0.008, Global p=0.024). In silico function prediction for SNPs indicated that these two SNPs might be regulatory SNPs. Expression pattern of EZH2 showed that it is highly expressed in human embryonic brains. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that EZH2 might contribute to the genetic etiology of autism in Chinese Han population.

  10. Genetic association between NRG1 and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zujia; Chen, Jianhua; Khan, Raja Amjad Waheed; Song, Zhijian; Wang, Meng; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Li, Wenjin; Shi, Yongyong

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder are three major psychiatric disorders affecting around 0.66%, 3.3%, and 1.5% of the Han Chinese population respectively. Several genetic linkage analyses and genome wide association studies identified NRG1 as a susceptibility gene of schizophrenia, which was validated by its role in neurodevelopment, glutamate, and other neurotransmitter receptor expression regulation. To further investigate whether NRG1 is a shared risk gene for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder as well as schizophrenia, we performed an association study among 1,248 schizophrenia cases, 1,056 major depression cases, 1,344 bipolar disorder cases, and 1,248 controls. Totally 15 tag SNPs were genotyped and analyzed, and no population stratification was found in our sample set. Among the sites, rs4236710 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.015) and rs4512342 (Pallele  = 0.03, Pgenotye  = 0.045 after correction) were associated with schizophrenia, and rs2919375 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.004) was associated with major depressive disorder. The haplotype rs4512342-rs6982890 showed association with schizophrenia (P = 0.03 for haplotype "TC" after correction), and haplotype rs4531002-rs11989919 proved to be a shared risk factor for both major depressive disorder ("CC": corrected P = 0.009) and bipolar disorder ("CT": corrected P = 0.003). Our results confirmed that NRG1 was a shared common susceptibility gene for major mental disorders in Han Chinese population.

  11. Hans Georg Trüper (1936-2016) and His Contributions to Halophile Research.

    PubMed

    Oren, Aharon

    2016-05-12

    Prof. Hans Georg Trüper, one of the most important scientists in the field of halophile research, passed away on 9 March 2016 at the age of 79. I here present a brief obituary with special emphasis on Prof. Trüper's contributions to our understanding of the halophilic prokaryotes and their adaptations to life in hypersaline environments. He has pioneered the study of the halophilic anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria of the Ectothiorhodospira-Halorhodospira group. Some of the species he and his group isolated from hypersaline and haloalkaline environments have become model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of haloadaptation: the functions of three major organic compounds - glycine betaine, ectoine, and trehalose - known to serve as "compatible solutes" in halophilic members of the Bacteria domain, were discovered during studies of these anoxygenic phototrophs. Prof. Trüper's studies of hypersaline alkaline environments in Egypt also led to the isolation of the first known extremely halophilic archaeon (Natronomonas pharaonis). The guest editors dedicate this special volume of Life to the memory of Prof. Hans Georg Trüper.

  12. [Genetic variability and phylogenetic analysis of 39 short tandem repeat loci in Beijing Han population].

    PubMed

    Xiuyan, Ruan; Weini, Wang; Yaran, Yang; Bingbing, Xie; Jing, Chen; Yacheng, Liu; Jiangwei, Yan

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we studied the genetic polymorphisms of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from 13 CODIS and 26 non-CODIS system in Beijing Han population for the first time, and established a database of 39 STR loci whose forensic parameters were further evaluated. Our results demonstrated no significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of 39 STR loci and no pairwise linkage disequilibrium between them. The power of discriminations, expected heterozygosity, polymorphic information content, and power of exclusion of 39 STR loci ranged from 0.7740-0.9818, 0.6000-0.9350, 0.5317-0.9047 and 0.2909-0.8673. The cumulated discrimination power and cumulative probability of exclusion were 0.999999999999999999999999999999999999999964971 and 0.999999999973878, respectively. Moreover, the genetic distance was calculated based on allele frequency and phylogenetic tree was built using STR loci data from Beijing Han and other 11 Chinese ethnic groups.This study provides important basic data for Chinese forensic DNA database and population genetics database, and has important significance in carrying out forensic individual identification, paternity testing, and population genetic study.

  13. Association of serum EPCA-2 level with prostate cancer in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Ma, Ling; Wang, Xinli; Li, Bing; Guo, Shan; Qiao, Qingdong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early prostate cancer antigen 2 (EPCA-2), a kind of nuclear matrix protein, may relate to prostate cancer. However, the association of EPCA-2 level in serum with prostate diseases has not been clarified in Chinese Han population. Methods: EPCA-2 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 116 patients with prostate cancer (PCa), 342 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and 174 healthy controls (Control) in Chinese population. Associations of serum EPCA-2 and PSA level with prostate diseases were analyzed by ANOVA. Comparison of diagnostic effect for prostate cancer between EPCA-2 and PSA was evaluated by Receiver Operator Curve, Chi-square test, and others. Results: Serum EPCA-2 and PSA levels in PCa group were significantly higher than BPH and Control group (EPCA-2: F=200.05, P<0.01; PSA: F=210.65, P<0.01). However, EPCA-2 levels in the prostate cancers with different pathological grade were no significant difference. Furthermore, for detection of prostate cancer, EPCA-2 had a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 87.6%. Conclusions: Serum EPCA-2 could be used as a potential serological marker to diagnose prostate cancer in Chinese Han population, which was more specific than PSA and did not associate with pathological grades of prostate cancer. PMID:26464694

  14. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wei Zuo, Shang; Li, Yue; Jia, Xin; Jia, Sen Hao; Zhang, Tao; Xiang Song, Yu; Qi Wei, Ying; Xiong, Jiang; Hua Hu, Yong; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The associations between hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remain controversial, with only few studies focused on these associations within the Chinese population. We performed subgroup and interaction analyses in a Chinese Han population to investigate these associations. In all, 155 AAA patients and 310 control subjects were evaluated for serum total homocysteine levels and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the aforementioned associations. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted according to age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, and chronic disease histories. The multiple logistic analyses showed a significant association between HHcy and AAA but no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. The interaction analysis showed that age and peripheral arterial disease played an interactive role in the association between HHcy and AAA, while drinking status played an interactive role in the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. In conclusion, HHcy is an independent risk factor of AAA in a Chinese Han population, especially in the elderly and peripheral arterial disease subgroups. Longitudinal studies and clinical trials aimed to reduce homocysteine levels are warranted to assess the causal nature of these relationships PMID:26865327

  15. The association analysis polymorphism of CDKAL1 and diabetic retinopathy in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nai-Jia; Xiong, Qian; Wu, Hui-Hui; Li, Yan-Liang; Yang, Zhen; Tao, Xiao-Ming; Du, Yan-Ping; Lu, Bin; Hu, Ren-Ming; Wang, Xuan-Chun; Wen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify the contribution of CDKAL1 to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese population. METHODS A case-control study was performed to investigate the genetic association between DR and polymorphic variants of CDKAL1 in Chinese Han population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A well-defined population with T2DM, consisting of 475 controls and 105 DR patients, was recruited. All subjects were genotyped for the genetic variant (rs10946398) of CDKAL1. Genotyping was performed by iPLEX technology. The association between rs10946398 and T2DM was assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) analysis. RESULTS There were significant differences in C allele frequencies of rs10946398 (CDKAL1) between control and DR groups (45.06% versus 55.00%, P<0.05). The rs10946398 of CDKAL1 was found to be associated with the increased risk of DR among patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that rs10946398 of CDKAL1 is independently associated with DR in a Chinese Han population. PMID:27275426

  16. Polymorphisms of the IL27 gene in a Chinese Han population complicated with pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Li, Yuan; Yao, Yuan; Li, Hua; Liang, Hongda; Xin, Miaomiao; Wang, Liqin; Zhao, Lei; Lin, Jizheng; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    IL-27 could inhibit the development of Th17 cells, and the Th17/regulatory T-cell imbalance may reverse maternal tolerance in pre-eclampsia (PE). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms in IL27 with PE. Three SNPs in IL27 (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) were genotyped in a Chinese Han cohort of 1040 PE patients and 1247 normal pregnant women using the TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time PCR method. The CC genotypic distribution of rs153109 was significantly higher among cases than controls (19.1% versus 13.3%, odds ratio [OR]: 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23–1.93, p < 0.001), and the CT genotype was found to be significantly lower in cases than controls (41.7% versus 49.0%, OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.63–0.88, p < 0.001), disputing existing reports indicating the allele frequency of rs153109 is not significantly different between PE patients and controls. Additionally, the CC genotype of rs153109 was significantly more prevalent in PE cases than controls using a recessive model (p < 0.001). The allelic and genotypic frequencies of rs17855750 and rs181206 were not significantly different between two groups. Our results reveal that IL27 polymorphisms may be involved in the development of PE in Chinese Han population. PMID:26971578

  17. Pollution from animal husbandry in China: a case study of the Han River Basin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Wu, Hongjuan

    2012-01-01

    Animal husbandry is one of the major agricultural pollution sources in China. The Xiangyang Reach of the Han River Basin was used as a case study to identify pollutants from animal rearing. The gross amount of pollutants from livestock and poultry rearing in the Xiangyang Reach was estimated using two empirical models with different data sets. The pig, cattle, sheep, and poultry population in 2009 amounted to 2.6, 0.6, 0.5, and 39.2 million head, respectively. The total annual pollutant loads generated from the feces and urine of livestock and poultry were 270,400 t of chemical oxygen demand; 228,900 t of biochemical oxygen demand; 26,500 t of ammonia nitrogen; 16,500 t of total phosphorus; and 63,900 t of total nitrogen. Approximately 12% of these pollutant loads were estimated to enter the Han River through the watershed outlet. Animal breeding has been one of the main pollution sources in this area, followed by domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Cattle produced the most pollution, with the heaviest pollution load in downtown Xiangyang City. Several recommendations are presented to control the pollution caused by livestock and poultry breeding.

  18. 50 Years of Bong-Han Theory and 10 Years of Primo Vascular System

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Kwang-Sup; Kang, Kyung A.; Ryu, Yeon Hee

    2013-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) was first introduced by Bong-Han Kim via his five research reports. Among these the third report was most extensive and conclusive in terms of the PVS anatomy and physiology relating to the acupuncture meridians. His study results, unfortunately, were not reproduced by other scientists because he did not describe the materials and methods in detail. In 2002, a research team in Seoul National University reinitiated the PVS research, confirmed the existence of PVS in various organs, and discovered new characteristics of PVS. Two important examples are as follows: PVS was found in the adipose tissue and around cancer tissues. In parallel to these new findings, new methods for observing and identifying PVS were developed. Studies on the cell and material content inside the PVS, including the immune function cells and stem cells, are being progressed. In this review, Bong-Han Kim's study results in his third report are summarized, and the new results after him are briefly reviewed. In the last section, the obstacles in finding the PVS in the skin as an anatomical structure of acupuncture meridian are discussed. PMID:23983793

  19. Association of HMGCR polymorphism with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meng-Shan; Wang, Hui-Fu; Tan, Chen-Chen; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Zhan-Jie; Kong, Ling-Li; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Teng; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tan, Lan

    2016-01-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) acts as a potential genetic modifier for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous reports identified that HMGCR rs3846662 polymorphism is associated with biosynthesis of cholesterol in AD pathology. In order to assess the involvement of the HMGCR polymorphism in the risk of late-onset AD (LOAD) in northern Han Chinese, we performed a case–control study of 2334 unrelated subjects (984 cases and 1350 age- and gender-matched controls) to evaluate the genotype and allele distributions of the HMGCR rs3846662 with LOAD. The genotype distribution (GG, AG, AA) of rs3846662 was significantly different between LOAD patients and controls (P = 0.003), but the allele distribution did not reach a significant difference (P = 0.614). After adjusting for age, gender and the APOE ε4 status, the minor A allele of rs3846662 was validated as a protective factor for LOAD in dominant model (OR = 0.796, P = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.657–0.965). Interestingly, we observed rs3846662 polymorphism was only significantly associated with LOAD in APOE ε4 non-carriers (OR = 0.735, P = 0.005, 95% CI = [0.593, 0.912]). In conclusion, our study demonstrates A allele of HMGCR rs3846662 acts as a protective factor for LOAD in northern Han Chinese. PMID:27009838

  20. [Studies of DNA polymorphism at D7S21 locus in Hebei Han population].

    PubMed

    Cong, Bin; Chai, Yang-Cheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Peng, Yu-Cong; Yao, Yu-Xia; Wang, Jun-Xia; You, Hong-Yu

    2002-05-01

    To study the polymorphism at D7S21 locus in Hebei Han population, 124 unrelated individuals were detected rapidly by Minisatellite Variant Repeat-Polymerase Chain Reaction (MVR-PCR) and polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining,and digital codes were obtained. About 36 digital codes were obtained from each individual. No two unrelated individuals shared the same codes. The probability of identity in 36 digital codes was 3.48 x 10(-18). The percentage of three repeat units, a-type, t-type and 0-type was 48.5%, 49.4% and 2.1% respectively. The heterozygosity (H), excluding probability of paternity (EPP)and polymorphism information content (PIC) were 0.9876, 0.9746 and 0.9872 respectively. The results suggested that D7S21 locus has highly polymorphism in Hebei Han population. The method-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining was simple,rapid and practical.

  1. [Hans Gross and the beginning of criminology on a scientific basis].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Modern criminology--if one wants to consider it a separate scientific discipline at all--is usually perceived as being mainly influenced by the methods of natural sciences supplemented by components from the field of psychology, which, at least in some of its conceptions, tends to define itself as a natural science, too. If we take a look at the history of science, we will see development of criminology in this direction was not necessarily inevitable. The scientific work of the Austrian Hans Gross (1847-1915), one of the founding fathers of scientific criminology, serves as an example of the way how natural sciences and their exact methods became established in the methodological apparatus of modern criminology, although in praxi his claim for the application of exact methods was all too often replaced by irrational and intuitive ways of working. Still, Hans Gross' fundamental decision for the exact methods derived from the natural sciences is an important step towards a criminology that can be understood as a part of natural sciences, largely superseding the methods of cultural sciences and anthropological philosophy. This approach made the (criminal) human being an object of measurement and can result in the concept of man as a mere phenomenon of quantity. This is, on the one hand, ethically questionable; on the other hand, it made modern criminology more efficient and successful.

  2. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms in the DRD5 gene and paranoid schizophrenia in northern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Ding, M; Pang, H; Xu, X M; Wang, B J

    2014-03-12

    Dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the pathophysiol-ogy of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Thus, genes related to the dopaminergic (DAergic) system are good candidate genes for schizophrenia. One of receptors of the DA receptor system is dopa-mine receptor 5 (DRD5). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions of DRD5 gene may affect gene expression, influence biosynthesis of DA and underlie various neuropsychiatric disorders re-lated to DA dysfunction. The present study explored the association of SNPs within the DRD5 gene with paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. A total of 176 patients with schizophrenia and 206 healthy controls were genotyped for four DRD5 SNPs (rs77434921, rs2076907, rs6283, and rs1800762). Significant group differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of rs77434921 and rs1800762 and in the frequen-cies of GC haplotypes corresponding to rs77434921-rs1800762. Our find-ings suggest that common genetic variations of DRD5 are likely to con-tribute to genetic susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Further studies in larger samples are needed to replicate this association.

  3. A study of single nucleotide polymorphisms of GRIN2B in schizophrenia from Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenming; Niu, Weibo; Bi, Yan; Zhang, Rui; Ren, Decheng; Hu, Jiaxin; Huang, Xiaoye; Wu, Xi; Cao, Yanfei; Yang, Fengping; Wang, Lu; Li, Weidong; Li, Xingwang; Xu, Yifeng; He, Lin; Yu, Tao; He, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and complex mental disorder with high heritability. There is evidence that mutations in the gene of Nmethyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) are associated with schizophrenia. GRIN2B encodes a subunit of NMDARs, and has been identified as a candidate gene for many psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRIN2B were associated with schizophrenia. Four SNPs (rs890, rs1806191, rs219872, rs172677) were genotyped in 752 schizophrenic patients and 846 healthy controls of the Chinese Han population. Our results indicate differences in allele and genotype frequencies of rs890 between case and control. These results were assessed by adapting different genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, log-additive models). After controlling for confounding factors including sex and age, rs890 remained associated with schizophrenia. In addition, rs890 and rs1806191 were found to form a haplotype associated with schizophrenia. In summary, our results indicate that the GRIN2B SNP rs890 might be associated with schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. PMID:27453061

  4. HLA-A gene polymorphisms contribute to osteoporosis susceptibility in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Li, S M; Guo, H; Yang, H J; Lv, M Q; Zhou, D X

    2015-08-28

    Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mineral density, deterioration in bone microarchitecture, and increased fracture risk and is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. HLA is a complex gene family; previous studies have shown that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis among Japanese and Greek populations. Prompted by these findings, this study was designed to explore the associations between HLA-A gene polymorphisms and postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Han Chinese population. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method was used for DNA genotyping at the HLA-A locus in 70 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 73 healthy controls. We identified 17 HLA-A alleles in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 20 HLA-A alleles in control subjects. Furthermore, we found that the frequency of the HLA-A* 02:07 allele was significantly higher in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis than in control subjects (P = 0.023), and the relative risk was 4.065 (95% confidence interval = 1.109-14.893). Our study provides supportive evidence for the contribution of HLA-A gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to postmenopausal osteoporosis and suggests that HLA-A* 02:07 is likely an important genetic risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis in the Han Chinese population.

  5. Associations between polymorphisms of HLA-B gene and postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, S-M; Zhou, D-X; Liu, M-Y

    2014-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, which is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis likely develops beginning with genetic risk. This study explored the relationships between polymorphisms of HLA-B gene and postmenopausal osteoporosis in a Chinese Han population. Polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method was used for DNA typing at HLA-B locus in 70 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 73 healthy controls in female Han population of Shaanxi Province, situated in north-western China. We found that 40 HLA-B alleles in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and control subjects, respectively. Furthermore, the frequency of HLA-B* 3501 allele was significantly higher in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients than in the control group (P = 0.033), and the relative risk was 7.632 (95% CI: 0.927-62.850). Our results suggest that HLA-B* 3501 was likely an important risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis. As different populations have different HLA polymorphisms, further investigation of the relationship of various HLA genes and osteoporosis with larger sample size is still necessary in the future.

  6. Impact of strabismus on the quality of life of Chinese Han teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Changsen; Ye, Liang; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yuwen; Li, Yingzi

    2016-01-01

    Background Although much research has been conducted on the impact of strabismus on the quality of life (QoL) of adults, the effect of this condition on teenagers has not been extensively studied. This study therefore aimed to assess the effect of strabismus on the vision-related QoL of Chinese teenagers. Methods The Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) was self-administered by 1,040 teenagers with strabismus and 1,002 individuals with normal vision. All the participants were from the Chinese Han population. The independent samples t-test was used to compare QoL between teenagers with and without strabismus. Results The majority of scores on the NEI-VFQ-25 domains were significantly different between the two groups. QoL was significantly lower in individuals with strabismus compared with teenagers with normal vision on all domains, with the exception of social functioning. Conclusion Statistically significantly lower vision-related QoL scores were found in Chinese Han teenagers with strabismus compared with those without strabismus. PMID:27354771

  7. Hans Georg Trüper (1936–2016) and His Contributions to Halophile Research

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    Prof. Hans Georg Trüper, one of the most important scientists in the field of halophile research, passed away on 9 March 2016 at the age of 79. I here present a brief obituary with special emphasis on Prof. Trüper’s contributions to our understanding of the halophilic prokaryotes and their adaptations to life in hypersaline environments. He has pioneered the study of the halophilic anoxygenic phototrophic sulfur bacteria of the Ectothiorhodospira—Halorhodospira group. Some of the species he and his group isolated from hypersaline and haloalkaline environments have become model organisms for the study of the mechanisms of haloadaptation: the functions of three major organic compounds – glycine betaine, ectoine, and trehalose – known to serve as “compatible solutes” in halophilic members of the Bacteria domain, were discovered during studies of these anoxygenic phototrophs. Prof. Trüper’s studies of hypersaline alkaline environments in Egypt also led to the isolation of the first known extremely halophilic archaeon (Natronomonas pharaonis). The guest editors dedicate this special volume of Life to the memory of Prof. Hans Georg Trüper. PMID:27187481

  8. Polymorphisms of the IL27 gene in a Chinese Han population complicated with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Li, Yuan; Yao, Yuan; Li, Hua; Liang, Hongda; Xin, Miaomiao; Wang, Liqin; Zhao, Lei; Lin, Jizheng; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    IL-27 could inhibit the development of Th17 cells, and the Th17/regulatory T-cell imbalance may reverse maternal tolerance in pre-eclampsia (PE). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms in IL27 with PE. Three SNPs in IL27 (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) were genotyped in a Chinese Han cohort of 1040 PE patients and 1247 normal pregnant women using the TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time PCR method. The CC genotypic distribution of rs153109 was significantly higher among cases than controls (19.1% versus 13.3%, odds ratio [OR]: 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-1.93, p < 0.001), and the CT genotype was found to be significantly lower in cases than controls (41.7% versus 49.0%, OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.63-0.88, p < 0.001), disputing existing reports indicating the allele frequency of rs153109 is not significantly different between PE patients and controls. Additionally, the CC genotype of rs153109 was significantly more prevalent in PE cases than controls using a recessive model (p < 0.001). The allelic and genotypic frequencies of rs17855750 and rs181206 were not significantly different between two groups. Our results reveal that IL27 polymorphisms may be involved in the development of PE in Chinese Han population. PMID:26971578

  9. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  10. Analysis of 24 Y chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Chinese Han population sample from Henan Province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Meisen; Liu, Yaju; Zhang, Juntao; Bai, Rufeng; Lv, Xiaojiao; Ma, Shuhua

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed haplotypes for 24 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs), including 17 Yfiler loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DY438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y-GATA-H4) and 7 additional STRs (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS449, DYS522 and DYS527a/b) in 1100 unrelated Chinese Han individuals from Henan Province using AGCU Y24 STR kit systems. The calculated average gene diversity (GD) values ranged from 0.4105 to 0.9647 for the DYS388 and DYS385a/b loci, respectively. The discriminatory capacity (DC) was 72.91% with 802 observed haplotypes using 17 Yfiler loci, by the addition of 7 Y-STRs to the Yfiler system, the DC was increased to 79.09% while showing 870 observed haplotypes. Among the additional 7 Y-STRs, DYS449, DYS527a/b, DYS444 and DYS522 were major contributors to enhancing discrimination. In the analysis of molecular variance, the Henan Han population clustered with Han origin populations and showed significant differences from other Non-Han populations. In the present study, we report 24 Y-STR population data in Henan Han population, and we emphasize the need for adding additional markers to the commonly used 17 Yfiler loci to achieve more improved discriminatory capacity in a population with low genetic diversity.

  11. Population genetics of 17 Y-STR loci in a large Chinese Han population from Zhejiang Province, Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiwei; Pan, Lipeng; Hao, Honglei; Zheng, Xiaoting; Lin, Jinfeng; Lu, Dejian

    2011-01-01

    Seventeen Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a, DYS385b, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and YGATAH4) were analyzed for 4451 Chinese Han unrelated males from Zhejiang Province, Eastern China, with the AmpFlSTR Yfiler™ PCR Amplification kit. A total of 3389 different haplotypes was identified, of which 2877 were unique and 512 repeatedly found among different individuals. The overall haplotype diversity (HD) and discrimination capacity (DC) were 0.999696 and 0.761402, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) tests demonstrated that genetic distance between Zhejiang Han and most Chinese Han populations is closer than that between Zhejiang Han and non-Han populations. This study provides information for the application of Y-chromosomal STRs to forensic identification, indicating that the extended genotyping of Y-STRs is needed for forensic practice. PMID:20457064

  12. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating

  13. ITIH family genes confer risk to schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Chen, Jianhua; Li, Tao; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Wenjin; Wen, Zujia; Qiang, Yu; Wang, Meng; Shen, Jiawei; Song, Zhijian; Ji, Jue; Feng, Guoyin; Qi, Shuguang; Lin, He; Shi, Yongyong; Cheng, Zaohuo

    2014-06-01

    As a major extracellular matrix component, ITIHs played an important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Several genome-wide association studies have reported that some positive signals which were derived from the tight linkage disequilibrium region on chromosome 3p21 were associated with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in the Caucasian population. To further investigate whether this genomic region is also a susceptibility locus of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population, we conducted this study by recruiting 1235 schizophrenia patients, 1045 major depressive disorder patients and 1235 healthy control subjects in the Han Chinese samples for a case-control study. We genotyped seven SNPs within this region using TaqMan® technology. We found that rs2710322 was significantly associated with schizophrenia (adjusted P(allele) = 0.0018, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.006, OR [95% CI] = 1.278 [1.117-1.462]) while rs1042779 was weakly associated with schizophrenia (adjusted P(allele) = 0.048, OR [95% CI] = 1.164 [1.040-1.303]) and major depressive disorder (adjusted P(allele) = 0.042, OR [95% CI] = 1.178 [1.047-1.326]); it was also our finding that rs3821831 was positively associated with major depressive disorder (adjusted P(allele) = 0.003, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.006, OR [95% CI] = 1.426 [1.156-1.760]). Furthermore, no haplotype was found to be associated with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Via the association analysis which combines the schizophrenia and major depressive disorder cases, we also notice that rs1042779 and rs3821831 were significantly associated with combined cases (rs1042779: adjusted P(allele) = 0.012, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.018, OR [95% CI] = 1.171 [1.060-1.292]; rs3821831:adjusted P(genotype) = 0.012, OR [95% CI] = 1.193 [1.010-1.410]). Our results revealed that the shared genetic risk factors of both schizophrenia and major depressive disorder exist in ITIH family genes in the Han Chinese

  14. Medieval orthopaedic history in Germany: Hieronymus Brunschwig and Hans von Gersdorff.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Hans von Gerssdorff and Hieronymus Brunschwig, who flourished in Germany in the latter half of the fifteenth century, have both left early printed treatises on Surgery which give excellent woodcuts showing pictures of instruments, operations, and costumes, at the end of the medieval period. Hieronymus Brunschwig or Hieronymus Brunschwygk (ca. 1450 - ca. 1512), was a German surgeon (wundartzot), alchemist and botanist. He was notable for his methods of treatment of gunshot wounds. His most influential book was the Buch der Cirurgia. Gersdorff(1455-1529) was a military surgeon who gained wide experience during 40 years of campaigning and was an expert in the treatment of battlefield injuries. His work covers anatomy, surgery, leprosy, and glossaries of anatomical terms, diseases, and medications.

  15. MC1R variants in Chinese Han patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chang-He; Wang, Hui; Mao, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, Jing; Song, Bo; Liu, Yu-Tao; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Luo, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Shu-Yu; Wu, Jun; Xu, Yu-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Recently, a variant p.R160W in the MC1R gene was identified that increased the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Spanish population. To explore whether the MC1R gene variants are associated with sporadic PD in Chinese population, we performed a case-control comparison study for comprehensive MC1R variant screening in 510 Chinese Han patients and 495 healthy controls as ethnically matched controls. We identify 5 nonsynonymous variants, including rs34090186 (p.R67Q), rs2228479 (p.V92M), rs33932559 (p.I120T), rs885479 (p.R163Q), and rs372152373 (p.R223W). However, variants mentioned previously did not show association with PD. Our results suggest that variants in MC1R do not play a major role in PD in the Chinese population.

  16. Gene flow between Zhuang and Han populations in the China-Vietnam borderland.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Pan, Shangling; Qin, Zhendong; Cai, Xiaoyun; Lu, Yan; Farina, Sara E; Liu, Chengwu; Peng, Junhua; Xu, Jieshun; Yin, Ruixing; Li, Shilin; Li, Jin; Li, Hui

    2010-11-01

    In epidemiological studies, it is easier to glean information from isolated populations with simple genetic backgrounds than from populations with relatively complex genetic backgrounds. Regarded as an isolated population, the Minz (Hei-Yi Zhuang) in Napo County (in the China-Vietnam borderland) has been the subject of numerous recent studies. To assess the genetic isolation of this population, we studied Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA from Minz and Han in Napo. Both populations exhibited southern Chinese genetic characteristics in both paternal and maternal lineages. Using NETWORK analyses, we found pronounced gene flow between these two populations only in maternal lineages. We also observed gene flow from other populations into the Minz gene pool. We thus concluded that the Minz is not a genetically isolated population and it is increasingly difficult to find isolated populations in mainland East Asia.

  17. Making space for criminalistics: Hans Gross and fin-de-siècle CSI.

    PubMed

    Burney, Ian; Pemberton, Neil

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the articulation of a novel forensic object-the 'crime scene'-and its corresponding expert-the investigating officer. Through a detailed engagement with the work of the late nineteenth-century Austrian jurist and criminalist Hans Gross, it analyses the dynamic and reflexive nature of this model of 'CSI', emphasising the material, physical, psychological and instrumental means through which the crime scene as a delineated space, and its investigator as a disciplined agent operating within it, jointly came into being. It has a further, historiographic, aim: to move away from the commonplace emphasis in histories of forensics on fin-de-siècle criminology and toward its comparatively under-explored contemporary, criminalistics. In so doing, it opens up new ways of thinking about the crime scene as a defining feature of our present-day forensic culture that recognise its historical contingency and the complex processes at work in its creation and development.

  18. [Genetic polymorphisms of five STR loci on chromosome 21 in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Bin; Zhu, Jin-Ling; Yan, Mei; Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Shu-Zhen; Xiao, Bai; Liu, Jing-Zhong

    2004-07-01

    To elucidate the genetic polymorphisms of five STR loci on chromosome 21 in Chinese Han population and construct a preliminary database, EDTA-blood specimens were collected from unrelated individuals in Beijing. The DNAs were extracted with Chelex method and were amplified by PCR. The PCR products were analyzed by the PAG electrophoresis or by the approach of the automated fluorescent detection. The five STR loci consist of simple repeat motif and its distributions of genotypes are agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equation. Its polymorphism information content is all over 0.50. The obtained data can not only be used as evidences for genetic diagnosis of Down Syndrome, but also for calculating the probabilities in the paternity test and individual identification. PMID:15640034

  19. Re-reading "Little Hans": Freud's case study and the question of competing paradigms in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Psychoanalysts have long recognized the complex interaction between clinical data and formal psychoanalytic theories. While clinical data are often used to provide "evidence" for psychoanalytic paradigms, the theoretical model used by the analyst also structures what can and cannot be seen in the data. This delicate interaction between theory and clinical data can be seen in the history of interpretations of Freud's "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" ("Little Hans"). Freud's himself revised his reading of the case in 1926, after which a number of psychoanalysts--including Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan, and John Bowlby--reinterpreted the case in the light of their particular models of the mind. These analysts each found "evidence" for their theoretical model within this classic case study, and in doing so they illuminated aspects of the case that had previously been obscured, while also revealing a great deal about the shifting preoccupations of psychoanalysis as a field.

  20. Novel CLCN7 mutation identified in a Han Chinese family with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-2

    PubMed Central

    He, Dan; Rong, Pengfei; Xu, Hongbo; Yuan, Lamei; Li, Liu; Lu, Qian; Guo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a heritable bone condition featuring increased bone density due to defective osteoclastic bone resorption. Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were conducted in Han Chinese family members, some of whom had typical osteopetrosis, and a novel missense variant c.2350A>T (p.R784W) in the chloride channel 7 gene (CLCN7) was identified. This variant cosegregated with the disorder in the family but was not observed in 800 controls. The data indicate that exome sequencing is a powerful and effective molecular diagnostic tool for detecting mutations in osteopetrosis, which is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. This discovery broadens the CLCN7 gene mutation spectrum and has important implications for clinical therapeutic regimen decisions, prognosis evaluations, and antenatal diagnoses. PMID:27325559

  1. Trauma and abuse in the case of Little Hans: a contemporary perspective.

    PubMed

    Ross, John Munder

    2007-01-01

    Newly available interviews with Max and Herbert Graf describe the severe pathology of Little Hans's mother and her mistreatment of her husband and her daughter, who committed suicide as an adult. Reread in this context, the text of "A Phobia in a Five-year-old Boy" provides ample evidence of Frau Graf's sexual seduction and emotional manipulation of her son, which exacerbated his age-expectable castration and separation anxiety, and her beating of her infant daughter. The boy's phobic symptoms can therefore be deconstructed not only as the expression of oedipal fantasy, but as a communication of the traumatic abuse occurring in the home. Through subliminal, indeed unconscious, injunctions conveyed in abusive behavior, parents can confirm the child's worst imaginings and immature views of the world and thereby render the child's oedipal conflicts and fantasies pathogenic. PMID:17915647

  2. Novel CLCN7 mutation identified in a Han Chinese family with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis-2.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hao; He, Dan; Rong, Pengfei; Xu, Hongbo; Yuan, Lamei; Li, Liu; Lu, Qian; Guo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a heritable bone condition featuring increased bone density due to defective osteoclastic bone resorption. Exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were conducted in Han Chinese family members, some of whom had typical osteopetrosis, and a novel missense variant c.2350A>T (p.R784W) in the chloride channel 7 gene (CLCN7) was identified. This variant cosegregated with the disorder in the family but was not observed in 800 controls. The data indicate that exome sequencing is a powerful and effective molecular diagnostic tool for detecting mutations in osteopetrosis, which is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. This discovery broadens the CLCN7 gene mutation spectrum and has important implications for clinical therapeutic regimen decisions, prognosis evaluations, and antenatal diagnoses. PMID:27325559

  3. Integrating experimental and observational personality research--the contributions of Hans Eysenck.

    PubMed

    Revelle, William; Oehlberg, Katherine

    2008-12-01

    A fundamental aspect of Hans Eysenck's research was his emphasis upon using all the tools available to the researcher to study personality. This included correlational, experimental, physiological, and genetic approaches. Fifty years after Cronbach's call for the reunification of the two disciplines of psychology (Cronbach, 1957) and 40 years after Eysenck's plea for experimental approaches to personality research (H. J. Eysenck, 1966), what is the status of the unification? Should personality researchers use experimental techniques? Do experimental techniques allow us to tease out causality, and are we communicating the advantages of combining experimental with multivariate correlational techniques? We review the progress made since Cronbach's and Eysenck's original papers and suggest that although it is still uncommon to find experimental studies of personality, psychology would benefit from the joint use of correlational and experimental approaches.

  4. The pursuit of happiness: The social and scientific origins of Hans Selye's natural philosophy of life.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark

    2012-12-01

    In 1956, Hans Selye tentatively suggested that the scientific study of stress could 'help us to formulate a precise program of conduct' and 'teach us the wisdom to live a rich and meaningful life'. Nearly two decades later, Selye expanded this limited vision of social order into a full-blown philosophy of life. In Stress without Distress, first published in 1974, he proposed an ethical code of conduct designed to mitigate personal and social problems. Basing his arguments on contemporary understandings of the biological processes involved in stress reactions, Selye referred to this code as 'altruistic egotism'. This article explores the origins and evolution of Selye's 'natural philosophy of life', analysing the links between his theories and adjacent intellectual developments in biology, psychosomatic and psychosocial medicine, cybernetics and socio-biology, and situating his work in the broader cultural framework of modern western societies.

  5. Genetic polymorphism of 11 Y-chromosomal STR loci in Yunnan Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yanmei, Yang; Tao, Gu; Yubao, Zeng; Chunjie, Xiao; Bifeng, Chen; Shi, Luo; Bingying, Xu; Qiang, Jing; Qinyong, Zhuang; Wen, Zhang; Shengjun, Luo; Shengjie, Nie

    2010-02-01

    Allele frequencies and haplotypes of 11 Y-chromosome STR loci, DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385 ab, DYS438, DYS439 and DYS437 were determined in 320 unrelated Yunnan Han Chinese males. A total of 293 haplotypes were identified, of which 268 were unique, 23 were shared in two individuals, and 2 were shared in three individuals. The allele diversity values for each locus ranged from 0.4087 (DYS438) to 0.9701 (DYS385). The allele observed haplotypes diversity value was 0.9994. The combined Y-chromosome STR polymorphisms provide a powerful discrimination tool for routine forensic applications. PMID:20129460

  6. [Hans Gross as an archaeologist--the significance of archaeology for 'encyclopedic' criminology].

    PubMed

    Karl, Stephan; Bachhiesl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In some cases, forensics and criminology have to cooperate with disciplines that usually are counted among the humanities, e.g. with archaeology. This article examines the significance of this cooperation for the criminological epistemology at the turn of the 19th century. These methodological considerations are illustrated by an example: When Hans Gross, who became the founder of the Austrian School of Criminology later, saw an unusually shaped hill near Feldbach, a town in southern Styria, he assumed this hill to be a burial mound and informed the responsible archaeological authorities immediately. Further investigations showed, however, that this hill was a natural formation. This is an early example for interdisciplinary cooperation, which proves that both in archaeology and in criminology a thorough inspection of the site is decisive for further scientific analysis of the topic of research.

  7. Beyond voluntary consent: Hans Jonas on the moral requirements of human experimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Fethe, C

    1993-01-01

    In his essay, Philosophical Reflections on Experimenting with Human Subjects, Hans Jonas contends that except in cases of widespread medical emergencies, people do not have a moral or social obligation to volunteer to be subjects in medical experiments. He further argues that any appeal for volunteer subjects in medical experiments should whenever possible give priority to those who can identify with the project and offer a strong sense of commitment to its goals. The first of these claims is given support against some recent criticisms, but argument is offered to show that the second claim not only does little to enhance the stature of the standard requirement of free and informed consent but may even weaken the moral validity of the consent. PMID:8331645

  8. Association study confirms two susceptibility loci for breast cancer in Chinese Han women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minggui; Xu, Yihui; Chen, Mengyun; Li, Yang; Li, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Mingjun; Chen, Zhendong; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    To date, many loci associated with breast cancer have been identified through genome-wide association studies; most of these studies were conducted using populations of European descent. Thus, it is not clear whether these susceptibility loci are also risk factors for Chinese populations. We selected and genotyped 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the Sequenom iPLEX platform in a female Chinese cohort of 3036 breast cancer cases and 3036 healthy controls. A total of 23 SNPs passed the quality control test. The associations of these SNPs with disease susceptibility were assessed using logistic regression, adjusting for age. The Bonferroni correction was used to conservatively account for multiple testing, and the threshold for statistical significance was P < 2.17 × 10(-3) (0.05/23). We confirmed ten risk-associated variants within three reported breast cancer susceptibility loci in a Chinese Han population: 5q11.2 (rs16886181, P = 5.29 × 10(-6), OR = 1.19; rs1017226, P = 5.24 × 10(-4), OR = 1.22; rs16886034, P = 2.00 × 10(-3), OR = 1.21; rs16886113, P = 1.24 × 10(-3), OR = 1.20; rs16886364, P = 9.20 × 10(-4), OR = 1.21; rs16886397, P = 1.17 × 10(-3), OR = 1.20; rs16886448, P = 1.62 × 10(-3,)OR = 1.20; and rs2229882, P = 5.14 × 10(-4), OR = 1.31), 5q14.3 (rs421379, P = 2.83 × 10(-13), OR = 1.83), and 10q26.1 (rs35054928, P = 7.73 × 10(-6), OR = 1.18). The 10q26.1 locus was found to be a susceptibility locus for breast cancer in Chinese Han women in our previous studies. 5q11.2 and 5q14.3 are confirmed here for the first time as susceptibility loci for breast cancer in Chinese Han women. This study reports three breast cancer susceptibility loci that were previously identified in European populations and are also risk factors for Chinese populations. This study may extend the genetic basis of breast cancer in Chinese Han women and highlight the contribution of multiple variants

  9. Variants in COMT and DBH influence on response inhibition ability in Chinese Han females.

    PubMed

    Gong, Pingyuan; Li, Jing; Chi, Wanyu; Wang, Jian; Yao, Tianbao; Zhang, Kejin; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Fuchang

    2011-11-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine-beta hydroxylase (DBH) are key enzymes to breakdown dopamine. Some previous studies have indicated that val158met in COMT and 19 bp insertion/deletion in 5' flank of DBH are related to the performance of executive function. To further investigate the associations of the two genes with executive function, we performed a population-based study in a Chinese Han population. The results indicated that val158met in COMT and the 19 bp insertion/deletion of DBH were associated with the average reaction time of response inhibition in female group (P = 0.01, P = 0.03), respectively. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction of the two genes on the reaction time (P = 0.006). This present study suggests that not only do COMT and DBH influence independently on response inhibition in females, but also exert a significant interaction on response inhibition.

  10. First survey of parasitic helminths of goats along the Han River in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used. PMID:27447226

  11. First survey of parasitic helminths of goats along the Han River in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used.

  12. Experimentation with human subjects: a critique of the views of Hans Jonas.

    PubMed

    Schafer, A

    1983-06-01

    The ethics of experimentation on human subjects has become the subject of much debate among medical scientists and philosophers. Ethical problems and conflicts of interest become especially serious when research subjects are recruited from the class of patients. Are patients who are ill and suffering in a position to give voluntary and informed consent? Are there inevitable conflicts of interest and moral obligation when a personal physician recruits his own patients for an experiment designed partly to advance scientific knowledge and only partly as therapy for those patients? The views of the eminent American ethicist Hans Jonas on these issues are briefly summarised and criticised, and some moral guidelines are then proposed to regulate experimentation on human subjects.

  13. Genetic analysis of DACT1 in 100 Chinese Han women with Müllerian duct anomalies.

    PubMed

    Xing, Qiong; Xu, Zuying; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xi; Wang, Jing; Chen, Dawei; Xu, Yuping; He, Xiaojin; Xiang, Huifen; Wang, Binbin; Cao, Yunxia

    2016-04-01

    Dapper antagonist of catenin-1 (DACT1) plays an important role in embryogenesis and organogenesis of the female reproductive tract in mouse models. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between DACT1 mutations and human Müllerian duct anomalies (MDA). One hundred clinically well-defined Chinese Han patients with MDA and 200 healthy controls were recruited in this study. All four exons coding for DACT1 were amplified and sequenced. A missense mutation (c.G1084A, p.V362M) was identified in a patient who had a didelphic uterus and was absent from the control group. This variant changed the hydrophilicity of the amino acid residue and was predicted to be deleterious to the structure and function of DACT1 protein. The data indicate that the p.V362M mutation of DACT1 may be an underlying cause of MDA.

  14. Integrating experimental and observational personality research--the contributions of Hans Eysenck.

    PubMed

    Revelle, William; Oehlberg, Katherine

    2008-12-01

    A fundamental aspect of Hans Eysenck's research was his emphasis upon using all the tools available to the researcher to study personality. This included correlational, experimental, physiological, and genetic approaches. Fifty years after Cronbach's call for the reunification of the two disciplines of psychology (Cronbach, 1957) and 40 years after Eysenck's plea for experimental approaches to personality research (H. J. Eysenck, 1966), what is the status of the unification? Should personality researchers use experimental techniques? Do experimental techniques allow us to tease out causality, and are we communicating the advantages of combining experimental with multivariate correlational techniques? We review the progress made since Cronbach's and Eysenck's original papers and suggest that although it is still uncommon to find experimental studies of personality, psychology would benefit from the joint use of correlational and experimental approaches. PMID:19012653

  15. AMPD1 functional variants associated with autism in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lusi; Ou, Jianjun; Xu, Xiaojuan; Peng, Yu; Guo, Hui; Pan, Yongcheng; Chen, Jingjing; Wang, Tianyun; Peng, Hao; Liu, Qiong; Tian, Di; Pan, Qian; Zou, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jingping; Hu, Zhengmao; Xia, Kun

    2015-09-01

    Autism is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with high heterogeneity. Following our genome-wide associated loci with autism, we performed sequencing analysis of the coding regions, UTR and flanking splice junctions of AMPD1 in 830 Chinese autism individuals as well as 514 unrelated normal controls. Fourteen novel variants in the coding sequence were identified, including 11 missense variants and 3 synonymous mutations. Among these missense variants, 10 variants were absent in 514 control subjects, and conservative and functional prediction was carried out. Mitochondria activity and lactate dehydrogenase assay were performed in 5 patients' lymphoblast cell lines; p.P572S and p.S626C showed decreased mitochondrial complex I activity, and p.S626C increased lactate dehydrogenase release in medium. Conclusively, our data suggested that mutational variants in AMPD1 contribute to autism risk in Han Chinese population, uncovering the contribution of mutant protein to disease development that operates via mitochondria dysfunction and cell necrosis.

  16. Re-reading "Little Hans": Freud's case study and the question of competing paradigms in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Psychoanalysts have long recognized the complex interaction between clinical data and formal psychoanalytic theories. While clinical data are often used to provide "evidence" for psychoanalytic paradigms, the theoretical model used by the analyst also structures what can and cannot be seen in the data. This delicate interaction between theory and clinical data can be seen in the history of interpretations of Freud's "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" ("Little Hans"). Freud's himself revised his reading of the case in 1926, after which a number of psychoanalysts--including Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan, and John Bowlby--reinterpreted the case in the light of their particular models of the mind. These analysts each found "evidence" for their theoretical model within this classic case study, and in doing so they illuminated aspects of the case that had previously been obscured, while also revealing a great deal about the shifting preoccupations of psychoanalysis as a field. PMID:16773821

  17. No association between ZNF804A rs1344706 and schizophrenia in a case-control study of Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Shuidi; Shugart, Yin Yao; Zhou, Zhenhe; Jin, Chunhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Dong; Cheng, Zaohuo; Zhang, Fuquan

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 within the gene ZNF804A was a promising risk variant for schizophrenia in European populations. However, existing results are inconsistent in Han Chinese. Hoping to validate the association of rs1344706 with schizophrenia susceptibility in Han Chinese, we conducted a case-control study in 1284 cases and 990 healthy controls from Jiangsu Province, China. We did not detect any significant between-group difference (all P>0.05) in either allele or genotype frequency under any genetic model between cases and controls. Stratified analysis by sex also failed to find any significant association. Our results did not support the association of rs1344706 with schizophrenia in Han Chinese, and further association studies with large samples from other ethnic backgrounds and focus on more SNPs of ZNF804A are warranted. PMID:26934312

  18. Genetic polymorphism of Malassezia furfur isolates from Han and Tibetan ethnic groups in China using DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lu, Yao; Wang, Peng

    2010-12-01

    Reported isolation rates of Malassezia yeast from human skin show geographic variations. In China, the populations of the Han (1,182.95 million) and Tibetan (5.41 million) ethnic groups are distributed over 9.6 and 3.27 million square kilometers respectively, making biodiversity research feasible and convenient. Malassezia furfur clinical strains (n = 29) isolated from different individuals, with or without associated dermatoses, of these two ethnic groups (15 Han and 12 Tibetan) were identified and analyzed with DNA fingerprinting using single primers specific to minisatellites. Using the Bionumerics software, we found that almost all M. furfur clinical isolates and type strains formed five distinct group clusters according to their associated skin diseases and the ethnic groups of the patients. These findings are the first to focus on the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. furfur in the Tibetan and Han ethnic groups in China and reveal genetic variation associated with related diseases, host ethnicity and geographic origin.

  19. A single nucleotide polymorphism of the TNRC9 gene associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese Han women.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Zhou, J; Xue, Y; Yang, S; Xiong, M; Li, Y; Liu, Q

    2014-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the TNRC9 gene was identified as a breast cancer susceptibility genetic variant in recent genome-wide association studies of women of European ancestry. We investigated whether TNRC9 polymorphisms are associated with risk of breast cancer in Chinese women of the Han nationality. We genotyped the SNPs rs3803662, rs1362548, rs1123428 in 870 women, including 388 breast cancer patients and 482 healthy controls, via the PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism procedure and by sequence detection. We found that the T allele and the TT genotype of the SNP rs38033662 is significantly associated with risk for breast cancer in Chinese Han women; however, no significant association was found for rs1362548 or rs1123428. We conclude that SNP rs3803662 is a putative risk factor for breast cancer in Chinese Han women.

  20. LMNA gene single nucleotide polymorphisms in dilated cardiomyopathy of Han children

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li-Jian; Xiao, Ting-Ting; Huang, Min; Shen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether LMNA gene mutation is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Chinese Han Race children. Methods: DNA was isolated from 78 patients with DCM and 100 healthy Chinese children who served as controls. 12 exons in the functional regions and the adjacent part of introns of the LMNA gene were amplified with polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and the PCR products were sequenced with DNA sequencer. We compared the DNA sequence with Blast software online PubMed website. The differences of allele and genotype between the groups were detected by χ2 test. Results: No disease-causing mutation in LMNA gene was found in all DCM patients. Three nonsense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. ① The first is c.1908C>T (H566H, rs4641) which was located at exon 10 of LMNA gene. It was found in 29 DCM cases and 15 control subjects. Compared to healthy controls, the frequency of TT and TC genotypes, and the C allele were significantly increased in DCM patients (P<0.05). ② The second was c.861C>T (A287A, rs5380) which was located at exon 5 of LMNA gene. It was found in 9 DCM cases and 2 control subjects. The frequency of TC genotype was significantly increased in DCM patients (P<0.05). ③ The third was c.1338C>T (D446D, rs5058) which located at exon 7 of LMNA gene. It was found in 8 DCM cases and 3 control subjects. The frequency of TC genotype was significantly increased in DCM patients (P<0.05). Conclusion: The SNP of LMNA gene may be associated with the susceptivity of DCM in Chinese Han children. PMID:26379929

  1. Genetic Analysis of IL-17 Gene Polymorphisms in Gout in a Male Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng; Li, Xinde; Li, Hua; Guo, Mingzhen; Liu, Shiguo; Li, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly secreted by activated T helper 17 cells and involved in inflammatory immune responses. This study aimed to investigate the association between IL-17 variants as well as serum IL-17 levels with gout in male Chinese Han individuals. A total of 1,101 male gout patients and 1,239 ethic-matched controls were enrolled. Genetic distributions of three variants (rs2275913 in IL-17A, rs763780 in IL-17F, and rs4819554 in IL-17RA) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman probe method. The plasma concentrations of IL-17A and IL-17F were measured in 228 gout patients and 198 controls that came from above samples by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant differences were observed in the genetic distribution of these polymorphisms between cases and controls (rs2275913: χ2 = 0.15, p = 0.928 by genotype, χ2 = 0.14, p = 0.711 by allele; rs763780: χ2 = 2.24, p = 0.326 by genotype, χ2 = 0.26, p = 0.609 by allele; rs4819554: χ2 = 1.79, p = 0.409 by genotype, χ2 = 1.46, p = 0.227 by allele). Levels of serum IL-17A and IL-17F were significantly decreased in gout patients (both p<0.001). However, no difference was observed in acute gout patients between different genotypic carriers of rs2275913 and rs763780 regarding serum IL-17A and IL-17F levels (p>0.05). Although the genetic variants in IL-17 we studied in this research do not appear to be involved in the development of gout in male Chinese Han individuals, the IL-17 cytokine family may participate in gouty inflammation in an undefined way, which requires further validation.

