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Sample records for han population methods

  1. Comparison of Genetic Variants in Cancer-Related Genes between Chinese Hui and Han Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chaoyong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ma, Xixian; Yang, Ming; Wang, Zhizhong; Dong, Ying; Yang, Ting; Yang, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese Hui population, as the second largest minority ethnic group in China, may have a different genetic background from Han people because of its unique demographic history. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic differences between Han and Hui Chinese from the Ningxia region of China by comparing eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms in cancer-related genes. Methods DNA samples were collected from 99 Hui and 145 Han people from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China, and SNPs were detected using an improved multiplex ligase detection reaction method. Genotyping data from six 1000 Genomes Project population samples (99 Utah residents with northern and western European ancestry (CEU), 107 Toscani in Italy (TSI), 108 Yoruba in Ibadan (YRI), 61 of African ancestry in the southwestern US (ASW), 103 Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB), and 104 Japanese in Tokyo (JPT)) were also included in this study. Differences in the distribution of alleles among the populations were assessed using χ2 tests, and FST was used to measure the degree of population differentiation. Results We found that the genetic diversity of many SNPs in cancer-related genes in the Hui Chinese in Ningxia was different from that in the Han Chinese in Ningxia. For example, the allele frequencies of four SNPs (rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498, and rs753955) showed different genetic distributions (p<0.05) between Chinese Ningxia Han and Chinese Ningxia Hui. Five SNPs (rs730506, rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498 and rs753955) had different FST values (FST >0.000) between the Hui and Han populations. Conclusions These results suggest that some SNPs associated with cancer-related genes vary among different Chinese ethnic groups. We suggest that population differences should be carefully considered in evaluating cancer risk and prognosis as well as the efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:26683024

  2. Inner and inter population structure construction of Chinese Jiangsu Han population based on Y23 STR system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Zhang, Jianqiu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 23 Y-STR loci from PowerPlex® Y23 system in 916 unrelated healthy male individuals from Chinese Jiangsu Han, and observed 912 different haplotypes including 908 unique haplotypes and 4 duplicate haplotypes. The haplotype diversity reached 0.99999 and the discrimination capacity and match probability were 0.9956 and 0.0011, respectively. The gene diversity values ranged from 0.3942 at DYS438 to 0.9607 at DYS385a/b. Population differentiation within 10 Jiangsu Han subpopulations were evaluated by RST values and visualized in Neighbor-Joining trees and Multi-Dimensional Scaling plots as well as population relationships between the Jiangsu Han population and other 18 Eastern Asian populations. Such results indicated that the 23 Y-STR loci were highly polymorphic in Jiangsu Han population and played crucial roles in forensic application as well as population genetics. For the first time, we reported the genetic diversity of male lineages in Jiangsu Han population at a high-resolution level of 23 Y-STR set and consequently contributed to familial searching, offender tracking, and anthropology analysis of Jiangsu Han population. PMID:28704439

  3. Comparison of Genetic Variants in Cancer-Related Genes between Chinese Hui and Han Populations.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chaoyong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ma, Xixian; Yang, Ming; Wang, Zhizhong; Dong, Ying; Yang, Ting; Yang, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese Hui population, as the second largest minority ethnic group in China, may have a different genetic background from Han people because of its unique demographic history. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic differences between Han and Hui Chinese from the Ningxia region of China by comparing eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms in cancer-related genes. DNA samples were collected from 99 Hui and 145 Han people from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China, and SNPs were detected using an improved multiplex ligase detection reaction method. Genotyping data from six 1000 Genomes Project population samples (99 Utah residents with northern and western European ancestry (CEU), 107 Toscani in Italy (TSI), 108 Yoruba in Ibadan (YRI), 61 of African ancestry in the southwestern US (ASW), 103 Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB), and 104 Japanese in Tokyo (JPT)) were also included in this study. Differences in the distribution of alleles among the populations were assessed using χ2 tests, and FST was used to measure the degree of population differentiation. We found that the genetic diversity of many SNPs in cancer-related genes in the Hui Chinese in Ningxia was different from that in the Han Chinese in Ningxia. For example, the allele frequencies of four SNPs (rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498, and rs753955) showed different genetic distributions (p<0.05) between Chinese Ningxia Han and Chinese Ningxia Hui. Five SNPs (rs730506, rs13361707, rs2274223, rs465498 and rs753955) had different FST values (FST>0.000) between the Hui and Han populations. These results suggest that some SNPs associated with cancer-related genes vary among different Chinese ethnic groups. We suggest that population differences should be carefully considered in evaluating cancer risk and prognosis as well as the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  4. Population genetic data of the NGM SElect STR loci in Chinese Han population from Zhejiang region, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Anju; Wu, Weiwei; Liu, Qiuling; Wu, Yeda; Lu, Dejian

    2013-03-01

    Genetic variations of the 17 NGM SElect STR loci in Chinese Han samples from the Zhejiang region were analyzed. The results show that the NGM SElect is a highly genetic informative system in Zhejiang Han, and this population shows quite different genetic data from other major populations in the world with the exception of the Fujian Han.

  5. Assessing genome-wide copy number variation in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianqi; Lou, Haiyi; Fu, Ruiqing; Lu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Zhendong; Zhang, Xi; Li, Changhua; Fang, Baijun; Pu, Fangfang; Wei, Jingning; Wei, Qian; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Xiaoji; Lu, Yan; Yan, Shi; Yang, Yajun; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-10-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is a valuable source of genetic diversity in the human genome and a well-recognised cause of various genetic diseases. However, CNVs have been considerably under-represented in population-based studies, particularly the Han Chinese which is the largest ethnic group in the world. To build a representative CNV map for the Han Chinese population. We conducted a genome-wide CNV study involving 451 male Han Chinese samples from 11 geographical regions encompassing 28 dialect groups, representing a less-biased panel compared with the currently available data. We detected CNVs by using 4.2M NimbleGen comparative genomic hybridisation array and whole-genome deep sequencing of 51 samples to optimise the filtering conditions in CNV discovery. A comprehensive Han Chinese CNV map was built based on a set of high-quality variants (positive predictive value >0.8, with sizes ranging from 369 bp to 4.16 Mb and a median of 5907 bp). The map consists of 4012 CNV regions (CNVRs), and more than half are novel to the 30 East Asian CNV Project and the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3. We further identified 81 CNVRs specific to regional groups, which was indicative of the subpopulation structure within the Han Chinese population. Our data are complementary to public data sources, and the CNV map may facilitate in the identification of pathogenic CNVs and further biomedical research studies involving the Han Chinese population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Rapid identification of apolipoprotein E genotypes by high-resolution melting analysis in Chinese Han and African Fang populations.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiu-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Jiao, Ji-Wei; Yang, Li-Ye; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Xie, Dong-DE; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Wei, Er-Jia; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Yang, Hui; Lin, Min

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism can affect APOE gene transcription, serum lipid levels and repair of tissue damage, which could place individuals at serious risk of cardiovascular disease or certain infectious diseases. Recently, high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was reported to be a simple, inexpensive, accurate and sensitive method for the genotyping or/and scanning of rare mutations. For this reason, an HRM analysis was used in the present study for APOE genotyping in the Southern Chinese Han and African Fang populations. A total of 100 healthy Southern Chinese Han and 175 healthy African Fang individuals attended the study. Polymerase chain reaction-DNA sequencing was used as a reference method for the genotyping of these samples. The six APOE genotypes could all be rapidly and efficiently identified by HRM analysis, and 100% concordance was found between the HRM analysis and the reference method. The allele frequencies of APOE in the Southern Chinese Han population were 7.0, 87.5 and 5.5% for ɛ2, ɛ3 and ɛ4, respectively. In the African Fang population, the allele frequencies of APOE were 24.3, 65.7 and 10.0% for ɛ2, ɛ3 and ɛ4, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found between the allele frequencies between the populations (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study revealed the molecular characterization of APOE gene polymorphism in the Han population from the Chaozhou region of Southern China and the Fang population from Equatorial Guinea. The findings of the study indicated that HRM analysis could be used as an accurate and sensitive method for the rapid screening and identification of APOE genotypes in prospective clinical and population genetic analyses.

  7. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haiying; Pa, Lize; Wang, Ke; Mu, Hebuli; Dong, Fen; Ya, Shengjiang; Xu, Guodong; Tao, Ning; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-10-14

    To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47%) than in the Han population (7.36%). In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71%) and the Han population (6.59%). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG), and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting.

  8. [Polymorphism analysis of 20 autosomal short-tandem repeat loci in southern Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Lu, Hui-Jie; DU, Wei-An; Qiu, Ping-Ming; Liu, Chao

    2016-02-20

    To evaluate the value of PowerPlex ® 21 System (Promega) and study the genetic polymorphism of its 20 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci in southern Chinese Han population. We conducted genotyping experiments using PowerPlex ® 21 System on 20 autosomal STR loci (D3S1358, D1S1656, D6S1043, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, TH01, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, D5S818, TPOX, D8S1179, D12S391, D19S433 and FGA) in 2367 unrelated Chinese Han individuals living in South China. The allele frequencies and parameters commonly used in forensic science were statistically analyzed in these individuals and compared with the reported data of other populations. The PowerPlex ® 21 System had a power of discrimination (PD) ranging from 0.7839 to 0.9852 and a power of exclusion (PE) ranging from 0.2974 to 0.8099 for the 20 loci. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was found for all the loci except for D5S818. This southern Chinese Han population had significant differences in the allele frequencies from 8 ethnic groups reported in China, and showed significant differences at 8 to 20 STR foci from 5 foreign populations. The allele frequency at the locus D1S1656 in this southern Chinese Han population differed significantly from those in the 5 foreign populations and from 3 reported Han populations in Beijing, Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province of China. The neighbor-joining phylogenetictree showed clustering of all the Asian populations in one branch, while the northern Italian and Argentina populations clustered in a separate branch. This southern Chinese Han population had the nearest affinity with the Yi ethnic population in Yunnan Province of China. The 20 STR loci are highly polymorphic in this southern Chinese Han population, suggesting the value of this set of STR loci in forensic personal identification, paternity testing and anthropological study.

  9. Systematic screening for CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-Xin; Dai, Da-Peng; Wang, Hao; Huang, Xiang-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Cai, Jie; Chen, Hao; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2017-03-01

    To systematically investigate the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 gene in a Han Chinese population. The promoter and exons of CYP3A4 gene in 1114 unrelated, healthy Han Chinese subjects were amplified and genotyped by direct sequencing. In total, five previously reported alleles (*1G, *4, *5, *18B and *23) were detected, of which one allele (*23) was reported for the first time in Han Chinese population. Additionally, seven novel exonic variants were also identified and designated as new alleles CYP3A4*28-*34. This study provides the most comprehensive data of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in Han Chinese population and detects the largest number of novel CYP3A4 alleles in one ethnic group.

  10. Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua

    2018-01-01

    Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean, the three major ethnic groups of East Asia, share many similarities in appearance, language and culture etc., but their genetic relationships, divergence times and subsequent genetic exchanges have not been well studied. We conducted a genome-wide study and evaluated the population structure of 182 Han Chinese, 90 Japanese and 100 Korean individuals, together with the data of 630 individuals representing 8 populations wordwide. Our analyses revealed that Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations have distinct genetic makeup and can be well distinguished based on either the genome wide data or a panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Their genetic structure corresponds well to their geographical distributions, indicating geographical isolation played a critical role in driving population differentiation in East Asia. The most recent common ancestor of the three populations was dated back to 3000 ~ 3600 years ago. Our analyses also revealed substantial admixture within the three populations which occurred subsequent to initial splits, and distinct gene introgression from surrounding populations, of which northern ancestral component is dominant. These estimations and findings facilitate to understanding population history and mechanism of human genetic diversity in East Asia, and have implications for both evolutionary and medical studies.

  11. Transforming han: a correlational method for psychology and religion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Whachul

    2015-06-01

    Han is a destructive feeling in Korea. Although Korea accomplished significant exterior growth, Korean society is still experiencing the dark aspects of transforming han as evidenced by having the highest suicide rate in Asia. Some reasons for this may be the fragmentation between North and South Korea. If we can transform han then it can become constructive. I was challenged to think of possibilities for transforming han internally; this brings me to the correlational method through psychological and religious interpretation. This study is to challenge and encourage many han-ridden people in Korean society. Through the psychological and religious understanding of han, people suffering can positively transform their han. They can relate to han more subjectively, and this means the han-ridden psyche has an innate sacredness of potential to transform.

  12. Genetic Structure of the Han Chinese Population Revealed by Genome-wide SNP Variation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jieming; Zheng, Houfeng; Bei, Jin-Xin; Sun, Liangdan; Jia, Wei-hua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Furen; Seielstad, Mark; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Population stratification is a potential problem for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), confounding results and causing spurious associations. Hence, understanding how allele frequencies vary across geographic regions or among subpopulations is an important prelude to analyzing GWAS data. Using over 350,000 genome-wide autosomal SNPs in over 6000 Han Chinese samples from ten provinces of China, our study revealed a one-dimensional “north-south” population structure and a close correlation between geography and the genetic structure of the Han Chinese. The north-south population structure is consistent with the historical migration pattern of the Han Chinese population. Metropolitan cities in China were, however, more diffused “outliers,” probably because of the impact of modern migration of peoples. At a very local scale within the Guangdong province, we observed evidence of population structure among dialect groups, probably on account of endogamy within these dialects. Via simulation, we show that empirical levels of population structure observed across modern China can cause spurious associations in GWAS if not properly handled. In the Han Chinese, geographic matching is a good proxy for genetic matching, particularly in validation and candidate-gene studies in which population stratification cannot be directly accessed and accounted for because of the lack of genome-wide data, with the exception of the metropolitan cities, where geographical location is no longer a good indicator of ancestral origin. Our findings are important for designing GWAS in the Chinese population, an activity that is expected to intensify greatly in the near future. PMID:19944401

  13. The chronological age estimation of third molar mineralization of Han population in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Qing, Maofeng; Qiu, Lihua; Gao, Zhi; Bhandari, Kishor

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the chronology of third molar mineralization in Han population of southwestern China and find its unique characteristics so that it would provide a reference in several legal cases like forensic age estimation. The study used Demirjian's staging method to study 2192 orthopantomograms of 984 male and 1208 female subjects aged between 8 and 25 years. The statistical data was analyzed by Student's t test and ANOVA. The conclusions of the study are: (1) The chronological mineralization age of third molars of Han population in Southwestern China is similar to the Turkish and the Japanese, was earlier than the Austrian and Han of South China, but later than the Spanish. (2) The mineralization timing of the third molars between two sides in maxilla or mandible has no significant differences in the same gender group. (3) There is no significant difference in mineralization of third molars between male and female, except for tooth 48 in Demirjian's stage E. (4) The mineralization of third molar in maxilla is earlier than mandible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  15. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure. PMID:27483472

  16. Associations between polymorphisms of HLA-B gene and postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, S-M; Zhou, D-X; Liu, M-Y

    2014-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, which is more prevalent in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis likely develops beginning with genetic risk. This study explored the relationships between polymorphisms of HLA-B gene and postmenopausal osteoporosis in a Chinese Han population. Polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method was used for DNA typing at HLA-B locus in 70 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and 73 healthy controls in female Han population of Shaanxi Province, situated in north-western China. We found that 40 HLA-B alleles in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and control subjects, respectively. Furthermore, the frequency of HLA-B* 3501 allele was significantly higher in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients than in the control group (P = 0.033), and the relative risk was 7.632 (95% CI: 0.927-62.850). Our results suggest that HLA-B* 3501 was likely an important risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis. As different populations have different HLA polymorphisms, further investigation of the relationship of various HLA genes and osteoporosis with larger sample size is still necessary in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Racial differences of endothelial function and plasma endothelin 1 level in preclinical Tibetan and Han male population.

    PubMed

    Yang, B; Zhao, H; Zhang, J; Jiang, B; Li, C W; Cao, Y K; Cao, F

    2016-07-01

    The differences in endothelial function between Tibetan and Han nationality population have not been fully investigated. The aim of this work is to investigate the differences in endothelial function and plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) concentration between Tibetan and Han male population. Totally 272 Tibetan male subjects aged 42.9 ± 9.4 years were enrolled in this study to stand for Tibetan population. All of them were native residents in Lhasa City. And 580 Qinghai-Tibet Railway constructors with Han nationality aged 41.8 ± 11.1 years were enrolled in this study to stand for Han nationality population. All of them were male subjects and lived in Lhasa City for at least 1 year. All subjects lived in the same high-altitude area (the altitude of Lhasa is 3658 m). Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure were evaluated. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in the fasting state using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. Computer-assisted analysis software was used to calculate brachial artery diameters. Venous blood was sampled for the measurement of total cholesterol (CH), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and HbA1c. Plasma ET-1 was quantitated using a commercially available ELISA kits. Totally 272 Tibetan subjects and 580 Han nationality subjects were enrolled in this study. BMI and waist-hip ratio in Tibetan subjects were much higher than those in Han subjects (p < 0.01). LDL cholesterol level and plasma ET-1 concentration in Tibetan subjects were significantly higher than Han subjects (p < 0.01). The baseline brachial artery diameter in Tibetan group was much higher than that of Han group (p < 0.01). The absolute and percent changes in brachial artery diameter were lower in Tibetan population compared with Han population (p < 0.01). The linear regression analysis showed that

  18. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and risk factors related to hypertension among urban adults in Inner Mongolia 2014: differences between Mongolian and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoju; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Li, Yanlong; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Guangjin; Shan, Guangliang

    2016-04-01

    Han and Mongolian populations constitute approximately 96% of the population of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and the two ethnic groups have different genetic backgrounds and lifestyle. We aim to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and related risk factors of hypertension among urban adults in Inner Mongolia, with the comparison of the differences between Mongolian and Han populations in this respect. Three thousand two hundred fifty-one individuals aged 20-80 years (2326 Han and 925 Mongolian) were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from Inner Mongolia in 2014. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were evaluated by the Logistic regression. In addition, possible interactions were also tested. When interactions were found significant, strata-specific analysis were performed. Multivariate logistic regression was used for estimating independent associations between risk factors and hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 27.47% for Han population, 31.46% for Mongolian population. The adjusted prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 26.45, 65.43, 78.24 and 48.28% in Han, and 31.30, 68.22, 85.57 and 50.55% in Mongolian, respectively. There was no significant difference in the adjusted awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among Mongolian and Han adult residents (all P >0.05). Lower prevalence of hypertension was associated with younger age and healthy weight in both Mongolian and Han adults. Within Han adults, high education, moderate physical activity and non-alcohol drinkers were additionally associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, whereas within Mongolian adults, lower prevalence was associated with being female. Among residents with medium education level, nondrinkers had 0.60 times lower odds of having hypertension than current drinkers (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.44-0.82); among residents with high education level, nondrinkers has 0

  19. A panel of ancestry informative markers to estimate and correct potential effects of population stratification in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Qin, Pengfei; Li, Zhiqiang; Jin, Wenfei; Lu, Dongsheng; Lou, Haiyi; Shen, Jiawei; Jin, Li; Shi, Yongyong; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-02-01

    Population stratification acts as a confounding factor in genetic association studies and may lead to false-positive or false-negative results. Previous studies have analyzed the genetic substructures in Han Chinese population, the largest ethnic group in the world comprising ∼20% of the global human population. In this study, we examined 5540 Han Chinese individuals with about 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and screened a panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to facilitate the discerning and controlling of population structure in future association studies on Han Chinese. Based on genome-wide data, we first confirmed our previous observation of the north-south differentiation in Han Chinese population. Second, we developed a panel of 150 validated SNP AIMs to determine the northern or southern origin of each Han Chinese individual. We further evaluated the performance of our AIMs panel in association studies in simulation analysis. Our results showed that this AIMs panel had sufficient power to discern and control population stratification in Han Chinese, which could significantly reduce false-positive rates in both genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene association studies (CGAS). We suggest this AIMs panel be genotyped and used to control and correct population stratification in the study design or data analysis of future association studies, especially in CGAS which is the most popular approach to validate previous reports on genetic associations of diseases in post-GWAS era.

  20. Evaluation of the genetic parameters and mutation analysis of 22 STR loci in the central Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Hongdan, Wang; Bing, Kang; Ning, Su; Miao, He; Bo, Zhang; Yuxin, Guo; Bofeng, Zhu; Shixiu, Liao; Zhaoshu, Zeng

    2017-01-01

    At present, the Han nationality is China's main ethnic group and also the most populous nation in the world. This is a great resource to study microsatellite mutations and for the study of ethnogeny. The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic polymorphisms and mutations of 22 autosomal STR loci in 2475 individuals from Henan province, China. DNA is amplified and genotyped using PowerPlex™24 system. The gene frequencies, forensic parameters, and the mutation rate of the 22 STR loci are analyzed. A total of 295 alleles are observed in this Henan Han population, and the allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0003 to 0.5036. In order to investigate the genetic relationships between the Henan Han and the other 14 different populations, our present data were compared with previously published data for the same 15 STR loci. The results indicated that the Henan Han had closer genetic relationships the groups including Minnan Han, Maonan, Yi and Guangdong Han groups while the South morocco population, the Moroccan population, the Malay group, and the Uigur stand away from Henan Han. Except of D2S441, D13S317, PentaE, D2S1338, D5S818, TPOX and D19S433, the mutation events are found in the other 15 STR loci. A total of 40 mutation events are observed in the 15 STR loci. The mutation rates are ranged from 0 to 4.85 × 10 -3 . In this study, 39 mutations are single-step mutations, and only one at FGA comprised two steps. STR mutation is commonly existed in paternity testing, while there are no STR mutation studies of the 22 STR loci in the Henan Han population. It is of great importance in forensic individual discrimination and paternal testing.

  1. Genotype-phenotype correlation of xeroderma pigmentosum in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Zhang, J; Guo, Y; Ni, C; Liang, J; Cheng, R; Li, M; Yao, Z

    2015-04-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extreme sensitivity to sunlight, freckle-like pigmentation and a greatly increased incidence of skin cancers. Genetic mutation detection and genotype-phenotype analysis of XP are rarely reported in the Chinese Han population. To investigate the mutational spectrum of XP in a Chinese Han population, to discover any genotype-phenotype correlation and, consequently, to propose a simple and effective tool for the molecular diagnosis of XP. This study was carried out on 12 unrelated Chinese families that included 13 patients with clinically suspected XP. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples. Mutation screening was performed by direct sequencing of exons and flanking intron-exon boundaries for the entire coding region of eight XP genes. In 12 patients, direct sequencing of the whole coding region of eight XP genes revealed pathogenic mutations, including seven compound heterozygous mutations, three homozygous mutations and a Japanese founder mutation. Thirteen mutations have not been previously identified. This cohort was composed of four patients with XP-C (XPC), two with XP-G (ERCC5), three with XP-A (XPA) and three with XP-V (POLH). This study identified 13 novel mutations and extended the mutation spectrum of XP in the Chinese Han population. In this cohort, we found that patients with XP-G have no neurological symptoms, and patients with XP-A and XP-V have a high incidence of malignancy. Furthermore, lack of stringent protection against sunlight, late diagnosis and long duration of disease play an important role. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Association of rs662799 in APOA5 with CAD in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Ding, Shifang; Zhou, Mi; Wu, Xiayin; Liu, Xi; Wu, Yun; Liu, Dechao

    2018-01-08

    CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) is a complex disease that influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. Previous studies have found many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of CAD occurrence. However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, we aim to investigate genetic etiology in Chinese Han population by analysis of 7 SNPs in lipid metabolism pathway that previously has been reported to be associated with CAD. A total of 631 samples were used in this study, including 435 CAD cases and 196 normal healthy controls. SNP genotyping were conducted via multiplex PCR amplifying followed by NGS (next-generation sequencing). Rs662799 in APOA5 (Apolipoprotein A5) gene was associated with CAD in Chinese Han population (Odds-ratio = 1.374, P-value = 0.03). No significant association was observed between the rest of SNPs and CAD. Stratified association analysis revealed rs5882 was associated with CAD in non-hypertension group (Odds-ratio = 1.593, P-value = 0.023). Rs1800588 was associated with CAD in smoking group (Odds-ratio = 1.603, P-value = 0.035). The minor allele of rs662799 was the risk factor of CAD occurrences in Chinese Han population.

  3. Genetic variations in MTHFR and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weifeng; Zhang, Sheng; Qiu, Hao; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Bin; Yin, Jun; Gu, Haiyong

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a fatal malignancy associated with low 5-year survival rate. The aim of this study was to assess the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1801133 C>T, rs3753584 A>G, rs4845882 G>A, rs4846048 A>G and rs9651118 T>C genotypes and ESCC susceptibility in a hospital-based case-control study. We conducted genotyping analyses for these five SNPs with 629 ESCC cases and 686 controls in a Chinese Han population. Ligation detection reaction method was used to identify genotypes of these MTHFR SNPs. Our results demonstrated that MTHFR rs1801133 C>T was associated with the risk of ESCC; however, MTHFR rs4845882 G>A and rs4846048 A>G SNPs were associated with the decreased risk of ESCC, and MTHFR rs3753584 A>G and rs9651118 T>C SNPs were not associated with ESCC risk. Our findings suggests that MTHFR rs1801133 C>T, rs4845882 G>A and rs4846048 A>G SNPs may be genetic modifiers for developing ESCC in Chinese Han population.

  4. Surfactant protein B deficiency and gene mutations for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in China Han ethnic population

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaojuan; Meng, Fanping; wang, Yan; Xie, Lu; Kong, Xiangyong; Feng, Zhichun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the SP-B deficiency and gene mutations in exon 4 is associated with neonatal RDS in China Han ethnic population. Methods: The study population consisted of 40 neonates with RDS and 40 neonates with other diseases as control in China Han ethnic population. We Compared SP-B expression in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with immunoblotting, and analyzed mutations in the SP-B gene with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Results: In RDS group, low mature Surfactant protein B was found in both lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in 8 neonates. In control group, only 4 neonates with low mature Surfactant protein B in both lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In RDS group, 20 neonates were found to have mutations in exon 4, 12 homozygous mutations with C/C genotype and 8 heterozygous mutations with C/T genotype in surfactant protein B gene+1580 polymorphism. There were 8 cases mutations in control group, 1 in C/C and 7 in C/T genotype. The frequency of homozygotes with C/C genotype was 0.3 and frequency of heterozygotes with C/T genotype was 0.02 in RDS group. In control group, frequency of homozygotes with C/C genotype was 0.025 and frequency of heterozygote with C/T genotype was 0.175. Conclusion: Low mature Surfactant protein B is associated with the pathogenesis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in China Han ethnic population. Mutations in exon 4 of the surfactant protein B gene demonstrate an association between homozygous mutations with C/C genotype in SP-B gene and neonatal RDS. PMID:23330012

  5. Association between mitochondrial DNA variations and schizophrenia in the northern Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng-Ling; Ding, Mei; Yao, Jun; Shi, Zhang-Sen; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Pang, Hao; Xing, Jia-Xin; Xuan, Jin-Feng; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations are associated with schizophrenia, 313 patients with schizophrenia and 326 unaffected participants of the northern Chinese Han population were included in a prospective study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including C5178A, A10398G, G13708A, and C13928G were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Hypervariable regions I and II (HVSI and HVSII) were analyzed by sequencing. The results showed that the 4 SNPs and 11 haplotypes, composed of the 4 SNPs, did not differ significantly between patient and control groups. No significant association between haplogroups and the risk of schizophrenia was ascertained after Bonferroni correction. Drawing a conclusion, there was no evidence of an association between mtDNA (the 4 SNPs and the control region) and schizophrenia in the northern Chinese Han population.

  6. [Genetic polymorphism and forensic application of 30 InDel loci of Han population in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Bai, Ru-Feng; Jiang, Li-Zhe; Zhang, Zhong; Shi, Mei-Sen

    2013-12-01

    To study the genetic diversities of 30 insertion-deletion (InDel) polymorphisms loci of Han population in Beijing, and to evaluate their forensic application, 210 unrelated healthy individuals of Han population in Beijing were investigated to determine the distributions of allele frequencies by using Investigator DIP system. The PCR products were detected with ABI 3130 XL Genetic Analyzer. Forensic parameters were calculated with relevant statistical analysis software. As a result, after the Bonferroni correction at a 95% significance level, there were no significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or significant linkage disequilibrium between the loci. The power of discrimination (DP) varies between 0.2690 (HLD118) and 0.6330 (HLD45), and the combined discrimination power (TDP) for the 30 InDel loci is 0.999999999985. The combined power of exclusion was 0.98771049 in trio cases (CPE(trio)) and 0.94579456 in duo cases (CPE(duo)). The parentage testing of 32 cases revealed no mutations happened to 30 InDel loci. Multiplex detection of the 30 InDel loci revealed a highly polymorphic genetic distribution in Beijing Han population, which represents a complementary tool in human identification studies, especially in challenging DNA cases.

  7. [Relation between Body Height and Combined Length of Manubrium and Mesosternum of Sternum Measured by CT-VRT in Southwest Han Population].

    PubMed

    Luo, Ying-zhen; Tu, Meng; Fan, Fei; Zheng, Jie-qian; Yang, Ming; Li, Tao; Zhang, Kui; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2015-06-01

    To establish the linear regression equation between body height and combined length of manubrium and mesostenum of sternum measured by CT volume rendering technique (CT-VRT) in southwest Han population. One hundred and sixty subjects, including 80 males and 80 females were selected from southwest Han population for routine CT-VRT (reconstruction thickness 1 mm) examination. The lengths of both manubrium and mesosternum were recorded, and the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum was equal to the algebraic sum of them. The sex-specific linear regression equations between the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum and the real body height of each subject were deduced. The sex-specific simple linear regression equations between the combined length of manubrium and mesostenum (x3) and body height (y) were established (male: y = 135.000+2.118 x3 and female: y = 120.790+2.808 x3). Both equations showed statistical significance (P < 0.05) with a 100% predictive accuracy. CT-VRT is an effective method for measurement of the index of sternum. The combined length of manubrium and mesosternum from CT-VRT can be used for body height estimation in southwest Han population.

  8. Association of inflammatory gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory mechanisms are important in stroke risk, and genetic variations in components of the inflammatory response have been implicated as risk factors for stroke. We tested the inflammatory gene polymorphisms and their association with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population. Methods A total of 1,124 ischemic stroke cases and 1,163 controls were genotyped with inflammatory panel strips containing 51 selected inflammatory gene polymorphisms from 35 candidate genes. We tested the genotype-stroke association with logistic regression model. Results We found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CCL11 were associated with ischemic stroke. After adjusting for multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) with a 0.20 cut-off point, CCL11 rs4795895 remained statistically significant. We further stratified the study population by their hypertension status. In the hypertensive group, CCR2 rs1799864, CCR5 rs1799987 and CCL11 rs4795895 were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke. In the non-hypertensive group, CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 and CCL11 rs4795895 were associated with ischemic stroke. After correction for multiple testing, CCR2 rs1799864 and CCR5 rs1799987 remained significant in the hypertensive group, and CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 remained significant in the non-hypertensive group. Conclusions Our results indicate that inflammatory genetic variants are associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population, particularly in non-hypertensive individuals. PMID:22769019

  9. Genetic variants associated with skin aging in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenshan; Tan, Jingze; Hüls, Anke; Ding, Anan; Liu, Yu; Matsui, Mary S; Vierkötter, Andrea; Krutmann, Jean; Schikowski, Tamara; Jin, Li; Wang, Sijia

    2017-04-01

    The progression and manifestation of human skin aging has a strong genetic basis; however, most of the supporting evidence has been gathered in Caucasian populations. The genetic contribution to the variation in skin aging in non-Caucasian populations is poorly understood. To investigate the genetic risk factors of relevance for skin aging in East Asians, we conducted the first candidate gene study for signs of skin aging in Han Chinese. We collected skin aging and genotype data in 502 female Han Chinese from the Taizhou cohort. We evaluated skin aging by the validated skin aging score SCINEXA™. Confounding factors were assessed through a questionnaire. We obtained the genotype data for 21 candidate SNPs and for a further 509 SNPs from 16 related candidate genes. Associations were tested by linear and logistic regression analyses and adjusted for potential confounders. Our candidate study found a significant association between SNP rs2066853 in exon 10 of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene AHR and crow's feet. In addition, we found a significant association between SNP rs10733310 in intron 5 of BNC2 and pigment spots on the arms, and between SNP rs11979919, 3kb downstream of COL1A2, and laxity of eyelids. Our results identified genetic risk factors for signs of skin aging (pigmentation, wrinkles or laxity) in Han Chinese. We also found that the manifestation of skin aging is further modified by anatomical site. Together with previous work, our results also suggest that different genetic variants could be responsible for distinct skin aging signs characteristic of Caucasians compared to East Asians. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Polymorphism of HLA-B* 40 gene family in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Jin, Shi-Zheng; Cheng, Liang-Hong; Wang, Da-Ming; Zhou, Dan; Zou, Hong-Yan; Wu, Guo-Guang

    2005-04-01

    To investigate the allele distribution of HLA-B* 40 gene family in Chinese Han population and to study its influence on the selection of clinical transplantation donor, the HLA-B genetypes of 381 individuals randomly selected from Chinese National Marrow Donor Project were identified by PCR-SSO, and then all the HLA-B* 40 positive samples from the above population and the B* 40 homozygote samples received from another 1 270 registered donors were analyzed by PCR-SBT and PCR-SSP at high resolution. The results showed that the population of 381 registered donors was examined at HLA-B locus by using Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the gene frequency of HLA-B* 40 was 0.1692. Four different HLA-B* 40 alleles (B* 4001, B* 4002, B* 4003, B* 4006) were identified, and the serological specificity was B60 and B61 respectively. The relative frequency of each allele was 0.1192 for B* 4001, 0.0154 for B* 4002, 0.0038 for B* 4003, 0.0308 for B* 4006. The distribution of B* 40 homozygote revealed a certain regularity at high-resolution, B* 40XX (B* 4001 group), at low-resolution; B* 4001 at high resolution; B* 40XX (B* 4002 group), at low-resolution; B* 4002 or B* 4006 or heterozygote of both at high-resolution. It is concluded that in Chinese Han population, predominant allele in HLA-B* 40 gene family is B* 4001, the high-resolution typing may be recommended to use for the selection of clinical transplantation donor.

  11. Evaluation of candidate genes associated with hepatitis A and E virus infection in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Gu, Maolin; Qiu, Jing; Guo, Daoxia; Xu, Yunfang; Liu, Xingxiang; Shen, Chong; Dong, Chen

    2018-03-20

    Recent GWAS-associated studies reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1, TGFβ1, XRCC1 genes were associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, and variants of APOA4 and APOE genes were associated with and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in US population. However, the associations of these loci with HAV or HEV infection in Chinese Han population remain unclear. A total of 3082 Chinese Han persons were included in this study. Anti-HAV IgG and anti-HEV IgG were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Genotypes in ABCB1, TGFβ1, XRCC1, APOA4 and APOE SNPs were determined by TaqMan MGB technology. In Chinese Han population, rs1045642 C to T variation in ABCB1 was significantly associated with the decreased risk of HAV infection (P < 0.05). However, the effect direction was different with the previous US study. Rs1001581 A to G variation in XRCC1, which was not identified in US population, was significantly associated with the protection against HAV infection in our samples (P < 0.05). In addition, our results suggested that rs7412 C to T variation in APOE was significantly associated with lower risk of HEV infection in males (adjusted OR < 1.0, P < 0.05) but not in females. ABCB1 and XRCC1 genes variants are significantly associated with the protection against HAV infection. Additionally, Chinese Han males with rs7412 C to T variation in APOE gene are less prone to be infected by HEV.

  12. Association between RTEL1 gene polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yipeng; Xu, Heping; Yao, Jinjian; Xu, Dongchuan; He, Ping; Yi, Shengyang; Li, Quanni; Liu, Yuanshui; Wu, Cibing; Tian, Zhongjie

    2017-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulation of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1), which has been associated with telomere length in several brain cancers and age-related diseases, and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a Chinese Han population. Methods In a case–control study that included 279 COPD cases and 290 healthy controls, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in RTEL1 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and gender. Results In the genotype model analysis, we determined that rs4809324 polymorphism had a decreased effect on the risk of COPD (CC versus TT: OR =0.28; 95% CI =0.10–0.82; P=0.02). In the genetic model analysis, we found that the “C/C” genotype of rs4809324 was associated with a decreased risk of COPD based on the codominant model (OR =0.33; 95% CI =0.13–0.86; P=0.022) and recessive model (OR =0.32; 95% CI =0.12–0.80; P=0.009). Conclusion Our data shed new light on the association between genetic polymorphisms of RTEL1 and COPD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. PMID:28360516

  13. Genetic polymorphism of the 26 short tandem repeat loci in the Chinese Hebei Han population using two commercial forensic kits.

    PubMed

    Lei, Liang; Xu, Jie; Du, Qingqing; Fu, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Yu, Feng; Ma, Chunling; Cong, Bin; Li, Shujin

    2015-01-01

    We determined the allele frequencies and forensic parameters for the 26 short tandem repeat (STR) autosomal markers in two commercial kits (the Investigator HDplex and AmpFLSTR(®) Identifiler(®) systems) for 183 unrelated individuals from the Han population of the Hebei Province of China. The 26 STRs were all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No linkage disequilibrium was detected between any pair of loci. The combined power of discrimination and the combined power of exclusion for the 26 STR loci were 1-7.74E-31 and 1-1.21E-11, respectively. Six rare alleles of D10S2325 were identified and named 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 31. All the length of the six rare alleles were out of the range of allelic ladder. We calculated the population pairwise genetic distance based on the allele frequencies, using published population data including German, central Polish, south Dutch, northeastern Polish, south Brazilian, Korean, Sichuan Han of China, and Shanghai Han of China. Also we examined the population pairwise genetic distance of loci included in Identifiler system between Hebei Han and other ethnic population of China. These 26 autosomal STR loci could provide highly informative polymorphic data for paternity testing and forensic identification in the Hebei Han population in China. Because they are all in linkage equilibrium, they could be used together to solve deficient kinship cases or cases with mutations.

  14. Family-based association study between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene promoter VNTR polymorphism and Tourette's syndrome in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguo; Wang, Xueqin; Xu, Longqiang; Zheng, Lanlan; Ge, Yinlin; Ma, Xu

    2015-02-01

    To clarify the association of monoamine oxidase A- variable number of tandem repeat (MAOA-pVNTR) with susceptibility to Tourette's syndrome (TS) in Chinese Han population we discuss the genetic contribution of MAOA-VNTR in 141 TS patients including all their parents in Chinese Han population using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) design. Our results revealed that no significant association was found in the MAOA gene promoter VNTR polymorphism and TS in Chinese Han population (TDT = 1.515, df = 1, p > 0.05). The negative result may be mainly due to the small sample size, but we don't deny the role of gene coding serotonergic or monoaminergic structures in the etiology of TS.

  15. [Polymorphism of PentaD and PentaE STR locus in five Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-ling; Lu, Hui-ling; Lü, De-jian

    2003-01-01

    To obtain the genetic polymorphism data of Guangxi, Hunan, Henan, Sichuan, Taiwang Chinese Han population and compare the polymorphism of PentaD and PentaE STR locus. The two loci was analyzed by using the PowerPlex 16 System. 10 alleles of PentaD and 19 alleles of PentaE were found in the five Han population. PentaD and PentaE have the expected heterozygosity values of 0.7746-0.8047 and 0.9005-0.9219, the polymorphism information content values of 0.7710-0.8025 and 0.8969-0.9176, the discrimination power values of 0.9223-0.9341 and 0.9471-0.9782, the power of exclusion values of 0.5435-0.6325 and 0.6785-0.8465, respectively. The result showed that these two loci were highly informative and suitable for forensic application.

  16. Association of BSG genetic polymorphisms with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Song, Bingxin; Duan, Xiaomei; Long, Yuming; Lu, Jinfeng; Li, Zhibin; Zeng, Sian; Zhan, Qiong; Yuan, Mei; Yang, Qidong; Xia, Jian

    2014-10-01

    The Basigin (BSG, also known as CD147/extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). It is a cellular receptor for cyclophilin A (CypA), and is originally known as tumor cell collagenase stimulatory factor (TCSF), which could abundantly expressed on the surface of tumor cells, haematopoietic, monocytes, epithelial endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Accumulating evidence showed that BSG played an important role in stimulating the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which has been reported to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Since atherosclerosis is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI), we speculate that BSG genetic polymorphisms may influence formation of atherosclerosis and then development of ACI. This study aimed to detect the potential association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, -631 G > T, -318 G > C, 10141 G > A and 10826 G > A) of BSG gene in Hunan Han Chinese population with ACI. We genotyped 199 ACI patients and 188 matched healthy controls for the four BSG SNP by method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-offlight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Our results suggested that all the polymorphisms were observed in the subjects from Changsha area of Hunan Province. However, no significant difference was observed between the distribution of these SNP in cases and controls. Therefore, we speculate that BSG genetic polymorphisms might not be an important factor in the development of ACI in our Chinese Han population.