  2. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongmei; Deng, Mohong; Wang, WenPeng; Zhang, Ji; Mu, Jiao; Zhu, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    A present limitation of forensic anthropology practice in China is the lack of population-specific criteria on contemporary human skeletons. In this study, a sample of 203 maxillofacial Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, including 96 male and 107 female cases (20-65 years old), was analyzed to explore mandible sexual dimorphism in a population of contemporary adult Han Chinese to investigate the potential use of the mandible as sex indicator. A three-dimensional image from mandible CBCT scans was reconstructed using the SimPlant Pro 11.40 software. Nine linear and two angular parameters were measured. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA) were used to develop the mathematics models for sex determination. All of the linear measurements studied and one angular measurement were found to be sexually dimorphic, with the maximum mandibular length and bi-condylar breadth being the most dimorphic by univariate DFA and LRA respectively. The cross-validated sex allocation accuracies on multivariate were ranged from 84.2% (direct DFA), 83.5% (direct LRA), 83.3% (stepwise DFA) to 80.5% (stepwise LRA). In general, multivariate DFA yielded a higher accuracy and LRA obtained a lower sex bias, and therefore both DFA and LRA had their own advantages for sex determination by the mandible in this sample. These results suggest that the mandible expresses sexual dimorphism in the contemporary adult Han Chinese population, indicating an excellent sexual discriminatory ability. Cone beam computed tomography scanning can be used as alternative source for contemporary osteometric techniques.

  3. Mapping of hepatic expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in a Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Tang, Huamei; Teng, Mujian; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Jianguo; Fan, Junwei; Zhong, Lin; Sun, Xing; Xu, Junming; Chen, Guoqing; Chen, Dawei; Wang, Zhaowen; Xing, Tonghai; Zhang, Jinyan; Huang, Li; Wang, Shuyun; Peng, Xiao; Qin, Shengying; Shi, Yongyong; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-01-01

    Background Elucidating the genetic basis underlying hepatic gene expression variability is of importance to understand the aetiology of the disease and variation in drug metabolism. To date, no genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) analysis has been conducted in the Han Chinese population, the largest ethnic group in the world. Methods We performed a genome-wide eQTL mapping in a set of Han Chinese liver tissue samples (n=64). The data were then compared with published eQTL data from a Caucasian population. We then performed correlations between these eQTLs with important pharmacogenes, and genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in particular those identified in the Asian population. Results Our analyses identified 1669 significant eQTLs (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). We found that 41% of Asian eQTLs were also eQTLs in Caucasians at the genome-wide significance level (p=10−8). Both cis- and trans-eQTLs in the Asian population were also more likely to be eQTLs in Caucasians (p<10−4). Enrichment analyses revealed that trait-associated GWAS-SNPs were enriched within the eQTLs identified in our data, so were the GWAS-SNPs specifically identified in Asian populations in a separate analysis (p<0.001 for both). We also found that hepatic expression of very important pharmacogenetic (VIP) genes (n=44) and a manually curated list of major genes involved in pharmacokinetics (n=341) were both more likely to be controlled by eQTLs (p<0.002 for both). Conclusions Our study provided, for the first time, a comprehensive hepatic eQTL analysis in a non-European population, further generating valuable data for characterising the genetic basis of human diseases and pharmacogenetic traits. PMID:24665059

  4. Genetic association study of adaptor protein complex 4 with cerebral palsy in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honglian; Xu, Yiran; Chen, Mingjie; Shang, Qing; Sun, Yanyan; Zhu, Dengna; Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhiheng; Ma, Caiyun; Li, Tongchuan; He, Lin; Xing, Qinghe; Zhu, Changlian

    2013-11-01

    Adaptor protein complex 4 (AP-4) plays a key role in vesicle formation, trafficking, and sorting processes that are critical for brain development and function. AP-4 consists of four subunits encoded by the AP4E1, AP4B1, AP4M1, and AP4S1 genes. A number of studies have pointed to the involvement of AP-4-mediated vesicular trafficking pathways in the etiology of cerebral palsy (CP), the most notable of which are the causative mutations that have recently been identified in each of the AP-4 genes in different CP families. We postulated, therefore, that variations in AP-4 genes might influence an indivual's susceptibility to CP. In the present study, 16 SNPs were genotyped among 517 CP patients and 502 healthy controls from the Han Chinese population. We systematically analyzed the association of the AP4E1, AP4B1, AP4M1, and AP4S1 genes with CP on the basis of clinical characteristics. No significant associations were found between these variants and the overall risk of CP. Subgroup analysis showed that rs1217401 of AP4B1 was significantly associated with CP as a sequela of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (CP + HIE) (allele: p = 0.042151; genotype: p = 4.46 × 10(-6)). Our results indicate that the 16 variants studied in the genes of the four subunits of AP-4 have no detectable effects on the overall susceptibility to CP, but AP4B1 appears to be a susceptibility gene for CP + HIE in the Han Chinese population. PMID:24065543

  5. Association between NOS3 genetic variants and coronary artery disease in the Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G L; Li, Q J; Lu, H Y

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) is an important mediator of atherosclerotic disease and is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in NOS3 influence the progression of CAD; however, there is also a controversy regarding the association of polymorphisms in the gene encoding NOS3 and CAD. To determine if the NOS3 genetic variants are associated with CAD in the Han Chinese, we examined the potential association between CAD and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1799983, rs2070744, rs11771443, rs3918188, rs2853796, rs7830, rs1541861, and rs2853792) of the NOS3 using the MassARRAY system. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of the rs1799983 (promoter regions) and rs2070744 (intron 1) polymorphisms in patients with CAD were significantly different from those in healthy controls. These patients had significantly higher frequencies of the rs1799983 T allele (χ2 = 7.717, P = 0.007, OR = 1.649, 95%CI = 1.41-2.382) and the rs2070744 G allele (χ2 = 4.548, P = 0.033, OR = 1.490, 95%CI = 1.031-2.153). Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed in three blocks (D' > 0.9). In block 1, significantly more T-T-C haplotypes (χ2 = 5.537, P = 0.019, OR = 0.632, 95%CI = 0.430-0.927) were found in controls. These findings point to a role for NOS3 polymorphisms in CAD in the Chinese Han population, and may be useful for future investigations on the pathogenesis of CAD. PMID:27323132

  6. [Hans Neuffer (1892-1968). Medical moral philosopher and politician of profession in personal union].

    PubMed

    Denis, Réne; Gross, Dominik

    2003-01-01

    Hans Neuffer had a well established, civil familiary background. He was raised according to Christian values and remained a practising Christian until the end of his life. Before 1945 he was no person in public life. In spite of the fact that he disapproved the Nazi rule, he did not practise open resistance. After World War Two politically guiltless physicians were needed. Neuffer had this quality and on top of that he had a talent for organisation. In the beginning he was medical functionary in his swabian hometown Stuttgart. In 1949 he took over tasks as medical functionary nationwide. Under his leadership the German physicians succeeded in creating the structures of self administration, that still exist today. Big improvements in income were achieved. The German physicians profited from this until the seventy years of the last century. In addition to this the German doctors managed to become fully accepted members of the World Medical Association (WMA). Besides his work as medical functionary, Neuffer was occupied with ethical questions. The premise of Neuffer's medical ethics were the physician's close ties to God. The responsibility to God was more important than responsibility to conscience, science, the people or the government. One of the foundations of Neuffer's ethics lies in the doctor's personality. Like an artist the "true" physician felt an inner calling. He possessed high mental capacity and had special psychological abilities. Such high moral, mental and psychological demands could only be fulfilled in freedom. Freedom required an adequate income and physicians' self administration. This kind of medical ethics fitted well to the political aims of West Germany's General Medical Council. The freedom of the medical profession and independence from society or government were crucial positions. Hans Neuffer was a politically and morally guiltless medical functionary. At the end of his presidency in 1959, West Germany's physicians had achieved all

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Taiwanese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chuang, Li-Chung; Su, Mei-Hsin; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yen, Chung-Jen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Miao-Chun; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic components. Several recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies in Caucasian samples have reported a number of gene regions and loci correlated with the risk of ASD—albeit with very little consensus across studies. Methods A two-stage GWA study was employed to identify common genetic variants for ASD in the Taiwanese Han population. The discovery stage included 315 patients with ASD and 1,115 healthy controls, using the Affymetrix SNP array 6.0 platform for genotyping. Several gene regions were then selected for fine-mapping and top markers were examined in extended samples. Single marker, haplotype, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted for associations. Results Seven SNPs had p-values ranging from 3.4~9.9*10−6, but none reached the genome-wide significant level. Five of them were mapped to three known genes (OR2M4, STYK1, and MNT) with significant empirical gene-based p-values in OR2M4 (p = 3.4*10−5) and MNT (p = 0.0008). Results of the fine-mapping study showed single-marker associations in the GLIS1 (rs12082358 and rs12080993) and NAALADL2 (rs3914502 and rs2222447) genes, and gene-based associations for the OR2M3-OR2T5 (olfactory receptor genes, p = 0.02), and GLIPR1/KRR1 gene regions (p = 0.015). Pathway analyses revealed important pathways for ASD, such as olfactory and G protein–coupled receptors signaling pathways. Conclusions We reported Taiwanese Han specific susceptibility genes and variants for ASD. However, further replication in other Asian populations is warranted to validate our findings. Investigation in the biological functions of our reported genetic variants might also allow for better understanding on the underlying pathogenesis of autism. PMID:26398136

  8. Risk Factors, Coronary Severity, Outcome and ABO Blood Group: A Large Chinese Han Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Xu, Rui-Xia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-10-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to have ethnic difference and to be a pivotal genetic determinant of cardiovascular risk, whereas few prospective data regarding the impact on cardiovascular outcomes are available in a large cohort of patients with angiography-proven coronary artery disease, especially from the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic role of blood type in future cardiovascular events (CVEs) in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.The population of this prospective cohort study consisted of 3823 eligible patients, and followed annually to capture all CVEs. Baseline characteristics and ABO blood type were obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of ABO blood type on CVEs.New CVEs occurred in 348 patients [263 (10.3%) non-O and 85 (7.8%) O] during a median period of 24.6 months follow-up. Significantly, non-O blood group was related to the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and several risk factors including inflammatory markers. The log-rank test revealed that there was a significant difference between non-O and O blood groups in event-free survival analysis (P = 0.026). In particular, the Cox proportional hazards models revealed that non-O blood type was associated with increased CVEs risk [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.320 (1.033-1.685)], even after adjusting for potential confounders [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) non-O: 1.289 (1.003-1.656); A: 1.083 (0.797-1.472); B: 1.481 (1.122-1.955); AB: 1.249 (0.852-1.831), respectively].Non-O blood type is associated with future CVEs in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.

  9. Association of IL-1 gene complex members with ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z S; Li, C; Lin, Z M; Huang, J X; Wei, Q J; Wang, X W; Xie, Y Y; Liao, Z T; Chao, S Y; Gu, J R

    2010-02-01

    There are reports of IL-1 complex gene polymorphisms in ankylosing spondylitis (AS; MIM 106300), but the results have been inconsistent among populations. Moreover, few studies examine the association between IL-1 complex gene polymorphisms and clinical symptoms of AS patients. We investigated polymorphisms of IL-1 complex with AS in the Chinese Han population in this study. Chinese Han AS patients and ethnically matched healthy controls were genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (IL1beta+3953, beta-511, F10.3, RN.4, RN.6/1) and the IL1RN.VNTR of IL-1 gene cluster. Allele, Genotype and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls by SHEsis software. The frequency of allele C of the marker IL1F10.3 was significantly increased in AS patients versus controls [p = 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.20; p = 0.002, respectively]. Strong linkage disequilibrium was identified between IL1B-511, IL1B+3953 and RN4 in both patients and healthy controls (D' > 0.95). Haplotypes of pairs of these markers (6) were also significantly associated with AS. The strongest associations observed was between allele combination B-511-T/B+3953-C/F10.3-C/RN4-T/RN2VNTR-1/RN6.1-C and AS (p = 3.32 x 10(-5), OR = 4.41, 95% CI=2.1-9.3). Clinical manifestation showed week association between RN2VNTR A2 allele and risk of peripheral arthritis (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.07-0.91). The IL-1 gene cluster is associated with AS in Chinese population. This finding provides strong statistical support for the previously observed relationship and indicates possible association between clinical manifestation and genetic factor.

  10. Population data of 21 non-CODIS STR loci in Han population of northern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Ge, Jianye; Lu, Di; Yang, Xue

    2012-07-01

    Allele frequencies and forensic statistics of 21 autosomal short tandem repeat loci (i.e., D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435 and D5S2500) were estimated in Han population from northern China (n = 220). Significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected only for D22S1045. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the discrimination power, the probability of paternity exclusion in trios, the probability of paternity exclusion in duos and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.591 to 0.836, 0.594 to 0.830, 0.762 to 0.948, 0.341 to 0.659, 0.189 to 0.487 and 0.535 to 0.807, respectively. Triallelic patterns were observed at D19S433 and D10S1435. Mutations occurred at D22ATA63, D10S1248, D19S433 and D14S1434 loci with all single-step mutations. The expected mutation rates of these four loci are 0.0042 with 95% confidence interval [0.0001, 0.0232] in a total of 238 meioses. Our results show that these 21 non-CODIS STR loci are highly polymorphic and can be useful for human identification and kinship analysis in Northern Han population in China.

  11. Relevance Study on Cerebral Infarction and Resistin Gene Polymorphism in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Cai, Gaoyu; Fu, Ningzhen; Feng, Yulan; Sun, Jialan; Maimaiti, Yiming; Zhou, Weijun; Fu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on genome-wide associations has implicated that the serum resistin level and its gene polymorphism are associated with cerebral infarction (CI) morbidity and prognosis, and could thereby regulate CI. This study aimed to investigate the association between the resistin single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the susceptibility to CI in the Chinese Han population. A total of 550 CI patients and 313 healthy controls were genotyped. Nine SNPs of the resistin gene previously shown were sequenced and assessed for an association with CI. The numbers of GG genotype carriers of rs3219175 and rs3486119 in the CI group were significantly higher than those in the control group among the middle-aged group (aged 45-65), at 76% vs 67.9% (P=0.025) and 75.5% vs 67.9% (P=0.031). rs3219175 and rs34861192 were associated with CI in the dominant and superdominant models according to the genetic model analysis (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was strong linkage disequilibrium among the rs34124816, rs3219175, rs34861192, rs1862513, rs3745367, 180C/G and rs3745369 sites. In a haplotype analysis, the occurrence rate of the haplotype AGGCAGC was 1.97 times (P<0.05) higher in the patient group than in the control group. In addition, the numbers of GG genotype carriers of rs3219175 and rs3486119 in the middle-aged male CI patients and the middle-aged small artery occlusion (SAO) CI patients were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the Chinese Han middle-aged population, the GG gene type carriers of the resistin gene sites rs3219175 and rs34861192 had a high risk for CI onset, especially in middle-aged male patients and SAO CI in all middle-aged patients. PMID:27699082

  12. Genetic variant in IL-33 is associated with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jun; Tong, Yu; Xie, Lan; Ma, Tao; Yang, Jiyun

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is the occurrence of repeated pregnancies that end in miscarriage of the fetus before 20 weeks of gestation. At least 50% of the RM patients are considered idiopathic. High IL-33 levels are critical in early pregnancy and impact the outcome of subsequent pregnancies. However, the association of polymorphisms of IL-33 with idiopathic RM is still unclear. The present study was initiated to investigate whether IL-33 polymorphisms are risk factors for idiopathic RM in Chinese Han population. Study subjects comprised of 321 cases and 384 controls. Five polymorphisms (rs10435816, rs16924159, rs16924171, rs1929992, rs1332290) in IL-33 and serum IL-33 concentrations were assessed. rs16924159 variant exhibits significant association with RM in additive and recessive genetic model (additive model P = 0.015, recessive model P = 0.007). In contrast, rs10435816, rs16924171, rs1929992 and rs1332290 are not significantly associated with RM. Serum IL-33 levels are significantly lower in RM cases than in control (173.51 ± 94.12 versus. 200.97 ± 110.06 (pg/ml), P = 4.57 × 10−4). There are lower levels of serum IL-33 in rs16924159 homozygous mutant (AA) than homozygous wild-type (GG) in this study population, including cases and control groups (172.18 ± 103.01 versus. 205.82 ± 119.01 (pg/ml), P = 0.006). Reduced IL-33 levels and rs16924159 IL-33 variant may contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic RM in Chinese Han population. PMID:27026387

  13. Relevance Study on Cerebral Infarction and Resistin Gene Polymorphism in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Cai, Gaoyu; Fu, Ningzhen; Feng, Yulan; Sun, Jialan; Maimaiti, Yiming; Zhou, Weijun; Fu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on genome-wide associations has implicated that the serum resistin level and its gene polymorphism are associated with cerebral infarction (CI) morbidity and prognosis, and could thereby regulate CI. This study aimed to investigate the association between the resistin single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the susceptibility to CI in the Chinese Han population. A total of 550 CI patients and 313 healthy controls were genotyped. Nine SNPs of the resistin gene previously shown were sequenced and assessed for an association with CI. The numbers of GG genotype carriers of rs3219175 and rs3486119 in the CI group were significantly higher than those in the control group among the middle-aged group (aged 45-65), at 76% vs 67.9% (P=0.025) and 75.5% vs 67.9% (P=0.031). rs3219175 and rs34861192 were associated with CI in the dominant and superdominant models according to the genetic model analysis (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was strong linkage disequilibrium among the rs34124816, rs3219175, rs34861192, rs1862513, rs3745367, 180C/G and rs3745369 sites. In a haplotype analysis, the occurrence rate of the haplotype AGGCAGC was 1.97 times (P<0.05) higher in the patient group than in the control group. In addition, the numbers of GG genotype carriers of rs3219175 and rs3486119 in the middle-aged male CI patients and the middle-aged small artery occlusion (SAO) CI patients were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the Chinese Han middle-aged population, the GG gene type carriers of the resistin gene sites rs3219175 and rs34861192 had a high risk for CI onset, especially in middle-aged male patients and SAO CI in all middle-aged patients.

  14. Common rs7138803 variant of FAIM2 and obesity in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity causes severe healthcare problem worldwide leading to numerous diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Previous Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) identified an association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7138803, on chromosome 12q13 and obesity in European Caucasians. Since the genetic architecture governing the obesity may vary among different populations, we investigate the variant rs7138803 in Chinese population to find out whether it is associated with obesity. Methods A population-based cohort association study was carried out using the High Resolution Melt (HRM) method with 1851 participants. The association between rs7138803 genotypes and body mass index (BMI) was modeled with a general linear model, and a case–control study for the association between rs7138803 genotypes and obesity was performed using Pearson’s χ2 test. There was no indication of a deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE p value = 0.51) in our sample. Results No association was detected between SNP rs7138803 and BMI in our Chinese Han population with a P value of 0.51. SNP rs7138803 was found to be not associated with common forms of obesity after adjusting for age and sex in the Chinese population. SNP rs7138803 was not associated with other obesity related traits, including T2DM, hypertension, lipid profiles, and ischemic stroke. Conclusion Our data suggest that the rs7138803 exerts no significant effect on obesity in Chinese Han population. Larger cohorts may be more appropriate to detect an effect of this SNP on common obesity. PMID:23924573

  15. KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms are associated with lipid parameters in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2237897, and rs2283228) in KCNQ1 are reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), possibly caused by a reduction in insulin secretion and higher fasting glucose, but the results are inconsistent. We investigated whether these 4 genetic markers are associated with serum lipid metabolism in a middle-aged Chinese Han population. Methods We enrolled 398 consecutive patients, including 180 with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) (male < 55 years, female < 65 years) and 218 controls without documented CAD. All subjects were genotyped for 4 SNPs by using the ligase detection reaction method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) and plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1(apo A1), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were determined by standard biochemical methods. Main anthropometric and metabolic characteristics are analyzed among 3 genotypes at rs2283228, rs2237895, rs2237897, or rs2237892 in KCNQ1. Results The 3 genotypes AA, AC, and CC were present in rs2283228 and rs2237895, and the 3 genotypes CC, CT, and TT were present in rs2237897 and rs2237892. The minor genotypes CC at rs2283228 and TT at rs2237892 were associated with higher levels of TG (P = 0.007 and 0.026, respectively). Furthermore, subjects with the CC genotype at rs2283228 had lower levels of HDL-C and apo A1 than in the other 2 genotype groups (P = 0.052 and 0.055, respectively). No other associations were detected between these 4 SNPs and FBS or other lipid parameters. Conclusions Our data suggest that rs2283228 and rs2237892 in KCNQ1 are associated with lipid metabolism in a middle-aged Chinese Han population. PMID:20701788

  16. Hans Selye and the development of the stress concept. Special reference to gastroduodenal ulcerogenesis.

    PubMed

    Szabo, S

    1998-06-30

    Hans Selye has a historic role in the development of the stress concept. Before his short article in Nature in 1936, the neuroendocrine response to nonspecific injury was thought to be restricted to the release of catecholamines, as recognized by Cannon. Selye was the first to appreciate the crucial role of the adrenal cortex/hypophysis axis in the stress response. He also insisted on the nonspecificity of this neuroendocrine response, and he named the stress-causing agent "stressors". His last major contribution was the distinction between negative, that is, distress, and positive, that is, eustress reactions. The "triad of stress" (adrenal hypertrophy, gastrointestinal ulcers, thymolymphatic atrophy) was also first described by Selye, who was fascinated by the fact that in stressed rodents only gastric and not duodenal ulcers would develop. It was not until the recognition of duodenal ulcerogenic properties of propionitrile and cysteamine as well as the subsequent quantitative structure-activity studies predicting the duodenal ulcerogenic action of complex molecules that pathogenetic investigations allowed a molecular and mechanistic approach for studying the etiology and pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration. Recent studies on the role of sulfhydryls, TRH, ET, and growth factors provide new insights into central and peripheral pre-ulcer pathways. We were surprised to learn that an organ-specific ET-1 release may play a role both in ulcer induction and healing, which seems to start with the expression of immediate early genes such as egr-1 and stimulation of the local synthesis of growth factors such as bFGF and PDGF. Thus, a historic review originating with Hans Selye and extending through the next 60 years allows a cellular and molecular approach to the better understanding of stress-related disorders such as gastroduodenal ulceration.

  17. KALRN Rare and Common Variants and Susceptibility to Ischemic Stroke in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Dang, Meizheng; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Ruyou; Li, Xiaoying; Peng, Yanqing; Han, Xuesong; Sun, Litao; Tian, Jiawei

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of mortality worldwide, and it is a major cause of physical disability. Several genome-wide association studies have yielded numerous common variants which increase the risk of ischemic stroke, including the Kalirin-coding gene, KALRN. KALRN strongly associates with early-onset coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis and plays an important role in stroke in the European population. In this study, we analyzed four KALRN gene SNPs in 503 ischemic stroke patients and 493 control subjects, separating the patients into separate research groups based on comorbidity with hypertension or diabetes and stroke type (atherosis or lacunar and combination type). We found a rare variant of KALRN, rs11712619, that associated with lacunar stroke in the northern Chinese Han population with an average-risk allele frequency 0.009 (OR 2.95, 95 % CI 1.08-8.01, p = 0.028). However, after adjusting for relevant factors, including sex, age, body mass index, dyslipidemia, alcohol consumption, and smoking, this association was not evident. Additionally, the KALRN variant rs6438833 was associated with ischemic stroke, ischemic stroke comorbid with diabetes, and lacunar stroke after adjusting for the relevant factors (p = 0.046, p = 0.019 and p = 0.046, respectively), which remained significant after 10,000 permutation procedure test (p' = 0.047, p' = 0.018 and p' = 0.048, respectively). The association of these rare and common variants of KALRN with ischemic stroke in northern Chinese Han population offers insight for potential therapeutic research. PMID:25917671

  18. Comparative analysis of platelet 5-HT concentrations in Han and Li patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Li, M X; Pan, L H; Wang, G M; Guo, M; Fu, L Q; Guo, J C; Gao, Y S; Chen, F; Xie, M X

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of serotonin (5-HT) in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by determining the platelet 5-HT concentrations in Li and Han patients with PTSD in Hainan Province, China. Li and Han control groups of the same sample size have no statistical differences in gender and age distribution compared to those in the PTSD groups who were also examined. The platelet 5-HT concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the patients and controls were evaluated by the impact of event scale-revised (IES-R). IES-R showed that the total and sub-scale scores of three factors (avoidance, intrusion, and hyperarousal) of Li patients with PTSD were significantly higher than those of Han patients with PTSD. Scores of both PTSD groups were higher than those of their respective control groups. The platelet 5-HT concentration of the Li patients with PTSD (120.56 ± 118.05 ng/10(9) platelets) was lower than that of the Han patients with PTSD (271.43 ± 181.66 ng/10(9) platelets) and that of both Li and Han control groups (338.54 ± 156.46, 350.58 ± 169.19 ng/10(9) platelets, respectively). Differences existed in symptoms of PTSD in terms of avoidance, intrusion, and hyperarousal in the Li and Han patients with PTSD. The diminished 5-HT activity in patients with PTSD may be relevant to biochemical changes in the brain and body. The differences in these factors between ethnic groups could be due to their customs, social status, and culture. PMID:27525843

  19. Study on the adult physique with the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype in the Han of Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Tao; Wang, Ning; Li, Zeng-Xian; Liu, Cui; He, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Fei; Han, Hua; Wen, You-Feng; Qian, Yi-Hua; Xi, Huan-Jiu

    2016-03-01

    The study of somatotypes has important significance for medical and physical anthropology as well as sports science. The aim of this study was to understand the somatotype components of the Han population in Xi'an and compare the somatotypes of the Han and five other nationalities in China. The study sample consisted of 429 people of Han nationality (207 males, 222 females) from Xi'an, China, aged ≥20 years old. The Heath-Carter anthropometric method was employed. We evaluated the differences in age and sex by one-way ANOVA and t test. A comparison of somatotypes between the Han and other nationalities was made using the U test. The results showed that the male and female samples all could be classified as having a mesomorphic endomorph profile. The difference in endomorphy was strongest between sexes in all age groups (P < 0.01). There were prominent differences in mesomorphy and ectomorphy between males and females in the 50-59- and ≥60-year-old age groups. In females, the differences in somatotype components appeared to be distinguished between ages (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). However, in males, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between the 20-29 year olds and all other age groups (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) except for between those 20-29 and ≥60 years old in endomorphy. Compared with the other five nationalities, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between males and females. These results suggest that the somatotype of the Han population in Xi'an, China, has a predominantly mesomorphic endomorph profile. The endomorphic component shows distinct differences between ages and genders, respectively. Additionally, there are distinct differences in the somatotype components between Xi'an Han and five other nationalities in China in males and females. PMID:25940679

  20. Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

    2008-11-15

    Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled. PMID:18799199

  1. Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

    2008-11-15

    Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled.

  2. Higher exercise performance and lower VO2max in Tibetan than Han residents at 4,700 m altitude.

    PubMed

    Ge, R L; Chen, Q H; Wang, L H; Gen, D; Yang, P; Kubo, K; Fujimoto, K; Matsuzawa, Y; Yoshimura, K; Takeoka, M

    1994-08-01

    To examine the hypothesis that the pathway of adaptation to high altitude in natives differs considerably from that in newcomers, we measured maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), minute ventilation, anaerobic threshold (AT), blood lactate, and blood gases during maximal exercise in 17 lifelong Tibetan residents and 14 acclimatized Han Chinese newcomers living at the altitude of 4,700 m. The two groups were similar in age, height, and weight, and the subjects were nonathletes. Although VO2max was significantly lower in the Tibetans than in the Hans (30.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 36.0 +/- 1.9 ml.min-1.kg-1 STPD; P < 0.05), at maximal exercise effort the exercise workload was greater (167.7 +/- 4.2 vs. 150.0 +/- 5.9 W; P < 0.05). The mean AT values (in % VO2max) in the Tibetan and Han subjects were 84.1 and 61.6%, respectively (P < 0.01). Minute ventilation at maximal exercise was significantly lower in the Tibetans than in the Hans (68.4 +/- 3.4 vs. 79.7 +/- 4.1 l/min BTPS; P < 0.05), whereas heart rate at maximal effort was equivalent in the two groups. The Tibetans showed lower blood lactate value than did the Hans both before and at the end of exercise. We conclude that the Tibetan natives have higher exercise performance and AT but lower VO2max and blood lactate concentration than do acclimatized Han newcomers. These results may reflect the effects of genetic or peripheral adaptation factors in the Tibetan natives.

  3. Increased vital and total lung capacities in Tibetan compared to Han residents of Lhasa (3,658 m).

    PubMed

    Droma, T; McCullough, R G; McCullough, R E; Zhuang, J G; Cymerman, A; Sun, S F; Sutton, J R; Moore, L G

    1991-11-01

    Larger chest dimensions and lung volumes have been reported for Andean high-altitude natives compared with sea-level residents and implicated in raising lung diffusing capacity. Studies conducted in Nepal suggested that lifelong Himalayan residents did not have enlarged chest dimensions. To determine if high-altitude Himalayans (Tibetans) had larger lung volumes than acclimatized newcomers (Han "Chinese"), we studied 38 Tibetan and 43 Han residents of Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China (elevation 3,658 m) matched for age, height, weight, and smoking history. The Tibetan compared with the Han subjects had a larger total lung capacity [6.80 +/- 0.19 (mean +/- SEM) vs 6.24 +/- 0.18 l BTPS, P less than 0.05], vital capacity (5.00 +/- 0.08 vs 4.51 +/- 0.10 1 BTPS, P less than 0.05), and tended to have a greater residual volume (1.86 +/- 0.12 vs 1.56 +/- 0.09 1 BTPS, P less than 0.06). Chest circumference was greater in the Tibetan than the Han subjects (85 +/- 1 vs 82 +/- 1 cm, P less than 0.05) and correlated with vital capacity in each group as well as in the two groups combined (r = 0.69, P less than 0.05). Han who had migrated to high altitude as children (less than or equal to 5 years old, n = 6) compared to Han adult migrants (greater than or equal to 18 years old, n = 26) were shorter but had similar lung volumes and capacities when normalized for body size. The Tibetans' vital capacity and total lung capacity in relation to body size were similar to values reported previously for lifelong residents of high altitude in South and North America. Thus, Tibetans, like North and South American high-altitude residents, have larger lung volumes. This may be important for raising lung diffusing capacity and preserving arterial oxygen saturation during exercise.

  4. Desigualdades por cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Información básica de las desigualdades en salud por cáncer en EE. UU., factores que contribuyen a la carga desproporcionada del cáncer en algunos grupos y ejemplos de desigualdades en incidencia y mortalidad entre ciertos grupos de la población.

  5. Toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in pregnant DA/Han rats after single i.v. application.

    PubMed

    Moors, S; Diel, P; Degen, G H

    2006-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important chemical in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, and basic monomers which are used for a variety of applications. Consumer exposure to BPA may be possible from migration of BPA from dental sealants or from polycarbonate or epoxy-lined food and drink containers. BPA is known to act as weak estrogen mimic in rodents, and there is a concern of adverse endocrine effects, especially from prenatal exposure to this potential 'endocrine disruptor'. To address this concern, we have studied the disposition and transplacental transfer of BPA in pregnant DA/Han rats on day 18 of gestation. The BPA concentrations were determined by GC/MS analysis in maternal blood, maternal organs (liver, kidney, uterus), placenta and fetuses (fetal liver and residual tissues) at different time-points (5-360 min) after intravenous administration of 10 mg BPA/kg body weight. Total BPA (aglycone and conjugates) was analyzed in all tissue samples after enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid/liquid extraction; in maternal plasma, total BPA and BPA aglycone were analyzed in parallel samples (with/without hydrolysis). Soon (5 min) after the i.v. injection a mean total BPA concentration of 3.8 microg/ml was found in maternal plasma; it declined in the first 2 h to 0.7 microg/ml. Early after injection, the majority of circulating BPA (almost 80%) was still in the aglycone form, but, metabolism by phase II enzymes decreased the BPA aglycone concentration to 0.3 microg/ml after 2 h. Despite this efficient conjugation, BPA was rapidly distributed in the organism: In well perfused organs peak concentrations for total BPA were attained 20-30 min after intravenous administration, with mean values of about 9.7 microg/g in maternal liver, 8.6 microg/g in kidneys, and 6.2 microg/g in the uterus. The peak values in other tissues were lower, with 4.0 microg/g for placenta, 3.3 microg/g for fetal liver, and 2.4 microg/g for residual fetus homogenate. The BPA levels

  6. Cultivating Self-Worth among Dislocated Tibetan Undergraduate Students in a Chinese Han-Dominated National Key University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Lin; Wang, Lili

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon fieldwork conducted with a group of dislocated Tibetan undergraduate students of the "neidi ban" program in a Han-predominated university, this paper examines the ways in which these students make sense of their worlds. To achieve this, they have actively and engagingly organized a series of symbolically meaningful activities that…

  7. Hans van Ginkel: On the Vision, History and Status of the Regional Centres of Expertise in ESD Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Professor Hans van Ginkel, Rector of the United Nations University, Tokyo, (1997-2007) and president of the International Association of Universities (2000-2004), pioneered the concept of Regional Centers of Expertise in Education for Sustainable Development (RCEs) as a strategy for meeting the goals of the United Nations Decade of Education for…

  8. The common single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ji-Peng; Wang, Hong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Zhao, Han; You, Li; Shi, Dong-Hong; Sun, Xiu-Hua; Lv, Hong; Wang, Fei; Wen, Ze-Qing; Wang, Xie-Tong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs2681472, as a new hypertension susceptibility genetic variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and rs268172 in a Northern Han Chinese population. We genotyped 1218 unrelated Northern Han Chinese women, including 515 patients with preeclampsia and 703 healthy controls. No significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = .23). When patients were divided into early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia according to gestational age of disease onset, the allele frequencies significantly differed between controls and patients with early-onset preeclampsia (P = .02). Genotype frequencies also were significantly different between controls and patients early-onset preeclampsia when data were analyzed under additive (P = .03) and dominant (P = .009) models. We replicated this association in an independent Northern Han Chinese population and observed a significant difference in the allele frequencies between patients with early-onset preeclampsia and controls (P = .011). We report that rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women.

  9. Sequence analysis of the novel HLA-Cw*08 variant allele, Cw*0820, in a Chinese Han individual.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z-H; Xu, Y-P; Wang, D-M

    2009-09-01

    A novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele, HLA-Cw*0820, was identified in a Chinese Han individual. It differs from the closest allele Cw*080101 by single nucleotide change at genomic nucleotide (nt) 1615 G>A (coding sequence nt 652 G>A, codon 194 GTC>ATC) in exon 4, which results in an amino acid change Val194Ile.

  10. Association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-Qi; Yin, Rui-Xing; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Chen, Xia; Bin, Yuan; Huang, Feng; Wang, Wei; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The association of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15 (ARL15) rs6450176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Jing and Han populations. Genotypes of the SNP were determined in 726 unrelated subjects of Jing nationality and 726 participants of Han nationality. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the SNP in Jing but not in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05; respectively). The G allele carriers in Han had lower serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). The G allele carriers in Jing had lower serum TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB levels and higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05 for all). Subgroup analyses showed that the G allele carriers had lower TC and LDL-C levels in Han males; lower LDL-C and ApoB levels in Han females; lower ApoB levels and ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Jing males; and lower LDL-C levels in Jing females than the G allele non-carriers (P < 0.05-0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum TC, LDL-C, ApoB levels and the ApoA1/ApoB ratio in Han; and TC, HDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Jing were correlated with the genotypes of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. These findings indicated that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the ARL15 rs6450176 SNP and serum lipid levels. PMID:26722494

  11. Ancient DNA Reveals That the Genetic Structure of the Northern Han Chinese Was Shaped Prior to 3,000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan-Chao; Li, Hong-Jie; Cui, Ying-Qiu; Xu, Zhi; Jin, Li; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group in the world, and their origins, development, and expansion are complex. Many genetic studies have shown that Han Chinese can be divided into two distinct groups: northern Han Chinese and southern Han Chinese. The genetic history of the southern Han Chinese has been well studied. However, the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese is still obscure. In order to gain insight into the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese, 89 human remains were sampled from the Hengbei site which is located in the Central Plain and dates back to a key transitional period during the rise of the Han Chinese (approximately 3,000 years ago). We used 64 authentic mtDNA data obtained in this study, 27 Y chromosome SNP data profiles from previously studied Hengbei samples, and genetic datasets of the current Chinese populations and two ancient northern Chinese populations to analyze the relationship between the ancient people of Hengbei and present-day northern Han Chinese. We used a wide range of population genetic analyses, including principal component analyses, shared mtDNA haplotype analyses, and geographic mapping of maternal genetic distances. The results show that the ancient people of Hengbei bore a strong genetic resemblance to present-day northern Han Chinese and were genetically distinct from other present-day Chinese populations and two ancient populations. These findings suggest that the genetic structure of northern Han Chinese was already shaped 3,000 years ago in the Central Plain area. PMID:25938511

  12. TRPM8 genetic variations associated with COPD risk in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Mingmei; Wang, Jian; Guo, Meihua; Zhou, Qipeng; Lu, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    TRPM8 plays a key role in COPD. The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in COPD adversely affects survival and exercise capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TRPM8 and COPD or PH in COPD among the Chinese Han population. A total of 513 COPD patients and 506 controls were enrolled in the study. Six tag SNPs (tSNPs) were genotyped. The relationship between COPD or PH in COPD and the six tSNPs was evaluated using the χ2 test and genetic model analysis. In the rs9789398 polymorphism, the T/C genotype was associated with an increased risk for COPD (P=0.005). Under the assumption of models of inheritance, there was an association between the rs9789398 polymorphism and COPD. In the rs9789675 polymorphism, the G/A genotype was associated with an increased risk for COPD (P=0.021). Furthermore, by the χ2 test, we found that the minor allele “A” of rs9789675 (odds ratio [OR] =0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42–0.97, P=0.034) and the minor allele “C” of rs9789398 (OR =1.59, 95% CI, 1.03–2.44, P=0.034) were associated with a decreased risk of PH in COPD in allele models. In genetic models, the genotypes “GA” and “AA” of rs9789675 were associated with a decreased risk of PH in COPD. The genotypes “TC” and “CC” of rs9789398 were associated with a decreased risk of PH in COPD. Moreover, “CG” of rs1004478 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PH in COPD. There was a significant association between the five SNPs (rs2362290, rs9789675, rs9789398, rs1003540, and rs104478) in the TRPM8 gene and the risk of PH in COPD. Our findings indicated that rs9789398 in the TRPM8 gene was significantly associated with the risk of COPD in the Chinese Han population. Moreover, rs9789675, rs9789398, and rs1004478 were significantly associated with the risk of PH in COPD. This study provides a novel insight into COPD and PH in the development of COPD

  13. Enhancing water quality modelling & forecasting in the Han River basin (Korea) using data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Sibren; Sumihar, Julius; Min, Joong-Hyuk; El Serafy, Ghada; Kim, Kyunghyun; Weerts, Albrecht

    2013-04-01

    Data assimilation in operational systems is a promising method to enhance the lead-time and reduce the uncertainty of water quality forecasts and provides a good base for the setup of monitoring schemes in large catchments (locations and frequency of sampling). In the River Han (Korea) three weirs have been constructed to prevent flooding and improve the water quality in the main stream. With real-time automated data imports and two water quality models, HSPF and EFDC, embedded in the FEWS-NIER forecasting platform, information about the current water quality status and daily water quality forecasts seven days ahead is provided to -water management agencies in the basin. To improve both the quality and the lead time of the water quality forecasts the EFDC hydrodynamics and water quality model has been implemented in OpenDA, an open interface standard for data assimilation (DA) in numerical models. The setup of this real-time water quality data assimilation system to enhance the algal dynamics modelling and the forecasts in the Han River basin (20,960 km² in size) was performed by a number of steps using Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF). Using a twin experiment the correct working of the algorithm was tested. Noise was applied to several water quality variables in the main tributaries with a sequential simulation algorithm, to obtain correct noise settings that result in a realistic spread between the individual ensemble members. As the next step, the inclusion of observations in the main stream for data assimilation was tested using the EnKF algorithm to define their effect on the model results. Noise was applied to global solar radiation to improve water temperature forecasts, as well as to phosphate, nitrate and chlorophyll-α concentrations in the large tributaries to improve the prediction of algal level upstream of the weirs. Different combinations of noise and observation settings (standard deviation and time correlation) to find the best model update of

  14. Upper Limits of Normal for Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shi, Ke-Qing; Fan, Yu-Chen; Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Xian-Feng; Li, Ling-Fei; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is the most common tool for the assessment of liver diseases. However, it is not clear whether the current normal ALT range really discriminate patients with or without liver diseases. The present study was to establish a new normal range of ALT and examine its ability to identify patients with hepatitis B or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese Han population. Methods 53037 adults were included in this study from January 1st 2008 to August 31st 2010. The 95th percentile of ALT in population with relative low risk factors for liver diseases was set as the new upper limits of normal ALT in gender-specific manner. Results The 95th percentile levels at low risk factors for liver diseases were achieved at 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women. The concordance statistics for detection were 0.873 (95%CI: 0.865–0.881) for HBV and 0.932 (95%CI: 0.927–0.937) for NAFLD in men while 0.857 (95%CI: 0.850–0.864) for HBV and 0.909 (95%CI: 0.903–0.915) for NAFLD in women. The median sensitivity of the current used ALT upper limit (40 U/L) was 6.6% for HBV and 29.7% for NAFLD and median specificity was 98.7% for men and 99.4% for women. Using our new-derived thresholds, the sensitivities ranged from 35.3% to 61.1% and the specificities were 94.8% for men and 94.6% for women. Conclusions Our results suggest that upper limits of ALT 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women in Chinese Han population. Re-consideration of normal limits of ALT should be recommended. Trial Registration ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-OCS-11001173 PMID:22962588

  15. Pen size and parity effects on maternal behaviour of Small-Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Lv, S-J; Yang, Y; Dwyer, C M; Li, F-K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of pen size and parity on maternal behaviour of twin-bearing Small-Tail Han ewes. A total of 24 ewes were allocated to a 2×2 design (six per pen), with parity (primiparous or multiparous) and pen size (large: 6.0×3.0 m; small: 6.0×1.5 m) as main effects at Linyi University, Shandong Province, China. Behaviour was observed from after parturition until weaning. All ewes were observed for 6 h every 5 days from 0700 to1000 h and from 1400 to 1700 h. Continuous focal animal sampling was used to quantify the duration of maternal behaviours: sucking, grooming and following as well as the frequency of udder accepting, udder refusing and low-pitched bleating. Oestradiol and cortisol concentrations in the faeces (collected in the morning every 5 days) were detected using EIA kits. All lambs were weighed 24 h after parturition and again at weaning at 35 days of age. The small pen size significantly reduced following (P<0.005), grooming (P<0.001) and suckling durations (P<0.05), as well as the frequency of udder refusals (P<0.001). However, there was a significant interaction with ewe parity, with decreased grooming and suckling in the small pen largely seen in the multiparous ewes (P<0.001). Independent of pen size, multiparous ewes accepted more sucking attempts by their lambs (P<0.05) and made more low-pitched bleats than primiparous ewes (P<0.001). Multiparous ewes had higher faecal oestradiol concentrations than primiparous ewes (P<0.001), and ewes in small pens had higher faecal cortisol levels compared with ewes in larger pens (P<0.001). As lambs increased in age, the duration of maternal grooming, following and suckling as well as frequency of udder acceptance and low-pitched bleating all declined, and the frequency of udder refusing increased (P<0.001 for all). Ewe parity, but not pen size, affected lamb weight gain during the period of observation (P<0.001). This is the first study to show that pen size

  16. [The disease and treatment of the frontline soldiers in Han dynasty].

    PubMed

    Min, Hookie

    2015-04-01

    This paper purports to identify and analyze the medical information of the frontline soldiers in the Northwest borderland provinces of Han Dynasty, especially Juyan and Dunhuang region, through an heuristic reading of the Juyan Bamboo Slips and the Dunhuang Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty. My findings are as follows. The most frequent disease found in the bamboo slips was the external injury. The injury of the frontline soldiers mainly occurred from the quarrels among armed soldiers using weapons. The bamboo slips also demonstrate that the quarrels usually arose due to the fierce tension caused by the frontier line service such as heavy guard activity and labour duty. Undernourishment and chronic stress the soldiers suffered might be another reasons. The second most common disease harassing the soldiers was exogenous febrile disease. In most cases reviewed in this paper, the exogenous febrile disease was usually concurrent with complex symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, etc. The bamboo slips show that the exogenous febrile disease was related to the harsh climate of the Northwest provinces, featuring extremely dry weather and the large magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations. In addition, the annual temperature range in the Northwest province was huge, fluctuating between very cold and dry winter and very hot and dry summer. The third most common disease this study identified was the disorder of the digestive system and respiratory system. However, these two types of disease were virtually indistinguishable in the bamboo slips, because the ancient Chinese chroniclers did not distinguish them, usually dubbing both diseases simply 'abdominal pain.' It should be mentioned that a few slips mention contagious disease such as dysentery and dermatolosis, and sudden death, as well. Overall, the bamboo slips demonstrate extremely poor status of the soldiers' heath condition and poor medical environment surrounding the soldiers stationing in the Northwest

  17. Common Variants in the TBX5 Gene Associated with Atrial Fibrillation in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huihua; Yin, Xiaomeng; Dong, Yingxue; Yang, Yanzong; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Background PR interval variations have recently been associated with an increased risk of long-term atrial fibrillation (AF), heart block and all-cause mortality. Genome-wide association studies have linked the PR interval with several common variants in the TBX5 gene. Several variants in the TBX5 gene, including rs7312625 and rs883079, have been associated with AF. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TBX5 gene, rs7312625 and rs883079, with AF in Chinese Han patients. Methodology/Principal Findings In this case-control association study, large cohorts of AF patients (n = 1132) and controls (n = 1206) were recruited from different hospitals. The genotyping was performed using a Rotor-Gene TM 6000 high-resolution melt system. Rs7312625, rs3825214 and rs883079 were analyzed. We found that SNP 3825214 was significantly associated with AF (P-obs = 0.002, odds ratio [OR] = 0.82), and lone AF (P-obs = 6.77x10-5, odds ratio [OR] = 0.71). SNP rs7312625 was significantly associated with lone AF (P-obs = 0.015, odds ratio [OR] = 1.27), although its association with AF was not significant. No significant association of SNP rs883079 with AF or lone AF was observed. Thus, we analyzed the interaction among these three loci. We demonstrated significant interaction among rs3825214, rs7312625 and rs883079. Four-locus risk alleles showed the highest odds ratio in combined rs3825214 and rs7312625 (P-obs<0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 2.21). Six-locus risk alleles showed the highest odds ratio in combined rs3825214, rs7312625 and rs 883079(P-obs<0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 2.35). Significance was established with the trend test (P<0.0001). Conclusions For the first time, we report the strong association of SNP rs3825214 in the TBX5 gene with AF and lone AF in a Chinese Han population. Rs7312625 was significantly associated with lone AF, and snp-snp interaction increased the risk of atrial fibrillation. Our data might

  18. Association of schizophrenia with the rs821633 polymorphism in the DISC1 gene among Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    HU, Guoqin; YANG, Chengqing; ZHAO, Jing; ZHU, Minghuan; GUO, Xiangqing; BAO, Chenxi; JIA, Si; XU, Ahong; JIE, Yong; WANG, Zuowei; ZHANG, Chen; HE, Yongguang; LV, Qinyu; YU, Shunying; YI, Zhenghui

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies report that various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the Disrupted-in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene are closely associated with schizophrenia, but there are no studies that assess the relationship of age of onset of schizophrenia with these SNPs. Objective Investigate the relationship between the rs821633 SNP in the DISC1 gene and the occurrence and age of onset of schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Methods We used the TaqMan genotyping technology to examine the rs821633 SNP in the DISC1 gene among 315 individuals who developed schizophrenia prior to 19 years of age (‘early-onset’), 407 individuals who developed schizophrenia when 19 years of age or older (‘late-onset’), and 482 healthy controls. We used survival analyses to investigate the relationship between the rs821633(C) risk allele and the age of onset of schizophrenia. Results Compared to the prevalence in healthy controls, the prevalence of the C/C genotype of rs821633 and of the C allele in rs821633 were significantly greater in individuals with early-onset schizophrenia (X2=7.17, df=1, p=0.007; X2=7.20, df=2, p=0.032) and significantly greater in individuals with late-onset schizophrenia (X2=5.36, df=1, p=0.022; X2=6.58, df=2, p=0.041). However, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of the C/C genotype or the C allele between individuals with early-onset and late-onset schizophrenia. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses found no significant association between the rs821633(C) risk allele and age of onset in schizophrenia. Conclusion We confirm the association of polymorphism in the rs821633 SNP in the DISC1 gene with schizophrenia among Han Chinese, but we found no association between the rs821633(C) risk allele and the age of onset in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:27199526

  19. Analysis of 24 Y chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Chinese Han population sample from Henan Province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Meisen; Liu, Yaju; Zhang, Juntao; Bai, Rufeng; Lv, Xiaojiao; Ma, Shuhua

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed haplotypes for 24 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs), including 17 Yfiler loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DY438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y-GATA-H4) and 7 additional STRs (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS449, DYS522 and DYS527a/b) in 1100 unrelated Chinese Han individuals from Henan Province using AGCU Y24 STR kit systems. The calculated average gene diversity (GD) values ranged from 0.4105 to 0.9647 for the DYS388 and DYS385a/b loci, respectively. The discriminatory capacity (DC) was 72.91% with 802 observed haplotypes using 17 Yfiler loci, by the addition of 7 Y-STRs to the Yfiler system, the DC was increased to 79.09% while showing 870 observed haplotypes. Among the additional 7 Y-STRs, DYS449, DYS527a/b, DYS444 and DYS522 were major contributors to enhancing discrimination. In the analysis of molecular variance, the Henan Han population clustered with Han origin populations and showed significant differences from other Non-Han populations. In the present study, we report 24 Y-STR population data in Henan Han population, and we emphasize the need for adding additional markers to the commonly used 17 Yfiler loci to achieve more improved discriminatory capacity in a population with low genetic diversity. PMID:25864156

  20. Variable Frequencies of Apolipoprotein E Genotypes and Its Effect on Serum Lipids in the Guangxi Zhuang and Han Children

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peng; Qin, Yuan Han; Lei, Feng Ying; Pei, Juan; Hu, Bo; Lu, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang, the largest ethnic minority in China, is located in the southern part of the country, and well-known to the world as the longevity village. Studies of apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism in adults suggest the lower frequencies of E4 allele and E4/E4 genotype may account, in part, for the favorable lipid profiles of Guangxi Zhuang. However, the effect of APOE polymorphism on serum lipids in the Guangxi Zhuang children is yet unknown to date. In the present study, genomic DNA was extracted from 278 Guangxi Zhuang and 200 Guangxi Han children. APOE genotypes were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The fasting serum lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) and apoB were measured. Our results demonstrated that no significant differences in serum lipids were observed between the Guangxi Zhuang and Han children. The E4/E4 and E4/E3 genotypic frequencies were significantly lower in the Guangxi Zhuang children compared with the Guangxi Han children, whereas for E2/E2, E3/E2 and E4/E2 genotypic frequencies the opposite was presented. Though no significant differences in serum lipid concentrations were found for variant alleles both in the Guangxi Zhuang and Han children, the trend was observed in the association of higher levels of Lp(a), TC, TG and LDL-C with E4 allele in the Guangxi Zhuang children. In conclusion, a significant heterogeneity in APOE genetic variation indeed exists between the Guangxi Zhuang and Han ethnic group. The E4 allele may serve as a genetic marker for susceptibility to higher lipid profiles in the Guangxi Zhuang children. Lifestyle should be modified, according to APOE polymorphism even in the young children. PMID:22016612

  1. [Hans Asperger and his patients--a retrospective examination of the spectrum of autistic disorders].