  17. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongmei; Deng, Mohong; Wang, WenPeng; Zhang, Ji; Mu, Jiao; Zhu, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    A present limitation of forensic anthropology practice in China is the lack of population-specific criteria on contemporary human skeletons. In this study, a sample of 203 maxillofacial Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, including 96 male and 107 female cases (20-65 years old), was analyzed to explore mandible sexual dimorphism in a population of contemporary adult Han Chinese to investigate the potential use of the mandible as sex indicator. A three-dimensional image from mandible CBCT scans was reconstructed using the SimPlant Pro 11.40 software. Nine linear and two angular parameters were measured. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA) were used to develop the mathematics models for sex determination. All of the linear measurements studied and one angular measurement were found to be sexually dimorphic, with the maximum mandibular length and bi-condylar breadth being the most dimorphic by univariate DFA and LRA respectively. The cross-validated sex allocation accuracies on multivariate were ranged from 84.2% (direct DFA), 83.5% (direct LRA), 83.3% (stepwise DFA) to 80.5% (stepwise LRA). In general, multivariate DFA yielded a higher accuracy and LRA obtained a lower sex bias, and therefore both DFA and LRA had their own advantages for sex determination by the mandible in this sample. These results suggest that the mandible expresses sexual dimorphism in the contemporary adult Han Chinese population, indicating an excellent sexual discriminatory ability. Cone beam computed tomography scanning can be used as alternative source for contemporary osteometric techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [A prevalence study on mild cognitive impairment among the elderly populations of Mongolian and Han nationalities in a pastoral area of Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Hu, Riletemuer; Zhao, Shi-gang; Wang, De-sheng; Wen, Shi-rong; Niu, Guang-ming; A, Rong; Wang, Zhi-guang; Jiang, Ming-fang; Zhang, Chun-yu

    2012-04-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics and distribution of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly populations from Mongolian and Han nationalities living in the pastoral areas of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. According to the MCI clinical diagnostic criteria from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th revised edition (DSM-IV) by American Psychiatric Association, the individuals under study were at the age of 55 or over, with Mongolian or Han ethnicities and living in the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia. The crude MCI morbidity rates of Mongolian and Han of the study populations in the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China was 19.48% (1782/9146) and the standardization morbidity was 18.98%. The crude MCI morbidity rates of both Mongolian and Han ethnicities were 17.46% (the standardization morbidity was 16.99%) and 20.60% (the standardization morbidity was 19.98%), respectively. There showed a significant positive correlation between the crude morbidities and age, also significantly increasing with the latter. In the Mongolian population, the morbidity increased from 12.17% at the age 55-59 to 27.78% at 85 while in the Han population, the morbidity increased from 15.50% at the age 55-59 to 23.53% at 85. In both the populations of Mongolian and Han, there was a statistically difference found between the morbidities of MCI (χ2=13.229, P=0.000). The morbidity was higher in Hans than in the Mongolians. However, there was no statistically significant difference noticed between the morbidities of MCI in the Mongolian males and females (χ2=2.376, P=0.123). There was statistically significant difference found between the morbidities of MCI in the Han males and females, with females having higher risk than males (χ2=24.470, P=0.000). The morbidity of MCI in the elderly Mongolian and Han populations from the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China was considered to be quite high and

  19. Association analysis of the SOX10 polymorphism with Hirschsprung disease in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-Wen; Lou, Jintu; Luo, Chunfen; Yu, Linjun; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man 142623) is a typical developmental disorder of the enteric nervous system in which ganglion cells fail to innervate the lower gastrointestinal tract during embryonic development. SOX10 gene is involved in the normal development of the enteric nervous system. Heterozygous SOX10 mutations have been identified in patients with syndromic HSCR. However, no mutations have been reported to date to be associated to isolated HSCR patient. We thus sought to investigate whether mutations in the SOX10 are associated with isolated HSCR in the Chinese population. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing were used to screen 4 exons of the SOX10 gene for mutations and polymorphisms in 104 patients with sporadic HSCR and 96 ethnically matched controls in Han Chinese populations. In this study, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: SNP1: c.18C>T (GAC→GAT) in exon 2; SNP2: c.122G>T (GGC→GTC) in exon 2; SNP3: IVS2+10 (C→G) in intron 2; and SNP4: c.927T>C (CAT→CAC) in exon 4. SNP1 and SNP2 were novel described polymorphisms in the Chinese population. No SOX10 mutations were found in Han Chinese with isolated HSCR. Our results revealed that there was no association between the 4 SNPs of the SOX10 gene and HSCR. This study showed that the SOX10 gene is unlikely to be a major HSCR gene in the Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Associations of Genetic Risk Score with Obesity and Related Traits and the Modifying Effect of Physical Activity in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingwen; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lu, Ling; Zong, Geng; Gan, Wei; Ye, Xingwang; Sun, Liang; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with BMI, predominantly in European ancestry (EA) populations. However, associations of these loci with obesity and related traits have not been well described in Chinese Hans. This study aimed to investigate whether BMI-associated loci are, individually and collectively, associated with adiposity-related traits and obesity in Chinese Hans and whether these associations are modified by physical activity (PA). Subjects/Methods We genotyped 28 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a population-based cohort including 2,894 unrelated Han Chinese. Genetic risk score (GRS), EA and East Asian ancestry (EAA) GRSs were calculated by adding BMI-increasing alleles based on all, EA and EAA identified SNPs, respectively. Interactions of GRS and PA were examined by including the interaction-term in the regression model. Results Individually, 26 of 28 SNPs showed directionally consistent effects on BMI, and associations of four loci (TMEM18, PCSK1, BDNF and MAP2K5) reached nominal significance (P<0.05). The GRS was associated with increased BMI, trunk fat and body fat percentages; and increased risk of obesity and overweight (all P<0.05). Effect sizes (0.11 vs. 0.17 kg/m2) and explained variance (0.90% vs. 1.45%) of GRS for BMI tended to be lower in Chinese Hans than in Europeans. The EA GRS and EAA GRS were associated with 0.11 and 0.13 kg/m2 higher BMI, respectively. In addition, we found that PA attenuated the effect of the GRS on BMI (P interaction = 0.022). Conclusions Our observations suggest that the combined effect of obesity-susceptibility loci on BMI tended to be lower in Han Chinese than in EA. The overall, EA and EAA GRSs exert similar effects on adiposity traits. Genetic predisposition to increased BMI is attenuated by PA in this population of Han Chinese. PMID:24626232

  1. Association of the rs7395662 SNP in the MADD-FOLH1 and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels in the Mulao and Han Populations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ke-Ke; Yin, Rui-Xing; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Huang, Ping; Lin, Quan-Zhen; Wu, Jian; Guo, Tao; Wang, Wei; Yang, De-Zhai; Lin, Wei-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rs7395662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MADD-FOLH1 has been associated with serum lipid traits, but the results are inconsistent in different populations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of rs7395662 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method: A total of 721 subjects of Mulao and 727 subjects of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized samples. Genotyping of the SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and confirmed by direct sequencing. Results: Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.01). The allelic and genotypic frequencies in Han were different between males and females (P < 0.05 for each), but there was no difference between Mulao and Han or between Mulao males and females. The levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB in Mulao females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G allele carriers had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL-C and ApoB in Han males and TC, TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Han females were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01), the subjects with GG genotype in Han males had higher TC, TG, and ApoB and lower LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA or AG genotype, and the G allele carriers in Han females had lower TC and HDL-C levels than the G allele non-carriers. The levels of LDL-C and ApoB in Mulao females were correlated with the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of HDL-C and ApoAI in Han males and HDL-C in Han females were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.01). Conclusion: The

  2. Genetic variation and forensic characteristic analysis of 25 STRs of a novel fluorescence co-amplification system in Chinese Southern Shaanxi Han population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yao-Shun; Chen, Jian-Gang; Mei, Ting; Guo, Yu-Xin; Meng, Hao-Tian; Li, Jian-Fei; Wei, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Xiao-Ye; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 15 autosomal and 10 Y-chromosomal STR loci in 214 individuals of Han population from Southern Shaanxi of China and studied the genetic relationships between Southern Shaanxi Han and other populations. We observed a total of 150 alleles at 15 autosomal STR loci with the corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0023 to 0.5210, and the combined power of discrimination and exclusion for the 15 autosomal STR loci were 0.99999999999999998866 and 0.999998491, respectively. For the 10 Y-STR loci, totally 100 different haplotypes were obtained, of which 94 were unique. The discriminatory capacity and haplotype diversity values of the 10 Y-STR loci were 0.9259 and 0.998269, respectively. The results demonstrated high genetic diversities of the 25 STR loci in the population for forensic applications. We constructed neighbor-joining tree and conducted principal component analysis based on 15 autosomal STR loci and conducted multidimensional scaling analysis and constructed neighbor-joining tree based on 10 Y-STR loci. The results of population genetic analyses based on both autosomal and Y-chromosome STRs indicated that the studied Southern Shaanxi Han population had relatively closer genetic relationship with Eastern Han population, and distant relationships with Croatian, Serbian and Moroccan populations. PMID:28903432

  3. Genetic variation and forensic characteristic analysis of 25 STRs of a novel fluorescence co-amplification system in Chinese Southern Shaanxi Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Shun; Chen, Jian-Gang; Mei, Ting; Guo, Yu-Xin; Meng, Hao-Tian; Li, Jian-Fei; Wei, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Xiao-Ye; Zhu, Bo-Feng; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2017-08-15

    We analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 15 autosomal and 10 Y-chromosomal STR loci in 214 individuals of Han population from Southern Shaanxi of China and studied the genetic relationships between Southern Shaanxi Han and other populations. We observed a total of 150 alleles at 15 autosomal STR loci with the corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0023 to 0.5210, and the combined power of discrimination and exclusion for the 15 autosomal STR loci were 0.99999999999999998866 and 0.999998491, respectively. For the 10 Y-STR loci, totally 100 different haplotypes were obtained, of which 94 were unique. The discriminatory capacity and haplotype diversity values of the 10 Y-STR loci were 0.9259 and 0.998269, respectively. The results demonstrated high genetic diversities of the 25 STR loci in the population for forensic applications. We constructed neighbor-joining tree and conducted principal component analysis based on 15 autosomal STR loci and conducted multidimensional scaling analysis and constructed neighbor-joining tree based on 10 Y-STR loci. The results of population genetic analyses based on both autosomal and Y-chromosome STRs indicated that the studied Southern Shaanxi Han population had relatively closer genetic relationship with Eastern Han population, and distant relationships with Croatian, Serbian and Moroccan populations.

  4. Association between coronary heart disease and erectile dysfunction in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Guo-Xiang; Li, Sheng; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Wei, Wan-Lin; Wang, Xing-Huan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and erectile dysfunction (ED) in Chinese Han population. Patients who went to the andrological out-patient clinic of our hospital between August 1, 2015 and May 1, 2016 and met all eligible criteria were enrolled in this study. The patients diagnosed as ED using self-administered International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire were considered as case group and others were considered as control. The cases were categorized as mild, moderate, and severe ED. Subjects were interviewed for the history of CHD. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the SPSS 18.0 software. A total of 240 participants (56 ED patients and 184 controls) were enrolled. CHD prevalence was higher in cases without statistical significance (OR = 1.20, 95%CI = 0.63-2.29; p = 0.58). Results of adjusted analysis also showed a non-significantly increased risk (OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.55-2.85; p = 0.59). Stratified analysis by severity of ED revealed similar results. This study suggests no significant association exists between CHD and ED in Chinese Han population. PMID:28903442

  5. Genetic variants in NTCP exon gene are associated with HBV infection status in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wennan; Zeng, Yongbin; Lin, Jinpiao; Wu, Yingying; Chen, Tianbin; Xun, Zhen; Ou, Qishui

    2018-04-01

    Sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) plays an important role in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Recently, NTCP was identified as a hepatitis B virus (HBV) receptor. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of NTCP polymorphisms with HBV clinical outcomes and investigate the relationship between NTCP polymorphisms and the serum bile acid level in a Chinese Han population. The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2296651 and rs4646285 were genotyped in 1619 Chinese Han individuals. Improved multiple ligase detection reaction was utilized to genotype. The level of bile acids was measured by the enzymatic cycling method. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was carried out to analyze the potential function. In logistic regression analysis, the frequency of rs2296651 (S267F) CT genotype was higher in HBV immune recovery and healthy control groups than in the chronic HBV infection group (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Patients who carried allele T showed a higher bile acid level than patients who did not carry allele T (P = 0.009). The rs4646285 AA genotype was more common in the immune recovery group than in the chronic HBV infection group (P = 0.011). No difference in serum bile acid was detected between the rs4646285 wild-type patients and mutant-type patients. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed the NTCP mRNA levels were lower in rs4646285 variants than wild types. NTCP gene polymorphisms may be associated with the natural course of HBV infection in a Chinese Han population. The S267F variant may be a protective factor to resist chronic hepatitis B progression which showed a higher bile acid level in Chinese Han chronic HBV infection patients. The rs4646285 variants could influence the expression of NTCP at the level of transcription, and ultimately may be associated with HBV infection immune recovery. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  6. [Polymorphisms of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor and its ligand HLA-I gene among northern Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingyan; Xie, Zhengde; Liu, Yali; Ai, Junhong; Liu, Chunyan; Shen, Kunling

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their specific ligands human leukocyte antigen-I (HLA-I) gene in northern China. METHODS One hundred and eighty-four unrelated northern Chinese Han individuals were recruited. Genotypes of the KIR and HLA-ABC genes were studied by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR). RESULTS Sixteen KIR genes were detected among the 184 unrelated individuals. In all individuals, the four framework genes were present. The frequencies for those carrying the remaining 12 KIR genes have ranged from 16.3% to 99.5%. Twenty-four KIR genotypes were identified, for which half were detected in a single individual. A new genotype comprised of KIR2DL3, 3DL1, 2DP1 and the framework genes was detected in one subject. Respectively, 12, 27 and 11 specificities of HLA alleles were identified on the HLA-A, B, C loci. CONCLUSION The distribution of polymorphisms of KIR and its ligand HLA-ABC genes among northern Chinese Han population have been ascertained. The frequencies of 9 KIR/HLA combinations in the above population have been determined for the first time.

  7. Apolipoprotein C3 (-455T>C) polymorphism confers susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the Southern Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min-Rui; Zhang, Sheng-Hong; Chao, Kang; Liao, Xian-Hua; Yao, Jia-Yan; Chen, Min-Hu; Zhong, Bi-Hui

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) (-455T>C) polymorphism and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the Southern Chinese Han population. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, we recruited 300 NAFLD patients and 300 healthy controls to a cohort representing Southern Chinese Han population at The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, from January to December 2012. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing were used to genotype the APOC3 (-455T>C) variants. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, and body-mass index, TC and CC genotypes were found to increase the susceptibility to NAFLD compared to the TT genotype, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.77 (95%CI: 1.16-2.72) and 2.80 (95%CI: 1.64-4.79), respectively. Further stratification analysis indicated that carriers of the CC genotype was more susceptible to insulin resistance (IR) than those of the TT genotype, with an OR of 3.24 (95%CI: 1.52-6.92). The CC genotype also was associated with a significantly higher risk of hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (P < 0.05). No association was found between the APOC3 (-455T>C) polymorphism and obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperuricemia, hypercholesterolemia, or high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: APOC3 (-455T>C) genetic variation is involved in the susceptibility to developing NAFLD, IR, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL in the Southern Chinese Han population. PMID:25320541

  8. Association of the TRIB1 tribbles homolog 1 gene rs17321515 A>G polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of rs17321515 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near TRIB1 gene and serum lipid profiles has never been studied in the Chinese population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the association of rs17321515 SNP and several environmental factors on serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations. Methods A total of 639 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 644 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotypes of the TRIB1 rs17321515 A>G SNP were determined via polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels were higher in Mulao than in Han (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between the two ethnic groups (P > 0.05). High- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C) levels in Han were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), the subjects with AG/GG genotypes had higher HDL-C and LDL-C levels than the subjects with AA genotype. Total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB levels in Han males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), the G carriers had higher TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB levels than the G noncarriers. HDL-C levels in Mulao males were different among the genotypes (P < 0.05), the G carriers had lower HDL-C levels than the G noncarriers. Serum HDL-C and LDL-C levels in both ethnic groups and TG levels in Han were correlated with the genotypes or alleles (P < 0.05-0.01). TG and HDL-C levels in Mulao males and TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoA1 levels in Han males were correlated with genotypes or alleles (P < 0.05-0.001). TG and ApoA1 levels in Han females were associated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors in both ethnic groups. Conclusions The associations of

  9. No association between FOXP2 rs10447760 and schizophrenia in a replication study of the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiajun; Jia, Ningren; Liu, Yansong; Jin, Chunhui; Zhang, Fuquan; Yu, Shui; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-04-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe and heritable psychiatric disorder, and previous studies have shown that regulation of the forkhead-box P2 gene (FOXP2) may play a role in schizophrenia. Moreover, just a few studies have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10447760 within the gene that was a risk variant for SCZ in the Chinese Han population. To examine whether the variant in the FOXP2 gene contributes toward SCZ susceptibility, we carried out an association analysis of the SNP rs10447760 of the FOXP2 gene in a case-control study (1405 cases, 1137 controls) from China. We identified no association of rs10447760 in the FOXP2 gene with SCZ (all P>0.05). In addition, a meta-analysis indicated that the SNP rs10447760 was not associated with susceptibility to SCZ in Han Chinese populations (pooled odds ratio=1.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-3.31, P=0.39). Thus, our results did not support the association between FOXP2 rs10447760 and schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population, and large-scale genetic replication studies with different racial and geographic origins are required in the future.

  10. FoxP2 is significantly associated with schizophrenia and major depression in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Qian; Wang, Ti; Huang, Ke; Li, Junyan; Li, You; Liu, Jie; Wei, Zhiyun; Wang, Yang; Feng, Guoyin; He, Lin; Shi, Yongyong

    2013-03-01

    The FoxP2 gene, located on 7q31, encodes a transcription factor. It was first discovered through investigations of a large multigenerational family (the KE family) with a rare severe speech and language disorder (Fisher et al., Nat. Genet. 1998;18:168; Lai et al., Nature 2001;413:519). Subsequent studies gave powerful and convincing functional evidence to the connection between FoxP2 and language disorder ( Vernes et al. 2006 ; Groszer et al., Curr Biol 2008;18:354; Vernes et al., New Engl J Med 359(22):2337). Language disorder is commonly considered as a core symptom of schizophrenia and some other mental diseases; thus, we decided to investigate whether the FoxP2 gene played a significant role in schizophrenia, major depression or bipolar disorder in a sample set recruited from the Chinese Han population. In this study, we focused on 12 SNPs in the FoxP2 gene and carried out case-control studies in 1135 schizophrenia patients, 1135 unrelated major depression patients, 1135 unrelated bipolar disorder patients and 1135 unrelated normal controls recruited from the Chinese Han population. We found rs10447760 was significantly associated with schizophrenia (allelic P = 0.00069) and major depression (allelic P = 0.0011). Our study indicated that the rare variant rs10447760 in FoxP2 may play an important role in schizophrenia and major depression in the Chinese Han population.

  11. 11,670 whole-genome sequences representative of the Han Chinese population from the CONVERGE project.

    PubMed

    Cai, Na; Bigdeli, Tim B; Kretzschmar, Warren W; Li, Yihan; Liang, Jieqin; Hu, Jingchu; Peterson, Roseann E; Bacanu, Silviu; Webb, Bradley Todd; Riley, Brien; Li, Qibin; Marchini, Jonathan; Mott, Richard; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan

    2017-02-14

    The China, Oxford and Virginia Commonwealth University Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) project on Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) sequenced 11,670 female Han Chinese at low-coverage (1.7X), providing the first large-scale whole genome sequencing resource representative of the largest ethnic group in the world. Samples are collected from 58 hospitals from 23 provinces around China. We are able to call 22 million high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the nuclear genome, representing the largest SNP call set from an East Asian population to date. We use these variants for imputation of genotypes across all samples, and this has allowed us to perform a successful genome wide association study (GWAS) on MDD. The utility of these data can be extended to studies of genetic ancestry in the Han Chinese and evolutionary genetics when integrated with data from other populations. Molecular phenotypes, such as copy number variations and structural variations can be detected, quantified and analysed in similar ways.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in diabetes mellitus patients in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suijun; Wu, Songhua; Zheng, Taishan; Yang, Zhen; Ma, Xiaojing; Jia, Weiping; Xiang, Kunsan

    2013-12-01

    Mutations of mitochondrial DNA are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). The present case-control study aimed to investigate the mutations of mitochondrial DNA in DM patients of Chinese Han ethnicity. A total of 770 DM patients and 309 healthy control individuals were enrolled. The mitochondrial DNA was extracted from blood cells and analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. In the diabetes group, there were 13 (1.69%) individuals carrying the mt3243 A → G mutation while none of the healthy control had this mutation. Though the 14709, 3316, 3394, and 12026 mutation variants were identified in 9, 17, 18 and 28 in DM patients respectively, there were no significant differences compared with control group. And the 3256, 8296, 8344, 8363, 3426 and 12258 mutations were not detected in either group. In the diabetes group, two double mutations were identified: A3243G+T3394C and A3243G+A12026G. Our data suggested that mitochondrial gene tRNA(Leu(UUR)) 3243 A → G mutation may be one risk of prevalence of DM and associated with worse clinical status in Chinese Han population. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of A- and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of A-A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. There was also significant difference in the genotypic frequencies between males and females in Bai Ku Yao (P <0.05), and in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between normal LDL-C (≤ 3.20 mmol/L) and high LDL-C (>3.20 mmol/L) subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each) and between males and females in Han (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of LDL-C in males and TC and HDL-C in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for all) in Bai Ku Yao, whereas the levels of HDL-C in males and HDL-C and ApoA1 in females were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001) in Han. The subjects with A+A+ genotype had

  14. The association between oxcarbazepine-induced maculopapular eruption and HLA-B alleles in a Northern Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between oxcarbazepine (OXC)-induced maculopapular eruption (MPE) and HLA-B alleles in a northern Han Chinese population, and conducted an analysis of clinical risk factors for OXC-MPE. Methods Forty-two northern Han Chinese patients who had been treated with OXC in Changchun, China were genotyped. Among them were 14 cases with OXC-induced MPE; the remaining 28 were OXC-tolerant. The HLA-B allele frequencies of the normal control group were found in the Allele Frequency Net Database. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer( PCR-SSP )was used for HLA-B*1502 testing and direct sequencing for four-digit genotype determination. Results Four-digit allele sequencing showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of the HLA-B*1502 allele between the OXC-MPE and OXC-tolerant controls (3.6% versus 7.5%, OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.04–3.40, P = 0.65), as well as between OXC-MPE and normal controls (3.6% versus 2.4%, OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.20–11.73, P = 0.49). However, a significant difference in the frequency of HLA-B*3802 alleles was found between the MPE group and normal controls (10.7% versus 1.9%, OR = 6.329, 95% CI = 1.783-22.460, P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in terms of age, gender, or final OXC dose between the OXC-MPE and OXC-tolerant groups. Conclusions There was no significant association between OXC-MPE and HLA-B*1502 in the northern Han Chinese population in our study. Instead, HLA-B*3802 was found to be a potential risk factor for OXC-MPE. PMID:23829937

  15. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Protein 3 Interacting Protein 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Pustular Psoriasis in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yong; Alateng, Chulu; Li, Hong-Bin; Bai, Yun-Hua; Lyu, Xin-Xiang; Wu, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is the severe and rare type of psoriasis. The association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced protein 3 interacting protein 1 (TNIP1) gene and psoriasis was confirmed in people with multiple ethnicities. This study was to investigate the association between TNIP1 gene polymorphisms and pustular psoriasis in Chinese Han population. Methods: Seventy-three patients with GPP, 67 patients with palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), and 476 healthy controls were collected from Chinese Han population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNIP1 gene, namely rs3805435, rs3792798, rs3792797, rs869976, rs17728338, and rs999011 were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction. Statistical analyses were performed using the PLINK 1.07 package. Allele frequencies and genotyping frequencies for six SNPs were compared by using Chi-square test, odd ratio (OR) (including 95% confidence interval) were calculated. The haplotype analysis was conducted by Haploview software. Results: The frequencies of alleles of five SNPs were significantly different between the GPP group and the control group (P ≤ 7.22 × 10−3), especially in the GPP patients without psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). In the haplotype analysis, the most significantly different haplotype was H4: ACGAAC, with 13.1% frequency in the GPP group but only 3.4% in the control group (OR = 4.16, P = 4.459 × 10−7). However, no significant difference in the allele frequencies was found between the PPP group and control group for each of the six SNPs (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with GPP in Chinese Han population. However, no association with PPP was found. These findings suggest that TNIP1 might be a susceptibility gene for GPP. PMID:27364786

  16. [Distribution of variant alleles association with warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the Han population in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhong, Shi-long; Yang, Min; Tan, Hong-hong; Fei, Hong-wen; Chen, Ji-yan; Yu, Xi-yong; Lin, Shu-guang

    2011-12-18

    To investigate distribution of CYP2C9, CYP3A4, VKORC1 and GGCX gene polymorphisms in the Han population of Guangdong. The subjects included were 970 Chinese Han patients who received long-term warfarin anticoagulant therapy orally after valve replacement in Guangdong General Hospital between 2000 and 2008. By selecting and analyzing the 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) loci, rs12572351 G>A, rs9332146 G>A, rs4917639 G>T, rs1057910 A>C (CYP2C9*3), rs1934967 G>T, rs1934968 G>A, rs2242480 T>C, rs2246709 G>A, rs9923231 C>T (VKORC1-1639 G>A), rs2359612 G>A (VKORC1*2), rs10871454 C>T, and rs699664 T>C, in 4 genes including CYP2C9, CYP3A4, VKORC1 and GGCX that were possibly correlated with warfarin pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics through literature retrieval, the distribution of mutation frequencies of the 12 SNPs loci in Chinese Han population were obtained systematically. SNaPshot technique was used to detect gene SNPs, Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium test was used to test population representativeness. The allelic mutation frequency at CYP2C9 gene rs12572351 G>A, rs9332146 G>A, rs4917639 C>A, rs1057910 A>C (*3), rs1934967 G>T and rs1934968 G>A loci was 32.53%, 2.16%, 8.25%, 3.61%, 19.18% and 37.37%, respectively; the allelic mutation frequency at CYP3A4 gene rs2242480 T>C and rs2246709 G>A loci was 29.07% and 40.41%, respectively; the allelic mutation frequency at VKORC1 gene rs9923231 C>T, rs2359612 G>A and rs10871454 C>T SNPs loci was 87.99%, 87.94% and 91.34%, respectively; the allelic mutation frequency at GGCX gene rs699664 T>C locus was 31.86%. It is of important clinical significance in individualized warfarin therapy to systematically study distribution of mutation frequencies at 12 polymorphisms loci in 4 genes including CYP2C9, CYP3A4 , VKORC1 and GGCX related to warfarin pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in the Chinese Han population receiving valve replacement.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is inconsistent in several previous studies. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of PPARD +294T > C (rs2016520) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 609 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 573 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the PPARD +294T > C polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.001 for all). The frequency of T and C alleles was 77.50% and 22.50% in Bai Ku Yao, and 72.43% and 27.57% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of TT, TC and CC genotypes was 60.59%, 33.83% and 5.53% in Bai Ku Yao, and 52.18%, 40.50% and 7.32% in Han (P < 0.05); respectively. The subjects with CC genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum LDL-C and ApoB levels and lower the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB than the subjects with TT and TC genotypes in females but not in males. The C allele carriers in Han had higher serum TC levels in males (P < 0.01) and ApoB levels in females (P < 0.05) than the C allele noncarriers. Serum TC and ApoB levels were correlated with genotypes in Han (P < 0.05 for each) but not in Bai Ku Yao. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the association of PPARD +294T > C polymorphism and serum lipid levels is

  18. Association of inflammatory gene polymorphisms with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yongqin; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jiana; Yu, Litian; Ma, Liyuan; Wang, Shuyu; Zhang, Hongye; Liu, Lisheng; Zhao, Jingbo; Wang, Xingyu

    2012-07-06

    Inflammatory mechanisms are important in stroke risk, and genetic variations in components of the inflammatory response have been implicated as risk factors for stroke. We tested the inflammatory gene polymorphisms and their association with ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population. A total of 1,124 ischemic stroke cases and 1,163 controls were genotyped with inflammatory panel strips containing 51 selected inflammatory gene polymorphisms from 35 candidate genes. We tested the genotype-stroke association with logistic regression model. We found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CCL11 were associated with ischemic stroke. After adjusting for multiple testing using false discovery rate (FDR) with a 0.20 cut-off point, CCL11 rs4795895 remained statistically significant. We further stratified the study population by their hypertension status. In the hypertensive group, CCR2 rs1799864, CCR5 rs1799987 and CCL11 rs4795895 were nominally associated with increased risk of stroke. In the non-hypertensive group, CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 and CCL11 rs4795895 were associated with ischemic stroke. After correction for multiple testing, CCR2 rs1799864 and CCR5 rs1799987 remained significant in the hypertensive group, and CCL11 rs3744508, LTC4S rs730012, FCER1B rs569108, TGFB1 rs1800469, LTA rs909253 remained significant in the non-hypertensive group. Our results indicate that inflammatory genetic variants are associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese Han population, particularly in non-hypertensive individuals.

  19. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is an independent risk factor of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Wei Zuo, Shang; Li, Yue; Jia, Xin; Jia, Sen Hao; Zhang, Tao; Xiang Song, Yu; Qi Wei, Ying; Xiong, Jiang; Hua Hu, Yong; Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The associations between hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remain controversial, with only few studies focused on these associations within the Chinese population. We performed subgroup and interaction analyses in a Chinese Han population to investigate these associations. In all, 155 AAA patients and 310 control subjects were evaluated for serum total homocysteine levels and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the aforementioned associations. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted according to age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, and chronic disease histories. The multiple logistic analyses showed a significant association between HHcy and AAA but no significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. The interaction analysis showed that age and peripheral arterial disease played an interactive role in the association between HHcy and AAA, while drinking status played an interactive role in the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and AAA. In conclusion, HHcy is an independent risk factor of AAA in a Chinese Han population, especially in the elderly and peripheral arterial disease subgroups. Longitudinal studies and clinical trials aimed to reduce homocysteine levels are warranted to assess the causal nature of these relationships PMID:26865327

  20. Association of the GALNT2 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 gene (GALNT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles in the general population is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of GALNT2 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Method A total of 775 subjects of Mulao nationality and 699 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of both SNPs between the two ethnic groups, or between the males and females. The subjects with TT genotype of rs2144300 in Mulao had lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with CC genotype in females (P < 0.01). The participants with CT/TT genotype of rs2144300 in Han had lower TG and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB in males; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in females than the participants with CC genotype (P < 0.05-0.001). The individuals with GA/AA genotype of rs4846914 in Mulao had higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels than the individuals with GG genotype in males (P < 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype of rs4846914 in Han had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels, and lower HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of TC in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in males (P < 0.05). The levels of ApoA1 in Han were correlated with the genotypes

  1. Association of polymorphisms in survivin gene with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese han population: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Survivin, one of the strongest apoptosis inhibitors, plays a critical role in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). By comparison, relatively little is known about the effect of survivin gene polymorphisms on HCC susceptibility. Our study aimed to investigate the association of survivin gene polymorphisms with the risk of HCC in Chinese han population. Methods A case-control study was conducted in Chinese han population consisting of 178 HCC cases and 196 cancer-free controls. Information on demographic data and related risk factors was collected for all subjects. Polymorphisms of the survivin gene, including three loci of rs8073069, rs9904341 and rs1042489, were selected and genotyped by a polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Association analysis of genotypes/alleles and haplotypes from these loci with the risk of HCC was conducted under different genetic models. Results Using univariate analysis of rs8073069, rs9904341 and rs1042489 under different genetic models, no statistically significant difference was found in genotype or allele distribution of HCC cases relative to the controls (P > 0.05). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis showed that these loci were in LD. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that with no G-C-T haplotype as reference, the haplotype of G-C-T from these loci was associated with a lower risk for HCC under the recessive model (OR = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24~0.90, P = 0.023). Both HBsAg+ and the medical history of viral hepatitis type B were risk factors for HCC. However, no statistically significant haplotype-environment interaction existed. Conclusions No association between rs8073069, rs9904341 or rs1042489 in survivin gene and the risk of HCC is found in Chinese han population, but rs8073069G-rs9904341C- rs1042489T is perhaps a protective haplotype for HCC. PMID:22214342

  2. Population data and mutation rates of 20 autosomal STR loci in a Chinese Han population from Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Runfang; Wang, Guiyi; Shi, Yuan; Gu, Tao; Hu, Liping; Nie, Shengjie

    2018-07-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of 20 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in the PowerPlex® 21 kit were evaluated from 2068 unrelated, healthy individuals from the Chinese Han population of Yunnan Province in southwest China. All of the loci reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These loci were examined to determine allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters. The genetic relationships among the Yunnan Han and other Chinese populations were also estimated. The combined discrimination power and probability of excluding paternity of the 20 STR loci were 0.99999999999999999999999126 and 0.999999975, respectively. In addition, mutation rates from 4363 parentage cases (2215 trios and 2148 duos) were investigated in this study. A total of 164 mutations were observed in 6578 meioses from the 20 loci. The highest mutation rate was observed in D12S391 (0.30%), and the lowest mutation rates were observed in D13S317 (0.03%) and TPOX (0.03%). The average mutation rate for the 20 loci was estimated to be 1.246 × 10 -3 per meiosis. The mutations were primarily single-step and paternal mutations.

  3. A probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations

    PubMed Central

    He, Yungang; Wang, Minxian; Huang, Xin; Li, Ran; Xu, Hongyang; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Human populations around the world encounter various environmental challenges and, consequently, develop genetic adaptations to different selection forces. Identifying the differences in natural selection between populations is critical for understanding the roles of specific genetic variants in evolutionary adaptation. Although numerous methods have been developed to detect genetic loci under recent directional selection, a probabilistic solution for testing and quantifying selection differences between populations is lacking. Here we report the development of a probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations. By use of a probabilistic model of genetic drift and selection, we showed that logarithm odds ratios of allele frequencies provide estimates of the differences in selection coefficients between populations. The estimates approximate a normal distribution, and variance can be estimated using genome-wide variants. This allows us to quantify differences in selection coefficients and to determine the confidence intervals of the estimate. Our work also revealed the link between genetic association testing and hypothesis testing of selection differences. It therefore supplies a solution for hypothesis testing of selection differences. This method was applied to a genome-wide data analysis of Han and Tibetan populations. The results confirmed that both the EPAS1 and EGLN1 genes are under statistically different selection in Han and Tibetan populations. We further estimated differences in the selection coefficients for genetic variants involved in melanin formation and determined their confidence intervals between continental population groups. Application of the method to empirical data demonstrated the outstanding capability of this novel approach for testing and quantifying differences in natural selection. PMID:26463656

  4. Association of NCOA3 polymorphisms with Dyslipidemia in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mingxi; Gilbert, Siame; Li, Yong; Zhang, Huiping; Qiao, Yichun; Lu, Yuping; Tang, Yuan; Zhen, Qing; Cheng, Yi; Liu, Yawen

    2015-10-09

    Nuclear receptor coactivator-3 (NCOA3) is involved in various physiological processes. Emerging evidence from previous studies using animal models suggests that the NCOA3 gene (NCOA3) plays a critical role in lipid metabolism as well as adipogenesis and obesity. The present study aims to investigate the association between NCOA3 SNPs and dyslipidemia in the Chinese Han population. Five hundred and twenty-nine (529) Chinese Han subjects were recruited. Four tag SNPs (rs2425955G > T, rs6066394T > C, rs10485463C > G, and rs6094753G > A) in NCOA3, selected from the HapMap website, were genotyped using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0, SNPStats and haploview 4.2. Four SNPs (rs2425955, rs6066394, rs10485463, and rs6094753) were associated with triglyceride levels. Except for SNP rs10485463, genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the other three NCOA3 SNPs (rs2425955, rs6066394, and rs6094753) were significantly different between hypertriglyceridemia subjects and normal group. Significant differences were also observed in allele frequencies and genotype distributions of SNP rs10485463 between low-HDL cholesterolemia subjects and normal group. Carriers of rs2425955 T allele had a lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia compared to GG genotype. Similar results were observed from rs6094753. Subjects with rs6066394 CT genotype had a lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia than those with the TT genotype; however, CC and TT genotypes showed no significant difference in the risk of hypertriglyceridemia. Similar results were found in the association between rs6066394 and hypercholesterolemia. The variant alleles of rs2425955, rs6066394 and rs6094753 were associated with a lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia compared with the wild-type alleles. The G allele of rs10485463 was associated with an increased risk of low-HDL cholesterolemia. In the log-additive model the association between rs2425955 and hypertriglyceridemia remained significant

  5. RTEL1 polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer risk in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shouchun; Xia, Ridong; Jin, Tianbo; Ren, Hui; Yang, Hua; Li, Jing; Yan, Mengdan; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-10-25

    RTEL1 (regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1; OMIM 608833) gene polymorphisms were linked to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility in a cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) Here, we assessed whether seven previously reported RTEL1 polymorphisms influenced LC risk in Han Chinese population. All study samples (554 LC cases and 696 cancer-free controls) were collected from the Affiliated Hospital of Xizang Minzu University in China. We assessed associations between SNPs and LC risk using various several genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and additive). Whereas rs2738780 showed a protective effect against LC (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.80 ;95% confidence interval (CI): 0.638 = 0.998; p = 0.048), rs7261546(OR = 4.16; 95% CI: 1.35-12.82; p = 0.007), rs6062299(OR=5.08; 95% CI: 1.43-18.10; p = 0.005) and rs3787098(OR = 5.10; 95% CI: 1.43-18.15; p = 0.004) were all associated with increased LC susceptibility (recessive model). Haplotype analysis suggested that ''CTC'' was associated with a 0.8-fold decrease in LC risk (OR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.63-1.00; Pearson's p = 0.05). These findings suggest a potential association between RTEL1 polymorphisms and LC risk in a Chinese Han population.

  6. Association between RTEL1 gene polymorphisms and COPD susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yipeng; Xu, Heping; Yao, Jinjian; Xu, Dongchuan; He, Ping; Yi, Shengyang; Li, Quanni; Liu, Yuanshui; Wu, Cibing; Tian, Zhongjie

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulation of telomere elongation helicase 1 ( RTEL1 ), which has been associated with telomere length in several brain cancers and age-related diseases, and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a Chinese Han population. In a case-control study that included 279 COPD cases and 290 healthy controls, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in RTEL1 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and gender. In the genotype model analysis, we determined that rs4809324 polymorphism had a decreased effect on the risk of COPD (CC versus TT: OR =0.28; 95% CI =0.10-0.82; P =0.02). In the genetic model analysis, we found that the "C/C" genotype of rs4809324 was associated with a decreased risk of COPD based on the codominant model (OR =0.33; 95% CI =0.13-0.86; P =0.022) and recessive model (OR =0.32; 95% CI =0.12-0.80; P =0.009). Our data shed new light on the association between genetic polymorphisms of RTEL1 and COPD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.

  7. [Genetic polymorphisms of ARL15 and HLA-DMA are associated with rheumatoid arthritis in Han population from northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Qi, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Yan, Wen; You, Chongge

    2017-12-01

    Objective To establish the methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ADP-ribosylation factor-like GTPase 15 (ARL15), major histocompatibility complex class II-DM alpha (HLA-DMA ) and nuclear factor kappa B subunit 2 (NFKB2) genes using high resolution melting (HRM) technology, and to explore the association of those SNPs with the susceptibility of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in northwestern Han Chinese population. Methods The PCR-HRM detection system for four SNPs (rs255758, rs1063478, rs397514331 and rs397514332) was established for genotyping, and gene sequencing was performed to validate the genotyping ability of the system. 588 RA cases and 200 controls were enrolled in a case-control study to analyze the associations of ARL15 and HLA-DMA gene polymorphisms with RA risk. Results The direct sequencing validated that the established PCR-HRM detection system could be used for genotyping clinical samples correctly. The mutated genotype of rs397514331 and rs397514332 from NFKB2 gene are not found in this study. The genotype frequencies of rs255758 and rs1063478 had statistical difference between the cases and controls, but no statistical difference in allelic frequencies. Under the dominant model (AA vs AC/CC), the AA genotype of rs255758 decreases the RA risk (OR=0.666, 95%CI=0.478-0.927, P=0.016). Conclusion The method of PCR-HRM we established can be applied to the routine detection of rs255758, rs1063478, rs397514331 and rs397514332. The ARL15 and HLA-DMA gene polymorphisms are associated with RA risk in Northwestern Han Chinese population.

  8. Association of the LIPG 584C > T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the association of endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) polymorphism and serum HDL-C levels is scarce and conflicting in diverse populations. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPG 584C > T (rs2000813) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 645 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 638 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPG 584C > T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05 - 0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 73.5% and 26.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 67.9% and 32.1% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 50.4%, 46.2% and 3.4% in Bai Ku Yao, and 41.4%, 53.1% and 5.5% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. Serum HDL-C levels in both ethnic groups were different among the three genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). Serum TC levels in both ethnic groups were also different between the CC and CT/TT genotypes (P < 0.05 for each). The T allele carriers had higher serum HDL-C and TC levels than the T allele noncarriers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the levels of HDL-C and ApoB were correlated with genotypes in Bai Ku Yao (P < 0.05 for each), whereas the levels of TC and HDL-C were associated with genotypes in Han Chinese (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the both ethnic

  9. A probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations.

    PubMed

    He, Yungang; Wang, Minxian; Huang, Xin; Li, Ran; Xu, Hongyang; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li

    2015-12-01

    Human populations around the world encounter various environmental challenges and, consequently, develop genetic adaptations to different selection forces. Identifying the differences in natural selection between populations is critical for understanding the roles of specific genetic variants in evolutionary adaptation. Although numerous methods have been developed to detect genetic loci under recent directional selection, a probabilistic solution for testing and quantifying selection differences between populations is lacking. Here we report the development of a probabilistic method for testing and estimating selection differences between populations. By use of a probabilistic model of genetic drift and selection, we showed that logarithm odds ratios of allele frequencies provide estimates of the differences in selection coefficients between populations. The estimates approximate a normal distribution, and variance can be estimated using genome-wide variants. This allows us to quantify differences in selection coefficients and to determine the confidence intervals of the estimate. Our work also revealed the link between genetic association testing and hypothesis testing of selection differences. It therefore supplies a solution for hypothesis testing of selection differences. This method was applied to a genome-wide data analysis of Han and Tibetan populations. The results confirmed that both the EPAS1 and EGLN1 genes are under statistically different selection in Han and Tibetan populations. We further estimated differences in the selection coefficients for genetic variants involved in melanin formation and determined their confidence intervals between continental population groups. Application of the method to empirical data demonstrated the outstanding capability of this novel approach for testing and quantifying differences in natural selection. © 2015 He et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Identification of IL-7 as a candidate disease mediator in osteoarthritis in Chinese Han population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Wang, Yan-Gui; Lu, Shun-Yuan; Lu, Xiong-Xiong; Liu, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the biochemical mediators IL-7 that correlate with the initiation and progression of OA. We performed this study to assess the role of variants of IL-7 in OA susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. We performed a retrospective, case-control study in the Chinese Han population from 2013 to 2015. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped (using a ligase detection reaction) in 602 patients and 454 controls. Differences between groups were analysed, and association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Among these polymorphisms, rs2583764, rs2583760 and rs6993386 showed no significant association with OA in the Chinese Han population {rs2583764 [P-allele = 0.98651, P-genotype = 0.40392, OR (95% CI): 1.00162 (0.83066, 1.20775)]; rs2583760 [P-allele = 0.384500, P-genotype = 0.58752, OR (95% CI): 0.69859 (0.30996, 1.57449)]; rs6993386 [P-allele = 0.69525, P-genotype = 0.50712, OR (95% CI): 0.96432 (0.80406, 1.15653)]}. However, the results showed that the rs2583759 polymorphism was significantly associated with OA [P-allele = 0.00 P-genotype = 3.86 × 10(-30), OR (95% CI): 0.27794 (0.22407, 0.34476)], even when the 10 000 times permutation was performed (P-allele-permutation < 0.00010, P-genotype-permutation = 0.00010). Haplotype analyses showed A-G-A-C, A-G-A-T and G-G-G-C of rs2583764-rs2583760-rs6993386-rs2583759 were risk factors for OA, both before or after the 10 000 times permutation, indicating IL-7 to be associated with OA. There was a significant association between IL-7, especially rs2583759, and OA in the Chinese Han population. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. RTEL1 polymorphisms are associated with lung cancer risk in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shouchun; Xia, Ridong; Jin, Tianbo; Ren, Hui; Yang, Hua; Li, Jing; Yan, Mengdan; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    RTEL1 (regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1; OMIM 608833) gene polymorphisms were linked to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility in a cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) Here, we assessed whether seven previously reported RTEL1 polymorphisms influenced LC risk in Han Chinese population. All study samples (554 LC cases and 696 cancer-free controls) were collected from the Affiliated Hospital of Xizang Minzu University in China. We assessed associations between SNPs and LC risk using various several genetic models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and additive). Whereas rs2738780 showed a protective effect against LC (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.80 ;95% confidence interval (CI): 0.638 = 0.998; p = 0.048), rs7261546(OR = 4.16; 95% CI: 1.35–12.82; p = 0.007), rs6062299(OR=5.08; 95% CI: 1.43–18.10; p = 0.005) and rs3787098(OR = 5.10; 95% CI: 1.43–18.15; p = 0.004) were all associated with increased LC susceptibility (recessive model). Haplotype analysis suggested that “CTC” was associated with a 0.8-fold decrease in LC risk (OR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.63–1.00; Pearson's p = 0.05). These findings suggest a potential association between RTEL1 polymorphisms and LC risk in a Chinese Han population. PMID:27765928

  12. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-6 influences susceptibility to HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma in a male Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shengli; Yuan, Yufeng; He, Yueming; Pan, Dingyu; Zhang, Yongxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Quanyan; Zhang, Zhonglin; Liu, Zhisu

    2014-04-01

    As a multifunctional cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a key role in chronic inflammation as well as tumor growth and progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Recent studies have implicated that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -572C>G (rs1800796) located within the promoter region of IL-6 gene was associated with susceptibility to several diseases. Here, a case-control study was undertaken to investigate the association between this polymorphism and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. A total of 900 patients with chronic HBV infection, including 505 HBV-related HCC patients and 395 HBV infected patients without HCC were enrolled, and rs1800796 polymorphism was genotyped by the TaqMan method and DNA sequencing technology. The results indicated no significant association between rs1800796 polymorphism and the risk of HBV-related HCC in all subjects; however, a significant difference was identified in male subjects. Under the dominant model, male subjects with the G allele (CG/GG) have higher susceptibility to HBV-related HCC than those with CC genotype after adjusting confounding factors (P=0.012, odds ratio [OR] 1.68, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.15-2.42). Our results suggested that rs1800796 polymorphism of IL-6 gene was associated with susceptibility to HBV-related HCC in a male Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lack of association of -607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphisms in interleukin 18 gene with susceptibility to gout disease in Chinese Han male population.

    PubMed

    Li, Changgui; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Xinfeng; Han, Lin; Chu, Nan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Shiguo

    2012-06-01

    To identify association of IL18-607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphism with susceptibility to gout in Chinese Han male population, We evaluate the genetic contribution of the IL18-607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphism in 202 gout male patients and 493 gout-free control of Chinese Han population by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. Our results reveal no significant association between the polymorphisms -607C/A and -137G/C in IL18 with gout. Our study might suggest that -607 C/A and -137 G/C polymorphisms in the promoter of IL18 are not associated with susceptibility to gout and thus do not play a major role in the development of gout in the Chinese Han male population.

  14. Association of Interleukin-1 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Keratoconus in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yani; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Changning; Zhang, XueHui; Liu, Ming; Zhu, Xiuping; Xu, Kun

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) polymorphisms are associated with keratoconus (KC) in unrelated Chinese Han patients. The IL1A (rs2071376) and IL1B (rs1143627, rs16944) polymorphisms were genotyped in 115 unrelated Chinese Han KC patients and 101 healthy Chinese Han volunteers with the Sequenom MassARRAY RS1000. Sequenom Typer 4.0 software, PLINK 1.07, Haploview 4.0 software platform were used to analyze the allelic variants of IL1A and IL1B genes, and their association with KC risk factors were assessed. Among the variants, the three SNPs (rs2071376 in IL1A, rs1143627 and rs16944 in the promoter region of IL1B) were different between the two groups. The A allele of rs2071376 (A > C, p = 0.017, OR = 1.968, 95% C.I. 1.313-3.425), the C allele of rs1143627 (C > T, p < 0.001, OR = 2.864, 95% C.I. 1.631-4.968) and the A allele of rs16944 (A > G, p = 0.002, OR = 2.401, 95% C.I. 1.396-4.161) were associated with a increased risk of KC in Chinese Han patients. This study showed that rs2071376, rs1143627 and rs16944 had significant differences in associations between KC patients and the control group when different genotypes were analyzed in three models (dominant, recessive, and additive). In the haplotype analysis, the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1143627 and rs16944 showed strong linkage disequilibrium. In addition, Haplotype "ACA" was found to be associated with a higher risk of developing KC (OR = 12.91, p < 0.001). Keratocyte apoptosis is an initiating event in the pathogenesis of KC which could be induced by the altered levels of IL1 gene. These findings confirmed that polymorphisms in IL1 genes were associated with risk of KC in the Chinese Han population, which help us to gain insight into the pathogenesis of KC.