    PubMed

    Hippler, Kathrin; Klicpera, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In 1944 the Viennese paediatrician Hans Asperger described for the first time a number of boys with so-called "autistic psychopathy" but failed to give a detailed quantitative-descriptive phenomenology of the condition. The aim of this second part of a retrospective analysis of the clinical case records of children diagnosed by Asperger and his team is to provide a quantitative, in-depth description of these children, as well as to investigate Asperger's idea of a transition from autistic psychopathic personality traits towards "normality". We examined 181 case records of children seen between 1950 and 1986 who were either clearly diagnosed with autistic psychopathy (AP) or showed autistic features (AZ). Consequently, features common to both the AP and AZ groups and the differences between them are described and compared to the current ICD-10 criteria for Asperger's syndrome. Children with AZ shared the high intelligence, the social handicap and the impairment of "instincts", but showed less severe symptoms and more distinct skills, as well as fewer co-morbid disorders than children with AP. Results suggest that there is indeed something like an "autistic phenotype" with certain deficits and assets that can be found in less handicapped children with autistic impairments. The current ICD-10 criteria do not seem to fully capture Asperger's original account of the syndrome and should be discussed anew if Asperger's syndrome is reconsidered for inclusion into diagnostic criteria in the future.

  2. Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guibin; Liu, Guibin; Liu, Liu Hongmei; Zhao, Huanli; Zhang, Fengfang; Li, Shufa; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhenchun

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between oolong tea drinking and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Han Chinese women, while living and diet habits, fertility, disease elements and other baseline conditions were controlled. One group included 124 cases who routinely drank oolong tea, and the other included 556 who did not drink tea. Data were collected on participant age, lifestyle habits, fertility condition, disease elements, and lumbar, and hip bone densities. It was found that the bone densities of the greater trochanteric bone in tea drinkers were higher (0.793 ± 0.119 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.759 ± 0.116 kg/cm(2), F = 6.248, p = 0.013). Similarly, the bone density of Ward's triangular bone in tea drinkers was higher (0.668 ± 0.133 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.637 ± 0.135 kg/cm(2), F = 6.152, p = 0.013). Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women.

  3. Systematic analysis of genetic variants in Han Chinese patients with sporadic Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lamei; Song, Zhi; Deng, Xiong; Zheng, Wen; Guo, Yi; Yang, Zhijian; Deng, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. Accumulated evidence confirms that genetic factors play a considerable role in PD pathogenesis. To examine whether point variants or haplotypes are associated with PD development, genotyping of 35 variants in 22 PD-related genes was performed in a well-characterized cohort of 512 Han Chinese PD patients and 512 normal controls. Both Pearson’s χ2 test and haplotype analysis were used to evaluate whether variants or their haplotypes were associated with PD in this cohort. The only statistically significant differences in genotypic and allelic frequencies between the patients and the controls were in the DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member C10 gene (DNAJC10) variant rs13414223 (P = 0.004 and 0.002, respectively; odds ratio = 0.652, 95% confidence interval: 0.496–0.857). No other variants or haplotypes exhibited any significant differences between these two groups (all corrected P > 0.05). Our findings indicate that the variant rs13414223 in the DNAJC10 gene, a paralog of PD-related genes DNAJC6 and DNAJC13, may play a protective role in PD. This suggests it may be a PD-associated gene. PMID:27653456

  4. SMAD7 loci contribute to risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and clinicopathologic development among Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chenying; Song, Jingjing; Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Minjiang; Fan, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Xingyao; Lan, Xilin; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified three loci at 18q21 (rs4939827, rs7240004, and rs7229639), which maps to SMAD7 loci, were associated with risk of diseases of the digestive system. However, their associations with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk remain unknown. A case-control study was conducted to assess genetic associations with HCC risk and clinicopathologic development among Chinese Han population. Three SNPs were genotyped among 1,000 HCC cases and 1,000 controls using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. We observed statistically significant associations for the three SMAD7 loci and HCC risk. Each copy of minor allele was associated with a 1.24–1.36 fold increased risk of HCC. We also found that significant differences were observed between rs4939827 and clinical TNM stage and vascular invasion, as well as rs7240004 and vascular invasion. We also established a genetic risk score (GRS) by summing the risk alleles. The GRS was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC and vascular invasion. Our data revealed the SMAD7 loci is associated with HCC susceptibility and its clinicopathologic development. PMID:26989026

  5. Han ethnicity-specific type 2 diabetic treatment from traditional Chinese medicine?

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chung; Chang, Su-Sen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) gene is one of the type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility genes specific to the Han Chinese population. IDE, a zinc-metalloendopeptidase, is a potential target for controlling insulin degradation. Potential lead compounds for IDE inhibition were identified from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) through virtual screening and evaluation of their pharmacokinetic properties of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to validate the stability of complexes from docking simulation. The top three TCM compounds, dihydrocaffeic acid, isopraeroside IV, and scopolin, formed stable H-bond interactions with key residue Asn139, and were linked to active pocket residues His108, His112, and Glu189 through zinc. Torsion angle trajectories also indicated some stable interactions for each ligand with IDE. Molecular level analysis revealed that the TCM candidates might affect IDE through competitive binding to the active site and steric hindrance. Structural feature analysis reveals that high amounts of hydroxyl groups and carboxylic moieties contribute to anchor the ligand within the complex. Hence, we suggest the top three TCM compounds as potential inhibitor leads against IDE protein to control insulin degradation for type 2 diabetes mellitus. An animated interactive 3D complement (I3DC) is available in Proteopedia at http://proteopedia.org/w/Journal:JBSD:29.

  6. Vitalism and synthesis of urea. From Friedrich Wöhler to Hans A. Krebs.

    PubMed

    Kinne-Saffran, E; Kinne, R K

    1999-01-01

    In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler, a German physician and chemist by training, published a paper that describes the formation of urea, known since 1773 to be a major component of mammalian urine, by combining cyanic acid and ammonium in vitro. In these experiments the synthesis of an organic compound from two inorganic molecules was achieved for the first time. These results weakened significantly the vitalistic hypothesis on the functioning of living cells, although Wöhler, at that time, was more interested in the chemical consequences of isomerism than in the philosophical implications of his finding. However, the chemical synthesis observed by Wöhler does not represent the reaction which is employed in the mammalian liver for urea synthesis. The mechanism of this process was elucidated by the German physician Hans A. Krebs and his medical student Kurt Henseleit in 1932 and was shown to include the ornithine cycle. This 'urea cycle' is only observed in living cells; this apparently vitalistic phenomenon is caused by the compartmentalization of the various enzymatic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol, respectively. PMID:10213830

  7. Efficient taste and odour removal by water treatment plants around the Han River water supply system.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H; Chae, S; Kim, S; Wang, C; Summers, R S

    2007-01-01

    Seven major water treatment plants in Seoul Metropolitan Area, which are under Korea Water Resources Corporation (KOWACO)'s management, take water from the Paldang Reservoir in the Han River System for drinking water supply. There are taste and odour (T&O) problems in the finished water because the conventional treatment processes do not efficiently remove the T&O compounds. This study evaluated T&O removal by ozonation, granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment, powder activated carbon (PAC) and an advanced oxidation process in a pilot-scale treatment plant and bench-scale laboratory experiments. During T&O episodes, PAC alone was not adequate, but as a pretreatment together with GAC it could be a useful option. The optimal range of ozone dose was 1 to 2 mg/L at a contact time of 10 min. However, with ozone alone it was difficult to meet the T&O target of 3 TON and 15 ng/L of MIB or geosmin. The GAC adsorption capacity for DOC in the three GAC systems (F/A, GAC and O3 + GAC) at an EBCT of 14 min is mostly exhausted after 9 months. However, substantial TON removal continued for more than 2 years (>90,000 bed volumes). GAC was found to be effective for T&O control and the main removal mechanisms were adsorption capacity and biodegradation. PMID:17489399

  8. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new risk loci for gout arthritis in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Li, Changgui; Li, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shiguo; Wang, Can; Han, Lin; Cui, Lingling; Zhou, Jingguo; Zou, Hejian; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Jianhua; Cheng, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Zhaowei; Ding, Chengcheng; Wang, Meng; Chen, Tong; Cui, Ying; He, Hongmei; Zhang, Keke; Yin, Congcong; Wang, Yunlong; Xing, Shichao; Li, Baojie; Ji, Jue; Jia, Zhaotong; Ma, Lidan; Niu, Jiapeng; Xin, Ying; Liu, Tian; Chu, Nan; Yu, Qing; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Aiqing; Sun, Yuping; Wang, Haili; Lu, Jie; Li, Yuanyuan; Qing, Yufeng; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yangang; Zhou, Li; Niu, Haitao; Liang, Jun; Dong, Qian; Li, Xinde; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Shi, Yongyong

    2015-05-13

    Gout is one of the most common types of inflammatory arthritis, caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in and around the joints. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many genetic loci associated with raised serum urate concentrations. However, hyperuricemia alone is not sufficient for the development of gout arthritis. Here we conduct a multistage GWAS in Han Chinese using 4,275 male gout patients and 6,272 normal male controls (1,255 cases and 1,848 controls were genome-wide genotyped), with an additional 1,644 hyperuricemic controls. We discover three new risk loci, 17q23.2 (rs11653176, P=1.36 × 10(-13), BCAS3), 9p24.2 (rs12236871, P=1.48 × 10(-10), RFX3) and 11p15.5 (rs179785, P=1.28 × 10(-8), KCNQ1), which contain inflammatory candidate genes. Our results suggest that these loci are most likely related to the progression from hyperuricemia to inflammatory gout, which will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of gout arthritis.

  9. Making space for criminalistics: Hans Gross and fin-de-siècle CSI

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Ian; Pemberton, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the articulation of a novel forensic object—the ‘crime scene’—and its corresponding expert—the investigating officer. Through a detailed engagement with the work of the late nineteenth-century Austrian jurist and criminalist Hans Gross, it analyses the dynamic and reflexive nature of this model of ‘CSI’, emphasising the material, physical, psychological and instrumental means through which the crime scene as a delineated space, and its investigator as a disciplined agent operating within it, jointly came into being. It has a further, historiographic, aim: to move away from the commonplace emphasis in histories of forensics on fin-de-siècle criminology and toward its comparatively under-explored contemporary, criminalistics. In so doing, it opens up new ways of thinking about the crime scene as a defining feature of our present-day forensic culture that recognise its historical contingency and the complex processes at work in its creation and development. PMID:23036861

  10. Mitochondrial genome variations and functional characterization in Han Chinese families with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bi, Rui; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Wen; Li, Xiao; Chen, Shi-Yi; Yu, Dandan; Chen, Xiaogang; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and schizophrenia has been strongly debated. To test whether mtDNA variants are involved in schizophrenia in Han Chinese patients, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genomes of probands from 11 families with a family history and maternal inheritance pattern of schizophrenia. Besides the haplogroup-specific variants, we found 11 nonsynonymous private variants, one rRNA variant, and one tRNA variant in 5 of 11 probands. Among the nonsynonymous private variants, mutations m.15395 A>G and m.8536 A>G were predicted to be deleterious after web-based searches and in silico program affiliated analysis. Functional characterization further supported the potential pathogenicity of the two variants m.15395 A>G and m.8536 A>G to cause mitochondrial dysfunction at the cellular level. Our results showed that mtDNA variants were actively involved in schizophrenia in some families with maternal inheritance of this disease. PMID:26822593

  11. Expression of thyroglobulin and calcitonin in spontaneous thyroid gland tumors in the Han Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Andrew M; Jones, Stewart A; Endersby-Wood, Helen J; McCormack, Nicola A M; Turton, John A

    2007-04-01

    Spontaneous follicular and C-cell tumors of the thyroid gland in the Han Wistar rat were examined using two morphologic procedures. Firstly, in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to localize thyroglobulin (TG) and calcitonin (CT) mRNAs. Secondly, the proteins for these markers were detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim was to study the morphology of the tumors and to examine the usefulness of TG and CT markers in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Follicular tumors with cystic, papillary and follicular patterns showed relatively consistent expression of TG mRNA by ISH, thereby confirming the diagnostic value of this technique. However, no staining for TG markers was observed in solid lesions. In general, C-cell tumors comprised well-differentiated cells that continued to express CT mRNA and peptides even after embolic spread and metastasis. Therefore, the performance of either ISH or IHC for CT markers can be used for diagnostic confirmation. Additional features noted in C-cell tumors included the appearance of tumor emboli or metastases in association with small primary lesions (less than 5 average follicular diameters in size) and the presence of eosinophilic (amyloid-like) material showing immunopositivity for CT peptides. Finally, evidence is provided for the sequestration of TG protein by proliferating C-cells.

  12. Adolf Beck: A pioneer in electroencephalography in between Richard Caton and Hans Berger

    PubMed Central

    Coenen, Anton; Zayachkivska, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Adolf Beck, born in 1863 in Kraków (Poland), joined the Department of Physiology of the Jagiellonian University in 1889, to work directly under the prominent professor in physiology Napoleon Cybulski. Following his suggestion, Beck started studies on the electrical brain activity of animals. He recorded negative electrical potentials in several brain areas evoked by peripheral sensory impulses. Using this technique, Beck localised various centres in the brain of several animal species. In doing this, he discovered continuous electrical oscillations in the electrical brain activity and noted that these oscillations ceased after sensory stimulation. This was the first description of desynchronization in electrical brain potentials. He published these findings in 1890 in the German Centralblatt für Physiologie. Immediately, an intense discussion arose under physiologists on the question who could claim being the founder of electroencephalography. Ultimately, Richard Caton from Liverpool showed that he had performed similar experiments in monkeys years earlier. Nevertheless, Beck added several new elements to the nature of electrical brain activity, such as evoked potentials and desynchronization. In looking back, Adolf Beck can be regarded, next to Richard Caton and together with Hans Berger (who later introduced the electrical brain recording method to humans), as one of the founders of electroencephalography. PMID:24605179

  13. [Hans-Christian Jacobaeus (1879-1937): The inventor of human laparoscopy and thoracoscopy].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Häcker, A; Langbein, S; Kwon, S; Hoang-Böhm, J; Alken, P

    2006-09-01

    Already 94 years ago in 1910, Dr. Hans Christian Jacobaeus performed the first clinical laparoscopic surgery in Stockholm. His pioneering procedure was based on the animal experiments of Georg Kelling (1866-1945), a German physician from Dresden, who performed the first laparoscopic intervention in 1901 using a Nitze cystoscope in a dog. In 1910 Jacobaeus published his first experiences with laparoscopic surgery in the Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift under the title "The possibility to perform cystoscopy in examinations of serous cavities." He used this technique for diagnostic purposes in unclear abdominal complaints and functional impairment. Jacobaeus was the first who pointed out the possibility of causing injury to organs, especially the gut, by inserting the trocar. In 1910 Jacobaeus recognized the immense diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of laparoscopic surgery, but also the difficulties and limits. He also was the first who recognized the need to complete training sessions on animals and corpses. He demanded the development of special laparoscopic instruments to optimize and simplify the operation. PMID:16773384

  14. Hans Driesch and the problems of "normal psychology". Rereading his Crisis in Psychology (1925).

    PubMed

    Allesch, Christian G

    2012-06-01

    In 1925, the German biologist and philosopher Hans Driesch published a booklet entitled The Crisis in Psychology. It was originally published in English and was based on lectures given at various universities in China, Japan and the USA. The "crisis" in psychology of that time, in Driesch's opinion, lies in the necessity to decide about "the road which psychology is to follow in the future". This necessity refers to five "critical points", namely (1) to develop the theory of psychic elements to a theory of meaning by phenomenological analysis, (2) the overcoming of association theory, (3) to acknowledge that the unconscious is a fact and a "normal" aspect of mental life, (4) to reject "psychomechanical parallelism" or any other epiphenomenalistic solution of the mind-body problem, and (5) the extension of psychical research to new facts as described by parapsychology, for instance. Driesch saw close parallels between the development of modern psychology and that of biology, namely in a theoretical shift from "sum-concepts" like association and mechanics, to "totality-concepts" like soul and entelechy. The German translation of 1926 was entitled Grundprobleme der Psychologie (Fundamental Problems of Psychology) while "the crisis in psychology" forms just the subtitle of this book. This underlines that Driesch's argumentation--in contrast to that of Buehler--dealt with ontological questions rather than with paradigms.

  15. An association study of HFE gene mutation with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Bin-Bin; Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Tao; Ma, Ke; Jiang, Jian; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Li-Hua; Peng, Yi-Feng; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the haemochromatosis gene (HFE) influence iron status in the general population of Northern Europe, and excess iron is associated with the impairment of spermatogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between three mutations (C282Y, H63D and S65C) in the HFE gene with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population. Two groups of Chinese men were recruited: 444 infertile men (including 169 with idiopathic azoospermia) and 423 controls with proven fertility. The HFE gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The experimental results demonstrated that no C282Y or S65C mutations were detected. Idiopathic male infertility was not significantly associated with heterozygous H63D mutation (odds ratio=0.801, 95% confidence interval=0.452–1.421, χ2=0.577, P=0.448). The H63D mutation frequency did not correlate significantly with the serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels in infertile men (P=0.896, P=0.404 and P=0.05, respectively). Our data suggest that the HFE H63D mutation is not associated with idiopathic male reproductive dysfunction. PMID:22504868

  16. Serum trace element differences between Schizophrenia patients and controls in the Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lei; Chen, Tianlu; Yang, Jinglei; Zhou, Kejun; Yan, Xiaomei; Chen, Wenzhong; Sun, Liya; Li, Linlin; Qin, Shengying; Wang, Peng; Yang, Ping; Cui, Donghong; Burmeister, Margit; He, Lin; Jia, Wei; Wan, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the trace element profile differences between Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls; previous studies about the association of certain elements with Schizophrenia have obtained conflicting results. To identify these differences in the Han Chinese population, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantify the levels of 35 elements in the sera of 111 Schizophrenia patients and 110 healthy participants, which consisted of a training (61/61 for cases/controls included) and a test group including remaining participants. An orthogonal projection to latent structures model was constructed from the training group (R2Y = 0.465, Q2cum = 0.343) had a sensitivity of 76.0% and a specificity of 71.4% in the test group. Single element analysis indicated that the concentrations of cesium, zinc, and selenium were significantly reduced in patients with Schizophrenia in both the training and test groups. The meta-analysis including 522 cases and 360 controls supported that Zinc was significantly associated with Schizophrenia (standardized mean difference [SMD], −0.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI], −1.46 to −0.16, P = 0.01) in the random-effect model. Information theory analysis indicated that Zinc could play roles independently in Schizophrenia. These results suggest clear element profile differences between patients with Schizophrenia and healthy controls, and reduced Zn level is confirmed in the Schizophrenia patients. PMID:26456296

  17. Comparative transcriptome profiling of longissimus muscle tissues from Qianhua Mutton Merino and Small Tail Han sheep.

    PubMed

    Sun, Limin; Bai, Man; Xiang, Lujie; Zhang, Guishan; Ma, Wei; Jiang, Huaizhi

    2016-01-01

    The Qianhua Mutton Merino (QHMM) is a new sheep (Ovis aries) variety with better meat performance compared with the traditional local variety Small Tail Han (STH) sheep. We aimed to evaluate the transcriptome regulators associated with muscle growth and development between the QHMM and STH. We used RNA-Seq to obtain the transcriptome profiles of the longissimus muscle from the QHMM and STH. The results showed that 960 genes were differentially expressed (405 were up-regulated and 555 were down-regulated). Among these, 463 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were probably associated with muscle growth and development and were involved in biological processes such as skeletal muscle tissue development and muscle cell differentiation; molecular functions such as catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity; cellular components such as mitochondrion and sarcoplasmic reticulum; and pathways such as metabolic pathways and citrate cycle. From the potential genes, a gene-act-network and co-expression-network closely related to muscle growth and development were identified and established. Finally, the expressions of nine genes were validated by real-time PCR. The results suggested that some DEGs, including MRFs, GXP1 and STAC3, play crucial roles in muscle growth and development processes. This genome-wide transcriptome analysis of QHMM and STH muscle is reported for the first time. PMID:27645777

  18. Association of apolipoprotein M gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongxue; He, Zhiyi; Qin, Xue; Li, Lei; Liu, Fang; Deng, Shumin

    2011-03-01

    The apolipoprotein M (ApoM) gene is critical in the formation of pre-β-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol efflux to HDL. In this case and control study, 314 ischemic stroke patients and 389 healthy controls were analyzed for three ApoM gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), i.e., C-1065A, T-855C, and T-778C, using a SNaPshot Multiplex sequencing assay. The genotype and allele frequencies of the T-855C were similar in both ischemic stroke patients and the controls. But the frequency of the TC genotype, the C allele of T-778C, and the A allele of the C-1065A SNPs in ischemic stroke patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy controls. After adjusting for confounding risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption), the ApoM gene TC genotype, C allele of T-778C, and A allele of C-1065A were associated with a risk of ischemic stroke. Moreover, plasma levels of total cholesterol were significantly higher in patients with CC or CT genotypes of T-778C than those with TT genotype in the controls. The current data demonstrated that ApoM T-778 C and C-1065A SNPs were associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in this Han Chinese population.

  19. [Hans-Christian Jacobaeus (1879-1937): The inventor of human laparoscopy and thoracoscopy].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Häcker, A; Langbein, S; Kwon, S; Hoang-Böhm, J; Alken, P

    2006-09-01

    Already 94 years ago in 1910, Dr. Hans Christian Jacobaeus performed the first clinical laparoscopic surgery in Stockholm. His pioneering procedure was based on the animal experiments of Georg Kelling (1866-1945), a German physician from Dresden, who performed the first laparoscopic intervention in 1901 using a Nitze cystoscope in a dog. In 1910 Jacobaeus published his first experiences with laparoscopic surgery in the Münchner Medizinische Wochenschrift under the title "The possibility to perform cystoscopy in examinations of serous cavities." He used this technique for diagnostic purposes in unclear abdominal complaints and functional impairment. Jacobaeus was the first who pointed out the possibility of causing injury to organs, especially the gut, by inserting the trocar. In 1910 Jacobaeus recognized the immense diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of laparoscopic surgery, but also the difficulties and limits. He also was the first who recognized the need to complete training sessions on animals and corpses. He demanded the development of special laparoscopic instruments to optimize and simplify the operation.

  20. Vitalism and synthesis of urea. From Friedrich Wöhler to Hans A. Krebs.

    PubMed

    Kinne-Saffran, E; Kinne, R K

    1999-01-01

    In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler, a German physician and chemist by training, published a paper that describes the formation of urea, known since 1773 to be a major component of mammalian urine, by combining cyanic acid and ammonium in vitro. In these experiments the synthesis of an organic compound from two inorganic molecules was achieved for the first time. These results weakened significantly the vitalistic hypothesis on the functioning of living cells, although Wöhler, at that time, was more interested in the chemical consequences of isomerism than in the philosophical implications of his finding. However, the chemical synthesis observed by Wöhler does not represent the reaction which is employed in the mammalian liver for urea synthesis. The mechanism of this process was elucidated by the German physician Hans A. Krebs and his medical student Kurt Henseleit in 1932 and was shown to include the ornithine cycle. This 'urea cycle' is only observed in living cells; this apparently vitalistic phenomenon is caused by the compartmentalization of the various enzymatic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol, respectively.

  1. Seasonal and short term fluctuations of iceberg flux from Hans Glacier Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jania, Jacek; Blaszczyk, Malgorzata; Cieply, Michal; Grabiec, Mariusz; Budzik, Tomasz; Ignatiuk, Dariusz; Uszczyk, Aleksander; Tymrowska, Patrycja; Majchrowska, Elzbieta; Prominska, Agnieszka; Walczowski, Waldemar; Pastusiak, Tadeusz; Petlicki, Michal; Puczko, Dariusz

    2016-04-01

    Glacier iceberg flux due to calving might be an important source of freshwater deliver to Arctic fjords. Mass loss due to calving gives also significant contribution of glacier mass budget. Seasonal changes of dynamics of tidewater glaciers is generally known. After advance of glacier front during winter, summer recession occurs thanks to higher calving in the warmer period of the year. Nevertheless, annual course of iceberg flux intensity is not calculated frequently. Observations and survey of glacier dynamics were conducted on Hans Glacier a polythermal glacier ending down into Hornsund Fiord in Southern Spitsbergen. They provide information for discernment of seasonal calving intensity and iceberg supply to the fiord as a source of freshwater seasonally and in shorter periods of time. Source data on glacier front geometry, bathymetry of the fore bay, seasonal fluctuation of ice-cliff position and glacier velocity were obtained by different field survey and remote sensing methods. Time lapse photos, repeated terrestrial laser scanning and measurements of sea water temperature, salinity and dynamics as well, together with record from meteorological stations were used to determine factors of calving intensity. Calving flux from the glacier to Hornsund Fjord was calculated for short-period events and selected summer seasons between 2007 and 2015. Interannual differences in calving flux were also estimated. Ratios of meltwater to iceberg freshwater supply to the fiord was preliminarily estimated as well.

  2. Effects of quercetin on pharmacokinetics of cefprozil in Chinese-Han male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei-Fei; Tan, Zhi-Rong; McLeod, Howard L; Chen, Yao; Ou-Yang, Dong-Sheng; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2016-10-01

    1. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of cefprozil. The secondary objective was to evaluate the safety of the combined use of cefprozil and quercetin. 2. An open-label, two-period, crossover phase I trial among 24 Han Chinese male subjects was conducted. Participants were given 500 mg of quercetin orally once daily for 15 d followed by single dose of cefprozil (500 mg) on day 15. Serum concentrations of cefprozil were then measured in all participants on day 15. A 15-d washout period was then assigned after which a 500 mg dose of cefprozil was administered and measured in the serum on day 36. 3. All subjects completed the trial, and no serious adverse events were reported. We measured mean serum concentrations of cefprozil in the presence and absence of quercetin in all participants. The maximum serum concentration of cefprozil in the presence of quercetin was 8.18 ug/ml (95% CI: 7.55-8.81) versus a maximum cefprozil concentration of 8.35 ug/ml (95% CI: 7.51-9.19) in the absence of quercetin. We conclude that the concurrent use of quercetin has no substantial effect on serum concentrations of orally administered cefprozil. 4. Co-administration of quercetin showed no statistically significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of cefprozil in healthy Chinese subjects.

  3. Subtypes of major depression: latent class analysis in depressed Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Aggen, S.; Shi, S.; Gao, J.; Li, Y.; Tao, M.; Zhang, K.; Wang, X.; Gao, C.; Yang, L.; Liu, Y.; Li, K.; Shi, J.; Wang, G.; Liu, L.; Zhang, J.; Du, B.; Jiang, G.; Shen, J.; Zhang, Z.; Liang, W.; Sun, J.; Hu, J.; Liu, T.; Wang, X.; Miao, G.; Meng, H.; Li, Y.; Hu, C.; Li, Y.; Huang, G.; Li, G.; Ha, B.; Deng, H.; Mei, Q.; Zhong, H.; Gao, S.; Sang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, X.; Yu, F.; Yang, D.; Liu, T.; Chen, Y.; Hong, X.; Wu, W.; Chen, G.; Cai, M.; Song, Y.; Pan, J.; Dong, J.; Pan, R.; Zhang, W.; Shen, Z.; Liu, Z.; Gu, D.; Wang, X.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Q.; Flint, J.; Kendler, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally? Method Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ≥30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus. Results Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n=27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct. Conclusions MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences. PMID:25065911

  4. Comparative transcriptome profiling of longissimus muscle tissues from Qianhua Mutton Merino and Small Tail Han sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Limin; Bai, Man; Xiang, Lujie; Zhang, Guishan; Ma, Wei; Jiang, Huaizhi

    2016-01-01

    The Qianhua Mutton Merino (QHMM) is a new sheep (Ovis aries) variety with better meat performance compared with the traditional local variety Small Tail Han (STH) sheep. We aimed to evaluate the transcriptome regulators associated with muscle growth and development between the QHMM and STH. We used RNA-Seq to obtain the transcriptome profiles of the longissimus muscle from the QHMM and STH. The results showed that 960 genes were differentially expressed (405 were up-regulated and 555 were down-regulated). Among these, 463 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were probably associated with muscle growth and development and were involved in biological processes such as skeletal muscle tissue development and muscle cell differentiation; molecular functions such as catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity; cellular components such as mitochondrion and sarcoplasmic reticulum; and pathways such as metabolic pathways and citrate cycle. From the potential genes, a gene-act-network and co-expression-network closely related to muscle growth and development were identified and established. Finally, the expressions of nine genes were validated by real-time PCR. The results suggested that some DEGs, including MRFs, GXP1 and STAC3, play crucial roles in muscle growth and development processes. This genome-wide transcriptome analysis of QHMM and STH muscle is reported for the first time. PMID:27645777

  5. Two-year carcinogenicity study of acrylamide in Wistar Han rats with in utero exposure.

    PubMed

    Maronpot, R R; Thoolen, R J M M; Hansen, B

    2015-02-01

    Acrylamide is an important chemical with widespread industrial and other uses in addition to generalized population exposure from certain cooked foods. Previous rat studies to assess the carcinogenic potential of acrylamide have been carried out exclusively in the Fischer 344 rat with identification of a number of tumors amongst which mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis is an important tumor endpoint in the classification of acrylamide as a 'probably human carcinogen. In a rat carcinogenicity study to determine the human relevance of mesotheliomas Wistar Han rats were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 3.0mg acrylamide/kg body weight/day in drinking water starting at gestation day 6. At the end of two years, mammary gland fibroadenomas in females and thyroid follicular cell tumors in both sexes were the only tumors increased in acrylamide treated rats. These tumor endpoints have rat-specific modes of action suggesting less likelihood of human cancer risk than previously estimated. This study demonstrates that tunica vaginalis mesotheliomas are strain specific and not likely of genotoxic origin.

  6. Comparative study of bacterial status from conjunctival sac of the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hui; Dong, Wan-Jiang; Fan, Ying-Chuan; Yu, Hua; Wang, Guang-Jin; Li, Yu-Chan; Cao, Kui

    2012-01-01

    AIM To compare the status of bacteria in the conjunctival sac from the elder Qiang minority and Han people with dry eyes in Sichuan, China. METHODS Total of 54 elder Qiang people with dry eyes (108 eyes) were examined by cluster sampling. In the similar habitation region of Han people, 80 (160 dry eyes) Han people were analyzed as the control group. The bacteria was separated from the inferior palpebral conjunctiva, then inoculated on blood plate for 48 hours and identified. RESULTS Totally 24 strains of bacteria were cultured in either Qiang minority or Han c populations with 3 strains of them existed in both ethnic groups. The commonest bacteria in conjunctival sac in two ethnic groups were non-pathogenic bacterium. The composition of Corynebacterium in Han people (54.1%) was significantly higher than that in Qiang minority (27.4%) (χ2=11.6721, P=0.0006). The percentage of Sphingomonas Paucimobilis in Qiang people was higher than that in Han people (χ2=18.6442, P=0.0000). However, there was no significant difference between Qiang minority and Han people either in bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac, or the composition of bacteria species and strains, or the composition of staphylococcus epidemids between two ethnic populations. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference of bacterial positive rate in conjunctival sac from the elder of Qiang minority and Han people with dry eye, but the species of bacteria were different. PMID:22773985

  7. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  8. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  9. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  10. High Resolution Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Allele Frequencies and HIV-1 Infection Associations in Chinese Han and Uyghur Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhou; Zhao, Zhongfang; Li, Tianyi; Liao, Qi; Kushner, Nicholas; Touzjian, Neal Y.; Shao, Yiming; Sun, Yongtao; Strong, Amie J.; Lu, Yichen

    2012-01-01

    Background Host immunogenetic factors such as HLA class I polymorphism are important to HIV-1 infection risk and AIDS progression. Previous studies using high-resolution HLA class I profile data of Chinese populations appeared insufficient to provide information for HIV-1 vaccine development and clinical trial design. Here we reported HLA class I association with HIV-1 susceptibility in a Chinese Han and a Chinese Uyghur cohort. Methodology/Principal Findings Our cohort included 327 Han and 161 Uyghur ethnic individuals. Each cohort included HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative subjects. Four-digit HLA class I typing was performed by sequencing-based typing and high-resolution PCR-sequence specific primer. We compared the HLA class I allele and inferred haplotype frequencies between HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative groups. A neighbor-joining tree between our cohorts and other populations was constructed based on allele frequencies of HLA-A and HLA-B loci. We identified 58 HLA-A, 75 HLA-B, and 32 HLA-Cw distinct alleles from our cohort and no novel alleles. The frequency of HLA-B*5201 and A*0301 was significantly higher in the Han HIV-1 negative group. The frequency of HLA-B*5101 was significantly higher in the Uyghur HIV-1 negative group. We observed statistically significant increases in expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm predicted haplotype frequencies of HLA-A*0201-B*5101 in the Uyghur HIV-1 negative group, and of Cw*0304-B*4001 in the Han HIV-1 negative group. The B62s supertype frequency was found to be significantly higher in the Han HIV-1 negative group than in the Han HIV-1 positive group. Conclusions At the four-digit level, several HLA class I alleles and haplotypes were associated with lower HIV-1 susceptibility. Homogeneity of HLA class I and Bw4/Bw6 heterozygosity were not associated with HIV-1 susceptibility in our cohort. These observations contribute to the Chinese HLA database and could prove useful in the development of HIV-1 vaccine

  11. Association study of OPRM1 polymorphisms with Schizophrenia in Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expression of μ-opioid receptor has important role in cognitive dysfunction in Schizophrenia (SZ). The results of studies about the association of polymorphisms of μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) with SZ were inconsistent. Methods We conducted a case–control study to investigate the genetic association between OPRM1 polymorphisms and SZ among the Han chinese population. 264 SZ patients and 264 age-matched control subjects were recruited. Four SNPs of OPRM1 were successfully genotyped by using PCR-RFLP. Results Of four polymorphisms, rs1799971 and rs2075572 were shown to associate with SZ. Compared with the A allele of rs1799971 and C allele of rs2075572, the G allele of rs1799971 and rs2075572 was associated with an almost 0.46-fold risk (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.357-0.59, P < 0.01) and 0.7-fold risk (OR = 0.707, 95% CI: 0.534-0.937, P = 0.015) of the occurrence of SZ,. When subjects were divided by gender, rs1799971 remained significant difference only in males (OR = 0.309, 95% CI: 0.218-0.439 for G allele, P < 0.01), and rs2075572 only in females (OR = 0.399, 95% CI: 0.246-0.648 for G allele, P < 0.01). In secondary analysis with subsets of patients, the G allele of rs1799971 (compared to the A allele) was associated with a decreased risk of all patients and male patients with apathy symptoms (OR = 0.086, 95% CI: 0.048-0.151, P = 0.01; OR = 0.083, 95% CI: 0.045-0.153, P < 0.01), and the G allele of rs2075572 (compared to the C allele) was associated with a decreased risk of all patients and female patients with positive family history (OR = 0.468, 95% CI: 0.309-0.71, P < 0.01; OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.195-0.593, P < 0.01). In addition, haplotype analysis revealed that two SNP haplotypes (A-C-C-G and G-C-C-A) were associated with decreased risks of SZ (P < 0.01). The other two (G-C-C-G and G-G-C-G) with increased risks of SZ (P < 0.01). Conclusions The present study demonstrated for

  12. Association of polymorphisms in mitofusin-2 gene with type 2 diabetes in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengtao; Zhu, Shuying; Wu, Xiaopan; Zhu, Xilin; Li, Jingyun; Pan, Liping; Xin, Zhenhui; Niu, Fenghe; Wu, Jia; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    MFN2 and ESRRA are candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Five tag-SNPs in MFN2 gene and three in ESRRA gene were selected and genotyped with TaqMan or PCR-RFLP method in stage 1 populations (555 patients with T2D and 649 control subjects) and stage 2 populations (546 patients with T2D versus 419 control subjects) in Han Chinese. And combining our published data, we estimated the interactions between genetic variants in the MFN2, ESRRA, and PGC-1α genes on the T2D risk using MDR. rs873458 (G > A) and rs2878677 (C > T) in MFN2 gene were significantly associated with T2D (P = 0.005 and 0.01) in stage 1 populations, and the association of other SNPs with T2D was not found. In stage 2 populations, we further confirmed the association between rs2878677 and T2D (P = 0.01). Combining the two stage populations, the data supported more significant effect of rs873458 and rs2878677 on T2D risk (P = 0.003 and 0.0001). A-C-G-T-C and G-T-C-T-C in MFN2 had significant association with T2D (P = 0.007 and 0.009). The present study also provided the evidence that MFN2 had interactions with PGC-1α (P < 0.0001) or ESRRA (P < 0.0001). This study suggested a role of MFN2 polymorphism in the risk of T2D; however, further studies are needed.

  13. Mutation analyses in pedigrees and sporadic cases of ethnic Han Chinese Kallmann syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Ying-Qian; Yang, Guo-Qing; Hong, Tian-Pei; Zhu, Da-Long; Yang, Jin-Kui; Ning, Guang; Jin, Nan; Chen, Kang; Zang, Li; Wang, An-Ping; Du, Jin; Wang, Xian-Ling; Yang, Li-Juan; Ba, Jian-Ming; Lv, Zhao-Hui; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Kallmann syndrome, a form of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is characterized by developmental abnormalities of the reproductive system and abnormal olfaction. Despite association of certain genes with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, the genetic inheritance and expression are complex and incompletely known. In the present study, seven Kallmann syndrome pedigrees in an ethnic Han Chinese population were screened for genetic mutations. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of 19 idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism)-related genes in seven Chinese Kallmann syndrome pedigrees were sequenced. Detected mutations were also tested in 70 sporadic Kallmann syndrome cases and 200 Chinese healthy controls. In pedigrees 1, 2, and 7, the secondary sex characteristics were poorly developed and the patients' sense of smell was severely or completely lost. We detected a genetic mutation in five of the seven pedigrees: homozygous KAL1 p.R191ter (pedigree 1); homozygous KAL1 p.C13ter (pedigree 2; a novel mutation); heterozygous FGFR1 p.R250W (pedigree 3); and homozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H (pedigrees 4 and 5). No genetic change of the assayed genes was detected in pedigrees 6 and 7. Among the 70 sporadic cases, we detected one homozygous and one heterozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H mutation. This mutation was also detected heterozygously in 2/200 normal controls and its pathogenicity is likely questionable. The genetics and genotype-phenotype relationships in Kallmann syndrome are complicated. Classical monogenic inheritance does not explain the full range of genetic inheritance of Kallmann syndrome patients. Because of stochastic nature of genetic mutations, exome analyses of Kallmann syndrome patients may provide novel insights.

  14. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Neutron Stars and Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James

    2015-04-01

    Core-collapse supernovae lead to the formation of neutron stars, and both are sensitive to the dense matter equation of state. Hans Bethe first recognized that the matter in the collapsing core of a massive star has a relatively low entropy which prevents nuclear dissociation until nuclei merge near the nuclear saturation density. This recognition means that collapse continues until the core exceeds the saturation density. This prediction forms the foundation for modern simulations of supernovae. These supernovae sample matter up to about twice nuclear saturation density, but neutron stars are sensitive to the equation of state both near the saturation density and at several times higher densities. Two important recent developments are the discovery of two-solar mass neutron stars and refined experimental determinations of the behavior of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter near the saturation density. Combined with the assumption of causality, they imply that the radii of observed neutron stars are largely independent of their mass, and that this radius is in the range of 11 to 13 km. These theoretical results are not only consistent with expectations from theoretical studies of pure neutron matter, but also accumulated observations of both bursting and cooling neutron stars. In the near future, new pulsar timing data, which could lead to larger measured masses as well as measurements of moments of inertia, X-ray observations, such as from NICER, of bursting and other sources, and gravitational wave observations of neutron stars in merging compact binaries, will provide important new constraints on neutron stars and the dense matter equation of state. DOE DE-FG02-87ER-40317.

  15. NEDD4 single nucleotide polymorphism rs2271289 is associated with keloids in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Liu, Sheng-Li; Xie, Jian; Ding, Mao-Qian; Lu, Meng-Zhu; Zhang, Lan-Fang; Yao, Xiu-Hua; Hu, Bai; Lu, Wen-Sheng; Zheng, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Keloids are abnormally raised fibroproliferative lesions that usually occur following cutaneous traumas. Recently, a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three genetic loci that are associated with keloids in Japanese population. Subsequently, two reported loci 1q41 (rs873549 and rs1442440) and 15q21.3 (rs2271289) for keloids were confirmed in selected Chinese population. The association of these SNPs with clinical features of keloids, has not yet been studied. To explore the role of these SNPs in the pathogenesis of keloids, we performed a case-controlled study in another independent Chinese Han population to analyze the correlation between 4 SNPs (rs873549, rs2118610, rs1511412, rs2271289) and keloids phenotypes. 309 keloids patients and 1080 control subjects were included. The results showed that, in the dominant mode of inheritance, the minor allele T of SNP rs2271289 had significantly higher odd ratios (ORs) in the severe keloid group compared with both the controls and the mild keloid group. The ORs were maintained after Bonferroni's correction (OR: 4.09, 95% CI: 1.78-9.37, P-value 3.25E-04). The ratio of the severe: mild OR for rs2271289 (dominant model) is (4.73/1.84=2.57). Similar associations in SNP rs2271289 were seen for groups with no family history and multiplesite compared with the control groups. No associations between keloid number, family history or severity relative to the controls were observed for the other three SNPs. Our data support that rs2271289 is strongly associated with severe keloids and might contribute to the complexity of clinical features of keloids. PMID:27158346

  16. Southern East Asian origin and coexpansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing family with Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tao; Comas, Iñaki; Luo, Dan; Lu, Bing; Wu, Jie; Wei, Lanhai; Yang, Chongguang; Liu, Qingyun; Gan, Mingyu; Sun, Gang; Shen, Xin; Liu, Feiying; Gagneux, Sebastien; Mei, Jian; Lan, Rushu; Wan, Kanglin; Gao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The Beijing family is the most successful genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and responsible for more than a quarter of the global tuberculosis epidemic. As the predominant genotype in East Asia, the Beijing family has been emerging in various areas of the world and is often associated with disease outbreaks and antibiotic resistance. Revealing the origin and historical dissemination of this strain family is important for understanding its current global success. Here we characterized the global diversity of this family based on whole-genome sequences of 358 Beijing strains. We show that the Beijing strains endemic in East Asia are genetically diverse, whereas the globally emerging strains mostly belong to a more homogenous subtype known as “modern” Beijing. Phylogeographic and coalescent analyses indicate that the Beijing family most likely emerged around 30,000 y ago in southern East Asia, and accompanied the early colonization by modern humans in this area. By combining the genomic data and genotyping result of 1,793 strains from across China, we found the “modern” Beijing sublineage experienced massive expansions in northern China during the Neolithic era and subsequently spread to other regions following the migration of Han Chinese. Our results support a parallel evolution of the Beijing family and modern humans in East Asia. The dominance of the “modern” Beijing sublineage in East Asia and its recent global emergence are most likely driven by its hypervirulence, which might reflect adaption to increased human population densities linked to the agricultural transition in northern China. PMID:26080405

  17. Do Owners Have a Clever Hans Effect on Dogs? Results of a Pointing Study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidjell, Teresa; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Virányi, Zsófia

    2012-01-01

    Dogs are exceptionally successful at interpreting human pointing gestures to locate food hidden in one of two containers. However, it has repeatedly been questioned whether dogs rely on the pointing gesture or their success is increased by subtle cues from their human handler. In two experiments we used a standard two-way object-choice task to focus on this potential Clever Hans effect. We investigated if and how owners’ knowledge and beliefs influenced their dogs’ performance. In two experiments, as is typical in such pointing tasks, the owners sat behind their dogs, in close auditory and tactile contact with them. In Experiment 1, we systematically manipulated the owners’ knowledge of whether or not their dog should follow the pointing gesture, but at the same time instructed the owners to refrain from influencing the choice of their dog. We found no influence of subtle cues from the owners, if indeed they existed: dogs in the different groups followed the pointing uniformly. Furthermore, in the absence of pointing dogs chose randomly, even though the owners had been informed about the location of the reward. In Experiment 2, owners were instructed to actively influence the choice of their dogs, and they, indeed, succeeded in sending their dogs to the container they believed to be baited. However, their influence was significantly weaker if the experimenter had previously pointed to the other location. Overall the pointing gesture seems to have a strong effect on the choice of dogs in an object-choice task. Pointing can lead the dogs to success without help from their owners as well as it can counteract clear directional instructions provided by the owners. PMID:23272000

  18. Association between TNFSF4 tagSNPs and myocardial infarction in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J; Cen, J-M; Cai, M-Y; Xu, S; Li, L; Li, Z-C; Yang, X-L; Chen, C; Liu, X; Xiong, X-D

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4) plays an important role in atherosclerosis development. However, the biological significance of TNFSF4 variants on myocardial infarction (MI) pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We investigated the influence of 5 TNFSF4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs3861950, rs17346501, rs7518045, rs1234313, and rs3850641) on individual susceptibility to MI in a Chinese population of 285 MI patients and 645 controls. Genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the TNFSF4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphism rs7518045 exhibited a significant effect on MI risk; A allele (odds ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval = 0.46-1.00, P = 0.048) and AA genotype (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.97, P = 0.036) were associated with a decreased risk of MI compared with the G allele and the combined AG/GG genotype, respectively. Moreover, the haplotype rs3861950C-rs17346501C-rs7518045A-rs1234313G containing the rs7518045 A allele also exhibited a significant association with a decreased risk for MI (odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.21-0.84, P = 0.011). Our study showed that the A allele of the rs7518045 and haplotype rs3861950C-rs17346501C-rs7518045A-rs1234313G in the TNFSF4 gene were associated with decreased MI risk in a Chinese Han population. Further studies using larger sample sizes and in diverse ethnic populations are needed to confirm the general validity of our findings. PMID:26125814

  19. Identification of new susceptibility loci for IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Foo, Jia-Nee; Wang, Jin-Quan; Low, Hui-Qi; Tang, Xue-Qing; Toh, Kai-Yee; Yin, Pei-Ran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Goh, Yu-Fen; Irwan, Ishak D; Xu, Ri-Cong; Andiappan, Anand K; Bei, Jin-Xin; Rotzschke, Olaf; Chen, Meng-Hua; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Sun, Liang-Dan; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Wong, Tien-Yin; Lin, Hong-Li; Aung, Tin; Liao, Yun-Hua; Saw, Seang-Mei; Ye, Kun; Ebstein, Richard P; Chen, Qin-Kai; Shi, Wei; Chew, Soo-Hong; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Fu-Ren; Li, Sheng-Ping; Xu, Gang; Tai, E Shyong; Wang, Li; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Yu, Xue-Qing; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2015-06-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common primary glomerulonephritis. Previously identified genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci explain only a fraction of disease risk. To identify novel susceptibility loci in Han Chinese, we conduct a four-stage GWAS comprising 8,313 cases and 19,680 controls. Here, we show novel associations at ST6GAL1 on 3q27.3 (rs7634389, odds ratio (OR)=1.13, P=7.27 × 10(-10)), ACCS on 11p11.2 (rs2074038, OR=1.14, P=3.93 × 10(-9)) and ODF1-KLF10 on 8q22.3 (rs2033562, OR=1.13, P=1.41 × 10(-9)), validate a recently reported association at ITGAX-ITGAM on 16p11.2 (rs7190997, OR=1.22, P=2.26 × 10(-19)), and identify three independent signals within the DEFA locus (rs2738058, P=1.15 × 10(-19); rs12716641, P=9.53 × 10(-9); rs9314614, P=4.25 × 10(-9), multivariate association). The risk variants on 3q27.3 and 11p11.2 show strong association with mRNA expression levels in blood cells while allele frequencies of the risk variants within ST6GAL1, ACCS and DEFA correlate with geographical variation in IgAN prevalence. Our findings expand our understanding on IgAN genetic susceptibility and provide novel biological insights into molecular mechanisms underlying IgAN.