  15. MAPT as a predisposing gene for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Pu; Xu, Wenyuan; Wu, Chengsi; Zhu, Min; Li, Xiaobing; Hong, Daojun

    2013-01-01

    A previous study of European Caucasian patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis demonstrated that a polymorphism in the microtubule-associated protein Tau (MAPT) gene was significantly associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis. Here, we tested this association in 107 sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and 100 healthy controls from the Chinese Han population. We screened the mutation-susceptible regions of MAPT – the 3' and 5' untranslated regions as well as introns 9, 10, 11, and 12 – by direct sequencing, and identified 33 genetic variations. Two of these, 105788 A > G in intron 9 and 123972 T > A in intron 11, were not present in the control group. The age of onset in patients with the 105788 A > G and/or the 123972 T > A variant was younger than that in patients without either genetic variation. Moreover, the pa-tients with a genetic variation were more prone to bulbar palsy and breathing difficulties than those with the wild-type genotype. This led to a shorter survival period in patients with a MAPT genetic variant. Our study suggests that the MAPT gene is a potential risk gene for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Chinese Han population. PMID:25206632

  16. ZNF208 polymorphisms associated with ischemic stroke in a southern Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Dong; Wang, Nianzhen; Zhang, Chong; Jin, Tianbo; Liang, Xiongfei; Yu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the most common diseases with a high burden of neurological deficits, disability and death. Zinc finger protein 208 (ZNF208) was found to be involved in coronary heart disease, although little information is available about its association with ischemic stroke. We performed the present case-control study to clarify the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ZNF208 and the risk of ischemic stroke in a southern Chinese Han population. A total of 799 subjects (400 cases and 399 healthy controls) were enrolled in the present study. Five SNPs within ZNF208 gene were selected and genotyped using Sequenom MassARRY technology (Sequenom, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). Data management and statistical analyses were conducted using Sequenom Typer, version 4.0, and a chi-squared test, as well as unconditional logistic regression. Statistical results showed that three variants were associated with the risk of ischemic stroke under allele models (rs2188971, rs2188972, rs8103163 and rs7248488). The variant rs2188972 was also associated with the risk of ischemic stroke in a recessive model after adjustment for age and sex. Haplotype analysis suggested that a significant difference existed between the A rs2188972 T rs2188971 A rs8103163 A rs7248488 haplotype and the risk of ischemic stroke, although this disappeared after adjustment for sex and age. The results obtained in the present study indicate a potential association between ZNF208 variants and the risk of ischemic risk in a southern Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Association study of GABA system genes polymorphisms with amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Qingzhong; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Yu, Shunying; Zhao, Min

    2016-05-27

    GABA system genes have been implicated in neurotrophy and neurogenesis, which play pivotal roles in an individual's variation in vulnerability to amphetamine addiction or amphetamine-induced psychosis (AIP). We hypothesized that common genetic variants in the GABA system genes may be associated with amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder. In our study, thirty-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the GABA system genes were genotyped in 400 amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder patients and 400 amphetamine use disorders patients (AUP) (not including those categorized as psychosis) in the Han Chinese population. In this study, 51.88% of the Han Chinese amphetamine-type substance use disorder patients met the criteria of amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder, and 79.5% amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder patients had auditory hallucinations, while 46.5% had delusions of reference. The allele frequency of rs1129647 showed nominal association with AIP in the Han Chinese population (P=0.03). Compared with AUP group patients, T allele frequency of AIP group patients was significantly increased. The adjustment for age and gender factors in the AIP and AUP patients was executed using unconditional logistic regression under five inheritance models. The genotype frequency of rs1129647 showed nominal association with AIP in the log-additive model (P=0.04). The genotype frequency of rs2290733 showed nominal association with AIP in the recessive model (P=0.04). Compared with female AIP patients, male patients were more likely to have the CC genotype of rs17545383 (P=0.04). Moreover, we determined that more male patients carried the T allele of rs2290733 in the AIP group (P=0.004). Unfortunately, the significant differences did not survive Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate correction (adjusted P>0.05). No association between the SNPs of the GABA system genes and amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder risk was identified. No haplotype of the GABA system

  18. Association Study between Ghrelin Gene Polymorphism and Metabolic Syndrome in a Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    You, Yueyue; Yu, Yaqin; Wu, Yanhua; Rao, Wenwang; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yingyu; Yang, Guang; Fu, Yingli; Shi, Jieping; Kou, Changgui

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin, in humans, is a hormone secreted from the stomach with an orexigenic effect, which is good for digestion and absorption, as well as regulating physical growth, metabolism, and energy balance. It is also involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study assessed the association between single nucleotide variants of the GHRL gene and the risk of metabolic syndrome in a Han Chinese population. A case-control study was performed on 3780 Han Chinese comprising 1813 MetS cases and 1967 controls. Three missense polymorphisms in GHRL (rs26802, rs10490816, and rs696217) were selected, and the association between these polymorphisms and the risk of MetS was investigated. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Using Pearson's 2 test, we found that there were no significant differences in genotype distributions and allele frequencies between cases and controls (all p > 0.05). There were also no significant differences in haplotype distributions between MetS cases and healthy controls. Furthermore, we confirmed that rs26802 of the GHRL gene is associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and fasting glucose; rs10490816 is associated with triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC); while rs696217 is associated with hip circumference and fasting glucose. We concluded that mutations in the GHRL gene did not confer risk for MetS in our study population. Therefore, functional analysis and replication studies in other populations are needed to further investigate the exact role of the GHRL gene in MetS.

  19. Lack of association between apolipoprotein C3 gene polymorphisms and risk of coronary heart disease in a Han population in East China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) gene have been found association with hypertriglyceridemia(HTG), but the link with coronary heart disease(CHD) risk between ethnicities was still controversial. Among them, reseachers paid more attentions to the promoter polymorphisms T-455C and C-482T because both of them located in insulin-responsive element (IRE) and insulin was thought to exert its action by down-regulating APOC3 gene expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the two polymorphisms of APOC3 with CHD in a Han population in East China. Methods TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays were carried out to detect the genotypes of APOC3 gene, including the T-455C and C-482T, in 286 subjects with CHD and 325 controls without CHD. The levels of serum lipid profiles were also detected by biochemical methods. Results There was no difference of genotype frequencies and allele frequencies between the CHD population and the controls(P > 0.05). Compared with the most common genotype -455TT or -482CC, the variants had neither significantly increased CHD risk, nor the lipid variables showed any statistically relevant differences in the research population. The adjusted OR of CHD were 5.67 [0.27-18.74] and 0.75 [0.20-2.73] in carriers of the APOC3 -455C and -482T variants, respectively(P > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in APOC3 haplotype distribution in CHD and controls, but there was a strong linkage disequilibrium between T-455C and C-482T with D' = 0.9293, 0.8881, respectively(P < 0.0001). Conclusions Our data did not support a relationship between the two polymorphisms of APOC3 gene and risk of CHD in the Han population in East China. PMID:22054125

  20. Association of five genetic variants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease susceptibility and spirometric phenotypes in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Haixia; Liang, Binmiao; Xiao, Jun; Su, Zhiguang; Chen, Hong; Ma, Chunlan; Li, Dengxue; Feng, Yulin; Ou, Xuemei

    2014-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have shown associations between variants at five loci (TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER and THSD4) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung function. However, their association with COPD has not been proven in Chinese Han population, nor have COPD-related phenotypes been studied. The objective of this study was to look for associations between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in these novel candidate genes and COPD susceptibility or lung function in a Chinese Han population. Allele and genotype data on 680 COPD patients and 687 healthy controls for sentinel SNP in these five loci were investigated. Allele frequencies and genotype distributions were compared between cases and controls, and odds ratios were calculated. Potential relationships between these SNP and COPD-related lung function were assessed. No significant associations were found between any of the SNP and COPD in cases and controls. The SNP (rs3995090) in HTR4 was associated with COPD (adjusted P = 0.022) in never-smokers, and the SNP (rs2070600) in AGER was associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 %) predicted (β = -0.066, adjusted P = 0.016) and FEV1 /forced vital capacity (β = -0.071, adjusted P = 0.009) in all subjects. The variant at HTR4 was associated with COPD in never-smokers, and the SNP in AGER was associated with pulmonary function in a Chinese Han population. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Genetic association between NRG1 and schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zujia; Chen, Jianhua; Khan, Raja Amjad Waheed; Song, Zhijian; Wang, Meng; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Li, Wenjin; Shi, Yongyong

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder are three major psychiatric disorders affecting around 0.66%, 3.3%, and 1.5% of the Han Chinese population respectively. Several genetic linkage analyses and genome wide association studies identified NRG1 as a susceptibility gene of schizophrenia, which was validated by its role in neurodevelopment, glutamate, and other neurotransmitter receptor expression regulation. To further investigate whether NRG1 is a shared risk gene for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder as well as schizophrenia, we performed an association study among 1,248 schizophrenia cases, 1,056 major depression cases, 1,344 bipolar disorder cases, and 1,248 controls. Totally 15 tag SNPs were genotyped and analyzed, and no population stratification was found in our sample set. Among the sites, rs4236710 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.015) and rs4512342 (Pallele  = 0.03, Pgenotye  = 0.045 after correction) were associated with schizophrenia, and rs2919375 (corrected Pgenotye  = 0.004) was associated with major depressive disorder. The haplotype rs4512342-rs6982890 showed association with schizophrenia (P = 0.03 for haplotype "TC" after correction), and haplotype rs4531002-rs11989919 proved to be a shared risk factor for both major depressive disorder ("CC": corrected P = 0.009) and bipolar disorder ("CT": corrected P = 0.003). Our results confirmed that NRG1 was a shared common susceptibility gene for major mental disorders in Han Chinese population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Common variants on 2p16.1, 6p22.1 and 10q24.32 are associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yu, H; Yan, H; Li, J; Li, Z; Zhang, X; Ma, Y; Mei, L; Liu, C; Cai, L; Wang, Q; Zhang, F; Iwata, N; Ikeda, M; Wang, L; Lu, T; Li, M; Xu, H; Wu, X; Liu, B; Yang, J; Li, K; Lv, L; Ma, X; Wang, C; Li, L; Yang, F; Jiang, T; Shi, Y; Li, T; Zhang, D; Yue, W

    2017-07-01

    Many schizophrenia susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations. However, until recently, schizophrenia GWASs in non-European populations were limited to small sample sizes and have yielded few loci associated with schizophrenia. To identify genetic risk variations for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population, we performed a two-stage GWAS of schizophrenia comprising 4384 cases and 5770 controls, followed by independent replications of 13 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an additional 4339 schizophrenia cases and 7043 controls of Han Chinese ancestry. Furthermore, we conducted additional analyses based on the results in the discovery stage. The combined analysis confirmed evidence of genome-wide significant associations in the Han Chinese population for three loci, at 2p16.1 (rs1051061, in an exon of VRK2, P=1.14 × 10 -12 , odds ratio (OR)=1.17), 6p22.1 (rs115070292 in an intron of GABBR1, P=4.96 × 10 -10 , OR=0.77) and 10q24.32 (rs10883795 in an intron of AS3MT, P=7.94 × 10 -10 , OR=0.87; rs10883765 at an intron of ARL3, P=3.06 × 10 -9 , OR=0.87). The polygenic risk score based on Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia GWAS data modestly predicted case-control status in the Chinese population (Nagelkerke R 2 : 1.7% ~5.7%). Our pathway analysis suggested that neurological biological pathways such as GABAergic signaling, dopaminergic signaling, cell adhesion molecules and myelination pathways are involved in schizophrenia. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Further studies are needed to establish the biological context and potential clinical utility of these findings.

  3. Genetic variations in the vitamin-D receptor (VDR) gene in preeclampsia patients in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ying; Liu, Mengchun; You, Yuelan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jingli; Wang, Xunfeng; Liu, Shiguo; Liu, Xuemei

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated that vitamin D deficiency is linked to a risk of preeclampsia (PE). The aim of our study was to investigate the association between genetic variations in the vitamin-D receptor (VDR) gene and the susceptibility to PE in the Chinese Han population. We examined the genotypes VDR rs2228570, rs11568820 and rs1544410 in 402 PE patients and 554 normal pregnant women in the third trimester by TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction. The clinical data of the individuals were collected to enable genotype-phenotype analysis. A significant statistical difference in the genotypic frequencies of rs2228570 between cases and controls was found (χ(2)=13.750, P=0.001). The G allele was the risk factor for the risk of PE (χ(2)=9.456, P=0.002, OR=1.137, 95% CI 1.111-1.610). There was no difference in the genotypic and allelic distributions of rs11568820 and rs1544410 between the two groups (P> 0.05). Our results provide evidence for a possible link between VDR and the development of PE in the Chinese Han population.

  4. Polymorphic CAG Repeat Numbers in the Androgen Receptor Gene of Female Pattern Hair Loss in a Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Rui, Wenlong; Sheng, Youyu; Hu, Ruiming; Miao, Ying; Han, Yumei; Qi, Sisi; Xu, Feng; Xu, Jinhua; Yang, Qinping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association of CAG repeat numbers in the androgen receptor (AR) gene with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in a Chinese population. A total of 200 Han Chinese patients with FPHL (142 Ludwig II and 58 Ludwig III cases) and 200 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The polymorphism of CAG repeat numbers was analyzed by the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism technique. The CAG biallelic mean length was 23.73 ± 2.04 repeats in Han Chinese FPHL patients and 23.90 ± 2.13 repeats in healthy controls, without any significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.481). In addition, neither the shorter nor the longer CAG repeat numbers were significantly different between FPHL and control subjects (p = 0.726, p = 0.383). The polymorphism of CAG repeat numbers of the AR gene may not be the genetic marker of FPHL in a Chinese population. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of the present study was to eveluate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 780 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 686 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.05-0.001). The frequency of C and T alleles was 77.4% and 22.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 60.9% and 39.1% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The frequency of CC, CT and TT genotypes was 58.7%, 37.3% and 4.0% in Bai Ku Yao, and 32.6%, 56.4% and 11.0% in Han (P < 0.001); respectively. The levels of TC and LDL-C in both ethnic groups were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05-0.01). The T allele carriers had higher serum TC and LDL-C levels than the T allele noncarriers. The levels of ApoB in Han were significant differences among the three genotypes (P < 0.05). The T allele carriers had higher serum ApoB levels as compared with the T allele noncarriers. The levels of TC, TG and LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05-0.001), whereas the levels of LDL-C in Han were associated with genotypes (P < 0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and blood pressure in the both ethnic

  6. [Association Between SNP rs6007897 of CELSR1 and Acute Ischemic Stroke in Western China Han Population: a Case-control Study].

    PubMed

    Qin, Feng-qin; Yu, Li-hua; Hu, Wen-ting; Guo, Jian; Chen, Ning; Guo, Jiang; Fang, Jing-huan; He, Li

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6007897 of CELSR1 and acute ischemic stroke in Western China Han population. All subjects (759 acute ischemic stroke patients and 786 controls) were genotyped using ligation detection reaction (LDR). We analyzed the differences between SNP rs6007897 genotypes and allele frequencies between two groups. Two genotypes (AA, AG) of rs6007897 were found in both stroke and control group. There was no statistically significance between two groups about genotype and allele frequency. After adjusting for risk factors, we found there was no significant association between rs6007897 and ischemic stroke CP = 0.797, odds ratio (OR) = 0.886, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.352-2.227). SNP rs6007897 of CELSR1 was not significantly associated with ischemic stroke in Western China Han population.

  7. TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijun; Li, Jingjie; Yan, Mengdan; Li, Jing; Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Xikai; Wang, Li; Kang, Longli; Yuan, Dongya; Jin, Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TCF7L2 (Transcription Factor 7-Like 2) reportedly affect susceptibility to schizophrenia (SCZ). We examined the association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and SCZ susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. Six SNPs were genotyped in 499 SCZ patients and 500 healthy individuals, after which their associations with SCZ were evaluated using the Chi-squared test and genetic model analyses. We observed that the allele A of rs12573128 is associated with an increased SCZ risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.63, P = 0.006, adjusted P = 0.030). The AA genotype of rs12573128 was associated with a higher SCZ risk than the GG genotype, before and after adjustment for sex and age (adjusted OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.49-5.92, P = 0.002). In addition, SNP rs12573128 was associated with 1.47-fold, 2.64-fold and 1.50-fold increases in SCZ risk of in dominant, recessive and additive model, respectively (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.99, P = 0.012; Bonferroni adjusted P = 0.030). adjusted OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.34-5.18, P = 0.005 and adjusted OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.17-1.93, P = 0.002, respectively). These results suggest rs12573128 is significantly associated with an increased risk of SCZ in the Chinese Han population. PMID:28404897

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in ALDH2 are associated with drug addiction in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chan; Ding, Heng; Cheng, Yujing; Chen, Wanlu; Li, Qi; Li, Qing; Dai, Run; Luo, Manlin

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ALDH2, which has been associated with alcohol dependence and several types of diseases, and the risk of drug addiction in a Chinese Han population. In a case-control study that included 692 cases and 700 healthy controls, eight SNPs in ALDH2 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and gender. We determined that rs671 is significantly associated with a 1.551-fold increased drug addiction risk (95% CI = 1.263-1.903; p < 0.001). In the genetic model analysis, we found that rs671 is associated with an increased risk of drug addiction under additive, dominant and recessive models (p < 0.001), while rs886205, rs441 and rs4646778 displayed a decreased drug addiction risk under additive and recessive model, respectively (p < 0.05). SNP rs671 remained significant after Bonferroni correction (p<0.00125). Additionally, we observed that haplotype “GTCAC” was associated with increased drug addiction risk (OR = 1.668; 95% CI, 1.328–2.094, p < 0.001); in contrast, “ATCGC” was a protective haplotype for drug addiction risk (OR = 0.444; 95% CI, 0.281–0.704, p < 0.001). Our findings showed that ALDH2 polymorphisms are significantly associated with the risk of drug addiction in the Chinese Han population. PMID:28052001

  9. Genetic polymorphisms in ALDH2 are associated with drug addiction in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Ding, Heng; Cheng, Yujing; Chen, Wanlu; Li, Qi; Li, Qing; Dai, Run; Luo, Manlin

    2017-01-31

    We investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ALDH2, which has been associated with alcohol dependence and several types of diseases, and the risk of drug addiction in a Chinese Han population. In a case-control study that included 692 cases and 700 healthy controls, eight SNPs in ALDH2 were selected and genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression after adjusting for age and gender. We determined that rs671 is significantly associated with a 1.551-fold increased drug addiction risk (95% CI = 1.263-1.903; p < 0.001). In the genetic model analysis, we found that rs671 is associated with an increased risk of drug addiction under additive, dominant and recessive models (p < 0.001), while rs886205, rs441 and rs4646778 displayed a decreased drug addiction risk under additive and recessive model, respectively (p < 0.05). SNP rs671 remained significant after Bonferroni correction (p<0.00125). Additionally, we observed that haplotype "GTCAC" was associated with increased drug addiction risk (OR = 1.668; 95% CI, 1.328-2.094, p < 0.001); in contrast, "ATCGC" was a protective haplotype for drug addiction risk (OR = 0.444; 95% CI, 0.281-0.704, p < 0.001). Our findings showed that ALDH2 polymorphisms are significantly associated with the risk of drug addiction in the Chinese Han population.

  10. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism and Coronary Artery Disease in the Chinese Han Population: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background The polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G gene has been indicated to be correlated with coronary artery disease (CAD) susceptibility, but study results are still debatable. Objective and Methods The present meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population. A total of 879 CAD patients and 628 controls from eight separate studies were involved. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the distribution of the 4G allele frequency of PAI-1 4G/5G gene and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was assessed by the random effect model. Results The distribution of the 4 G allele frequency was 0.61 for the CAD group and 0.51 for the control group. The association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population was significant under an allelic genetic model (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.44, P = 0.004). The heterogeneity test was also significant (P<0.0001). Meta-regression was performed to explore the heterogeneity source. Among the confounding factors, the heterogeneity could be explained by the publication year (P = 0.017), study region (P = 0.014), control group sample size (P = 0.011), total sample size (P = 0.011), and ratio of the case to the control group sample size (RR) (P = 0.019). In a stratified analysis by the total sample size, significantly increased risk was only detected in subgroup 2 under an allelic genetic model (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.35, P = 0.02). Conclusions In the Chinese Han population, PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism was implied to be associated with increased CAD risk. Carriers of the 4G allele of the PAI-1 4G/5G gene might predispose to CAD. PMID:22496752

  11. [Association of Insulin Resistance and β Cell Function with Lipid Metabolism in Middle-aged and Elderly Hui and Han Populations].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-ya; Jiang, Min; Yao, Tian-yu; Cheng, Yu-xuan; Fan, Ya-jie; Liu, Xu-ying; Zhang, Jin-ling; Liu, Lan; Wang, Zhi-zhong; Ma, Yu-ying; Hu, Xue-qin; Wang, Pan-pan; Yu, Jing-jing; Ma, Rong; Huang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    To explore the association of insulin resistance and β cell function with lipid metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Hui and Han populations. A total of 1000 subjects age over 40 years were recruited from five urban communities in Yinchuan and Wuzhong cities of Ningxia. The composition ratio between Hui and Han nationality was 1:2. A questionnaire-based survey was performed. Physical examinations were carried out to measure the height, body mass, waistline, and hipline. The levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), blood uric acid (BUA), fasting blood glucose and insulin were measured. The boby mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and secretion related index including insulin resistance index (IR), insulin sensitivity index (IAI), and beta cell function index (HBCI) were calculated. The BMI, WHR, IAI, HBCI, and the prevalence rate of diabetes in Hui nationality were significantly higher than those in Han nationality (P<0.01). The levels of BUA, fasting blood glucose, TC, and IR in Han nationality were significantly lower than those in Hui nationality (P<0.01). In Hui populations, TG, BMI, WHR, and BUA were positively correlated with IR (r=0.234, r=0.193, r=0.143, and r=0.129, respectively; P<0.01) and were negatively correlated with IAI (r=-0.234, r=-0.193, r=-0.143, r=-0.129, respectively; P<0.01), whereas TC was negatively correlated with HBCI (r=-0.169, P<0.01). In Han populations, TC, TG, BMI, WHR, and BUA were positively correlated with IR (r=0.140, r=0.257, r=0.288, r=0.163, r=0.104, P<0.01) and negatively correlated with IAI (r=-0.140, r=-0.257, r=-0.288, r=-0.163, and r=-0.104, P<0.01), whereas BMI was negatively correlated with HBCI (r=-0.111, P<0.01). After the influential factors such as gender, nationality, and age were adjusted, the TC, TG, BMI, WHR, BUA levels were positively correlated with IR (r=0.109, r=0.256, r=0.253, r=0.139, and r=0.142, P<0.01) and negatively correlated with IAI (r=-0.109, r=-0.256, r=-0.253, r=-0.139, and r=-0

  12. Association of the GALNT2 gene polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Mulao and Han populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Yin, Rui-Xing; Yan, Ting-Ting; Miao, Lin; Cao, Xiao-Li; Hu, Xi-Jiang; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Lin, Wei-Xiong

    2011-09-20

    The association of UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 gene (GALNT2) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles in the general population is not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of GALNT2 polymorphisms and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. A total of 775 subjects of Mulao nationality and 699 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the GALNT2 rs2144300 and rs4846914 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. There were no significant differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of both SNPs between the two ethnic groups, or between the males and females. The subjects with TT genotype of rs2144300 in Mulao had lower serum triglyceride (TG) levels than the subjects with CC genotype in females (P < 0.01). The participants with CT/TT genotype of rs2144300 in Han had lower TG and apolipoprotein (Apo) B levels, and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1 levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB in males; and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels in females than the participants with CC genotype (P < 0.05-0.001). The individuals with GA/AA genotype of rs4846914 in Mulao had higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels than the individuals with GG genotype in males (P < 0.05 for each). The subjects with AA genotype of rs4846914 in Han had higher LDL-C and ApoB levels, and lower HDL-C levels and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB than the subjects with GG genotype (P < 0.05 for each). The levels of TC in Mulao were correlated with the genotypes of rs4846914 in males (P < 0.05). The levels of ApoA1 in Han were correlated with the genotypes of both SNPs, and the

  13. Association Study of Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Weihua; Liu, Huiguo; Zhang, Jishui; Zhang, Xianghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Tieqiao; Liu, Pozi; Hao, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Background: Since the serotonin (5-HT) is associated with circadian rhythm and breathing regulation, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which plays an important role in serotoninergic transmission, might be a strong candidate gene in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Objective: To investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphisms with OSAS and clinical characteristics. Methods: We genotyped the 5-HTT gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and a variable number of tandem repeats at intron 2 (STin2.VNTR) in 254 OSAS patients and 338 healthy controls in Chinese Han population. Results: In total sample, the 10-repeat allele of STin2.VNTR was significantly associated with OSAS (P = 0.007, OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.15~2.58), but no association was found in 5-HTTLPR. In male subjects, both polymorphisms showed significant association with OSAS (Allele L: P = 0.005, OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.87; Allele 10: P = 0.002, OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.26 to 3.00). Two haplotypes, S-12 and L-10, constructed by the above polymorphisms also revealed significant associations with OSAS (global P-values were 0.020 for total sample and 0.0006 for male subjects, respectively). Male patients carrying the haplotype S-12 showed a significantly lower apnea / hypopnea index (AHI), depressive factor, plasma 5-HT level and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, but higher episodic memory, when compared with non-S-12 carriers (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in excessive daytime sleepiness or other psychological function across haplotype carriers (P > 0.05). Conclusions: These findings support that 5-HTT gene may be involved in susceptibility to OSAS, especially with sex-dependent effect. Citation: Yue W; Liu H; Zhang J; Zhang X; Wang X; Liu T; Liu P; Hao W. Association study of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in chinese han population. SLEEP 2008;31(11):1535–1541. PMID:19014073

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of short tandem repeat loci D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634 in the Han population of Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunfang; Li, Xiaozhou; Ju, Duan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) markers, also known as microsatellites, are extensively used in mapping studies, forensics and disease diagnosis due to their small dimension and low mutation and high polymorphism rates. In recent years quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) has been successfully used to amplify STR markers in the prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal abnormalities. This method provides a diagnosis of common aneuploidies 24-48 h after sampling with low error rates and cost; however, the size of different alleles, frequency, heterozygosity and distribution of STR markers vary among different populations. In the present study three STR markers, D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634, on chromosome 13 were analyzed in 350 unrelated individuals (200 males and 150 females) from the Han population of Tianjin, China using QF-PCR. Eleven, seven and 11 alleles of each marker were observed, respectively. The frequencies of the genotypes were in good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). The results showed that these three STR markers were highly polymorphic in the Han population of Tianjin, China. The study has provided basic data for use in the prenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome.

  15. Sex differences in obesity and cognitive function in a cognitively normal aging Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qiu, Qi; Sun, Lin; Yue, Ling; Wang, Tao; Li, Xia; Xiao, Shifu

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment have been well recognized. However, sex differences in cognitive function and obesity in cognitively normal aging Chinese Han population have not attracted much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sex, obesity, and cognitive function in an elderly Chinese population with normal cognitive function. A total of 228 cognitively normal aging participants (males/females =93/135) entered this study. Their general demographic information (sex, age, and education) was collected by standardized questionnaire. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and serum lipid levels were measured. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to assess participants' cognitive function. The prevalence of obesity in elderly women (18/133, 13.5%) was significantly higher than that in men (5/92, 5.4%, P =0.009). Regression analyses showed that obesity was associated with drinking alcohol (OR =13.695, P =0.045) and triglyceride (OR =1.436, P =0.048) in women and limited to low-density lipoprotein (OR =11.829, P =0.023) in men. Women performed worse on the naming score for MoCA than men ( P <0.01). Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that education ( t =3.689, P <0.001) and smoking ( t =2.031, P =0.045) were related to the score of naming in female, while high-density lipoprotein ( t =-2.077, P =0.041) was related to the score of naming in male; however, no correlation was found between body mass index and cognitive function in both male and female ( P >0.05). Our finding suggests that there are significant sex differences in obesity and specific cognitive domains in aging Chinese Han population with normal cognitive function.

  16. Ancient DNA evidence supports the contribution of Di-Qiang people to the han Chinese gene pool.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Li, Hong-Jie; Li, Sheng-Nan; Yu, Chang-Chun; Gao, Shi-Zhu; Xu, Zhi; Jin, Li; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2011-02-01

    Han Chinese is the largest ethnic group in the world. During its development, it gradually integrated with many neighboring populations. To uncover the origin of the Han Chinese, ancient DNA analysis was performed on the remains of 46 humans (1700 to 1900 years ago) excavated from the Taojiazhai site in Qinghai province, northwest of China, where the Di-Qiang populations had previously lived. In this study, eight mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, D, F, M*, M10, N9a, and Z) and one Y-chromosome haplogroup (O3) were identified. All analyses show that the Taojiazhai population presents close genetic affinity to Tibeto-Burman populations (descendants of Di-Qiang populations) and Han Chinese, suggesting that the Di-Qiang populations may have contributed to the Han Chinese genetic pool. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Genetic variations of MMP9 gene and intracerebral hemorrhage susceptibility: a case-control study in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Bo; Lin, Sen; Zhou, Junshan; Li, Yingbin; Dong, Wei; Arima, Hisatomi; Zhang, Chanfei; Liu, Yukai; Liu, Ming

    2014-06-15

    To investigate the association between genetic variations of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) gene and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. The clinical data and peripheral blood samples from the patients with ICH and hypertension, and controlled subjects with hypertension only, were collected. MassARRAY Analyzer was used to genotype the tagger single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of MMP9 gene. Haploview4.2 and Unphased3.1.7 were employed to construct haplotypes and to analyze the association between genetic variations (alleles, genotypes and haplotypes) of MMP9 gene and ICH susceptibility. 181 patients with ICH and hypertension, and 197 patients with hypertension only, were recruited between Sep 2009 and Oct 2010. Patients in the ICH group were younger (61.80 ± 13.27 vs. 72.44 ± 12.71 years, p<0.05). Other conventional risk factors between the ICH and control groups were similar. There were 6 Tagger SNPs and 4 haplotypes of MMP9 gene in our sample population. Our logistical regression analysis showed that there were no significant associations between genetic variations of the MPP9 gene and ICH susceptibility (all p>0.05). The genetic variations of MMP9 gene were not significantly associated with ICH susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association study of NDST3 gene for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Chen, Jianhua; Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Weiming; Chen, Boyu; Li, Sining; Li, Weidong; Lu, Dajiang; Wang, Yonggang; Shi, Yongyong

    2018-01-01

    The NDST3 gene at 4q26 was a functional candidate gene for mental disorders. Recently, a novel genome-wide significant risk locus at chromosome 4q26 was identified and the top single nucleotide polymorphism rs11098403 in the vicinity of NDST3 gene was reported to confer risk of schizophrenia in Caucasian. Nevertheless, association between NDST3 gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorders has not been well studied in the Han Chinese population. To further investigate whether NDST3 is a risk gene for these mental disorders, we genotyped and analyzed eight tag SNPs (rs11098403, rs10857057, rs2389521, rs4833564, rs6837896, rs7689157, rs3817274, rs609512) covering NDST3 gene in 1,248 schizophrenia cases, 1,056 major depression cases, 1,344 bipolar disorder cases, and 1,248 controls of Chinese origin. However, there was no significant difference in allelic or genotypic frequency observed between each case group and healthy controls. Accordingly, our study does not support that the NDST3 gene plays a major role in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of SNPs at newly identified lipids loci on blood lipid levels and risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese Han population: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ke; Zhang, Wencai; Zhang, Xiaobo; Wu, Fangqin; Cheng, Longxian

    2011-08-01

    Associations between "lipid-related" candidate genes, blood lipid concentrations and coronary artery disease (CHD) risk are not clear. We aimed to investigate the effect of three newly identified lipids loci from genome-wide association studies on CHD and blood lipid levels in Chinese Han population. The genotypes of SNPs at three newly identified lipid loci and blood lipids concentrations were examined in 1360 CHD patients and 1360 age- and sex-frequency matched controls from an unrelated Chinese Han population. Allele T of rs16996148 occurred less frequently in CHD patients with the odds ratio (OR) being 0.64 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.81), after adjusting for conventional risk factors and was associated with a 33% decreased CHD risk (P<0.01) comparing with the major allele G. Individuals with GT genotype had the lowest CHD risk. No associations were found between the polymorphisms of other two loci with CHD risk and all three SNPs had no effect on lipid profile in this population. SNP rs16996148 on chromosome 19p13 is significantly associated with lower risk for CHD in Chinese Han population. However, it remains unresolved why these lipid-related loci had significantly less effects than the correspondingly expected effects on blood lipids levels in this population.

  20. The rs7517847 polymorphism in the IL-23R gene is associated with gout in a Chinese Han male population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguo; He, Hongmei; Yu, Renchao; Han, Lin; Wang, Can; Cui, Ying; Li, Changgui

    2015-05-01

    Gout is a polygenic auto-inflammatory disease, in which inflammation plays an important role in disease pathogenesis. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-23 promotes inflammation and helps to guide inflammatory cells, while studies have shown that the IL-23R gene is associated with susceptibility to several immune-related diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the IL-23R rs7517847 (G/T) polymorphism is associated with gout in a Chinese Han male population. We recruited 400 patients with gout and 582 gout-free controls. After obtaining blood samples for DNA extraction, genotyping of the rs7517847 polymorphism was performed by fluorescence-based quantitative PCR using TaqMan probes. An association analysis was carried out using the χ(2) test. A genotype-phenotype analysis was also conducted. Both genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs7517847 differed significantly between gout patients and controls (χ(2) = 6.792, df = 2, P = 0.034 by genotype; χ(2) = 4.202, df = 1, P = 0.04 by allele). IL-23R may be associated with gout in a Chinese Han male population, although our findings should be confirmed using larger sample sizes and other independent populations.

  1. HLA-DRB1 Alleles Are Associated with the Susceptibility to Sporadic Parkinson’s Disease in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Congcong; Wei, Lei; Luo, Feifei; Li, Yi; Li, Jiaobiao; Zhu, Feiqi; Kang, Ping; Xu, Rensi; Xiao, LuLu; Liu, Zhuolin; Xu, Pingyi

    2012-01-01

    Immune disorders may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, polymorphisms in the HLA-DR region have been found to be associated with sporadic PD in European ancestry populations. However, polymorphisms in the HLA complex are highly variable with ethnic and geographic origin. To explore the relationships between polymorphisms of the HLA-DR region and sporadic PD in Chinese Han population, we genotyped 567 sporadic PD patients and 746 healthy controls in two independent series for the HLA-DRB1 locus with Polymerase chain reaction-sequence based typing(PCR-SBT). The χ2 test was used to evaluate the distribution of allele frequencies between the patients and healthy controls. The impact of HLA-DRB1 alleles on PD risk was estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We found a significant higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*0301 in sporadic PD patients than in healthy controls and a positive association, which was independent of onset age, between HLA-DRB1*0301 and PD risk. Conversely, a lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*0406 was found in sporadic PD patients than in healthy controls, with a negative association between HLA-DRB1*0406 and PD risk. Furthermore, a meta-analysis involving 195205 individuals was conducted to summarize the frequencies of these two alleles in populations from various ethnic regions, we found a higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*0301, but a lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*0406 in European ancestry populations than that in Asians, this was consistent with the higher prevalence of sporadic PD in European ancestry populations. Based on these results, we speculate that HLA-DRB1 alleles are associated with the susceptibility to sporadic PD in Chinese Han population, among them HLA-DRB1*0301 is a risk allele while the effect of HLA-DRB1*0406 deserves debate. PMID:23139797

  2. Association study between variants in LHCGR DENND1A and THADA with preeclampsia risk in Han Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Jie; Li, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Han; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xie-Tong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Wan, Ji-Peng

    2018-05-17

    To evaluate the association between preeclampsia and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs13405728 in LHCGR gene; rs13429458 in THADA gene, and rs2479106 in DENND1A gene) which were identified to be genetic variants of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by genome-wide association study in Han Chinese populations. A total of 784 northern Han Chinese women (378 controls and 406 cases) were genotyped for the three genetic variants by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to adjust the impact of prepregnancy body mass index, primiparas, and maternal age. No significant difference was found in the allele frequencies of the three genetic variants between cases and controls (p > .05), but genotype frequency of the SNP rs2479106 was significantly differ between cases and controls when analyzed under recessive models (p = .02). There was also a substantial difference in the genotype frequencies of the SNP rs13429458 between cases and controls under additive models (p = .01). Genetic variants of PCOS (rs13405728 in LHCGR gene; rs13429458 in THADA gene and rs2479106 in DENND1A gene) may not be involved in the development of preeclampsia in Han Chinese women.

  3. The Association of Mitofusion-2 Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility of Essential Hypertension in Northern Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Bei; Li, Chuang; Liu, Jielin; Liu, Ya; Sun, Dongdong; Ma, Hanying; Wen, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mitofusion-2 (Mfn2) played an important role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation, insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress, which were found to be involved in the development of hypertension. So we inferred that the Mfn2 gene may participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Mfn2 gene were associated with essential hypertension (EH) in northern Han Chinese. Methods: We genotyped 6 tagging SNPs of Mfn2 gene (rs2336384, rs2295281, rs17037564, rs2236057, rs2236058 and rs3766741) with the TaqMan assay in 626 hypertensive patients and 618 controls. Results: Logistic regression analysis indicated that CC+CA genotype of rs2336384 and AA+AG genotype of rs2236057 were significantly associated with increased risk of EH (OR=1.617, P=0.005; OR=1.418, P=0.031, respectively). GG genotype of rs2236058 and GG+CG genotype of rs3766741 were found to be significantly associated with decreased risk of EH (OR=0.662, P=0.023; OR=0.639, P=0.024).When stratified by gender, for rs2336384, rs2236057 and rs2236058, significant association was observed in males, but not in females. Haplotype analysis indicated that the CCAACC haplotype was positively correlated with EH and there was a negative correlation between ACAGGG haplotype and EH. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Mfn2 gene polymorphisms were associated with essential hypertension in northern Han Chinese population, especially in male subjects. PMID:26816493

  4. Variants in the SMARCA4 gene was associated with coronary heart disease susceptibility in Chinese han population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuan; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chunyan; Quan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yan; Jia, Shan; Ma, Weidong; Fan, Yajie; Wang, Congxia

    2017-01-31

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found to be related to the risk of CHD in previous studies. This study investigated whether polymorphism of SMARCA4 gene is associated with CHD. Genotypes at five CHD-relevant SNPs were determined in 456 cases of incident CHD and 685 unaffected controls in Chinese Han population using χ2 test, genetic model analysis and haplotype analysis. We also analysis the differences in continuous variables among the subjects with three genotypes of related genes were assessed using the ANOVA. We identified two susceptibility SNPs in the SMARCA4 gene that were potentially associated with a decreased risk of CHD. We identified rs11879293 (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.96; P = 0.012) and rs12232780 (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90; P = 0.005) were associated with a decreased risk of CHD risk under the log-additive model adjusted by gender and age. Meanwhile, we also found that significant differences in glucose concentrations with rs11879293 and rs1122608 different genotype. Serum LDL-C and HDL-C were seen among the 3 genotypes of rs12232780 exist differences. This study provides an evidence for polymorphism of SMARCA4 gene associated with CHD development in Chinese Han population.

  5. Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control between Bouyei and Han: Results from a Bi-Ethnic Health Survey in Developing Regions from South China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fen; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Wang, Ke; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Zhang, Biao; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2016-02-19

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in low-income population. This study aims to investigate ethnic disparities in hypertension and identify modifiable factors related to its occurrence and control in developing regions in South China. Blood pressure was measured in the Bouyei and Han populations during a community-based health survey in Guizhou, 2012. A multistage stratified sampling method was adopted to recruit Bouyei and Han aged from 20 to 80 years. Taking mixed effects into consideration, multilevel logistic models with random intercept were used for data analysis. The prevalence rates of hypertension were 35.3% for the Bouyei and 33.7% for the Han. Among the hypertensive participants, 30.1% of the Bouyei and 40.2% of the Han were aware of their hypertensive conditions, 19.7% of the Bouyei and 31.1% of the Han were receiving treatment, and only 3.6% of the Bouyei and 9.9% of the Han had their blood pressure under control. Age-sex standardized rates of awareness, treatment, and control were consistently lower in the Bouyei than the Han. Such ethnic disparities were more evident in the elderly population. Avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption and better education were favorable lifestyle for reduction in risk of hypertension. Moderate physical activity improved control of hypertension in Bouyei patients under treatment. Conclusively, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were substantially lower in Bouyei than Han, particularly in the elderly population. Such ethnic disparities indicate that elderly Bouyei population should be targeted for tailored interventions in the future.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of short tandem repeat loci D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634 in the Han population of Tianjin, China

    PubMed Central

    SHI, YUNFANG; LI, XIAOZHOU; JU, DUAN; LI, YAN; ZHANG, XIULING; ZHANG, YING

    2015-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) markers, also known as microsatellites, are extensively used in mapping studies, forensics and disease diagnosis due to their small dimension and low mutation and high polymorphism rates. In recent years quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) has been successfully used to amplify STR markers in the prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal abnormalities. This method provides a diagnosis of common aneuploidies 24–48 h after sampling with low error rates and cost; however, the size of different alleles, frequency, heterozygosity and distribution of STR markers vary among different populations. In the present study three STR markers, D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634, on chromosome 13 were analyzed in 350 unrelated individuals (200 males and 150 females) from the Han population of Tianjin, China using QF-PCR. Eleven, seven and 11 alleles of each marker were observed, respectively. The frequencies of the genotypes were in good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). The results showed that these three STR markers were highly polymorphic in the Han population of Tianjin, China. The study has provided basic data for use in the prenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome. PMID:26622392

  7. Phylogeographic Differentiation of Mitochondrial DNA in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yong-Gang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kivisild, Toomas; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2002-01-01

    To characterize the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in Han Chinese from several provinces of China, we have sequenced the two hypervariable segments of the control region and the segment spanning nucleotide positions 10171–10659 of the coding region, and we have identified a number of specific coding-region mutations by direct sequencing or restriction-fragment–length–polymorphism tests. This allows us to define new haplogroups (clades of the mtDNA phylogeny) and to dissect the Han mtDNA pool on a phylogenetic basis, which is a prerequisite for any fine-grained phylogeographic analysis, the interpretation of ancient mtDNA, or future complete mtDNA sequencing efforts. Some of the haplogroups under study differ considerably in frequencies across different provinces. The southernmost provinces show more pronounced contrasts in their regional Han mtDNA pools than the central and northern provinces. These and other features of the geographical distribution of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Han Chinese make an initial Paleolithic colonization from south to north plausible but would suggest subsequent migration events in China that mainly proceeded from north to south and east to west. Lumping together all regional Han mtDNA pools into one fictive general mtDNA pool or choosing one or two regional Han populations to represent all Han Chinese is inappropriate for prehistoric considerations as well as for forensic purposes or medical disease studies. PMID:11836649

  8. Fat-to-muscle Ratio: A New Anthropometric Indicator for Predicting Metabolic Syndrome in the Han and Bouyei Populations from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Zhu, Hui Juan; Chen, Shi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Li Yuan; Pan, Li; Wang, Li; Feng, Kui; Wang, Ke; Dong, Fen; Wang, Ding Ming; Yu, Yang Wen; Pan, Hui; Shan, Guang Liang

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence and possible factors influencing metabolic syndrome in people from Guizhou Province and to explore the predictive value of the fat-to-muscle ratio in diagnosing metabolic syndrome. A multistage stratified sampling method was used in this cross-sectional study of 20-80 years old Han and Bouyei populations from Guizhou Province, southwestern China, from October-December 2012. The study included 4,553 cases of metabolic syndrome, that was defined according to 2005 International Diabetes Federation criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used for determining the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive ability of the fat-to-muscle ratio for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The age-standardized prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.38% (men: 9.76%; women: 12.72%) for Han and 4.78% (men: 4.43%; women: 5.30%) for Bouyei populations. In Guizhou Province, the cut-off value for the men fat-to-muscle ratio was 0.34, the area under the curve was 0.95, and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.94 and 0.85, respectively. The cut-off value for the women fat-to-muscle ratio was 0.55, the area under the curve was 0.91, and the sensitivity and specificity were 0.93 and 0.79, respectively. The fat-to-muscle ratio is highly predictive of metabolic syndrome in Guizhou Province, and a useful reference indicator. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between the TRAIL single nucleotide polymorphism rs1131580 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yu, M Y; Zhao, P Q; Yan, X H; Liu, B; Zhang, Q Q; Wang, R; Ma, C H; Liang, X H; Zhu, F L; Gao, L F

    2013-09-10

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is expressed in different tissues and cells, including the pancreas and lymphocytes, and it can selectively induce apoptosis in tumor cells but not in most normal cells. TRAIL plays critical roles in type 1 diabetes mellitus, and is involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We recently discovered the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a risk factor for T2DM, with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the TRAIL (TNFSF10) gene at site 1595C/T (rs1131580), indicating the possible association of T2DM with this TRAIL polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of the TRAIL SNP at site 1595C/T (rs1131580) with T2DM susceptibility and the biometabolic parameters of T2DM in a Han Chinese population. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to genotype SNP rs1131580 in 292 patients with T2DM and 266 healthy controls. We found that the frequency of the CC genotype and that of the C allele of rs1131580 were significantly higher in T2DM patients than in the control group. Additionally, the triglyceride and serum creatinine levels of T2DM patients with the CC genotype were significantly higher than those of patients with the TT genotype. Thus, the CC genotype of the TRAIL SNP at 1595C/T (rs1131580) confers increased susceptible to T2DM in a Han Chinese population from Shandong Province. These data suggest that the CC genotype at this SNP is related to diabetic severity and it might be a candidate for the prognostic assessment of T2DM.

  10. Cable pin system versus K-wire tension band fixation for patella fractures in Chinese Han population: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zha, Kun; Liu, Guo-Hui; Yang, Shu-Hua; Zhou, Wu; Liu, Yi; Wu, Qi-Peng

    2017-10-01

    This meta-analysis compared the therapeutic effect of cable pin system (CPS) with K-wire tension band (KTB) in the treatment of patella fractures among Chinese Han population. The databases of PubMed, Cochrane library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese WanFang and Chinese VIP were searched for studies on CPS versus KTB in the treatment of patella fractures among Chinese Han population. Literatures were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of the studies was assessed, and meta-analysis was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's REVMAN 5.3 software. A total of 932 patients from 15 studies were included in this meta-analysis (426 fractures treated with CPS and 506 fractures treated with KTB). There were significant differences in duration of hospital stay [mean difference (MD)=-1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI):-1.71 to-0.43], fracture healing time (MD=-1.23; 95% CI:-1.68 to-0.77), flexion degree of knee joint at 6th month after operation (MD=14.82; 95% CI: 10.93 to 18.71), incidence of postoperative complication [risk ratio (RR)=0.16; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.27] and excellent-good rate of Böstman score (RR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.16) between the CPS group and KTB group, while no significant difference was found in operative time between the two groups (MD=-4.52; 95% CI:-11.70 to 2.67). For the treatment of patella fractures among Chinese Han population, limited evidence suggests that the CPS is more suitable than the KTB when considering the hospital stay, fracture healing time, flexion degree of knee at 6th month after operation, incidence of postoperative complication and excellent-good rate of Böstman joint score. Due to the limitation of high quality evidence and sample size, more large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to validate the findings in the future.

  11. Chromatin remodeling gene EZH2 involved in the genetic etiology of autism in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; You, Yang; Yue, Weihua; Yu, Hao; Lu, Tianlan; Wu, Zhiliu; Jia, Meixiang; Ruan, Yanyan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Dai; Wang, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Epigenetic factors play a critical role in the etiology of ASD. Enhancer of zest homolog 2 (EZH2), which encodes a histone methyltransferase, plays an important role in the process of chromatin remodeling during neurodevelopment. Further, EZH2 is located in chromosome 7q35-36, which is one of the linkage regions for autism. However, the genetic relationship between autism and EZH2 remains unclear. To investigate the association between EZH2 and autism in Chinese Han population, we performed a family-based association study between autism and three tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that covered 95.4% of the whole region of EZH2. In the discovery cohort of 239 trios, two SNPs (rs740949 and rs6464926) showed a significant association with autism. To decrease false positive results, we expanded the sample size to 427 trios. A SNP (rs6464926) was significantly associated with autism even after Bonferroni correction (p=0.008). Haplotype G-T (rs740949 and rs6464926) was a risk factor for autism (Z=2.655, p=0.008, Global p=0.024). In silico function prediction for SNPs indicated that these two SNPs might be regulatory SNPs. Expression pattern of EZH2 showed that it is highly expressed in human embryonic brains. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that EZH2 might contribute to the genetic etiology of autism in Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of LIPC -250G>A polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The association between -250G>A polymorphism in the promoter region of the hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration is contradictory in diverse ethnics. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. This study was designed to detect the association of LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 778 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 648 participants of Han Chinese aged 15-80 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LIPC -250G>A was performed by polymerse chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 50.0%, 43.3% and 6.7% in Bai Ku Yao, and 35.7%, 50.6% and 13.7% in Han (P < 0.01); respectively. The frequencies of G and A alleles were 71.7% and 28.3% in Bai Ku Yao, and 61.0% and 39.0% in Han (P < 0.01). The levels of HDL-C and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Bai Ku Yao were lower in GG genotype than in GA or AA genotype (P < 0.05-0.01). The levels of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoB in Han were lower in GG genotype than in GA or AA genotype (P < 0.05-0.01). The levels of HDL-C and the ratio of ApoAI to ApoB in Bai Ku Yao, and the levels of HDL-C, LDL-C and ApoB in Han were correlated with genotype and/or allele (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with age, sex, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, body weight, and body mass index in both ethnic groups. Conclusions The differences in the serum lipid profiles between the two ethnic groups might partly result from

  13. Deep whole-genome sequencing of 90 Han Chinese genomes.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tianming; Lin, Haoxiang; Zhu, Wenjuan; Laurent, Tellier Christian Asker Melchior; Yang, Mengcheng; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Xu, Xun; Guo, Xiaosen

    2017-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing provides a high-resolution insight into human genetic information. However, the focus of previous studies has primarily been on low-coverage data due to the high cost of sequencing. Although the 1000 Genomes Project and the Haplotype Reference Consortium have both provided powerful reference panels for imputation, low-frequency and novel variants remain difficult to discover and call with accuracy on the basis of low-coverage data. Deep sequencing provides an optimal solution for the problem of these low-frequency and novel variants. Although whole-exome sequencing is also a viable choice for exome regions, it cannot account for noncoding regions, sometimes resulting in the absence of important, causal variants. For Han Chinese populations, the majority of variants have been discovered based upon low-coverage data from the 1000 Genomes Project. However, high-coverage, whole-genome sequencing data are limited for any population, and a large amount of low-frequency, population-specific variants remain uncharacterized. We have performed whole-genome sequencing at a high depth (∼×80) of 90 unrelated individuals of Chinese ancestry, collected from the 1000 Genomes Project samples, including 45 Northern Han Chinese and 45 Southern Han Chinese samples. Eighty-three of these 90 have been sequenced by the 1000 Genomes Project. We have identified 12 568 804 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 2 074 210 short InDels, and 26 142 structural variations from these 90 samples. Compared to the Han Chinese data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we have found 7 000 629 novel variants with low frequency (defined as minor allele frequency < 5%), including 5 813 503 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1 169 199 InDels, and 17 927 structural variants. Using deep sequencing data, we have built a greatly expanded spectrum of genetic variation for the Han Chinese genome. Compared to the 1000 Genomes Project, these Han Chinese deep sequencing data enhance the

  14. Association of Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms With the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shui-Xian; Lu, Lin-Lin; Liu, Yang; Dong, Quan-Jiang; Xuan, Shi-Ying; Xin, Yong-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular events are an independent risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the leading cause of mortality in NAFLD patients. Several recent studies demonstrated that adiponectin (Ad) polymorphisms were involved in the progression of NAFLD and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, reports on the association between Ad polymorphisms and the risk of developing CAD in NAFLD patients are lacking in a Northern Han Chinese population. Objectives The present study was designed to evaluate the association between Ad gene polymorphisms (rs266729 and rs2241766) and the risk of developing CAD in Northern Han Chinese patients with NAFLD. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Adrs266729 and rs2241766 gene polymorphisms were genotyped in B-type ultrasonography-proven NAFLD patients, with (n = 246) or without (n = 247) CAD and in healthy controls (n = 304). Serum lipid profiles were determined using biochemical methods. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results There were significant differences in the Adrs266729 G allele between the NAFLD patients with and without CAD (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a significant difference in the Adrs2241766 G allele of the NAFLD patients compared with that of the controls (P < 0.05). In the NAFLD CAD population, carriers of the G allele of Adrs266729 had higher serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and a lower Ad level than their noncarrier counterparts (P = 0.031, P = 0.034, P = 0.007, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). NAFLD patients without CAD had higher TG and serum FPG values and a lower Ad level than their noncarrier counterparts (P = 0.014, P = 0.038, and P < 0.001, respectively). In the NAFLD patients with/without CAD, the carriers of the G allele of Adrs2241766 had higher TG levels (P = 0.039 and P = 0

  15. Ancient DNA reveals that the genetic structure of the northern Han Chinese was shaped prior to 3,000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Li, Hong-Jie; Cui, Ying-Qiu; Xu, Zhi; Jin, Li; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group in the world, and their origins, development, and expansion are complex. Many genetic studies have shown that Han Chinese can be divided into two distinct groups: northern Han Chinese and southern Han Chinese. The genetic history of the southern Han Chinese has been well studied. However, the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese is still obscure. In order to gain insight into the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese, 89 human remains were sampled from the Hengbei site which is located in the Central Plain and dates back to a key transitional period during the rise of the Han Chinese (approximately 3,000 years ago). We used 64 authentic mtDNA data obtained in this study, 27 Y chromosome SNP data profiles from previously studied Hengbei samples, and genetic datasets of the current Chinese populations and two ancient northern Chinese populations to analyze the relationship between the ancient people of Hengbei and present-day northern Han Chinese. We used a wide range of population genetic analyses, including principal component analyses, shared mtDNA haplotype analyses, and geographic mapping of maternal genetic distances. The results show that the ancient people of Hengbei bore a strong genetic resemblance to present-day northern Han Chinese and were genetically distinct from other present-day Chinese populations and two ancient populations. These findings suggest that the genetic structure of northern Han Chinese was already shaped 3,000 years ago in the Central Plain area.

  16. Ancient DNA Reveals That the Genetic Structure of the Northern Han Chinese Was Shaped Prior to 3,000 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan-Chao; Li, Hong-Jie; Cui, Ying-Qiu; Xu, Zhi; Jin, Li; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group in the world, and their origins, development, and expansion are complex. Many genetic studies have shown that Han Chinese can be divided into two distinct groups: northern Han Chinese and southern Han Chinese. The genetic history of the southern Han Chinese has been well studied. However, the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese is still obscure. In order to gain insight into the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese, 89 human remains were sampled from the Hengbei site which is located in the Central Plain and dates back to a key transitional period during the rise of the Han Chinese (approximately 3,000 years ago). We used 64 authentic mtDNA data obtained in this study, 27 Y chromosome SNP data profiles from previously studied Hengbei samples, and genetic datasets of the current Chinese populations and two ancient northern Chinese populations to analyze the relationship between the ancient people of Hengbei and present-day northern Han Chinese. We used a wide range of population genetic analyses, including principal component analyses, shared mtDNA haplotype analyses, and geographic mapping of maternal genetic distances. The results show that the ancient people of Hengbei bore a strong genetic resemblance to present-day northern Han Chinese and were genetically distinct from other present-day Chinese populations and two ancient populations. These findings suggest that the genetic structure of northern Han Chinese was already shaped 3,000 years ago in the Central Plain area. PMID:25938511

  17. The study on facial soft tissue thickness using Han population in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jierui; Zhao, Xi; Mi, Congbo; Raza, Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Facial profile is an important aspect in physical anthropology, forensic science, and cosmetic research. Thus, facial soft tissue measurement technology plays a significant role in facial restoration. A considerable amount of work has investigated facial soft tissue thickness, which significantly varies according to gender, age, and race. However, only few studies have considered the nutritional status of the investigated individuals. Moreover, no sufficient research among Chinese ethnic groups, particularly Xinjiang population in China, is currently available. Hence, the current study investigated the adaptability of facial soft tissue to the underlying hard tissue among young adults of Han population in Xinjiang, China; the analysis was performed on the basis of gender, skeletal class, and body mass index (BMI). Measurements were obtained from the lateral cephalometric radiographs of 256 adults aged 18-26 years old. Differences in soft tissue thickness were observed between genders and among skeletal classes. With regard to gender, significant differences in soft tissue thickness were found at rhinion, glabella, subnasale, stomion, labrale superius, pogonion, and gnathion among different BMI groups. Thus, nutritional status should be considered when reconstructing an individual's facial profile. Results showed that the thinnest and thickest craniofacial soft tissues existed in rhinion and lip regions, respectively. Overall, this research provides valuable data for forensic facial reconstruction and identification of young adults in Xinjiang, China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Geographical characteristics of single nucleotide polymorphism of candidate genes associated with coronary artery disease in Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Huang; Cui, Han-Bin; Wang, Dong-Qi; Chen, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Hong-Kao; Cui, Chang-Cong; Chen, Xin-Yi; Liu, Xin-Hong; Zhang, Zheng; Bai, Feng; Jb, Muhlestein

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the geographical characteristics of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of candidate genes associated with coronary artery disease in Chinese Han population. Study population were Chinese Han nationality recruited from Xi'an, Shiyan and Ningbo districts. Patients with coronary artery disease were defined by coronary angiography with stenosis >or= 50% and control subjects with stenosis < 10%, respectively. The DNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cell by approach comprised proteinase K digestion, phenol and chloroform extraction as well as isopropanol precipitation. The SNP of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1)-G596A, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-Taq1B, Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-Hind III and LPL-Pvu II were genotyped by PCR-RFLPs, and verified by gene sequencing. A Total of 615 patients undertaken coronary angiography were recruited from cardiac center in Xi'an (220), Ningbo (209) and Shiyan district (186), China (mean age 60 +/- 10 years, 75.9% males). Diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in Xi'an Cohort population than Shiyan and Ningbo cohort (P < 0.01). Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels in Xi'an Cohort population were significantly higher, and HDL-C siginificantly lower than in Shiyan and Ningbo cohort population [HDL-C: (1.17 +/- 0.48) mmol/L vs. (1.25 +/- 0.33) mmol/L and (1.29 +/- 0.44) mmol/L, P < 0.05]. Distribution differences for ABCA1-G596A and CETP-Taq1B genotypes were found in Xi'an Cohort population compared to Ningbo and Shiyan cohorts (for ABCA1, Xi'an: 0.24, 0.53, 0.23 and Shiyan: 0.17, 0.62, 0.21 and Ningbo: 0.34, 0.37, 0.29, for GG, AG, AA, respectively, P < 0.01; and for CETP, Xi'an: 0.29, 0.54, 0.17 and Shiyan: 0.38, 0.40, 0.22 and Ningbo: 0.39, 0.49, 0.12 for B1B1, B1B2, B2B2, respectively, P < 0.01), but not for LPL variants. ABCA1-G596A variant predicted HDL-C [Xi'an: (1.2 +/- 0.3) mmol/L, (1.3 +/- 0.2) mmol/L and (1.4 +/- 0.4) mmol/L, P = 0.01; Shiyan: (1.1 +/- 0

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and the Risk of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Fang; Chen, Wan-Jin; Lin, Xiao-Zhen; Zhang, Qi-Jie; Cai, Jiang-Ping; Liou, Chia-Wei; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations is obscure. On the other hand, mtDNA haplogroups have been inconsistently reported to modify the risk of PD among different population. Here, we try to explore the relationship between mtDNA haplogroups and sporadic PD in a Han Chinese population. Methods: Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which define the major Asian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, D, F, G), were detected via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 279 sporadic PD patients and 510 matched controls of Han population. Results: Overall, the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups did not show any significant differences between patients and controls. However, after stratification by age at onset, the frequency of haplogroup B was significantly lower in patients with early-onset PD (EOPD) compared to the controls (odds ratio [OR] =0.225, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.082–0.619, P = 0.004), while other haplogroups did not show significant differences. After stratification by age at examination, among subjects younger than 50 years of age: Haplogroup B also showed a lower frequency in PD cases (OR = 0.146, 95% CI: 0.030–0.715, P = 0.018) while haplogroup D presented a higher risk of PD (OR = 3.579, 95% CI: 1.112–11.523, P = 0.033), other haplogroups also did not show significant differences in the group. Conclusions: Our study indicates that haplogroup B might confer a lower risk for EOPD and people younger than 50 years in Han Chinese, while haplogroup D probably lead a higher risk of PD in people younger than 50 years of age. In brief, particular Asian mtDNA haplogroups likely play a role in the pathogenesis of PD among Han Chinese. PMID:26112715

  20. Linked 4-Way Multimodal Brain Differences in Schizophrenia in a Large Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengfeng; Wang, Haiying; Song, Ming; Lv, Luxian; Cui, Yue; Liu, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Zuo, Nianming; Xu, Kaibin; Du, Yuhui; Yu, Qingbao; Luo, Na; Qi, Shile; Yang, Jian; Xie, Sangma; Li, Jian; Chen, Jun; Chen, Yunchun; Wang, Huaning; Guo, Hua; Wan, Ping; Yang, Yongfeng; Li, Peng; Lu, Lin; Yan, Hao; Yan, Jun; Wang, Huiling; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhang, Dai; Calhoun, Vince D; Jiang, Tianzi; Sui, Jing

    2018-04-20

    Multimodal fusion has been regarded as a promising tool to discover covarying patterns of multiple imaging types impaired in brain diseases, such as schizophrenia (SZ). In this article, we aim to investigate the covarying abnormalities underlying SZ in a large Chinese Han population (307 SZs, 298 healthy controls [HCs]). Four types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) from resting-state functional MRI, gray matter volume (GM) from structural MRI, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion MRI, and functional network connectivity (FNC) resulted from group independent component analysis, were jointly analyzed by a data-driven multivariate fusion method. Results suggest that a widely distributed network disruption appears in SZ patients, with synchronous changes in both functional and structural regions, especially the basal ganglia network, salience network (SAN), and the frontoparietal network. Such a multimodal coalteration was also replicated in another independent Chinese sample (40 SZs, 66 HCs). Our results on auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) also provide evidence for the hypothesis that prefrontal hypoactivation and temporal hyperactivation in SZ may lead to failure of executive control and inhibition, which is relevant to AVH. In addition, impaired working memory performance was found associated with GM reduction and FA decrease in SZ in prefrontal and superior temporal area, in both discovery and replication datasets. In summary, by leveraging multiple imaging and clinical information into one framework to observe brain in multiple views, we can integrate multiple inferences about SZ from large-scale population and offer unique perspectives regarding the missing links between the brain function and structure that may not be achieved by separate unimodal analyses.

  1. Genetic variants of 17q21 are associated with childhood-onset asthma and related phenotypes in a northeastern Han Chinese population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yu, X; Yu, C; Ren, Z; Deng, Y; Song, J; Zhang, H; Zhou, H

    2014-05-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) suggested that variants on chromosome 17q21 were associated with childhood-onset asthma in white populations. Two replication studies had been conducted in southern Han Chinese population in 2009 and 2012. However, these two Chinese replication results were inconsistent. To further confirm the role of 17q21 common variants, an association study of 17q21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of childhood-onset asthma was performed in a Han population from northeastern China. In this study, rs3894194, rs12603332 and rs11650680 were genotyped in 435 asthmatic children and 601 healthy controls by using a SNaPshot method. Our data showed that the allelic frequency of rs12603332 and rs11650680 showed significant differences between asthmatic cases and healthy controls, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.36 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.65, P=0.002] and an OR of 1.36 (95% CI 1.07-1.74, P=0.01). Genotype distribution analysis also showed the significant associations of the above two loci with childhood asthma under dominant, recessive and additive model (dominant OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.36, P=0.032; recessive OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83, P=0.009; additive OR=1.97, 95% CI 1.24-3.14, P=0.004; recessive OR=1.50, 95% CI 1.13-1.98, P=0.005). Besides, linear regression analysis showed that rs3894194 and rs12603332 were also significantly associated with asthma phenotypes such as log10 -transformed immunoglobulin E (IgE) level (IU/ml) and log10 -transformed eosinophil percentage (dominant, P=0.04; additive, P=0.01; recessive, P=0.04; recessive, P=0.03; additive, P=0.02). Collectively, our findings suggest that orosomucoid 1-like 3 (ORMDL3) locus on chromosome 17q21 is a risk factor for childhood-onset asthma in northeastern Han Chinese population. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the pathogenesis that ORMDL3 locus predisposes to childhood-onset asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. HapMap-based study on the association between MPO and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jun-dong; Hua, Feng; Mei, Chao-rong; Zheng, De-jie; Wang, Guo-fan; Zhou, Qing-hua

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1) are important carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the common polymorphisms of MPO and GSTP1 genes and lung cancer risk in Chinese Han population. Methods: A total of 266 subjects with lung cancer and 307 controls without personal history of the disease were recruited in this case control study. The tagSNPs approach was used to assess the common polymorphisms of MOP and GSTP1 genes and lung cancer risk according to the disequilibrium information from the HapMap project. The tagSNP rs7208693 was selected as the polymorphism site for MPO, while the haplotype-tagging SNPs rs1695, rs4891, rs762803 and rs749174 were selected as the polymorphism sites for GSTP1. The gene polymorphisms were confirmed using real-time PCR, cloning and sequencing. Results: The four GSTP1 haplotype-tagging SNPs rs1695, rs4891, rs762803 and rs749174, but not the MPO tagSNP rs7208693, exhibited an association with lung cancer susceptibility in smokers in the overall population and in the studied subgroups. When Phase 2 software was used to reconstruct the haplotype for GSTP1, the haplotype CACA (rs749174+rs1695 + rs762803+rs4891) exhibited an increased risk of lung cancer among smokers (adjust odds ratio 1.53; 95%CI 1.04–2.25, P=0.033). Furthermore, diplotype analyses demonstrated that the significant association between the risk haplotype and lung cancer. The risk haplotypes co-segregated with one or more biologically functional polymorphisms and corresponded to a recessive inheritance model. Conclusion: The common polymorphisms of the GSTP1 gene may be the candidates for SNP markers for lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population. PMID:24786234

  3. Identification of Novel Susceptibility Loci for Kawasaki Disease in a Han Chinese Population by a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Min; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Chen, Ming-Ren; Chi, Hsin; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Chang, Li-Ching; Liu, Yi-Min; Wang, Hsiang-Hua; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Wu, Jer-Yuarn

    2011-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis syndrome that primarily affects infants and young children. Its etiology is unknown; however, epidemiological findings suggest that genetic predisposition underlies disease susceptibility. Taiwan has the third-highest incidence of KD in the world, after Japan and Korea. To investigate novel mechanisms that might predispose individuals to KD, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 250 KD patients and 446 controls in a Han Chinese population residing in Taiwan, and further validated our findings in an independent Han Chinese cohort of 208 cases and 366 controls. The most strongly associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in the joint analysis corresponded to three novel loci. Among these KD-associated SNPs three were close to the COPB2 (coatomer protein complex beta-2 subunit) gene: rs1873668 (p = 9.52×10−5), rs4243399 (p = 9.93×10−5), and rs16849083 (p = 9.93×10−5). We also identified a SNP in the intronic region of the ERAP1 (endoplasmic reticulum amino peptidase 1) gene (rs149481, pbest = 4.61×10−5). Six SNPs (rs17113284, rs8005468, rs10129255, rs2007467, rs10150241, and rs12590667) clustered in an area containing immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions genes, with pbest-values between 2.08×10−5 and 8.93×10−6, were also identified. This is the first KD GWAS performed in a Han Chinese population. The novel KD candidates we identified have been implicated in T cell receptor signaling, regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as antibody-mediated immune responses. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathogenesis of KD. PMID:21326860

  4. Genome-wide scans reveal variants at EDAR predominantly affecting hair straightness in Han Chinese and Uyghur populations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sijie; Tan, Jingze; Yang, Yajun; Peng, Qianqian; Zhang, Manfei; Li, Jinxi; Lu, Dongsheng; Liu, Yu; Lou, Haiyi; Feng, Qidi; Lu, Yan; Guan, Yaqun; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Jiao, Yi; Sabeti, Pardis; Krutmann, Jean; Tang, Kun; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Sijia

    2016-11-01

    Hair straightness/curliness is one of the most conspicuous features of human variation and is particularly diverse among populations. A recent genome-wide scan found common variants in the Trichohyalin (TCHH) gene that are associated with hair straightness in Europeans, but different genes might affect this phenotype in other populations. By sampling 2899 Han Chinese, we performed the first genome-wide scan of hair straightness in East Asians, and found EDAR (rs3827760) as the predominant gene (P = 4.67 × 10 -16 ), accounting for 3.66 % of the total variance. The candidate gene approach did not find further significant associations, suggesting that hair straightness may be affected by a large number of genes with subtle effects. Notably, genetic variants associated with hair straightness in Europeans are generally low in frequency in Han Chinese, and vice versa. To evaluate the relative contribution of these variants, we performed a second genome-wide scan in 709 samples from the Uyghur, an admixed population with both eastern and western Eurasian ancestries. In Uyghurs, both EDAR (rs3827760: P = 1.92 × 10 -12 ) and TCHH (rs11803731: P = 1.46 × 10 -3 ) are associated with hair straightness, but EDAR (OR 0.415) has a greater effect than TCHH (OR 0.575). We found no significant interaction between EDAR and TCHH (P = 0.645), suggesting that these two genes affect hair straightness through different mechanisms. Furthermore, haplotype analysis indicates that TCHH is not subject to selection. While EDAR is under strong selection in East Asia, it does not appear to be subject to selection after the admixture in Uyghurs. These suggest that hair straightness is unlikely a trait under selection.

  5. Spectrum of PAH gene variants among a population of Han Chinese patients with phenylketonuria from northern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Huang, Qiuying; Li, Qingge; Zhao, Dehua; Li, Xiaole; Cui, Lixia; Bai, Ying; Feng, Yin; Kong, Xiangdong

    2017-10-05

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), which primarily results from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), is one of the most common inherited inborn errors of metabolism that impairs postnatal cognitive development. The incidence of various PAH variations differs by race and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the PAH gene variants of a Han population from Northern China. In total, 655 PKU patients and their families were recruited for this study; each proband was diagnosed both clinically and biochemically with phenylketonuria. Subjects were sequentially screened for single-base variants and exon deletions or duplications within PAH via direct Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). A spectrum of 174 distinct PAH variants was identified: 152 previously documented variants and 22 novel variants. While single-base variants were distributed throughout the 13 exons, they were particularly concentrated in exons 7 (33.3%), 11 (14.2%), 6 (13.2%), 12 (11.0%), 3 (10.4%), and 5 (4.4%). The predominant variant was p.Arg243Gln (17.7%), followed by Ex6-96A > G (8.3%), p.Val399 = (6.4%), p.Arg53His (4.7%), p.Tyr356* (4.7%), p.Arg241Cys (4.6%), p.Arg413Pro (4.6%), p.Arg111* (4.4%), and c.442-1G > A (3.4%). Notably, two patients were also identified as carrying de novo variants. The composition of PAH gene variants in this Han population from Northern China was distinct from those of other ethnic groups. As such, the construction of a PAH gene variant database for Northern China is necessary to lay a foundation for genetic-based diagnoses, prenatal diagnoses, and population screening.

  6. Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several genetic variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene have associated with modifications of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the susceptibility for coronary heart disease, but the findings are still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in southern China. The present study was undertaken to detect the possible association of V825I (rs2066715) polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 677 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay combined with gel electrophoresis were performed for the genotyping of V825I variant, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G and A alleles was 57.4% and 42.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 57.7% and 42.3% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. The frequency of GG, GA and AA genotypes was 33.7%, 47.4% and 18.9% in Bai Ku Yao, and 33.4%, 48.6% and 18.0% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. There was no difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The subjects with AA genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05). The participants with AA genotype in Han had lower serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the participants with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), but these results were found in males but not in females. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the levels of TC in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C and ApoAI in male Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0

  7. Association of PCSK1 rs6234 with obesity and related traits in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qibin; Li, Huaixing; Loos, Ruth J F; Liu, Chen; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Hongyu; Yu, Zhijie; Lin, Xu

    2010-05-17

    Common variants in PCSK1 have been reported to be associated with obesity in populations of European origin. We aimed to replicate this association in Chinese. Two PCSK1 variants rs6234 and rs6235 (in strong LD with each other, r(2) = 0.98) were genotyped in a population-based cohort of 3,210 Chinese Hans. The rs6234 was used for further association analyses with obesity and related traits. We found no significant association of rs6234 with obesity, overweight, BMI, waist circumference, or body fat percentage (P > 0.05) in all participants. However, the rs6234 G-allele showed a significant association with increased risk of combined phenotype of obesity and overweight (OR 1.21[1.03-1.43], P = 0.0193) and a trend toward association with obesity (OR 1.25[0.98-1.61], P = 0.08) in men, but not in women (P > or = 0.29). Consistently, the rs6234 G-allele showed significant association with increased BMI (P = 0.0043), waist circumference (P = 0.008) and body fat percentage (P = 0.0131) only in men, not in women (P > or = 0.24). Interestingly, the rs6234 G-allele was significantly associated with increased HOMA-B (P = 0.0059) and decreased HOMA-S (P = 0.0349) in all participants. In this study, we found modest evidence for association of the PCSK1 rs6234 with BMI and overweight in men only but not in women, which suggested that PCSK1 rs6234 might not be an important contributor to obesity in Chinese Hans. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to draw a firm conclusion.

  8. [Association of HLA-DPA1 and -DPB1 polymorphisms with Posner-Schlossman syndrome among southern Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Tianhui; He, Liumei; Shen, Xiaoli; Wang, Yanjun; Deng, Zhihui

    2015-04-01

    To assess the association of HLA-DPA1 and -DPB1 polymorphisms with Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS) in southern Chinese Han population. A total of 100 randomly selected PSS patients of southern Chinese Han origin were served as the experimental group, while 128 unrelated healthy blood donors of the same origin were served as the control group. All samples were subjected to sequencing-based typing (SBT) for exon 2 of HLA-DPA1 and -DPB1 loci in both directions. HLA genotype was assigned using an Assign 3.5 HLA SBT software. The allele frequencies and haplotype frequencies of HLA-DPA1 and -DPB1 of the two groups were compared. x² test, P value and odds ratio (OR) value were calculated. Six HLA-DPA1 alleles in the experimental group and 4 HLA-DPA1 alleles in the healthy control group were identified. The allelic frequency for HLA-DPA1*02:01 in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (4.50% vs. 12.109%; x²=8.124, P=0.004). Sixteen HLA-DPB1 alleles were identified in both the experimental and control groups. The allelic frequencies for HLA-DPB1*14:01 and - DPB1*17:01 in the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group ( DPB1*14:01: 1.00% vs. 4.688%, x²=5.130, P=0.024; DPB1*17:01: 0% vs. 2.344%, x²=3.897, P=0.048). The DPA1-DPB1 haplotypes for the experimental and control groups were 23 and 25, respectively. The haplotype frequencies for both DPA1*02:01- DPB1*14:01 and DPA1*02:01- DPB1*17:01 were significantly lower than those of the control group. DPA1*02:01- DPB1*14:01 and DPA1*02:01- DPB1*17:01 haplotypes may provide considerable protection effect against PSS in the southern Chinese Han population.

  9. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population. A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group). Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model. Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population. PMID:26717388

  10. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-01

    The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population.A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group).Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model.Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population.

  11. The obesity-related polymorphism PCSK1 rs6235 is associated with essential hypertension in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Mu; Ling, Yan; Lu, Da-Ru; Lu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Chen, Hong-Yan; Gao, Xin

    2012-10-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 1 (PCSK1) is a prohormone convertase that has an important role in prohormone maturation including the process of prorenin to renin. We studied the association of the PCSK1 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6235 (encoding an S690T substitution) with essential hypertension (EH), obesity and related traits in the Han Chinese population. The rs6235 SNP in the PCSK1 gene was investigated using a case-control study design, with 1034 hypertension cases and 1112 normotensive controls. In this study, the rs6235 SNP was significantly associated with hypertension (OR=1.26, 95% CI (1.10-1.46), P=0.001); the odds ratios of GC vs GG and CC vs GG were 1.30 (95% CI (1.06-1.58), P=0.010) and 1.55 (95% CI (1.12-2.13), P=0.007), respectively. In the controls, the C-allele was associated with increased systolic (P=0.010) and diastolic (P=0.010) blood pressure levels. In all of the EH patients and EH patients without a history of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system-related antagonists, the C-allele was associated with increased plasma renin activity (P=0.00004 and 0.002, respectively) and aldosterone levels (P=0.018 and 0.005, respectively). The C-allele was also associated with increased body mass index (BMI) (P=0.010) in the normotensive controls. In conclusion, the PCSK1 SNP rs6235 was associated with EH and blood pressure in the Han Chinese population, and this association may be mediated by the SNP's effect on RAA levels. rs6235 was also associated with BMI in this population.

  12. IL-13 may be involved in the development of CAD via different mechanisms under different conditions in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zha, Ling-Feng; Nie, Shao-Fang; Chen, Qian-Wen; Liao, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Song; Dong, Jiang-Tao; Xie, Tian; Wang, Fan; Tang, Ting-Ting; Xia, Ni; Xu, Cheng-Qi; Zhou, Ying-Chao; Zeng, Zhi-Peng; Jiao, Jiao; Wang, Peng-Yun; Wang, Qing K; Tu, Xin; Cheng, Xiang

    2018-04-18

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) has important functions in atherosclerosis, but its role in coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. Here, we studied the genetic role of IL-13 in CAD in a Chinese Han population using tag SNPs covering the whole IL13 gene (i.e., rs1881457, rs2069744 and rs20541) and a two-stage cohort containing 1863 CAD cases and 1841 controls. Traditional risk factors for CAD, such as age, BMI, and other factors, were used as covariates in logistic regression analysis. In the total population, we found that two haplotypes of IL13 (ATG and ATA, ordered rs1881457 C -rs2069744 T -rs20541 A ) significantly contributed to the risk of CAD with adjusted p values less than 0.05 (p adj  = 0.019 and p adj  = 0.042, respectively). In subgroup population analyses, the variant rs1881457 C was found to significantly contribute to a nearly two fold increase in the risk of CAD in men (p adj  = 0.023, OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.09-3.33). The variant rs1881457 C also significantly contributed to a nearly twofold risk of late-onset CAD (p adj  = 0.024, OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.09-3.42). In conclusion, IL13 might be involved in CAD via different mechanisms under different conditions in the Chinese Han population.

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies two new susceptibility loci for atopic dermatitis in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang-Dan; Xiao, Feng-Li; Li, Yang; Zhou, Wen-Ming; Tang, Hua-Yang; Tang, Xian-Fa; Zhang, Hui; Schaarschmidt, Heidi; Zuo, Xian-Bo; Foelster-Holst, Regina; He, Su-Min; Shi, Mei; Liu, Qiang; Lv, Yong-Mei; Chen, Xi-Lan; Zhu, Kun-Ju; Guo, Yi-Feng; Hu, Da-Yan; Li, Ming; Li, Min; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Xin; Tang, Jian-Ping; Guo, Bi-Rong; Wang, Hua; Liu, Yuan; Zou, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Gang; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Shu-Mei; Jiang, Ai-Ping; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Xing-Hua; Li, Pan; Tu, Cai-Xia; Yin, Xian-Yong; Han, Xiu-Ping; Ren, Yun-Qing; Song, Shun-Peng; Lu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Xing-Lian; Cui, Yong; Chang, Jing; Gao, Min; Luo, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Pei-Guang; Dai, Xing; Su, Wei; Li, Hui; Shen, Chun-Pin; Liu, Sheng-Xiu; Feng, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Chun-Jun; Lin, Guo-Shu; Wang, Zai-Xing; Huang, Jian-Qing; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yan; Bao, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Sen; Liu, Jian-Jun; Franke, Andre; Weidinger, Stephan; Yao, Zhi-Rong; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2011-06-12

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing form of inflammatory skin disorder that is affected by genetic and environmental factors. We performed a genome-wide association study of atopic dermatitis in a Chinese Han population using 1,012 affected individuals (cases) and 1,362 controls followed by a replication study in an additional 3,624 cases and 12,197 controls of Chinese Han ethnicity, as well as 1,806 cases and 3,256 controls from Germany. We identified previously undescribed susceptibility loci at 5q22.1 (TMEM232 and SLC25A46, rs7701890, P(combined) = 3.15 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR) = 1.24) and 20q13.33 (TNFRSF6B and ZGPAT, rs6010620, P(combined) = 3.0 × 10(-8), OR = 1.17) and replicated another previously reported locus at 1q21.3 (FLG, rs3126085, P(combined) = 5.90 × 10(-12), OR = 0.82) in the Chinese sample. The 20q13.33 locus also showed evidence for association in the German sample (rs6010620, P = 2.87 × 10(-5), OR = 1.25). Our study identifies new genetic susceptibility factors and suggests previously unidentified biological pathways in atopic dermatitis.

  14. Morphological quantitative criteria and aesthetic evaluation of eight female Han face types.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiming; Zhou, Rongrong; Zhang, XuDong; Sun, Huafeng; Lu, Xin; Xia, Dongsheng; Song, Mingli; Liang, Yang

    2013-04-01

    Human facial aesthetics relies on the classification of facial features and standards of attractiveness. However, there are no widely accepted quantitative criteria for facial attractiveness, particularly for Chinese Han faces. Establishing quantitative standards of attractiveness for facial landmarks within facial types is important for planning outcomes in cosmetic plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively the criteria for attractiveness of eight female Chinese Han facial types. A photographic database of young Chinese Han women's faces was created. Photographed faces (450) were classified based on eight established types and scored for attractiveness. Measurements taken at seven standard facial landmarks and their relative proportions were analyzed for correlations to attractiveness scores. Attractive faces of each type were averaged via an image-morphing algorithm to generate synthetic facial types. Results were compared with the neoclassical ideal and data for Caucasians. Morphological proportions corresponding to the highest attractiveness scores for Chinese Han women differed from the neoclassical ideal. In our population of young, normal, healthy Han women, high attractiveness ratings were given to those with greater temporal width and pogonion-gonion distance, and smaller bizygomatic and bigonial widths. As attractiveness scores increased, the ratio of the temporal to bizygomatic widths increased, and the ratio of the distance between the pogonion and gonion to the bizygomatic width also increased slightly. Among the facial types, the oval and inverted triangular were the most attractive. The neoclassical ideal of attractiveness does not apply to Han faces. However, the proportion of faces considered attractive in this population was similar to that of Caucasian populations. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please

  15. Association of C5L2 genetic polymorphisms with coronary artery disease in a Han population in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying-Ying; Xie, Xiang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Ma, Xiang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Li, Xiao-Mei; Pan, Shuo; Adi, Dilare; Chen, Bang-Dang; Liu, Fen

    2017-01-31

    C5aR-like receptor 2 (C5L2) has been identified as a receptor for the inflammatory factor Complement 5a (C5a) and acylation-stimulating protein (ASP). ASP binding to C5L2 leading to a net accumulation of TG stores and glucose transporter. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of the SNPs of C5L2 gene with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a Chinese population. We examined the role of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of C5L2 gene for CAD using a case-control design. We determined the prevalence of C5L2 genotypes in 505 CAD patients and 469 age and sex-matched healthy control subjects of Han population. There was significant difference in genotype distributions of rs2972607 and rs8112962 between CAD patients and control subjects. The rs2972607 was found to be associated with CAD in a dominant model (AA vs. AG + GG, P<0.001). Similarly, the rs8112962 was found to be associated with CAD in a dominant model (TT vs CT + CC, P=0.016). The difference remained statistically significant after multivariate adjustment (OR =1.401, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.026~1.914, P=0.034; OR = 1.541, 95%CI:1.093~ 2.172, P=0.014; respectively). The results of this study indicate that both rs2972607 and rs8112962 of C5L2 gene are associated with CAD in a Han population of China.

  16. Breast cancer association studies in a Han Chinese population using 10 European-ancestry-associated breast cancer susceptibility SNPs.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yan-Ping; Yang, Xue-Xi; Yao, Guang-Yu; Qiu, Fei; Chen, Jun; Chen, Lu-Jia; Ye, Chang-Sheng; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified various genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer based mainly on European-ancestry populations. Differing linkage disequilibrium patterns exist between European and Asian populations. Ten SNPs (rs2075555 in COL1A1, rs12652447 in FBXL17, rs10941679 in 5p12/MRPS30, rs11878583 in ZNF577, rs7166081 in SMAD3, rs16917302 in ZNF365, rs311499 in 20q13.3, rs1045485 in CASP8, rs12964873 in CDH1 and rs8170 in 19p13.1) were here genotyped in 1009 Chinese females (487 patients with breast cancer and 522 control subjects) using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Association analysis based on unconditional logistic regression was carried out to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for each SNP. Stratification analyses were carried out based on the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Among the 10 SNPs, rs10941679 showed significant association with breast cancer when differences between the case and control groups in this Han Chinese population were compared (30.09% GG, 45.4% GA and 23.7% AA; P = 0.012). Four SNPs (rs311499, rs1045485, rs12964873 and rs8170) showed no polymorphisms in our study. The remaining five SNPs showed no association with breast cancer in the present population. Immunohistochemical tests showed that rs2075555 was associated with ER status; the AA genotype showed greater association with ER negative than ER positive (OR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.29-0.99; P = 0.046). AA of rs7166081 was also associated with ER status, but showed a greater association with ER positive than negative (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.04-2.44; P = 0.031). However, no significant associations were found among the SNPs and PR status. In this study using a Han Chinese population, rs10941679 was the only SNP associated with breast cancer risk, indicating a difference between European and Chinese populations in susceptibility loci. Therefore, confirmation studies are necessary before

  17. Genetic Variations of the COL4A1 Gene and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sen; Xia, Chao; He, Sha; Yang, Jie; Li, Hao; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes of the COL4A1 gene and the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We conducted a case-control study that included 181 patients from the Chinese Han population with hypertensive ICH and 197 hypertension patients without ICH. Genomic DNA was extracted by DNA extraction kit, and the 6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes of the COL4A1 gene were detected with a MassARRAY Analyzer. Unphased 3.1.4 and SPSS 19.0 were used to analyze the association between alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes of the COL4A1 gene and the risk of ICH. Compared with the control group, patients in the ICH group were significantly younger. There were no differences in gender, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, current smoking, and alcohol consumption between the 2 groups. Our association analysis showed that the rs3742207 A, rs11069830 A, and rs679505 A alleles were association factors of the risks of ICH; rs11069830 AA, rs544012 AC, and rs679505 AA genotypes were association factors of the risk of ICH; AA haplotype (rs3742207-rs11069830) was an association factor of the risk of ICH. After adjusting age and gender by multivariate logistic regression, the rs544012 AC and rs679505 AA genotypes were independently associated with the risk of ICH. Our study showed that the rs544012 AC and rs679505 AA genotypes were independently associated with the risk of ICH in the Chinese Han population and that the AA haplotype (rs3742207-rs11069830) in the COL4A1 gene may be related to the risk of ICH in the Chinese Han population; these conclusions need further confirmation in future studies with larger samples. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Chemical study of the Chinese medicine Pi Han Yao

    PubMed Central

    PENG, TENG; ZHAO, FURONG; CHEN, XIAOYU; JIANG, GUIHUA; WANG, SHAONAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to ivnestigate the chemical constituents of the Chinese medicine Pi Han Yao (Gueldenstaedtia delavayi Franch) decoction. Following this, the quantitative determination of the formononetin and maackiain content in Pi Han Yao was established. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectrometric data and chemical evidence. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of the formononetin and maackiain content in Pi Han Yao. Seven flavanones were isolated from the Pi Han Yao decoction. Five of the chemical structures were elucidated as 1, 7,2′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-isoflavanol; 2, maackiain; 3, formononetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside; 4, formononetin; and 5, 9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-adenosine. The other two compounds and their structures require further study. Additionally, the linear range of formononetin and maackiain were 0.03992–0.3992 and 0.0292–0.292 µg, and their recoveries were 100.31 and 100.44%. To the best of our knowledge, compounds 1–5 were obtained from Pi Han Yao for the first time. The HPLC method use for determination of formononetin and maackiain in Pi Han Yao was simple, accurate and reliable. Findings from the present study suggest that these methods may be used to evaluate the quality of Pi Han Yao and provide an experience basis for quality standards of this medicinal material. PMID:26893842

  19. Association of PCSK1 rs6234 with Obesity and Related Traits in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qibin; Li, Huaixing; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Liu, Chen; Hu, Frank B.; Wu, Hongyu; Yu, Zhijie; Lin, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Background Common variants in PCSK1 have been reported to be associated with obesity in populations of European origin. We aimed to replicate this association in Chinese. Methodology/Principal Findings Two PCSK1 variants rs6234 and rs6235 (in strong LD with each other, r2 = 0.98) were genotyped in a population-based cohort of 3,210 Chinese Hans. The rs6234 was used for further association analyses with obesity and related traits. We found no significant association of rs6234 with obesity, overweight, BMI, waist circumference, or body fat percentage (P>0.05) in all participants. However, the rs6234 G-allele showed a significant association with increased risk of combined phenotype of obesity and overweight (OR 1.21[1.03–1.43], P = 0.0193) and a trend toward association with obesity (OR 1.25[0.98–1.61], P = 0.08) in men, but not in women (P≥0.29). Consistently, the rs6234 G-allele showed significant association with increased BMI (P = 0.0043), waist circumference (P = 0.008) and body fat percentage (P = 0.0131) only in men, not in women (P≥0.24). Interestingly, the rs6234 G-allele was significantly associated with increased HOMA-B (P = 0.0059) and decreased HOMA-S (P = 0.0349) in all participants. Conclusion/Significance In this study, we found modest evidence for association of the PCSK1 rs6234 with BMI and overweight in men only but not in women, which suggested that PCSK1 rs6234 might not be an important contributor to obesity in Chinese Hans. However, further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to draw a firm conclusion. PMID:20498726

  20. Association of HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 polymorphisms with antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis in a Han population from northern China.