  20. Identification of new susceptibility loci for IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Foo, Jia-Nee; Wang, Jin-Quan; Low, Hui-Qi; Tang, Xue-Qing; Toh, Kai-Yee; Yin, Pei-Ran; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Goh, Yu-Fen; Irwan, Ishak D.; Xu, Ri-Cong; Andiappan, Anand K.; Bei, Jin-Xin; Rotzschke, Olaf; Chen, Meng-Hua; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Sun, Liang-Dan; Jiang, Geng-Ru; Wong, Tien-Yin; Lin, Hong-Li; Aung, Tin; Liao, Yun-Hua; Saw, Seang-Mei; Ye, Kun; Ebstein, Richard P.; Chen, Qin-Kai; Shi, Wei; Chew, Soo-Hong; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Fu-Ren; Li, Sheng-Ping; Xu, Gang; Shyong Tai, E.; Wang, Li; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Yu, Xue-Qing; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common primary glomerulonephritis. Previously identified genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci explain only a fraction of disease risk. To identify novel susceptibility loci in Han Chinese, we conduct a four-stage GWAS comprising 8,313 cases and 19,680 controls. Here, we show novel associations at ST6GAL1 on 3q27.3 (rs7634389, odds ratio (OR)=1.13, P=7.27 × 10−10), ACCS on 11p11.2 (rs2074038, OR=1.14, P=3.93 × 10−9) and ODF1-KLF10 on 8q22.3 (rs2033562, OR=1.13, P=1.41 × 10−9), validate a recently reported association at ITGAX-ITGAM on 16p11.2 (rs7190997, OR=1.22, P=2.26 × 10−19), and identify three independent signals within the DEFA locus (rs2738058, P=1.15 × 10−19; rs12716641, P=9.53 × 10−9; rs9314614, P=4.25 × 10−9, multivariate association). The risk variants on 3q27.3 and 11p11.2 show strong association with mRNA expression levels in blood cells while allele frequencies of the risk variants within ST6GAL1, ACCS and DEFA correlate with geographical variation in IgAN prevalence. Our findings expand our understanding on IgAN genetic susceptibility and provide novel biological insights into molecular mechanisms underlying IgAN. PMID:26028593

  1. The effect of geographical indices on left ventricular structure in healthy Han Chinese population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Minyi; Ge, Miao; Liu, Yonglin; Wang, Congxia; Yang, Shaofang

    2016-07-01

    The left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) are generally regarded as the functional parts of the left ventricular (LV) structure. This paper aims to examine the effects of geographical indices on healthy Han adults' LV structural indices and to offer a scientific basis for developing a unified standard for the reference values of adults' LV structural indices in China. Fifteen terrain, climate, and soil indices were examined as geographical explanatory variables. Statistical analysis was performed using correlation analysis. Moreover, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) and a support vector regression (SVR) were applied to developing models to predict the values of two indices. After the prediction models were built, distribution maps were produced. The results show that LV structural indices are characteristically associated with latitude, longitude, altitude, average temperature, average wind velocity, topsoil sand fraction, topsoil silt fraction, topsoil organic carbon, and topsoil sodicity. The model test analyses show the BPNN model possesses better simulative and predictive ability in comparison with the SVR model. The distribution maps of the LV structural indices show that, in China, the values are higher in the west and lower in the east. These results demonstrate that the reference values of the adults' LV structural indices will be different affected by different geographical environment. The reference values of LV structural indices in one region can be calculated by setting up a BPNN, which showed better applicability in this study. The distribution of the reference values of the LV structural indices can be seen clearly on the geographical distribution map.

  2. Association Between TRAF6 Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility of Ischemic Stroke in Southern Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Su, Li; Chen, Ziwen; Yan, Yan; Liang, Baoyun; Xie, Juanjuan; Chen, Qing; Tan, Jinjing; Gu, Lian

    2015-11-01

    The tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) gene encodes a protein that acts downstream of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. TLRs activate inflammatory cascades and mediate inflammatory injury after cerebral ischemia. However, the role of TFAR6 gene polymorphisms in ischemic stroke (IS) remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the associations of TRAF6 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to IS and IS-related quantitative traits in Southern Chinese Han population. A total of 816 IS cases and 816 age- and gender-matched controls were included. Two variants of the TRAF6 gene (rs5030411 and rs5030416) were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Our study showed that rs5030416 was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to IS in the additive model [ORadj 1.25(1.04-1.51), P adj = 0.019, P Bc = 0.038] and dominant model [ORadj 1.23(1.04-1.60), P adj = 0.021, P Bc = 0.042] after adjusting by age and sex and applying a Bonferroni correction. No significant association was found between rs5030411 and IS susceptibility (all P > 0.05). The haplotype rs5030416 (allele C)-rs5030411 (allele C) was significantly associated with IS susceptibility (P adj = 0.015). Moreover, a significant association of rs5030411 with TC levels in IS patients under the additive model [β 0.16(0.01-0.30), P adj = 0.034] and recessive model [β 0.45(0.12-0.78), P adj = 0.007] was observed after adjustment by age and sex. This association remained statistically significant under the recessive model (P Bc = 0.042) after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggest that TRAF6 gene polymorphisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of IS.

  3. Mutation analyses in pedigrees and sporadic cases of ethnic Han Chinese Kallmann syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Ying-Qian; Yang, Guo-Qing; Hong, Tian-Pei; Zhu, Da-Long; Yang, Jin-Kui; Ning, Guang; Jin, Nan; Chen, Kang; Zang, Li; Wang, An-Ping; Du, Jin; Wang, Xian-Ling; Yang, Li-Juan; Ba, Jian-Ming; Lv, Zhao-Hui; Dou, Jing-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Kallmann syndrome, a form of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is characterized by developmental abnormalities of the reproductive system and abnormal olfaction. Despite association of certain genes with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, the genetic inheritance and expression are complex and incompletely known. In the present study, seven Kallmann syndrome pedigrees in an ethnic Han Chinese population were screened for genetic mutations. The exons and intron–exon boundaries of 19 idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism)-related genes in seven Chinese Kallmann syndrome pedigrees were sequenced. Detected mutations were also tested in 70 sporadic Kallmann syndrome cases and 200 Chinese healthy controls. In pedigrees 1, 2, and 7, the secondary sex characteristics were poorly developed and the patients’ sense of smell was severely or completely lost. We detected a genetic mutation in five of the seven pedigrees: homozygous KAL1 p.R191ter (pedigree 1); homozygous KAL1 p.C13ter (pedigree 2; a novel mutation); heterozygous FGFR1 p.R250W (pedigree 3); and homozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H (pedigrees 4 and 5). No genetic change of the assayed genes was detected in pedigrees 6 and 7. Among the 70 sporadic cases, we detected one homozygous and one heterozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H mutation. This mutation was also detected heterozygously in 2/200 normal controls and its pathogenicity is likely questionable. The genetics and genotype–phenotype relationships in Kallmann syndrome are complicated. Classical monogenic inheritance does not explain the full range of genetic inheritance of Kallmann syndrome patients. Because of stochastic nature of genetic mutations, exome analyses of Kallmann syndrome patients may provide novel insights. PMID:26031747

  4. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  5. Lack of an association between matrix metalloproteinase polymorphisms and coronary heart disease in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, C M; Ye, H D; Li, Y R; Hong, Q X; Tang, L L; Zhou, A N; Xu, M Q; Duan, S W

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) has become a leading cause of human deaths worldwide. Recent studied showed that polymorphisms of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes played important roles in extracellular matrix remodeling and contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Here, we investigated whether these MMP gene polymorphisms were associated with CHD in Han Chinese. Our case-control study was involved with 1509 unrelated individuals, including 777 CHD cases and 732 controls. We selected a total of five polymorphisms whose genotypes were determined using Sequenom iPLEX technology. Our results showed there were no significant associations between the five MMP gene polymorphisms and CHD risk at either genotype or allele levels (P > 0.05). Further subgroup analyses by sex were also unable to reveal any significant association (P > 0.05). In conclusion, no significant associations were found between the five MMP gene polymorphisms and the risk of CHD in Han Chinese. PMID:26505374

  6. Examination of the vocal fold activity using ultra high speed filming: archival recordings by Paul Moore and Hans von Leden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Vaughan, Laura

    2012-02-01

    We present excerpts from three archival ultra high-speed films on the function of the human larynx by Paul Moore, Ph. D. and Hans von Leden, M.D. The films received two awards for best scientific cinematography from two different international film festivals in Italy in 1957. These films present ultra high-speed cinematographic accounts on the workings of the human vocal folds during various phonatory and ventilatory activities. These films were captured at speeds of 2000 to 5000 frames-per-second via an ingeniously arranged laryngeal mirror viewing device. Such speeds were revolutionary six decades ago. Technology currently allows us to film laryngeal behavior at speeds of up to 16,000 frames-per-second using digital recordings. However, the ultra high-speed films by Paul and Hans remain a beacon for anyone sincerely interested in how the smallest instrument of sound production works, and how it is subjected to failure by intrinsic or extrinsic factors.

  7. [Genetic polymorphism of FIBRA,DHFRP2 and ACTBP2 and their forensic application in Yunnan Han population].

    PubMed

    Jing, Qiang; Nie, Sheng-Jie

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the genetic polymorphism of FIBRA,DHFRP2 and ACTBP2 in Yunnan Han population as well as their application in forensic science, EDTA-blood specimens were collected from 200 healthy individuals. The DNA were extracted either by the Chloro form, phenol method or by the Chelex-100 method. The PCR products were analyzed by PAG vertical electrophoresis,following by silver staining. All gene frequencies, discrimination power (DP), exclusion of paternity probability (EPP), heterozygosity (H),polymorphisms information content (PIC),matching probability (PM) as well as the Hardy-Weinberg test were calculated. The obtained data are beneficial in the understanding of population genetics of the three STR loci in Yunnan Han population and the results suggest that these loci are valuable genetic markers for paternity testing and personal identification in forensic science practice.

  8. Clinical analysis of intraoperative radiotherapy during breast-conserving surgery of early breast cancer in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Feng, Qinfu; Wang, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) during breast-conserving surgery (BCS) have been reported when used either as a boost at the time of surgery or as the sole radiation treatment, the clinical safety and cosmetic outcome of IORT in the Chinese Han population has not. This report reviews oncologic and cosmetic outcomes for Chinese Han breast cancer patients who received IORT either as a boost or as their sole radiation treatment at our hospital. Method From July 2008 to December 2012, 50 early-stage Chinese Han breast cancer patients received BCS and IORT, either as boost or as their sole radiation treatment. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, according to our institution's guidelines. Patients were followed to determine oncologic events, short-term toxicity and overall cosmesis. Results With a median follow-up of 51.8 months (range 22.6 months to 75.7 months), 2 patients (4.0%) developed local relapses and were salvaged by mastectomy. There were no metastases and no deaths. The average wound healing time was 17 days. Three patients (6.0%) developed postoperative infection, 5 patients (10.0%) had delayed wound healing, and 2 patients (4.0%) experienced wound edema. There were no lyponecrosis or hematomas observed. The evaluation of cosmetic outcome showed 44 patients (88.0%) graded as excellent or good while 6 patients (12.0%) were graded as fair or poor. No patients experienced radiotherapy related acute hematological toxicity, but 3 patients (6.0%), all IORT boost patients, developed skin pigmentation. Conclusion For early-stage breast cancer patients, intraoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery in the Chinese Han population is both safe and reliable and has resulted in very acceptable cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26517686

  9. Association between ErbB3 genetic polymorphisms and coronary artery disease in the Han and Uyghur populations of China

    PubMed Central

    Maitusong, Buamina; Xie, Xiang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Yang, Yi-Ning; Li, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bang-Dang; Gai, Min-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background: ErbB3 is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Recent research has shown that amplification of this gene is related to prostate, bladder and breast cancers, as well as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism. LDL-C plays a considerable role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Thus, the present study assessed the association between human ErbB3 gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Han and Uygur populationsin China. Methods: We performed two independent case-control studies with a Han population (339 CAD patients and 395 control subjects) and a Uygur population (306 CAD patients and 325 control subjects). All of the CAD patients and controls were genotyped for the same three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs877636, rs705708, and rs10783779) in the ErbB3 gene by real-time PCR. Results: In the Han population, rs877636 polymorphisms were associated with CAD on the basis of the genotypes, dominant model, additive model, and allele frequency (for genotypes: P = 0.008; for dominant model: P = 0.003; for additive model: P = 0.004; for allele: P = 0.008), and these significant difference was retained (all P < 0.05) after adjusting for the major confounding factors. Conclusion: The CT genotype and C allele of rs877636 in the ErbB3 gene could be a genetic marker of CAD risk for the Han population in China. PMID:26629179

  10. Autonomic regulation of heart rate response to exercise in Tibetan and Han residents of Lhasa (3,658 m).

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J; Droma, T; Sutton, J R; McCullough, R E; McCullough, R G; Groves, B M; Rapmund, G; Janes, C; Sun, S; Moore, L G

    1993-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that native high-altitude residents have less beta-sympathetic and more parasympathetic tone than newcomers, we compared the effects of beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade in 10 Tibetan and 9 Han acclimatized male residents of Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China (elevation 3,658 m). Each subject was studied during cycle ergometer exercise at 70, 132, and 191 W after placebo (normal saline), beta-sympathetic (propranolol, 0.2 mg/kg iv), or parasympathetic (atropine, 0.04 mg/kg iv) blockade in random order on different days. At rest, the fall in resting heart rate with propranolol and the rise with atropine were equal in Tibetan and Han subjects. During exercise, the fall in heart rate with propranolol relative to placebo values was greater in the Han than in the Tibetan group, whereas the rise in heart rate with atropine was greater in the Tibetans. Propranolol or atropine administration did not change minute ventilation per unit O2 consumption in either group. At the highest level of exercise on the placebo day, the Tibetans achieved a higher work load and level of O2 consumption than the Han subjects. Propranolol or atropine reduced O2 consumption and work load similarly in the two groups at the highest exercise level. The results supported our hypothesis that native Tibetan residents of high altitude exhibit more para-sympathetic and less beta-sympathetic tone during exercise. Neither relatively greater parasympathetic nor less sympathetic activation appeared implicated in the greater exercise capacity of Tibetans compared with that of acclimatized newcomer residents of high altitude.

  11. Disruption of estrogen homeostasis as a mechanism for uterine toxicity in Wistar Han rats treated with tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J Michael; Coulter, Sherry J; Knudsen, Gabriel A; Dunnick, June K; Kissling, Grace E; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2016-05-01

    Chronic oral treatment of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to female Wistar Han rats resulted in increased incidence of cell proliferation at 250mg/kg and tumor formation in the uterus at higher doses. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that disruption of estrogen homeostasis was a major mode-of-action for the observed effects. Biological changes were assessed in serum, liver, and the proximal (nearest the cervix) and distal (nearest the ovaries) sections of the uterine horn of Wistar Han rats 24h following administration of the last of five daily oral doses of 250mg/kg. Expression of genes associated with receptors, biosynthesis, and metabolism of estrogen was altered in the liver and uterus. TBBPA treatment also resulted in changes in expression of genes associated with cell division and growth. Changes were also observed in the concentration of thyroxine in serum and in expression of genes in the liver and uterus associated with thyroid hormone receptors. Differential expression of some genes was tissue-dependent or specific to tissue location in the uterus. The biological responses observed in the present study support the hypothesis that perturbation of estrogen homeostasis is a major mode-of-action for TBBPA-mediated cell proliferation and tumorigenesis previously observed in the uterus of TBBPA-treated Wistar Han rats. PMID:26988606

  12. Analysis of LRRK2, SNCA, and ITGA8 Gene Variants with Sporadic Parkinson's Disease Susceptibility in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. We performed a case-control study on candidate gene to scrutinize whether genetic variants in LRRK2, SNCA, and ITGA8 genes could be associated with sporadic PD in Chinese Han population. Methods. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LRRK2 (rs1491942), SNCA (rs2301134, rs2301135, and rs356221), and ITGA8 (rs7077361) were selected and genotyped among 583 unrelated PD patients and 558 healthy controls. Results. Rs1491942 of LRRK2 gene had a significantly higher genotype frequency (P = 3.543E − 09) and allelic G/C frequencies (P = 2.601E − 10) in PD patients than controls. Rs2301135 of SNCA gene also showed an obvious difference in genotype frequency (P = 4.394E − 07) and allelic G/C frequencies (P = 9.116E − 13) between PD patients and controls. SNPs rs2301134 and rs356221 of SNCA gene and rs7077361 of ITGA8 gene lacked the significant association with the susceptibility of PD in Chinese Han population. Conclusions. Our study firstly expresses that rs1491942 of LRRK2 and rs2301135 of SNCA gene are substantially associated with sporadic Parkinson's disease in Chinese Han population.

  13. Analysis of LRRK2, SNCA, and ITGA8 Gene Variants with Sporadic Parkinson's Disease Susceptibility in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. We performed a case-control study on candidate gene to scrutinize whether genetic variants in LRRK2, SNCA, and ITGA8 genes could be associated with sporadic PD in Chinese Han population. Methods. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LRRK2 (rs1491942), SNCA (rs2301134, rs2301135, and rs356221), and ITGA8 (rs7077361) were selected and genotyped among 583 unrelated PD patients and 558 healthy controls. Results. Rs1491942 of LRRK2 gene had a significantly higher genotype frequency (P = 3.543E − 09) and allelic G/C frequencies (P = 2.601E − 10) in PD patients than controls. Rs2301135 of SNCA gene also showed an obvious difference in genotype frequency (P = 4.394E − 07) and allelic G/C frequencies (P = 9.116E − 13) between PD patients and controls. SNPs rs2301134 and rs356221 of SNCA gene and rs7077361 of ITGA8 gene lacked the significant association with the susceptibility of PD in Chinese Han population. Conclusions. Our study firstly expresses that rs1491942 of LRRK2 and rs2301135 of SNCA gene are substantially associated with sporadic Parkinson's disease in Chinese Han population. PMID:27668119

  14. Association of HSD17B3 and HSD3B1 polymorphisms with acne vulgaris in Southwestern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Wen-Juan; Yang, Cheng; Yang, Ting; He, Jun-Dong; Yang, Zhi; He, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder. Previous studies have indicated that genetic background factors play key roles in the onset of acne. Our previous investigation implicated several genes in the androgen metabolism pathway with acne vulgaris in the Han Chinese population. Thus, we further investigated genes and genetic variants that play important roles in this pathway for their relationship with the pathology of acne. In this study, a total of 610 subjects, including 403 acne patients and 207 healthy controls, were genotyped for 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 genes. This study shows that rs6428829 in HSD3B1 was associated with acne vulgaris in Han patients from Southwest China, even after adjusting for age and sex. The GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris (p < 0.05) and G allele carriers were associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris (p < 0.05). In addition, the haplotype AAT in HSD3B1 significantly increased the risk of acne vulgaris in the case-control study (p < 0.05). Furthermore, for another gene in this pathway, HSD17B3, the haplotype H8 was significantly associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris. Based on these analyses, our study indicates that the cutaneous androgen metabolism-regulated genes HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 increase the susceptibility to acne vulgaris in Han Chinese from Southwest China.

  15. Genetic distribution and association analysis of DRD2 gene polymorphisms with major depressive disorder in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    He, Mei; Yan, Hong; Duan, Zhao-Xia; Qu, Wei; Gong, Hai-Yan; Fan, Zheng-Li; Kang, Jian-Yi; Li, Bing-Cang; Wang, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor is involved in reward-mediating mesocorticolimbic pathways. It plays an important role in major depressive disorder (MDD). Three gene polymorphisms Taq1A, C957T and -141C ins/del, were identified in the DRD2 gene among the Western population. These variants in the DRD2 gene might be associated with the susceptibility of MDD patients through affecting the bioeffects of endogenous dopamine neurotransmission. However, little is known about their occurrence in Chinese population and their association with the susceptibility of patients with major depressive disorder. In this study, a total of 338 unrelated adult Chinese Han population, including 224 healthy volunteers and 114 patients with major depressive disorder, were recruited. DRD2 polymorphisms (Taq1A and -141C ins/del) were detected using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and the C957T were detected by sequencing directly. As a result, three polymorphisms were identified in Chinese Han population and all were common SNP. However, we could detect no evidence of genetic association between 3 markers in DRD2 and major depressive disorder in the Chinese Han population. To conclude, this result suggests that Taq1A, C957T and -141C ins/del of DRD2 gene may not be associated with major depressive disorder, also may be the sample sizes too small to allow a meaningful test.

  16. Analysis of LRRK2, SNCA, and ITGA8 Gene Variants with Sporadic Parkinson's Disease Susceptibility in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jie; Yi, Kehui; Guo, Mingwei; An, Xingkai; Qu, Hongli; Lin, Qing; Bi, Min; Ma, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. We performed a case-control study on candidate gene to scrutinize whether genetic variants in LRRK2, SNCA, and ITGA8 genes could be associated with sporadic PD in Chinese Han population. Methods. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LRRK2 (rs1491942), SNCA (rs2301134, rs2301135, and rs356221), and ITGA8 (rs7077361) were selected and genotyped among 583 unrelated PD patients and 558 healthy controls. Results. Rs1491942 of LRRK2 gene had a significantly higher genotype frequency (P = 3.543E - 09) and allelic G/C frequencies (P = 2.601E - 10) in PD patients than controls. Rs2301135 of SNCA gene also showed an obvious difference in genotype frequency (P = 4.394E - 07) and allelic G/C frequencies (P = 9.116E - 13) between PD patients and controls. SNPs rs2301134 and rs356221 of SNCA gene and rs7077361 of ITGA8 gene lacked the significant association with the susceptibility of PD in Chinese Han population. Conclusions. Our study firstly expresses that rs1491942 of LRRK2 and rs2301135 of SNCA gene are substantially associated with sporadic Parkinson's disease in Chinese Han population.

  17. The Han River watershed management initiative for the South-to-North Water Transfer project (Middle Route) of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanfa; Xu, Zhifang; Shen, Zehao; Li, Siyue; Wang, Shusen

    2009-01-01

    The South-to-North Water Transfer (SNWT) Project of China is the largest of its kind ever implemented. Of its three routes (i.e., East, Middle and West), the middle one will transfer 14 billion m(3) of water annually from the Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze and the water supplying area, to Beijing by 2030. Thus water quality in the 95,000 km(2) upper Han River basin is of great concern. A watershed management initiative has been implemented in the basin, and the ultimate objectives are to quantify basin's ecosystem functioning and to develop an integrated management system with respect to water resources conservation. Specifically, the program includes five activities: characterization of riparian ecosystems, detection of land use and land cover change, quantification of nutrient cycling of representative ecosystems, determination of spatial and temporal variations of water quality, and finally development of a watershed management system for water conservation. This article provides the justifications of the watershed management initiative and the initial results are comprehended with respect to the water conservation in the Han River basin.

  18. Analysis of LRRK2, SNCA, and ITGA8 Gene Variants with Sporadic Parkinson's Disease Susceptibility in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jie; Yi, Kehui; Guo, Mingwei; An, Xingkai; Qu, Hongli; Lin, Qing; Bi, Min; Ma, Qilin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. We performed a case-control study on candidate gene to scrutinize whether genetic variants in LRRK2, SNCA, and ITGA8 genes could be associated with sporadic PD in Chinese Han population. Methods. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LRRK2 (rs1491942), SNCA (rs2301134, rs2301135, and rs356221), and ITGA8 (rs7077361) were selected and genotyped among 583 unrelated PD patients and 558 healthy controls. Results. Rs1491942 of LRRK2 gene had a significantly higher genotype frequency (P = 3.543E - 09) and allelic G/C frequencies (P = 2.601E - 10) in PD patients than controls. Rs2301135 of SNCA gene also showed an obvious difference in genotype frequency (P = 4.394E - 07) and allelic G/C frequencies (P = 9.116E - 13) between PD patients and controls. SNPs rs2301134 and rs356221 of SNCA gene and rs7077361 of ITGA8 gene lacked the significant association with the susceptibility of PD in Chinese Han population. Conclusions. Our study firstly expresses that rs1491942 of LRRK2 and rs2301135 of SNCA gene are substantially associated with sporadic Parkinson's disease in Chinese Han population. PMID:27668119

  19. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-STR loci in a Chinese Han population sample from Shanxi Province, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Rufeng; Zhang, Zhong; Liang, Quanzeng; Lu, Di; Yuan, Li; Yang, Xue; Shi, Mei sen

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of 17 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y-GATA-H4, DYS437, DYS438, and DYS448 haplotypes was determined in a population sample of 222 unrelated Chinese Han from Shanxi Province, Northern China. A total of 219 haplotypes were observed, and of these, 216 were unique, while 3 were found two times. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9999 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9865, indicating a high potential for differentiating between male individuals in this population. Comparison analysis via Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) and construction of MDS plot revealed that Shanxi Han sample clusters with Chinese origin populations and stands far apart of the non-Chinese populations, justifying the establishment of local databases in Shanxi Han population for any future forensic and genetic epidemiology efforts in this region. PMID:23116721

  20. Comparative analyses of fecal microbiota in Tibetan and Chinese Han living at low or high altitude by barcoded 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the impact of altitude and ethnicity on human gut microbiota is currently limited. In this study, fecal microbiota from 12 Tibetans (T group), 11 Chinese Han living in Tibet (HH group) and 12 Chinese Han living in Shaanxi province (LH group) were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing. Analysis of UniFrac principal coordinates showed significant structural changes in fecal microbiota among the three groups. There were significant differences in the composition of fecal microbiota among the three groups at phylum and genus levels. At the phylum level, the fecal samples of HH and T groups had higher relative abundances of Firmicutes, whereas the LH group had a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes. These changes at the phylum level reflected different dominant genus compositions. Compared with the LH group, changes of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were mainly due to a significant decrease of Prevotella in the HH group and were primarily attributable to significant decreases of Bacteroides and Prevotella as well as a significant increase of Catenibacterium in the T group. In conclusion, our results suggest that high altitude may contribute to shaping human gut microbiota. Genetic and dietary factors may also explain the different microbiota compositions between Tibetan and Chinese Han. PMID:26443005

  1. The genetic difference between Western and Chinese urothelial cell carcinomas: infrequent FGFR3 mutation in Han Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Liu, Tiantian; Ge, Nan; Kong, Feng; Yang, Liu; Björkholm, Magnus; Fan, Yidong; Zhao, Shengtian; Xu, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) includes urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC), renal pelvic carcinoma (RPC) and ureter carcinoma (UC), and its incidence varies dependent on geographical areas and tumor locations, which indicates different oncogenic mechanisms and/or different genetic susceptibility/environment exposure. The activating mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter are the most frequent genetic events in UCCs. These mutations have clinical utilities in UCC initial diagnostics, prognosis, recurrence monitoring and management. However, the vast majority of the results are obtained from studies of UCC patients in Western countries, and little has been known about these in Han Chinese patients. In the present study, we screened the FGFR3 gene and TERT promoter for mutations in 116 UBC, 91 RPC and 115 UC tumors from Han Chinese patients by using Sanger Sequencing. TERT promoter mutations occurred at a high frequency in these UCC patients, comparable with that seen in Western patients, however, the FGFR3 mutation was surprisingly lower, only 9.4% for UBCs, 8.8% for RPCs and 2.6% for UCs, respectively. Taken together, the FGFR3 gene is an infrequent target in the pathogenesis of Han Chinese UCCs, and its mutation detection and targeted therapy have limited clinical utility in these patients. Our results underscore the need for extensive characterization of cancer genomes from diverse patient populations, thereby contributing to precision medicine for cancer treatment and prevention. PMID:27029078

  2. Comparative analyses of fecal microbiota in Tibetan and Chinese Han living at low or high altitude by barcoded 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Long; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the impact of altitude and ethnicity on human gut microbiota is currently limited. In this study, fecal microbiota from 12 Tibetans (T group), 11 Chinese Han living in Tibet (HH group) and 12 Chinese Han living in Shaanxi province (LH group) were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing. Analysis of UniFrac principal coordinates showed significant structural changes in fecal microbiota among the three groups. There were significant differences in the composition of fecal microbiota among the three groups at phylum and genus levels. At the phylum level, the fecal samples of HH and T groups had higher relative abundances of Firmicutes, whereas the LH group had a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes. These changes at the phylum level reflected different dominant genus compositions. Compared with the LH group, changes of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were mainly due to a significant decrease of Prevotella in the HH group and were primarily attributable to significant decreases of Bacteroides and Prevotella as well as a significant increase of Catenibacterium in the T group. In conclusion, our results suggest that high altitude may contribute to shaping human gut microbiota. Genetic and dietary factors may also explain the different microbiota compositions between Tibetan and Chinese Han. PMID:26443005

  3. The genetic difference between Western and Chinese urothelial cell carcinomas: infrequent FGFR3 mutation in Han Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaotian; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Kun; Liu, Li; Liu, Tiantian; Ge, Nan; Kong, Feng; Yang, Liu; Björkholm, Magnus; Fan, Yidong; Zhao, Shengtian; Xu, Dawei

    2016-05-01

    Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) includes urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC), renal pelvic carcinoma (RPC) and ureter carcinoma (UC), and its incidence varies dependent on geographical areas and tumor locations, which indicates different oncogenic mechanisms and/or different genetic susceptibility/environment exposure. The activating mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter are the most frequent genetic events in UCCs. These mutations have clinical utilities in UCC initial diagnostics, prognosis, recurrence monitoring and management. However, the vast majority of the results are obtained from studies of UCC patients in Western countries, and little has been known about these in Han Chinese patients. In the present study, we screened the FGFR3 gene and TERT promoter for mutations in 116 UBC, 91 RPC and 115 UC tumors from Han Chinese patients by using Sanger Sequencing. TERT promoter mutations occurred at a high frequency in these UCC patients, comparable with that seen in Western patients, however, the FGFR3 mutation was surprisingly lower, only 9.4% for UBCs, 8.8% for RPCs and 2.6% for UCs, respectively. Taken together, the FGFR3 gene is an infrequent target in the pathogenesis of Han Chinese UCCs, and its mutation detection and targeted therapy have limited clinical utility in these patients. Our results underscore the need for extensive characterization of cancer genomes from diverse patient populations, thereby contributing to precision medicine for cancer treatment and prevention.

  4. Disruption of estrogen homeostasis as a mechanism for uterine toxicity in Wistar Han rats treated with tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J Michael; Coulter, Sherry J; Knudsen, Gabriel A; Dunnick, June K; Kissling, Grace E; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2016-05-01

    Chronic oral treatment of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to female Wistar Han rats resulted in increased incidence of cell proliferation at 250mg/kg and tumor formation in the uterus at higher doses. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that disruption of estrogen homeostasis was a major mode-of-action for the observed effects. Biological changes were assessed in serum, liver, and the proximal (nearest the cervix) and distal (nearest the ovaries) sections of the uterine horn of Wistar Han rats 24h following administration of the last of five daily oral doses of 250mg/kg. Expression of genes associated with receptors, biosynthesis, and metabolism of estrogen was altered in the liver and uterus. TBBPA treatment also resulted in changes in expression of genes associated with cell division and growth. Changes were also observed in the concentration of thyroxine in serum and in expression of genes in the liver and uterus associated with thyroid hormone receptors. Differential expression of some genes was tissue-dependent or specific to tissue location in the uterus. The biological responses observed in the present study support the hypothesis that perturbation of estrogen homeostasis is a major mode-of-action for TBBPA-mediated cell proliferation and tumorigenesis previously observed in the uterus of TBBPA-treated Wistar Han rats.

  5. Association of eNOS gene polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the Han population in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Cun, Y; Tang, W R; Wang, Y; Li, S N; Ouyang, H R; Wu, Y R; Yu, H J; Xiao, C J

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure homeostasis and vascular integrity. Polymorphisms in the eNOS gene have been found to be associated with hypertension in different human populations, including Northern and Southern Chinese Han populations. To examine the relationship of three eNOS gene polymorphisms, T-786C (rs2070744), G894T (rs1799983), and G10T (rs7830), with hypertension in the Han population in southwestern China, we carried out a study of the genotypes of three SNPs in 510 hypertensive and 510 normotensive subjects from the Yunnan Province by using PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Our SNP analyses showed that the distribution of the T-786C polymorphism did not differ between patients and controls, and that G894T and G10T are significantly associated with hypertension in females, adjusted for covariates. Compared with the other haplotypes, haplotype H1 (TGG), carrying protective 10G and 894G alleles, significantly decreased the risk of increased essential hypertension in females, with an odds ratio of 0.68 (P = 10(-5)). These results suggest that the eNOS polymorphism is one of the factors contributing to the predisposition for essential hypertension in the Han population in southwestern China. PMID:21968727

  6. K-ras genetic mutation and influencing factor analysis for Han and Uygur nationality colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Eli, Mayinur; Mollayup, Ablikim; Muattar; Liu, Chao; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the K-ras genetic mutation status in colorectal cancer patients, compare the difference of K-ras genetic mutation rate in Han and Uygur nationality and analyze the influencing factor. 91 cases (52 cases of Han nationality and 39 cases of Uygur nationality) of colorectal biopsy or surgical ablation pathology specimen from the first affiliated hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during January, 2010 to March, 2013 were collected to detect the 12th and 13th code mutation status of K-ras gene exon 2 with pyrosequencing method and compare the difference of K-ras gene mutation rate between Han and Uygur nationality patients. Single factor analysis and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were utilized to analyze the influencing factor for K-ras genetic mutation. 33 cases of patients with K-ras genetic mutation were found from the 91 cases colorectal cancer patients and the total mutation rate was 36.3%. Among them, 24 cases (72.7%) were found with mutation only in the 12th code, 9 cases (27.3%) were found with mutation only in the 13th code and no one case was found with mutation in both the two codes. Mutation rate of the 12th code in the Uygur nationality was significantly higher than that in the Han nationality (P<0.05), but there were no significant difference in the comparison of the total mutation rate and the 13th code mutation rate between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no associativity (P>0.05) between the K-ras genetic mutation and sex, age, smoking history, drinking history, tumor location, macropathology type, differentiation level, staging, invasive depth, lymph nodes transferring and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (P>0.05). K-ras genetic mutation rate is high in colorectal cancer patients. The mutation rate of 12th code in Uygur nationality is higher than that in Han nationality. There is no significant associativity between K-ras genetic mutation rate and patients' clinical pathology characteristic.

  7. Identification of vaginal fluid, saliva, and feces using microbial signatures in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zou, Kai-Nan; Ren, Li-Jie; Ping, Yuan; Ma, Ke; Li, Hui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huai-Gu; Wei, Yi-Liang

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, forensic scientists have focused on the discrimination of body fluids using microbial signatures. In this study, we performed PCR-based detection of microbial signatures of vaginal fluid, saliva, and feces in a Han Chinese population. We investigated the 16S rRNA genes of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, and Atopobium vaginae in vaginal fluid, the 16S rRNA and the glucosyltransferase enzyme genes of Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans in saliva, and the 16S rRNA genes of Enterococcus species, the RNA polymerase β-subunit gene of Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides vulgatus, and the α-1-6 mannanase gene of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in feces. As a result, the detection proportions of L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii, L. iners, and A. vaginae were 15/16, 5/16, 8/16, 14/16, and 3/16 in 16 vaginal fluid donors, respectively. L. crispatus and L. jensenii were specifically detected in vaginal fluid; L. gasseri, L. iners, and A. vaginae were also detected in non-vaginal fluid. S. salivarius and S. mutans were not specifically detected in saliva. The detection proportions of Enterococcus species, B. uniformis, B. vulgatus, and B. thetaiotaomicron in 16 feces samples were 16/16, 12/16, 15/16, and 11/16, respectively. B. uniformis and B. thetaiotaomicron were specifically detected in feces. In addition, DNA samples prepared for the identification of body fluid can also be used for individual identification by short tandem repeat typing. The mean detection sensitivities of L. crispatus and L. jensenii were 0.362 and 0.249 pg/uL, respectively. In conclusion, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, B. uniformis, and B. thetaiotaomicron can be used as effective markers for forensic identification of vaginal fluid and feces.

  8. A comprehensive investigation of RHD polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population in Xi’an

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Shi-Hui; Wu, Da-Zhou; Wang, Man-Ni; Wu, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Heng-Gui; Xu, Hua; Shao, Chao-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background This study is a comprehensive analysis of RHD in D-negative phenotypes in saline, in Xi’an, Shanxi province, central China. Material and methods DCcEe in saline was measured for each blood sample from every donor between January 2008 and June 2012 in the Xi’an Blood Centre, China. D-negative results were confirmed by an indirect antiglobulin test and further investigated by adsorption-elution as required. The initial step of molecular analysis was RHD zygosity testing. Then RHD was detected by a sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction system for RHD(1227G>A), weak D type 15, and RHD(711delC) alleles for the samples carrying at least one RHD. For the remaining non-identified samples, ten RHD exons were amplified using a previously widely used RHD coding region sequencing method. Some RHD/RHCE conversion alleles were identified while those remaining were submitted to direct sequencing. Results Overall, 2,493 D-negative samples in saline were detected in a total of 890,403 donors (D-negative rate, 0.28%). Among the D-negative individuals, RHD deletion (d/d) was assessed in 1685 donors (67.59%). Non-functional RHD alleles were detected in 184 donors (7.38%), the most common being the RHD-CE(2–9)-RHD and RHD(711delC) alleles. Two new alleles were observed and family investigations were performed; RHD(1227G>A) DEL was detected in 516 individuals (20.70%), and weak D or partial D variants were identified in 108 donors (4.33%). The most common alleles were weak D type 15, DVI type 3 and DV type 2. Four new weak D alleles were noted, and two cases of RHD(1227G>A)/weak D type 15 heterozygosity were confirmed. Conclusions Currently, it seems to be difficult to observe any new RHD alleles in the Han Chinese population. D prediction in this population is easier because popular alleles are dominant, accounting for about 99.80% of alleles in D-negative people. Weak D types and partial D variants are rare and occur in approximately 0.01% of the population

  9. Obesity-Related Genomic Loci Are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; He, Jiang; Chen, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Ge, Jiapu; Chen, Gang; Guo, Xiaohui; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Xiao, Jianzhong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Wenying

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity is a well-known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic loci associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of obesity-related genomic loci to type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Methods We successfully genotyped 18 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms among 5338 type 2 diabetic patients and 4663 controls. Both individual and joint effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms on type 2 diabetes and quantitative glycemic traits (assessing β-cell function and insulin resistance) were analyzed using logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results Two single nucleotide polymorphisms near MC4R and GNPDA2 genes were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes before adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (OR (95% CI) = 1.14 (1.06, 1.22) for the A allele of rs12970134, P = 4.75×10−4; OR (95% CI) = 1.10 (1.03, 1.17) for the G allele of rs10938397, P = 4.54×10−3). When body mass index and waist circumference were further adjusted, the association of MC4R with type 2 diabetes remained significant (P = 1.81×10−2) and that of GNPDA2 was attenuated (P = 1.26×10−1), suggesting the effect of the locus including GNPDA2 on type 2 diabetes may be mediated through obesity. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs2260000 within BAT2 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (P = 1.04×10−2). In addition, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (near or within SEC16B, BDNF, MAF and PRL genes) showed significant associations with quantitative glycemic traits in controls even after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (all P values<0.05). Conclusions This study indicates that obesity-related genomic loci were associated with type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits in the Han Chinese population. PMID:25093408

  10. Identification of vaginal fluid, saliva, and feces using microbial signatures in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zou, Kai-Nan; Ren, Li-Jie; Ping, Yuan; Ma, Ke; Li, Hui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huai-Gu; Wei, Yi-Liang

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, forensic scientists have focused on the discrimination of body fluids using microbial signatures. In this study, we performed PCR-based detection of microbial signatures of vaginal fluid, saliva, and feces in a Han Chinese population. We investigated the 16S rRNA genes of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, and Atopobium vaginae in vaginal fluid, the 16S rRNA and the glucosyltransferase enzyme genes of Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans in saliva, and the 16S rRNA genes of Enterococcus species, the RNA polymerase β-subunit gene of Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides vulgatus, and the α-1-6 mannanase gene of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in feces. As a result, the detection proportions of L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii, L. iners, and A. vaginae were 15/16, 5/16, 8/16, 14/16, and 3/16 in 16 vaginal fluid donors, respectively. L. crispatus and L. jensenii were specifically detected in vaginal fluid; L. gasseri, L. iners, and A. vaginae were also detected in non-vaginal fluid. S. salivarius and S. mutans were not specifically detected in saliva. The detection proportions of Enterococcus species, B. uniformis, B. vulgatus, and B. thetaiotaomicron in 16 feces samples were 16/16, 12/16, 15/16, and 11/16, respectively. B. uniformis and B. thetaiotaomicron were specifically detected in feces. In addition, DNA samples prepared for the identification of body fluid can also be used for individual identification by short tandem repeat typing. The mean detection sensitivities of L. crispatus and L. jensenii were 0.362 and 0.249 pg/uL, respectively. In conclusion, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, B. uniformis, and B. thetaiotaomicron can be used as effective markers for forensic identification of vaginal fluid and feces. PMID:27570236

  11. Genetic variability and phylogenetic analysis of Han population from Guanzhong region of China based on 21 non-CODIS STR loci.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Dang; Tang, Xiao-Li; Meng, Hao-Tian; Wang, Hong-Dan; Jin, Rui; Yang, Chun-Hua; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Yang, Guang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Shen, Chun-Mei; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we presented the population genetic data and their forensic parameters of 21 non-CODIS autosomal STR loci in Chinese Guanzhong Han population. A total of 166 alleles were observed with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0018 to 0.5564. No STR locus was observed to deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibriums after applying Bonferroni correction. The cumulative power of discrimination and probability of exclusion of all the 21 STR loci were 0.99999999999999999993814 and 0.999998184, respectively. The results of genetic distances, phylogenetic trees and principal component analysis revealed that the Guanzhong Han population had a closer relationship with Ningxia Han, Tujia and Bai groups than other populations tested. In summary, these 21 STR loci showed a high level of genetic polymorphisms for the Guanzhong Han population and could be used for forensic applications and the studies of population genetics.

  12. Genetic Variability and Phylogenetic Analysis of Han Population from Guanzhong Region of China based on 21 non-CODIS STR Loci

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Dang; Tang, Xiao-Li; Meng, Hao-Tian; Wang, Hong-Dan; Jin, Rui; Yang, Chun-Hua; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Yang, Guang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Shen, Chun-Mei; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we presented the population genetic data and their forensic parameters of 21 non-CODIS autosomal STR loci in Chinese Guanzhong Han population. A total of 166 alleles were observed with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0018 to 0.5564. No STR locus was observed to deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibriums after applying Bonferroni correction. The cumulative power of discrimination and probability of exclusion of all the 21 STR loci were 0.99999999999999999993814 and 0.999998184, respectively. The results of genetic distances, phylogenetic trees and principal component analysis revealed that the Guanzhong Han population had a closer relationship with Ningxia Han, Tujia and Bai groups than other populations tested. In summary, these 21 STR loci showed a high level of genetic polymorphisms for the Guanzhong Han population and could be used for forensic applications and the studies of population genetics. PMID:25747708

  13. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistocytosis in the Chinese Han Population May Be Associated with an STXBP2 Gene Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Tang, Yang; Xiao, Fang’Xi; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Ke’Feng; Liu, Ya’Nan; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Li’Chang; Zhou, Jian’Feng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    fibrinogen, indicating more aggravated macrophage activation. In silico analysis of splice factor binding to rs2303116 CT/TT genotypes showed significant decrease for SRSF1 but increase for SRSF6, which suggested abnormal splicing machinery was associated with HLH pathogenesis. Conclusion Our study demonstrated for the first time that HLH patients had significantly higher frequencies of the STXBP2 gene polymorphism rs2303116 variant compared with a healthy Chinese Han population, through clinical comparisons and further predictions we suggested regulation of alternative splicing by alleles of SNP rs2303116 could be involved in HLH pathogenesis. PMID:27513731

  14. APE1 polymorphisms are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility in Chinese Hans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Heng; Wang, Lin-Ang; Li, Zheng; Peng, Yu; Cun, Yan-Ping; Dai, Nan; Cheng, Yi; Xiao, He; Xiong, Yan-Li; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    promoter polymorphism -141 T/G genotype was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer among subjects with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (OR = 0.214, 95%CI: 0.069-0.660, P < 0.05 relative to T/T genotype). There were significant gene-behavior interactions between smoking status and XRCC1 Arg399Gln, as well as BMI and APE1 -141T/G polymorphism (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: APE1 Asp148Glu is associated with increased CRC risk and smoking alters the association between XRCC1 Arg399Gln and CRC risk in the Chinese Han population. PMID:25024628

  15. Association Study Between SLC15A4 Polymorphisms and Haplotypes and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingwang; Chen, Fangru; Zhang, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The gene SLC15A4 (solute carrier family 15 [oligopeptide transporter], member 4) has been reported as contributing to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We performed a case–control replication study to investigate further the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC15A4 gene and systemic SLE in a Han Chinese population. Methods: In Han Chinese SLE patients and healthy individuals (n = 355, 375, respectively), 18 SNPs in the SLC15A4 gene were genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Analyses of allele frequencies and genotypes using codominant, dominant, and recessive models were conducted, as well as a linkage disequilibrium analysis. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Allele frequencies of five of the analyzed SNPs were significantly associated with SLE. Under a codominant model the genotype frequencies of rs3765108 AG and rs7308691 AT were significantly higher in the SLE group than the control group (p = 0.019, 0.049, respectively). Under a dominant model the rs1385374 (TT+CT) SNP carried a higher risk of SLE than (CC) (p = 0.042). One SLC15A4 haplotype (TA), which consists of 2 SNPs (rs959989 and rs983492), was associated with SLE (p = 0.024). Conclusion: Our study determined that five SNPs (rs959989, rs1385374, rs983492, rs12298615, and rs10847697) are associated with SLE. Thus, SLC15A4 may be important in the pathogenesis of SLE in Han Chinese patients. PMID:27362648

  16. Association of Apolipoprotein C3 Genetic Polymorphisms with the Risk of Ischemic Stroke in the Northern Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhe; Yin, Xiaoyu; Li, Lei; Deng, Shumin; He, Zhiyi

    2016-01-01

    The apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) gene, which is a member of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster, plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism. Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke. In the present study, we performed a hospital-based case—control study of 895 ischemic stroke patients and 883 control subjects to examine the effects of four APOC3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2854116, rs2854117, rs4520 and rs5128) on the risk of ischemic stroke in a northern Chinese Han population. The SNaPshot Multiplex sequencing assay was used for SNP genotyping, and the potential association of genotype distributions and allele frequencies with ischemic stroke was analyzed statistically. Compared with the GG genotype, the CC+GC genotype of rs5128 was significantly associated with an increased risk in females (adjusted OR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.82–6.28, P <0.01) after all of the risk factors were adjusted for with logistic regression analyses. A similar relationship was found between the rs4520 polymorphism and ischemic stroke risk in Han Chinese women. Under a recessive genetic model, the TT+TC genotypes of this variant increased ischemic stroke risk (adjusted OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.28–3.29; P <0.01). Haplotype analysis revealed that in males, the T-C-T-C haplotype of rs2854116-rs2854117-rs4520-rs5128 was significantly more frequent in the ischemic stroke group than in the control group (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.18–1.87, P<0.01). The results of our study indicate that the APOC3 polymorphisms contribute to ischemic stroke susceptibility in females in the northern Chinese Han population. PMID:27690381

  17. TOX and CDKN2A/B Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fengjiang; Cai, Chunyou; Feng, Shuzhi; Lv, Jia; Li, Shen; Chang, Baocheng; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Wentao; Han, Hongling; Ling, Chao; Yu, Ping; Chen, Yongjun; Sun, Ning; Tian, Jianli; Jiao, Hongxiao; Yang, Fuhua; Li, Mingshan; Wang, Yuhua; Zou, Lei; Su, Long; Li, Jingbo; Li, Ran; Qiu, Huina; Shi, Jingmin; Liu, Shiying; Chang, Mingqin; Lin, Jingna; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    To study associations between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) candidate genes and microvascular complications of diabetes (MVCDs), we performed case-control association studies for both T2DM and MVCDs in Han Chinese subjects. We recruited 1,939 unrelated Han Chinese T2DM patients and 918 individuals with normal blood glucose levels as nondiabetic controls. Among T2DM patients, 1116 have MVCDs, 266 have a history of T2DM of >10 years but never developed MVCDs. Eighty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 54 candidate genes were genotyped. Discrete association studies were performed by the PLINK program for T2DM and MVCDs. Significant associations were found among candidate gene SNPs and T2DM, including rs1526167 of the TOX gene (allele A, P = 2.85 × 10(-9), OR = 1.44). The SNP rs10811661 of the CDKN2A/B gene was also associated with T2DM (allele T, P = 4.09 × 10(-7), OR = 1.36). When we used control patients with >10 years of T2DM history without MVCD, we found that the G allele of SNP rs1526167 of the TOX gene was associated with MVCD (nominal P = 4.33 × 10(-4)). In our study, significant associations were found between TOX and CDKN2A/B gene SNPs and T2DM. The TOX polymorphism might account for the higher risk of T2DM and the lower risk of MVCDs in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26139146

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in centrobin and Nek2 are associated with breast cancer susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Xie, Yun-Tao; Han, Ji-Yuan; Ruan, Yuan; Song, Ai-Ping; Zheng, Li-Yuan; Zhang, Wei-Zao; Sajdik, Constantin; Li, Yan; Tian, Xin-Xia; Fang, Wei-Gang

    2012-11-01

    Centrosome aberrations have been suggested to cause chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, and eventually promote cancer development. The Centrobin and Nek2 proteins interact with each other and both are involved in centrosome duplication and chromosome segregation. This study aimed to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms in these two genes may affect breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population using a haplotype-based analysis. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in centrobin and four SNPs in Nek2 were genotyped in 1,215 cases of infiltrating ductal breast cancer and 1,215 age-matched cancer-free controls from Chinese Han population. The results showed that CATCG haplotype of centrobin was strongly associated with decreased breast cancer risk (adjusted OR = 0.14, 95 % CI = 0.09-0.22), which was mainly driven by the C allele of SNP rs11650083 (A>C, located in exon 12, resulting in Pro578Gln). None of the individual SNPs in Nek2 was associated with breast cancer risk. However, haplotype GTAT of Nek2 was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR = 1.56, 95 % CI = 1.18-2.06) and its risk was significantly elevated among women with both family history of cancer and a longer menarche-first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) interval (>11 years) (adjusted OR = 5.31, 95 % CI = 1.97-14.32). Furthermore, women harboring both at-risk haplotype GTAT of Nek2 and protective haplotype CATCG of centrobin were linked with decreased breast cancer risk, suggesting that the association between genetic variants of Nek2 and increased breast cancer risk was modified by genetic variants of centrobin. Our results indicate that genetic polymorphisms of centrobin and Nek2 are related to breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han women.