    PubMed

    He, Yayi; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Qian; Hou, Peng; Zhu, Feng; Yang, Jian; Li, Wenhao; Chen, Pu; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Bao; Shi, Bingyin

    2017-09-20

    Antithyroid drug (ATD)-induced agranulocytosis is associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and nearby genes in Southeast Asian and European populations. The susceptibility of the Han population from northern China to ATD-induced agranulocytosis has not been reported. We evaluated the associations of genetic variants at the HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci and 32 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with agranulocytosis in 29 patients with ATD-induced agranulocytosis and in 140 patients with Graves' disease (GD) as controls. All subjects were of Han descent from northern China. HLA-B*27:05 (P = 1.10 × 10 -4 ), HLA-B*38:02 (P = 2.41 × 10 -4 ) and HLA-DRB1*08:03 (P = 1.57 × 10 -3 ) were susceptibility HLA variants for ATD-induced agranulocytosis. All subjects carrying the HLA-B*27:05 allele had agranulocytosis. The odds ratios (ORs) comparing allele carriers to non-carriers were 66.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.54-1239.66) for HLA-B*27:05, 7.525 (95% CI: 2.294-24.68) for HLA-B*38:02 and 4.316 (95% CI: 1.56-11.93) for HLA-DRB1*08:03. Two SNPs, rs2596487 (OR = 4.196, 95% CI = 2.086-8.441, P = 2.08 × 10 -5 ) and rs2228391 (OR = 3.621, 95% CI = 1.596-8.217, P = 1.2 × 10 -3 ), were independently associated with ATD-induced agranulocytosis. Subjects carrying the 'A' allele of rs1811197 or HLA-B*38:02 showed lower minimum granulocyte counts than non-carriers (P = 4.74 × 10 -4 and P = 7.39 × 10 -4 , respectively). Our findings support the association between genetic variations of HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 with ATD-induced agranulocytosis in a Han population from northern China.

  1. Association of genetic polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinase-9 and coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-di; Bai, Xiao; Chen, Dong-mei; Cao, Hong-yan; Qin, Ling

    2013-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in inflammation and matrix degradation involved in atherosclerosis and plaque rupture. The T allele of rs3918242 has been reported to lead to a high promoter activity and associate with the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). And some studies have reported that the G allele of rs17576 might be associated with CAD. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the polymorphisms of the MMP-9 gene and CAD in the Chinese Han population. This case-control study comprised 258 CAD cases and 153 controls from the Chinese Han Population. The genomic DNA of MMP-9 was isolated from whole blood. Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the rs3918242 and rs17576 genotypes in the MMP-9 gene and the total serum levels of MMP-9 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both case and control groups. Analysis of MMP-9 gene polymorphisms showed that the frequencies of the T allele and CT+TT genotypes of rs3918242 were significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (p<0.05). However, the distribution of variant genotypes of rs17576 did not differ between the case and control groups (p>0.05). The total serum level of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (p<0.05). The subjects carrying T alleles in the CAD group had higher average serum MMP-9 levels compared with CC genotypes (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the single-nucleotide polymorphism of rs3918242 in the MMP-9 gene is associated with CAD and high serum levels of MMP-9 are also associated with CAD in the Chinese Han population. Therefore, genetic variation of rs3918242 may participate in the development of CAD through influencing MMP-9 expression.

  2. A variant of CLEC16A gene confers protection for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome but not for Behcet's disease in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Hou, Shengping; Qi, Jian; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2015-03-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome and Behcet's disease (BD) are two common form of uveitis in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of C-type lectin domain family 16, member A (CLEC16A) gene polymorphisms with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome and Behcet's disease in a Chinese Han population. A two-stage association study was carried out in 988 VKH syndrome patients,400 BD patients and 976 healthy controls. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms of CLEC16A gene were determined with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The data were analyzed by χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test and corrected for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni method. The first stage study showed that the frequency of the A allele of rs6498169 was significantly decreased in VKH syndrome patients (Pc = 1.1 × 10(-2), OR = 0.7, 95%CI = 0.6-0.9). No significant association was observed in the other 7 SNPs between VKH syndrome patients and controls. No association was found with BD for the 8 SNPs tested. We further confirmed the association of single nucleotide polymorphism rs6498169 with VKH syndrome in another cohort. Consistent with the first stage study, the combined study showed significantly lower frequencies of the AA genotype and the A allele of rs6498169 in VKH syndrome patients (Pc = 3.5 × 10(-4), OR = 0.6, 95%CI = 0.5-0.7; Pc = 8.2 × 10(-4), OR = 0.8, 95%CI = 0.7-0.9, respectively). In conclusion, the study suggested that a CLEC16A polymorphism may be protective against VKH syndrome in a Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Common variants explain a large fraction of the variability in the liability to psoriasis in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xianyong; Wineinger, Nathan E; Cheng, Hui; Cui, Yong; Zhou, Fusheng; Zuo, Xianbo; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yang, Sen; Schork, Nicholas J; Zhang, Xuejun

    2014-01-30

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a known genetic component. Our previously published psoriasis genome-wide association study identified dozens of novel susceptibility loci in Han Chinese. However, these markers explained only a small fraction of the estimated heritable component of psoriasis. To better understand the unknown yet likely polygenic architecture in psoriasis, we applied a linear mixed model to quantify the variation in the liability to psoriasis explained by common genetic markers (minor allele frequency > 0.01) in a Han Chinese population. We explored the polygenic genetic architecture of psoriasis using genome-wide association data from 2,271 Han Chinese individuals. We estimated that 34.9% (s.e. = 6.0%, P = 9 × 10-9) of the variation in the liability to psoriasis is captured by common genotyped and imputed variants. We discuss these results in the context of the strong association between HLA variants and psoriasis. We also show that the variance explained by each chromosome is linearly correlated to its length (R2 = 0.27, P=0.01), and quantify the impact of a polygenic effect on the prediction and diagnosis of psoriasis. Our results suggest that psoriasis has a substantial polygenic component, which not only has implications for the development of genetic diagnostics and prognostics for psoriasis, but also suggests that more individual variants contributing to psoriasis may be detected if sample sizes in future association studies are increased.

  4. Functional Polymorphisms of the ABCG2 Gene Are Associated with Gout Disease in the Chinese Han Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Danqiu; Liu, Yunqing; Zhang, Xinju; Gu, Xiaoye; Wang, Hua; Luo, Xinhua; Zhang, Jin; Zou, Hejian; Guan, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Gout is a common type of arthritis that is characterized by hyperuricemia, tophi and joint inflammation. Genetic variations in the ABCG2 gene have been reported to influence serum uric acid levels and to participate in the pathogenesis of gout, but no further data have been reported in the Han Chinese population. Methods Peripheral blood DNA was isolated from 352 male patients with gout and 350 gout-free normal male controls. High-resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing were performed to identify the genetic polymorphisms V12M, Q141K and Q126X in the ABCG2 gene. Genotype and haplotype analyses were utilized to determine the disease odds ratios (ORs). A prediction model for gout risk using ABCG2 protein function was established based on the genotype combination of Q126X and Q141K. Results For Q141K, the A allele frequency was 49.6% in the gout patients and 30.9% in the controls (OR 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77–2.74, p = 8.99 × 10−13). Regarding Q126X, the T allele frequency was 4.7% in the gout patients and 1.7% in the controls (OR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.49–5.68, p = 1.57 × 10−3). The A allele frequency for V12M was lower (18.3%) in the gout patients than in the controls (29%) (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43–0.71, p = 2.55 × 10−6). In the order of V12M, Q126X and Q141K, the GCA and GTC haplotypes indicated increased disease risk (OR = 2.30 and 2.71, respectively). Patients with mild to severe ABCG2 dysfunction accounted for 78.4% of gout cases. Conclusion The ABCG2 126X and 141K alleles are associated with an increased risk of gout, whereas 12M has a protective effect on gout susceptibility in the Han Chinese population. ABCG2 dysfunction can be used to evaluate gout risk. PMID:24857923

  5. [Family-based association study of a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of DAT1 gene with Tourette syndrome in a Chinese Han population].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lanlan; Han, Zhen-liang; Zhang, Xin-hua; Wang, Xue-qin; Jiang, Wei-hua; Yi, Ming-ji; Liu, Shi-guo

    2013-10-01

    To assess the association of a 40 bp variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism within 3 untranslated region of dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) with Tourette syndrome (TS) in a Chinese Han population. A total of 160 TS patients and their parents were recruited. The VNTR polymorphism was detected with polymerase chain reaction-VNTR analysis, and its association with TS and its subtypes were assessed through a family-based association study comprising transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and haplotype relative risk (HRR) analysis. The repeat numbers at the DAT1 40 bp locus were 11, 10, 9, 7.5 and 7 among the patients and their parents, with the most common type being a 10-repeat allele. No significant association was detected between the polymorphism and TS (TDT: X ² = 0.472, df = 1, P = 0.583; HRR: X ² = 0.313, P = 0.576, OR = 0.855, 95%CI: 0.493-1.481). Our data suggested that the VNTR polymorphism of DAT1 gene is not associated with susceptibility to TS in Chinese Han population. However, our results are to be validated in larger sets of patients collected from other populations.

  6. Genetic variation in WDR1 is associated with gout risk and gout-related metabolic indices in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Zhang, X Y; He, N; Liu, K; Shi, X G; Feng, T; Geng, T T; Yuan, D Y; Kang, L L; Jin, T B

    2016-04-28

    Gout is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis affecting men, and current evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute to its progression. As a previous study identified that WD40 repeat protein 1 (WDR1) is associated with gout in populations of European descent, we sought to investigate its relationship with this disease in the Han Chinese population. We genotyped six WDR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 143 gout cases and 310 controls using Sequenom MassARRAY technology. The SPSS 16.0 software was used to perform statistical analyses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression, with adjustments for age and gender. In an analysis using an allelic model, we identified that the minor alleles of rs3756230 (OR = 0.64, 95%CI = 0.450-0.911, P = 0.013) and rs12498927 (OR = 1.377, 95%CI = 1.037-1.831, P = 0.027) were associated with gout risk. In addition, we found that the "A/A" genotype of rs12498927 was associated with increased risk of gout under codominant (OR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.12- 4.40, P = 0.042) and recessive models (OR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.20-4.17, P = 0.012). We also determined the "A/G" genotype of rs12498927 to be significantly associated with higher urea levels in gout patients (P = 0.017). Our data shed new light on the association between genetic variations in the WDR1 gene and gout susceptibility in the Han Chinese population.

  7. Identification and characterization of the highly polymorphic locus D14S739 in the Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chengchen; Zhang, Yaqi; Zhou, Yueqin; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Zhiping; Tang, Qiqun; Shen, Yiwen; Xie, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    Aim To systemically select and evaluate short tandem repeats (STRs) on the chromosome 14 and obtain new STR loci as expanded genotyping markers for forensic application. Methods STRs on the chromosome 14 were filtered from Tandem Repeats Database and further selected based on their positions on the chromosome, repeat patterns of the core sequences, sequence homology of the flanking regions, and suitability of flanking regions in primer design. The STR locus with the highest heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC) was selected for further analysis of genetic polymorphism, forensic parameters, and the core sequence. Results Among 26 STR loci selected as candidates, D14S739 had the highest heterozygosity (0.8691) and PIC (0.8432), and showed no deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. 14 alleles were observed, ranging in size from 21 to 34 tetranucleotide units in the core region of (GATA)9-18 (GACA)7-12 GACG (GACA)2 GATA. Paternity testing showed no mutations. Conclusion D14S739 is a highly informative STR locus and could be a suitable genetic marker for forensic applications in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26526885

  8. Lack of association between SREBF-1c gene polymorphisms and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-E; Chen, Feng-Lin; Liu, Wenjuan; Hu, ZhiJian; Lin, Xu

    2016-08-30

    The transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key regulator of lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity, and is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we assessed the impact of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SREBF-1c on NAFLD susceptibility and associated metabolic phenotypes in a Han Chinese population. Four common SNPs (rs62064119, rs2297508, rs11868035 and rs13306741) in the SREBP-1c gene were selected and genotyped in 593 patients with NAFLD and 593 healthy controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to assess the risk of NAFLD by determining odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). No significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of these four SNPs were found between the NAFLD population and the controls (all P > 0.05). In addition, we did not find any association between the SREBF-1c SNPs and the clinical and biochemical parameters, such as body mass index, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol or systolic and diastolic blood pressure, except that the rs2297508 C-allele or rs11868035 G-allele showed significant associations with lower triglyceride levels in control subjects (P < 0.01). Our findings suggested that the four polymorphisms in SREBF-1c gene are not associated with risk of NAFLD in the Chinese Han population.

  9. The YWHAE gene confers risk to major depressive disorder in the male group of Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Tao; Li, Jun-Yan; Wang, Ti; Li, You; Feng, Guo-Yin; Shi, Yong-Yong; He, Lin

    2017-07-03

    Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder are two major psychiatric illnesses that may share specific genetic risk factors to a certain extent. Increasing evidence suggests that the two disorders might be more closely related than previously considered. To investigate whether YWHAE gene plays a significant role in major depressive disorder in Han Chinese population, we recruited 1135 unrelated major depressive disorder patients (485 males, 650 females) and 989 unrelated controls (296 males, 693 females) of Chinese Han origin. Eleven common SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan® technology. In male-group, the allele and genotype frequencies of rs34041110 differed significantly between patients and control (P allele =0.036486, OR[95%CI]: 1.249442(1.013988-1.539571); P genotype =0.045301). Also in this group, allele and genotype frequencies of rs1532976 differed significantly (P allele =0.013242, OR[95%CI]: 1.302007(1.056501-1.604563); genotype: P=0.039152). Haplotype-analyses showed that, in male-group, positive association with major depressive disorder was found for the A-A-C-G haplotype of rs3752826-rs2131431-rs1873827-rs12452627 (χ 2 =20.397, P=6.38E-06, OR[95%CI]: 7.442 [2.691-20.583]), its C-A-C-G haplotype (χ 2 =19.122, P=1.24E-05, OR and 95%CI: 0.402 [0.264-0.612]), its C-C-T-G haplotype (χ 2 =9.766, P=0.001785, OR[95%CI]: 5.654 [1.664-19.211]). In female-group, positive association was found for the A-A-C-G haplotype of rs3752826-rs2131431-rs1873827-rs12452627 (χ 2 =78.628, P=7.94E-19, OR[95%CI]: 50.043 [11.087-225.876]), its A-C-T-G haplotype (χ 2 =38.806, P=4.83E-10, OR[95%CI]: 0.053 [0.015-0.192]), the C-A-C-G haplotype (χ 2 =18.930, P=1.37E-05, OR[95%CI]: 0.526 [0.392-0.705]), and the C-C-T-G haplotype (χ 2 =38.668, P=5.18E-10, OR[95%CI]: 6.130 [3.207-11.716]). Our findings support YWHAE being a risk gene for Major Depressive Disorder in the Han Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Gene Polymorphism on Hemodynamics After Nitroglycerin Intervention in Northern Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jia-Qi; Song, Jie; Zhang, Yi; An, Ni-Na; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nitroglycerin (NTG) is one of the few immediate treatments for acute angina. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme in the human body that facilitates the biological metabolism of NTG. The biological mechanism of NTG serves an important function in NTG efficacy. Some reports still contradict the results that the correlation between ALDH2 gene polymorphisms and NTG and its clinical efficacy is different. However, data on NTG measurement by pain relief are subjective. This study aimed to investigate the influence of ALDH2 gene polymorphism on intervention with sublingual NTG using noninvasive hemodynamic parameters of cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in Northern Chinese Han population. Methods: This study selected 559 patients from the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University. A total of 203 patients presented with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 356 had non-CHD (NCHD) cases. All patient ALDH2 genotypes (G504A) were detected and divided into two types: Wild (GG) and mutant (GA/AA). Among the CHD group, 103 were wild-type cases, and 100 were mutant-type cases. Moreover, 196 cases were wild-type, and 160 cases were mutant type among the NCHD volunteers. A noninvasive hemodynamic detector was used to monitor the CO and the SVR at the 0, 5, and 15 minute time points after medication with 0.5 mg sublingual NTG. Two CO and SVR indicators were used for a comparative analysis of all case genotypes. Results: Both CO and SVR indicators significantly differed between the wild and mutant genotypes at various time points after intervention with sublingual NTG at 5 and 15 minutes in the NCHD (F = 16.460, 15.003, P = 0.000, 0.000) and CHD groups (F = 194.482, 60.582, P = 0.000, 0.000). All CO values in the wild-type case of both NCHD and CHD groups increased, whereas those in the mutant type decreased. The CO and ΔCO differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05; P < 0.05). The SVR and ΔSVR changed between the wild- and

  11. Genetic polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and coronary artery disease susceptibility: a case-control study in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Qintao, Cui; Yan, Li; Changhong, Duan; Xiaoliang, Guo; Xiaochen, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) receives intensive research due to its high incidence and severe impact on the quality of life. One member of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-1, has been reported to be associated with CAD. To identify the markers contributing to the genetic susceptibility to CAD, nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1799750, rs498186, rs475007, rs514921, rs494379, rs996999, rs2071232, rs1938901, and rs2239008) throughout the MMP-1 gene were genotyped using MALDI-TOF within the MassARRAY system, and the allele and genotype distributions were compared between 438 healthy controls and 411 patients with CAD from a Chinese Han population. The analysis revealed a weak association between the rs1799750 (in the promoter region) genotype distribution and CAD (p=0.022). An increased risk of CAD was significantly associated with the 2G allele of rs1799750 (p=0.005, odds ratio=1.329, 95% confidence interval=1.090-1.620, after Bonferroni corrections). Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed in three blocks (D'>0.9). Significantly more C-2G (rs498186-rs1799750) haplotypes (p=0.001 after Bonferroni corrections) were found in CAD subjects. These findings point to a role for the polymorphism in the MMP-1 promoter in CAD among a Han Chinese population and may be informative for future genetic or biological studies on CAD.

  12. Relationship between human LTA4H polymorphisms and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an ethnic Han Chinese population in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Jin; Yue, Jun; Liu, Lirong; Han, Min; Wang, Hongxiu

    2014-12-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were reported to be associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in Vietnamese population. But these associations were not found in the Russians. To investigate the association of LTA4H polymorphisms with tuberculosis in a Han Chinese population in Eastern China, we genotyped 5 SNPs of LTA4H gene in 743 of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 372 of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 888 of healthy controls individuals. The CC and TT homozygotes of rs1978331 and rs2540474 were identified to have higher rates (P < 0.01) and be risk factors in the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (OR = 1.412; 95% CI = 1.104-1.804 and(OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.080-1.764). However, no significant association was found between any of the SNPs and pulmonary tuberculosis. In the extra-pulmonary tuberculosis subgroups. LTA4H gene were significantly associated with tuberculous meningitis, lymph node tuberculosis, bone tuberculosis and other extra-pulmonary tuberculosis except for pleural tuberculosis. The present findings suggest that polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene may affect susceptibility to extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and change the risk of developing the disease in the Han nationality in the East China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century.

  14. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-yan

    2012-01-01

    The polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G gene has been indicated to be correlated with coronary artery disease (CAD) susceptibility, but study results are still debatable. The present meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population. A total of 879 CAD patients and 628 controls from eight separate studies were involved. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the distribution of the 4G allele frequency of PAI-1 4G/5G gene and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was assessed by the random effect model. The distribution of the 4 G allele frequency was 0.61 for the CAD group and 0.51 for the control group. The association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and CAD in the Chinese Han population was significant under an allelic genetic model (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.18 to 2.44, P = 0.004). The heterogeneity test was also significant (P<0.0001). Meta-regression was performed to explore the heterogeneity source. Among the confounding factors, the heterogeneity could be explained by the publication year (P = 0.017), study region (P = 0.014), control group sample size (P = 0.011), total sample size (P = 0.011), and ratio of the case to the control group sample size (RR) (P = 0.019). In a stratified analysis by the total sample size, significantly increased risk was only detected in subgroup 2 under an allelic genetic model (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.09 to 3.35, P = 0.02). In the Chinese Han population, PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism was implied to be associated with increased CAD risk. Carriers of the 4G allele of the PAI-1 4G/5G gene might predispose to CAD.

  15. Applicability of the Tanaka-Johnston and Moyers mixed dentition analyses in Northeast Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Sherpa, Jangbu; Sah, Gopal; Rong, Zeng; Wu, Lipeng

    2015-06-01

    To assess applicability of the Tanaka-Johnston and Moyers prediction methods in a Han ethnic group from Northeast China and to develop prediction equations for this same population. Cross-sectional study. Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang, China. A total of 130 subjects (65 male and 65 female) aged 16-21 years from a Han ethnic group of Northeast China were recruited from dental students and patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Ethnicity was verified by questionnaire. Mesio-distal tooth width was measured using Digital Vernier calipers. Predicted values were obtained from the Tanaka-Johnston and Moyers methods in both arches were compared with the actual measured widths. Based on regression analysis, prediction equations were developed. Tanaka-Johnston equations were not precise, except for the upper arch in males. However, the Moyers 85th percentile in the upper arch and 75th percentile in the lower arch predicted the sum precisely in males. For females, the Moyers 75th percentile predicted the sum precisely for the upper arch, but none of the Moyers percentiles predicted in the lower arch. Both the Tanaka-Johnston and Moyers method may not be applied universally without question. Hence, it may be safer to develop regression equations for specific populations. Validating studies must be conducted to confirm the precision of these newly developed regression equations.

  16. Association between oxytocin and receptor genetic polymorphisms and aggression in a northern Chinese Han population with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Wang, Fan; Wang, Meiling; Han, Mei; Hu, Lufeng; Zheng, Minghua; Ma, Ji; Kang, Yimin; Wang, Pengxiang; Sun, Hongqiang; Zuo, Wei; Xie, Longteng; Wang, Aiju; Yu, Dongsheng; Liu, Yanlong

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a common chronic brain disorder precipitated by complex interactions between biological, genetic, and environmental risk factors. Aggression often occurs in the context of AD. Previous studies have shown that Oxytocin (OXT) and OXT receptor (OXTR) are involved in the regulation of aggression. The present study investigated whether variations and interactions of OXT and OXTR genes were associated with AD-related aggression in a genetically homogeneous northern Chinese Han population. Three hundred and twenty-four male AD patients and 510 male healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. A Chinese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used as a subjective measurement of aggressive behavior. Three variations, rs2254298, rs53576, and rs6133010 were genotyped using TaqMan and ligase detection reaction for all subjects. Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction was used to detect interactions between genetic attributes and environmental attributes. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of rs6133010 were significantly different between AD patients and HCs (p<0.001). In HCs, the effect of genotype GG of rs53576 on hostility aggression was significantly stronger than that of genotype AA and AG (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively), and the subjects with the interaction combination of rs6133010AA×rs2254298GG×rs53576AG exhibited significant effect on physical aggression (p=0.0107). The present study found that rs6133010 in the OXT gene is associated with AD in the northern Chinese Han population. The polymorphisms of OXT/R may play a key role in the susceptibility of AD-related aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on the adult physique with the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype in the Han of Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Tao; Wang, Ning; Li, Zeng-Xian; Liu, Cui; He, Xin; Zhang, Jian-Fei; Han, Hua; Wen, You-Feng; Qian, Yi-Hua; Xi, Huan-Jiu

    2016-03-01

    The study of somatotypes has important significance for medical and physical anthropology as well as sports science. The aim of this study was to understand the somatotype components of the Han population in Xi'an and compare the somatotypes of the Han and five other nationalities in China. The study sample consisted of 429 people of Han nationality (207 males, 222 females) from Xi'an, China, aged ≥20 years old. The Heath-Carter anthropometric method was employed. We evaluated the differences in age and sex by one-way ANOVA and t test. A comparison of somatotypes between the Han and other nationalities was made using the U test. The results showed that the male and female samples all could be classified as having a mesomorphic endomorph profile. The difference in endomorphy was strongest between sexes in all age groups (P < 0.01). There were prominent differences in mesomorphy and ectomorphy between males and females in the 50-59- and ≥60-year-old age groups. In females, the differences in somatotype components appeared to be distinguished between ages (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). However, in males, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between the 20-29 year olds and all other age groups (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) except for between those 20-29 and ≥60 years old in endomorphy. Compared with the other five nationalities, there were prominent differences in somatotype components between males and females. These results suggest that the somatotype of the Han population in Xi'an, China, has a predominantly mesomorphic endomorph profile. The endomorphic component shows distinct differences between ages and genders, respectively. Additionally, there are distinct differences in the somatotype components between Xi'an Han and five other nationalities in China in males and females.

  18. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Uygur and Han Chinese adults in Urumqi

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Yong-Li; Yan, Rong; Mu, Ni-La; Gao, Bao-Hua; Wu, Fang-Xiong; Luo, Jin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its related risk factors in Uygur and Han Chinese adult in Urumqi, China. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken in a total of 972 Uygur (684 male and 288 female) aged from 24 to 61 and 1023 Han Chinese (752 male and 271 female) aged from 23 to 63 years. All participants were recruited from the residents who visited hospital for health examination from November 2011 to May 2012. Each participant signed an informed consent and completed a GERD questionnaire (Gerd Q) and a lifestyle-food frequency questionnaire survey. Participants whose Gerd Q score was ≥ 8 and met one of the following requirements would be enrolled into this research: (1) being diagnosed with erosive esophagitis (EE) or Barrett’s esophagus (BE) by endoscopy; (2) negative manifestation under endoscopy (non-erosive reflux disease, NERD) with abnormal acid reflux revealed by 24-h esophageal pH monitoring; and (3) suffering from typical heartburn and regurgitation with positive result of proton pump inhibitor test. RESULTS: According to Gerd Q scoring criteria, 340 cases of Uygur and 286 cases of Han Chinese were defined as GERD. GERD incidence in Uygur was significantly higher than in Han Chinese (35% vs 28%, χ2 = 11.09, P < 0.005), Gerd Q score in Uygur was higher than in Han Chinese (7.85 ± 3.1 vs 7.15 ± 2.9, P < 0.005), and Gerd Q total score in Uygur male was higher than in female (8.15 ± 2.8 vs 6.85 ± 2.5, P < 0.005). According to normalized methods, 304 (31%) cases of Uygur were diagnosed with GERD, including 89 cases of EE, 185 cases of NERD and 30 cases of BE; 256 (25%) cases of Han Chinese were diagnosed with GERD, including 90 cases of EE, 140 cases of NERD and 26 cases of BE. GERD incidence in Uygur was significantly higher than in Han Chinese (31% vs 25%, χ2 = 9.34, P < 0.005) while the incidences were higher in males of both groups than in females (26% vs 5% in Uygur, χ2

  19. SNP rs356219 of the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene is associated with Parkinson's disease in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fenghua; Dong, Hairong; Ding, Haixia; Ye, Min; Liu, Weiguo; Wu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xueling; Chen, Zhuoyou; Luo, Yang; Ding, Xinsheng

    2012-06-01

    Over the last decades, increasing knowledge about the genetic architecture of Parkinson's disease(PD) has provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of the disorder. Recently, several studies in different populations have found a strong association between idiopathic PD and the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs356219, which is located in the 3'UTR of the SNCA gene. In this study, we aimed to verify these findings and to explore further the nature of the association in a subset of Chinese Han PD patients. Four hundred and three unrelated patients with sporadic PD and 315 healthy ethnically matched control subjects were recruited consecutively for the study. Patients and normal controls were genotyped for SNCA rs356219 variant by ligase detection reaction (LDR). A statistically significant difference was found in the frequencies of the single alleles of rs356219 (χ(2) = 12.986,P = 0.002) between PD patients and normal subjects. The distribution of A > G genotypes was different between patients and controls (χ(2) = 13.243, P < 0.001). The OR for subjects with the variant genotypes (AG and GG) was 1.88 (95%CI = 1.27-2.78, P = 0.001). The frequencies of the homozygous genotype for this variant was 42.2% (170 patients), which was significantly higher than that in controls (32.4%, P < 0.001). The results suggested that SNCA rs356219 variant might have an increased risk of susceptibility to PD in a Chinese Han population. Further studies are needed to replicate the association that we found. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The FOXO1 Gene-Obesity Interaction Increases the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lilin; Li, Rong; Ren, Wei; Wang, Zengchan; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Maosheng; Zhang, Suhua

    2017-02-01

    Here, we aimed to study the effect of the forkhead box O1-insulin receptor substrate 2 (FOXO1-IRS2) gene interaction and the FOXO1 and IRS2 genes-environment interaction for the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Chinese Han population. We genotyped 7 polymorphism sites of FOXO1 gene and IRS2 gene in 780 unrelated Chinese Han people (474 cases of T2DM, 306 cases of healthy control). The risk of T2DM in individuals with AA genotype for rs7986407 and CC genotype for rs4581585 in FOXO1 gene was 2.092 and 2.57 times higher than that with GG genotype (odds ratio [OR] = 2.092; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.178-3.731; P = 0.011) and TT genotype (OR = 2.571; 95% CI = 1.404-4.695; P = 0.002), respectively. The risk of T2DM in individuals with GG genotype for Gly1057Asp in IRS2 gene was 1.42 times higher than that with AA genotype (OR = 1.422; 95% CI = 1.037-1.949; P = 0.029). The other 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had no significant association with T2DM (P > 0.05). Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis showed that the interaction between SNPs rs7986407 and rs4325426 in FOXO1 gene and waist was the best model confirmed by interaction analysis, closely associating with T2DM. There was an increased risk for T2DM in the case of non-obesity with genotype combined AA/CC, AA/AC or AG/AA for rs7986407 and rs4325426, and obesity with genotype AA for rs7986407 or AA for rs4325426 (OR = 3.976; 95% CI = 1.156-13.675; P value from sign test [P(sign)] = 0.025; P value from permutation test [P(perm)] = 0.000-0.001). Together, this study indicates an association of FOXO1 and IRS2 gene polymorphisms with T2DM in Chinese Han population, supporting FOXO1-obesity interaction as a key factor for the risk of T2DM.

  1. Genetic Variant of Kalirin Gene Is Associated with Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Yu, Shasha; Wang, Rui; Sun, Zhaoqing; Zhou, Xinghu; Zheng, Liqiang; Yin, Zhihua; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a complex disorder resulting from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies showed that kalirin gene variations were associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association between this gene and ischemic stroke was unknown. We performed this study to confirm if kalirin gene variation was associated with ischemic stroke. We enrolled 385 ischemic stroke patients and 362 controls from China. Three SNPs of kalirin gene were genotyped by means of ligase detection reaction-PCR method. Data was processed with SPSS and SHEsis platform. SNP rs7620580 (dominant model: OR = 1.590, p = 0.002 and adjusted OR = 1.662, p = 0.014; additive model: OR = 1.490, p = 0.002 and adjusted OR = 1.636, p = 0.005; recessive model: OR = 2.686, p = 0.039) and SNP rs1708303 (dominant model: OR = 1.523, p = 0.007 and adjusted OR = 1.604, p = 0.028; additive model: OR = 1.438, p = 0.01 and adjusted OR = 1.476, p = 0.039) were associated with ischemic stroke. The GG genotype and G allele of SNP rs7620580 were associated with a risk for ischemic stroke with an adjusted OR of 3.195 and an OR of 1.446, respectively. Haplotype analysis revealed that A-T-G,G-T-A, and A-T-A haplotypes were associated with ischemic stroke. Our results provide evidence that kalirin gene variations were associated with ischemic stroke in the Chinese Han population.

  2. Inverted migration of rare whisker sheatfish in Nong-Han Lake, northeastern Thailand: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Phongkaew, P; Arunyawat, U; Swatdipong, A; Hongtrakul, V

    2014-09-12

    Nong-Han Lake, Thailand, sustains the whisker sheatfish (Micronema bleekeri Günther, 1864), which is a rare species of freshwater catfish. Wild-caught whisker sheatfish has been intensively harvested to meet market demand; yet, genetic information about this species remains unknown. To assist with the in situ conservation of whisker sheatfish populations in Nong-Han Lake, 35 and 34 individuals from the middle (MN) and lower (LN) areas of the lake, respectively, were studied using 7 microsatellite loci. Low genetic variation was detected in the MN (HO=0.338, AR=2.710) and LN (HO=0.394, AR=2.714) populations. Genetic differentiation between the 2 populations was significant (FST=0.063, P<0.05). The size of recent populations (NE<50) was found to be 9- to 29-times smaller compared to the estimated historical populations, even though no bottleneck signal was observed. Low genetic diversity was observed, implying that the populations are at risk of being lost from this site. Of note, migration among the populations inhabiting the middle and lower parts of the lake exhibited opposing trends in changes to the genetic structure. This phenomenon might be due to the operation of a regional irrigation gate over the last decade. The information collected here indicates that the whisker sheatfish populations in Nong-Han Lake require consistent fisheries monitoring and management. Further research about the whisker sheatfish populations from the Mekong and Chao Phraya River basins is required to assist national-scale conservation efforts.

  3. [Physician satire and patient scorn in Hans Sachs' old Nürnberg and the physicians].

    PubMed

    Sauerbeck, K O

    1993-01-01

    Among the best poems of Hans Sachs quite a few describe patient-physician relationships in 16th century Nuremberg. These poems offer a vivid impression of the technical aspects as well as of the social context of medical treatment at the time. Hans Sachs ridiculed the doctors and their patients, implying that everybody attempted to cheat the other side, and he provides evidence of a great influence of charlatans on the country population. The poems of Hans Sachs are extraordinary pieces or art; their aesthetics, though, appear unusual to us today. Medical satire is part of all European cultures, and has been written throughout medical history. Most motives of later satires focussing on physicians may be traced to Hans Sachs' poetry.

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2 polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer in various degrees of relationship in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    LI, YUCHUN; DAI, LIPING; ZHANG, JIANZHONG; WANG, PENG; CHAI, YURONG; YE, HUA; ZHANG, JIANYING; WANG, KAIJUAN

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene polymorphisms were associated with gastric cancer. However, the results from different research groups have not been consistent. The present study aimed to investigate the association between polymorphisms of the cyclooxygenase-2 promoter region (-1195G>A, -765G>C) and gastric cancer patients with various degrees of relationship in the Chinese Han population. COX-2-1195G>A and COX-2-765G>C polymorphisms in 296 gastric cancer patients and 319 control family members were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. An increased risk of gastric cancer was observed in subjects with the COX-2-1195AA genotype (OR=2.03; 95% CI, 1.27–3.22), and the association strength decreased as the degree of relationship decreased. Stratification analysis revealed that the OR value of COX-2-1195AA genotype and A carriers exhibited synergy with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection (AA genotype: OR=2.96; 95% CI, 1.57–5.58; A carriers: OR=2.04; 95% CI, 1.18–3.52). No significant difference was found in each genotype of COX-2-765G>C between gastric cancer patients and control family members, as well as gastric cancer patients with various degrees of relationship. Our study demonstrated that the polymorphism of COX-2-1195AA genotype may be a risk factor for gastric cancer patients with various degrees of relationship among the Chinese Han population. H. pylori infection therefore may enhance the risk of gastric cancer in individuals with the COX-2-1195 AA genotype. PMID:22740864

  5. A functional promoter polymorphism of IFITM3 is associated with susceptibility to pediatric tuberculosis in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Wu, Xi-rong; Jiao, Wei-wei; Sun, Lin; Feng, Wei-xing; Xiao, Jing; Miao, Qing; Liu, Fang; Yin, Qing-qin; Zhang, Chen-guang; Guo, Ya-jie; Shen, A-dong

    2013-01-01

    A susceptibility locus for tuberculosis, a re-emerging infectious disease throughout the world, was previously discovered to exist on chromosome 11p15. IFITM3 gene encoding for interferon inducible transmembrane protein 3, is located at 11p15. It acts as an effector molecule for interferon-gamma, which is essential for anti-tuberculosis immune response. In order to investigate the association between susceptibility to TB and genetic polymorphisms of the IFITM3 core promoter, a case-control study including 368 TB patients and 794 healthy controls was performed in Han Chinese children in northern China. The rs3888188 polymorphism showed significant association with susceptibility to TB. The rs3888188 G allele, acting recessively, was more frequent in TB patients (95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.56, Bonferroni P-value: 0.039). We further assessed the effect of rs3888188 polymorphism on IFITM3 transcription in vitro. As based on luciferase promoter assays, the promoter activity of haplotypes with rs3888188 G allele was lower than that of haplotypes with rs3888188 T allele. Moreover, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells carrying rs3888188 GG genotype showed a reduced IFITM3 mRNA level compared to cells carrying TT or GT genotype. In conclusion, rs3888188, a functional promoter polymorphism of IFITM3, was identified to influence the risk for pediatric TB in Han Chinese population.

  6. Genetic variants in PNPLA3 and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian-E; Wu, Yun-Li; Lin, Shao-Wei; Lu, Qing-Qing; Hu, Zhi-Jian; Lin, Xu

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the possible association between genetic variants in the Patatin like phospholipase-3 (PNPLA3) gene and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Han Chinese population. We evaluated twelve tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of the PNPLA3 gene in a frequency matched case-control study from Fuzhou city of China (553 cases, 553 controls). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the rs738409 GG or GC, and rs139051 TT genotypes were found to be associated with increased risk of NAFLD, and a significant trend of increased risk with increasing numbers of risk genotype was observed in the cumulative effect analysis of these single nucleotide polymorphisms. Furthermore, haplotype association analysis showed that, compared with the most common haplotype, the CAAGAATGCGTG and CGAAGGTGTCCG haplotypes conferred a statistically significant increased risk for NAFLD, while the CGGGAACCCGCG haplotype decreased the risk of NAFLD. Moreover, rs738409 C>G appeared to have a multiplicative joint effect with tea drinking (P<0.005) and an additive joint effect with obesity (Interaction contrast ratio (ICR) = 2.31, 95% CI: 0.7-8.86), hypertriglyceridemia (ICR = 3.07, 95% CI: 0.98-5.09) or hypertension (ICR = 1.74, 95% CI: 0.52-3.12). Our data suggests that PNPLA3 genetic polymorphisms might influence the susceptibility to NAFLD development independently or jointly in Han Chinese.

  7. Correlation between the NPPB gene promoter c.-1298 G/T polymorphism site and pulse pressure in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zeng, K; Wu, X D; Cai, H D; Gao, Y G; Li, G; Liu, Q C; Gao, F; Chen, J H; Lin, C Z

    2014-04-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the natriuretic peptide precursor B (NPPB) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.-1298 G/T and pulse pressure (PP) of the Chinese Han population and the association between genotype and clinical indicators of hypertension. Peripheral blood was collected from 180 unrelated patients with hypertension and 540 healthy volunteers (control group), and DNA was extracted to amplify the 5'-flanking region and 2 exons of the NPPB gene by polymerase chain reaction; the fragment was sequenced after purification. The clinical data of all subjects were recorded, the distribution of the NPPB gene c.-1298 G/T polymorphism was determined, and differences in clinical indicators between the two groups were evaluated. The mean arterial pressure PP, and creatinine levels were significantly higher in the hypertension group than in the control group (P<0.05), but no other clinical indicators differed between the groups. There were no significant differences in genotype frequency and distribution of the NPPB gene c.-1298 G/T polymorphism between the hypertension group and the control group (P>0.05); in the control group, the mean PP of individuals with the SNP c.-1298 GG genotype was greater than that of individuals with the GT+TT genotype (P<0.05). In conclusion, there was no significant correlation between the NPPB gene c.-1298 G/T polymorphism and the incidence of essential hypertension in the Han population; however, the PP of the SNP c.-1298 GG genotype was greater than that of the GT+TT genotype in the control group.

  8. Polymorphisms in MicroRNA Genes And Genes Involving in NMDAR Signaling and Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxia; Fan, Mei; Wang, Qingzhong; He, Guang; Fu, Yingmei; Li, Huafang; Yu, Shunying

    2015-08-10

    Disturbances in glutamate signaling caused by disruption of N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) have been implicated in schizophrenia. Findings suggested that miR-219, miR-132 and miR-107 could involve in NMDAR signaling by influencing the expression of pathway genes or the signaling transmission and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within miRNA genes or miRNA target sites could result in their functional changes. Therefore, we hypothesized that SNPs in miRNAs and/or their target sites were associated with schizophrenia. 3 SNPs in hsa-pri-miR-219/132/107 and 6 SNPs in 3'UTRs of GRIN2A/2B/3A and CAMK2G were selected and genotyped in a case-control study of 1041 schizophrenia cases and 953 healthy controls in Chinese Han population. In the present study, GRIN2B rs890 showed significant associations with schizophrenia. Further functional analyses showed that the rs890 variant C allele led to significantly lower luciferase activity, compared with the A allele. MDR analysis showed that a 4-locus model including rs107822, rs2306327, rs890 and rs12342026 was the best model. These findings suggest that GRIN2B may be associated with schizophrenia and interaction effects of the polymorphisms in hsa-miR-219, CAKM2G, GRIN2B and GRIN3A may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population.

  9. An EPAS1 haplotype is associated with high altitude polycythemia in male Han Chinese at the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Chunhua; Luo, Yongjun; Liu, Fuyu; Gao, Yuqi

    2014-12-01

    Hemoglobin concentration at high altitude is considered an important marker of high altitude adaptation, and native Tibetans in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau show lower hemoglobin concentrations than Han people who have emigrated from plains areas. Genetic studies revealed that EPAS1 plays a key role in high altitude adaptation and is associated with the low hemoglobin concentration in Tibetans. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs13419896, rs4953354, rs1868092) of noncoding regions in EPAS1 exhibited significantly different allele frequencies in the Tibetan and Han populations and were associated with low hemoglobin concentrations in Tibetans. To explore the hereditary basis of high altitude polycythemia (HAPC) and investigate the association between EPAS1 and HAPC in the Han population, these 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed in 318 male Han Chinese HAPC patients and 316 control subjects. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting curve analysis. The G-G-G haplotype of rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092 was significantly more frequent in HAPC patients than in control subjects, whereas no differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found between HAPC patients and control subjects. Moreover, genotypes of rs1868092 (AA) and rs4953354 (GG) that were not observed in the Chinese Han in the Beijing population were found at frequencies of 1.6% and 0.9%, respectively, in our study population of HAPC patients and control subjects. Carriers of this EPAS1 haplotype (G-G-G, rs13419896, rs4953354, and rs1868092) may have a higher risk for HAPC. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HAPC in the Han population. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetics pathway-based imaging approaches in Chinese Han population with Alzheimer's disease risk.

    PubMed

    Bai, Feng; Liao, Wei; Yue, Chunxian; Pu, Mengjia; Shi, Yongmei; Yu, Hui; Yuan, Yonggui; Geng, Leiyu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The tau hypothesis has been raised with regard to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with a high risk for developing AD. However, no study has directly examined the brain topological alterations based on combined effects of tau protein pathway genes in MCI population. Forty-three patients with MCI and 30 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in Chinese Han, and a tau protein pathway-based imaging approaches (7 candidate genes: 17 SNPs) were used to investigate changes in the topological organisation of brain activation associated with MCI. Impaired regional activation is related to tau protein pathway genes (5/7 candidate genes) in patients with MCI and likely in topologically convergent and divergent functional alterations patterns associated with genes, and combined effects of tau protein pathway genes disrupt the topological architecture of cortico-cerebellar loops. The associations between the loops and behaviours further suggest that tau protein pathway genes do play a significant role in non-episodic memory impairment. Tau pathway-based imaging approaches might strengthen the credibility in imaging genetic associations and generate pathway frameworks that might provide powerful new insights into the neural mechanisms that underlie MCI.

  11. Meta-analysis of genetic studies from journals published in China of ischemic stroke in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaowei; Li, Jiejie; Sheng, Wenli; Liu, Lin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm the nature and number of genes contributing to stroke risk and qualify the genetic risk of each susceptibility gene in the Han Chinese population. After collecting all case-control studies related to DNA polymorphism of any candidate gene for ischemic stroke in Han Chinese, strict selection criteria and exclusion criteria were determined and different effect models were used according to the difference in heterogeneity. Meta-analyses were carried out by Revman 4.0 software and the publication bias was further evaluated through calculation of fail-safe numbers in the included gene polymorphisms. Seventy-six studies were included in the meta-analyses which were all published in mainland China and referred to 6 candidate genes and 7 polymorphisms. Among the gene polymorphisms tested in the study, association of gene polymorphisms with increasing risk of ischemic stroke was confirmed in 6 polymorphisms including angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D; OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.45-2.42), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.26-1.90), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.20-2.67), beta-fibrinogen (beta-Fg) -455A/G (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14-1.92), beta-Fg -148T/C (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.42-2.07), apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon2-4 (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.94-2.95). Because of the obvious publication bias, the association between paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) polymorphisms and stroke risk was not established although the OR of the meta-analysis suggested a positive result (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01-1.35). ACE D/I, MTHFR C677T, beta-Fg -455A/G, beta-Fg -148T/C, PAI-1 4G/5G, and ApoE epsilon2-4 were associated with risk of ischemic stroke in Han Chinese. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Hepatic expression of transcription factors affecting developmental regulation of UGT1A1 in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ya-Li; He, Hang; Li, Jiang-Feng; Meng, Xiang-Guang; Yan, Liang; Wang, Pei; Wang, Shu-Jie; Bi, Hong-Zheng; Zhang, Li-Rong; Kan, Quan-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Complete or partial inactivity of UGT1A1, the unique enzyme responsible for bilirubin glucuronidation, is commonly associated with hyperbilirubinemia. We investigated the dynamic expression of UGT1A1, and that of the transcription factors (TFs) involved in its developmental regulation, during human hepatic growth in Han Chinese individuals. Eighty-eight prenatal, pediatric, and adult liver samples were obtained from Han Chinese individuals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate mRNA expression of UGT1A1 and TFs including PXR, CAR, HNF1A, HNF4A, PPARA, etc. UGT1A1 protein levels and metabolic activity were determined by western blotting and high-performance liquid chromatography. Direct sequencing was employed to genotype UGT1A1*6 (211G˃A) and UGT1A1*28 (TA6˃TA7) polymorphisms. UGT1A1 expression was minimal in prenatal samples, but significantly elevated during pediatric and adult stages. mRNA and protein levels and metabolic activity were prominently increased (120-, 20-, and 10-fold, respectively) in pediatric and adult livers compared to prenatal samples. Furthermore, expression did not differ appreciably between pediatric and adult periods. Dynamic expression of TFs, including PXR, CAR, HNF1A, HNF4A, and PPARA, was consistent with UGT1A1 levels at each developmental stage. A pronounced correlation between expression of these TFs and that of UGT1A1 (P < 0.001) was observed. Moreover, UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms reduced levels of UGT1A1 by up to 40-60 %. Hepatic expression of transcription factors is associated with developmental regulation of UGT1A1 in the Han Chinese population. Moreover, UGT1A1 polymorphisms are associated with reduced expression of UGT1A1 mRNA and protein, as well as enzyme activity.

  13. Developmental validation of an X-Insertion/Deletion polymorphism panel and application in HAN population of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Sun, Kuan; Bian, Yingnan; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Zheng; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    InDels are short-length polymorphisms characterized by low mutation rates, high inter-population diversity, short amplicon strategy and simplicity of laboratory analysis. This work describes the developmental validation of an X-InDels panel amplifying 18 bi-allelic markers and Amelogenin in one single PCR system. Developmental validation indicated that this novel panel was reproducible, accurate, sensitive and robust for forensic application. Sensitivity testing of the panel was such that a full profile was obtainable even with 125 pg of human DNA with intra-locus balance above 70%. Specificity testing was demonstrated by the lack of cross-reactivity with a variety of commonly encountered animal species and microorganisms. For the stability testing in cases of PCR inhibition, full profiles have been obtained with hematin (≤1000 μM) and humic acid (≤150 ng/μL). For the forensic investigation of the 18 X-InDels in the HAN population of China, no locus deviated from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium. Since they are independent from each other, the CDPfemale was 0.999999726 and CDPmale was 0.999934223. The forensic parameters suggested that this X-Indel panel is polymorphic and informative, which provides valuable X-linked information for deficient relationship cases where autosomal markers are uninformative. PMID:26655948

  14. Developmental validation of an X-Insertion/Deletion polymorphism panel and application in HAN population of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suhua; Sun, Kuan; Bian, Yingnan; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Zheng; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-14

    InDels are short-length polymorphisms characterized by low mutation rates, high inter-population diversity, short amplicon strategy and simplicity of laboratory analysis. This work describes the developmental validation of an X-InDels panel amplifying 18 bi-allelic markers and Amelogenin in one single PCR system. Developmental validation indicated that this novel panel was reproducible, accurate, sensitive and robust for forensic application. Sensitivity testing of the panel was such that a full profile was obtainable even with 125 pg of human DNA with intra-locus balance above 70%. Specificity testing was demonstrated by the lack of cross-reactivity with a variety of commonly encountered animal species and microorganisms. For the stability testing in cases of PCR inhibition, full profiles have been obtained with hematin (≤1000 μM) and humic acid (≤150 ng/μL). For the forensic investigation of the 18 X-InDels in the HAN population of China, no locus deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium. Since they are independent from each other, the CDPfemale was 0.999999726 and CDPmale was 0.999934223. The forensic parameters suggested that this X-Indel panel is polymorphic and informative, which provides valuable X-linked information for deficient relationship cases where autosomal markers are uninformative.

  15. The Association of Mitofusion-2 Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility of Essential Hypertension in Northern Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Bei; Li, Chuang; Liu, Jielin; Liu, Ya; Sun, Dongdong; Ma, Hanying; Wen, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Mitofusion-2 (Mfn2) played an important role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation, insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress, which were found to be involved in the development of hypertension. So we inferred that the Mfn2 gene may participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Mfn2 gene were associated with essential hypertension (EH) in northern Han Chinese. We genotyped 6 tagging SNPs of Mfn2 gene (rs2336384, rs2295281, rs17037564, rs2236057, rs2236058 and rs3766741) with the TaqMan assay in 626 hypertensive patients and 618 controls. Logistic regression analysis indicated that CC+CA genotype of rs2336384 and AA+AG genotype of rs2236057 were significantly associated with increased risk of EH (OR=1.617, P=0.005; OR=1.418, P=0.031, respectively). GG genotype of rs2236058 and GG+CG genotype of rs3766741 were found to be significantly associated with decreased risk of EH (OR=0.662, P=0.023; OR=0.639, P=0.024).When stratified by gender, for rs2336384, rs2236057 and rs2236058, significant association was observed in males, but not in females. Haplotype analysis indicated that the CCAACC haplotype was positively correlated with EH and there was a negative correlation between ACAGGG haplotype and EH. This study demonstrated that Mfn2 gene polymorphisms were associated with essential hypertension in northern Han Chinese population, especially in male subjects.

  16. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  17. A case-control study of sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome in the southern Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinxiang; Huang, Erwen; Tang, Shuangbo; Wu, Qiuping; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Dongchuan; Quan, Li; Liu, Chao; Cheng, Jianding

    2015-03-01

    To study the epidemiological characteristics of sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) in the southern Chinese Han population during 2007 to 2013, we gathered 879 SUNDS victims from Dongguan City and in the Longgang District in Shenzhen City as the case group then selected 879 all-cause death cases, adopting a 1:1 pair method, as the control group I and collected 8142 all-cause death cases from the Bao'an District in Shenzhen City as the control group II, simultaneously. Case information collected was statistically analyzed. The annual incidence of SUNDS is 1.02 and 2.23 per 100,000 person-years for Dongguan City and in the Longgang District, respectively. The number of male and female victims is drastically different, with a ratio of 13.92:1, whereas the incidence between the 2 sexes is significantly different (χ2 = 78.734, P < 0.01), with an odds ratio value of 11.32 (95% confidence interval, 5.75-22.28). The age of death of SUNDS cases ranges from 17 to 55 years with a median age of 35 years; furthermore, the difference of distribution of age of death between the SUNDS victims and the all-cause death population is significant (χ2 = 767.12, P < 0.001). The birthplace of SUNDS victims is distributed throughout 27 provinces of China, but the difference between the SUNDS victims and the all-cause death population is not significant (χ2 = 27.273, P > 0.05). The monthly incidence of SUNDS is relatively higher from March to June, whereas the difference of monthly distribution between SUNDS victims and all-cause death population is significant (χ2 = 9.869, P < 0.05), with an odds ratio value of 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.76). Although the majority of SUNDS occurred during midnight sleep, they were mostly discovered from 7 to 9 am once the inmates or spouses woke in the morning. A total of 97.74% of the SUNDS victims were blue-collar factory workers with a high-intensity labor and poor education background. This investigation confirmed the

  18. MICA genetic polymorphism and HLA-A,C,B,MICA and DRB1 haplotypic variation in a southern Chinese Han population: identification of two new MICA alleles, MICA*060 and MICA*062.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Cai, JinHong; Liu, XueXiang

    2011-06-01

    In this study, 201 healthy, unrelated Han subjects in Hunan province, southern China, were investigated by sequence-based typing (SBT) for the allelic variation of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA). Nineteen MICA alleles were observed, among which MICA*008:01 predominated with gene frequency of 30.35%. There was significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) of MICA*012:01 with HLA-B*54 and HLA-B*55, which was not observed in a northern Chinese Han population. Haplotype HLA-A*11-C*07-B60-MICA*008:01 (9.16%) was highly specific to this southern Chinese Han population. The most common five-locus haplotype in this population was HLA-A*02-C*01-B*46-MICA*010-DRB1*09 (8.73%). A new MICA allele, MICA*060, was identified on an HLA-A*02-C*01-B*55:02-DRB1*14 haplotype through extended family analysis. MICA*060 has probably arisen from MICA*012:01. Another new MICA allele, MICA*062, was identified by screening 1432 subjects using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific priming technology. MICA*062 has probably derived from MICA*010. Of particular interest is that MICA*062 was carried on an HLA-C*08-B*48:01-DRB1*14 haplotypic segment, as HLA-B*48 has been consistently shown to be primarily linked to MICA gene deletion in east Asian populations. Our results provide new insight into MICA genetic polymorphism in human populations. The findings reported here are of importance for future studies on the potential role of MICA in allogeneic organ transplantation and disease association in populations of Chinese ancestry. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Replication Study Confirms the Association of the Common rs1800629 Variant of the TNFα Gene with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Susceptibility in the Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaona; Zhou, Baozhen; Zhang, Dangfeng

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), encoded by the TNFα gene, can increase osteoclast formation, and that specific alleles of the TNFα gene are associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis susceptibility in some populations; however, the exact molecular mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the potential association of nineteen polymorphisms of the TNFα gene with postmenopausal osteoporosis and bone mineral density (BMD) traits in a sample of 1288 postmenopausal women from the Han Chinese population. A total of 437 postmenopausal osteoporosis patients and 851 unrelated age-matched healthy women were recruited to the study. Single marker and haplotype based analyses were conducted to evaluate the association of nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both patient and control groups. The SNP rs1800629 was identified as being highly significantly associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis after accounting for age and body mass index (p = 0.000087). In addition, the GG genotype of this SNP was associated with significantly lower measures of femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD. Moreover, haplotype based analyses suggested significant association signals between the haplotype block, including rs1800629 with postmenopausal osteoporosis (p < 0.001). We have shown that a TNFα gene polymorphism, rs1800629, is highly significantly associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis and BMD in the female Han Chinese population. Additional sequencing-based studies are needed to investigate the genetic architecture of this genomic region and its relationship with osteoporosis-related phenotypes.

  20. Association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene promoter polymorphism-1438G/A with anorexia nervosa and psychopathological traits in the Chinese Han population: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qing; Chen, Jue; Yu, Shunying; Yuan, Aihua; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhang, Ran; Jiang, Wenhui; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Haiyin; Zhang, Mingdao; Xiao, Zeping

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the possible role of the 5-HT 2A -1438G/A polymorphism in the susceptibility to anorexia nervosa (AN) in the Chinese Han population. The -1438G/A polymorphism of 249 female AN patients, 228 matched healthy controls, and 198 trios was genotyped using SNaP shot assay. Psychopathological traits of eating-disordered behaviors in AN subjects were examined using the Chinese version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Neither the case-control analysis nor the transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant associations between the -1438G/A polymorphism and AN (P > .05). However, AA homozygote patients with AN had lower weight and shape concern scores of the EDE-Q6.0 than those of GA heterozygotes (P < .05). Our findings suggested that female AN patients with 5-HT 2A -1438AA genotype may be characterized by less severe eating-disordered psychopathological traits in the Chinese Han population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Genetic Variants in PNPLA3 and Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shao-Wei; Lu, Qing-Qing; Hu, Zhi-Jian; Lin, Xu

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the possible association between genetic variants in the Patatin like phospholipase-3 (PNPLA3) gene and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Han Chinese population. We evaluated twelve tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of the PNPLA3 gene in a frequency matched case–control study from Fuzhou city of China (553 cases, 553 controls). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the rs738409 GG or GC, and rs139051 TT genotypes were found to be associated with increased risk of NAFLD, and a significant trend of increased risk with increasing numbers of risk genotype was observed in the cumulative effect analysis of these single nucleotide polymorphisms. Furthermore, haplotype association analysis showed that, compared with the most common haplotype, the CAAGAATGCGTG and CGAAGGTGTCCG haplotypes conferred a statistically significant increased risk for NAFLD, while the CGGGAACCCGCG haplotype decreased the risk of NAFLD. Moreover, rs738409 C>G appeared to have a multiplicative joint effect with tea drinking (P<0.005) and an additive joint effect with obesity (Interaction contrast ratio (ICR) = 2.31, 95% CI: 0.7–8.86), hypertriglyceridemia (ICR = 3.07, 95% CI: 0.98–5.09) or hypertension (ICR = 1.74, 95% CI: 0.52–3.12). Our data suggests that PNPLA3 genetic polymorphisms might influence the susceptibility to NAFLD development independently or jointly in Han Chinese. PMID:23226254

  2. Distribution of Diego blood group alleles and identification of four novel mutations on exon 19 of SLC4A1 gene in the Chinese Han population by polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing.

    PubMed

    Xu, X G; He, J; He, Y M; Tao, S D; Ying, Y L; Zhu, F M; Lv, H J; Yan, L X

    2011-04-01

    The Diego blood group system plays an important role in transfusion medicine. Genotyping of DI1 and DI2 alleles is helpful for the investigation into haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) and for the development of rare blood group databases. Here, we set up a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method for genotyping of Diego blood group alleles. Specific primers for exon 19 of the solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member1 (SLC4A1) gene were designed, and our PCR-SBT method was established and optimized for Diego genotyping. A total of 1053 samples from the Chinese Han population and the family members of a rare proband with DI1/DI1 genotype were investigated by the PCR-SBT method. An allele-specific primer PCR (PCR-ASP) was used to verify the reliability of the PCR-SBT method. The frequencies of DI1 and DI2 alleles in the Chinese Han population were 0.0247 and 0.9753, respectively. Six new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the sequenced regions of the SLC4A1 gene, and four novel SNPs located in the exon 19, in which one SNP could cause an amino acid alteration of Ala858Ser on erythrocyte anion exchanger protein 1. The genotypes for Diego blood group were identical among 41 selected samples with PCR-ASP and PCR-SBT. The PCR-SBT method can be used in Diego genotyping as a substitute of serological technique when the antisera is lacking and was suitable for screening large numbers of donors in rare blood group databases. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  3. Functional polymorphisms of the ABCG2 gene are associated with gout disease in the Chinese Han male population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Danqiu; Liu, Yunqing; Zhang, Xinju; Gu, Xiaoye; Wang, Hua; Luo, Xinhua; Zhang, Jin; Zou, Hejian; Guan, Ming

    2014-05-22

    Gout is a common type of arthritis that is characterized by hyperuricemia, tophi and joint inflammation. Genetic variations in the ABCG2 gene have been reported to influence serum uric acid levels and to participate in the pathogenesis of gout, but no further data have been reported in the Han Chinese population. Peripheral blood DNA was isolated from 352 male patients with gout and 350 gout-free normal male controls. High-resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing were performed to identify the genetic polymorphisms V12M, Q141K and Q126X in the ABCG2 gene. Genotype and haplotype analyses were utilized to determine the disease odds ratios (ORs). A prediction model for gout risk using ABCG2 protein function was established based on the genotype combination of Q126X and Q141K. For Q141K, the A allele frequency was 49.6% in the gout patients and 30.9% in the controls (OR 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.77-2.74, p=8.99×10⁻¹³). Regarding Q126X, the T allele frequency was 4.7% in the gout patients and 1.7% in the controls (OR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.49-5.68, p=1.57×10⁻³). The A allele frequency for V12M was lower (18.3%) in the gout patients than in the controls (29%) (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43-0.71, p=2.55×10⁻⁶). In the order of V12M, Q126X and Q141K, the GCA and GTC haplotypes indicated increased disease risk (OR=2.30 and 2.71, respectively). Patients with mild to severe ABCG2 dysfunction accounted for 78.4% of gout cases. The ABCG2 126X and 141K alleles are associated with an increased risk of gout, whereas 12M has a protective effect on gout susceptibility in the Han Chinese population. ABCG2 dysfunction can be used to evaluate gout risk.

  4. Association of HLA haplotype with alopecia areata in Chinese Hans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, F-L; Ye, D-Q; Yang, S; Zhou, F-S; Zhou, S-M; Zhu, Y-G; Liang, Y-H; Ren, Y-Q; Zhang, X-J

    2006-11-01

    Some studies have shown discrepancies in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) associated with alopecia areata (AA) between different ethnic populations. To investigate whether HLA-I, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles and the HLA haplotype are associated with AA, and the correlation between the HLA haplotype profile, age of onset and severity of AA in Chinese Hans. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) method was used to analyse the frequencies of HLA class I, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles in 192 patients with AA and 252 controls in Chinese Hans. The linkage disequilibrium was calculated using the 2 x 2 table. The 24 two-locus haplotypes [including A*02-B*18, A*02-B*27, A*02-B*52, A*02-Cw*0704, A*02-DQA1*0104, A*02-DQB1*0604, A*02-DQB1*0606, B*18-Cw*0704, B*18-DQA1*0104, B*18-DQA1*0302, B*18-DQB1*0606, B*27-Cw*0704, B*27-DQA1*0104, B*27-DQA1*0302, B*52-Cw*0704, B*52-DQA1*0104, B*52-DQA1*0302, B52-DQB1*0606, Cw*0704-DQA1*0104, Cw*0704-DQA1*0302, Cw*0704-DQB1*0606, DQA1*0104-DQB1*0604, DQA1*0104-DQB1*0606, DQA1*0302-DQB1*0606 (P<0.05)] were associated with AA, while eight extended haplotypes (A*02-B*18-DQA1*0104, A*02-B*27-DQA1*0104, A*02-B*52-DQA1*0104, A*02-B*52-DQA1*0302, A*02-B*52-DQB1*0606, B*52-Cw*0704-DQA1*0104, B*52-Cw*0704-DQA1*0302, A*02-B*52-DQA1*0302-DQB1*0606) were found to be related to AA in Chinese Hans. Through stratified analysis, we found that the extended haplotype B*52-Cw*0704-DQA1*0302 was related to early onset of AA, and no haplotype was only associated with severe AA. This is the first detailed report to elucidate HLA haplotypes associated with AA and that demonstrates the significant HLA haplotypes in Chinese Hans AA. The haplotype B*52-Cw*0704-DQA1*0302 was identified to be related to early onset of AA. Our results provide some information for future research on predisposing genes in HLA regions in Chinese Hans.

  5. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A; Collier, David A; Li, Tao

    2012-08-15

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25-29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30-34 and ≥35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30-34 and ≥35. For offspring with paternal age of <25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. Copyright © 2012. Published

  6. Genetic variations of VEGF gene were associated with tetralogy of fallot risk in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liru; Ge, Quanzhi; Xi, Chunyan; Zhang, Xuna; Guo, Yujie

    2015-05-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is one of the most common forms of congenital heart disease. In this study, we aimed at investigating the associations between genetic variations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and the risk of TOF in a Chinese Han population. Our findings may contribute to a deeper understanding of TOF pathogenesis and better diagnostic and therapeutic suggestions. A total of 165 TOF patients and 240 controls from a Chinese Han population in Shenyang and Harbin were recruited in the current study. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-2578C/A, -460T/C, -1154G/A, -634G/C, 534C/T, +398G/A, +963C/T, 752C/T, 913G/A) were genotyped by the MALDI-TOF MassARRAY system. Individual SNPs as well as their haplotypes were analyzed for their associations with TOF risk, using odds ratios and the 95% confidence interval under codominant and dominant models. In the single SNP analyses, the mutant homozygous genotypes of -2578C/A (rs699947) and +963C/T (rs3025039) were related with an increased risk of TOF. In addition, carriers with the mutant A allele of -1154G/A (rs1570360) were supposed to have a significantly elevated TOF risk. Similarly, compared with the wild homozygote GG carriers, the GC carrier of -634G/C (rs2010963) revealed a significant relationship with susceptibility of TOF, but not for the mutant homozygote CC carriers. However, no significant association was found for the other five SNPs. Meanwhile, haplotype analysis revealed that CCA and ATA in block 1 (-2578C/A, -460T/C, and -1154G/A) and TTG and TCA in block 3 (+963C/T, 752C/T, and 913G/A) were significantly related with an increased TOF risk compared with the most common haplotypes. In summary, our results suggested that VEGF variants (-2578C/A, -1154G/A, -634G/C, +963G/A) were involved in the susceptibility of TOF. However, validation of our study needs further study in various ethnics to reveal the functional relationship between VEGF polymorphisms and TOF risk, which may

  7. Common variants in toll-like receptor 4 confer susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Tai; Miao, Dan; Cui, Wei-Zhen; Ou, Jiang-Rong; Tian, Yan; Wu, Zhong-Chen; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Lan

    2012-05-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) represents a reasonable functional and positional candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it is located within the previous identified linkage region of AD on chromosome 9q, and functionally is involved in the microglia-mediated inflammatory response, amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque formation and Aβ clearance. To test whether variants in the TLR4 gene are associated with late-onset AD (LOAD), we organized a multicenter study of 785 subjects (399 cases and 386 matched controls) in a Han Chinese population. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that span the TLR4 gene, from approximately 5 kb of the predicted 5'-untranslated region (UTR) to approximately 6 kb of the predicted 3'- UTR, were selected and their associations with LOAD risk factors were assessed. With respect to allelic diversity, the minor alleles of seven SNPs (rs10759930, rs1927914, rs1927911, rs12377632, rs2149356, rs7037117, and rs7045953) in TLR4 showed consistent protective effects against the risk of developing LOAD. With regard to genotypic diversity, individuals carrying at least one minor allele of each SNP above had a consistently lower risk of LOAD than those with no copies of the minor alleles (ORs ranging from 0.445 to 0.637). rs7045953, located in the 3'-UTR of TLR4, was most strongly associated with LOAD, and when incorporated into a haplotype with rs10759930, the strongest association was detected (P = 1.7x10-6, Pc s1.0x10-4). Our data suggests that the TLR4 gene contributes to the susceptibility for LOAD in Han Chinese.

  8. Association of LMX1A genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to congenital scoliosis in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Yuan, Suomao; Liu, Jiaqi; Chen, Jun; Fei, Qi; Liu, Sen; Su, Xinlin; Wang, Shengru; Zhang, Jianguo; Li, Shugang; Wang, Yipeng; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    A genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the LMX1A gene with congenital scoliosis (CS) in the Chinese Han population. To determine whether LMX1A genetic polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to CS. CS is a lateral curvature of the spine due to congenital vertebral defects, whose exact genetic cause has not been well established. The LMX1A gene was suggested as a potential human candidate gene for CS. However, no genetic study of LMX1A in CS has ever been reported. We genotyped 13 SNPs of the LMX1A gene in 154 patients with CS and 144 controls with matched sex and age. After conducting the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test, the data of 13 SNPs were analyzed by the allelic and genotypic association with logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, the genotype-phenotype association and haplotype association analysis were also performed. The 13 SNPs of the LMX1A gene met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the controls, which was not in the cases. None of the allelic and genotypic frequencies of these SNPs showed significant difference between case and control groups (P > 0.05). However, the genotypic frequencies of rs1354510 and rs16841013 in the LMX1A gene were associated with CS predisposition in the unconditional logistic regression analysis (P = 0.02 and 0.018, respectively). Genotypic frequencies of 3 SNPs at rs6671290, rs1354510, and rs16841013 were found to exhibit significant differences between patients with CS with failure of formation and the healthy controls (P = 0.019, 0.007, and 0.006, respectively). Besides, in the model analysis by using unconditional logistic regression analysis, the optimized model for the 3 genotypic positive SNPs with failure of formation were rs6671290 (codominant; P = 0.025, Akaike information value = 316.6, Bayesian information criterion = 333.9), rs1354510 (overdominant; P = 0.0017, Akaike information value = 312.1, Bayesian information criterion = 325.9), and rsl6841013 (overdominant; P = 0

  9. Evidence for association between Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene polymorphisms and autism in Chinese Han population: a family-based association study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene is one of the most promising candidate genes for major mental disorders. In a previous study, a Finnish group demonstrated that DISC1 polymorphisms were associated with autism and Asperger syndrome. However, the results were not replicated in Korean population. To determine whether DISC1 is associated with autism in Chinese Han population, we performed a family-based association study between DISC1 polymorphisms and autism. Methods We genotyped seven tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DISC1, spanning 338 kb, in 367 autism trios (singleton and their biological parents) including 1,101 individuals. Single SNP association and haplotype association analysis were performed using the family-based association test (FBAT) and Haploview software. Results We found three SNPs showed significant associations with autism (rs4366301: G > C, Z = 2.872, p = 0.004; rs11585959: T > C, Z = 2.199, p = 0.028; rs6668845: A > G, Z = 2.326, p = 0.02). After the Bonferroni correction, SNP rs4366301, which located in the first intron of DISC1, remained significant. When haplotype were constructed with two-markers, three haplotypes displayed significant association with autism. These results were still significant after using the permutation method to obtain empirical p values. Conclusions Our study provided evidence that the DISC1 may be the susceptibility gene of autism. It suggested DISC1 might play a role in the pathogenesis of autism. PMID:21569632

  10. [Association between the level of fasting blood glucose over 35-year-old and carotid intima-media thickness in Han, Uygur and Kazak population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region from 2007 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomei; Li, Haixia; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Yang, Yining; Ma, Yitong

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the relationship between different levels of fasting blood glucose over 35-year old and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. From October 2007 to April 2010, the present study was performed in 13 935 inhabitants among Han, Uygur and Kazak adult population of aged 35 years old and over by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling principles from 7 regions in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous and we excluded the IMT over 0.9 millimeter, long-term out and the floating population. All subjects were measured fasting blood glucose and IMT values of carotid artery. The subjects were divided into three groups according to different fasting blood glucose levels: normal, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) and we used the analysis of variance to compare the differences among groups of IMT. Multiple linear regression model was used to explore factors of carotid IMT. The IMT of males of Han, Uygur and Kazak were (0.81 ± 0.29), (0.71 ± 0.27) and (0.79 ± 0.21) mm respectively, the differences were significant (F = 88.50, P < 0.05) . The IMT in DM group ((0.82 ± 0.29) mm) was significantly higher than the normal ((0.77 ± 0.26) mm) and the IFG groups ((0.79 ± 0.27) mm) (F = 7.49, P < 0.05). The IMT of females of Han, Uygur and Kazak were (0.72 ± 0.27), (0.63 ± 0.25) and (0.77 ± 0.22) mm, respectively, the differences were significant (F = 173.93, P < 0.05) . The IMT in DM group ((0.75 ± 0.29) mm) and the IFG groups ((0.74 ± 0.26) mm) were significantly higher than the normal group ((0.70 ± 0.25) mm) (F = 10.46, P < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.101, P < 0.01) , total cholesterol (β = 0.056, P < 0.05) and fasting blood glucose (β = 0.023, P = 0.009) were independent risk factors of IMT. The level of fasting blood glucose was an independent influence factor of carotid IMT and had a positive correlation in

  11. The A to G polymorphism at -1082 of the interleukin-10 gene is rare in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; He, Yong-Hui; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Min-Hui; Gao, Shu-Ping; Su, Ya-Ming; Shi, Gui-Liang; Deng, Xin-Tao; Zhu, Jian-Hua; Pan, Min

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a multifunctional anti-inflammatory cytokine involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes including cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that 50-75% of the variation in IL-10 production is genetically controlled. In the present study, the IL-10 -1082A/G (rs1800896) polymorphism was detected in 174 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients confirmed by selective coronary angiography and 176 age and gender-matched controls from the Jiangsu area (East China). The majority of the subjects (93.14%) carried the AA wild-type genotype, whereas only 0.29% carried the GG genotype. Our results suggest that IL-10 -1082A/G is rare and unlikely to be a significant contributory to disease susceptibility in the Han Chinese population.

  12. Ancient DNA reveals genetic connections between early Di-Qiang and Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiawei; Zeng, Wen; Zhang, Ye; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Li, Chunxiang; Zhu, Hong; Fu, Qiaomei; Zhou, Hui

    2017-12-04

    Ancient Di-Qiang people once resided in the Ganqing region of China, adjacent to the Central Plain area from where Han Chinese originated. While gene flow between the Di-Qiang and Han Chinese has been proposed, there is no evidence to support this view. Here we analyzed the human remains from an early Di-Qiang site (Mogou site dated ~4000 years old) and compared them to other ancient DNA across China, including an early Han-related site (Hengbei site dated ~3000 years old) to establish the underlying genetic relationship between the Di-Qiang and ancestors of Han Chinese. We found Mogou mtDNA haplogroups were highly diverse, comprising 14 haplogroups: A, B, C, D (D*, D4, D5), F, G, M7, M8, M10, M13, M25, N*, N9a, and Z. In contrast, Mogou males were all Y-DNA haplogroup O3a2/P201; specifically one male was further assigned to O3a2c1a/M117 using targeted unique regions on the non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome. We compared Mogou to 7 other ancient and 38 modern Chinese groups, in a total of 1793 individuals, and found that Mogou shared close genetic distances with Taojiazhai (a more recent Di-Qiang population), Hengbei, and Northern Han. We modeled their interactions using Approximate Bayesian Computation, and support was given to a potential admixture of ~13-18% between the Mogou and Northern Han around 3300-3800 years ago. Mogou harbors the earliest genetically identifiable Di-Qiang, ancestral to the Taojiazhai, and up to ~33% paternal and ~70% of its maternal haplogroups could be found in present-day Northern Han Chinese.

  13. Obesity-Related Genomic Loci Are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; He, Jiang; Chen, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Ge, Jiapu; Chen, Gang; Guo, Xiaohui; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Xiao, Jianzhong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Wenying

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity is a well-known risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of genetic loci associated with obesity. The aim of this study is to examine the contribution of obesity-related genomic loci to type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Methods We successfully genotyped 18 obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms among 5338 type 2 diabetic patients and 4663 controls. Both individual and joint effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms on type 2 diabetes and quantitative glycemic traits (assessing β-cell function and insulin resistance) were analyzed using logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results Two single nucleotide polymorphisms near MC4R and GNPDA2 genes were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes before adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (OR (95% CI) = 1.14 (1.06, 1.22) for the A allele of rs12970134, P = 4.75×10−4; OR (95% CI) = 1.10 (1.03, 1.17) for the G allele of rs10938397, P = 4.54×10−3). When body mass index and waist circumference were further adjusted, the association of MC4R with type 2 diabetes remained significant (P = 1.81×10−2) and that of GNPDA2 was attenuated (P = 1.26×10−1), suggesting the effect of the locus including GNPDA2 on type 2 diabetes may be mediated through obesity. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs2260000 within BAT2 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (P = 1.04×10−2). In addition, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (near or within SEC16B, BDNF, MAF and PRL genes) showed significant associations with quantitative glycemic traits in controls even after adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (all P values<0.05). Conclusions This study indicates that obesity-related genomic loci were associated with type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits in the Han Chinese population. PMID:25093408

  14. Association of Inducible T Cell Costimulator Polymorphisms with Susceptibility and Outcome of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Li, Q-L; Hou, S-H; Peng, H; Guo, J-J

    2015-09-01

    Inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) functions to regulate cell-cell signalling, immune responses and cell proliferation. ICOS single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may affect protein expression and functions. This study investigated the association of ICOS SNPs with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and outcome in a Chinese population. A total of 1290 Chinese Han individuals were enrolled, including 63 asymptomatic HBV carriers, 220 chronic hepatitis B patients (CHB), 249 HBV-related liver cirrhosis patients (LC), 108 patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 338 patients with natural HBV clearance and 312 healthy subjects (as controls). DNA samples from these subjects were genotyped for four ICOS SNPs (rs11883722, rs10932029, rs1559931 and rs4675379) using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay and analysed. The data showed that genotype and allele frequencies of ICOS SNPs in cases and controls followed the Hardy-Weinberg distribution. The CC genotype of rs4675379 was higher in patients with HBV infection (including AC, CHB, LC and HCC) than in patients with HBV clearance (P = 0.006). Furthermore, the genotype 'GA' and the minor allele 'A' of rs1559931 were associated with a decreased HCC susceptibility (P < 0.001). Haplotype analysis data showed that 'GC' haplotype in block 2 (rs1559931 and rs4675379) had a lower frequency in patients than in HBV-cleared subjects (P = 0.034), although its overall frequency was only 1.6%. Our study found that ICOS rs1559931 SNP was associated with decreased HBV-related HCC risk in the studied Chinese Han population, except for patients with natural clearance of HBV. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  15. Association of Genetic Variants with Isolated Fasting Hyperglycaemia and Isolated Postprandial Hyperglycaemia in a Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Ge, Jiapu; Chen, Gang; Guo, Xiaohui; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Xiao, Jianzhong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Zhou, Zhiguang; Shan, Guangliang; Yang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    Background Though multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes have been identified, the genetic bases of isolated fasting hyperglycaemia (IFH) and isolated postprandial hyperglycaemia (IPH) were still unclear. In present study, we aimed to investigate the association of genome-wide association study-validated genetic variants and IFH or IPH in Han Chinese. Methods/Principal Findings We genotyped 27 validated SNPs in 6,663 unrelated individuals comprising 341 IFH, 865 IPH, 1,203 combined fasting hyperglycaemia and postprandial hyperglycaemia, and 4,254 normal glycaemic subjects of Han ancestry. The distributions of genotype frequencies of FTO, CDKAL1 and GCKR were significant different between individuals with IFH and those with IPH (SNP(ptrend): rs8050136(0.0024), rs9939609(0.0049), rs7756992(0.0122), rs780094(0.0037)). Risk allele of FTO specifically increased the risk of IFH (rs8050136: OR 1.403 [95% CI 1.125–1.750], p = 0.0027; rs9939609: 1.398 [1.120–1.744], p = 0.0030). G allele of CDKAL1 specifically increased the risk of IPH (1.217 [1.092–1.355], p = 0.0004). G allele of GCKR increased the risk of IFH (1.167 [0.999–1.362], p = 0.0513), but decreased the risk of IPH (0.891 [0.801–0.991], p = 0.0331). In addition, TCF7L2 and KCNQ1 increased the risk of both IFH and IPH. When combined, each additional risk allele associated with IFH increased the risk for IFH by 1.246-fold (p<0.0001), while each additional risk allele associated with IPH increased the risk for IPH by 1.190-fold (p<0.0001). Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that genotype distributions of variants from FTO, GCKR, CDKAL1 were different between IPH and IFH in Han Chinese. Variants of genes modulating insulin sensitivity (FTO, GCKR) contributed to the risk of IFH, while variants of genes related to beta cell function (CDKAL1) increase the risk of IPH. PMID:23990951

  16. Diacylglycerol kinase κ (DGKK) variants and hypospadias in Han Chinese: association and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qichao; Tang, Yunman; Lin, Houwei; Xu, Maosheng; Xu, Guofeng; Fang, Xiaoliang; Chen, Jianhua; Song, Zhijian; Li, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yongyong; Geng, Hongquan

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether diacylglycerol kinase κ (DGKK) is a susceptibility gene for hypospadias in the Han Chinese population as has been suggested by previous publications. A case-control study involving 466 patients with hypospadias and 402 healthy subjects was conducted to assess the relationship between DGKK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and hypospadias risk in the Han Chinese population. The 466 hypospadias patients were further divided into mild, moderate and severe subgroups for analysis. Six SNPs (rs1934179, rs4143304, rs9969978, rs1934188, rs4826632 and rs4599945) were marginally associated with mild and moderate hypospadias [odds ratios (ORs) > 1, P = 0.05 to P < 0.1), whereas no significant relationship was seen with the severe cases (ORs >1, P > 0.1). After correcting for multiple testing, it was determined that neither individual SNPs nor individual haplotypes were associated with hypospadias. To evaluate this relationship in multiple populations, we performed a meta-analysis on six SNPs, using combined data from our present results and those of previous studies of different races (including 1966 patients and 2492 controls). Six SNPs (rs1934179, rs4143304, rs9969978, rs1934188, rs7063116 and rs1934190) were significantly associated with mild/moderate hypospadias (ORs >1, P < 0.05), and rs1934179 was significantly associated with severe hypospadias (OR > 1, P < 0.05). DGKK gene variants do not appear to play a major role in hypospadias susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. Our meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that DGKK is a common risk gene for hypospadias, particularly in cases of mild or moderate hypospadias in Caucasian populations. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Rs1914663 of SFTPA 1 gene is associated with pediatric tuberculosis in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieqiong; Qi, Hui; Sun, Lin; Shen, Chen; Jiao, Weiwei; Xu, Fang; Xiao, Jing; Shen, Adong

    2016-07-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a part of the innate immune system of the lung, performs a vital role in the host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. In order to investigate the relationship between SFTPA polymorphism variations and Tuberculosis (TB) in a Chinese pediatric group, we conducted a case-control study using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Significant difference of the allelic distribution of rs1914663 in SFTPA gene was observed between TB group and control group and, T allele of rs1914663 was associated with increased risk for TB (control vs. 1.42, 95% CI: 1.10-1.81, P=0.005). In addition, the TC+TT genotype of rs1914663 was higher in PTB and non-severe TB than that in controls. The haplotype comprising rs17881720-A and rs17879335-G was a resistance factor while the haplotype comprising rs1914663-T and rs1059225-G was found to be a susceptibility factor to TB. Using a case-control study, we identified a genetic polymorphism in the SFTPA that regulates host susceptibility to pediatric TB in the Han Chinese population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. HAN-Based Monopropellant Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is sponsoring efforts to develop technology for high-performance, high-density, low-freezing point, low-hazards monopropellant systems. The program is focused on a family of monopropellant formulations composed of an aqueous solution of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and a fuel component. HAN-based monopropellants offer significant mass and volume savings to small (less than 100 kg) satellite for orbit raising and on-orbit propulsion applications. The low-hazards characteristics of HAN-based monopropellants make them attractive for applications where ground processing costs are a significant concern. A 1-lbf thruster has been demonstrated to a 20-kg satellite orbit insertion duty cycle, using a formulation compatible with currently available catalysts. To achieve specific impulse levels above those of hydrazine, catalyst materials that can withstand the high-temperature, corrosive combustion environment of HAN-based monopropellants have to be developed. There also needs to be work done to characterize propellant properties, burning behavior, and material compatibility. NASA is coordinating their monopropellant efforts with those of the United States Air Force.

  19. Genetic polymorphism of the Nrf2 promoter region is associated with vitiligo risk in Han Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Song, Pu; Li, Kai; Liu, Ling; Wang, Xiaowen; Jian, Zhe; Zhang, Weigang; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2016-10-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid-derived two-like 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway and its downstream antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1 or HO-1) play essential roles in H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage in human melanocytes. However, the link between Nrf2 promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to oxidative stress-related diseases such as vitiligo is unknown. This study evaluated the association of the Nrf2 and HO-1 genes polymorphisms with vitiligo susceptibility. In this case-control study of 1136 Han Chinese vitiligo patients and 1200 controls, Nrf2 (rs35652124 and rs6721961) and HO-1 (rs2071746) genes were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Overall, a significantly decreased risk of vitiligo was found to be associated with Nrf2 rs35652124 CC and combined (CT+CC) genotypes [odds ratio (OR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.83 and OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.71-0.99, respectively], as well as among subgroups: female, onset age ≤20 and never smoker. We subsequently found that Nrf2 rs35652124 C allele had higher transcriptional activity in the luciferase reporter assay compared with Nrf2 rs35652124 T allele. Furthermore, we investigated serum HO-1 activity was associated with the rs35652124 CT+CC genotype and lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.024). Logistic regression analysis showed a dose-response relationship between lower vitiligo risk and increased HO-1 activity in rs35652124 CT+CC genotype carriers (Ptrend < 0.05). These findings indicate that the C allele of rs35652124 located in the promoter region of Nrf2 gene is associated with protective effect on vitiligo in a Han Chinese population. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  1. Discovery of susceptibility loci associated with tuberculosis in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hui; Zhang, Yong-Biao; Sun, Lin; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Biao; Xu, Fang; Liu, Jia-Wen; Liu, Jin-Cheng; Chen, Chen; Jiao, Wei-Wei; Shen, Chen; Xiao, Jing; Li, Jie-Qiong; Guo, Ya-Jie; Wang, Yong-Hong; Li, Qin-Jing; Yin, Qing-Qin; Li, Ying-Jia; Wang, Ting; Wang, Xing-Yun; Gu, Ming-Liang; Yu, Jun; Shen, A-Dong

    2017-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed the worldwide heterogeneity of genetic factors in tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility. Despite having the third highest global TB burden, no TB-related GWAS has been performed in China. Here, we performed the first three-stage GWAS on TB in the Han Chinese population. In the stage 1 (discovery stage), after quality control, 691 388 SNPs present in 972 TB patients and 1537 controls were retained. After replication on an additional 3460 TB patients and 4862 controls (stages 2 and 3), we identified three significant loci associated with TB, the most significant of which was rs4240897 (logistic regression P = 1.41 × 10-11, odds ratio = 0.79). The aforementioned three SNPs were harbored by MFN2, RGS12 and human leukocyte antigen class II beta chain paralogue encoding genes, all of which are candidate immune genes associated with TB. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic background of TB in the Han Chinese population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Genetic Analysis of IL-17 Gene Polymorphisms in Gout in a Male Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng; Li, Xinde; Li, Hua; Guo, Mingzhen; Liu, Shiguo; Li, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine mainly secreted by activated T helper 17 cells and involved in inflammatory immune responses. This study aimed to investigate the association between IL-17 variants as well as serum IL-17 levels with gout in male Chinese Han individuals. A total of 1,101 male gout patients and 1,239 ethic-matched controls were enrolled. Genetic distributions of three variants (rs2275913 in IL-17A, rs763780 in IL-17F, and rs4819554 in IL-17RA) were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman probe method. The plasma concentrations of IL-17A and IL-17F were measured in 228 gout patients and 198 controls that came from above samples by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant differences were observed in the genetic distribution of these polymorphisms between cases and controls (rs2275913: χ2 = 0.15, p = 0.928 by genotype, χ2 = 0.14, p = 0.711 by allele; rs763780: χ2 = 2.24, p = 0.326 by genotype, χ2 = 0.26, p = 0.609 by allele; rs4819554: χ2 = 1.79, p = 0.409 by genotype, χ2 = 1.46, p = 0.227 by allele). Levels of serum IL-17A and IL-17F were significantly decreased in gout patients (both p<0.001). However, no difference was observed in acute gout patients between different genotypic carriers of rs2275913 and rs763780 regarding serum IL-17A and IL-17F levels (p>0.05). Although the genetic variants in IL-17 we studied in this research do not appear to be involved in the development of gout in male Chinese Han individuals, the IL-17 cytokine family may participate in gouty inflammation in an undefined way, which requires further validation.

  3. Detection rate of prostate cancer following biopsy among the northern Han Chinese population: a single-center retrospective study of 1022 cases.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yong; Zhu, Lei-Yi; Xian, Yu-Xin; Sun, Xiao-Qing; Gao, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Xin-Hong; Hou, Si-Chuan; Zhang, Chang-Cun; Liu, Zhao-Xu

    2017-08-29

    Prostate cancer is known to have ethnic and regional differences. The study aimed to clinically evaluate the detection rate of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy and analyze its characteristics among the northern Han Chinese population at a single center. Between October 2009 and September 2016, a total of 1027 Chinese men, who had undergone TRUS-guided prostate biopsy at Qingdao Municipal Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. Prostate biopsies were performed in the case of an abnormally elevated serum PSA level, and/or abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings, and/or suspicious prostatic imaging findings. Of the 1022 men enrolled in the analysis, 438 patients (42.8%) were diagnosed with prostate adenocarcinoma histologically. When serum PSA levels were divided into five subgroups (less than 4.0, 4.0 to 10.0, 10.0 to 20.0, 20.0 to 100.0, and ≥ 100.0 ng/ml), the detection rates of prostate cancer were 12.4, 15.9, 34.1, 66.2, and 93.8%, respectively. With serum PSA levels of 4.0 to 10.0 ng/ml, the cancer detection rates for a normal DRE and a suspect DRE finding were 13.5 and 58.2%, respectively. Accordingly, the cancer detection rates for a normal imaging and a suspect imaging finding were 13.5 and 58.2%, respectively. Besides, a large proportion of the patients were in the clinically advanced stage. The present study data reported a relatively higher prostate cancer detection rate of 42.8% and that the majority of the patients presented with clinically advanced prostate cancers within a local clinical urologic practice. An early detection and screening program for prostate cancer is of great need to reduce the burden from this disease among the northern Han Chinese population.