  19. TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis of southern Chinese Han population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guifeng; Li, Yasong; Liu, Jinlin; Wo, Mingyi

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) has been be related to various auto-immune diseases. Based on previous studies that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs2230926 was association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of Japanese, Caucasian population and the northern Chinese Han population, we tested the alleles and geno-type frequencies of rs2230926 in TNFAIP3 to investigate whether rs2230926 is susceptible to RA of southern Chinese Han population. In our case-control association study, 207 RA patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 criteria were compared with 199 unrelated healthy subjects. After testing the alleles and genotype frequencies of rs2230926, the airwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) was computed and odd ration (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used for evaluating the susceptibility to RA. The SNP of rs2230926 of the cases and control subjects were conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 0.02257). The significantly statistical differences in alleles of T, G were founded in the cases and controls (P = 0.0027, OR 0.417, 95% CI 0.232-0.749); the genetic types of rs2230926 were associated with a susceptibility to RA, with OR 0.375 (95% CI 0.198-0.707, P = 0.0018). In the present study, our results indicated that the genetic polymorphism of rs2230926 in TNFAIP3 may be a susceptible factor conferring risk for RA in southern Chinese Han population. PMID:25674272

  20. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Protein 3 Interacting Protein 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Pustular Psoriasis in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yong; Alateng, Chulu; Li, Hong-Bin; Bai, Yun-Hua; Lyu, Xin-Xiang; Wu, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is the severe and rare type of psoriasis. The association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced protein 3 interacting protein 1 (TNIP1) gene and psoriasis was confirmed in people with multiple ethnicities. This study was to investigate the association between TNIP1 gene polymorphisms and pustular psoriasis in Chinese Han population. Methods: Seventy-three patients with GPP, 67 patients with palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), and 476 healthy controls were collected from Chinese Han population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNIP1 gene, namely rs3805435, rs3792798, rs3792797, rs869976, rs17728338, and rs999011 were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction. Statistical analyses were performed using the PLINK 1.07 package. Allele frequencies and genotyping frequencies for six SNPs were compared by using Chi-square test, odd ratio (OR) (including 95% confidence interval) were calculated. The haplotype analysis was conducted by Haploview software. Results: The frequencies of alleles of five SNPs were significantly different between the GPP group and the control group (P ≤ 7.22 × 10−3), especially in the GPP patients without psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). In the haplotype analysis, the most significantly different haplotype was H4: ACGAAC, with 13.1% frequency in the GPP group but only 3.4% in the control group (OR = 4.16, P = 4.459 × 10−7). However, no significant difference in the allele frequencies was found between the PPP group and control group for each of the six SNPs (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with GPP in Chinese Han population. However, no association with PPP was found. These findings suggest that TNIP1 might be a susceptibility gene for GPP. PMID:27364786

  1. TOX and CDKN2A/B Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fengjiang; Cai, Chunyou; Feng, Shuzhi; Lv, Jia; Li, Shen; Chang, Baocheng; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Wentao; Han, Hongling; Ling, Chao; Yu, Ping; Chen, Yongjun; Sun, Ning; Tian, Jianli; Jiao, Hongxiao; Yang, Fuhua; Li, Mingshan; Wang, Yuhua; Zou, Lei; Su, Long; Li, Jingbo; Li, Ran; Qiu, Huina; Shi, Jingmin; Liu, Shiying; Chang, Mingqin; Lin, Jingna; Chen, Liming; Li, Wei-Dong

    2015-01-01

    To study associations between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) candidate genes and microvascular complications of diabetes (MVCDs), we performed case-control association studies for both T2DM and MVCDs in Han Chinese subjects. We recruited 1,939 unrelated Han Chinese T2DM patients and 918 individuals with normal blood glucose levels as nondiabetic controls. Among T2DM patients, 1116 have MVCDs, 266 have a history of T2DM of >10 years but never developed MVCDs. Eighty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 54 candidate genes were genotyped. Discrete association studies were performed by the PLINK program for T2DM and MVCDs. Significant associations were found among candidate gene SNPs and T2DM, including rs1526167 of the TOX gene (allele A, P = 2.85 × 10−9, OR = 1.44). The SNP rs10811661 of the CDKN2A/B gene was also associated with T2DM (allele T, P = 4.09 × 10−7, OR = 1.36). When we used control patients with >10 years of T2DM history without MVCD, we found that the G allele of SNP rs1526167 of the TOX gene was associated with MVCD (nominal P = 4.33 × 10−4). In our study, significant associations were found between TOX and CDKN2A/B gene SNPs and T2DM. The TOX polymorphism might account for the higher risk of T2DM and the lower risk of MVCDs in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26139146

  2. Genetic variants associated with lean and obese type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaomu; Xing, Xiaoyan; Hong, Jing; Zhang, Xuelian; Yang, Wenying

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is highly phenotypically heterogeneous. Genetics of the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D is not clear. The aim of the present study was to identify the associations of T2D-related genetic variants with the risks for lean and obese T2D among the Chinese Han population. A case-control study consisting of 5338 T2D patients and 4663 normal glycemic controls of Chinese Han recruited in the Chinese National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study was conducted. T2D cases were identified according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Lean T2D was defined as T2D patient with a body mass index (BMI) <23 kg/m, whereas obese T2D was defined as T2D patient with a BMI ≥28 kg/m. Twenty-five genome-wide association studies previously validated T2D-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. A genotype risk score (GRS) based on the 25 SNPs was created. After adjusting for multiple covariates, SNPs in or near CDKAL1, CDKN2BAS, KCNQ1, TCF7L2, CDC123/CAMK1D, HHEX, and TCF2 were associated with the risk for lean T2D, and SNPs in or near KCNQ1 and FTO were associated with the risk for obese T2D. The results showed that the GRS for 25 T2D-related SNPs was more strongly associated with the risk for lean T2D (Ptrend = 2.66 × 10) than for obese T2D (Ptrend = 2.91 × 10) in our study population. Notably, the T2D GRS contributed to lower obesity-related measurements and greater β-cell dysfunction, including lower insulin levels in oral glucose tolerance test, decreased insulinogenic index, and Homeostasis Model Assessment for β-cell Function. In conclusion, our findings identified T2D-related genetic loci that contribute to the risk of lean and obese T2D individually and additively in a Chinese Han population. Moreover, the study highlights the contribution of known T2D genomic loci to the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D in Chinese Hans. PMID:27281091

  3. Population genetics for 17 Y-STR loci(AmpFISTR®Y-filerTM) in Luzhou Han ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Bing, Long; Liang, Weibo; Pi, Jianhua; Zhang, Deming; Yong, Dai; Luo, Haibo; Zhang, Lushun; Lin, Zhang

    2013-02-01

    In this study, 17 Y-STR loci(AmpFISTR(®)Y-filerTM)-DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438, DYS448 were analyzed in 424 unrelated males from Luzhou Han ethnic group, Southwest China. 365 haplotypes were observed. The discrimination capacity was 0.8608 and the haplotype diversity was 0.9992. PMID:23298877

  4. Association study of GABA system genes polymorphisms with amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Qingzhong; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Yu, Shunying; Zhao, Min

    2016-05-27

    GABA system genes have been implicated in neurotrophy and neurogenesis, which play pivotal roles in an individual's variation in vulnerability to amphetamine addiction or amphetamine-induced psychosis (AIP). We hypothesized that common genetic variants in the GABA system genes may be associated with amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder. In our study, thirty-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the GABA system genes were genotyped in 400 amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder patients and 400 amphetamine use disorders patients (AUP) (not including those categorized as psychosis) in the Han Chinese population. In this study, 51.88% of the Han Chinese amphetamine-type substance use disorder patients met the criteria of amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder, and 79.5% amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder patients had auditory hallucinations, while 46.5% had delusions of reference. The allele frequency of rs1129647 showed nominal association with AIP in the Han Chinese population (P=0.03). Compared with AUP group patients, T allele frequency of AIP group patients was significantly increased. The adjustment for age and gender factors in the AIP and AUP patients was executed using unconditional logistic regression under five inheritance models. The genotype frequency of rs1129647 showed nominal association with AIP in the log-additive model (P=0.04). The genotype frequency of rs2290733 showed nominal association with AIP in the recessive model (P=0.04). Compared with female AIP patients, male patients were more likely to have the CC genotype of rs17545383 (P=0.04). Moreover, we determined that more male patients carried the T allele of rs2290733 in the AIP group (P=0.004). Unfortunately, the significant differences did not survive Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate correction (adjusted P>0.05). No association between the SNPs of the GABA system genes and amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder risk was identified. No haplotype of the GABA system

  5. Genetic variants associated with lean and obese type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaomu; Xing, Xiaoyan; Hong, Jing; Zhang, Xuelian; Yang, Wenying

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is highly phenotypically heterogeneous. Genetics of the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D is not clear. The aim of the present study was to identify the associations of T2D-related genetic variants with the risks for lean and obese T2D among the Chinese Han population. A case-control study consisting of 5338 T2D patients and 4663 normal glycemic controls of Chinese Han recruited in the Chinese National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study was conducted. T2D cases were identified according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Lean T2D was defined as T2D patient with a body mass index (BMI) <23 kg/m, whereas obese T2D was defined as T2D patient with a BMI ≥28 kg/m. Twenty-five genome-wide association studies previously validated T2D-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. A genotype risk score (GRS) based on the 25 SNPs was created. After adjusting for multiple covariates, SNPs in or near CDKAL1, CDKN2BAS, KCNQ1, TCF7L2, CDC123/CAMK1D, HHEX, and TCF2 were associated with the risk for lean T2D, and SNPs in or near KCNQ1 and FTO were associated with the risk for obese T2D. The results showed that the GRS for 25 T2D-related SNPs was more strongly associated with the risk for lean T2D (Ptrend = 2.66 × 10) than for obese T2D (Ptrend = 2.91 × 10) in our study population. Notably, the T2D GRS contributed to lower obesity-related measurements and greater β-cell dysfunction, including lower insulin levels in oral glucose tolerance test, decreased insulinogenic index, and Homeostasis Model Assessment for β-cell Function. In conclusion, our findings identified T2D-related genetic loci that contribute to the risk of lean and obese T2D individually and additively in a Chinese Han population. Moreover, the study highlights the contribution of known T2D genomic loci to the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D in Chinese Hans.

  6. Dansgaard-Oeschger events and their reflection in speleothems (Hans Oeschger Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, Miryam

    2013-04-01

    Speleothems in karstic cave environments form by passage of meteoric water through the overlying soils, where the water dissolves CO2 to form carbonic acid, which in turn dissolves the host-rock carbonate. Degassing of the carbonate supersaturated meteoric water leads to the formation of calcite speleothems, which therefore can be considered as the end product in the much larger sea-atmosphere-land cycle. Their stable isotopic and geochemical composition reflect the environmental conditions above the cave, which in turn depend on larger scale parameters such as isotopic composition of the rainfall source, atmospheric storm patterns, ocean-land heat transfer. In this talk I specifically address the potential of using speleothems to look at short term climatic events: the Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events; rapid climate changes first observed in Greenland ice cores by Hans Oeschger with Willi Dansgaard and suggested to occur during the last glacial period. Many researches now show that D-O events are globally synchronous and can be identified in the marine and terrestrial climate records. Given, the ability to accurately date speleothems and to perform high-resolution studies of stable isotopes, trace elements and various other proxies (e.g., fluid inclusions, 'clumped isotopes' thermometry), it has become clear that speleothems enable us to better date the exact timing of D-O events and to understand the climatic response on land in different parts of the world to their occurrence, i.e., to address specific questions on the marine-atmosphere interaction, sea surface temperature, rainfall generation and their influence on human habitation and dispersal. Since the stable isotopic signal in speleothems primarily is a function of temperature and isotopic composition of rainfall, short time climatic events can be registered in fast growing speleothems. Indeed recent studies clearly demonstrate that D-O events are registered in speleothems, for example, vegetation changes

  7. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-6 influences susceptibility to HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma in a male Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shengli; Yuan, Yufeng; He, Yueming; Pan, Dingyu; Zhang, Yongxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Quanyan; Zhang, Zhonglin; Liu, Zhisu

    2014-04-01

    As a multifunctional cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a key role in chronic inflammation as well as tumor growth and progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recent studies have implicated that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -572C>G (rs1800796) located within the promoter region of IL-6 gene was associated with susceptibility to several diseases. Here, a case-control study was undertaken to investigate the association between this polymorphism and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. A total of 900 patients with chronic HBV infection, including 505 HBV-related HCC patients and 395 HBV infected patients without HCC were enrolled, and rs1800796 polymorphism was genotyped by the TaqMan method and DNA sequencing technology. The results indicated no significant association between rs1800796 polymorphism and the risk of HBV-related HCC in all subjects; however, a significant difference was identified in male subjects. Under the dominant model, male subjects with the G allele (CG/GG) have higher susceptibility to HBV-related HCC than those with CC genotype after adjusting confounding factors (P=0.012, odds ratio [OR] 1.68, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.15-2.42). Our results suggested that rs1800796 polymorphism of IL-6 gene was associated with susceptibility to HBV-related HCC in a male Chinese Han population.

  8. Characterization of spectrum, de novo rate and genotype-phenotype correlation of dominant GJB2 mutations in Chinese hans.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiuhong; Chai, Yongchuan; Sun, Lianhua; Chen, Dongye; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Hao; Yang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Dominant mutations in GJB2 may lead to various degrees of sensorineural hearing impairment and/or hyperproliferative epidermal disorders. So far studies of dominant GJB2 mutations were mostly limited to case reports of individual patients and families. In this study, we identified 7 families, 11 subjects with dominant GJB2 mutations by sequencing of GJB2 in 2168 Chinese Han probands with sensorineural hearing impairment and characterized the associated spectrum, de novo rate and genotype-phenotype correlation. We identified p.R75Q, p.R75W and p.R184Q as the most frequent dominant GJB2 mutations among Chinese Hans, which had a very high de novo rate (71% of probands). A majority (10/11) of subjects carrying dominant GJB2 mutations exhibited palmoplantar keratoderma in addition to hearing impairment. In two families segregated with additional c.235delC or p.V37I mutations of GJB2, family members with the compound heterozygous mutations exhibited more severe phenotype than those with single dominant GJB2 mutation. Our study suggested that the high de novo mutation rate gives rise to a significant portion of dominant GJB2 mutations. The severity of the hearing and epidermal phenotypes associated with dominant GJB2 mutations may be modified by additional recessive mutations of GJB2. PMID:24945352

  9. Molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of Chinese Han deaf patients with type I and type II Waardenburg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lianhua; Li, Xiaohua; Shi, Jun; Pang, Xiuhong; Hu, Yechen; Wang, Xiaowen; Wu, Hao; Yang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary abnormalities is genetically heterogeneous and phenotypically variable. This study investigated the molecular etiology and genotype-phenotype correlation of WS in 36 Chinese Han deaf probands and 16 additional family members that were clinically diagnosed with WS type I (WS1, n = 8) and type II (WS2, n = 42). Mutation screening of six WS-associated genes detected PAX3 mutations in 6 (86%) of the 7 WS1 probands. Among the 29 WS2 probands, 13 (45%) and 10 (34%) were identified with SOX10 and MITF mutations, respectively. Nineteen of the 26 detected mutations were novel. In WS2 probands whose parental DNA samples were available, de novo mutations were frequently seen for SOX10 mutations (7/8) but not for MITF mutations (0/5, P = 0.005). Excessive freckle, a common feature of WS2 in Chinese Hans, was frequent in WS2 probands with MITF mutations (7/10) but not in those with SOX10 mutations (0/13, P = 4.9 × 10−4). Our results showed that mutations in SOX10 and MITF are two major causes for deafness associated with WS2. These two subtypes of WS2 can be distinguished by the high de novo rate of the SOX10 mutations and the excessive freckle phenotype exclusively associated with the MITF mutations. PMID:27759048

  10. Polymorphism of HDAC9 Gene Is Associated with Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhenhua; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Chaoying; Wu, Yue; Yuan, Zuyi; Wang, Xinhong

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have indicated an association of histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) genetic variant with large-vessel stroke and coronary artery disease, among the European population. However, whether HDAC9 gene is associated with an increased susceptibility to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Chinese Han population is not known. A total of 472 patients, including patients with ACS (N = 309), and those with chest pain syndrome (controls, N = 163) were enrolled. Genotyping for HDAC9 gene was performed using the ligation detection reaction assay. A series of statistical analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between HDAC9 gene SNPs and the susceptibility to ACS. The results revealed a significant association of rs2240419 with ACS risk in which the A allele (P = 0.047) and the A allele carriers (AA + AG) (P = 0.037) were more likely to be in ACS group as compared to those in the control group. None of two other SNPs, rs2389995 and rs2107595, were significantly associated with ACS risk (P > 0.05). Logistic regression analyses further revealed an increased risk for ACS in A allele carrier among rs2240419 genotypes, as compared to those with GG homozygotes (odds ratio: 1.869, 95% CI 1.143, 3.056, P = 0.013). A significant correlation between rs2240419 polymorphism of HDAC9 gene and the susceptibility to ACS in Chinese Han population was observed in this study. PMID:27642596

  11. A rare variant at 11p13 is associated with tuberculosis susceptibility in the Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Qi; Hu, Yi; Shao, Yan; Li, Guoli; Zhu, Limei; Lu, Wei; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have yet to be conducted for tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility in China. Two previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from tuberculosis GWASs, rs2057178 and rs4331426, were evaluated for TB predisposition. The associations between SNPs and gene expression levels were analyzed using the genomic data and corresponding whole-genome expression of the Han Chinese in Beijing, China. Genotyping was successfully completed for 763 pulmonary TB patients and 763 healthy controls. The T allele of the rare variant rs2057178 was significantly associated with TB predisposition (χ2 = 14.07, P = 0.0002). Meanwhile, the CT genotype of rs2057178 was associated with a decreased risk of TB (adjusted OR = 0.52, 95% CI, 0.34–0.78). The CT genotype of rs2057178 was also associated with decreased expression levels of infection-related gene, suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), and increased expression levels of v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (MAFB). No gene expression levels were found to be associated with the genotype of rs4331426. We found that the rare variant rs2057178 was significantly associated with TB in the Han Chinese population. Moreover, the expression levels of MAFB and SOCS2 correlated with rs2057178 and might be potential candidates for assessing TB susceptibility. PMID:27035414

  12. Clinical and pathological features and treatment of AIDS-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in Chinese Han patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X-K; Lu, S-H; Liu, J-F; Lai, Y-R

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to observe the clinicopathological features and immunological phenotypes, and explore effective treatment and prognosis for 12 Chinese Han patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. All 12 patients were human immunodeficiency virus-positive, and underwent the standard highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Skin lesions mainly presented as purple, or rufous papules, or plaques; skin biopsy showed diffuse or flaky infiltration of spindle cells, active proliferation of slit-like vasculature, erythrocyte exudation, hemosiderin deposition, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression of Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (+), and CD31 (+) in T-cells; factor VIII (+) and HHF-35 (+) in the proliferating vascular endothelial cells; vimentin (+) and S-100 protein (-) in the vessel wall; and CD34 (+++) in the spindle cells of 6 cases, with 1 case of negative CD34 expression. Four patients with confined lesions underwent surgery and microwave therapy, and received a favorable prognosis. Two patients with limited lesions underwent microwave therapy, and the lesions subsided. Of six patients with widely distributed sarcomas, five underwent microwave therapy and one received combined chemotherapy; five attained significant efficacy, and one died. There were no significant differences in the clinicopathological features and immunological phenotypes between the Chinese Han patients and those from other populations. Along with basal HAART, patients in early stages, with sarcomas <2 cm in diameter should undergo surgery and microwave therapy, while patients with sarcomas >2 cm in diameter should undergo chemotherapy and microwave therapy.

  13. Polymorphism of HDAC9 Gene Is Associated with Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhenhua; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Chaoying; Wu, Yue; Yuan, Zuyi

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have indicated an association of histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) genetic variant with large-vessel stroke and coronary artery disease, among the European population. However, whether HDAC9 gene is associated with an increased susceptibility to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Chinese Han population is not known. A total of 472 patients, including patients with ACS (N = 309), and those with chest pain syndrome (controls, N = 163) were enrolled. Genotyping for HDAC9 gene was performed using the ligation detection reaction assay. A series of statistical analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between HDAC9 gene SNPs and the susceptibility to ACS. The results revealed a significant association of rs2240419 with ACS risk in which the A allele (P = 0.047) and the A allele carriers (AA + AG) (P = 0.037) were more likely to be in ACS group as compared to those in the control group. None of two other SNPs, rs2389995 and rs2107595, were significantly associated with ACS risk (P > 0.05). Logistic regression analyses further revealed an increased risk for ACS in A allele carrier among rs2240419 genotypes, as compared to those with GG homozygotes (odds ratio: 1.869, 95% CI 1.143, 3.056, P = 0.013). A significant correlation between rs2240419 polymorphism of HDAC9 gene and the susceptibility to ACS in Chinese Han population was observed in this study. PMID:27642596

  14. Gender-Specific Association of ATP2B1 Variants with Susceptibility to Essential Hypertension in the Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Qian, Hai-xia; Hu, Su-pei; Liu, Li-ya; Zhou, Mi; Feng, Mei; Su, Jia; Ji, Lin-dan

    2016-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) found that several ATP2B1 variants are associated with essential hypertension (EHT). But the "genome-wide significant" ATP2B1 SNPs (rs2681472, rs2681492, rs17249754, and rs1105378) are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and are located in the same LD block in Chinese populations. We asked whether there are other SNPs within the ATP2B1 gene associated with susceptibility to EHT in the Han Chinese population. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the association of seven tagSNPs within the ATP2B1 gene and EHT in the Han Chinese population, and we then analyzed the interaction among different SNPs and nongenetic risk factors for EHT. A total of 902 essential hypertensive cases and 902 normotensive controls were involved in the study. All 7 tagSNPs within the ATP2B1 gene were retrieved from HapMap, and genotyping was performed using the Tm-shift genotyping method. Chi-squared test, logistic regression, and propensity score analysis showed that rs17249754 was associated with EHT, particularly in females. The MDR analysis demonstrated that the interaction of rs2070759, rs17249754, TC, TG, and BMI increased the susceptibility to hypertension. Crossover analysis and stratified analysis indicated that BMI has a major effect on the development of hypertension, while ATP2B1 variants have a minor effect.

  15. Polymorphisms of STAT4 and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: A case-control study in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Houbao; Liu, Jianbing; Zhang, Hongxin; Wang, Zhengting; Liu, Jie; Lu, Shunyuan; Xu, Wangyang; Zhong, Jie; Wang, Zhugang

    2013-03-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is a transcription factor involved in the signaling pathways of several cytokines, playing an essential role in the development of inflammation in various immune-mediated diseases. Genetic association studies have shown that the STAT4 gene was significantly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Spanish and Caucasian populations. However, these associations in other ethnic populations remain unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the STAT4 rs7574865 and rs7582694 polymorphisms on IBD in 562 unrelated Chinese Han subjects by assessing distributions of genotypes and allele frequencies. Results showed that neither rs7574865 [Crohn's disease (CD): P=0.66, odds ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.21; ulcerative colitis (UC): P=0.43, OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.56-1.28; IBD: P=0.52, OR=0.93, 95% CI 0.73-1.17] nor rs7582694 (CD: P=0.40, OR=1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.44; UC: P=0.50, OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.56-1.33; IBD: P=0.62, OR=1.06, 95% CI 0.83-1.36) was significantly associated with IBD, although the genotype frequency of rs7574865 varied in patients and the controls. In conclusion, our data did not support that STAT4 variants contribute to IBD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. PMID:24648942

  16. Investigation of associations between ten polymorphisms and the risk of coronary artery disease in Southern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Huang, Er-Wen; Peng, Long-Yun; Zheng, Jin-Xiang; Wang, Dan; Tan, Xiao-Hong; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Li, Xue-Mei; Wu, Qiu-Ping; Tang, Shuang-Bo; Luo, Bin; Quan, Li; Liu, Shui-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Shan; Li, Zhao-Hui; Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chao; Cheng, Jian-Ding

    2016-05-01

    A large-scale meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies has identified and replicated a series of susceptibility polymorphisms for coronary artery disease (CAD) in European ancestry populations, but evidences for the associations of these loci with CAD in other ethnicities remain lacking. Herein we investigated the associations between ten (rs579459, rs12413409, rs964184, rs4773144, rs2895811, rs3825807, rs216172, rs12936587, rs46522 and rs3798220) of these loci and CAD in Southern Han Chinese (CHS). Genotyping was performed in 1716 CAD patients and 1572 controls using mass spectrography. Both allelic and genotypic associations of rs964184, rs2895811 and rs3798220 with CAD were significant, regardless of adjustment for covariates of gender, age, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, blood lipid profiles and smoking. Significant association of rs12413409 was initially not observed, but after the adjustment for the covariates, both allelic and genotypic associations were identified as significant. Neither allelic nor genotypic association of the other six polymorphisms with CAD was significant regardless of the adjustment. Our results indicated that four loci of the total 10 were associated with CAD in CHS. Therefore, some of the CAD-related loci in European ancestry populations are indeed susceptibility loci for the risk of CAD in Han Chinese. PMID:26740236

  17. Analysis of the genetic association between IL27 variants and coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qian; Nie, Shaofang; Li, Sihui; Liao, Yuhua; Zhang, Hongsong; Zha, Lingfeng; Wang, Fan; Tang, Tingting; Xia, Ni; Xu, Chengqi; Wang, Pengyun; Xie, Tian; Xie, Jiangjiao; Lu, Qiulun; Li, Qingxian; Qian, Jin; Li, Bin; Wu, Gang; Wu, Yanxia; Yang, Yan; Wang, Qing K.; Tu, Xin; Cheng, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is an important cytokine in inflammatory diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD). To explore the precise role of IL-27 in CAD, we investigated the genetic association between IL27 and CAD in the GeneID Chinese Han population. A two-stage case control association analysis was performed for 3075 CAD cases and 2802 controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to adjust the traditional risk factors for CAD. Results showed that a promoter variant, rs153109, tended to be marginally associated with CAD in the discovery population (Padj = 0.028, OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.03–1.58). However, this association was not replicated in the validation stage (Padj = 0.559, OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 0.90–1.21). In addition, when we classified the combined population into two subgroups according to the age at disease onset or disease state, we again obtained no significant associations. Finally, we estimated the severity of coronary stenosis using the Gensini Scoring system and determined that the rs153109 genotypes were still not associated with the Gensini scores of the CAD patients. In conclusion, our study failed to find an association between common variants in the functional region of IL27 and CAD in a Chinese Han population, which indicated that IL-27 might only be an inflammatory marker during the development of CAD. PMID:27174010

  18. Association of BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism with glioma risk in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qian, Chunfa; Wang, Linxiong; Teng, Hong; Zhang, Li

    2014-03-01

    Glioma is the most common type of primary brain malignancy in adults. The anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of glioma. This study aimed to evaluate the potential association between BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism and glioma susceptibility. This case-control study was conducted in Chinese Han populations consisting of 248 glioma cases and 252 cancer-free controls. The BCL2-938C>A genetic polymorphism was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and verified using DNA sequencing methods. Our data suggested that the genotype/allele of BCL2-938C>A polymorphism were statistically associated with the increased risk of glioma where the risk of glioma for genotype AA or allele A is significantly higher than wild genotype CC (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-4.10, p = 0.009) or allele C (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.06-1.82, p = 0.016), respectively. In addition, the BCL2-938AA genotype was significantly more common in patients with glioblastoma and in patients with grade IV glioma. Our findings indicate that the BCL2-938C>A polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to glioma in Chinese Han populations and might be used as molecular markers for evaluating glioma risk.

  19. Endochondral ossification pathway genes and postmenopausal osteoporosis: Association and specific allele related serum bone sialoprotein levels in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bo; Li, Lu; Chen, Gang; Fu, Dongke; Wang, KunZheng

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and disrupted bone architecture, predisposing the patient to increased fracture risk. Evidence from early genetic epidemiological studies has indicated a major role for genetics in the development of osteoporosis and the variation in BMD. In this study, we focused on two key genes in the endochondral ossification pathway, IBSP and PTHLH. Over 9,000 postmenopausal Han Chinese women were recruited, and 54 SNPs were genotyped. Two significant SNPs within IBSP, rs1054627 and rs17013181, were associated with BMD and postmenopausal osteoporosis by the two-stage strategy, and rs17013181 was also significantly associated with serum IBSP levels. Moreover, one haplotype (rs12425376-rs10843047-rs42294) covering the 5’ end of PTHLH was associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our results provide evidence for the association of these two key endochondral ossification pathway genes with BMD and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women. Combined with previous findings, we provide evidence that a particular SNP in IBSP has an allele-specific effect on mRNA levels, which would, in turn, reflect serum IBSP levels. PMID:26568273

  20. Risk assessment and seasonal variations of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Upper Han River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2010-09-15

    Surface water samples were collected from 42 sampling sites throughout the upper Han River during the time period of 2005-2006. The concentrations of trace metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for the seasonal variability and preliminary risk assessment. The results demonstrated that concentrations of 11 heavy metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the rainy season. Principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) revealed that variables governing water quality in one season may not be important in another season. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using Hazard Quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic risk, and indicated that As with HQ >1 and carcinogenic risk >10(-4), was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic concerns, in particular for children. The first five largest elements to chronic risks were As, Pb, V, Se and Sb, in the dry season, while they were As, V, Co, Pb and Sb in the rainy season. This assessment would help establish pollutant loading reduction goal and the total maximum daily loads, and consequently contribute to preserve public health in the Han River basin and develop water conservation strategy for the interbasin water transfer project.

  1. Associations of Plasma FGF2 Levels and Polymorphisms in the FGF2 Gene with Obesity Phenotypes in Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ruo-Han; Guo, Yan; Dong, Shan-Shan; Weng, Gai-Zhi; Yan, Han; Zhu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Jia-Bin; Yang, Tie-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is highly heritable, but the specific genes influencing obesity related traits are largely unknown. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) could influence adipocyte differentiation. However, the association of FGF2 polymorphisms and obesity remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the associations of both the plasma FGF2 levels and SNPs in FGF2 gene with obesity phenotypes in Han Chinese populations. Plasma FGF2 levels were measured and subjected to association analyses in 62 subjects. Eleven SNPs in FGF2 were genotyped and tested for associations in a discovery sample of 1,300 subjects. SNPs significantly associated with obesity were subjected to replication in another independent sample of 1,035 subjects. We found that plasma FGF2 levels were positively correlated with fat mass (P = 0.010). Association analyses in the discovery sample identified three SNPs (rs1449683, rs167428, rs308442) significantly associated with fat mass after multiple testing adjustments (P < 0.0045). Subsequent replication study successfully validated one SNP (rs167428) associated with fat mass (Pcombine = 3.46 × 10−5). eQTL analyses revealed that SNPs associated with obesity also affected FGF2 expression. Our findings suggested that high plasma FGF2 level correlated with increased risk of obesity, and FGF2 gene polymorphisms could affect individual variances of obesity in Han Chinese population. PMID:26879180

  2. Endochondral ossification pathway genes and postmenopausal osteoporosis: Association and specific allele related serum bone sialoprotein levels in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunzhi; Liu, Haiyan; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bo; Li, Lu; Chen, Gang; Fu, Dongke; Wang, KunZheng

    2015-11-16

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and disrupted bone architecture, predisposing the patient to increased fracture risk. Evidence from early genetic epidemiological studies has indicated a major role for genetics in the development of osteoporosis and the variation in BMD. In this study, we focused on two key genes in the endochondral ossification pathway, IBSP and PTHLH. Over 9,000 postmenopausal Han Chinese women were recruited, and 54 SNPs were genotyped. Two significant SNPs within IBSP, rs1054627 and rs17013181, were associated with BMD and postmenopausal osteoporosis by the two-stage strategy, and rs17013181 was also significantly associated with serum IBSP levels. Moreover, one haplotype (rs12425376-rs10843047-rs42294) covering the 5' end of PTHLH was associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Our results provide evidence for the association of these two key endochondral ossification pathway genes with BMD and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women. Combined with previous findings, we provide evidence that a particular SNP in IBSP has an allele-specific effect on mRNA levels, which would, in turn, reflect serum IBSP levels.

  3. Association of HLA-DQA1 (rs9272219) with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hao, Gui-Feng; Li, Ya-Song; Liu, Jin-Lin; Wo, Ming-Yi

    2014-01-01

    HLA-DQA1 (rs9272219) has been previously reported that it is a susceptibility locus in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of UK Caucasian population and North American; however, it has not reported in RA of Chinese population. Our study was to identify whether or not this relationship is reside between rs9272219 and RA in a Han Chinese population. 207 patients with RA and 199 control subjects were recruited. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of rs9272219 was tested in alleles and genotype frequencies and the data was analyzed by doing the statistic analysis of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) from multivariate unconditional logistic regression analyses after pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) was estimated. Finally, the Alleles and genotype frequencies distribution of rs9272219 locus among RA patients and control subjects were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found significant association between rs9272219 and RA of Chinese population (OR 0.494, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.354-0.688, P = 0 and OR 2.541, 95% CI 1.695-3.808, P = 0, respectively). In this study, we found that the SNP of rs9272219 in HLA-DQA1 is a potential susceptibility locus in RA of Han Chinese population; the results suggest that HLA-DQA1 may be related to the development of RA. PMID:25550865

  4. Association between Polymorphisms in Interleukins 4 and 13 Genes and Chronic Periodontitis in a Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhang, Tian-Liang; Wang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis (CP) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases and cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of immune response. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) are anti-inflammatory cytokines and several polymorphisms of them have been proved involved in periodontal disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2070874 and rs2243248 from IL4 and rs1800925 from IL13, are associated with CP in a Han Chinese population consisting of 440 moderate or severe CP patients and 324 healthy controls. Genomic DNA extracted from buccal epithelial cells of the included participants were genotyped using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry method. No significant association between rs2070874 or rs1800925 and CP was found, while the frequencies of rs2243248 and two haplotypes C-G-T and C-T-T showed significant differences between the two groups. The results suggest that the polymorphism rs2243248 and haplotypes C-G-T and C-T-T may be associated with CP susceptibility in the present Han Chinese population. PMID:27195298

  5. Association of genetic polymorphisms with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Chinese Han population: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Few gene studies of the Chinese population have focused on COPD. We investigated candidate genes associated with susceptibility to COPD in the Chinese Han population. Methods A total of 331 COPD patients and 213 control subjects were recruited for this study. Nighty-seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 46 genes were selected for genotyping. Genotypes were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Significant differences between patients and healthy controls were observed in the allele frequencies of seven SNPs: rs1205 C, rs2353397 C, rs20541 T, rs2070600 G, rs10947233 G, rs1800629 G, and rs2241712 A. After Bonferroni correction, rs2353397 C was most strongly associated with susceptibility to COPD. Haplotype analysis showed that the frequencies of the GC, GT haplotypes of rs2241718 (TGF-β1 gene), and rs6957 (CDC97 gene) were significantly higher in the control group than in the COPD case group (p=1.88×10-9); the frequencies of the TT haplotype of rs1205 and rs2808630 (CRP gene) were significantly higher in the control group (p=0.0377). Conclusion Our study suggests some genetic variants associated with the susceptibility of COPD in the Chinese Han population. PMID:23267696

  6. Association of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with adult allergic asthma and rhinitis in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dongju; Zhang, Ximei; Sui, Hong; Lü, Fuzhen; Jin, Lianhong; Zhang, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Background Rhinitis and asthma are very common diseases involving genetic and environmental factors. Most patients with asthma also have rhinitis, which suggests the concept of 'one airway, one disease.' A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 33 (ADAM33) is the first asthma-susceptible gene to be discovered by positional cloning. To evaluate the potential influence of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms on allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma (AS), a case-control study was conducted on the Han population of northeast China. Methods Six polymorphic sites (V4, T+1, T2, T1, S1, and Q-1) were genotyped in 128 patients with AR, 181 patients with AS, and 151 healthy controls (CTR). Genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test with Haploview software. Results The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), V4 G/C, T+1 A/G, and T1 G/A, of the ADAM33 gene may be the causal variants in AR, whereas ADAM33 V4 G/C, T2 A/G, T1 G/A, and Q-1A/G may participate in the susceptibility of AS. Conclusion These results suggest that polymorphisms of the ADAM33 gene may modify individual susceptibility to AR and AS in a Chinese Han population. PMID:18778489

  7. Genetic Polymorphisms of the TYMS Gene Are Not Associated with Congenital Cardiac Septal Defects in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jue; Wang, Er-Li; Yang, Xue-Yan; Qiao, Bin; Duan, Wen-Yuan; Huang, Guo-Ying; Wang, Hong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical research indicates that periconceptional administration of folic acid can reduce the occurrence of congenital cardiac septal defects (CCSDs). The vital roles of folate exhibits in three ways: the unique methyl donor for DNA expression regulation, the de novo biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine for DNA construction, and the serum homocysteine removal. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is the solo catalysis enzyme for the de novo synthesis of dTMP, which is the essential precursor of DNA biosynthesis and repair process. To examine the role of TYMS in Congenital Cardiac Septal Defects (CCSDs) risk, we investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in the TYMS gene associated with the CCSDs in a Han Chinese population. Method Polymorphisms in the noncoding region of TYMS were identified via direct sequencing in 32 unrelated individuals composed of half CCSDs and half control subjects. Nine SNPs and two insertion/deletion polymorphisms were genotyped from two independent case-control studies involving a total of 529 CCSDs patients and 876 healthy control participants. The associations were examined by both single polymorphism and haplotype tests using logistic regression. Result We found that TYMS polymorphisms were not related to the altered CCSDs risk, and even to the changed risk of VSDs subgroup, when tested in both studied groups separately or in combination. In the haplotype analysis, there were no haplotypes significantly associated with risks for CCSDs either. Conclusion Our results show no association between common genetic polymorphisms of the regulatory region of the TYMS gene and CCSDs in the Han Chinese population. PMID:22384047

  8. Influence of culture on tripartite self-concept development in adolescence: a comparison between Han and Uyghur cultures.

    PubMed

    Abdukeram, Ziwida; Mamat, Marhaba; Luo, Wei; Wu, Yanhong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the development of cultural variability in interdependent self-construal by comparing the differences in the tripartite self-concept of adolescent samples from the Han and Uyghur cultures. Participants (460 males, 522 females; M age = 16.3 yr., SD = 4.8) in the sub-phases of pre-, early-, mid-, late- and post-adolescence were asked to completed the revised Twenty Statements Test, and the items generated by the participants were coded into private, relational, and collective self-statements. The private self-statements were further differentiated by personal and social orientation, and the relational self-statements were further coded into family and friend focus. The relational aspect of an individual's self, or personal relationship, became increasingly important with age in the Han cultural groups, whereas the collective aspect of an individual's self, or social identity, became increasingly important with age in the Uyghur cultural groups. These findings seem to show the development of differences between relational and collective interdependent self-construals. Furthermore, these findings emphasize the need for further research into the development of within-cultural differences in self-construal.

  9. Apolipoprotein E ε4 Allele was Associated With Nonlesional Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhimei; Ding, Chengyun; Gong, Xiping; Wang, Xiaofei; Cui, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has been implicated as one of the genes susceptible to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the association is inconsistent. We carried out a study to investigate the association of APOEε4 allele with a subtype of TLE-nonlesional mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (NLMTLE) in Han Chinese people.T he study consisted of total 308 NLMTLE patients and 302 controls in Han Chinese. The APOE polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA sequencing. We compared the frequency of APOEε4 allele and carrying status between NLMTLE patients and control subjects to test for the association of APOEε4 allele with NLMTLE clinical status. Carrying status of APOEε4 allele was significantly associated with the risk of NLMTLE. No effect of APOEε4 allele was found on the age of onset, duration of epilepsy, or frequency of seizure. Moreover, there was no association between APOEε4 allele and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) or febrile convulsion (FC) history.O ur study provided an evidence that APOEε4 allele was a possible risk factor for NLMTLE, and further study with a larger sample is needed to warrant this finding.

  10. Distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of children aged 3-5 years of Uygur and Han nationality and their genotype in caries-active groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, N; Lin, J; Wu, L; Zhao, J

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of 3-5-year-old children of Uygur and Han nationalities as well as their genotypes in caries-active groups in the Urumqi municipality. CHROMagar Candida was separately cultivated, and we identified 359 Uygur and Han children aged 3-5 years. We randomly selected 20 Han children and 20 Uygur children for this study. We chose a bacterial strain for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 25S rDNA genotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genotyping. The rate of caries-active in Han children was higher than that in Uygur children, with values of 39.6 and 24.3%, respectively. The detection rate of C. albicans was closely correlated to the caries filling index classification (X(2) = 31.037, P = 0.000, r = 0.421; X(2) = 80.454, P = 0.000, r = 0.497). PCR of 25S rDNA from 40 strains of Han and Uygur children revealed 3 genotypes, while RAPD analysis revealed 5 genotypes. The distribution of 25S rDNA genotyping of Han children from PCR differed from that of Uygur children (X(2) = 7.697, P = 0.021), both of which were mainly the A type. RAPD genotyping of both Han and Uygur children showed similar results (X(2) = 1.573, P = 0.814). There were differences in the distributions of C. albicans in children of different nationalities. C. albicans is a key factor causing caries. The PCR 25S rDNA genotyping method is simple and sensitive, while the RAPD genotyping method is reliable and comprehensive. PMID:25730012

  11. Ethnic disparities in the clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among the Kazakh, Uygur, Mongolian and Han populations of Xinjiang: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, Mongolian and Han populations represent >90% of the total population of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their genetic backgrounds, customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on cardiovascular disease risk factors (CRFs; hypertension, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking) can be striking but is rarely studied. We report here the findings of the relationship among these ethnic groups and their CRFs across the four largest ethnic groups of Xinjiang. Methods A cross-sectional survey of representative samples was conducted 2002–2008 in Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, Mongolian and Han populations (age >30 years; 4,421 Kazakh, 3884 Han, 3,218 Uygur, and 892 Mongolian individuals) in Xinjiang. Results A total of 90.4% of Kazakh, 91.9% of Uygur, 90.4% of Mongolian, 85.1% of Han individuals had at least one CRF. Clustering of ≥2 or ≥3 of these risk factors was noted in 65.2% or 32.1% of Kazakh, 64.8% or 33.0% of Uygur, 66.9% or 36.5% of Mongolian as well as 62.0% or 28.3% of Han subjects, respectively. Compared with the Han population, the adjusted odds ratios of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 CRFs for Kazakh, Uygur and Mongolian populations were higher (all P<0.001). The age-standardized prevalence of the clustering of ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 CRFs in Kazakh, Uygur, Mongolian, and Han populations was lower than their counterparts in the NHANES Ш study (USA) but higher than in the InterASIA Study (China). Conclusions Ethnic groups living in Xinjiang had striking differences in CRFs. Ethnic-specific strategies should be developed to prevent cardiovascular disease in different ethnic groups. PMID:22759741

  12. Sex-specific association of the peptidase D gene rs731839 polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Quan-Zhen; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wu, Jian; Guo, Tao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Jia-Qi; Shi, Guang-Yuan; Shen, Shao-Wen; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the association of peptidase D (PEPD) gene rs731839 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles in the Chinese population. The objective of the present study was to detect the association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Genotyping of the PEPD rs731839 SNP was performed in 751 subjects of Mulao and 762 subjects of Han using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The A allele carriers had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI levels and lower triglyceride (TG) levels in Mulao; and higher HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoAI levels in Han than the A allele non-carriers. Subgroup analyses showed that the A allele carriers had higher HDL-C, ApoAI levels and lower TG levels in Mulao males but not in females; higher total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han males; and higher TG, HDL-C and ApoAI levels in Han females than the A allele non-carriers. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in Mulao and Han populations, or in males and females in both ethnic groups. The association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels was different between the Mulao and Han populations, and between males and females in the both ethnic groups. There may be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association of the PEPD rs731839 SNP and serum lipid levels in our study populations. PMID:25120796

  13. Association of the TRIB1 tribbles homolog 1 gene rs17321515 A>G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of rs17321515 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near TRIB1 gene and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs17321515 SNP and several environmental factors on serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Methods A total of 639 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 644 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotypes of the TRIB1 rs17321515 A>G SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between the two ethnic groups (P > 0.05). High- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C) levels in Han were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), the subjects with AG/GG genotypes had higher HDL-C and LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA genotype. Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB levels in Han males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), the G carriers had higher TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB levels than the G noncarriers. HDL-C levels in Mulao males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G carriers had lower HDL-C levels than the G noncarriers. Serum HDL-C and LDL-C levels in both ethnic groups and TG levels in Han were correlated with the genotypes or alleles (P < 0.05-0.01). TG and HDL-C levels in Mulao males and TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Han males were correlated with genotypes or alleles (P < 0.05-0.001). TG and ApoA1 levels in Han females were associated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. Conclusions The associations of

  14. Influence of the South-to-North Water Transfer and the Yangtze River mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; liu, Wenwen

    2016-04-01

    Algal bloom was occurred every year in the down stream of the Han River in recent five years. The operation of the Middle Route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer (MSNW) Project may affect the hydrological condition and self-purification of water body in the down and middle streams of the Han River, trigger algal bloom, and elevate the difficulty in the treatment of water pollutants, which is a crucial issue involved in ecology, environment, and economy. In this study, the monthly water samples were collected from the middle and down streams of Han River from July 2014 to December 2015. Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis were applied to identify major pollution types and areas and determine the reasons influencing the variations of water quality in the down and middle streams of the Han River. The results show that whole monitoring period can be divided into three periods as different pollution levels. The factor analysis distinguishes three pollution types (inorganic pollution, organic pollution, and agricultural pollution) and thier contributions on Han River water quality in dry and wet seasons. Industrial areas are influenced by inorganic pollution and cultivated lands are influenced by agricultural pollution. The water quality in wet season is significantly affected by flow rate, which was sometimes controlled by two projects. The heavy polluted water may be diluted by high flow volume.

  15. Verification of Pharmacogenetics-Based Warfarin Dosing Algorithms in Han-Chinese Patients Undertaking Mechanic Heart Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Chunxia; Li, Bei; Dong, Li; Guo, Yingqiang; Xiao, Xijun; Zhang, Eryong; Qin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the performance of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in the initial and the stable warfarin treatment phases in a cohort of Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. Methods We searched PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases for selecting pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing models. Patients with mechanic heart valve replacement were consecutively recruited between March 2012 and July 2012. The predicted warfarin dose of each patient was calculated and compared with the observed initial and stable warfarin doses. The percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of their actual therapeutic dose (percentage within 20%), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were utilized to evaluate the predictive accuracy of all the selected algorithms. Results A total of 8 algorithms including Du, Huang, Miao, Wei, Zhang, Lou, Gage, and International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) model, were tested in 181 patients. The MAE of the Gage, IWPC and 6 Han-Chinese pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms was less than 0.6 mg/day in accuracy and the percentage within 20% exceeded 45% in all of the selected models in both the initial and the stable treatment stages. When patients were stratified according to the warfarin dose range, all of the equations demonstrated better performance in the ideal-dose range (1.88–4.38 mg/day) than the low-dose range (<1.88 mg/day). Among the 8 algorithms compared, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a lower MAE and higher percentage within 20% in both the initial and the stable warfarin dose prediction and in the low-dose and the ideal-dose ranges. Conclusions All of the selected pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing regimens performed similarly in our cohort. However, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a better potential for warfarin prediction in the initial and the stable treatment phases in Han

  16. Frequencies of red blood cell major blood group antigens and phenotypes in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Ma, C; Sun, X; Guan, X; Zhang, X; Saldanha, J; Chen, L; Wang, D

    2016-08-01

    Alloantibodies directed to red blood cell (RBC) antigens play an important role in alloimmune-mediated haemolytic transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn. The frequencies and phenotypes of RBC antigens are different in populations from different geographic areas and races. However, the data on major blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China are still very limited; thus, we aimed to investigate them in this study. A total of 1412 unrelated voluntary Chinese Han blood donors were randomly recruited. All donors were typed for blood group antigens: D, C, c, E, e, C(w) , Jk(a) , Jk(b) ,M, N, S, s, Le(a) , Le(b) , K, k. Kp(a) , Kp(b) , Fy(a) , Fy(b) , Lu(a) , Lu(b) , P1 and Di(a) using serological technology. Calculations of antigen and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages and for allele frequencies under the standard assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amongst the Rh antigens, D was the most common (98.94%) followed by e (92.28%), C (88.81%), c (58.43%), E (50.78%) and C(w) (0.07%) with DCe/DCe (R1 R1 , 40.72%) being the most common phenotype. In the Kell blood group system, k was present in 100% of the donors and a rare phenotype, Kp (a+b+), was found in 0.28% of the donors. For the Kidd and Duffy blood group systems, Jk (a+b+) and Fy (a+b-) were the most common phenotypes (44.05% and 84.35%, respectively). In the MNS blood group system, M+N+S-s+ (45.54%) was the most common, whereas M+N-S-s- and M-N+S-s- were not found. The rare Lu (a-b-) and Lu (a+b+) phenotypes were identified in 0.43% and 1.13% of the donors, respectively. Le(a) and Le(b) were seen in 17.92% and 63.03% of donors, respectively. The frequency of Di(a) was 4.75%, which was higher than in the Chinese population in Taiwan region or the Caucasian and Black populations (P < 0.0001). This study systematically describes the frequencies of 24 blood group antigens in the Chinese Han population from Mainland China. The data can

  17. Association of Genetic Variants with Isolated Fasting Hyperglycaemia and Isolated Postprandial Hyperglycaemia in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Ge, Jiapu; Chen, Gang; Guo, Xiaohui; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Xiao, Jianzhong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    Background Though multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes have been identified, the genetic bases of isolated fasting hyperglycaemia (IFH) and isolated postprandial hyperglycaemia (IPH) were still unclear. In present study, we aimed to investigate the association of genome-wide association study-validated genetic variants and IFH or IPH in Han Chinese. Methods/Principal Findings We genotyped 27 validated SNPs in 6,663 unrelated individuals comprising 341 IFH, 865 IPH, 1,203 combined fasting hyperglycaemia and postprandial hyperglycaemia, and 4,254 normal glycaemic subjects of Han ancestry. The distributions of genotype frequencies of FTO, CDKAL1 and GCKR were significant different between individuals with IFH and those with IPH (SNP(ptrend): rs8050136(0.0024), rs9939609(0.0049), rs7756992(0.0122), rs780094(0.0037)). Risk allele of FTO specifically increased the risk of IFH (rs8050136: OR 1.403 [95% CI 1.125–1.750], p = 0.0027; rs9939609: 1.398 [1.120–1.744], p = 0.0030). G allele of CDKAL1 specifically increased the risk of IPH (1.217 [1.092–1.355], p = 0.0004). G allele of GCKR increased the risk of IFH (1.167 [0.999–1.362], p = 0.0513), but decreased the risk of IPH (0.891 [0.801–0.991], p = 0.0331). In addition, TCF7L2 and KCNQ1 increased the risk of both IFH and IPH. When combined, each additional risk allele associated with IFH increased the risk for IFH by 1.246-fold (p<0.0001), while each additional risk allele associated with IPH increased the risk for IPH by 1.190-fold (p<0.0001). Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that genotype distributions of variants from FTO, GCKR, CDKAL1 were different between IPH and IFH in Han Chinese. Variants of genes modulating insulin sensitivity (FTO, GCKR) contributed to the risk of IFH, while variants of genes related to beta cell function (CDKAL1) increase the risk of IPH. PMID:23990951

  18. [The origin and development of special methods of "expiration and inspiration" (Tuna) in pre-Qin and Han dynasties].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-mei; Li, De-xing

    2009-07-01

    Tuna (special methods of expiration and inspiration) was generated in the working life and health activities of the early stage of the human race in ancient times. It developed in the period of the Qin, Han and three kingdoms, developing the theory of bionic expiration and inspiration as well as the breath of the upper pubic region (Dantian); the skill of the Qi conduction school emerged so that the skills of embryonic breath and the upper pubic region breath came into being. The skill of meditation of the Chan sect of the Western Regions was also introduced into the central plains at this time. The skill of counting breath had a profound impact on the skill of embryonic breath of the Taoism elixir school.

  19. [Responsibility: Towards a fifth principle in blood transfusion's ethics. Applicability and limits of Hans Jonas's responsibility principle].

    PubMed

    Nélaton, C

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, in France, anonymity, gratuity, volunteering, non-profit are recognized as ethical principles in blood transfusion. Can we add responsibility to this list? Can a logo named "Responsiblood" efficiently encourage blood donation? This article explores Hans Jonas's reform of the responsibility concept in order to measure its applicabilities and limits in the field of blood transfusion. Indeed, this concept - rethought by Jonas - seems to be a good encouragement which avoids the pitfalls of the concept of duty and of the idea of payment for blood donation. But can't we also see in this reform a threat to blood transfusion because of technophobia and the heuristics of fear that it involves? PMID:27424285

  20. Genetic data of nine non-CODIS STRs in Chinese Han population from Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, De-Jian; Liu, Qiu-Ling; Zhao, Hu

    2011-01-01

    Nine non-combined DNA index system tetranucleotide short tandem repeat (STR) loci D2S1772, D6S1043, D7S3048, D8S1132, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364, and GATA198B05 were amplified in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction system. The distribution of alleles of the nine STRs was reported from a Chinese Han population in Guangdong Province, Southern China. The combined power of exclusion in trios and duos for the nine loci was 0.999981 and 0.999025, respectively. Mutation rates range from 0 to 0.005618. Pairwise analysis of linkage disequilibrium, which included PowerPlex 16 System loci, did show statistically significant deviation from independence even though loci locate on the same chromosomes. The nine STRs are highly informative and suitable to extend the results obtained with other STRs commonly analyzed for difficult paternity and kinship analysis.

  1. New revelations about Hans Berger, father of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and his ties to the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Stone, James; Kondziella, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Hans Berger was a German neuropsychiatrist and head of the neurology department at the University of Jena, who discovered the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Many sources state that Berger was forced into retirement and suicide by the Nazis because he was at odds with the regime. In fact, Berger helped select his Nazi successor Berthold Kihn (complicit in "euthanasia" murders), financially supported the Nazi Schutzstaffel (SS), and was a willing participant on Nazi genetic health higher courts that reviewed appeals for forced sterilizations of neuropsychiatric patients. His motivations could be related to avoiding Nazi harassment, indoctrination by Nazi ideology, or less likely, career opportunism. His actions stand in contrast to colleagues who partially resisted the Nazis, and hopefully will serve as an example to future generations of neurologists regarding the danger of allowing one's professional standing to be used as a tool to support the policies of tyranny and oppression.

  2. The Kramer-Pollnow syndrome: a contribution on the life and work of Franz Kramer and Hans Pollnow.

    PubMed

    Neumärker, Klaus-Jürgen

    2005-12-01

    In 1932 Franz Kramer (1887-1967) and Hans Pollnow (1902-43) described a hyperkinetic syndrome in children. Basically the symptoms described coincide with what is nowadays regarded as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Hyperkinetic syndrome. The authors of the study thus went down in the history of child and adolescent psychiatry with their eponymous Kramer-Pollnow syndrome, and have had a lasting influence on the development of the concepts relating to this topic. Both worked together at the psychiatric and neurological hospital at Berlin's Charité under its head Karl Bonhoeffer, but as they were both Jewish they were forced to emigrate after the Nazis seized power. Until now, little has been known about the further fate and careers, so this study gives the first comprehensive account of their lives, based on documents found in the archives. It also presents an overview of their work.

  3. Possible effects of the Three Gorges dam on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum on the Jiang Han plain, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, X J; Wei, F H; Yang, X X; Dai, Y H; Yu, G Y; Chen, L Y; Su, Z M

    2000-06-01

    The Three Gorges dam, under construction on the Yangtze River in China, might affect the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum on the Jiang Han plain, which is downstream of the dam. To study this possibility, the prevalence of schistosomiasis was investigated in relation to a range of malacological, hydrological and meteorological factors. The general water level in the Yangzte over a year had a marked effect on the distribution of the intermediate host (Oncomelania hupensis) and the prevalence of human schistosomiasis in that year. Disease prevalence showed significant correlations with the density of the snail hosts, the level of the water table, annual rainfall, yearly evaporation, and altitude. Once the dam is complete, the flow of water downstream will probably be maintained at a level between those currently occurring in flood and dry weather, and this may have implications for schistosome transmission. Systematic monitoring is necessary to investigate the impact of the environmental changes brought about by the dam on transmission.

  4. The “Father of Stress” Meets “Big Tobacco”: Hans Selye and the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2011-01-01

    The concept of stress remains prominent in public health and owes much to the work of Hans Selye (1907–1982), the “father of stress.” One of his main allies in this work has never been discussed as such: the tobacco industry. After an analysis of tobacco industry documents, we found that Selye received extensive tobacco industry funding and that his research on stress and health was used in litigation to defend the industry's interests and argue against a causal role for smoking in coronary heart disease and cancer. These findings have implications for assessing the scientific integrity of certain areas of stress research and for understanding corporate influences on public health research, including research on the social determinants of health. PMID:20466961

  5. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 as a Target Antigen in Han Chinese for BD Patients.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinghui; Yang, Weikang; Meng, Xiangyu; Chen, Peng; Du, Hongwu

    2015-01-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a recurrent pathema with a typical symptom of inflammation involved in many organs. Previous report indicated that the serum of Korean patients with BD stimulates membrane expression of hnRNP A2/B1 in endothelial cells. In this study, the target 35 kDa recombinant human hnRNP A2/B1 were over-expressed and purified, then sequenced with MALDI-TOF- TOF mass spectrometry. Western blotting and ELISA were applied to detect serum reactivity against hnRNP A2/B1 respectively. The results demonstrate that hnRNP A2/B1 is an autoantigen of BD in Han Chinese population. PMID:25925770

  6. Family-based association study between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene promoter VNTR polymorphism and Tourette's syndrome in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguo; Wang, Xueqin; Xu, Longqiang; Zheng, Lanlan; Ge, Yinlin; Ma, Xu

    2015-02-01

    To clarify the association of monoamine oxidase A- variable number of tandem repeat (MAOA-pVNTR) with susceptibility to Tourette's syndrome (TS) in Chinese Han population we discuss the genetic contribution of MAOA-VNTR in 141 TS patients including all their parents in Chinese Han population using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) design. Our results revealed that no significant association was found in the MAOA gene promoter VNTR polymorphism and TS in Chinese Han population (TDT = 1.515, df = 1, p > 0.05). The negative result may be mainly due to the small sample size, but we don't deny the role of gene coding serotonergic or monoaminergic structures in the etiology of TS.

  7. A TagSNP in SIRT1 Gene Confers Susceptibility to Myocardial Infarction in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Cho, Miook; Cen, Jin-ming; Cai, Meng-yun; Xu, Shun; Ma, Ze-wei; Liu, Xinguang; Yang, Xi-li; Chen, Can; Suh, Yousin; Xiong, Xing-dong

    2015-01-01

    SIRT1 exerts protective effects against endothelial cells dysfunction, inflammation and atherosclerosis, indicating an important role on myocardial infarction (MI) pathogenesis. Nonetheless, the effects of SIRT1 variants on MI risk remain poorly understood. Here we aimed to investigate the influence of SIRT1 polymorphisms on individual susceptibility to MI. Genotyping of three tagSNPs (rs7069102, rs3818292 and rs4746720) in SIRT1 gene was performed in a Chinese Han population, consisting of 287 MI cases and 654 control subjects. In a logistic regression analysis, we found that G allele of rs7069102 had increased MI risk with odds ratio (OR) of 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–2.16, Bonferroni corrected P (Pc) = 0.015] after adjustment for conventional risk factors compared to C allele. Similarly, the combined CG/GG genotypes was associated with the increased MI risk (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.14–2.35, Pc = 0.021) compared to the CC genotype. Further stratified analysis revealed a more significant association with MI risk among younger subjects (≤ 55 years old). Consistent with these results, the haplotype rs7069102G-rs3818292A-rs4746720T containing the rs7069102 G allele was also associated with the increased MI risk (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.09–1.84, Pc = 0.040). However, we did not detect any association of rs3818292 and rs4746720 with MI risk. Our study provides the first evidence that the tagSNP rs7069102 and haplotype rs7069102G-rs3818292A-rs4746720T in SIRT1 gene confer susceptibility to MI in the Chinese Han population. PMID:25706717

  8. [Polymorphisms of RHCE gene among serologic RhD negative donors of Han population in Chinese Jiangsu area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Xiao, Jian-Yu; Yu, Xin; Huang, Cheng-Yin; Yao, Gen-Hong

    2014-10-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the RHCE gene polymorphisms in Chinese Jiangsu Han blood donors with and without RHD gene among serologic RhD negative population. PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) was used to detect RHCE genotype in 337 serologic RhD negative, RHD gene positive donors. The RHD gene-specific polymorphisms were also determined by PCR-SSP in these donors. The results showed that among 337 serologic RhD negative, RHD gene positive donor 20 were RHCE*C/C, 62 RHCE*C/c, 24 RHCE*c/c, 25 RHCE*E/e, and 81 RHCE*e/e; the allele frequencies for RHCE*C and RHCE*c were 0.4811 and 0.5189, respectively; and for RHCE*E and RHCE*e 0.1179 and 0.8821. Among 231 RHD gene negative donors, 3 were RHCE*C/C, 34 RHCE*C/c, 194 RHCE*c/c, 15 RHCE*E/e, 216 RHCE*e/e; the allele frequencies for RHCE*C and RHCE*c were 0.0866 and 0.9134, respectively; and allele frequencies for RHCE*E and RHCE*e were 0.0325 and 0.9675, respectively. It is concluded that the most prevalent allele of RHCE gene was RHCE*ccee in Chinese Han Jiangsu RHD gene negative population. There is statistical difference in RHCE genotype distribution among serologic RhD negative population with and without RHD gene. PMID:25338601

  9. Genetic polymorphisms and mutation rates of 27 Y-chromosomal STRs in a Han population from Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yong-Ji; Zhang, Chu-chu; Li, Ran; Yang, Yang; Ou, Xue-Ling; Tong, Da-yue; Sun, Hong-Yu

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we collected blood samples from 1033 father-son pairs of a Han population from Guangdong Province, Southern China, of which 1007 fathers were unrelated male individuals. All together, 2040 male individuals were analyzed at 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) with Yfiler(®) Plus system. A total of 1003 different haplotypes were observed among 1007 unrelated fathers, with the overall haplotype diversity (HD) 0.999992 and discrimination capacity (DC) 0.996. The gene diversity (GD) values for the 27 Y-STR loci ranged from 0.4400 at DYS438 to 0.9597 at DYS385a/b. 11 off-ladder alleles and 25 copy number variants were detected in 1007 males. Population relationships were analyzed by comparison with 19 other worldwide populations. With 27,920 allele transfers in 1033 father-son pairs, 124 mutation events occurred, of which 118 were one-step mutations and 6 were two-step mutations. Eleven father-son pairs were found to have mutations at two loci, while one pair at three loci. The estimated locus-specific mutation rates varied from 0 to 1.74×10(-2), with an average estimated mutation rate 4.4×10(-3) (95%CI: 3.7×10(-3) to 5.3×10(-3)). Mutations were most frequently observed at three rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs), DYS576, DYS518 and DYS627. However, at DYS570, DYS449 and DYF387S1 loci, which were also described as RM Y-STRs, the mutation rates in Guangdong Han population were not as high as estimated in other populations.

  10. The Association of Mitofusion-2 Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility of Essential Hypertension in Northern Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Bei; Li, Chuang; Liu, Jielin; Liu, Ya; Sun, Dongdong; Ma, Hanying; Wen, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mitofusion-2 (Mfn2) played an important role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation, insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress, which were found to be involved in the development of hypertension. So we inferred that the Mfn2 gene may participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Mfn2 gene were associated with essential hypertension (EH) in northern Han Chinese. Methods: We genotyped 6 tagging SNPs of Mfn2 gene (rs2336384, rs2295281, rs17037564, rs2236057, rs2236058 and rs3766741) with the TaqMan assay in 626 hypertensive patients and 618 controls. Results: Logistic regression analysis indicated that CC+CA genotype of rs2336384 and AA+AG genotype of rs2236057 were significantly associated with increased risk of EH (OR=1.617, P=0.005; OR=1.418, P=0.031, respectively). GG genotype of rs2236058 and GG+CG genotype of rs3766741 were found to be significantly associated with decreased risk of EH (OR=0.662, P=0.023; OR=0.639, P=0.024).When stratified by gender, for rs2336384, rs2236057 and rs2236058, significant association was observed in males, but not in females. Haplotype analysis indicated that the CCAACC haplotype was positively correlated with EH and there was a negative correlation between ACAGGG haplotype and EH. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Mfn2 gene polymorphisms were associated with essential hypertension in northern Han Chinese population, especially in male subjects. PMID:26816493

  11. [HLA-DQA1 genes involved in genetic susceptibility to rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in southern Hans].

    PubMed

    Gu, J; Yu, B; Zhou, J

    1997-05-01

    The incidence of rheumatic fever (RF) or rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is high in southern China. We studied the genetic susceptibility of HLA-DQA1 alleles to RF or RHD with emphasis on the mechanisms 106 unrelated healthy individuals and 54 patients with RF or RHD of Chinese Han nationality in Guangdong were included. DNA extraction from various biological material using phenol/chloroform method and HLA-DQA1 genotyping by PCR-PAGE and then with silver dyeing was used to show the electrophoretic patterns. A total 6 alleles of HLA-DQA1 were found. Increased allele frequencies of DQA1*0101 (31.48%, RR = 2.89, P < 0.005, EF = 0.206) and decreased allele frequencies of DQA1*0102 (1.85%, RR = 0.106, P < 0.005, PF = 0.134) were observed. Two increased genotyping of HLA-DQA1 (DQA1*0101/0301, chi 2 = 8.84, P < 0.005 and DQA1*0101/0401, chi 2 = 6.23, P < 0.0025) and decreased genotyping of DQA1*0102/0301 (chi 2 = 11.98, P < 0.005) were also observed. These findings suggested that DQA1*0101 contribute to genetic susceptibility for RF or RHD in Guangdong hans while DQA1*0102 to its genetic resistance. Digesting the genotyping of HLA-DQA1 may provide scientific basis for finding susceptible individuals to RF or RHD. Using PCR-PAGE and silver dyeing technique, a new genotyping method for HLA-DQA1, which is simple sensitive and precise, was established and applied. PMID:10374271

  12. Positive Association Between Type 2 Diabetes Risk Alleles Near CDKAL1 and Reduced Birthweight in Chinese Han Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Fang; Xiao, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-Xin; Liu, Ying; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Xi-Lin; Zhang, Yun; Wu, Xiao-Pan; Li, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Hua-Bing; Yu, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fetal insulin hypothesis was proposed that the association between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes is principally genetically mediated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether common variants in genes CDKAL1, HHEX, ADCY5, SRR, PTPRD that predisposed to type 2 diabetes were also associated with reduced birthweight in Chinese Han population. Methods: Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs7756992/rs10946398 in CDKAL1, rs1111875 in HHEX, rs391300 in SRR, rs17584499 in PTPRD, rs1170806/rs9883204/rs4678017/rs9881942/rs7641344/rs6777397/rs6226243 in ADCY5) were genotyped in 1174 unrelated individuals born in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1921 to 1954 by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays, of which 645 had normal glucose tolerance, 181 had developed type 2 diabetes and 348 impaired glucose regulation. Associations of these 12 genetic variants with birthweight and glucose metabolism in later life were analyzed. Results: Birthweight was inversely associated with CDKAL1-rs10946398 (β = −41 g [95% confidence interval [CI]: −80, −3], P = 0.034), common variants both associated with increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism and decreased insulin secretion index later in life. After adjusting for sex, gestational weeks, parity and maternal age, the risk allele of CDKAL1-rs7756992 was associated with reduced birthweight (β = −36 g [95% CI: −72, −0.2], P = 0.048). The risk allele in SRR showed a trend toward a reduction of birthweight (P = 0.085). Conclusions: This study identified the association between type 2 diabetes risk variants in CDKAL1 and birthweight in Chinese Han individuals, and the carrier of risk allele within SRR had the trend of reduced birthweight. This demonstrates that there is a clear overlap between the genetics of type 2 diabetes and fetal growth, which proposes that lower birth weight and type 2 diabetes may be two phenotypes of one genotype. PMID:26168825

  13. [Naming and classification of steroids and human stress ulcers. Articles of historic significance published by Hans Selye 70 years ago].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Sándor; Gyires, Klára

    2015-08-30

    The name of Hans Selye is mostly known worldwide as the discoverer of stress reaction. Yet, he made numerous other seminal and clinically relevant discoveries. Namely, since he had a focused research on steroid hormones originating from the adrenal cortex that play a crucial role in stress response, he was the first who introduced about 70 years ago the first classification of steroids that is still valid nowadays. This is based on three objective facts: (a) the names of steroid groups are identical with their organ of origin (e.g., corticoids from the adrenal cortex, testoids/androgens from the testis); (b) chemical structures of the steroids are identical within a group (e.g., all corticoids have pregnane nucleus with 21 carbon atoms); and (c) the biological effects are homogenous within a group (e.g., all glucocorticoids exert catabolic effect, while androgens are anabolic). It should be emphasized that Selye also discovered in animal models the pro-inflammmatory effect of mineralocorticoids and the anti-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids, about 8-10 years before Nobel Prize was awarded to a physician for the first clinical use of adrenocorticotrop hormone and cortisone. Last, but not least, Selye was the first who recognized about 70 years ago the occurence of stress ulcers in humans, based on clinical reports on the huge increase in the number of perforated gastric anti-duodenal ulcers during bombings of London in World War II. The subsequent ulcer research by Selye`s former students and their contemporaries resulted in the recognition of anti-duodenal ulcer effect of dopamine, and the central gastroprotective actions of thyreotrop releasing hormone and endogenous opioids. Thus, Hans Selye made much more contributions to medical science and clinical practice than 'just' the discoverer of biologic stress response.

  14. Interleukin-10 promotor -592A/C polymorphism is associated with slow coronary flow in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Gui-Liang; Cai, Xing-Xing; Su, Ya-Min; Chen, Chu; Deng, Xin-Tao; Pan, Hai-Yan; Fan, Meng-Kan; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Pan, Min

    2015-01-01

    An accumulating body of evidence suggests that slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon seems to be an early-form of atherosclerosis and low-grade inflammation plays a major role in the atherosclerotic vascular processes. Interleukin (IL)-10 is a multifunctional cytokine involved in both innate and adaptive immune response. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of IL-10 gene -592A/C polymorphism with SCF in Han Chinese. 250 patients who underwent coronary angiography and had angiographically normal coronary arteries of varying coronary flow rates without any atherosclerotic lesion were enrolled in this study. Patients who had thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame counts (TFC) above the normal cutoffs were considered to have SCF and those within normal limits were considered to have normal coronary flow (NCF). The PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to assess the genotypes frequencies. The distribution of the IL-10 -592A/C genotypes (AA, AC, and CC) was 46.34%, 41.46%, and 12.20% in the NCF group, and 66.51%, 28.71%, and 4.78% in SCF subjects, respectively (P = 0.0280). The frequency of the A allele in the SCF group was significantly higher than that in the NCF group (80.86% vs. 67.07%, P = 0.0054). Compared with the CC genotype, the AA genotype had increased risk of SCF in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In SCF patients, the average serum IL-10 levels in AA genotype were statistically lower than in AC + CC genotype (P = 0.0000). These findings suggest that IL-10 -592A/C polymorphism is associated with SCF and the A allele has increased risk for SCF in Han Chinese. PMID:26097597

  15. Effect of genetic and coexisting polymorphisms on platelet response to clopidogrel in Chinese Han patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Luo, Yu; Lai, Yan; Yao, Yian; Li, Jimin; Wang, Yunkai; Zheng, S Lilly; Xu, Jianfeng; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-06-01

    Polymorphisms of CYP2C19 are associated with platelet response to clopidogrel. This study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of the previously identified polymorphisms to the response of clopidogrel in a cohort of Chinese Han patients. A total of 222 acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated with clopidogrel were enrolled from September 2012 to June 2013. Residual platelet aggregations for all patients were measured by the Verify Now P2Y12 system. Sixteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms among nine genes were genotyped including CYP2C19, ABCB1 and PON1. In this study, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 were strongly associated with higher platelet aggregation and lower platelet aggregation to clopidogrel treatment, respectively (P <0.001). Patients with CYP2C19*2 allele had a higher risk of high on-treatment platelet reactivity than non carriers (adjusted OR, 5.434; 95% CI, 1.918-15.399, P =0.01). The coexistence of CYP2B6*9 (rs8192719) and P2Y12 (rs2046934) and the coexistence of CYP2B6*1B (rs7254579) and P2Y12 (rs2046934) were also associated with poor response to clopidogrel. No significant relation of CYP2C19*3 and other polymorphisms to the platelet aggregation was found. In conclusion, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*17 coexistence of CYP2B6*9 (rs8192719) and P2Y12 (rs2046934) and coexistence of CYP2B6*1B (rs7254579) and P2Y12 (rs2046934) were identified to be associated with response to clopidogrel treatment in Chinese Han patients. PMID:27350664

  16. The CYP19A1 rs3751592 variant confers susceptibility to Alzheimer disease in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiaqiang; Yan, Huacheng; Shi, Lei; Kong, Yanying; Zhao, Yongpan; Xie, Li; Li, Jian; Huang, Mukun; Li, Jin; Zhao, Shujin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The CYP19A1 enzyme (aromatase) encoded by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A1 gene influences the final step in the biosynthesis of estrogen, which has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). It is possible that genetic polymorphisms in CYP19A1 could influence the risk of AD by altering the expression of CYP19A1. The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, which is the most significant known genetic risk factor for AD, may mask the effects of other loci. Methods: To assess the potential association of CYP19A1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of AD, we conducted a case–control study in a Chinese Han population by recruiting 463 cases, including 207 patients diagnosed with AD and 256 healthy people matched for sex and age. Results: In APOE ε4 carriers, the distributions of the G allele and the AG + GG genotype of CYP19A1 rs3751592 in patients differed significantly (P < 0.05) from those in healthy people. However, no difference was observed in the distribution of CYP19A1 rs1065778 between the patient and control populations, regardless of their APOE ε4 status. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the rs3751592 A/G polymorphism of the CYP19A1 gene was associated with the incidence of AD in a Chinese Han population, which suggests that CYP19A1 rs3751592 is a predisposing genetic factor for AD. PMID:27583919

  17. Association between Common Variants near LBX1 and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Replicated in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guoyan; Liang, Anjing; Ye, Wei; Zhang, Liangming; Sharma, Swarkar; Su, Peiqiang; Huang, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is one of the most common spinal deformities found in adolescent populations. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population indicated that three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs11190870, rs625039 and rs11598564, all located near the LBX1 gene, may be associated with AIS susceptibility [1]. This study suggests a novel AIS predisposition candidate gene and supports the hypothesis that somatosensory functional disorders could contribute to the pathogenesis of AIS. These findings warrant replication in other populations. Methodology/Principal Findings First, we conducted a case-control study consisting of 953 Chinese Han individuals from southern China (513 patients and 440 healthy controls), and the three SNPs were all found to be associated with AIS predisposition. The ORs were observed as 1.49 (95% CI 1.23–1.80, P = 5.09E-5), 1.70 (95% CI 1.42–2.04, P = 1.17E-8) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.27–1.83, P = 5.54E-6) for rs625039, rs11190870 and rs11598564, respectively. Second, a case-only study including a subgroup of AIS patients (N = 234) was performed to determine the effects of these variants on the severity of the condition. However, we did not find any association between these variants and the severity of curvature. Conclusion This study shows that the genetic variants near the LBX1 gene are associated with AIS susceptibility in Chinese Han population. It successfully replicates the results of the GWAS, which was performed in a Japanese population. PMID:23308168

  18. [Naming and classification of steroids and human stress ulcers. Articles of historic significance published by Hans Selye 70 years ago].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Sándor; Gyires, Klára

    2015-08-30

    The name of Hans Selye is mostly known worldwide as the discoverer of stress reaction. Yet, he made numerous other seminal and clinically relevant discoveries. Namely, since he had a focused research on steroid hormones originating from the adrenal cortex that play a crucial role in stress response, he was the first who introduced about 70 years ago the first classification of steroids that is still valid nowadays. This is based on three objective facts: (a) the names of steroid groups are identical with their organ of origin (e.g., corticoids from the adrenal cortex, testoids/androgens from the testis); (b) chemical structures of the steroids are identical within a group (e.g., all corticoids have pregnane nucleus with 21 carbon atoms); and (c) the biological effects are homogenous within a group (e.g., all glucocorticoids exert catabolic effect, while androgens are anabolic). It should be emphasized that Selye also discovered in animal models the pro-inflammmatory effect of mineralocorticoids and the anti-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids, about 8-10 years before Nobel Prize was awarded to a physician for the first clinical use of adrenocorticotrop hormone and cortisone. Last, but not least, Selye was the first who recognized about 70 years ago the occurence of stress ulcers in humans, based on clinical reports on the huge increase in the number of perforated gastric anti-duodenal ulcers during bombings of London in World War II. The subsequent ulcer research by Selye`s former students and their contemporaries resulted in the recognition of anti-duodenal ulcer effect of dopamine, and the central gastroprotective actions of thyreotrop releasing hormone and endogenous opioids. Thus, Hans Selye made much more contributions to medical science and clinical practice than 'just' the discoverer of biologic stress response. PMID:26299832

  19. The analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and variants for in vitro fertilization failure in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Mao, Genhong; Lu, Ping; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Wu-Liang; Tao, Shi-Bo; Li, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and variants with in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. A retrospective, comparative study of 260 fresh IVF cycles in a Han Chinese population was performed from July 2011 to April 2014. Seventy-three couples had low fertilization rates (≤30%) or total fertilization failure, and 187 controls with normal fertilization were included. Human sperm mtDNA haplogroups and variants were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and direct sequencing. One unreported point variant, A15397G, and two novel deletions at positions 8270-8278 and 8276-8284 were found in this study. A homozygous variant, G9053A in MT-ATP6, was detected in 4 of the 73 cases with fertilization failure, whereas this substitution was not detected in the control group (p < 0.01). The frequency of the point 10397 homozygous variant in MT-ND3 in the IVF failure group was markedly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this study showed that the frequencies of point 8701 and 8943 heterozygous variants in MT-ATP6 in the IVF failure group were also markedly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the frequency of haplogroup Z was markedly higher in the IVF failure group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that MT-ATP6 variants might be possible causes of IVF failure, but the 10397 homozygous variant in MT-ND3 might help decrease the risk of developing IVF failure. Furthermore, this study indicated that men with haplogroup Z might inherit a higher risk of IVF failure in the Han Chinese population.

  20. Association between PLA2G12A Polymorphisms and Schizophrenia in a Han Chinese Population from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiping; Yu, Qiong; Wu, Yanhua; Shi, Jieping; Rao, Wenwang; You, Yueyue; Yu, Yaqin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the phospholipase A2 (PLA2), group XIIA gene (PLA2G12A) and schizophrenia. Methods This study included 1,063 schizophrenia patients and 1,103 healthy controls from a Han Chinese Population in Northeast China. Four tagSNPs (rs11728699 in intron 1, synonymous rs2285714 in exon 3, rs3087494 in the 3’ UTR, and rs7694620 in the downstream region) in PLA2G12A were selected, and they were genotyped by the MALDI-TOF-MS technology. The Chi-square (χ2) test and haplotype analysis were performed to analyze the association of PLA2G12A SNPs and schizophrenia using the software packages SPSS 16.0 and Haploview 4.2. Results Among the four tagSNPs, only SNP rs3087494 in the 3’ UTR of PLA2G12A showed significant differences in both allele frequencies (χ2 = 20.136, P<0.001) compared to healthy controls. The minor allele G of SNP rs3087494 is potentially a predictive factor for schizophrenia (OR = 0.753, 95% CI: 0.665–0.882). The frequency distribution of haplotypes consisting of specific alleles of two SNPs (rs7694620-rs3087494 or rs3087494-rs2285714), three SNPs (rs7694620-rs3087494-rs2285714 or rs3087494-rs2285714-rs11728699), or all four SNPs (rs7694620-rs3087494-rs2285714-rs11728699) was significantly different between schizophrenia patients and control subjects (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that PLA2G12A SNPs or haplotypes might influence the susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population from Northeast China. PMID:27434078

  1. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  3. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  4. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  5. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  6. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  7. HLA-DQA1, -DQB1 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in Hans of northern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Wei Min; Sun, Ning Ling

    2005-07-01

    Autoimmune mechanisms are likely to participate in the pathogenesis of at least a subgroup of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC), and components of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may serve as markers for the propensity to develop immune-mediated myocardial damage. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, especially HLA-DQ genes, which are highly polymorphic, play an important role in the activation of immune responses and thus control the predisposition to, or protection from, IDC. This study was conducted to investigate the association of HLA-DQA1, -DQB1 allele polymorphisms with an autoantibody against the myocardial mitochondria ADP/ATP carrier, and to explore susceptibility to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) among the Han ethnic group in northern China and the immunological mechanisms and hereditary susceptibility to IDC. Polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) techniques were used to analyze polymorphisms of the second exon of HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles among 68 unrelated IDC patients, 4 probands of IDC pedigrees, and 100 healthy controls, all of Han nationality and having lived in northern China for a long time. Following echocardiography examination the IDC subjects were stratified according to ejection fraction (EF) values. Those with EF values higher than 50% were placed in subgroup 1, subgroup 2 included the patients with an EF value of 15-35%, and subgroup 3 consisted of those whose EF values were less than 15%. An autoantibody against the myocardial mitochondria ADP/ATP carrier was examined using immunoblot analysis. The frequencies of HLA-DQA1*0501 and HLA-DQB1*0303 were 0.3889 and 0.1806 in the IDC group, significantly higher than those of the healthy controls (0.0900 and 0.0364 respectively, both P < 0.05). The OR was 5.20 (95% CI: 3.60-8.50) and 4.85 (95% CI: 2.56-9.39) respectively. Further analysis of the three subgroups showed a higher frequency of HLA-DQA1*0501 among patients whose EF was less

  8. Learning Pathways, Learning Progression--The Process Matters: An Interview with Prof. Hans Niedderer about His Work as a Physics Education Researcher in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Hans Niedderer has contributed a lot to German physics education research. His work includes quantitative and qualitative studies about topics like the learning of physics concepts or the history and philosophy of science in science teaching, he has worked on theoretical issues as well as on textbooks. But it is not only his work that is…

  9. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A and C alleles was 79.0% and 21.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 87.3% and 12.7% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of AA, AC and CC genotypes was 63.2%, 31.4% and 5.2% in Bai Ku Yao, and 75.6%, 23.2% and 1.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels as compared with the C allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, LDL-C and ApoB in Bai Ku Yao but not in Han were correlated with genotypes in females but not in males (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and

  10. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  11. Validation of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Variants Identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies in Northern Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Ge, Si-Qi; Wang, An-Xin; Yu, Xin-Wei; Alzain, Mohamed Ali; Veronica, Andrea Katherine; Qiu, Jing; Song, Man-Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Hao; Fang, Hong-Hong; Gao, Qing; Wang, You-Xin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: More than 60 genetic susceptibility loci associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been established in populations of Asian and European ancestry. Given ethnic differences and environmental factors, validation of the effects of genetic risk variants with reported associations identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWASs) is essential. The study aims at evaluating the associations of T2DM with 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 19 candidate genes derived from GWASs in a northern Han Chinese population. Method: In this case-control study, 461 T2DM-diagnosed patients and 434 controls were recruited at the Jidong oil field hospital (Hebei, China) from January 2009 to October 2013. A cumulative genetic risk score (cGRS) was calculated by summation of the number of risk alleles, and a weight GRS (wGRS) was calculated as the sum of risk alleles at each locus multiplied by their effect sizes for T2DM, using the independent variants selected. Result: The allelic frequency of the “A” allele at rs17106184 (Fas-associated factor 1, FAF1) was significantly higher in the T2DM patients than that of the healthy controls (11.7% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.001). Individuals in the highestquartile of wGRS had an over three-fold increased risk for developing T2DM compared with those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.92–4.88, p < 0.001) adjusted for age, sex, BMI, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The results were similar when analyzed with the cGRS. Conclusions: We confirmed the association between rs17106184 (FAF1) and T2DM in a northern Han Chinese population. The GRS calculated based on T2DM susceptibility variants may be a useful tool for predicting the T2DM susceptibility. PMID:27589775

  12. The Effects of Weir Construction on the Hydrodynamics and Water Quality of South Han River in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Choi, I.; Choi, J.

    2012-12-01

    In Korea, The 4 Major Rivers Restoration Project has been conducted in recent years. The large-scale river engineering project dredged sediments and installed three multi-functional weirs in the South Han River, which is expected to change hydrodynamics and water quality of the river. The impoundment restricts water flow of the river and results in the settlement of particulate material on the river bed. The longer the hydraulic residence time taken on the upward weir, the greater the potential for incoming nutrients and sediments to settle on the river bed. The accumulated pollutants, caused by settling of particulate material, impart a consistent nutrient loading to the overlying water column. The movement of nutrients through the sediment-water interface has essential influence on the nutrient quality of overlying water. Therefore, It is important to investigate how the environmental change occurred by the project has impacts on the hydrodynamics and water quality of the river. To represent temporal and spatial variations in the hydrodynamics of South Han River with weir installation, a three-dimensional time variable model, Generalized, Longitudinal-Lateral-Vertical Hydrodynamic and Transport (GLLVHT) was selected. The GLLVHT model is imbedded within the Generalized Environmental Modeling System for Surface waters (GEMSS). The GEMSS model is designed in a modular fashion for easy coupling of existing as well as other user-defined water quality models. The computational grid of the three-dimensional model was developed using the GIS themes of shorelines and sounding depths. The horizontal grid is composed of 642 active cells at the surface layer with spacing varies from 83 to 380 m. There are 31 vertical layers with uniform thickness of 1 m resolution. The number of vertical layers in each horizontal column was determined from the depth of the river. Overall, study area is divided into 2061 grid elements. In addition, information related with three multi

  13. [Correlation between the genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein M with the susceptibility to rheumatic diseases of Chinese Han populastion in Lanzhou].

    PubMed

    Li, Meiyong; Guo, Xinling; Li, Qiannan; You, Chongge

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein M (ApoM) and the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) among Chinese Han population in Lanzhou. Methods Primers for the two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites (rs805296 and rs805297) in ApoM gene were designed and their genotyping methods of polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melting (PCR-HRM) assay were established. Case-control studies were performed among the 599 cases of RA, 194 cases of SLE, 179 cases of AS and 273 matched healthy controls to analyze the correlations between the two SNPs and the susceptibility to rheumatic diseases. Results The genotype frequencies of rs805296 were AA 87.0%, AG 12.7%, GG 0.3% in RA cases, AA 84.5%, AG 15.0%, GG 0.5% in SLE cases, AA 91.6%, AG 7.3%, GG 1.1% in AS cases, AA 85.0%, AG 15.0%, GG 0% in healthy controls. The ones of rs805297 were GG 38.2%, GT 51.8%, TT 10.0% in RA cases, GG 44.3%, GT 45.4%, TT 10.3% in SLE cases, GG 37.4%, GT 47.5%, TT 15.1% in AS cases, GG 40.7%, GT 46.1%, TT 13.2% in healthy controls. Statistical analyses showed that only the genotype distribution of rs805296 was significantly different between the AS cases and the healthy controls. Under the dominant model, the G allele carriers of rs805296 (AG heterozygote and GG homozygote) were found to significantly decrease the risk for AS development. Conclusion The established PCR-HRM genotyping assays in the present study can successfully achieve the molecular diagnosis of the two SNPs sites (rs805296 and rs805297) from clinical samples, and the study found a significant association between the SNP of rs805296 and the susceptibility to AS among Chinese Han population in Lanzhou. PMID:27412944

  14. The NVL gene confers risk for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Chen, Jianhua; He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Wen, Zujia; Song, Zhijian; Xu, Yifeng; Shi, Yongyong

    2015-10-01

    NVL (nuclear VCP (valosin containing protein)/p97-Like), a member of the AAA-ATPase (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) family, encodes a novel hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase)-interacting protein NVL2 which is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Previous researches have reported the impacts of telomerase activity on mental illness and the potential association between NVL and major depressive disorder. To validate the susceptibility of NVL to major depressive disorder, and to investigate the overlapping risk conferred by NVL for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, we analyzed 9 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) using TaqMan® technology, in 1045 major depressive disorder patients, 1235 schizophrenia patients and 1235 normal controls of Han Chinese origin. We found that rs10916583 (P(allele) = 0.020, P(genotype) = 0.028, OR = 1.156) and rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 0.014, P(genotype) = 0.007, OR = 0.718) were associated with major depressive disorder, while rs10916583 (adjusted P(allele) = 1.08E-02, OR = 1.213), rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 7.40E-06, adjusted P(genotype) = 8.07E-05, OR = 0.598) and rs10799541 (adjusted P(allele) = 8.10E-03, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.049, OR= 0.826) showed statistically significant association with schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Furthermore, rs10916583 (adjusted P(allele) = 9.00E-03, adjusted P(genotype) = 3.15E-02, OR = 1.187) and rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 8.92E-06, adjusted P(genotype) = 8.84E-05, OR = 0.653) remained strongly associated with the analysis of combined cases of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Our results indicated that the NVL gene may contain overlapping common genetic risk factors for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. The roles of NVL in telomerase biogenesis were also highlighted in psychiatric pathogenesis. The study on

  15. Genetic polymorphism in hOGG1 is associated with triple-negative breast cancer risk in Chinese Han women.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Xia, Kai; Rong, Hui; Chen, Xiaoxiang

    2013-10-01

    8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG), a typical product of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, can cause a G-T transversion during DNA replication if it is not removed. Human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), a key DNA repair gene, recognizes and excises 8-OHdG from damaged DNA accurately; however, a c.977C>G (Ser326Cys) polymorphism in hOGG1 can inhibit the gene's ability to remove 8-OHdG. The aim of present study was to investigate the association between the c.977C>G polymorphism in hOGG1 and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese Han women. We used high-resolution melting and sequencing to analyze the genotypes of 630 patients with sporadic breast cancer patients and 777 healthy controls. We also performed risk-stratified subgroup analyses to determine the association between the c.977C>G polymorphism and other characteristics of breast cancer subgroups. Breast cancer patients and healthy controls did not have significantly different of c.977C/G genotypes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.49, p = 0.57) and c.977G/G genotypes (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.97-1.84, p = 0.09). However, the c.977G/G genotype was especially prevalent in breast cancer patients who were younger than 55 years (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.05-2.39, p = 0.04), were premenopausal status (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.14-3.06, p = 0.02), had triple-negative disease (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.06-4.29, p = 0.04), or p53-positive disease (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.14-2.12, p = 0.005). These findings suggest that the c.977C>G polymorphism in hOGG1 is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in Chinese Han women who are younger than 55 years, premenopausal, triple-negative, or p53-positive subgroups.

  16. Significant Association Between CAV1 Variant rs3807989 on 7p31 and Atrial Fibrillation in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shanshan; Wang, Chuchu; Wang, Xiaojing; Xu, Chengqi; Wu, Manman; Wang, Pengxia; Tu, Xin; Wang, Qing K

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in European ancestry populations revealed several genomic loci for atrial fibrillation (AF). We previously replicated the 4q25 locus (PITX2) and 16q22 locus (ZFHX3) in the Chinese population, but not the KCNN3 locus on 1q21. With single-nucleotide polymorphism rs3807989 in CAV1 encoding caveolin-1, however, controversial results were reported in 2 Chinese replication studies. Methods and Results Six remaining AF genetic loci from GWAS, including rs3807989/CAV1, rs593479/PRRX1, rs6479562/C9orf3, rs10824026/SYNPO2L, rs1152591/SYNE2, and rs7164883/HCN4, were analyzed in a Chinese Han population with 941 cases and 562 controls. Only rs3807989 showed significant association with AF (Padj=4.77×10−5), and the finding was replicated in 2 other independent populations with 709 cases and 2175 controls, 463 cases and 644 controls, and the combined population with a total of 2113 cases and 3381 controls (Padj=2.20×10−9; odds ratio [OR]=1.34 for major allele G). Meta-analysis, together with data from previous reports in Chinese and Japanese populations, also showed a significant association between rs3807989 and AF (P=3.40×10−4; OR=1.24 for allele G). We also found that rs3807989 showed a significant association with lone AF in 3 independent populations and in the combined population (Padj=3.85×10−8; OR=1.43 for major allele G). Conclusions The data in this study revealed a significant association between rs3807989 and AF in the Chinese Han population. Together with the findings that caveolin-1 interacts with potassium channels Kir2.1, KCNH2, and HCN4 and sodium channels Nav1.5 and Nav1.8, CAV1 becomes a strong candidate susceptibility gene for AF across different ethnic populations. This study is the first to show a significant association between rs3807989 and lone AF. PMID:25953654

  17. Association of Metabolic Factors with Symptomatic Hand Osteoarthritis in the Chinese Han Population Aged 40 Years and above

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Shi, Lei; Xue, Qing-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relationship between hand osteoarthritis (HOA) and systemic metabolic factors is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of systemic metabolic factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis in symptomatic patients with HOA and the association between these systemic metabolic factors and symptomatic HOA in the Chinese Han population aged 40 years and above. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on Chinese Han population aged 40 years and above in six centers in China. The sociodemographic features, lifestyle of the participants, and medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis were collected. The cases with hand symptoms underwent anteroposterior radiographic examination of both hands to obtain a diagnosis. The correlations between systemic metabolic factors and symptomatic HOA were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis. Results: Overweight (39.3% vs. 30.5%, P < 0.001), hypertension (34.7% vs. 18.6%, P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (11.2% vs. 3.3%, P < 0.001), and atherosclerosis (19.8% vs. 8.3%, P < 0.001) were more prevalent in symptomatic patients with HOA than those in the population without HOA. Overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.65, P = 0.005), hypertension (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.18–1.83, P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.74–3.45, P < 0.001) were associated with a higher prevalence of symptomatic HOA and the OR of symptomatic HOA significantly increased with the accumulated number of the three metabolic factors. Symptomatic HOA was associated with a higher prevalence of atherosclerosis (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.05–1.85, P = 0.023). Conclusions: Overweight, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were associated with a higher prevalence of HOA, showing cumulative effects. Atherosclerosis risk should be assessed in patients with HOA. PMID:27647188

  18. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ≥ 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ≥ 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ≥ 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID

  19. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene E670G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in regulating plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However, the association of E670G (rs505151) polymorphism in the PCSK9 gene and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PCSK9 E670G polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 649 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotypes of the PCSK9 E670G polymorphism were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G allele was 2.00% in Bai Ku Yao and 4.80% in Han (P < 0.01). There was significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between Bai Ku Yao and Han (P < 0.01); between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C subgroups (> 3.20 mmol/L, P < 0.01) in Bai Ku Yao; and between normal HDL-C (≥ 0.91 mmol/L) and low HDL-C (< 0.91 mmol/L, P < 0.05), between normal ApoAI (≥ 1.00 g/L) and low ApoAI (< 1.00 g/L, P < 0.05), or between normal ApoAI/ApoB ratio (≥ 1.00) and low ApoAI/ApoB ratio (< 1.00, P < 0.01) subgroups in Han. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers. The G allele carriers in Han had higher serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the G allele noncarriers in males (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the G allele carriers had lower serum ApoB levels and higher the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the G allele noncarriers in females (P < 0.05 for all). Serum HDL-C and Apo

  20. Effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ruixing; Li, Hui; Wu, Jinzhen; Lin, Weixiong; Yang, Dezhai; Pan, Shangling; Huang, Jiandong; Long, Xiuyan

    2007-12-01

    Han is the largest group and Zhuang is the largest minority among the 56 ethnic groups in China. Geographically and linguistically, Zhuang can be classified into 43 ethnic subgroups, in which Hei Yi Zhuang is proved to be the most conservative subgroup. Little is known about the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure levels in this population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare the effects of alcohol consumption and other lifestyle behaviors on blood pressure levels for the middle-aged and elderly in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. A total of 657 subjects of Hei Yi Zhuang aged 40 and older were surveyed by a stratified randomized cluster sampling. Information on demography, diet, and other lifestyle factors was collected by standard questionnaires. Anthropometric parameters and serum lipid levels were also obtained in all subjects. The results were compared with those in 520 participants of Han Chinese from the same region. The levels of systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in Hei Yi Zhuang were higher than those in Han (P < .01-.001). Hypertension was positively correlated with sex (male), age, physical activity, alcohol consumption, serum triglyceride levels, and total energy, total fat, and salt intakes, and negatively associated with educational level in Hei Yi Zhuang (P < .05-.001), whereas positively correlated with sex (male), age, physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, waist circumference, serum total cholesterol levels, and total energy, total fat, and salt intakes, and negatively associated with educational level in Han (P < .05-.001). The difference in blood pressure levels between the two ethnic groups might result from different dietary habit, lifestyle, sodium intake, educational level, physical activity, and even genetic factors.

  1. Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) Variants (Vs) a possible link between Heroin-associated Nephropathy (HAN) and HIV-associated Nephropathy (HIVAN)

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiqian; Rao, T. K. S.; Chander, Praveen N.; Skorecki, Karl; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2015-01-01

    In 1970s, Heroin-associated Nephropathy (HAN), one form of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), was a predominant cause of End-stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) in African-Americans (AAs). In 1980s, with the surge of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in AAs, HAN more or less disappeared, and the incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus associated Nephropathy (HIVAN) markedly increased. Recent studies in AAs have identified APOL1 variants (Vs) as a major risk factor for the development and progression of non-diabetic kidney diseases including idiopathic FSGS and hypertension-attributed nephrosclerosis. These observations have also offered partial insights into the mechanisms of development, and higher rate of occurrence of both HAN and HIVAN in AAs. AAs with APOL1Vs develop idiopathic FSGS at four-fold higher rate compared to European Americans (EAs). Similarly, HIV infected AAs with APOL1Vs (if not on antiviral therapy), risk a 50% (10-fold greater) chance of developing HIVAN. It has been suggested that APOL1Vs expression may render podocytes more vulnerable to various types of injury: bacterial, viral, and others. However, in addition to genetic variants, additional factors such as persistence of a second hit may determine the nature and severity of glomerular disease. In patients with HAN, heroin or contaminants may have been the offending second insult(s) which caused renal disease in susceptible AA patients. In the 80's, since heroin-induced second hit was neither consistent nor sustained (depending on drug availability in the street), the disease was masked or replaced HIV infected patients (especially in untreated subjects), by an overwhelming second hit by the virus which was both intense as well as persistent. It appears that APOL1Vs may be one of the links between the disappearance of HAN and emergence of HIVAN in AA patients. PMID:26106375

  2. Variants of autophagy-related gene 5 are associated with neuromyelitis optica in the Southern Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ping-Ping; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhuang, Jing-Cong; Liu, Qi-Bing; Zhao, Gui-Xian; Li, Zhen-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are autoimmune demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. The discovery of NMO immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG) antibody has improved the clinical definition of NMO. Recently, the autophagy-related genes (ATGs) have been proved to be associated with several autoimmune and inflammation diseases. Increased T cell expression of ATG5 may be correlated with the pathogenesis of inflammatory demyelination in MS. However, the association of ATG5 variants with MS and NMO patients has not been well studied. In this study, five ATG5 variants were genotyped in 144 MS patients, 109 NMO patients and 288 controls in the Han Chinese population. In the cohort of NMO patients, we observed that the CC genotype of rs548234 increased susceptibility to NMO (p = 0.016), while the allele T of rs548234 (p = 0.003) and the allele A of rs6937876 (p = 0.009) acted as protective factors for NMO-IgG positive NMO patients. However, no association was found between ATG5 variants and MS patients. These results indicated that ATG5 variants are associated with NMO but not MS patients, which may provide a clue for further clarifying the autoimmune mechanisms of autophagy-related pathogenesis in NMO.

  3. Nature in economic theories: Hans Immler traces recognition of the environment - and its neglect - in various classics

    SciTech Connect

    Karsten, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Labor and capital are usually considered as the primary factors of production, the costs of which are of utmost importance. In contrast, nature (including all natural resources), as the essential third factor, is disregarded. She is generally assumed to be always available, self-regenerating, and to be exploited without long-term costs. In other words, she is more or less viewed as a constant. Hans Immler's new treatise represents an important contribution in that he emphasized the role and function of the natural environment, and its neglect, in the formulation of theories of value and their long-term consequences on contemporary economic theories and on the person and society. This essay traces Immler's evaluation with extensive quotations - especially with regard to Physiocracy and the classical economists - of nature's role and function, or their neglect, in the formulation of theories of value through the writings of Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, William Petty, John Locke, Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Karl Marx, and others, - all dealt with in Part 1 of his book - and Francois Quesnay and the Physiocrats - the topic of Part 2.

  4. [The history of the Science of Stress: From Hans Selye to the discovery of anti-inflammatory medication].

    PubMed

    Lupien, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    To make an important scientific discovery that will make history takes a lot of determination, creativity, perseverance and luck! The story behind the discovery of stress and its biological basis is a fascinating one that places Dr. Hans Selye in the forefront. Dr. Selye was a great scientist that taught at the Université de Montréal from 1945 to his death in 1982. Dr. Selye was curious and hard working. He was determined to understand how various disorders can lead to similar physical manifestations, and this interest led him to discover the role of the adrenal glands involved in the stress response and to better understand the effects of glucocorticoids on the body. Today, the science of stress is based on the foundations established by Dr. Selye. In celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal, and the special issue of the Revue Santé Mentale au Québec, this historical review summarizes the discoveries of this great scientist who worked in Quebec.