  4. Polymorphisms -1082 G/A and -819 C/T in the interleukin-10 gene are not associated with gout susceptibility in the Chinese Han male population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Kun; Yin, Congcong; Han, Lin; Sun, Yuping; Ren, Wei; Chu, Nan; Li, Changgui

    2012-08-01

    Gout is caused by monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation of the joints and periarticular tissues. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an important immunoregulatory cytokine, levels of which can be influenced by functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter. To investigate the association of -1082 G/A and -819 C/T polymorphisms in the IL-10 promoter with gout susceptibility in the Chinese Han male population. A case-control study was performed in 302 patients and 284 controls. Genotyping of IL-10 -1082 G/A and -819 C/T polymorphisms was performed by DNA sequencing techniques. An association analysis was analyzed by the χ(2) test. No significant differences were found in -819T/C and -1082 A/G genotypic and allelic frequencies between gout cases and controls (for -819T/C, χ(2)=0.212, df=1, p=0.645 by genotype; χ(2)=0.079, df=1, p=0.779 by allele; for -1082 A/G, χ(2)=2.116, df=1, p=0.146 by genotype; χ(2)=1.854, df=1, p=0.173 by allele). IL-10 -1082 G/A and -819 C/T polymorphisms may not be associated with susceptibility to gout and thus do not play a major role in the development of gout in the Chinese Han male population.

  5. Serum trace element differences between Schizophrenia patients and controls in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lei; Chen, Tianlu; Yang, Jinglei; Zhou, Kejun; Yan, Xiaomei; Chen, Wenzhong; Sun, Liya; Li, Linlin; Qin, Shengying; Wang, Peng; Yang, Ping; Cui, Donghong; Burmeister, Margit; He, Lin; Jia, Wei; Wan, Chunling

    2015-10-12

    Little is known about the trace element profile differences between Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls; previous studies about the association of certain elements with Schizophrenia have obtained conflicting results. To identify these differences in the Han Chinese population, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantify the levels of 35 elements in the sera of 111 Schizophrenia patients and 110 healthy participants, which consisted of a training (61/61 for cases/controls included) and a test group including remaining participants. An orthogonal projection to latent structures model was constructed from the training group (R(2)Y = 0.465, Q(2)cum = 0.343) had a sensitivity of 76.0% and a specificity of 71.4% in the test group. Single element analysis indicated that the concentrations of cesium, zinc, and selenium were significantly reduced in patients with Schizophrenia in both the training and test groups. The meta-analysis including 522 cases and 360 controls supported that Zinc was significantly associated with Schizophrenia (standardized mean difference [SMD], -0.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI], -1.46 to -0.16, P = 0.01) in the random-effect model. Information theory analysis indicated that Zinc could play roles independently in Schizophrenia. These results suggest clear element profile differences between patients with Schizophrenia and healthy controls, and reduced Zn level is confirmed in the Schizophrenia patients.

  6. A large-scale survey of genetic copy number variations among Han Chinese residing in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Hsing; Li, Ling-Hui; Ho, Sheng-Feng; Chuang, Tzu-Po; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Fann, Cathy SJ

    2008-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) have recently been recognized as important structural variations in the human genome. CNVs can affect gene expression and thus may contribute to phenotypic differences. The copy number inferring tool (CNIT) is an effective hidden Markov model-based algorithm for estimating allele-specific copy number and predicting chromosomal alterations from single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays. The CNIT algorithm, which was constructed using data from 270 HapMap multi-ethnic individuals, was applied to identify CNVs from 300 unrelated Han Chinese individuals in Taiwan. Results Using stringent selection criteria, 230 regions with variable copy numbers were identified in the Han Chinese population; 133 (57.83%) had been reported previously, 64 displayed greater than 1% CNV allele frequency. The average size of the CNV regions was 322 kb (ranging from 1.48 kb to 5.68 Mb) and covered a total of 2.47% of the human genome. A total of 196 of the CNV regions were simple deletions and 27 were simple amplifications. There were 449 genes and 5 microRNAs within these CNV regions; some of these genes are known to be associated with diseases. Conclusion The identified CNVs are characteristic of the Han Chinese population and should be considered when genetic studies are conducted. The CNV distribution in the human genome is still poorly characterized, and there is much diversity among different ethnic populations. PMID:19108714

  7. The common single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ji-Peng; Wang, Hong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Zhao, Han; You, Li; Shi, Dong-Hong; Sun, Xiu-Hua; Lv, Hong; Wang, Fei; Wen, Ze-Qing; Wang, Xie-Tong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs2681472, as a new hypertension susceptibility genetic variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and rs268172 in a Northern Han Chinese population. We genotyped 1218 unrelated Northern Han Chinese women, including 515 patients with preeclampsia and 703 healthy controls. No significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = .23). When patients were divided into early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia according to gestational age of disease onset, the allele frequencies significantly differed between controls and patients with early-onset preeclampsia (P = .02). Genotype frequencies also were significantly different between controls and patients early-onset preeclampsia when data were analyzed under additive (P = .03) and dominant (P = .009) models. We replicated this association in an independent Northern Han Chinese population and observed a significant difference in the allele frequencies between patients with early-onset preeclampsia and controls (P = .011). We report that rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    PubMed

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  9. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population

    PubMed Central

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important. A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects. The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB). We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population. PMID:27977609

  10. An interview with Mark G. Hans

    PubMed Central

    Bolognese, Ana Maria; Palomo, Juan Martin; Miyashita, Kunihiko; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans' Master's Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of "Essentials of Facial Growth", being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans's academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of Dental

  11. [Characteristics of blood type irregular antibodies in Han population of Chinese Sichuan area].

    PubMed

    Li, Cui-Ying; Li, Yun-Ming; Huang, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the distribution of irregular antibody of red blood cells in Han population of Chinese Sichuan area, so as to provide valuable information for the safety of transfusion and decrease of immune hemolytic transfusion reaction. Blood samples from June 2006 to May 2013 were tested for irregular antibody screening and identification, calculating the composition rate, group characteristics and the positive detection rate of irregular antibody. A total of 36287 blood samples were tested, out of them 571 samples were the irregular antibody positive, the positive rate was 1.574%(571/36 287), specific alloantibodies were found in 312 samples, the positive rate was 0.860%(312/36287). And autoantibody was found in 259 samples, the positive rate was 0.714%(259/36 287). The specific alloantibodies ratio in Rh system was the highest, reaching to 73.72%(230/312) with the positive rate of 0.634%;36 cases in Lewis system, account for 11.54%(36/312) with the positive rate of 0.099%; 34 cases in MNS system account for 10.89%(34/312) with the positive rate of 0.094%; direct coomb test showed positive result in 284 samples, the rate was 0.78%. The detected rate of positive irregular antibody in female is obviously higher than that in male patients (P<0.001), and it is also higher in people with pregnancy or transfusion than that in those without it (P<0.05). The irregular antibody screening and identification are very important in blood transfusion, especially for female and people with transfusion or pregnant history.

  12. Development of HAN-based Liquid Propellant Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisatsune, K.; Izumi, J.; Tsutaya, H.; Furukawa, K.

    2004-10-01

    Many of propellants that are applied to the conventional spacecraft propulsion system are toxic propellants. Because of its toxicity, considering the environmental pollution or safety on handling, it will be necessary to apply the "green" propellant to the spacecraft propulsion system. The purpose of this study is to apply HAN based liquid propellant (LP1846) to mono propellant thruster. Compared to the hydrazine that is used in conventional mono propellant thruster, HAN based propellant is not only lower toxic but also can obtain higher specific impulse. Moreover, HAN based propellant can be decomposed by the catalyst. It means there are the possibility of applying to the mono propellant thruster that can leads to the high reliability of the propulsion system.[1],[2] However, there are two technical subjects, to apply HAN based propellant to the mono propellant thruster. One is the high combustion temperature. The catalyst will be damaged under high temperature condition. The other is the low catalytic activity. It is the serious problem on application of HAN based propellant to the mono propellant thruster that is used for attitude control of spacecraft. To improve the catalytic activity of HAN based propellant, it is necessary to screen the best catalyst for HAN based propellant. The adsorption analysis is conducted by Monte Carlo Simulation to screen the catalyst metal for HAN and TEAN. The result of analysis shows the Iridium is the best catalyst metal for HAN and TEAN. Iridium is the catalyst metal that is used at conventional mono propellant thruster catalyst Shell405. Then, to confirm the result of analysis, the reaction test about catalyst is conducted. The result of this test is the same as the result of adsorption analysis. That means the adsorption analysis is effective in screening the catalyst metal. At the evaluating test, the various types of carrier of catalyst are also compared to Shell 405 to improve catalytic activity. The test result shows the

  13. Association between FOXP3 polymorphisms and vitiligo in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Song, P; Wang, X-W; Li, H-X; Li, K; Liu, L; Wei, C; Jian, Z; Yi, X-L; Li, Q; Wang, G; Li, C-Y; Gao, T-W

    2013-09-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune chronic depigmentation disorder caused by melanocyte loss. Previous studies found that CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction was involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo and that gene polymorphisms in forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) - a master regulator of Treg development and function - were associated with susceptibility to some autoimmune disorders. Therefore, we hypothesized that functional polymorphisms of the FOXP3 gene might be associated with vitiligo via dysregulation of Treg cells. To evaluate whether FOXP3 polymorphisms are associated with vitiligo risk. In this hospital-based case-control study of 682 patients with vitiligo and 682 vitiligo-free age- and sex-matched controls, we genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FOXP3 gene - rs2232365, rs3761548 and rs5902434 - by performing polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). Significantly increased vitiligo risk was associated with the rs2232365 GG [odds ratio (OR) 1·68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·17-2·39, P = 0·004] and rs3761548 AA (OR 1·82, 95% CI 1·10-3·01, P = 0·033) genotypes compared with the rs2232365 AA and rs3761548 CC genotypes. On combined analysis of these three variant alleles, we found that individuals carrying 2-6 variant alleles had significantly increased vitiligo risk (OR 1·34, 95% CI 1·08-1·66). This risk was more pronounced in the following subgroups: age > 20 years, male sex, active vitiligo, nonsegmental vitiligo and other accompanying autoimmune diseases. FOXP3 gene polymorphisms contributed to vitiligo risk in a Han Chinese population. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. LncRNA ANRIL Expression and ANRIL Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to the Risk of Ischemic Stroke in the Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jialei; Gu, Lian; Guo, Xiaojing; Huang, Jiao; Chen, Zhaoxia; Huang, Guifeng; Kang, Yiwen; Zhang, Xiaoting; Long, Jianxiong; Su, Li

    2018-06-07

    The aim of the present study was to explore the role of lncRNA ANRIL in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine the association between ANRIL variants and the genetic susceptibility of IS and CAD in the Chinese Han population. A genetic association study including 550 IS patients, 550 CAD patients, and 550 healthy controls was conducted. The expression levels of lncRNA ANRIL, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B were detected using qRT-PCR. Genotyping was performed by Sequenom MassARRAY on an Agena platform. Our study showed that IS patients had an increased lncRNA ANRIL expression (P = 0.002) and a decreased CDKN2A expression (P < 0.001) compared with normal controls. A significant difference with regard to the genotype distribution of rs2383207 was found between male IS patients and controls (P = 0.011). The minor allele of rs2383207 significantly increased the IS risk under a recessive model (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.05-2.21, P = 0.027). The minor allele of rs1333049 was significantly associated with the risk of IS among the male patients under a recessive model (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.04-2.35, P = 0.031). However, no significant association was found between the ANRIL variants and the risk of CAD (all P > 0.050). In addition, we found a decreased lncRNA ANRIL expression in IS patients who carried the GG genotype of rs1333049 compared with IS patients who carried the CC or CG genotype (P = 0.041). In summary, we found that IS patients had an increased lncRNA ANRIL expression and a decreased CDKN2A expression compared with the controls, which might play an impellent role in pathological processes of IS. The ANRIL variants rs2383207 and rs1333049 were significantly associated with the risk of IS among males but not females in the Chinese Han population.

  15. Comparison of maternal and newborn outcomes of Tibetan and Han Chinese delivering in Lhasa, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Suellen; Tudor, Carrie; Thorsten, Vanessa; Nyima; Sonam; Droyoung; Wright, Linda; Varner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aim To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of Tibetan and Han Chinese women delivering vaginally at high altitude (3650 meters) in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China. Method Comparative analysis of data from a prospective observational study of Tibetan (n = 938) and Han Chinese (n = 146) women delivering at three hospitals between January 2004 and May 2005. Results Han Chinese women had higher rates of pre-eclampsia/gestational hypertension than Tibetan women, (10.3% vs 5.9%, P = 0.04). There was no difference in rates of postpartum hemorrhage between Tibetan and Han women (12.8% vs 17.1%, P = 0.15). Han newborns weighed significantly less than Tibetan newborns (P < 0.01), and were twice as likely to be small for gestational age, (24.5% vs 11.6%, P < 0.01). Tibetan newborns were less likely to have poor neonatal outcomes than Han newborns (P < 0.01). Conclusion In high altitude deliveries in Tibet, adverse outcomes were significantly more common among Han Chinese. PMID:19012697

  16. SMAD7 loci contribute to risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and clinicopathologic development among Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jiansong; Xu, Min; Zhao, Zhongwei; Tu, Jianfei; Gao, Jun; Lu, Chenying; Song, Jingjing; Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Minjiang; Fan, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Xingyao; Lan, Xilin; Li, Jie

    2016-04-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified three loci at 18q21 (rs4939827, rs7240004, and rs7229639), which maps to SMAD7 loci, were associated with risk of diseases of the digestive system. However, their associations with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk remain unknown. A case-control study was conducted to assess genetic associations with HCC risk and clinicopathologic development among Chinese Han population. Three SNPs were genotyped among 1,000 HCC cases and 1,000 controls using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. We observed statistically significant associations for the three SMAD7 loci and HCC risk. Each copy of minor allele was associated with a 1.24-1.36 fold increased risk of HCC. We also found that significant differences were observed between rs4939827 and clinical TNM stage and vascular invasion, as well as rs7240004 and vascular invasion. We also established a genetic risk score (GRS) by summing the risk alleles. The GRS was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC and vascular invasion. Our data revealed the SMAD7 loci is associated with HCC susceptibility and its clinicopathologic development.

  17. Fine-mapping analysis of the MHC region for vitiligo based on a new Han-MHC reference panel.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Juan; Zhang, Xuelei; Wen, Leilei; Sun, Jingying; Cheng, Yuyan; Tang, Xianfa; Liang, Bo; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Fusheng; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Anping; Zhang, Xuejun; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yang, Sen; Sun, Liangdan

    2018-03-30

    Vitiligo is an immune-related disease with patchy depigmentation of skin and hair caused by selective destruction of melanocytes. In recent decades, many studies have shown the association between vitiligo and HLA genes; however, the results of Han Chinese are scarce. In this study, we performed a fine-mapping analysis of the MHC region in 2818 Han Chinese subjects through a widely used HLA imputation method with a newly built large-scale Han-MHC reference panel. Three new four-digit HLA alleles (HLA-DQB1 ∗ 02:02, HLA-DQA1 ∗ 02:01 and HLA-DPB1 ∗ 17:01) were identified to be associated with the risk of vitiligo, and four previously reported alleles were confirmed. Further conditional analysis revealed that two important variants, HLA-DQβ1 amino acid position 135 (OR = 1.79, P = 1.87 × 10 -11 ) and HLA-B amino acid positions 45-46 (OR = 1.44, P = 5.61 × 10 -11 ), conferred most of the MHC associations. Three-dimension ribbon models showed that the former is located within the β2 domain of the HLA-DQβ1 molecule, and the latter lies in the α1 domain of the HLA-B molecule, while both are involved in specific antigen presenting process. Finally, we summarized all significant signals in the MHC region to clarify their complex relationships, and 8.60% of phenotypic variance could be explained based on all reported variants in Han Chinese so far. Our findings highlight the complex genetic architecture of the MHC region for vitiligo in Han Chinese population and expand our understanding of the roles of HLA coding variants in the etiology of vitiligo. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A rare variant in COL11A1 is strongly associated with adult height in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Changbing; Zheng, Xiaodong; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Caihong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Yang, Chao; Dou, Jinfa; Lin, Yan; Cheng, Yuyan; Liu, Lu; Xu, Shuangjun; Chen, Gang; Zuo, Xianbo; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhou, Fusheng

    2016-09-20

    Human height is a highly heritable trait in which multiple genes are involved. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified that COL11A1 is an important susceptibility gene for human height. To determine whether the variants of COL11A1 are associated with adult and children height, we analyzed splicing and coding single-nucleotide variants across COL11A1 through exome-targeted sequencing and two validation stages with a total 20,426 Chinese Han samples. A total of 105 variants were identified by exome-targeted sequencing, of which 30 SNPs were located in coding region. The strongest association signal was Chr1_103380393 with P value of 4.8 × 10(-7). Chr1_103380393 also showed nominal significance in the validation stage (P = 1.21 × 10(-6)). Combined analysis of 16,738 samples strengthened the original association of chr1_103380393 with adult height (Pcombined = 3.1 × 10(-8)), with an increased height of 0.292sd (standard deviation) per G allele (95% CI: 0.19-0.40). There was no evidence (P = 0.843) showing that chr1_103380393 altered child height in 3688 child samples. Only the group of 12-15 years showed slight significance with P value of 0.0258. This study firstly shows that genetic variants of COL11A1 contribute to adult height in Chinese Han population but not to children height, which expand our knowledge of the genetic factors underlying height variation and the biological regulation of human height. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. All rights reserved.

  19. IL2RA Allele Increases Risk of Neuromyelitis Optica in Southern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yongqiang; Li, Jin; Zhong, Xiaonan; Wang, Yuge; Qiu, Wei; Lu, Zhengqi; Wu, Aimin; Bao, Jian; Peng, Fuhua; Hu, Xueqiang

    2013-11-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are chronic neuro-inflammatory diseases believed to arise from complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin (IL)-2 and -7 receptor alpha genes have been identified as novel susceptibility alleles for MS in genome-wide association studies. However, similar research on NMO is limited. We aimed to investigate the association of IL2RA SNPs rs2104286 and rs12722489 and IL7RA SNP rs6897932 with Southern Han Chinese NMO and MS patients. Frequencies of the three SNPs were examined in Southern Han Chinese mS cases (n=78), NMS cases (n=67) and controls (n=133) using sequencing-based typing. The rs2104286(G) frequency in the IL2RA gene was significantly higher in NMO patients than in controls (p(uncorr)=0.013, p(corr)=0.026, OR:1.942, 95%CI:1.146-3.291). The rs2104286 G allele in IL2RA is present at higher frequencies in NMO patients than in healthy controls within a Southern Han Chinese population. Les allèles IL2RA augmentent le risque de neuromyélite optique chez les Chinois Han du sud.

  20. Annual Conference on HAN-Based Liquid Propellants. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Fischer . This situation is obviously not ideal and effort is being made to find a suitable method . However we have been assured that there has been...CLASSIFICATION OF HAN-BASED LIQUID PROPELLANT LP101. S. Westlake --..---- ------------ 64 POSSIBLE TEST METHODS TO STUDY THE THERMAL STABILITY OF...specifications for LP. The phase of the program which is now in progress has dealt with (1) reviewing. recommending and developing applicable analytical methods

  1. Kinetics, mechanisms, and influencing factors on the treatment of haloacetonitriles (HANs) in water by two household heating devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wendong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Baiyang

    2017-04-01

    Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are a group of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (DBPs) commonly found in treated water with potential carcinogenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic risks. In order to control HANs and understand their real intake levels by people via drinking water, this study evaluated a list of structural, operational, and environmental factors affecting the treatment of HANs by two domestic heating devices, i.e., an electric boiler and a microwave oven. Results show that the concentrations of HANs decreased exponentially over time with increasing temperature, water turbulence, and bubbles, and the phenomena were most likely due to a combined effect of volatilization and hydrolysis. Among HANs, the lability increased with increasing halogenation degrees (i.e., tri- > di- > mono- HANs) yet decreasing halogen molecular weights (i.e., Cl- > Br- > I- HANs); such trends were well captured by quantitative structure activity relationship models (R 2  = 0.99). Operational factors played critical roles in controlling HANs too, including the rate of heating, water volume, water temperature at time of pouring, cooling method, and capping condition, suggesting that people could benefit from proper handling methods and procedures. In addition, HANs added to tap water exhibited higher removals than those added to ultrapure water, probably because of the presence of free chlorine in tap water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [A total of 362 HLA different haplotypes and HLA recombination haplotypes based on analysis of their family pedigree in Chinese partial Han populations].

    PubMed

    Gao, Su-Qing; Cheng, Xi; Li, Qian; Li, Yu-Zhu; Deng, Zhi-Hui

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to discover the novel HLA recombination haplotypes and investigate the distribution of haplotypes in Chinese Han population. Based on the HLA-A, B, DRB1 typing results of 179 family members, 791 haplotypes were assigned by the mode of inheritance. The results showed that a total of 4 novel recombinant haplotypes in HLA-DRB1 locus region were observed in 4 families, which ratio of paternal to maternal chromosomes was 3:1. The recombination ratio between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-A or B loci was 0.92% (4/433). There were a total of 362 kinds of HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 haplotypes to be confirmed in Chinese Han partial population. A33-B58-DR17, A2-B46-DR9, A30-B13-DR7, A11-B13-DR15, A11-B75-DR12 and A2-B46-DR14 were the most common haplotypes that was consistent with the distribution of HLA alleles in unrelated donors. There were A1-B63-DR12, A29-B46-DR15, A1-B61-DR10, A34-B35-DR9, A29-B54-DR4, A23-B13-DR16 and A34-B62-DR15 haplotypes and so on, which were rare haplotypes not yet reported in Chinese. It is concluded that the HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotypes would be confirmed by analysis of their family pedigree. The results obtained in this study are basic data for study of Chinese anthropology, organ transplantation and disease correlation analysis.

  3. [Distribution of MICA microsatellite in 13 population groups of China].

    PubMed

    Ban, G H; Chu, J Y; Xu, S B; Yang, Z Q; Qian, Y P; Yu, J K; Na, J B; Liu, X J; Zhang, S Z

    2001-01-01

    The genetic data of MICA microsatellite were obtained by genotyping 577 samples in 13 population groups of China, which are Han-YN, Han-GD, Han-SD, Bai, Dai, Lahu, Li, Naxi, Sala, She, Tu, Wa and Zang-YN, with genescan. Five alleles have been observed in the population groups, which are A4, A5, A5.1, A6 and A9. A5 allele is the most frequent in all population groups except Lahu and Li, while the most frequent allele for Lahu and Li is A5. 1 and A4 respectively. The second most frequent allele is the A5.1 in Han-YN, Han-SD, Dai, Naxi, Sala, She, and Wa. The lest frequent allele for Han-YN, Han-GD, Lahu, Naxi, She, Wa is the A6 which is not observed in Li. A4 allele is the lest frequent in Han-SD, Bai, Dai, Sala, Tu, Zang-YN. The results show that the distribution of MICA microsatellite is different in these population groups, and the polymorphism information contents (PIC) of this microsatellite is high. It is a potential useful marker in the study of human origin and migration, personal identification, gene mapping and location, and disease diagnosis.

  4. Phenotypic expression of partial AZFc deletions is independent of the variations in DAZL and BOULE in a Han population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pu; Ma, Mingyi; Li, Lei; Zhang, Sizhong; Su, Dan; Ma, Yongxin; Liu, Yunqiang; Tao, Dachang; Lin, Li; Yang, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    DAZ on the Y chromosome and 2 autosomal ancestral genes DAZL and BOULE are suggested to represent functional conservation in spermatogenesis. The partial AZFc deletion, a common mutation of the Y chromosome, always involves 2 DAZ copies and represents a different spermatogenic phenotype in the populations studied. To investigate whether the variations in DAZL and BOULE influence partial AZFc deletion phenotype, the genotyping of 15 loci variations, including 4 known mutations and 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was carried out in 157 azoo-/oligzoospermic men and 57 normozoospermic men, both groups with partial AZFc deletions. The frequencies of the alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes of the variations were compared between the 2 groups. As a result, for 9 exonic variations in DAZL and BOULE, only T12A was observed in both groups with similar frequency, and I71V was identified in an azoospermic man with b2/b3 deletion, whereas the rest were absent in the population. The distribution of DAZL haplotypes from 4 variations, including T12A, and of BOULE haplotypes from 2 SNPs was similar between men with normozoospermia and spermatogenic failure. Our findings indicate that the contribution of DAZL and BOULE variations to spermatogenic impairment in men with the DAZ defect is greatly limited, suggesting that expression of spermatogenic phenotypes of partial AZFc deletions is independent of the variations in DAZL and BOULE in the Han population.

  5. Interaction of CARD14, SENP1 and VEGFA polymorphisms on susceptibility to high altitude polycythemia in the Han Chinese population at the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Chunhua; Luo, Yongjun; Liu, Fuyu; Gao, Yuqi

    2016-03-01

    High altitude polycythemia (HAPC) is a serious public health problem among Han Chinese immigrants to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This study aims to explore the genetic basis of HAPC in the Han Chinese population. 484 male subjects (234 patients and 250 controls) were enrolled in this study. Genotyping was performed for polymorphisms of I/D in ACE, C1772T and G1790A in exon 12 of HIF-1α, rs2567206 in CYP1B1, rs726354 in SENP1, rs3025033 in VEGFA, rs7251432 in HAMP, rs2075800 in HSPA1L and rs8065364 in CARD14. Gene-gene interaction was assessed by multifactor dimensionality reduction. A significant association was seen between CARD14 polymorphism rs8065364 and risk of HAPC development in male Han Chinese, and the C allele of rs8065364 was a risk factor (odds ratio (OR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.21-2.08). Gene-gene interaction analysis indicated that a synergistic relationship existed between rs3025033 and rs8065364 (1.00%), rs3025033 and rs726354 (0.18%), and rs726354 and rs8065364 (0.17%). The combination of rs8065364 in CARD14, rs3025033 in VEGFA and rs726354 in SENP1 was the best model to predict HAPC development in this study (testing accuracy=0.6183, p=0.0010, cross-validated consistency=10/10). Genetic interactions of SNPs in CARD14, SENP1 and VEGFA might represent a functional mechanism in the pathogenesis of HAPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TIMP-2 SNPs rs7342880 and rs4789936 are linked to risk of knee osteoarthritis in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tianbo; Wang, Jihong; Fan, Dongsheng; Hao, Zengtao; Jing, Shangfei; Han, ChaoQian; Du, Jieli; Jiang, Dong; Wen, Shuzheng; Wang, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether functional polymorphisms in the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) gene are associated with susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the Chinese Han population. Six TIMP-2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assayed using MassARRAY in 300 patients clinically and radiographically diagnosed with knee OA and in 428 controls. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between groups. Logistic regression adjusting for age and gender was used to estimate risk associations between specific genotypes and knee OA by computing odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We found that allele “A” in rs7342880 was significantly associated with increased risk of knee OA (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.09-1.91, p = 0.035). In addition, in the over-dominant model, rs4789936 correlated with reduced risk of knee OA, adjusting for age and gender (OR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.49-0.98, p = 0.036). Finally, rs7342880 correlated with increased risk of knee OA in females. This study provides evidence that TIMP-2 is a knee OA susceptibility gene in the Chinese population and a potential diagnostic and preventive marker for the disease. PMID:27901480

  7. Genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms with Parkinson's disease susceptibility in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yi; Wu, Yuquan; Li, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the genetic association of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) gene promoter region polymorphisms with Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. The genotyping of COX2 gene polymorphisms was conducted by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 122 patients with PD and 120 healthy persons. The association strength of gene polymorphism with disease was measured by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) calculated using χ(2) test which also evaluated the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of gene polymorphism in controls. The linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were also analyzed as evidence in the analysis of association. On condition that the genotypes distributions of COX2 -1290A>G, -1195G>A, -765G>C in the control group all conformed to HWE, however, only the homozygous genotype AA of -1195G>A polymorphism showed an association with PD (OR=0.432, 95% CI=0.196-0.950). In addition, in haplotype analysis, G-A-C haplotype frequency in cases was significantly lower than the controls, compared with the common haplotype A-G-G (P=0.031, OR=0.375, 95% CI=0.149-0.940). COX2 -1195G>A polymorphism might play a protective role in the onset of PD and G-A-C haplotype in this three promoter region polymorphisms also showed a negative association.

  8. Clinical and genetic characteristics of Leber congenital amaurosis with novel mutations in known genes based on a Chinese eastern coast Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiyuan; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Zhaoyang; Zhao, Peiquan

    2016-11-01

    To study the genotype-phenotype characteristics of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) in the Chinese eastern coast Han population. Children with strictly defined LCA with novel mutations of known LCA genes identified by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) and a prediction of pathogenicity (in silico) were included in this study (2013-2015). Mutations were confirmed using Sanger sequencing and segregation analysis. The clinical findings were recorded, including visual function, refractive error, fundus changes, and electroretinograms (ERGs). Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) examination, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and ultra-wide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (UWF SLO) were performed on children when available. A total of 65 patients underwent NGS for mutation screening and 45 patients were identified as carrying known LCA genes. Of these, 36(80 %) children harbored novel mutations, and they were all from the eastern coast of China. A total of 50 novel variants were identified, which covered 15 known LCA genes. GUCY2D (17 %), CEP290 (14 %), NMNAT1 (14 %), AIPL1 (11 %) and RPGRIP1 (11 %) were the five most frequently mutated genes with novel mutations. A total of four (11 %) patients with AIPL1 mutations harbored the same novel mutated allele (c.C241T p.Q81X), which was homozygous in patients 1 and 2. Unusual manifestations were detected in patient 16 who had novel mutations in CRB1 with a dense proliferative membrane adhering to the posterior retina of the right eye with numerous fine glistening crystals spreading over the retina of both eyes. Ten (40 %) of the 25 available patients who underwent SD-OCT showed a normal macular appearance using fundus photography but an abnormal macular structure using OCT imaging, most of whom presented with a thickened fovea with maldevelopment of the inner and outer retinal laminae. There may be a high frequency of AIPL1 novel mutations and a founder mutation of p.Q81X in the Chinese

  9. Han's model parameters for microalgae grown under intermittent illumination: Determined using particle swarm optimization.

    PubMed

    Pozzobon, Victor; Perre, Patrick

    2018-01-21

    This work provides a model and the associated set of parameters allowing for microalgae population growth computation under intermittent lightning. Han's model is coupled with a simple microalgae growth model to yield a relationship between illumination and population growth. The model parameters were obtained by fitting a dataset available in literature using Particle Swarm Optimization method. In their work, authors grew microalgae in excess of nutrients under flashing conditions. Light/dark cycles used for these experimentations are quite close to those found in photobioreactor, i.e. ranging from several seconds to one minute. In this work, in addition to producing the set of parameters, Particle Swarm Optimization robustness was assessed. To do so, two different swarm initialization techniques were used, i.e. uniform and random distribution throughout the search-space. Both yielded the same results. In addition, swarm distribution analysis reveals that the swarm converges to a unique minimum. Thus, the produced set of parameters can be trustfully used to link light intensity to population growth rate. Furthermore, the set is capable to describe photodamages effects on population growth. Hence, accounting for light overexposure effect on algal growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal cutoff of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol  ratio to detect cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Yin; Chen, Bang-Dang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Liu, Fen; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Pan, Shuo; He, Chun-Hui; Zheng, Ying-Ying; Wu, Yun; Tao, Jing; Dong, Chun-Lan; Wu, Ting-Ting

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether TG/HDL-C ratio, which has been shown to be an indicator of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance (IR), can predict cardiovascular risk factors in the Chinese Han population in Xinjiang. The cardiovascular risk survey (CRS) was conducted from October 2007 to March 2010. A total of 14,618 representative participants were selected using a four-stage stratified sampling method. A total of 5757 Han participants were included in the study. The present statistical analysis was restricted to the 5595 Han subjects who had complete anthropometric data. The sensitivity, specificity, and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in each TG/HDL level were calculated. The shortest distance in the ROC curves was used to determine the optimal cutoff of the TG/HDL-C ratio for detecting cardiovascular risk factors. The prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia was higher with higher TG/HDL-C ratio for both men and women. The TG/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol. The optimal TG/HDL-C ratio cutoffs for predicting hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and ≥2 of these risk factors for Han adults in Xinjiang were 1.3, 1.3, 1.4, and 1.4 in men and 0.9, 1.0, 1.0, and 1.1 in women, respectively. The evaluation of TG/HDL-C ratio should be considered for one of cardiovascular risk factor predictors among Han adults in Xinjiang.

  11. An interview with Mark G. Hans.

    PubMed

    Hans, Mark G; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans’ Master’s Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of “Essentials of Facial Growth”, being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans’s academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of

  12. Titrimetric Analysis of Han-Based Liquid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    acid-base and Karl Fischer titrimetry, procedures that quantitatively determine the three major propellant components. The method developed converts...sodium hydroxide as titrant for both HAN and TEAN. Water is determined by Karl Fischer titration using the proprietary reagent "Hydranal". Each major...water, react with one or more of the components of the Karl Fischer reagent. One of the newer Karl Fischer titrants is "Hydranal", a proprietary reagent

  13. Genetic variants in long non-coding RNA MIAT contribute to risk of paranoid schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shu-Quan; Hu, Hui-Ling; Ye, Ning; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2015-08-01

    The heritability of schizophrenia has been reported to be as high as ~80%, but the contribution of genetic variants identified to this heritability remains to be estimated. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are involved in multiple processes critical to normal cellular function and dysfunction of lncRNA MIAT may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the genetic evidence of lncRNAs involved in schizophrenia has not been documented. Here, we conducted a two-stage association analysis on 8 tag SNPs that cover the whole MIAT locus in two independent Han Chinese schizophrenia case-control cohorts (discovery sample from Shanxi Province: 1093 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 1180 control subjects; replication cohort from Jilin Province: 1255 cases and 1209 healthy controls). In discovery stage, significant genetic association with paranoid schizophrenia was observed for rs1894720 (χ(2)=74.20, P=7.1E-18), of which minor allele (T) had an OR of 1.70 (95% CI=1.50-1.91). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (χ(2)=22.66, P=1.9E-06, OR=1.32, 95%CI 1.18-1.49). Besides, a weak genotypic association was detected for rs4274 (χ(2)=4.96, df=2, P=0.03); the AA carriers showed increased disease risk (OR=1.30, 95%CI=1.03-1.64). No significant association was found between any haplotype and paranoid schizophrenia. The present studies showed that lncRNA MIAT was a novel susceptibility gene for paranoid schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. Considering that most lncRNAs locate in non-coding regions, our result may explain why most susceptibility loci for schizophrenia identified by genome wide association studies were out of coding regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The GSK3B gene confers risk for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Meng; Waheed Khan, Raja Amjad; He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Song, Zhijian; Li, Wenjin; Wen, Zujia; Jiang, Yiwen; Xu, Yifeng; Shi, Yongyong; Ji, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    Glycogen synthease kinase-3B is a key gene encoding a protein kinase which is abundant in brain, and is involved in signal transduction cascades of neuronal cell development and energy metabolism. Previous researches proposed GSK3B as a potential region for schizophrenia. To validate the susceptibility of GSK3B to major depressive disorder, and to investigate the overlapping risk conferred by GSK3B for mental disorders, we performed a large-scale case-control study, analyzed 6 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms using TaqMan® technology in 1,045 major depressive disorder patients, 1,235 schizophrenia patients and 1,235 normal controls of Han Chinese origin. We found rs334535 (Pallele=2.79E-03, Pgenotype=5.00E-03, OR=1.429) and rs2199503 (Pallele=0.020, Pgenotype= 0.040, OR=1.157) showed association with major depressive disorder before Bonferroni correction. rs6771023 (adjusted Pallele=1.64E-03, adjusted Pgenotype=6.00E-03, OR=0.701) and rs2199503 (adjusted Pallele=0.001, adjusted Pgenotype=0.002, OR=1.251) showed significant association with schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. rs2199503 (adjusted Pallele=1.70E-03, adjusted Pgenotype=0.006, OR=1.208) remained to be significant in the combined cases of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Further validations of our findings in samples with larger scale are suggested, and functional genomic study is needed to elucidate the role of GSK3B in signal pathway and psychiatric disorders. Our results provide evidence that the GSK3B gene could be a promising region which contains genetic risk for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. The study on variants conferring overlapping risk for multiple psychiatric disorders could be tangible pathogenesis support and clinical or diagnostic references. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Three Weeks with Hans Bethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Christoph

    Hans Bethe started visiting the Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, accompanied by Gerry Brown, every winter starting in the late eighties. My first visit to Kellogg was in 1991 as a final year graduate student. I returned in January of 1992, while a postdoc with Gerry Brown at SUNY Stony Brook, and this would be my first of many winter months spent in the company of both Hans and Gerry. The following notes are literally "mental downloads" that I wrote down every evening after leaving dinner with Hans, Gerry, and sometimes other invited guests that year. I indiscriminately wrote down everything that I could remember from that day, whether it seemed important or not, hoping to edit it later. In the end, I decided to keep the editing very minimal in order to preserve the original text's immediacy and spontaneity. Besides grammar and punctuation, a few facts that I remembered incorrectly were restored. I also added references and footnotes that add explanations where necessary. The following is a transcript of the conversations that took place between 20 January and 20 February, 1992.

  16. Analysis for complete genomic sequence of HLA-B and HLA-C alleles in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, F; He, Y; Zhang, W; He, J; He, J; Xu, X; Lv, H; Yan, L

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, we have determined the complete genomic sequence and analysed the intron polymorphism of partial HLA-B and HLA-C alleles in the Chinese Han population. Over 3.0 kb DNA fragments of HLA-B and HLA-C loci were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from partial 5' untranslated region to 3' noncoding region respectively, and then the amplified products were sequenced. Full-length nucleotide sequences of 14 HLA-B alleles and 10 HLA-C alleles were obtained and have been submitted to GenBank and IMGT/HLA database. Two novel alleles of HLA-B*52:01:01:02 and HLA-B*59:01:01:02 were identified, and the complete genomic sequence of HLA-B*52:01:01:01 was firstly reported. Totally 157 and 167 polymorphism positions were found in the full-length genomic sequence of HLA-B and HLA-C loci respectively. Our results suggested that many single nucleotide polymorphisms existed in the exon and intron regions, and the data can provide useful information for understanding the evolution of HLA-B and HLA-C alleles. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The NLRP3 rs10754558 Polymorphism Is Associated with the Occurrence and Prognosis of Coronary Artery Disease in the Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong; Wang, Xinhong; Chen, Tao; Wen, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yue; Yuan, Zuyi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential association of the NLRP3 rs10754558 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms with the occurrence and prognosis of CAD. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed using the ABI PRISM-Snapshot multiplex method in 515 CAD patients and 401 control subjects. The serum level of IL-1β was investigated by ELISA assays. The clinical endpoints were evaluated during a median follow-up period of 32 months. The NLRP3 rs10754558 gene polymorphism was significantly associated with the occurrence of CAD, while the CARD8 rs2043211 gene polymorphism was not involved. Patients carrying G allele of NLRP3 rs10754558 had more severe coronary artery stenosis. Multivariable analysis revealed a significant association of the G allele with major adverse cardiac event. The serum IL-1β concentrations in patients with GG genotype were significantly increased compared with those in the patients with CC genotype. Our findings for the first time show that the NLRP3 rs10754558 polymorphism is involved in the occurrence of CAD in the Chinese Han population; and G allele can effectively predict clinical outcome of CAD. The G allele susceptibility to CAD is maybe associated with the increased level of serum IL-1β.

  18. Variants in the CXCL12 gene was associated with coronary artery disease susceptibility in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Kong, Shu; You, Jiangtao; Sheng, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most serious diseases all around the world. Previous studies have shown the function of CXCL12 in the process of atherosclerosis. The aim of this research is to examine whether variants of CXCL12 contribute to CAD. Materials and Methods To examine whether variants of CXCL12 contribute to CAD, we selected 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CXCL12, and genotyped by Sequenom MassARRAY technology in 597 CAD patients and 685 healthy control. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and gender. We also analysis the differences in continuous variables among the subjects with three genotypes of related genes were assessed using the ANOVA. Results We found significant differences in apoB concentrations with rs1065297 and rs10793538 different genotype. In the allele model, rs1065297, rs266089 and rs10793538 in CXCL12 gene associated with the risk of CAD. Stratified according to gender, rs266089 and rs2839693 in CXCL12 gene were associated with the risk of CAD in men, while rs1065297 and rs10793538 in CXCL12 gene were associated with the risk of CAD in women. Stratified according to age, rs197452 decreased the risk of CAD in less than 50 years old group. While in more than 50 years old group, not find significant results. Haplotype analysis shown that haplotype “TGCC” in the block increased CAD risk (OR=1.26, 95%CI: 1.00-1.58, p=0.046). Conclusion This study provides an evidence for polymorphism of CXCL12 gene associated with CAD development in Chinese Han population. PMID:28903360

  19. Interleukin-10 -1082 promoter polymorphism and gastric cancer risk in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Hu, Wen; Zhuang, Wen; Wu, Xiaoting

    2011-01-01

    Studies investigating the association between interleukin-10 (IL-10) -1082 promoter polymorphism and gastric cancer risk report conflicting results. Our recent meta-analysis suggests that the IL-10 -1082 promoter polymorphism may be associated with gastric cancer among Asians. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between IL-10 -1082 promoter polymorphism and gastric cancer risk in Chinese Han patients. We extracted the peripheral blood samples in 150 patients with gastric cancer and 150 controls. PCR-RFLP analysis was performed to detect IL-10 -1082 promoter polymorphism in these patients. Patients with gastric cancer had a significantly lower frequency of AA (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.76; P = 0.003) than controls. Patients with cardia gastric cancer had a significantly higher frequency of GG (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.08, 4.38; P = 0.03) than those with noncardia gastric cancer. Patients with advanced gastric cancer had a significantly higher frequency of AA (OR = 5.21, 95% CI = 1.71, 15.87; P = 0.004) than those with early gastric cancer. When stratified by the Lauren's classification, histological differentiation of gastric cancer, no statistically significant results were observed. This study suggests that the IL-10 -1082 promoter polymorphism may be associated with gastric cancer in Chinese Han patients, and that difference in genotype distribution may be associated with the location and stage of gastric cancer.

  20. The NVL gene confers risk for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Chen, Jianhua; He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Li, Zhiqiang; Shen, Jiawei; Wen, Zujia; Song, Zhijian; Xu, Yifeng; Shi, Yongyong

    2015-10-01

    NVL (nuclear VCP (valosin containing protein)/p97-Like), a member of the AAA-ATPase (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) family, encodes a novel hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase)-interacting protein NVL2 which is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Previous researches have reported the impacts of telomerase activity on mental illness and the potential association between NVL and major depressive disorder. To validate the susceptibility of NVL to major depressive disorder, and to investigate the overlapping risk conferred by NVL for both major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, we analyzed 9 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) using TaqMan® technology, in 1045 major depressive disorder patients, 1235 schizophrenia patients and 1235 normal controls of Han Chinese origin. We found that rs10916583 (P(allele) = 0.020, P(genotype) = 0.028, OR = 1.156) and rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 0.014, P(genotype) = 0.007, OR = 0.718) were associated with major depressive disorder, while rs10916583 (adjusted P(allele) = 1.08E-02, OR = 1.213), rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 7.40E-06, adjusted P(genotype) = 8.07E-05, OR = 0.598) and rs10799541 (adjusted P(allele) = 8.10E-03, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.049, OR= 0.826) showed statistically significant association with schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Furthermore, rs10916583 (adjusted P(allele) = 9.00E-03, adjusted P(genotype) = 3.15E-02, OR = 1.187) and rs16846649 (adjusted P(allele) = 8.92E-06, adjusted P(genotype) = 8.84E-05, OR = 0.653) remained strongly associated with the analysis of combined cases of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia after Bonferroni correction. Our results indicated that the NVL gene may contain overlapping common genetic risk factors for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. The roles of NVL in telomerase biogenesis were also highlighted in psychiatric pathogenesis. The study on

  1. Exploring the interaction among EPHX1, GSTP1, SERPINE2, and TGFB1 contributing to the quantitative traits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    An, Li; Lin, Yingxiang; Yang, Ting; Hua, Lin

    2016-05-18

    Currently, the majority of genetic association studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk focused on identifying the individual effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as their interaction effects on the disease. However, conventional genetic studies often use binary disease status as the primary phenotype, but for COPD, many quantitative traits have the potential correlation with the disease status and closely reflect pathological changes. Here, we genotyped 44 SNPs from four genes (EPHX1, GSTP1, SERPINE2, and TGFB1) in 310 patients and 203 controls which belonged to the Chinese Han population to test the two-way and three-way genetic interactions with COPD-related quantitative traits using recently developed generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) and quantitative multifactor dimensionality reduction (QMDR) algorithms. Based on the 310 patients and the whole samples of 513 subjects, the best gene-gene interactions models were detected for four lung-function-related quantitative traits. For the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), the best interaction was seen from EPHX1, SERPINE2, and GSTP1. For FEV1%pre, the forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC, the best interactions were seen from SERPINE2 and TGFB1. The results of this study provide further evidence for the genotype combinations at risk of developing COPD in Chinese Han population and improve the understanding on the genetic etiology of COPD and COPD-related quantitative traits.