  5. [Vegetation succession on retired croplands during their recovery processes in Dan-Han River Watershed of Shaanxi Province, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Li, Zhan-Bin; Li, Peng

    2012-02-01

    Taking naturally recovering plant communities on the croplands having been retired for different years and distributed on the southern and northern slopes in the Dan-Han River watershed of Shaanxi Province as test objects, an investigation was conducted on their community species composition, diversity characteristics, and community polar ordination. In the study area, the vegetation succession process on the retired croplands followed the stages of annual herb community-->perennial herb community-->shrub-herb community-->arbor-shrub-herb community. The formation period for perennial herb community, shrub-herb community, and arbor-shrub-herb community was about 2-5 a, 7-10 a, and more than 30 a respectively. On the southern and northern slopes, dif ferent types of retired croplands had the same vegetation succession stages, and had small discrepancies in species diversity indices. With increasing retired years, the species diversity indices on the southern slope increased after an initial decrease, while those on the northern slope had a fluctuated increase first, and slightly decreased by the end of the 30 a.

  6. Identification and Classification of New Transcripts in Dorper and Small-Tailed Han Sheep Skeletal Muscle Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tianle; Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Zhaohua; Ji, Zhibin; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Chunlan

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput mRNA sequencing enables the discovery of new transcripts and additional parts of incompletely annotated transcripts. Compared with the human and cow genomes, the reference annotation level of the sheep genome is still low. An investigation of new transcripts in sheep skeletal muscle will improve our understanding of muscle development. Therefore, applying high-throughput sequencing, two cDNA libraries from the biceps brachii of small-tailed Han sheep and Dorper sheep were constructed, and whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to determine the unknown transcript catalogue of this tissue. In this study, 40,129 transcripts were finally mapped to the sheep genome. Among them, 3,467 transcripts were determined to be unannotated in the current reference sheep genome and were defined as new transcripts. Based on protein-coding capacity prediction and comparative analysis of sequence similarity, 246 transcripts were classified as portions of unannotated genes or incompletely annotated genes. Another 1,520 transcripts were predicted with high confidence to be long non-coding RNAs. Our analysis also revealed 334 new transcripts that displayed specific expression in ruminants and uncovered a number of new transcripts without intergenus homology but with specific expression in sheep skeletal muscle. The results confirmed a complex transcript pattern of coding and non-coding RNA in sheep skeletal muscle. This study provided important information concerning the sheep genome and transcriptome annotation, which could provide a basis for further study. PMID:27434270

  7. Polycystic kidney disease in Han:SPRD Cy rats is associated with elevated expression and mislocalization of SamCystin

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Shizuko; Morita, Miwa; Kugita, Masanori; Yoshihara, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Calvet, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) in Han:SPRD Cy rats is caused by a missense mutation in Anks6 (also called Pkdr1), leading to an R823W substitution in SamCystin, a protein that contains ankyrin repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM). The cellular function of SamCystin and the role of the Cy (R823W) mutation in cyst formation are unknown. In normal SPRD rats, SamCystin was found to be expressed in proximal tubules and glomeruli; protein expression was highest at 7 days of age and declined by ∼50–60% at 45–84 days of age. In Cy/+ and Cy/Cy kidneys, expression of SamCystin was lower than in +/+ kidneys at 3 and 7 days but became elevated at 21 days. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SamCystin was distributed on the brush border of proximal tubules in normal rat kidneys. In Cy/+ kidneys, there were robust SamCystin staining in cyst-lining epithelial cells and loss of apical localization, and increased number of PCNA-positive cells in cyst-lining epithelia. Verapamil, an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, accelerated PKD progression in this model and caused a further increase in the expression and abnormal distribution of SamCystin. We conclude that aberrant expression and mislocalization of R823W SamCystin lead to increased cell proliferation and renal cyst formation. PMID:20719982

  8. Developmental validation of an X-Insertion/Deletion polymorphism panel and application in HAN population of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Sun, Kuan; Bian, Yingnan; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Zheng; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    InDels are short-length polymorphisms characterized by low mutation rates, high inter-population diversity, short amplicon strategy and simplicity of laboratory analysis. This work describes the developmental validation of an X-InDels panel amplifying 18 bi-allelic markers and Amelogenin in one single PCR system. Developmental validation indicated that this novel panel was reproducible, accurate, sensitive and robust for forensic application. Sensitivity testing of the panel was such that a full profile was obtainable even with 125 pg of human DNA with intra-locus balance above 70%. Specificity testing was demonstrated by the lack of cross-reactivity with a variety of commonly encountered animal species and microorganisms. For the stability testing in cases of PCR inhibition, full profiles have been obtained with hematin (≤1000 μM) and humic acid (≤150 ng/μL). For the forensic investigation of the 18 X-InDels in the HAN population of China, no locus deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium. Since they are independent from each other, the CDPfemale was 0.999999726 and CDPmale was 0.999934223. The forensic parameters suggested that this X-Indel panel is polymorphic and informative, which provides valuable X-linked information for deficient relationship cases where autosomal markers are uninformative. PMID:26655948

  9. Identification and characterization of the highly polymorphic locus D14S739 in the Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chengchen; Zhang, Yaqi; Zhou, Yueqin; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Zhiping; Tang, Qiqun; Shen, Yiwen; Xie, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Aim To systemically select and evaluate short tandem repeats (STRs) on the chromosome 14 and obtain new STR loci as expanded genotyping markers for forensic application. Methods STRs on the chromosome 14 were filtered from Tandem Repeats Database and further selected based on their positions on the chromosome, repeat patterns of the core sequences, sequence homology of the flanking regions, and suitability of flanking regions in primer design. The STR locus with the highest heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC) was selected for further analysis of genetic polymorphism, forensic parameters, and the core sequence. Results Among 26 STR loci selected as candidates, D14S739 had the highest heterozygosity (0.8691) and PIC (0.8432), and showed no deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. 14 alleles were observed, ranging in size from 21 to 34 tetranucleotide units in the core region of (GATA)9-18 (GACA)7-12 GACG (GACA)2 GATA. Paternity testing showed no mutations. Conclusion D14S739 is a highly informative STR locus and could be a suitable genetic marker for forensic applications in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26526885

  10. Spirosoma fluminis sp. nov., a Gamma-Radiation Resistant Bacterium Isolated from Sediment of the Han River in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon Hee; Park, Su Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Jung, Hee-Young

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-negative, long rod-shaped, and yellowish bacterium, designated as strain 15J17T(T), was isolated from sediment of the Han River in South Korea after exposure to 3 kGy of gamma radiation. The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive and showed resistance to gamma radiation-D10 value (i.e., the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by 10-fold) of >4 kGy. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Spirosoma and showed moderate degrees of sequence similarity with related species (90.6-93.5 %). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the strain contained summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:1 ω5c, C16:0, C18:0, and C15:0 iso as the major fatty acids; phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, and an unidentified polar lipid as the major polar lipids; and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of the new strain was 48.3 mol%. Based on these data, type strain 15J17T(T) (=KCTC 52198(T) = JCM 31409(T)) should be classified as representing a new species, for which we propose the name Spirosoma fluminis sp. nov.

  11. Genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms with Parkinson’s disease susceptibility in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi; Wu, Yuquan; Li, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) gene promoter region polymorphisms with Parkinson’s disease (PD) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. Methods: The genotyping of COX2 gene polymorphisms was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 122 patients with PD and 120 healthy persons. The association strength of gene polymorphism with disease was measured by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) calculated using χ2 test which also evaluated the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of gene polymorphism in controls. The linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were also analyzed as evidence in the analysis of association. Results: On condition that the genotypes distributions of COX2 -1290A>G, -1195G>A, -765G>C in the control group all conformed to HWE, however, only the homozygous genotype AA of -1195G>A polymorphism showed an association with PD (OR=0.432, 95% CI=0.196-0.950). In addition, in haplotype analysis, G-A-C haplotype frequency in cases was significantly lower than the controls, compared with the common haplotype A-G-G (P=0.031, OR=0.375, 95% CI=0.149-0.940). Conclusions: COX2 -1195G>A polymorphism might play a protective role in the onset of PD and G-A-C haplotype in this three promoter region polymorphisms also showed a negative association. PMID:26722563

  12. Identification and Classification of New Transcripts in Dorper and Small-Tailed Han Sheep Skeletal Muscle Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Tianle; Wang, Guizhi; Wang, Jianmin; Liu, Zhaohua; Ji, Zhibin; Hou, Lei; Zhang, Chunlan

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput mRNA sequencing enables the discovery of new transcripts and additional parts of incompletely annotated transcripts. Compared with the human and cow genomes, the reference annotation level of the sheep genome is still low. An investigation of new transcripts in sheep skeletal muscle will improve our understanding of muscle development. Therefore, applying high-throughput sequencing, two cDNA libraries from the biceps brachii of small-tailed Han sheep and Dorper sheep were constructed, and whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to determine the unknown transcript catalogue of this tissue. In this study, 40,129 transcripts were finally mapped to the sheep genome. Among them, 3,467 transcripts were determined to be unannotated in the current reference sheep genome and were defined as new transcripts. Based on protein-coding capacity prediction and comparative analysis of sequence similarity, 246 transcripts were classified as portions of unannotated genes or incompletely annotated genes. Another 1,520 transcripts were predicted with high confidence to be long non-coding RNAs. Our analysis also revealed 334 new transcripts that displayed specific expression in ruminants and uncovered a number of new transcripts without intergenus homology but with specific expression in sheep skeletal muscle. The results confirmed a complex transcript pattern of coding and non-coding RNA in sheep skeletal muscle. This study provided important information concerning the sheep genome and transcriptome annotation, which could provide a basis for further study. PMID:27434270

  13. Association between GABAA Receptor Subunit Gene Cluster and Zolpidem-Induced Complex Sleep Behaviors in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Lin, Hung-Hsun; Cheng, Kuang-hung; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and elucidate the role of GABAA receptor subunits, specifically the 2 genetic markers at the GABAA α1 and GABAA α6 receptors, in zolpidem-induced complex sleep behaviors (CSBs). Design: Genetic association study. Setting: Kaohsiung Medical University-affiliated hospitals, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Patients: 30 zolpidem-induced CSB subjects and 37 controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The χ2 test demonstrated an association between the A15G variant at the GABAA α1 receptor subunit gene and zolpidem-induced CSBs (P = 0.007). The adjusted odds ratio of the GABAA α1 receptor subunit genotype for the risk of zolpidem-induced CSBs was approximately 10 (OR = 9.99, 95% CI = 1.82, 74.87; P = 0.013). Conclusions: The finding reveals that the A15G variant at the GABAA α1 receptor subunit gene confers a high risk of zolpidem-induced CSBs and may be considered in clinical services. Citation: Tsai JH; Yang P; Lin HH; Cheng Kh; Yang YH; Wu MT; Chen CC. Association between GABAA receptor subunit gene cluster and zolpidem-induced complex sleep behaviors in Han Chinese. SLEEP 2013;36(2):197–202. PMID:23372267

  14. Association of Polymorphisms in STRA6 and RARRES2 Genes with Type 2 Diabetes in Southern Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bi-Yu; Li, Yun-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated by retinoic acid gene homolog 6 (STRA6) and retinoic acid receptor responder 2 (RARRES2) are candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Three tag-SNPs in STRA6 and one in RARRES2 gene were selected and genotyped with TaqMan or PCR-RFLP method in 603 populations (571 patients with T2D versus 632 control subjects) in Southern Han Chinese. We estimated the interactions between T2DM risk and genetic variants in the STRA6 and RARRES2 genes using polymerase chain reaction. Rs736118 in STRA6 gene were significantly associated with T2DM occurrence in the recessive genetic model. The genotype of rs974456 was significantly associated with T2DM in the dominant genetic model correlated to sex, MBI, and triglyceride. However, the association of other SNPs with T2DM was not found. Furthermore, smoking history and other factors may be independent risk factors for the incidence of T2DM. This study suggested that a role of STRA6 polymorphism could also be of value in predicting the risk of T2DM while RARRES2 polymorphism could not predict the risk of T2DM. PMID:27446956

  15. Development of the 19 X-STR loci multiplex system and genetic analysis of a Zhejiang Han population in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, XingYi; Wu, WeiWei; Chen, LinLi; Liu, ChangHui; Zhang, XiaoFang; Chen, Ling; Feng, XingLin; Wang, HuiJun; Liu, Chao

    2016-08-01

    The 19 X-STRs multiplex system is a PCR-based amplification kit that facilitates simultaneous amplification of 19 X-chromosomal STR loci (i.e. DXS7423, DXS10148, DXS10159, DXS6809, DXS7424, DXS8378, DXS10164, DXS10162, DXS7132, DXS10079, DXS6789, DXS101, DXS10103,DXS10101, HPTRB, DXS10075, DXS10074, DXS10135, and DXS10134). Eleven loci were extensively used in an Investigator Qiagen Argus X-12 (DXS7423, DXS10148, DXS8378, DXS10162, DXS7132, DXS10079, DXS10103, DXS10101, HPTRB, DXS10074, and DXS10135). In this research, the multiplex system was tested for detection sensitivity, DNA mixtures, inhibitor tolerance and species specificity; SWGDAM Validation Guidelines - Approved December 2012 were followed for the human fluorescent STR multiplex PCR reagent. Samples from 181 unrelated Zhejiang Han individuals (121 males and 60 females) were typed using this multiplex system. The results show that this 19X-STRs multiplex system is a robust and reliable amplification means to facilitate forensic and human identification testing. PMID:27184937

  16. Identification of rare variants of DSP gene in Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome in the southern Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qianhao; Chen, Yili; Peng, Longlun; Gao, Rui; Liu, Nian; Jiang, Pingping; Liu, Chao; Tang, Shuangbo

    2016-01-01

    Sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) is a perplexing disorder to both forensic pathologists and clinic physicians. Desmoplakin (DSP) gene was the first desmosomal gene linked to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) which was associated with sudden death. To identify the genetic variants of the DSP gene in SUNDS in the southern Chinese Han population, we genetically screened the DSP gene in 40 sporadic SUNDS victims, 16 Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients and 2 Early Repolarization syndrome (ERS) patients using Next Generation Sequencing (NSG) and direct Sanger sequencing. A total of 10 genetic variants of the DSP gene were detected in 11 cases, comprised of two novel missense mutations (p.I125F and p.D521A) and eight previously reported rare variants. Of eight reported variants, two were previously considered pathogenic (p.Q90R and p.R2639Q), three were predicted in silico to bepathogenic (p.R315C, p.E1357D and p.D2579H), and the rest three were predicted to be benign (p.N1234S, p.R1308Q and p.T2267S). This is the first report of DSP genetic screening in Chinese SUNDS and Brugada syndrome. Our results implies that DSP mutations contribute to the genetic cause of some SUNDS victims and maybe a new susceptible gene for Brugada syndrome. PMID:26585738

  17. Common variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes do not confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Chen; Yi, Zhenghui; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Gong, Wei; Tang, Jinsong; Wang, Dong; Lu, Weihong; Chen, Xiaogang; Fang, Yiru; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2015-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex etiology. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been frequently reported in schizophrenia. Phosphatase and tension homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protease (PARL) are mitochondrial proteins, and genetic variants of these two genes may confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia by influencing mitochondrial function. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genetic association study to test this hypothesis. We genotyped 4 PINK1 and 5 PARL genetic variants and evaluated the potential association of the 9 SNPs with schizophrenia in two independent case-control cohorts of 2510 Han Chinese individuals. No positive association of common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes with schizophrenia was identified in our samples after Bonferroni correction. Re-analysis of the newly updated Psychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC) data sets confirmed our negative result. Intriguingly, one PINK1 SNP (rs10916832), which showed a marginally significant association in only Hunan samples (P = 0.032), is associated with the expression of a schizophrenia susceptible gene KIF17 according to the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our study indicated that common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes are unlikely to be involved in schizophrenia. Further studies are essential to characterize the role of the PINK1 and PARL genes in schizophrenia.

  18. Spirosoma fluminis sp. nov., a Gamma-Radiation Resistant Bacterium Isolated from Sediment of the Han River in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon Hee; Park, Su Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Jung, Hee-Young

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-negative, long rod-shaped, and yellowish bacterium, designated as strain 15J17T(T), was isolated from sediment of the Han River in South Korea after exposure to 3 kGy of gamma radiation. The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive and showed resistance to gamma radiation-D10 value (i.e., the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by 10-fold) of >4 kGy. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Spirosoma and showed moderate degrees of sequence similarity with related species (90.6-93.5 %). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that the strain contained summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:1 ω5c, C16:0, C18:0, and C15:0 iso as the major fatty acids; phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, and an unidentified polar lipid as the major polar lipids; and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major quinone. The genomic DNA G+C content of the new strain was 48.3 mol%. Based on these data, type strain 15J17T(T) (=KCTC 52198(T) = JCM 31409(T)) should be classified as representing a new species, for which we propose the name Spirosoma fluminis sp. nov. PMID:27502066

  19. Association of endothelial lipase gene−384A/C with coronary artery disease in Han Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liang; Sun, Yan; Tong, Yu; Liu, Ying; Deng, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) is one of the important genes in the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods To investigate the relationship between the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 584C/T (rs2000813) and −384A/C (rs3813082) in the LIPG gene and CAD, allele and genotype frequencies of the two SNPs were analysed in 287 Chinese patients with CAD and 367 controls by the high-resolution melting curve (HRM) method. Results For 584C/T, no significant difference in polymorphic distribution was observed between patients and controls. However, the frequencies of allele C (20.2% vs 15%, p=0.013, OR=1.437, 95% CI 1.078 to 1.915) at −384A/C were significantly increased in patients compared with controls. Haplotype analysis also showed that haplotype CT (12.37% vs 8.72%, p=0.035, OR=1.478, 95% CI 1.034 to 2.112) was significantly higher in patients compared with controls. Conclusions These results suggested that the SNP −384A/C in the LIPG gene may be associated with risk for CAD and the LIPG gene may play a role in CAD in the Han Chinese. PMID:26124511

  20. Dopamine transporter dysfunction in Han Chinese people with chronic methamphetamine dependence after a short-term abstinence.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Lv, Rongbin; Robert Brašić, James; Han, Mei; Liu, Xingdang; Wang, Yuankai; Zhang, Guangming; Liu, Congjin; Li, Yu; Deng, Yanping

    2014-01-30

    Single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) after the administration of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was performed on healthy subjects and subjects with methamphetamine (METH)dependence at time 1 (T1) after 24-48 h of abstinence, time 2 (T2) after 2 weeks of abstinence, and time 3 (T3) after 4 weeks of abstinence. In contrast to values in controls, the values of the striatal DAT specific uptake ratios (SURs) in subjects with METH dependence were significantly lower at T1 (n=25), T2 (n=9), and T3 (n=8); a mild increase in SURs was observed at T2 and T3, but values were still significantly lower than those in controls. In subjects with METH dependence, there was a trend for a negative correlation of striatal DAT SURs and craving for METH at T1. METH craving, anxiety and depression scores significantly decreased from T1 to T2 to T3. We conclude that Han Chinese people with METH dependence experience significant striatal DAT dysfunction, and that these changes may be mildly reversible after 4 weeks of abstinence, but that DAT levels still remain significantly lower than those in healthy subjects. The mild recovery of striatal DAT may parallel improvements in craving, anxiety and depression.

  1. Estimation of pollutant loads considering dam operation in Han River Basin by BASINS/Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang-Wook; Yoon, Choon-G; Jang, Jae-Ho; Kong, Dong-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Effective watershed management often demands qualitative and quantitative predictions of the effect of future management activities as arguments for policy makers and administration. The BASINS geographic information system was developed to compute total maximum daily loads, which are helpful to establish hydrological process and water quality modeling system. In this paper the BASINS toolkit HSPF model is applied in 20,271 km(2) large watershed of the Han River Basin is used for applicability of HSPF and BMPs scenarios. For proper evaluation of watershed and stream water quality, comprehensive estimation methods are necessary to assess large amounts of point source and nonpoint-source (NPS) pollution based on the total watershed area. In this study, The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was estimated to simulate watershed pollutant loads containing dam operation and applied BMPs scenarios for control NPS pollution. The 8-day monitoring data (about three years) were used in the calibration and verification processes. Model performance was in the range of "very good" and "good" based on percent difference. The water-quality simulation results were encouraging for this large sizable watershed with dam operation practice and mixed land uses; HSPF proved adequate, and its application is recommended to simulate watershed processes and BMPs evaluation.

  2. Systematic Functional Study of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Promoter Polymorphisms in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xueli; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wei, Zhiyun; Huo, Ran; Shen, Lu; He, Lin; Qin, Shengying

    2013-01-01

    The promoter polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing genes can lead to interindividual differences in gene expression, which may result in adverse drug effects and therapeutic failure. Based on the database of CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population established by our group, we functionally characterized the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the promoter region and corresponding haplotypes in this population. Using site-directed mutagenesis, all the five SNPs identified and ten haplotypes with a frequency equal to or greater than 0.01 in the population were constructed on a luciferase reporter system. Dual luciferase reporter systems were used to analyze regulatory activity. The activity produced by Haplo3(−2183G>A, −1775A>G, −1589G>C, −1431C>T, −1000G>A, −678A>G), Haplo8(−2065G>A, −2058T>G, −1775A>G, −1589G>C, −1235G>A, −678A>G) and MU3(−498C>A) was 0.7−, 0.7−, 1.2− times respectively compared with the wild type in human hepatoma cell lines(p<0.05). These findings might be useful for optimizing pharmacotherapy and the design of personalized medicine. PMID:23469064

  3. Association Between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Periodontal Diseases in Han Chinese: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Ming; Wu, Wu-zhou; Wang, Rong; Liu, Chang-jun; Li, Bei; Shi, Xin-li; Du, Han-song; Tan, Hua-bing

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was performed to test the association between Helicobacter pylori (HP) and periodontal disease (PD). Material/Methods This was a case-control study in a comprehensive hospital, including all patients with newly diagnosed PD between 2012 and 2014 as cases and all patients without PD as controls, thorough periodontal examinations. Those who tested positive for HP were examined by means of polymerase chain reaction. Single and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the data using SPSS 19.0 software. Results This case-control study included 212 Han Chinese non-smoking adults. The results indicated that HP-positive status significantly increased the risk of PD (2.63 times higher (odds ratio [OR]=2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.48–4.67). After adjustment for age, sex, level of education, physical exercise, body mass index, and history of alcohol and diabetes mellitus, this association remained significantly (OR=2.82, 95% CI=1.55–5.13). Conclusions PD might be associated with HP infection in adults and HP infection may be a significant and independent risk factor for PD. PMID:26753766

  4. Exercise-induced neuroprotection in the spastic Han Wistar rat: the possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Van Kummer, Brooke H; Cohen, Randy W

    2015-01-01

    Moderate aerobic exercise has been shown to enhance motor skills and protect the nervous system from neurodegenerative diseases, like ataxia. Our lab uses the spastic Han Wistar rat as a model of ataxia. Mutant rats develop forelimb tremor and hind limb rigidity and have a decreased lifespan. Our lab has shown that exercise reduced Purkinje cell degeneration and delayed motor dysfunction, significantly increasing lifespan. Our study investigated how moderate exercise may mediate neuroprotection by analyzing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB. To link BDNF to exercise-induced neuroprotection, mutant and normal rats were infused with the TrkB antagonist K252a or vehicle into the third ventricle. During infusion, rats were subjected to moderate exercise regimens on a treadmill. Exercised mutants receiving K252a exhibited a 21.4% loss in Purkinje cells compared to their controls. Cerebellar TrkB expression was evaluated using non-drug-treated mutants subjected to various treadmill running regimens. Running animals expressed three times more TrkB than sedentary animals. BDNF was quantified via Sandwich ELISA, and cerebellar expression was found to be 26.6% greater in mutant rats on 7-day treadmill exercise regimen compared to 30 days of treadmill exercise. These results suggest that BDNF is involved in mediating exercise-induced neuroprotection. PMID:25710032

  5. BCS, Nambu-Jona-Lasinio, and Han-Nambu: A sketch of Nambu's works in 1960-1965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The years 1960-1965 were a remarkable period for Yoichiro Nambu. Starting with a reformulation of BCS theory with emphasis on gauge invariance, he recognized the realization of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in particle physics as evidenced by the Goldberger-Treiman relation. A concrete model of Nambu and Jona-Lasinio illustrated the essence of the Nambu-Goldstone theorem and the idea of soft pions. After the proposal of the quark model by Gell-Mann, he together with Han constructed an alternative model of integrally charged quarks with possible non-Abelian gluons. All these remarkable works were performed during the years 1960-1965. Here I briefly review those works following the original papers of Nambu chronologically, together with a brief introduction to a formulation of Noether's theorem and the Ward-Takahashi identities using path integrals. This article is mostly based on a lecture given at the Nambu Memorial Symposium held at Osaka City University in September 2015, where Nambu started his professional career.

  6. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  7. Bethe, Hans Albrecht (1906-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physicist, born in Strasburg, Germany (present-day France), Nobel prizewinner (1967). As professor of physics at Cornell University he worked out the nuclear reactions occurring in the Sun. He worked on the development of the atomic bomb in the Manhatten project, and, after the second World War, pursued again research on stellar nuclear energy sources and the origin of the chemical elements in th...

  8. Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles are cervical cancer protective factors among Uighur and Han people in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian Ming; Sun, Qi; Li, Ling; Liu, Chun Xia; Chen, Yun Zhao; Zou, Hong; Pang, Li Juan; Zhao, Jin; Yang, Lan; Cao, Yu Wen; Cui, Xiao Bin; Qi, Yan; Liang, Wei Hua; Zhang, Wen Jie; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for cervical cancer. However, only some high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-infected women progress to cervical cancer, host immunogenetic factors human leukocyte antigen (HLA) may account for viral antigens presenting individually or together in the progression to cervical cancer. This study examined the association between the development of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and the determinant factors including HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602, HR-HPV infection among Chinese Uighur and Han populations. Blood samples, cervical swabs and biopsies were obtained from 287 patients with ICC (192 Uighurs and 95 Hans) and 312 healthy controls (218 Uighurs and 94 Hans). HPV DNA was detected by PCR and HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles were performed using PCR-SSP method. HPV16 infection rates was significantly higher among Uighur and Han with ICC as compared to healthy controls (OR = 58.317; 95% CI: 39.663-85.744; OR = 33.778; 95% CI: 12.581-90.691; P < 0.05 for all). HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 0.305; 95% CI: 0.115-0.813; P < 0.05) and HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype frequencies (OR = 0.274; 95% CI: 0.086-0.874; P < 0.05) were significantly reduced in Han ICC. The HLA-DQB1*0602 frequency significantly decreased among Uighur women with ICC (OR = 0.482; 95% CI: 0.325-0.716; P < 0.05). Similar tendencies were observed for DQB1*0602 with HPV16-positive ICC (OR = 0.550; 95% CI: 0.362-0.837; P < 0.05). This study suggests that HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles may influence the immune response to HPV16 infection and decrease the risk of ICC among Uighurs and Hans in Xinjiang, China. PMID:25337265

  9. Associations of Genetic Risk Score with Obesity and Related Traits and the Modifying Effect of Physical Activity in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingwen; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lu, Ling; Zong, Geng; Gan, Wei; Ye, Xingwang; Sun, Liang; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with BMI, predominantly in European ancestry (EA) populations. However, associations of these loci with obesity and related traits have not been well described in Chinese Hans. This study aimed to investigate whether BMI-associated loci are, individually and collectively, associated with adiposity-related traits and obesity in Chinese Hans and whether these associations are modified by physical activity (PA). Subjects/Methods We genotyped 28 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a population-based cohort including 2,894 unrelated Han Chinese. Genetic risk score (GRS), EA and East Asian ancestry (EAA) GRSs were calculated by adding BMI-increasing alleles based on all, EA and EAA identified SNPs, respectively. Interactions of GRS and PA were examined by including the interaction-term in the regression model. Results Individually, 26 of 28 SNPs showed directionally consistent effects on BMI, and associations of four loci (TMEM18, PCSK1, BDNF and MAP2K5) reached nominal significance (P<0.05). The GRS was associated with increased BMI, trunk fat and body fat percentages; and increased risk of obesity and overweight (all P<0.05). Effect sizes (0.11 vs. 0.17 kg/m2) and explained variance (0.90% vs. 1.45%) of GRS for BMI tended to be lower in Chinese Hans than in Europeans. The EA GRS and EAA GRS were associated with 0.11 and 0.13 kg/m2 higher BMI, respectively. In addition, we found that PA attenuated the effect of the GRS on BMI (Pinteraction = 0.022). Conclusions Our observations suggest that the combined effect of obesity-susceptibility loci on BMI tended to be lower in Han Chinese than in EA. The overall, EA and EAA GRSs exert similar effects on adiposity traits. Genetic predisposition to increased BMI is attenuated by PA in this population of Han Chinese. PMID:24626232

  10. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    fabricacion del molde, tienen una gran influencia sobre su comportamiento en servicio a lo largo de la vida util del molde. En la primera parte del presente estudio, a partir de ensayos punzon sobre disco, se ha determinado la relacion entre la resistencia al desgaste y la dureza de aceros para moldes obtenidos a partir de bloques de gran espesor, estudiando los principales mecanismos de desgaste que tienen lugar. A continuacion, con el fin de determinar el dano superficial que sufren los aceros para moldes en condiciones reales de inyeccion, se han estudiado distintos tipos de aceros utilizados comercialmente en moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos, seleccionando las condiciones de operacion para determinar la variacion de la rugosidad superficial del acero en funcion del material inyectado, del numero de operaciones sucesivas de inyeccion y de la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion, mediante tecnicas de perfilometria optica y microscopia electronica de barrido. Ademas del dano superficial sufrido por el acero con el numero de piezas inyectadas, tambien se ha determinado la evolucion de la rugosidad superficial de los materiales inyectados, polibutilentereftalato (PBT) puro y materiales compuestos derivados de PBT por adicion de un 20 o un 50% en peso de fibra de vidrio. En el caso de las piezas inyectadas, se ha caracterizado su microestructura en funcion del flujo de inyeccion y de la densidad de fibra, se han determinado sus propiedades termicas y dinamico-mecanicas, asi como la variacion de la rugosidad superficial de las piezas inyectadas con el numero de operaciones de inyeccion y con la geometria de las distintas secciones de las piezas. Finalmente, se ha evaluado la resistencia a la abrasion de PBT reforzado con un 50% de fibra, en funcion del numero de piezas inyectadas y de la direccion de rayado con respecto a la orientacion del flujo de inyeccion.

  11. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population. PMID:26311108

  12. A genome-wide association study identifies GRK5 and RASGRP1 as type 2 diabetes loci in Chinese Hans.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaixing; Gan, Wei; Lu, Ling; Dong, Xiao; Han, Xueyao; Hu, Cheng; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Liang; Bao, Wei; Li, Pengtao; He, Meian; Sun, Liangdan; Wang, Yiqin; Zhu, Jingwen; Ning, Qianqian; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Rong; Wen, Jie; Wang, Di; Zhu, Xilin; Guo, Kunquan; Zuo, Xianbo; Guo, Xiaohui; Yang, Handong; Zhou, Xianghai; Zhang, Xuejun; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J F; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; Liu, Ying; Liu, Liegang; Yang, Ze; Hu, Renming; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Li, Yixue; Lin, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in identification of type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk loci in the past few years, but our understanding of the genetic basis of T2D in ethnically diverse populations remains limited. We performed a genome-wide association study and a replication study in Chinese Hans comprising 8,569 T2D case subjects and 8,923 control subjects in total, from which 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected for further follow-up in a de novo replication sample of 3,410 T2D case and 3,412 control subjects and an in silico replication sample of 6,952 T2D case and 11,865 control subjects. Besides confirming seven established T2D loci (CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, KCNQ1, CDC123, GLIS3, HNF1B, and DUSP9) at genome-wide significance, we identified two novel T2D loci, including G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) (rs10886471: P = 7.1 × 10(-9)) and RASGRP1 (rs7403531: P = 3.9 × 10(-9)), of which the association signal at GRK5 seems to be specific to East Asians. In nondiabetic individuals, the T2D risk-increasing allele of RASGRP1-rs7403531 was also associated with higher HbA(1c) and lower homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (P = 0.03 and 0.0209, respectively), whereas the T2D risk-increasing allele of GRK5-rs10886471 was also associated with higher fasting insulin (P = 0.0169) but not with fasting glucose. Our findings not only provide new insights into the pathophysiology of T2D, but may also shed light on the ethnic differences in T2D susceptibility. PMID:22961080

  13. Considering Hans-Georg Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a referent for student understanding of nature-of-science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashford, Jared M.

    The purpose of this study is to examine philosophical hermeneutics as a referent for student understanding of Nature-of-Science (NOS) concepts. Rather than focus on a prescriptive set of canons used in addressing NOS pedagogy in K-12 schools, this study seeks to explicate a descriptive set of principles based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's theory of interpretation that has the potential for developing dispositions necessary for understanding. Central among these are the concepts of fore-structure, prejudice, temporal distance, and history of effect, all of which constitute part of the whole of the hermeneutic circle as envisaged by Gadamer. As such, Gadamer's hermeneutics is contrasted with Cartesian epistemology and its primacy of method, the Enlightenment's prejudice against prejudice, the modernist/progressive tendency to consider all situations as problems to be solved by relegating all forms of knowledge to techne, and the subjective nature of interpretation inherent in a hermeneutics of suspicion. The implication of such a conceptual analysis for NOS pedagogy is that student understanding is considered not so much as a cognitive outcome dependent on a series of mental functions but rather as an ontological characteristic of Dasein (being-human) that situates learning in the interchange between interpreter and text. In addition, the philosophical foundations implicit in addressing student understanding of NOS found in many curricular reform efforts and pedagogical practices in science education are questioned. Gadamer's hermeneutics affords science education a viable philosophical framework within which to consider student understanding of the development of scientific knowledge and the scientific enterprise.

  14. Genetic variation in the ABCG2 gene is associated with gout risk in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Jiri, Mutu; Zhang, Le; Lan, Bing; He, Na; Feng, Tian; Liu, Kai; Jin, Tianbo; Kang, Longli

    2016-01-01

    Gout is a common type of arthritis that is characterized by hyperuricemia, tophi, and joint inflammation. Current evidence suggests that heredity contributes to the progression of gout. Previous studies have shown that regulation of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) pathways plays a role in gout occurrence. To investigate and validate potential genetic associations with the risk of gout, we conducted a case-control study. We conducted 143 cases and 310 controls and genotyped seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCG2 gene. ABCG2 SNP association analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 Statistical Package, PLINK Software, HaploView software package, and SHEsis software platform. We identified that four susceptibility SNPs were potentially associated with occurrence of gout. Rs2622621 and rs3114018 in ABCG2 can actually increase the risk of gout in log-additive model (rs2622621, odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.61, p < 0.001; rs3114018, OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.13-2.13, p = 0.006). We found that rs17731799G/T-G/G and rs3114020 T/C-T/T in ABCG2 can actually increase the risk of gout in dominant model (rs17731799, OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.05-2.66, p = 0.028; rs3114020, OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.00-2.51, p = 0.048). The ABCG2 haplotype "GGCTCTC" (OR = 0.46, 95% CI 0.28-0.75, p = 0.0019) decreased the gout risk. Our results, combined with those from previous studies, suggest that genetic variation in ABCG2 may influence gout susceptibility in the Han population.

  15. Effects of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Polymorphisms on Susceptibility to Lead in Han Subjects from Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuelin; Wu, Jin; Sun, Pin

    2012-01-01

    This study is to determine the distribution of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism among Han subjects of the Chinese population and to study whether the polymorphism in the ALAD gene modifies the toxicity of lead in lead-exposed workers. For this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional study on 156 Chinese workers who were exposed to lead in lead-acid battery and electric-flex manufacturing plants. The authors found that the allele frequencies of ALAD1 and ALAD2 were 0.9679 and 0.0321, respectively. Workers with the ALAD 1-1 genotype were associated with higher blood lead levels than those with the ALAD 1-2 genotype. Blood and urine lead levels were much higher in storage battery workers than in cable workers. The self-conscious symptom survey showed that the incidences of debilitation, amnesia and dreaminess were much higher in those had more than five years of tenure or contact with lead on the job within the ALAD 1-1 genotype subgroup. Laboratory examinations showed that serum iron and zinc levels in workers’ with the ALAD 1-2 genotype were higher than those with the ALAD 1-1 genotype, especially in storage-battery workers. Correlation analysis indicated that the blood lead level negatively correlated with serum calcium, iron and zinc level. The data of this study suggest that the ALAD gene polymorphism and serum ion levels may modify the kinetics of lead in blood. Therefore, the authors recommend that an adequate intake of dietary calcium, iron, and zinc or the calcium, iron, and zinc supplementation should be prescribed to Chinese lead exposed workers. PMID:22851944

  16. Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from sediment at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Park, Su-Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Jung, Hee-Young

    2016-08-01

    Strain 16F1E(T) was isolated from a 3-kGy-irradiated sediment sample collected at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Cells of this strain were observed to be Gram-positive, pililike structure, and short rod shape, and colonies were red in color. The strain showed the highest degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (98.8%), Deinococcus depolymerans TDMA-24(T) (98.1%), Deinococcus caeni Ho-08(T) (98.0%), and Deinococcus grandis DSM 3963(T) (97.0%). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified this strain as a member of the genus Deinococcus (Family: Deinococcaceae). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 16F1ET was 66.9 mol%. The low levels of DNA-DNA hybridization (< 56.2%) with the species mentioned above identified strain 16F1E(T) as a novel Deinococcus species. Its oxidase and catalase activities as well as the production of acid from glucose were positive. Growth of the strain was observed at 10-37°C (optimum: 20-30°C) and pH 4-10 (optimum: pH 7-8). The cells tolerated less than 5% NaCl and had low resistance to gamma radiation (D10 < 4 kGy). Strain 16F1ET possessed the following chemotaxonomic characteristics: C16:0, C15:1 ω6c, and C16:1 ω7c as the major fatty acids; phosphoglycolipid as the predominant polar lipid; and menaquinone-8 as the predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinone. Based on the polyphasic evidence, as well as the phylogenetic, genotypic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic characterization results, strain 16F1E(T) (=KCTC 33793(T) =JCM 31404(T)) is proposed to represent the type strain of a novel species, Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov. PMID:27480633

  17. Association of KIF21B genetic polymorphisms with ankylosing spondylitis in a Chinese Han population of Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinglin; Li, Ming; Wang, Liya; Hu, Zhongdan; Zhang, Yuanchao; Yang, Qingrui

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have found that the kinesin family member (KIF) 21B may contribute to the autoimmune disease process. It has been reported that the KIF21B gene is relevant to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We hypothesized that KIF21B might be a key gene for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) development. To test this hypothesis, 11 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering KIF21B were investigated in 904 Chinese (Han ethnic) patients of Shandong Province with AS and 898 age- and sex-matched controls of the same ethnic origin. The T allele of rs756254 was linked to increased risk of AS (P = 0.022). The AA genotype of rs296560 and TT and AT genotypes of rs756254 were also relevant with AS (P = 0.044, P = 0.033, and P = 0.033, respectively). Haplotype analysis identified that the KIF21B gene region contains two haplotype blocks of eight and two SNPs, respectively. The haplotype GCGGTAAA in block 1 appeared to reduce the risk of AS (P = 0.005), while the haplotype AA in block 2 was significantly associated with an increased risk of AS (P = 0.039). There were no significant differences between the AS patients and the controls in polymorphisms of rs10920091, rs3198583, rs56368827, rs3738255, rs296565, rs12087649, rs12568529, rs7536000, and rs957957. These results indicated that KIF21B was associated with AS in a Chinese population of Shandong Province. PMID:25149646

  18. Muscle-specific changes in length-force characteristics of the calf muscles in the spastic Han-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Annesofie T; Jensen, Bente R; Uhlendorf, Toni L; Cohen, Randy W; Baan, Guus C; Maas, Huub

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mechanical properties and mechanical interaction between muscles in the lower hindlimb of the spastic mutant rat. Length-force characteristics of gastrocnemius (GA), soleus (SO), and plantaris (PL) were assessed in anesthetized spastic and normally developed Han-Wistar rats. In addition, the extent of epimuscular myofascial force transmission between synergistic GA, SO, and PL, as well as between the calf muscles and antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA), was investigated. Active length-force curves of spastic GA and PL were narrower with a reduced maximal active force. In contrast, active length-force characteristics of spastic SO were similar to those of controls. In reference position (90° ankle and knee angle), higher resistance to ankle dorsiflexion and increased passive stiffness was found for the spastic calf muscle group. At optimum length, passive stiffness and passive force of spastic GA were decreased, whereas those of spastic SO were increased. No mechanical interaction between the calf muscles and TA was found. As GA was lengthened, force from SO and PL declined despite a constant muscle-tendon unit length of SO and PL. However, the extent of this interaction was not different in spastic rats. In conclusion, the effects of spasticity on length-force characteristics were muscle specific. The changes observed for GA and PL muscles are consistent with the changes in limb mechanics reported for human patients. Our results indicate that altered mechanics in spastic rats cannot be attributed to differences in mechanical interaction, but originate from individual muscular structures.

  19. Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from sediment at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Park, Su-Jin; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Cho, Young-Je; Kim, Myung Kyum; Jung, Hee-Young

    2016-08-01

    Strain 16F1E(T) was isolated from a 3-kGy-irradiated sediment sample collected at Han River in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Cells of this strain were observed to be Gram-positive, pililike structure, and short rod shape, and colonies were red in color. The strain showed the highest degree of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (98.8%), Deinococcus depolymerans TDMA-24(T) (98.1%), Deinococcus caeni Ho-08(T) (98.0%), and Deinococcus grandis DSM 3963(T) (97.0%). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified this strain as a member of the genus Deinococcus (Family: Deinococcaceae). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 16F1ET was 66.9 mol%. The low levels of DNA-DNA hybridization (< 56.2%) with the species mentioned above identified strain 16F1E(T) as a novel Deinococcus species. Its oxidase and catalase activities as well as the production of acid from glucose were positive. Growth of the strain was observed at 10-37°C (optimum: 20-30°C) and pH 4-10 (optimum: pH 7-8). The cells tolerated less than 5% NaCl and had low resistance to gamma radiation (D10 < 4 kGy). Strain 16F1ET possessed the following chemotaxonomic characteristics: C16:0, C15:1 ω6c, and C16:1 ω7c as the major fatty acids; phosphoglycolipid as the predominant polar lipid; and menaquinone-8 as the predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinone. Based on the polyphasic evidence, as well as the phylogenetic, genotypic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic characterization results, strain 16F1E(T) (=KCTC 33793(T) =JCM 31404(T)) is proposed to represent the type strain of a novel species, Deinococcus seoulensis sp. nov.

  20. Association analysis revealed one susceptibility locus for vitiligo with immune-related diseases in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Yao, Weiyi; Pan, Qian; Tang, Xianfa; Zhao, Suli; Wang, Wenjun; Zhu, Zhengwei; Gao, Jinping; Sheng, Yujun; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Anping

    2015-07-01

    Generalized vitiligo is an autoimmune disease characterized by melanocyte loss, which results in patchy depigmentation of skin and hair, and is associated with an elevated risk of other immune-related diseases. However, there is no reported study on the associations between immune susceptibility polymorphisms and the risk of vitiligo with immune-related diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential influence of 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 18q21.31 (rs10503019), 4p16.1 (rs11940117), 3q28 (rs1464510), 14q12 (rs2273844), 12q13.2 (rs2456973), 16q12.2 (rs3213758), 10q25.3 (rs4353229), 3q13.33 (rs59374417), and 10p15.1 (rs706779 and rs7090530) on vitiligo with immune-related diseases in the Chinese Han population. All SNPs were genotyped in 552 patients with vitiligo-associated immune-related diseases and 1656 controls using the Sequenom MassArray system. Data were analyzed with PLINK 1.07 software. The C allele of rs2456973 at 12q13.2 was observed to be significantly associated with vitiligo-associated immune-related diseases (autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases) (P = 0.0028, odds ratio (OR) = 1.27). In subphenotype analysis, the rs2456973 C allele was also significantly associated with early-onset vitiligo by comparing with controls (P = 0.0001) and in the case-only analysis (P = 0.0114). We confirmed that 12q13.2 was an important candidate locus for vitiligo with immune-related diseases (autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases) and affected disease phenotypes with early onset.

  1. Associations between INSR and MTOR polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy in a Northeast Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, A N; Yang, X X; Sun, M Y; Zhang, Z X; Li, M

    2015-03-13

    We explored the associations of INSR and mTOR, 2 key genes in the insulin signaling pathway, and the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1799817, rs1051690, and rs2059806) in INSR and 3 SNPs (rs7211818, rs7212142, and rs9674559) in mTOR were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform in 89 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic nephropathy, 134 type 2 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy, and 120 healthy control subjects. Statistical analysis based on unconditional logistic regression was carried out to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for each SNP. Combination analyses between rs2059806 and rs7212142 were also performed using the X(2) test and logistic regression. Among these 6 SNPs, 4 (rs1799817, rs1051690, rs7211818, and rs9674559) showed no association with type 2 diabetes mellitus or diabetic nephropathy. However, rs2059806 in INSR was associated with both type 2 diabetes mellitus (P = 0.033) and type 2 diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.018). The rs7212142 polymorphism in mTOR was associated with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.010, OR = 0.501, 95%CI = 0.288- 0.871), but showed no relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Combination analysis revealed that rs2059806 and rs7212142 had a combined effect on susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. Our results suggest that both INSR and mTOR play a role in the predisposition of the Han Chinese population to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, but the genetic predisposition may show some differences.

  2. Association of 8q22.3 locus in Chinese Han with idiopathic premature ovarian failure (POF).

    PubMed

    Qin, Yingying; Zhao, Han; Xu, Jianfeng; Shi, Yongyong; Li, Zhiqiang; Qiao, Jie; Liu, Jiayin; Qin, Chunrong; Ren, Chune; Li, Jie; Chen, Shiling; Cao, Yunxia; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2012-01-15

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a complex heritable disorder known to be caused by chromosomal abnormalities and to date a limited number of known mutations, often autosomal. We sought to identify additional genetic loci associated with POF by performing the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS). GWAS, using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 chip, was conducted in an initial discovery set of 391 well-documented (follicle-stimulating hormone >40 IU/ml) Chinese Han POF patients, compared with 895 unrelated Chinese female controls. A replication study on the most significant loci was then performed in an independent set of 400 cases and 800 controls. Suggestive significant associations were observed at 8q22.3. Replication of eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10464815, rs10808365, rs3847152, rs3847153, rs3847154, rs3843552, rs10955242, rs3843555) (P ≤ 3.86 × 10(-6)) was confirmed in verification sets. No specific candidate gene was found in the immediate region of 8q22.3. This GWAS, involving by far the largest sample of POF cases accumulated to date, revealed heretofore unrecognized association between POF and a novel genetic locus or region of unknown nature on 8q22.3. We speculate existence of a long-distance regulatory region that has relevance to the control of ovarian differentiation or oogenesis. Given failure to find association with any of the other autosomal regions known to harbor genes causing ovarian failure, our findings also underscore the likelihood of considerable genetic and etiologic heterogeneity in POF and the need for additional approaches like whole-genome sequencing.

  3. Semantic fluency and executive functions as candidate endophenotypes for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Hu, Maorong; Chen, Jindong; Li, Lehua; Zheng, Yingjun; Wang, Juan; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wu, Renrong; Zhao, Jingping

    2011-09-20

    Neurocognitive deficits are recognized as core features of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive performance of antipsychotic, drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES patients) to their healthy siblings and to healthy controls from the Han Chinese population for exploring potential endophenotypes for the early detection of schizophrenia. A battery of cognitive assessment tools was used to measure seven cognitive domains in matched groups consisting of 56 subjects each. Cognitive tests included the grooved pegboard test (GPT), the category fluency test (CFT), the trail making test A (TMT-A), the Wechsler memory scale-III spatial span test (WMS-III SST), the Hopkins verbal learning test-revised (HVLT-R), the brief visuospatial memory test-revised (BVMT-R), the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), and the Wisconsin card sorting test-64 cards version (WCST-64). The performances of FEP patients were inferior to normal controls on all neuropsychological tests, while siblings were lower than healthy controls in many of the same tasks. Patients' performances were lower than siblings' on all tests except for the CFT, the WMS-III SST backward test, and four subtests of the WCST-64. Our data suggest that FEP patients exhibited pronounced impairment of fine motor skills, speed of processing, attention, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive function, while siblings exhibited deficits intermediate between those of schizophrenic patients and the control group. Semantic fluency function and executive function may be potential endophenotypes for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia. PMID:21827833

  4. Effects of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase polymorphisms on susceptibility to lead in Han subjects from southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuelin; Wu, Jin; Sun, Pin

    2012-07-01

    This study is to determine the distribution of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism among Han subjects of the Chinese population and to study whether the polymorphism in the ALAD gene modifies the toxicity of lead in lead-exposed workers. For this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional study on 156 Chinese workers who were exposed to lead in lead-acid battery and electric-flex manufacturing plants. The authors found that the allele frequencies of ALAD1 and ALAD2 were 0.9679 and 0.0321, respectively. Workers with the ALAD 1-1 genotype were associated with higher blood lead levels than those with the ALAD 1-2 genotype. Blood and urine lead levels were much higher in storage battery workers than in cable workers. The self-conscious symptom survey showed that the incidences of debilitation, amnesia and dreaminess were much higher in those had more than five years of tenure or contact with lead on the job within the ALAD 1-1 genotype subgroup. Laboratory examinations showed that serum iron and zinc levels in workers' with the ALAD 1-2 genotype were higher than those with the ALAD 1-1 genotype, especially in storage-battery workers. Correlation analysis indicated that the blood lead level negatively correlated with serum calcium, iron and zinc level. The data of this study suggest that the ALAD gene polymorphism and serum ion levels may modify the kinetics of lead in blood. Therefore, the authors recommend that an adequate intake of dietary calcium, iron, and zinc or the calcium, iron, and zinc supplementation should be prescribed to Chinese lead exposed workers.

  5. Gly71Arg UGT1A1 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer susceptibility in Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Li, L H; Duan, X Y; Liu, Q; Sun, L L; Tian, Y T

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is among the most common causes of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between prolonged estrogen exposure and increased risk of breast cancer. Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 (UGT1A1) plays a significant role in the detoxification of estrogens. Two major genetic polymorphisms have been identified in the UGT1A1 locus. UGT1A1*28 has been previously linked to increased risk of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible correlation between UGT1A1*6, a single nucleotide polymorphism causing a Gly71Arg substitution, and breast cancer susceptibility. Forty-six women diagnosed with breast cancer, 15 patients with gastrointestinal cancer, and 13 healthy women were recruited to this study. The genotype in the polymorphic UGT1A1 locus was determined by DNA sequencing. The frequency of each genotype was compared among the three groups. The frequency of the UGT1A1*6 allele was significantly higher in breast cancer and gastrointestinal cancer patients than that in healthy females (both P < 0.05). No significant associations were observed between the UGT1A1*6 polymorphism and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2 expression status, menstrual status, or metastasis (all P > 0.05). Therefore, the UGT1A1*6 polymorphism was deduced to be a risk factor for breast cancer in women of Han Chinese ethnicity. UGT1A1 may serve as a therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer and other estrogen-related diseases. PMID:27525948

  6. Clinical Features of Patients with Dysthymia in a Large Cohort of Han Chinese Women with Recurrent Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Zhoubing; Wei, Yan; Zhang, Guanghua; Shi, Shenxun; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Liu, Ying; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Flint, Jonathan; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysthymia is a form of chronic mild depression that has a complex relationship with major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we investigate the role of environmental risk factors, including stressful life events and parenting style, in patients with both MDD and dysthymia. We ask whether these risk factors act in the same way in MDD with and without dysthymia. Results We examined the clinical features in 5,950 Han Chinese women with MDD between 30–60 years of age across China. We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new MDD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. We identified sixteen stressful life events that significantly increase the risk of dysthymia, given the presence of MDD. Low parental warmth, from either mother or father, increases the risk of dysthymia. Highly threatening but short-lived threats (such as rape) are more specific for MDD than dysthymia. While for MDD more severe life events show the largest odds ratio versus controls, this was not seen for cases of MDD with or without dysthymia. Conclusions There are increased rates of stressful life events in MDD with dysthymia, but the impact of life events on susceptibility to dysthymia with MDD differs from that seen for MDD alone. The pattern does not fit a simple dose-response relationship, suggesting that there are moderating factors involved in the relationship between environmental precipitants and the onset of dysthymia. It is possible that severe life events in childhood events index a general susceptibility to chronic depression, rather than acting specifically as risk factors for dysthymia. PMID:24386213

  7. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population.

  8. Association of lincRNA-p21 Haplotype with Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sai-sai; Cheng, Jie; Cai, Meng-yun; Yang, Xi-li; Liu, Xin-guang

    2016-01-01

    lincRNA-p21 plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). To date, the biological significance of polymorphisms in lincRNA-p21 on CAD risk remains unknown. Here we aimed to evaluate the influence of lincRNA-p21 polymorphisms on individual susceptibility to CAD. Genotyping of four tagSNPs (rs9380586, rs4713998, rs6930083, and rs6931097) within lincRNA-p21 gene was performed in 615 CAD and 655 controls. The haplotype analysis showed that the haplotype G-A-A-G (rs9380586-rs4713998-rs6930083-rs6931097) was statistically significantly associated with the reduced risk for CAD (OR = 0.78, P = 0.023). Stratified analysis revealed that G-A-A-G haplotype was at a significantly lower risk for myocardial infarction (MI) (OR = 0.68, P = 0.010). We also found that haplotype G-A-A-G had a more pronounced decreased risk for premature CAD or MI subjects (OR = 0.67, P = 0.017 for premature CAD, and OR = 0.65, P = 0.041 for premature MI, resp.). Our data provide the first evidence that the G-A-A-G haplotype of lincRNA-p21 is associated with decreased risk of CAD and MI, particularly among premature CAD/MI in the Chinese Han population. Further studies with more subjects and in diverse ethnic populations are warranted to clarify the general validity of our findings. PMID:27340317

  9. Polymorphisms in TCF7L2 gene are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dan; Fei, Yang; Ling, Qi; Xu, Weiwei; Zhang, Zhe; Shu, Jing; Li, Chengjiang; Dong, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible association between diabetes susceptibility gene transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a Chinese Han population. A total of 556 GDM patients and 500 Non-GDM were included. Eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated. Fifteen tag SNPs were selected from HapMap CHB database with a minor allele frequency of >0.2 and r2 of >0.8. Three additional SNPs were also chosen because these SNPs are associated with type 2 diabetes in East Asians. TCF7L2 rs290487, rs6585194, and rs7094463 polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with GDM. In multivariate analysis, rs290487 genetic variation (OR = 2.686 per each C allele, P = 0.002), pre-BMI > 24 kg/m2 (OR = 1.592, P = 0.018), age > 25 years (OR = 1.780, P = 0.012) and LDL-C > 3.6 mmol/L (OR = 2.034, P = 0.009) were identified as independent risk factors of GDM, rs7094463 genetic variation (OR = 0.429 per each G allele, P = 0.005) was identified as independent protect factor of GDM. This finding suggests that TCF7L2 rs290487, and rs7094463 were a potential clinical value for the prediction of GDM. PMID:27465520

  10. Impact of multiple Alcohol Dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms on risk of laryngeal, esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    An, Jiaze; Zhao, Junsheng; Zhang, Xiyang; Ding, Rui; Geng, Tingting; Feng, Tian; Jin, Tianbo

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol intake is positively associated with the risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers; but its effect on gastric or colorectal cancer is controversial. Previous study had identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) genes associated with UADT cancers in European and Japanese populations. We sought to determine if these SNPs associated with laryngeal, esophageal, gastric or colorectal cancer in Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study among 1577 cases and 1013 healthy controls from northwest China. Five SNPs associated with UADT cancers risk were selected from previous genome-wide association studies and genotyped using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age and gender. We identified that the minor alleles of rs1789924 and rs971074 were associated with decreased risk of laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.311; 95% CI = 0.161-0.602; P < 0.001) and esophagus cancer (OR = 0.711; 95% CI = 0.526-0.962; P = 0.027) in allelic model analysis, respectively. In the genetic model analysis, we found the “C/T” genotype of rs1789924 was associated with decreased laryngeal cancer risk in codominant model (P = 0.046) and overdominant model (P = 0.013); the “C/T-T/T” genotype of rs1789924 was associated with reduced risk of laryngeal cancer under dominant model (P = 0.013). Additionally, none of the SNPs was associated with gastric or colorectal cancer in our study. Our data shed new light on the association between ADH SNPs and respiratory and digestive tract cancers susceptibility in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26396927

  11. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  12. Haplotype diversity of 13 RM Y-STRs in Chinese Han population and an update on the allele designation of DYF403S1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenqiong; Xiao, Chao; Wei, Tian; Pan, Chao; Yi, Shaohua; Huang, Daixin

    2016-07-01

    Rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs) have been paid much attention in recent years. The 13 RM Y-STRs have been proved to have substantially higher haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity than conventionally used Y-STRs, indicating the considerable power in paternal lineage differentiation. To investigate the haplotype diversity in Chinese Han population, we collected 252 unrelated male samples and tested the genotype of the 13 RM Y-STRs. Among 252 male individuals, a total of 250 haplotypes were observed in which only 2 haplotypes were shared by 2 males respectively. The haplotype diversity reached 0.999937 and the discrimination capacity was 99.21%, showing a great discrimination power in Chinese Han population. In addition, an update on the allele designation of DYF403S1 was proposed.

  13. Sex-specific association of rs16996148 SNP in the NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of rs16996148 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in NCAN/CILP2/PBX4 and serum lipid levels is inconsistent. Furthermore, little is known about the association of rs16996148 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Chinese population. We therefore aimed to detect the association of rs16996148 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method A total of 712 subjects of Mulao nationality and 736 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the rs16996148 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of apolipoprotein (Apo) B were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.001). The frequencies of G and T alleles were 87.2% and 12.8% in Mulao, and 89.9% and 10.1% in Han (P <0.05); respectively. The frequencies of GG, GT and TT genotypes were 76.0%, 22.5% and 1.5% in Mulao, and 81.2%, 17.4% and 1.4% in Han (P <0.05); respectively. There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in both ethnic groups. The levels of HDL-C, ApoAI, and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Mulao were different between the GG and GT/TT genotypes in males but not in females (P < 0.01 for all), the subjects with GT/TT genotypes had higher serum levels of HDL-C, ApoAI, and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype. The levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB in Han were different between the GG and GT/TT genotypes in males but not in females (P < 0.05-0.001), the T allele carriers had higher serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoAI, and ApoB than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of HDL-C, ApoAI, and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes in males (P < 0.05-0.01) but not in females. The levels of TC, TG, HDL

  14. Cyclooxygenase product inhibition with acetylsalicylic acid slows disease progression in the Han:SPRD-Cy rat model of polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Naser H M; Gregoire, Melanie; Devassy, Jessay G; Wu, Yinhong; Yoshihara, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Tamio; Nagao, Shizuko; Aukema, Harold M

    2015-01-01

    Renal cyclooxygenase (COX) derived eicosanoids are elevated and lipoxygenase (LOX) products are reduced in the Han:SPRD-Cy rat model of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Selective COX2 inhibition reduces kidney disease progression, but COX1 levels also are elevated in this model. Since the effect of reducing the products of both COX isoforms and the role of LOX products is not known, weanling normal and diseased Han:SPRD-cy littermates were given either low dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), nordihydroguaiaretic (NDGA) or no treatment for eight weeks. Renal eicosanoids were altered in the diseased compared to normal cortex, with COX products being higher and LOX products being lower. ASA reduced COX products, cyst growth and kidney water content, while NDGA reduced LOX products without altering disease progression or kidney function. Hence, a human equivalent ASA dose equal to less than one regular strength aspirin per day slowed disease progression, while further reduction of LOX products did not worsen disease progression.

  15. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. PMID:23075153

  16. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion.

  17. Disminuyen en los Estados Unidos las infecciones por VPH.

    Cancer.gov

    La infección por los tipos del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en el blanco de la vacuna cuadrivalente se redujo en casi dos tercios en las adolescentes desde que se recomendó la vacunación en los Estados Unidos.

  18. Centros oncológicos designados por el NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El programa de centros oncológicos designados por el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) reconoce a los centros de todo el país que cumplen con rigurosos criterios para participar en proyectos avanzados de primer nivel para la investigación multidisciplinaria del cáncer.

  19. Smoking and Alzheimer's disease among Mongolian and Han Chinese aged 55 years and over living in the Inner Mongolia farming area of China★

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Da, Lin; Zhao, Shigang; Wang, Desheng; Niu, Guangming; Huriletemuer

    2012-01-01

    Residents aged 55 years or older from 27 communities and two settlements in Xilingol League of Inner Mongolia were selected for participation in an Alzheimer's disease epidemiological investigation from June 2008 to June 2009, including 3 259 Mongolians and 5 887 Han Chinese. The Mongolian subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average), and more of them were male, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease and/or diabetes compared with the Mongolian subjects in the non-Alzheimer's disease group. The Han Chinese subjects in the Alzheimer's disease group were at age of 55 years or older (on average) and more of them were women, illiterate and/or had a history of coronary artery disease, and less of them had a history of alcohol consumption compared with the non-Alzheimer's disease group. Non-conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression identified that male gender, increasing age and having a history of diabetes and/or coronary heart disease were associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease among Mongolians while having an educational background was associated with lower odds (OR = 0.259, 95%CI 0.174–0.386). Among the Han Chinese subjects, male gender, increasing age and having a history of coronary heart disease and/or hypertension was associated with higher odds of Alzheimer's disease, while having an educational background was associated lower odds (OR = 0.271, 95%CI 0.192–0.381). The results also indicated that extremely heavy smoking may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in Mongolian males aged over 55 years. There was no significant difference in smoking habits between the Mongolian and Han Chinese subjects with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25657695

  20. PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF DR. HANS SELYE AND OF HIS INSTITUT DE MèDECINE ET DE CHIRURGIE EXPèRIMENTALES (IMCE).

    PubMed

    Salas-Prato, Milagros

    2014-03-30

    This article is a short personal recollection of Dr. Hans Selye (HS) and of his institute in order to show, first, why and how he influenced us; second, who he was as a person, human being, physician, scientist, professor, mentor; third, what was the structure and functioning of the Institut de Mèdecine et Chirurgie Expèrimentales (IMCE) and fourth, what HS' contributions and accomplishments were. PMID:26118245

  1. [To explore "the relief time" of diseases involving the six meridians in Shang Han Lun in light of the sequence of three yin and three yang].

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Xue; Cui, Jian

    2008-02-01

    The time of six meridians diseases tending to be cured in Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Diseases) is always one of the key points for study, but up till now no satisfied explanations are made. The authors try to study it on the basis of the theory of "three-yin and three-yang" according to the relationship between human body and the environment.

  2. Integrated flood risk analysis during different SST conditions in a changing climate: A case study of the Korean Han River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Moon, Y. I.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, an integrated flood risk index (IFRI) was developed using information on hydrological, socio-economic, and ecological components to assess watershed-based flood hazards and vulnerability in the Korean Han River basin, which is a region where flood disasters frequently occur. In total, this study used 15 indicators to create an IFRI map for the region, and 5 categories of flood risk were distinguished: "very high," "high," "medium," "low," and "very low." The results, which were presented in ternary diagrams to illustrate the relative importance of the three different components, show that urban areas in the Korean Han River basin have experienced a decrease of 1.0% in terms of the hydrologic component. However, the socio-economic and ecological components have increased by 3.2% and 4.4%, respectively. In rural areas, an increase of 4.8% was found in the hydrologic component alongside decreases in the socio-economic (1.6%) and ecological (2.2%) factors. In addition, the IFRI map shows that 20.02% of the total area of the Han River Basin was classified as having "very high" or "high" flood risk; the size of this high-risk zone has increased significantly by since 1990. This study also evaluated flood risks according to the different phases of conditions, and the results from the analysis indicate that flood risks were worse during strong cold-tongue (CT) and warm-pool (WP) El Niño years. Further analyses of possible factors that affect the vulnerability and resilience of communities to flood hazards in the Han River basin should be conducted on the basis of this research. Accordingly, the results from this study may provide useful data for reducing flood risks in developing areas that are experiencing.

  3. Annotation of Hans Bethe's paper, Zeitschrift für Physik 76, 293 (1932), "Braking Formula for Electrons of Relativistic Speed"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Christopher J.; Bostock, Christopher J.; Bartschat, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    We present an annotation of Hans Bethe's "Bremsformel für Elektronen relativistischer Geschwindigkeit" [Zeitschrift für Physik 76, 293 (1932)] (Braking Formula for Electrons of Relativistic Speed). The English translation of the paper appears as a companion to this annotation. We highlight the conceptual and historical aspects of the relevant quantum electrodynamics employed by Bethe, provide details in the derivation of several equations, and point out some typographical errors in the original manuscript.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with atrophic age-related macular degeneration in oldest old Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, T Q; Guan, H J; Hu, J Y

    2015-12-21

    The aim of this study was to identify disease-associated loci in oldest old Han Chinese with atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This genome-wide association study (GWAS) only included oldest old (≥95 years old) subjects in Rugao County, China. Thirty atrophic AMD patients and 47 age-matched non-AMD controls were enrolled. The study subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scanned by Genome-Wide Human Mapping SNP 6.0 Arrays and GeneChip Scanner 3000 7G. The results were read and analyzed by the Affymetrix Genotyping Console software. We filtered out the SNPs with a no-call rate ≥10%, MAF P < 0.05, and HWE P < 0.001. The remaining 561,277 SNPs were included in the association analysis. We found that the following 2 SNPs had the highest association with atrophic AMD: rs7624556 (located on 3q24) and rs13119914 (located on 4q34.3). In conclusion, we identified two atrophic AMD-associated SNPs (rs7624556 and rs13119914) in an oldest old Han Chinese population. This finding may lead to new strategies for screening of atrophic AMD for Han Chinese.

  5. The rs6771157 C/G polymorphism in SCN10A is associated with the risk of atrial fibrillation in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhen; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Yuan; Liu, Yaowu; Zhao, Liyan; Xu, Yan; Toorabally, Mohammad Bilaal; He, Shenghu; Zhang, Fengxiang

    2016-01-01

    A recent genome wide associated study in European descent population identified the association of Atrial fibrillation (AF) risk with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in SCN10A. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SCN10A polymorphisms are associated with AF risk in the Chinese Han population. A total of 2,300 individuals of Chinese Han origin were recruited and three potentially functional SNPs were genotyped. Logistic regression models were utilized to calculate odds ratios (ORs) at a 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Logistic regression analysis in an additive genetic model revealed that one SNP in SCN10A (rs6771157) was associated with an increased risk of AF (adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.36, P = 0.003). Stratification analysis of several main AF risk factors indicated that the risk associations with rs6771157 were not statistically different among different subgroups. In summary, our study suggests the possible involvement of the SCN10A variant in AF development in Chinese Han populations. Further biological function analyses are required to confirm our finding. PMID:27725708

  6. Construction of two fluorescence-labeled non-combined DNA index system miniSTR multiplex systems to analyze degraded DNA samples in the Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue; Li, Shujin; Cong, Bin; Li, Xia; Guo, Xia; He, Lujun; Ye, Jian; Pei, Li

    2010-09-01

    MiniSTR loci have been demonstrated to be an effective approach in recovering genetic information from degraded specimens, because of the reduced PCR amplicon sizes which improved the PCR efficiency. Eight non-combined DNA index system miniSTR loci suitable for the Chinese Han Population were analyzed in 300 unrelated Chinese Han individuals using two novel five fluorescence-labeled miniSTR multiplex systems(multiplex I: D10S1248, D2S441, D1S1677 and D9S2157; multiplex II: D9S1122, D10S1435, D12ATA63, D2S1776 and Amelogenin). The allele frequency distribution and forensic parameters in the Chinese Han Population were reported in this article. The Exact Test demonstrated that all loci surveyed here were found to be no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The accumulated power of discrimination and power of exclusion for the eight loci were 0.999999992 and 0.98, respectively. The highly degraded DNA from artificially degraded samples and the degraded forensic case work samples was assessed with the two miniSTR multiplex systems, and the results showed that the systems were quite effective.

  7. Tag SNPs for HLA-B alleles that are associated with drug response and disease risk in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Sun, J; Yu, H; Chen, H; Wang, J; Zou, H; Lu, D; Xu, J; Zheng, S L

    2015-10-01

    Multiple HLA-B alleles (haplotypes) are associated with drug-induced adverse responses and disease risks but are difficult to be directly genotyped. The goal of this study is to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are able to tag HLA-B alleles in the Chinese Han population. Twelve HLA-B alleles that are associated with drug adverse responses and disease risks were identified. They were sequenced initially in 880 Chinese Han subjects where high-density SNPs within the HLA-B gene were available. Performances of these SNPs to tag the HLA-B alleles were assessed primarily by sensitivity and specificity. Two HLA-B alleles can be reliably tagged by SNPs at 100% sensitivity and >95% specificity. For example, HLA-B*15:02 can be tagged by the 'C' allele of rs10484555, and HLA-B*58:01 can be tagged by the 'T' allele of rs9262570. These results were confirmed in 500 additional Chinese Han subjects. If confirmed in independent studies, these tag SNPs could be used as a reliable, simple and cost-effective alternative for genotyping a subset of HLA-B alleles.

  8. TCEANC2 rs10788972 and rs12046178 variants in the PARK10 region in Chinese Han patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Tan, Ting; Deng, Xiong; Song, Zhi; Yang, Zhijian; Yang, Yan; Deng, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common chronic neuronal degeneration disorder with motor and nonmotor clinical features. The rs10788972 variant of the transcription elongation factor A (SII) N-terminal and central domain containing 2 (TCEANC2) gene in the PARK10 region was recently identified to be strongly related to sporadic PD in the American population. To evaluate whether the same variant is associated with sporadic PD in Chinese Han population, we researched 513 sporadic PD patients and 512 normal controls of Chinese Han ethnicity in Mainland China. No significant difference in genotypic and allelic distributions between patients and control groups for either rs10788972 (for genotypic distribution, χ(2) = 0.412, p = 0.814, and for allelic distribution, χ(2) = 0.280, p = 0.597) or its neighbor marker rs12046178 (for genotypic distribution, χ(2) = 1.500, p = 0.472, and for allelic distribution, χ(2) = 1.339, p = 0.247) was found. Our data suggest that neither variant is related to sporadic PD in Chinese Han population. PMID:26432391

  9. Association between aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) -344C/T polymorphism and atrial fibrillation among Han and Kazak residents of the Xinjiang region

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wu-Hong; Bayike, Maerjiaen; Liu, Ji-Wen; Wang, Shanshan; Xie, Xiang; Yang, Yu-Chun; Liu, Fen; Li, Na; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; He, Peng-Yi; Muhuyati

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one the most common and complex types of clinical arrhythmia syndromes. In recent years, an association between CYP11B2 gene polymorphisms and atrial myocardial fibrosis has received a significant amount of attention. This study explores the relationship between CYP11B2 gene-344C/T polymorphism and AF among Kazak and Han residents in the Xinjiang region and further clarifies the molecular mechanisms of atrial fibrillation. Methods: The study is a case-control study using traditional methods. We selected 156 Kazak and 203 Han patient cases in the Xinjiang region who had non-valvular atrial fibrillation as well as 307 Kazak and 418 Han cases of non-AF patients as a control group. Blood samples were collected, and DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood samples. The presence of the CYP11B2 gene-344C/T polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Differences in the genotypes and allele distributions among the 2 groups were compared using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 17.0 statistical software. Student’s t test, the chi-squared test and logistic regression methods were used for the data analysis. Results: The genotypes of both ethnic groups followed a Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium distribution. The 2 patient groups, compared with their respective control groups, showed significant dominant models in CYP11B2 gene-344C/T polymorphism genotype frequency and B1 allele frequency (P<0.05). The frequencies of the CYP11B2 gene-344C/T polymorphism in the Kazak patient group were higher compared with the control groups (P<0.05). The frequencies of the CYP11B2 gene-344C/T polymorphisms in the Han patient group was also higher compared with the control group (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the frequencies of the CYP11B2 gene-344C/T genotypes were significantly different between the Kazak and Han patient groups and the

  10. Association of FCRL3 Genetic Polymorphisms With Endometriosis-Related Infertility Risk: An Independent Study in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Guang; Wang, Surong; Zhang, Shiqian; Xie, Beibei

    2015-09-01

    The Fc receptor-like 3 (FCRL3) gene was reported to be linked to a variety of autoimmune diseases, including endometriosis-related infertility. However, this linkage has not been studied in Chinese population and there has been no meta-analysis on the interrelationship of FCRL3 gene and endometriosis-related infertility. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between FCRL3 genetic polymorphisms and the risk of endometriosis-related infertility in Han Chinese, and a further meta-analysis was conducted to confirm our results.Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7528684 [FCRL3_3], rs11264799 [FCRL3_4], rs945635 [FCRL3_5], and rs3761959 [FCRL3_6]) on FCRL3 gene were genotyped in a case-control cohort composed of 217 patients suffering from endometriosis-related infertility and 220 healthy controls using cleaved amplification polymorphism sequence-tagged sites (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR-RFLP). Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to evaluate the association quantitatively. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of previous studies including the present study was implemented through Stata 11.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX).We found an approximately 1.4-fold significantly increased frequency of the FCRL3_3 variant in women with endometriosis-related infertility over the controls (OR = 1.41 [95% CI = 1.08-1.84], P = 0.013). However, no significant difference was found between women with endometriosis-related infertility and controls for FCRL3_4, FCRL3_5, and FCRL3_6. Regardless of the symptoms and the revised classification of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (rASRM) stage of endometriosis, there was a significant association between FCRL3_3 variant and an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility. Meta-analysis of previous studies combined with the present study further confirmed the association between FCRL3_3 and the risk of endometriosis

  11. Association Between Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (rs10019009) Polymorphism and Ankylosing Spondylitis in a Chinese Han Population from Shandong Province

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Min; Cui, Ya-Zhou; Zhang, Geng-Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Pang, Jing-Xiang; Wang, Xue-Zheng; Han, Jin-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most common rheumatic condition that is slowly progressive and predominantly affects adolescents. Pathological bone formation associated with AS is an important cause of disability. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible involvement of the genes related to endochondral ossification and ectopia ossification in genetic susceptibility to AS in a Chinese Han population. Methods: Sixty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 13 genes were genotyped in discovery cohorts including 300 AS patients and 180 healthy controls. The rs10019009 in dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) gene shown as association with AS after multiple testing corrections in discovery cohorts was replicated in a validation independent cohort of 620 AS patients and 683 healthy controls. The rs10019009 was assessed with bioinformatics including phylogenetic context, F-SNP and FastSNP functional predictions, secondary structure prediction, and molecular modeling. We performed a functional analysis of rs10019009 via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Results: Interestingly, the SNP rs10019009 was associated with AS in both the discovery cohort (P = 0.0012) and validation cohort (P = 0.0349), as well as overall (P = 0.0004) in genetic case–control association analysis. After a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the effect of this genetic variant was observed to be independent of linkage disequilibrium. Via bioinformatics analysis, it was found that the amino acid change of the rs10019009 led to changes of SNP function, secondary structure, tertiary conformation, and splice mode. Finally, functional analysis of rs10019009 in U2OS cells demonstrated that the risk T allele of the rs10019009 increased enzymatic activity of ALP, compared to that of the nonrisk allele (P = 0.0080). Conclusions: These results suggested that the DMP1 gene seems to be

  12. Association of the GALNT2 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 gene (GALNT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles in the general population is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of GALNT2 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method A total of 775 subjects of Mulao nationality and 699 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of both SNPs between the two ethnic groups, or between the males and females. The subjects with TT genotype of rs2144300 in Mulao had lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with CC genotype in females (P < 0.01). The participants with CT/TT genotype of rs2144300 in Han had lower TG and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB in males; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in females than the participants with CC genotype (P < 0.05-0.001). The individuals with GA/AA genotype of rs4846914 in Mulao had higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels than the individuals with GG genotype in males (P < 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype of rs4846914 in Han had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels, and lower HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of TC in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in males (P < 0.05). The levels of ApoA1 in Han were correlated with the genotypes

  13. Se evitaron casi 800 000 muertes por descenso del tabaquismo

    Cancer.gov

    Programas y estrategias de control del tabaco del siglo XX fueron responsables de la prevención de más de 795 000 muertes por cáncer de pulmón en Estados Unidos de 1975 al 2000. Si todo el tabaquismo en este país hubiera cesado después de la publicación d

  14. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  15. [Effects of ICAM-1 gene K469E, K56M polymorphisms on plasma sICAM-1 expression levels in Chinese Yugur, Tibetan and Han nationalities].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Ying; Bai, De-Cheng; Zhu, Ping; Fu, Yu; Bu, Ding-Fang; Zhang, Ying

    2012-10-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) gene K469E (A/G) (rs5498) and K56M (A/T) (rs5491) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels in plasma in three Chinese populations of Yugur, Tibetan and Han nationalities, to analyze comparatively the genotypes and allele frequencies distribution in different ethnic groups, and to explore the effects of ICAM-1 K469E and K56M polymorphism and sICAM-1 levels in plasma. EDTA-anticoagulant venous blood from Yugur(327 cases), Tibetan (400 cases) and Han (126 cases) people was collected, the DNA was extracted by using whole blood genomic DNA extraction kit, DNA SNP were analyzed by PCR-RFLP, genotype was judged by gel scan imaging system after agarose gel electrophoresis, the gene sequence was determined and the distribution of ICAM-1 genotypes and allele frequencies were compared among different ethnic groups, besides, the group representativeness was tested via the Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium. Finally, the human sICAM-1 plasma levels were detected by using human ICAM-1 ELISA kit. The results showed that DNA sequencing result was consistent with PCR-RFLP analysis. In Yugur, Tibetan and Han nationalities, the KK, KE and EE three genotypes at ICAM-1 K469E gene locus were detected, the genotype distribution was not statistically significantly different, while the K, E allele frequency distribution was statistically significantly different (P < 0.05). Both of genotype and allele frequency distribution between Yugur, Tibetan and Han nationalities were statistically significantly different (P < 0.05). In K56M site only KK, KM two genotypes were detected, but the MM genotype was not detected in the three ethnic groups; the difference of two genotypes and K, M allele frequencies between Yugur and Han population was statistically significantly different (P < 0.05). Among three ethnic groups, the sex ratio and age distribution of K469E, K56M genotypes

  16. Retrospective Study to Determine Diagnostic Utility of 6 Commonly Used Lung Cancer Biomarkers Among Han and Uygur Population in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Yang-Chun, Feng; Min, Feng; Di, Zhang; Yan-Chun, Huang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early diagnosis was the main way to improve the survival rate of lung cancer patients. At present, the methods to diagnose lung cancer were varied, but early diagnosis of lung cancer was still difficult. In experimental and clinical studies, lung cancer related tumor markers were helpful to the early diagnosis of lung cancer. So far, there were many studies about lung cancer related tumor markers in China, but the subjects in these studies were almost the Han population. There were few studies about the Uygur population. Xinjiang was a multi-ethnic region in China, the ratios of Han and Uygur population were 40% and 45%, respectively. Xinjiang also was a high incidence area of lung cancer in China. The purpose of this study was to research the application of 6 tumor markers in Uygur and Han lung cancer patients in XinJiang, China. The study collected 342 cases who were diagnosed as lung cancer in Tumor Hospital Affiliated to XinJiang Medical University from May 2012 to December 2012. Serum concentrations of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokeratin fragment 19 (CYFRA21-1), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), precursor of gastrin-releasing peptide (Pro-GRP), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were tested for every patient before radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery. The serum concentrations of SCC, CYFRA21-1, CEA, CA125, and Pro-GRP were assayed using the micro-particle luminescence analysis testing by the Abbott ARHCITECT i2000SR immunoanalyzer. NSE was assayed by the electrochemical luminescence analysis testing using Roche Cobas E601 electrochemical luminescence analyzer. Serum levels of SCC were different between 2 ethnic populations, smoking should be the influence factor to create the difference. Cluster analysis showed that the NSE and Pro-GRP were helpful to identify small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and CEA, CA125, SCC, CYFRA21-1 were beneficial to diagnose non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The compare of diagnosis

  17. A novel polymorphism (901G > a) of C5L2 gene is associated with coronary artery disease in Chinese Han and Uyghur population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background C5L2, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), has been demonstrated to be a ligand for acylation-stimulating protein (ASP). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of a novel variation (901A > G) of C5L2 gene with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We identified a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), (901G > A), in exon 2 using a polymerase chain reaction direct-sequencing method. This nucleotide change causes the amino-acid order from Arginine to glutaminate at codon 300. We analyzed the relationship between this SNP and CAD in two independent case–control studies: one was in a Han population (492 CAD patients and 577 control subjects) and the other was in a Uygur population (319 CAD patients and 554 control subjects). Results The frequency of AG genotype in CAD subjects was less than that in the control subjects not only in Han (1.8% vs 8.6%, P < 0.001, OR = 0.143, 95% CI: 0.068 ~ 0.302) but also in Uygur population (0.9% vs 5.2%, P = 0.001, OR = 0.246, 95% CI: 0.072 ~ 0.837). After adjustment for known CAD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, age and gender, the difference remained significant. Conclusion The 901G > A polymorphism of C5L2 may be a genetic maker of CAD in the Han and Uygur population in western China. PMID:24073849

  18. Effect of daily milk supplementation on serum and umbilical cord blood folic acid concentrations in pregnant Han and Mongolian women and birth characteristics in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-feng; Hu, Na-shun; Tian, Xiao-bin; Li, Li; Wang, Shang-ming; Xu, Xiang-bo; Wang, Ning; Shi, Cui-ge; Zhu, Jin-cai; Sun, Jing-Sseng; Bao, Jin-hua; Lang, Si-hai; Li, Chang-jiang; Fan, De-gang; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Yu; He, Bin; Wang, Jie-dong; Zhang, Shu-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of folic acid (FA) supplementation in prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs), although the extent of NTDs varies among individuals of different races and ethnic origin. China is a multi-ethnic country with no standard practice for FA-fortified food. Milk is consumed by women, but little is known about the effects of milk on folate concentration in maternal blood and neonatal umbilical cord blood in Han and Mongolian women after stopping taking the supplement for a month and five month, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether only daily consumption of liquid milk can increase the blood folate concentration in pregnant women and whether there are differences in blood folate concentrations between Han and Mongolian women after cessation of FA supplementation. Of the 4052 women enrolled in the parallel group design study. Three thousand five hundred and twenty-six women had confirmed pregnancies and were randomized to receive liquid milk or not until delivery. Women who consumed the liquid milk had significantly increased serum folate concentrations at 16 and 32 weeks of gestation as well as cord blood at birth compared to control groups in both ethnic groups. Infants born to women drinking milk also had better the term birth weight and height, which may be related to the increased concentration of folate. In conclusion, daily consumption of milk can increase the serum folate concentration in pregnant Han and Mongolian women in China (differences in the efficacy of FA and milk supplementation) and may enhance birth outcomes.

  19. Absence of association between two insertion/deletion coding genetic polymorphisms of TIM-1 gene and asthma in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, J S; Liu, Q J; Wang, P; Li, H C; Wei, C H; Guo, C H; Gong, Y Q

    2006-12-01

    TIM-1, a member of T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain (TIM) gene family, was implicated as an asthma susceptibility gene in previous studies. TIM-1 was expressed on CD4(+) T cells after activation and its expression was sustained preferentially in T-helper type 2 (T(H)2) but not in T(H)1 cells, therefore TIM-1 became a good candidate gene for atopic diseases. Recent studies indicated that two insertion/deletion (ins/del) coding genetic polymorphisms in exon 4 of TIM-1 were associated with asthma susceptibility in some but not in all populations. In order to investigate the relationship between TIM-1 genetic polymorphisms and asthma in Chinese Han population, we performed a case-control study for two insertion/deletion polymorphisms in TIM-1 exon 4 (5383_5397ins/del and 5509_5511delCAA) and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in intron 8 (IVS 8+9 G/A) between a healthy control group of 309 people and an asthma patient group of 352 people recruited from Chinese Han population. The polymorphisms were genotyped and the allele and genotype frequencies were analysed, but none of the three polymorphisms showed association with asthma susceptibility in single-locus association analyses. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses demonstrated that the two insertion/deletion polymorphisms were in strong LD but the haplotypes constructed from these two polymorphisms showed no significant association with asthma. In conclusion, our findings suggest that 5383_5397ins/del, 5509_5511delCAA and SNP IVS 8+9 G/A polymorphisms are not associated with asthma susceptibility in Chinese Han population.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of IL-6 and IL-10 genes correlate with lung cancer in never-smoking Han population in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Min; Mao, Yi-Min; Sun, Yu-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, especially in China. It is believed that genetic polymorphisms played a role in cancer susceptibility. Here we investigated the association of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility of lung cancer in never-smoking Chinese Han population. In this study, we performed a case-control study including 330 cases of never-smoking lung cancer patients and 336 cancer-free never-smoking controls in Chinese Han population. We used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to identify gene polymorphisms, and then verified by sequencing method. The results indicated that the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (IL-6 -1363T/G and -572G/C, IL-10 -819T/C and -592A/C) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and confirmed by sequencing, and we found that the allelic frequencies of G in IL-6 -1363T/G, C in IL-10 -819T/C and C in IL-10 -592A/C were significantly increased in lung cancer patients, by comparing with the control group. However, there was no significant difference in the distribution of the IL-6 572G/C polymorphisms between patients and controls. In conclusion, the IL-6 -1363T/G, IL-10 -819T/C and IL-10 -592A/C polymorphisms are closely related to genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smoking Chinese Han population, and these genetic variants might be used as molecular markers for detecting lung cancer susceptibility. PMID:25785092

  1. Five known tagging DLL3 SNPs are not associated with congenital scoliosis: A case-control association study in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Bing-Qiang; Wu, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Qiu, Gui-Xing; Shen, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Yi-Peng; Fei, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Genetic etiology hypothesis is widely accepted in the development of congenital scoliosis (CS). The delta-like 3 (DLL3) gene, a member of the Notch signaling pathway, was implicated to contribute to human CS. In this study, a case-control association study was conducted to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the DLL3 gene with CS in a Chinese Han Population. Five known tagging SNPs of the DLL3 gene were genotyped among 270 Chinese Han subjects (128 nonsyndromic CS patients and 142 matched controls). CS patients were divided into 3 types: type I-failure of formation (29 cases), type II-failure of segmentation (50 cases), and type III-mixed defects (49 cases). The 5 SNPs were analyzed by the allelic and genotypic association analysis, genotype-phenotype association analysis, and haplotype analysis. Allele frequencies of 5 tagging SNPs (SNP1: rs1110627, SNP2: rs3212276, SNP3: rs2304223, SNP4: rs2304222, and SNP5: rs2304214) in CS cases and controls were comparable and there were no available inheritance models. The SNPs were not associated with clinical phenotypes. Moreover, the 5 makers in the DLL3 gene were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD). Both global haplotype and individual haplotype analyses showed that the haplotypes of SNP1/SNP2/SNP3/SNP4/SNP5 did not correlate with the disease (P >0.05). Together, these data suggest that genetic variants of the DLL3 gene are not associated with CS in the Chinese Han population. PMID:27472720

  2. Association between Interleukin-1 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Ischemic Stroke Classified by TOAST Criteria in the Han Population of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhang, Chen; Yu, Yong-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that IL-1β (C-511T) and IL-1α (C-889T) genes polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to cardiocerebral vascular disease. In this paper, we investigated the relationships between these polymorphisms and the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) classified by TOAST criteria in the north Chinese Han population. 440 cases of IS and 486 age- and gender-matched controls of Chinese Han population were enrolled. Association study showed that the TT genotype and T allele of IL-1α-889 C/T were significantly associated with IS of a large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) (TT: OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.34–3.0, and P < 0.001; T: OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.18–1.78, and P = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the distribution of IL-1α-889 C/T genotypes and allele frequencies between the two subgroups (small-artery occlusion (SVD) and cardioembolism (CE)) of IS and control groups. No significant association was also found between the IL-1β-511 TT genotype and T allele (TT: OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.56–1.11, and P = 0.175; T: OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.68–1.01, and P = 0.066) and IS as well as subgroups of CE and SVD. Our results implicated that IL-1α-889 C/T gene polymorphism might be associated with the susceptibility to IS, especially to IS with LAA, in a north Chinese Han population. PMID:24063019

  3. The polymorphism in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene, causing a substitution of Glu > Lys(504), is not associated with coronary atherosclerosis severity in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Chen, Yu-Guo; Geng, Yong-Jian; Zhang, He; Jiang, Chun-Xiao; Sun, Yi; Li, Rui-Jian; Sagar, Madi Bidya; Xue, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol consumption has an important effect on coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAD). Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme in alcohol metabolism. A G-to-A missense mutation of ALDH2 gene, which causes a Glu > Lys(504) substitution, was recently shown to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis; however, its relationship with coronary atherosclerosis has not been well studied. We, therefore, investigated this relationship in Han Chinese. There are two ALDH2 alleles (1 and 2) and their combination: 1/1 (GG, typical homozygote), 1/2 (GA, heterozygote) and 2/2 (AA, atypical homozygote) in the population. Successive Han Chinese, including 89 with myocardial infarction (MI) and 142 with unstable angina, were recruited, and underwent coronary angiography and gene sequencing. Coronary atherosclerosis severity was expressed by the number of lesioned coronary arteries (>or=50% diameter stenosis) and Gensini score, calculated based on the luminal narrowing degree and its geographic importance, as assessed by angiography. Based on their ALDH2 genotypes, the 231 patients were divided into wild-type (1/1, n = 145) and mutation groups (1/2 and 2/2, n = 86). There were no significant differences in basic clinical data between the two groups; however, the mutation group had significantly higher rates of diabetes mellitus and MI, and lower prevalence of alcohol consumption than wild-type group. Yet, the two groups were not significantly different in coronary atherosclerosis severity. Multiple regression analysis has shown that the ALDH2 genotype 1/2 or 2/2 is an independent risk factor for MI, but is not associated with coronary atherosclerosis severity in Han Chinese. PMID:17984618

  4. Effect of daily milk supplementation on serum and umbilical cord blood folic acid concentrations in pregnant Han and Mongolian women and birth characteristics in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-feng; Hu, Na-shun; Tian, Xiao-bin; Li, Li; Wang, Shang-ming; Xu, Xiang-bo; Wang, Ning; Shi, Cui-ge; Zhu, Jin-cai; Sun, Jing-Sseng; Bao, Jin-hua; Lang, Si-hai; Li, Chang-jiang; Fan, De-gang; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Yu; He, Bin; Wang, Jie-dong; Zhang, Shu-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of folic acid (FA) supplementation in prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs), although the extent of NTDs varies among individuals of different races and ethnic origin. China is a multi-ethnic country with no standard practice for FA-fortified food. Milk is consumed by women, but little is known about the effects of milk on folate concentration in maternal blood and neonatal umbilical cord blood in Han and Mongolian women after stopping taking the supplement for a month and five month, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether only daily consumption of liquid milk can increase the blood folate concentration in pregnant women and whether there are differences in blood folate concentrations between Han and Mongolian women after cessation of FA supplementation. Of the 4052 women enrolled in the parallel group design study. Three thousand five hundred and twenty-six women had confirmed pregnancies and were randomized to receive liquid milk or not until delivery. Women who consumed the liquid milk had significantly increased serum folate concentrations at 16 and 32 weeks of gestation as well as cord blood at birth compared to control groups in both ethnic groups. Infants born to women drinking milk also had better the term birth weight and height, which may be related to the increased concentration of folate. In conclusion, daily consumption of milk can increase the serum folate concentration in pregnant Han and Mongolian women in China (differences in the efficacy of FA and milk supplementation) and may enhance birth outcomes. PMID:25516314

  5. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jiantao; Luo, Guilin; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-03-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future.

  6. Association between Carotid Intima-media Thickness and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Glu504Lys Polymorphism in Chinese Han with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Xiang; Zheng, Shu-Zhan; Shu, Yan; Wang, Yong; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is involved in the pathophysiological processes of cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies showed that mutant ALDH2 could increase oxidative stress and is a susceptible factor for hypertension. In addition, wild-type ALDH2 could improve the endothelial functions, therefore reducing the risk of developing atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to explore the frequency of the Glu504Lys polymorphism of the ALDH2 gene and its relation to carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in a group of patients with essential hypertension (EH) and to investigate the association between the Glu504Lys polymorphism and CIMT in Chinese Han patients with EH. Methods: In this study, 410 Chinese Han patients with EH who received physical examinations at the People's Hospital of Sichuan Province (China) were selected. DNA microarray chip was used for the genotyping of the Glu504Lys polymorphism of the ALDH2 gene. The differences in CIMT among patients with different Glu504Lys ALDH2 genotypes were analyzed. Results: The mean CIMT of the patients carrying AA/AG and GG genotypes was 1.02 ± 0.31 mm and 0.78 ± 0.28 mm, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed that the CIMT of the patients carrying the AA/AG genotype was significantly higher than in the ones carrying the GG genotype (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the Glu504Lys AA/AG genotype of the ALDH2 gene was one of the major factors influencing the CIMT in patients with EH (odds ratio = 3.731, 95% confidence interval = 1.589–8.124, P = 0.001). Conclusions: The Glu504Lys polymorphism of the ALDH2 gene is associated with the CIMT of Chinese Han patients with EH in Sichuan, China. PMID:27270535

  7. An association study between DLGAP1 rs11081062 and EFNA5 rs26728 polymorphisms with obsessive–compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang; Cui, Jiajia; Wang, Xiuhai; Ma, Jianhua; Niu, Haitao; Ma, Xu; Zhang, Xinhua; Liu, Shiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent genome-wide association study indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs11081062 in DLGAP1 and rs26728 in EFNA5 were associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in Caucasians. The present case–control association study assessed the global relevance of these two SNPs with respect to OCD subtypes in a Chinese Han population. Methods We recruited 320 OCD patients and 431 age- and sex-matched controls from a Chinese Han population. rs11081062 and rs26728 SNPs were genotyped by real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction, and the chi-squared test was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies of variants between the two groups. Results No significant differences were found in allele or genotype frequencies of DLGAP1 rs11081062 and EFNA5 rs26728 between the OCD and control groups. Moreover, consistently negative results were observed when classifying by sex, onset age, and comorbidity. However, on analyzing OCD subphenotypes, significant associations were observed between rs11081062 and the presence of contamination obsessions and cleaning compulsions (χ2=7.724, P=0.021 by genotype; χ2=3.745, P=0.053 by allele; and χ2=0.821, P=0.365 by genotype, χ2=27.809, P=0.000 by allele, respectively), and rs26728 with the presence of repeating compulsions (χ2=8.285, P=0.004 by genotype; χ2=7.512, P=0.006 by allele). Conclusion Although we found no association between DLGAP1 rs11081062 and EFNA5 rs26728 SNPs with OCD in a Chinese Han population, obvious associations were observed with OCD subphenotypes. Therefore, it appears to be useful to divide OCD into more homogeneous subphenotypes to help understand the complex genetic basis of this disorder. Further investigations are needed to replicate these findings using larger sample sizes, different populations, and other polymorphisms. PMID:25897225

  8. A Case-Control Study of the Relationship Between SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA Gene Cluster Polymorphism and Coronary Artery Disease in the Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zi-Kai; Cao, Hong-Yan; Wu, Hai-Di; Zhou, Li-Ting; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in the solute carrier family 22 member 3 (SLC22A3), lipoprotein (a)-like 2 (LPAL2), and the lipoprotein (a) (LPA) gene cluster, which encodes apolipoprotein (a) [apo (a)] of the lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] lipoprotein particle, have been suggested to contribute to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the precise variants of this gene cluster have not yet been identified in Chinese populations. Objectives We sought to investigate the association between SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster polymorphisms and the risk of CAD in the Han Chinese population. Patients and Methods We recruited 551 CAD patients and 544 healthy controls for this case-control study. Four SNPs (rs9346816, rs2221750, rs3127596, and rs9364559) were genotyped in real time using the MassARRAY system (Sequenom; USA) in the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA gene cluster. All subjects were Chinese and of Han descent, and were recruited from the First Hospital of Jilin University based on convenience sampling from June 2009 to September 2012. Results The frequency of the minor allele G (34.8%) in rs9364559 was significantly higher in the CAD patients than in the healthy controls (29.4%) (P = 0.006). There was genotypic association between rs9364559 and CAD (P = 0.022), and these results still remained significant after adjustment for the conventional CAD risk factors through forward logistic regression analysis (P = 0.020, P = 0.019). Haplotype analyses from different blocks indicated that 11 haplotypes were associated with the risk of CAD. Seven haplotypes were associated with a reduced risk of CAD, whereas four haplotypes were associated with an increased risk of CAD. Conclusions Rs9364559 in the LPA gene may contribute to the risk of CAD in the Han Chinese population; haplotypes which contain rs9346816-G were all associated with an increased risk of CAD in this study. PMID:27621937

  9. Association of GRM7 Variants with Different Phenotype Patterns of Age-Related Hearing Impairment in an Elderly Male Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaojie; Pang, Xiuhong; Li, Jiping; Chai, Yongchuan; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Luping; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Wenjing; Zhang, Qin; Hu, Xianting; Sun, Jingwen; Jiang, Xuemei; Fan, Zhuping; Huang, Zhiwu; Wu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Glutamate metabotrophic receptor 7 gene (GRM7) have recently been identified by the genome-wide association study (GWAS) as potentially playing a role in susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), however this has not been validated in the Han Chinese population. The aim of this study was to determine if these SNPs are also associated with ARHI in an elderly male Han Chinese population. In this case-control candidate genes association study, a total of 982 men with ARHI and 324 normal-hearing controls subjects were studied. Using K-means cluster analysis, four audiogram shape subtypes of ARHI were identified in the case group: ‘‘flat shape (FL)’’, ‘‘sloping shape (SL)’’, ‘‘2-4 kHz abrupt loss (AL) shape’’ and ‘‘8 kHz dip (8D) shape’’. Results suggested that the SNP rs11928865 (A>T) of GRM7 was significantly associated with ARHI after adjusting for non-genetic factors (p= 0.000472, OR= 1.599, 95%CI= 1.229~2.081). Furthermore, frequency of TT genotype (rs11928865) were significant higher in the SL subgroup and AL subgroup with compared to controls group (p= 9.41E-05, OR= 1.945, 95%CI= 1.393~2.715; p= 0.000109, OR= 1.915, 95%CI= 1.378~2.661 adjusted, respectively) after Bonferroni correction. However, there wasn’t significant difference in the frequency of the TT genotype between cases in the FL subgroup or the 8D subgroup with when compared with controls. Results of the current study suggest that, in an elderly male Han Chinese population, GRM7 SNP rs11928865 (TT) occurs more frequently in ARHI patients with SL and AL phenotype patterns. PMID:24146964

  10. Urinary Biomarkers for Monitoring Disease Progression in the Han:SPRD-cy Rat Model of Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Royal, Angela B

    2010-01-01

    The Han:SRPD-cy rat is a well-recognized model of human autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. The disease is characterized by the development of progressive renal cysts, leading to declining renal function. Disease progression typically is monitored by measurement of plasma urea concentration. Although plasma urea may be an adequate measure of overall renal function, urinary biomarkers capable of accurately monitoring disease progression may be equally useful. The goal of this study was to assess several urinary biomarkers as potential markers of disease progression in male and female Han:SPRD-cy rats. These biomarkers were compared with changes in plasma urea concentration and morphometric changes as the disease progressed. Urinary activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and concentration of α-glutathione S-transferase were measured as markers of proximal tubular dysfunction, glutathione S-transferase Yb1 as a distal tubular marker, and collagen IV as a biomarker for glomerular lesions. Urinary albumin was used as biomarker of glomerular or proximal tubular lesions. Albuminuria increased in male rats as the disease progressed, correlating with increasing plasma urea and morphologic changes. Urine concentrations of α-glutathione S-transferase decreased significantly in the male heterozygotic compared with wildtype rats in the later stages of the disease. Urinary concentrations of glutathione S-transferase Yb1 and collagen IV and activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase did not change during disease progression. Measurement of urinary albumin and concentrations of α-glutathione S-transferase may be useful for monitoring disease progression in the male Han:SPRD-cy rat model in future experiments. PMID:21262131

  11. Short communication: SDF1-3'A gene mutation is correlated with increased susceptibility to HIV type 1 infection by sexual transmission in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueyun; W