  2. The correlation between growth hormone receptor (GHR) polymorphism and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome among the Han and Hani population in China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Juanjuan; Yang, Yunwei; Lin, Yan; Li, Xudong; Wu, Xiaoguang; Yang, Xi; Zhong, Ling; Tang, Ying; Huang, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoguang

    2018-04-13

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common health problem that is associated with abnormality in craniofacial morphology. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) belongs to the cytokine receptor superfamily and mediates the majority of growth hormone signaling, which, among other functions, determines mandibular growth and development. The aim of this study was to determine if correlations exist between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GHR gene and OSAS in the Han or Hani ethnic groups in China. A total of 274 Han subjects (106 with OSAS and 168 without OSAS) and a total of 270 Hani subjects (64 with OSAS and 206 without OSAS) were enrolled in our study. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood obtained from all subjects. Genotyping was undertaken for eight SNPs in the GHR gene (rs3756416, rs7727047, rs2910875, rs12153009, rs2972781, rs12518414, rs4410646, and rs6451620) using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. The genotype frequency of rs12518414 was associated with OSAS in both the Han and Hani groups, and the A allele frequency was remarkably lower in Hani OSAS patients compared with Hani controls (16.7 vs 29.9%). In addition, the G allele frequency of the rs3756416 SNP was significantly lower in OSAS patients compared with normal controls in the Hani ethnic group (12.5 vs 24.6%). In a comparison between ethnic groups, genotype frequencies of four SNPs (rs2972781, rs6451620, rs12518414, and rs7727047) differed between Han and Hani OSAS patients, with the A allele frequency of the rs12518414 and G allele frequency of the rs7727047 were significantly higher in the Han OSAS patients. In conclusion, significant associations were detected between some SNPs in the GHR gene and OSAS occurrence while others appeared to be ethnicity-dependent.

  3. Association of ATG5 Gene Polymorphisms With Behçet's Disease and ATG10 Gene Polymorphisms With VKH Syndrome in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minming; Yu, Hongsong; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Hua; Liu, Yunjia; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to explore the association of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with Behçet's disease (BD) and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome in a Chinese Han population. A two-stage association study was carried out in 940 BD, 1061 VKH, and 2007 healthy controls. Genotyping for genetic variants of 10 autophagy family genes (ATG5, ATG7, ATG10, ATG16L1, IRGM, LKKR2, ATG2A, DAP, ULK1, and TSC1) was performed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or TaqMan SNP assays. Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR. In the cohort of BD patients, we observed that the TT genotype of rs573775/ATG5 decreased susceptibility to BD (Pc = 8.35 × 10-6, OR = 0.490). In the case of VKH patients, the AC genotype of rs4703863/ATG10 increased susceptibility to VKH syndrome (Pc = 9.94 × 10-5, OR = 1.444), whereas the A allele and AA genotype of rs4703863 (Pc = 7.06 × 10-5, OR = 0.745; Pc = 6.34 × 10-6, OR = 0.669, respectively) acted as protective factors for VKH. Functional experiments showed an increased ATG5 expression by LPS stimulated PBMCs in TT cases of rs573775 compared with controls. The level of ATG5 mRNA in active BD patients not receiving immunosuppression was significantly higher than that in healthy controls. This study demonstrated an association of ATG5 rs573775 with BD and ATG10 rs4703863 with VKH syndrome in a Chinese Han population. Furthermore, a variant of the ATG5 gene was shown to be correlated with ATG5 expression.

  4. Determination of IL-1B (rs16944) and IL-6 (rs1800796) genetic polymorphisms in IgA nephropathy in a northwest Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daofa; Xie, Maowei; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yin; Su, Yan; Wang, Yanni; Huang, Haiyang; Han, Hui; Li, Wenning; Fu, Keying; Su, Huiluan; Xu, Wentan; Han, Yeguang; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Pei; Wu, Wei; Huang, Yun; Chen, Daojun; Jin, Tianbo; Wei, Jiali

    2017-09-22

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, but etiology and pathogenesis continue to be poorly understood. Polymorphisms in the cytokine genes may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of IgAN. The incidence of different between diverse ethnic groups suggested important genetic influences on its pathogenesis. We genotype 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1B and IL-6 gene using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology from 417 IgAN patients and 463 healthy controls of the Chinese Han population. We evaluated these SNPs associated with IgAN utilising the chi-square tests and genetic model analysis. We identified that the minor alleles of rs16944 ("A"), rs1800796 ("G") in IL-1B, IL-6 were involved in an increasingly risk of IgAN in allelic model analysis, respectively. The rs16944 in IL-1B and rs1800796 in IL-6 were associated with 1.23-fold (95% CI, 1.02-1.48, P = 0.031) and 1.33-fold (95% CI, 1.11-1.66, P = 0.003) increases in the risk of developing IgAN, respectively. There was only rs1800796 still correlated with IgAN in the allelic model after adjustment by age and gender and the Bonferroni correction. In addition, Haplotype G rs1800796 A rs2069837 G rs2069840 ( P = 0.037) and G rs1800796 A rs2069837 C rs2069840 ( P = 0.042) in IL-6 were considered to be associated with increased IgAN risk. This study verified the IL-6, IL-1B genetic variants polymorphisms contributed to IgAN susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. Although we identified SNPs susceptibility, however, replication studies and functional research are required to confirm the genetic contribution in IgAN.

  5. Determination of IL-1B (rs16944) and IL-6 (rs1800796) genetic polymorphisms in IgA nephropathy in a northwest Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Su, Yan; Wang, Yanni; Huang, Haiyang; Han, Hui; Li, Wenning; Fu, Keying; Su, Huiluan; Xu, Wentan; Han, Yeguang; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Pei; Wu, Wei; Huang, Yun; Chen, Daojun; Jin, Tianbo; Wei, Jiali

    2017-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, but etiology and pathogenesis continue to be poorly understood. Polymorphisms in the cytokine genes may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of IgAN. The incidence of different between diverse ethnic groups suggested important genetic influences on its pathogenesis. We genotype 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1B and IL-6 gene using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology from 417 IgAN patients and 463 healthy controls of the Chinese Han population. We evaluated these SNPs associated with IgAN utilising the chi-square tests and genetic model analysis. We identified that the minor alleles of rs16944 (“A”), rs1800796 (“G”) in IL-1B, IL-6 were involved in an increasingly risk of IgAN in allelic model analysis, respectively. The rs16944 in IL-1B and rs1800796 in IL-6 were associated with 1.23-fold (95% CI, 1.02-1.48, P = 0.031) and 1.33-fold (95% CI, 1.11-1.66, P = 0.003) increases in the risk of developing IgAN, respectively. There was only rs1800796 still correlated with IgAN in the allelic model after adjustment by age and gender and the Bonferroni correction. In addition, Haplotype Grs1800796A rs2069837G rs2069840 (P = 0.037) and G rs1800796A rs2069837C rs2069840 (P = 0.042) in IL-6were considered to be associated with increased IgAN risk. This study verified the IL-6, IL-1B genetic variants polymorphisms contributed to IgAN susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. Although we identified SNPs susceptibility, however, replication studies and functional research are required to confirm the genetic contribution in IgAN. PMID:29069743

  6. Genetic association of FOXO1A and FOXO3A with longevity trait in Han Chinese populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wang, Wen-Jing; Cao, Huiqing; Lu, Jiehua; Wu, Chong; Hu, Fang-Yuan; Guo, Jian; Zhao, Ling; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Li, Wei; Zheng, Gu-Yan; Cui, Hanbin; Chen, Xiaomin; Zhu, Zhiming; He, Hongbo; Dong, Birong; Mo, Xianming; Zeng, Yi; Tian, Xiao-Li

    2009-01-01

    FOXO1A and FOXO3A are two members of the FoxO family. FOXO3A has recently been linked to human longevity in Japanese, German and Italian populations. Here we tested the genetic contribution of FOXO1A and FOXO3A to the longevity phenotype in Han Chinese population. Six tagging SNPs from FOXO1A and FOXO3A were selected and genotyped in 1817 centenarians and younger individuals. Two SNPs of FOXO1A were found to be associated with longevity in women (P = 0.01–0.005), whereas all three SNPs of FOXO3A were associated with longevity in both genders (P = 0.005–0.001). One SNP from FOXO1A was found not to be associated with longevity. In haplotype association tests, the OR (95% CI) for haplotypes TTG and CCG of FOXO1A in association with female longevity were 0.72 (0.58–0.90) and 1.38 (1.08–1.76), P = 0.0033 and 0.0063, respectively. The haplotypes of FOXO3A were associated with longevity in men [GTC: OR (95% CI) = 0.67 (0.51–0.86), P = 0.0014; CGT: OR (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.12–1.94), P = 0.0035] and in women [GTC: OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.60–0.94), P = 0.0094; CGT: OR (95% CI) = 1.47 (1.16–1.86), P = 0.0009]. The haplotype association tests were validated by permutation analysis. The association of FOXO1A with female longevity was replicated in 700 centenarians and younger individuals that were sampled geographically different from the original population. Thus, we demonstrate that, unlike FOXO3A, FOXO1A is more closely associated with human female longevity, suggesting that the genetic contribution to longevity trait may be affected by genders. PMID:19793722

  7. Lack of Association Between Polymorphisms in Dopa Decarboxylase and Dopamine Receptor-1 Genes With Childhood Autism in Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Yang, Aiping; Yang, Guohui; Yang, Wenjun; Lei, Heyue; Quan, Jianjun; Zhang, Zengyu

    2016-04-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in childhood autism. This study is to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in dopa decarboxylase (DDC) and dopamine receptor-1 (DRD1) genes with childhood autism, in a Chinese Han population. A total of 211 autistic children and 250 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. The severity of disease was determined by Children Autism Rating Scale scores. TaqMan Probe by real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine genotypes and allele frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs6592961 in DDC and rs251937 in DRD1. Case-control and case-only studies were respectively performed, to determine the contribution of both single-nucleotide polymorphisms to the predisposition of disease and its severity. Our results showed that there was no significant association of the genotypes and allele frequencies of both single-nucleotide polymorphisms concerning childhood autism and its severity. More studies with larger samples are needed to corroborate their predicting roles. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Comustion of HAN-Based Monopropellant Droplets in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants that have many attractive characteristics and which display phenomena that differ significantly from other liquid monopropellants. They are composed primarily of HAN, H2O and a fuel species, often triethanolammonium nitrate (TEAN). HAN-based propellants have attracted attention as liquid gun propellants, and are attractive for NASA spacecraft propulsion applications. A representative propellant is XM46. This mixture is 60.8% HAN, 19.2% TEAN and 20% H2O by weight. Other HAN-based propellant mixtures are also of interest. For example, methanol and glycine have been investigated as potential fuel species for HAN-based monopropellants for thruster applications. In the present research, experimental and theoretical studies are performed on combustion of HAN-based monopropellant droplets. The fuel species considered are TEAN, methanol and glycine. Droplets initially in the mm size range are studied at pressures up to 30 atm. These pressures are applicable to spacecraft thruster applications. The droplets are placed in environments with various amounts of Ar, N2, O2, NO2 and N2O. Reduced gravity is employed to enable observations of burning rates and flame structures to be made without the complicating effects of buoyant and forced convection. Normal gravity experiments are also performed in this research program. The experiment goals are to provide accurate fundamental data on deflagration rates, gasphase temperature profiles, transient gas-phase flame behaviors, the onset of bubbling in droplets at lower pressures, and the low-pressure deflagration limit. Theoretical studies are performed to provide rational models of deflagration mechanisms of HAN-based liquid propellants. Besides advancing fundamental knowledge, this research should aid in applications (e.g., spacecraft thrusters and liquid propellant guns) of this unique class of monopropellants.

  9. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Wang, Cantian; Chen, Tingting; Hu, Shuang; Yi, Kaihong; Tan, Xuerui

    2017-04-01

     Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%), 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%), 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%), and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%). Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91), 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09) and  4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76). Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  10. Associations of mitochondrial haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers with end-stage renal disease in a Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuheng; Zhao, Ying; Wen, Shuzhen; Yan, Rengna; Yang, Qinglan; Chen, Huimei

    2017-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is closely related to mitochondrion function, and variations have been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis of complex diseases. The present study sought to elucidate mitochondrial haplogroups and mtDNA copy number in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a Han population. First, the mitochondrial haplogroups of 37 ESRD patients were clustered into several haplogroups, and haplogroup A & D were taken as the candidate risk haplogroups for ESRD. Second, the frequencies of A and D were assessed in 344 ESRD patients and 438 healthy controls, respectively. Haplogroup D was found to be risk maker for ESRD in young subjects (<30 years) with an OR of 2.274. Finally, intracellular and cell-free mtDNA copy numbers were evaluated with quantitative-PCR. The ESRD patients exhibited greater cell-free mtDNA contents than the healthy controls but less intracellular mtDNA. Haplogroup D exhibited a further increase in cell-free mtDNA content and a decrease in intracellular mtDNA content among the ESRDs patients. Our findings suggest that mtNDA haplogroup D may contributes to pathogenesis of early-onset ESRD through alterations of mtDNA copy numbers.

  11. Genome-Wide Association of Heroin Dependence in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Gursharan; Euesden, Jack; Coleman, Jonathan R I; Ducci, Francesca; Aliev, Fazil; Newhouse, Stephen J; Liu, Xiehe; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingcheng; Collier, David A; Asherson, Philip; Li, Tao; Breen, Gerome

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a costly and recurring healthcare problem, necessitating a need to understand risk factors and mechanisms of addiction, and to identify new biomarkers. To date, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for heroin addiction have been limited; moreover they have been restricted to examining samples of European and African-American origin due to difficulty of recruiting samples from other populations. This is the first study to test a Han Chinese population; we performed a GWAS on a homogeneous sample of 370 Han Chinese subjects diagnosed with heroin dependence using the DSM-IV criteria and 134 ethnically matched controls. Analysis using the diagnostic criteria of heroin dependence yielded suggestive evidence for association between variants in the genes CCDC42 (coiled coil domain 42; p = 2.8x10-7) and BRSK2 (BR serine/threonine 2; p = 4.110-6). In addition, we found evidence for risk variants within the ARHGEF10 (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10) gene on chromosome 8 and variants in a region on chromosome 20q13, which is gene-poor but has a concentration of mRNAs and predicted miRNAs. Gene-based association analysis identified genome-wide significant association between variants in CCDC42 and heroin addiction. Additionally, when we investigated shared risk variants between heroin addiction and risk of other addiction-related and psychiatric phenotypes using polygenic risk scores, we found a suggestive relationship with variants predicting tobacco addiction, and a significant relationship with variants predicting schizophrenia. Our genome wide association study of heroin dependence provides data in a novel sample, with functionally plausible results and evidence of genetic data of value to the field.

  12. MTNR1B rs10830963 is associated with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C and impaired beta-cell function in Chinese Hans from Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in White Europeans have shown that genetic variation rs10830963 in melatonin receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) is associated with fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes, which has also been replicated in several Asian populations. As a variant in the gene involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the effect of the variant on sleep status remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MTNR1B rs10830963 on fasting glucose, type 2 diabetes and sleep status in Chinese Hans. Methods MTNR1B rs10830963 was genotyped in a population-based cohort including 3,210 unrelated Chinese Hans from Beijing and Shanghai, and tested for associations with risk of type 2 diabetes, diabetes-related traits and sleep status. Results We confirmed the associations of MTNR1B rs10830963 with fasting glucose (beta = 0.11 mmol/l, 95%CI [0.03, 0.18], P = 0.005), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (beta = 0.07%, 95%CI [0.02,0.12], P = 0.004) and homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) (beta = -5.01%, 95%CI [-8.24,-1.77], P = 0.003) in the Shanghai, but not in the Beijing subpopulation (P ≥ 0.58). The effect size of MTNR1B rs10830963 on fasting glucose in Shanghai Chinese Hans was comparable to that reported from other Asian populations. We found no evidence of associations with type 2 diabetes (OR 1.05 [0.90-1.23], P = 0.54), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) (P = 0.86) or sleep status (P ≥ 0.44). Conclusions A common variant in MTNR1B was associated with fasting glucose, HbA1C and HOMA-B but not with sleep status in Chinese Hans from Shanghai, strengthening the role of MTNR1B rs10830963 in fasting glycemia and impaired beta-cell function. PMID:20398260

  13. The psychoanalytic process in the treatment of Little Hans.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Joseph S

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the psychoanalytic process in the treatment of Little Hans, using Samuel Abrams's 1988 paper in which he defines the psychoanalytic process as the sequence of steps which appears within the mind of the patient as the treatment proceeds. As with the adult, the child can affectively recall or reenact the past in the transference, but the child also tries to promote whatever developmental phase is being clocked in. In January 1908 Max Graf, Hans's father and a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society who was a musicologist, wrote Freud that his son had developed a fear that a horse would bite him in the street. Freud first suggested that the father give his son some enlightenment in the matter of sexual knowledge, such as his mother and other females have no "widdlers." The enlightenments only increased Hans's anxiety, prompting Freud to meet with Hans and his father and interpret the fear of the horse as fear of the father. While Max Graf was able to help Hans understand some dreams and fantasies, he exhibited a punitive attitude toward Hans's masturbation, which was reinforced by Freud's attitude that it was harmful. The father did not promote his son's development when he withheld knowledge of how babies are born, neither did Freud when he withheld any contrary suggestions from the father.

  14. Effect of zoledronic acid therapy on postmenopausal osteoporosis between the Uighur and Han population in Xinjiang: An open-label, long-term safety and efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Xiang, C; Wang, H; Yuan, H; Zhao, X; Xiao, X

    2018-06-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is becoming an urgent health problem in China. A once-yearly infusion of zoledronic acid can be very effective for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in significantly reducing the risk of hip, vertebral and other fractures. This study aimed to investigate zoledronic acid treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis in Uighur and Han patients in Xinjiang province, China. A self-controlled and prospective trial design was adopted. A total of 155 Uighur and 151 Han patients were enrolled. All subjects received an intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg) at day 0 (baseline) and at 12 months. Patients were followed up for 24 months; the bone mineral density (BMD) of the left total hip and L1-L4 vertebrae was measured at day 0 and at 24 months. BMD was significantly higher after zoledronic acid treatment compared with baseline levels in all patients, as assessed at 24 months. Moreover, the BMD of left total hip increased with 2.7% in the Han group was significantly higher than that of the Uighur group with 1.4% (left total hip, 95% CI: 2.6% to 2.8% in Han group vs 1.2% to 1.4% in Uighur group). The BMD of L1-L4 vertebrae increased with 2.2% in the Han group was significantly higher than that of the Uighur group with 1.6% (L1-L4 vertebrae, 95% CI, 2.0% to 2.4% in Han group vs 1.4% to 1.7% in Uighur group); P < .001. There was no significant difference in drug-related adverse effects between the two groups (P > .05). Zoledronic acid appears to be more effective in postmenopausal osteoporosis in Han than in Uighur subjects. The reasons for this require further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Association analysis of COMT/MTHFR polymorphisms and major depressive disorder in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinhua; Wu, Yanfeng; Guan, Tiefeng; Wang, Xiaoquan; Qian, Mincai; Lin, Min; Shen, Zhongxia; Sun, Jushui; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Jianhong; Li, Liang; Yuan, Yonggui

    2014-06-01

    In several previous biochemical and genetic studies, the Val158Met polymorphism of the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and the C677T polymorphism of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis as well as the treatment response of major depressive disorder (MDD), but the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we investigate the association of COMT/MTHFR and their interactions with MDD and antidepressant response in Chinese Han population. Three hundred and sixty eight depressed patients who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD were recruited for the study. Two hundred and nineteen normal controls were recruited from the local community. Patients and normal controls were genotyped for the functional COMT val158met and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Patients were characterized for clinical response to antidepressant treatment as measured by intra-individual changes of Hamilton Depression (HAMD-17) scores over 6 weeks. The T allele (OR=1.81; CI95%=1.40-2.34, P<0.001) and C/T genotype (OR=3.66; CI95% =2.53-5.28, P<0.001) of MTHFR C677T were significantly different between case and control groups. The COMT Met/Val genotype was more common among depressed individuals than among controls (OR=1.52, CI95%=1.04-2.21, P=0.02). There is disequilibrium in age and sex between case and control groups. Though we control the two variables in the statistic analysis, to be more accurate, we need to increase sample size in further study. Individuals with the genotype COMT Met/Val and MTHFR C/T have more probability of suffering from MDD. However, there is no association between gene polymorphism and treatment response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Major depressive disorder and suicide risk among adult outpatients at several general hospitals in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyan; Luo, Xinni; Ke, Xiaoyin; Dai, Qing; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Chanjuan; Cassidy, Ryan M.; Soares, Jair C.; Zhang, XiangYang

    2017-01-01

    Background Somatic complaints are often the presenting symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the outpatient context, because this may go unrecognized. It is well understood that MDD carries an increased risk of suicide. This study aimed to identify the risk factors and association with both MDD and suicidality among Han Chinese outpatients. Methods A multicenter study was carried out in 5189 outpatient adults (≥18 years old) in four general hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The 1392 patients who had the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥ 5, indicating depressive symptoms were offered an interview with a psychiatrist by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI); 819 patients consented and completed the MINI interview. MINI module B was used to assess suicidality. Stepwise binary logistic models were used to estimate the relationship between a significant risk factor and suicide or MDD. According to with or without MDD, the secondary analysis was performed using the logistic regression model for the risk of suicidility. Results The current prevalence of MDD and the one month prevalence of suicidality were 3.7% and 2.3% respectively. The odds ratio of suicidality in women was more than twice that in men (OR = 2.62; 95% CI 1.45–4.76). Other risk factors which were significantly associated with suicidality were: living alone, higher education, self-reported depression, getting psychiatric diagnoses (MDD, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorders). Significant risk factors for MDD were also noticed, such as comorbid anxiety disorders, self-reported anxiety, insomnia, suicidal ideation. Limitation It’s a cross-sectional study in outpatient clinics using self-report questionnaires. Conclusion This study provides valuable data about the risk factors and association of MDD and suicide risk in adult outpatients in Han Chinese. Those factors allow better the employment of preventative measures. PMID:29016669

  17. Mutation rates at 42 Y chromosomal short tandem repeats in Chinese Han population in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiwei; Ren, Wenyan; Hao, Honglei; Nan, Hailun; He, Xin; Liu, Qiuling; Lu, Dejian

    2018-01-31

    Mutation analysis of 42 Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) loci was performed using a sample of 1160 father-son pairs from the Chinese Han population in Eastern China. The results showed that the average mutation rate across the 42 Y-STR loci was 0.0041 (95% CI 0.0036-0.0047) per locus per generation. The locus-specific mutation rates varied from 0.000 to 0.0190. No mutation was found at DYS388, DYS437, DYS448, DYS531, and GATA_H4. DYS627, DYS570, DYS576, and DYS449 could be classified as rapidly mutating Y-STRs, with mutation rates higher than 1.0 × 10 -2 . DYS458, DYS630, and DYS518 were moderately mutating Y-STRs, with mutation rates ranging from 8 × 10 -3 to 1 × 10 -2 . Although the characteristics of the Y-STR mutations were consistent with those in previous studies, mutation rate differences between our data and previous published data were found at some rapidly mutating Y-STRs. The single-copy loci located on the short arm of the Y chromosome (Yp) showed relatively higher mutation rates more frequently than the multi-copy loci. These results will not only extend the data for Y-STR mutations but also be important for kinship analysis, paternal lineage identification, and family relationship reconstruction in forensic Y-STR analysis.

  18. Resolution Enhancement Algorithm for Spaceborn SAR Based on Hanning Function Weighted Sidelobe Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhou, X.; Tang, D.; Zhu, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Resolution and sidelobe are mutual restrict for SAR image. Usually sidelobe suppression is based on resolution reduction. This paper provide a method for resolution enchancement using sidelobe opposition speciality of hanning window and SAR image. The method can keep high resolution on the condition of sidelobe suppression. Compare to traditional method, this method can enchance 50 % resolution when sidelobe is -30dB.

  19. Genetic polymorphism of Malassezia furfur isolates from Han and Tibetan ethnic groups in China using DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lu, Yao; Wang, Peng

    2010-12-01

    Reported isolation rates of Malassezia yeast from human skin show geographic variations. In China, the populations of the Han (1,182.95 million) and Tibetan (5.41 million) ethnic groups are distributed over 9.6 and 3.27 million square kilometers respectively, making biodiversity research feasible and convenient. Malassezia furfur clinical strains (n = 29) isolated from different individuals, with or without associated dermatoses, of these two ethnic groups (15 Han and 12 Tibetan) were identified and analyzed with DNA fingerprinting using single primers specific to minisatellites. Using the Bionumerics software, we found that almost all M. furfur clinical isolates and type strains formed five distinct group clusters according to their associated skin diseases and the ethnic groups of the patients. These findings are the first to focus on the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. furfur in the Tibetan and Han ethnic groups in China and reveal genetic variation associated with related diseases, host ethnicity and geographic origin.

  20. HANS SELYE: AN INSPIRING TEACHER.

    PubMed

    Gabbiani, Giulio

    2014-03-30

    The present writing is a recollection of Hans Selye, as an educator of graduate and post-graduate students. His main aim in teaching his students was to encourage originality and significance of all scientific research.

  1. Impact of diabetes-related gene polymorphisms on the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wei, Jiachen; Xu, Pengcheng; Yan, Mengdan; Li, Jingjie; Chen, Zhengshuai; Jin, Tianbo

    2016-12-20

    We investigated the correlation between type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related genes and the clinical characteristics of T2D in the Chinese Han population. Our study included 319 patients and 387 controls. Age, gender, clinical features, medications intake and biochemical blood profiles were analyzed. Genotyping was performed on a total of 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported to be associated with T2D. Our analyses revealed that the CT genotype of ARHGAP22 rs4838605 is associated with T2D risk. Upon analyzing the subjects' clinical characteristics, we found that for rs2811893, the TT genotype correlated with high creatinine levels, while the AA genotype of rs17045754 and the TT genotype of rs4838605 correlated with elevated triglyceride levels. In addition, the AA genotype of rs17376456 and the TT genotype of rs6214 (p = 0.006) correlated with elevated hemoglobin A1c levels. Lastly, those carrying the TT genotype of rs7772697 and the CA genotype of rs3918227 exhibited higher mean body mass index and Cystatin C than controls. Our results showing that the ARHGAP22 gene is associated with an increased risk of T2D, and that seven SNPs in MYSM1, PLXDC2, ARHGAP22 and HS6ST3 promote T2D progression and could help predict the clinical course of T2D in patients at risk.

  2. High Resolution Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Allele Frequencies and HIV-1 Infection Associations in Chinese Han and Uyghur Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhou; Zhao, Zhongfang; Li, Tianyi; Liao, Qi; Kushner, Nicholas; Touzjian, Neal Y.; Shao, Yiming; Sun, Yongtao; Strong, Amie J.; Lu, Yichen

    2012-01-01

    Background Host immunogenetic factors such as HLA class I polymorphism are important to HIV-1 infection risk and AIDS progression. Previous studies using high-resolution HLA class I profile data of Chinese populations appeared insufficient to provide information for HIV-1 vaccine development and clinical trial design. Here we reported HLA class I association with HIV-1 susceptibility in a Chinese Han and a Chinese Uyghur cohort. Methodology/Principal Findings Our cohort included 327 Han and 161 Uyghur ethnic individuals. Each cohort included HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative subjects. Four-digit HLA class I typing was performed by sequencing-based typing and high-resolution PCR-sequence specific primer. We compared the HLA class I allele and inferred haplotype frequencies between HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative groups. A neighbor-joining tree between our cohorts and other populations was constructed based on allele frequencies of HLA-A and HLA-B loci. We identified 58 HLA-A, 75 HLA-B, and 32 HLA-Cw distinct alleles from our cohort and no novel alleles. The frequency of HLA-B*5201 and A*0301 was significantly higher in the Han HIV-1 negative group. The frequency of HLA-B*5101 was significantly higher in the Uyghur HIV-1 negative group. We observed statistically significant increases in expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm predicted haplotype frequencies of HLA-A*0201-B*5101 in the Uyghur HIV-1 negative group, and of Cw*0304-B*4001 in the Han HIV-1 negative group. The B62s supertype frequency was found to be significantly higher in the Han HIV-1 negative group than in the Han HIV-1 positive group. Conclusions At the four-digit level, several HLA class I alleles and haplotypes were associated with lower HIV-1 susceptibility. Homogeneity of HLA class I and Bw4/Bw6 heterozygosity were not associated with HIV-1 susceptibility in our cohort. These observations contribute to the Chinese HLA database and could prove useful in the development of HIV-1 vaccine

  3. Investigation into the association between P2RX7 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to primary gout and hyperuricemia in a Chinese Han male population.

    PubMed

    Ying, Ying; Chen, Yong; Li, Zhen; Huang, Haiyan; Gong, Qiongyao

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between P2RX7 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms and primary gout and hyperuricemia in a Chinese Han male population. The genetic distributions of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2230911, rs208294, rs435309, rs28360447, rs1718119, rs28360457, and rs3751143 in P2RX7 were detected in 293 primary gout patients, 187 hyperuricemia patients and 269 controls using SNaPshot technology. Statistical analyses were implemented using SPSS version 20.0. The genetic distributions of each group were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). T test, analysis of variance, rank sum test and Chi-square test were measured to assess differences in clinical data and polymorphisms among groups. Logistic regression was used to assess susceptibility to disease with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). SHEsis software was used to calculate linkage disequilibrium blocks and haplotype association risk. P < .05 was regarded as statistically significant. Three SNPs (rs2230911, rs208294 and rs435309) did not deviate significantly from HWE (P > .05). In the comparison between primary gout and control, the frequencies of rs2230911 genotypes were significantly different (P = .002), and allele G was associated with a higher risk of primary gout than allele C [OR (95% CI) = 1.755 (1.278, 2.410), P < .001]. There was also a higher risk of primary gout in genotype (CG + GG) compared with genotype CC [OR (95% CI) = 1.876 (1.303, 2.701), P = .001]. However, no significant difference in allelic or genotypic frequency was observed between primary gout patients and hyperuricemia patients (P > .0167). Similarly, there were no obvious differences in the other two polymorphisms among the three groups (P > .05). Our results reveal that P2RX7 rs2230911 may be associated with primary gout risk in a Chinese Han male population and allele G may be a susceptibility factor for

  4. PPARG gene C161T CT/TT associated with lower blood lipid levels and ischemic stroke from large-artery atherosclerosis in a Han population in Guangdong.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Min; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Shu-Ting; Shen, QingYu

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) is a transcription factor involved in atherosclerosis and related diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether PPARG C161T was associated with lipid levels and large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) ischemic stroke in a Han Chinese population in Guangdong province. The genotype PPARG C161T in 149 LAA ischemic stroke patients and 125 healthy controls was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. Associations with LAA ischemic stroke were analyzed for PPARG C161T genotype, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and a logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for LAA ischemic stroke. The frequency of CC was higher than that of CT + TT and was significantly associated with LAA ischemic stroke. In both the LAA and control groups, TC and LDL-C levels were significantly higher in the CC type than the CT + TT, but TG and HDL-C levels were comparable. The only verified independent risk factors for LAA ischemic stroke were ischemic heart disease (OR: 2.784, 95% CI: 1.377-5.632; p = 0.004) and systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.014, 95% CI: 1.001-1.026; p = 0.029); the PPARG C161T allele was not independently associated with an increased risk of LAA ischemic stroke (OR = 0.697, 95% CI: 0.372-1.305; p = 0.260). In this Han population, PPARG C161T CT/TT was associated with LAA ischemic stroke and lower levels of blood TC and LDL-C, but was not an independent risk factor for LAA ischemic stroke.

  5. Evaluation of serum levels of C-reactive protein and lipid profiles in patients with chronic periodontitis and/or coronary heart disease in an ethnic Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Wu, Yafei; Ding, Yi; Meng, Sui; Ge, Song; Deng, Hui

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the relationship of coronary heart disease (CHD)-associated factors-C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profiles-with periodontitis in an ethnic Han population. Forty healthy individuals as control, 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 28 patients with CHD, and 47 patients with both CP and CHD were included in the study. Serum CRP levels, lipid profile concentrations, and three periodontal clinical parameters (probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing) were measured and analyzed. The chi-square test, Student-Newman-Keuls test, analysis of covariance, and a logistic regression analysis were used in this study. The mean CRP level of patients with CP alone was 2.4 +/- 1.5 mg/L. There were significant differences in mean serum CRP levels among groups after confounders were adjusted, with CP+CHD patients having the highest level (7.3 +/- 5.7 mg/L) and the controls the lowest (1.0 +/- 0.6 mg/L) (P < .001). Mean HDL cholesterol level of CP patients (1.1 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) was significantly lower than that of controls (1.4 +/- 0.6 mmol/L) (P < .05), although it was significantly higher than that of the other two groups with CHD (0.8 +/- 0.5 mmol/L and 0.7 +/- 0.4 mmol/L) (P < .001). Significant correlations of CRP and HDL cholesterol with the three clinical periodontal parameters were apparent (P < .05). CRP and HDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with an increased frequency of CHD in this regression model (OR = 3.7 and OR = 1.9, respectively, P < .05). In an ethnic Han population with a low normal range of serum CRP levels, chronic periodontitis is associated with increased CRP levels and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations, which suggests that there may be some relationship between periodontal inflammation and CHD.

  6. Implicit Trust between the Uyghur and the Han in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueting; Fang, Huizhen; Yang, Shengmin; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Trust is a vital lubricant that increases the sense of security in social interactions. In this study, we investigated the intergroup trust between the Uyghur and the Han, the two largest ethnic groups in Xinjiang, China, with a Go/No-Go Association Task. Specifically, we instructed Uyghur and Han participants to respond to ethnic faces (Uyghur vs. Han) and trust/distrust words and measured the strength of the automatic associations between the faces and words for both in-group and out-group pairs. As expected, both ethnic groups showed implicit in-group trust and out-group distrust, but the Han group demonstrated stronger in-group trust and out-group distrust toward the Uyghur than the Uyghur group toward the Han. However, the magnitude of distrust of the Han toward the Uyghur was small to medium as compared with that reported by other intergroup relationship research. In addition, participant geographic location was associated with out-group distrust. These findings offer implications for developing effective strategies to encourage trust between conflicting groups. PMID:23977155

  7. [Hans Gross and the beginning of criminology on a scientific basis].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Modern criminology--if one wants to consider it a separate scientific discipline at all--is usually perceived as being mainly influenced by the methods of natural sciences supplemented by components from the field of psychology, which, at least in some of its conceptions, tends to define itself as a natural science, too. If we take a look at the history of science, we will see development of criminology in this direction was not necessarily inevitable. The scientific work of the Austrian Hans Gross (1847-1915), one of the founding fathers of scientific criminology, serves as an example of the way how natural sciences and their exact methods became established in the methodological apparatus of modern criminology, although in praxi his claim for the application of exact methods was all too often replaced by irrational and intuitive ways of working. Still, Hans Gross' fundamental decision for the exact methods derived from the natural sciences is an important step towards a criminology that can be understood as a part of natural sciences, largely superseding the methods of cultural sciences and anthropological philosophy. This approach made the (criminal) human being an object of measurement and can result in the concept of man as a mere phenomenon of quantity. This is, on the one hand, ethically questionable; on the other hand, it made modern criminology more efficient and successful.

  8. Nontoxic Hydroxylammonium Nitrate (HAN) Monopropellant Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKechnie, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Nontoxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on HAN have superior performance as compared to hydrazine with enhanced specific impulse (Isp), higher density and volumetric impulse, lower melting point, and much lower toxicity. However, HAN-based monopropellants require higher chamber temperatures (2,083 K vs. 883 K) to combust. Current hydrazine-based combustion chamber technology (Inconel® or niobium C103 and silicide coating) and catalyst (Shell 405) are inadequate. In Phase I, state-of-the-art iridium-lined rhenium chambers and innovative new foam catalysts were demonstrated in pulse and 10-second firings. Phase II developed and tested a flight-weight thruster for an environmentally green monopropellant.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and its components as predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a northern urban Han Chinese population: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Chengqi; Zhang, Yongyuan; Tang, Fang; Li, Hongkai; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Haiyan; Wu, Shuo; Liu, Yanxun; Xue, Fuzhong

    2015-05-01

    To explore the longitudinal effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to evaluate the significance of MetS and its components as early markers of NAFLD risk in a northern urban Han Chinese population. A total of 15,791 cohort members without NAFLD at baseline were included in the current study between 2005 and 2011. The baseline characteristics of the cohort were compared by MetS status at baseline and NAFLD status after follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the unadjusted or adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for development of NAFLD among individuals with MetS compared with individuals without MetS at baseline. During 51,652 person-years of follow-up, 3913 (24.78%) new cases of NAFLD occurred between 2005 and 2011. In the unadjusted model, the HR (95% confidence interval [CI]) for NAFLD was 2.51 (2.30, 2.73). After adjusting for gender, age, diet, smoking status, and regular exercise, the HR was 1.94 (1.78, 2.13). Gender differences were observed, with adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of 1.89 (1.71, 2.09) and 1.72 (1.43, 2.07) among males and females, respectively. Compared with individuals without MetS components, the HRs were 1.92 (1.76, 2.09), 2.64 (2.40, 2.90) and 3.51 (3.15, 3.91) for individuals with one, two, or three or more MetS components, respectively. Moreover, participants with obesity or hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of NAFLD than patients with hypertension or hyperglycemia, with HRs of 2.03 (1.83, 2.25) for obesity, 1.94 (1.72, 2.19) for hyperlipidemia, and 3.01 (2.68, 3.37) for these factors in combination. The present study indicates that MetS and its components independently predict the risk of NAFLD in a northern urban Han Chinese population and suggests that people with MetS or its component should initiate lifestyle changes to prevent the development of NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiology Characteristics of Constipation for General Population, Pediatric Population, and Elderly Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Huikuan; Zhong, Likun; Li, Hai; Zhang, Xiujing; Zhang, Jingzhi; Hou, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and analyzed. Results. 36 trials were included. Prevalence rates of constipation in elderly population (18.1%) and pediatric population (18.8%) were significantly higher than that in general population (8.2%). Prevalence of constipation defined by non-Rome criteria was higher than that by Rome criteria in general population. Prevalence rates of constipation were different for different geographical area. People with less education were predisposed to constipation. In pediatric population, prevalence of constipation was the lowest in children aged 2–6 years. Prevalence of constipation in ethnic minorities was higher than that in Han people. People with constipation were predisposed to FD, haemorrhoid, and GERD. Only 22.2% patients seek medical advice in general population. Conclusions. In China, prevalence of constipation was lower compared with most of other countries. The factors including female gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, age, educational class, and race seemed to have major effects on prevalence of constipation. PMID:25386187

  11. Lack of genetic association of 5-HTR2A 102 T/C and -1438A/G polymorphisms with Tourette syndrome in a family-based association study in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longqiang; Zheng, Lanlan; Ma, Jianhua; Su, Nailun; Liu, Yujun; Ma, Xu; Zhang, Xinhua; Liu, Shiguo

    2016-03-01

    Our purpose is to investigate whether polymorphisms of 102 T/C and -1438A/G in 5HTR2A are associated with Tourette syndrome (TS) in Chinese Han population. A total of 178 TS trios were recruited in this study. After the allelic and genotypic distributions of two polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), we compared their genetic distributions with what is expected with Hardy-Weinberg to explore whether there might be an association of these polymorphisms with TS by haplotype relative risk (HRR) and transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) statistics. Our results showed that no significant associations were found between the HTR2A 102 T/C and -1438A/G polymorphisms and TS (for HTR2A 102 T/C: TDT = 2.041, df = 1, P = 0.175; HRR = 1.468, χ(2)  = 1.905, P = 0.168, 95% confidence interval: 0.850-2.535; for HTR2A: -1438A/G, TDT = 0.093, df = 1, P = 0.819; HRR = 0.965, χ(2)  = 0.018, P = 0.894, 95% confidence interval: 0.574-1.624). Our study suggested that the HTR2A 102T/C and -1438A/G polymorphisms may not be associated with susceptibility to TS, and thus do not play a major role in the development of TS in the Chinese Han population. However, these results need to be confirmed in a larger sample collected from different populations. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Drosophila GPCR Han is a receptor for the circadian clock neuropeptide PDF.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seogang; Lee, Youngseok; Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Paik, Donggi; Kang, Jongkyun; Shin, Jinwhan; Lee, Jaejung; Jeon, Keunhye; Hwang, Seungyoon; Bae, Eunkyung; Kim, Jaeseob

    2005-10-20

    The pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide controlling circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its receptor is not yet known. From a large-scale temperature preference behavior screen in Drosophila, we isolated a P insertion mutant that preferred different temperatures during the day and night. This mutation, which we named han, reduced the transcript level of CG13758. We found that Han was expressed specifically in 13 pairs of circadian clock neurons in the adult brain. han null flies showed arrhythmic circadian behavior in constant darkness. The behavioral characteristics of han null mutants were similar to those of pdf null mutants. We also found that PDF binds specifically to S2 cells expressing Han, which results in the elevation of cAMP synthesis. Therefore, we herein propose that Han is a PDF receptor regulating circadian behavioral rhythm through coordination of activities of clock neurons.

  13. Polymorphism analysis and evaluation of nine non-CODIS STR loci in the Han population of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Da Yue; Wu, Xin Yao; Sun, Hong Yu; Zhao, Hu; Lu, Hui Ling

    2010-11-01

    Knowledge of allele and genotype frequencies is an essential prerequisite to the use of any human polymorphism in forensic work. To study the genetic polymorphism and evaluate the application value of nine STR loci. Genotyping of nine STR loci, including D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364, D22-GATA198B05, D6S1043, D2S1772, D7S3048 and D8S1132, of 1050 unrelated individuals was performed with the STR_Typer_10_v1 kit and Genetic Analyzer 3100 and analyzed with PowerState V12.xls and Arlequin ver 3.11 analyzing software. Allele frequency distribution was statistically analyzed and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium determined. Several common parameters used in forensic sciences were found: the heterozygosity (H) ranged from 0.827 to 0.892; the matching probability (MP) ranged from 0.029 to 0.074; the power of discrimination (PD) ranged from 0.926 to 0.971; the power of exclusion (PE) ranged from 0.649 to 0.779; the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.77 to 0.86; and the typical paternity index (TPI) ranged from 2.88 to 4.62. The results indicate that nine STR loci are high polymorphic among the Han population in Southern China. This set of polymorphic STR loci is a useful tool in forensic paternity testing and anthropological study.

  14. Genetic structure of Tibetan populations in Gansu revealed by forensic STR loci.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong-Bing; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wang, Jiang; Tao, Xiaolan; Shang, Lei; Wen, Shao-Qing; Du, Qiajun; Deng, Qiongying; Xu, Bingying; Huang, Ying; Wang, Hong-Dan; Li, Shujin; Bin Cong; Ma, Liying; Jin, Li; Krause, Johannes; Li, Hui

    2017-01-23

    The origin and diversification of Sino-Tibetan speaking populations have been long-standing hot debates. However, the limited genetic information of Tibetan populations keeps this topic far from clear. In the present study, we genotyped 15 forensic autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) from 803 unrelated Tibetan individuals from Gansu Province (635 from Gannan and 168 from Tianzhu) in northwest China. We combined these data with published dataset to infer a detailed population affinities and genetic substructure of Sino-Tibetan populations. Our results revealed Tibetan populations in Gannan and Tianzhu are genetically very similar with Tibetans from other regions. The Tibetans in Tianzhu have received more genetic influence from surrounding lowland populations. The genetic structure of Sino-Tibetan populations was strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations. Although the among-population variances are relatively small, the genetic components for Tibetan, Lolo-Burmese, and Han Chinese were quite distinctive, especially for the Deng, Nu, and Derung of Lolo-Burmese. Han Chinese but not Tibetans are suggested to share substantial genetic component with southern natives, such as Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien speaking populations, and with other lowland East Asian populations, which implies there might be extensive gene flow between those lowland groups and Han Chinese after Han Chinese were separated from Tibetans. The dataset generated in present study is also valuable for forensic identification and paternity tests in China.

  15. Genetic structure of Tibetan populations in Gansu revealed by forensic STR loci

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong-Bing; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Wang, Jiang; Tao, Xiaolan; Shang, Lei; Wen, Shao-Qing; Du, Qiajun; Deng, Qiongying; Xu, Bingying; Huang, Ying; Wang, Hong-Dan; Li, Shujin; Bin Cong; Ma, Liying; Jin, Li; Krause, Johannes; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The origin and diversification of Sino-Tibetan speaking populations have been long-standing hot debates. However, the limited genetic information of Tibetan populations keeps this topic far from clear. In the present study, we genotyped 15 forensic autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) from 803 unrelated Tibetan individuals from Gansu Province (635 from Gannan and 168 from Tianzhu) in northwest China. We combined these data with published dataset to infer a detailed population affinities and genetic substructure of Sino-Tibetan populations. Our results revealed Tibetan populations in Gannan and Tianzhu are genetically very similar with Tibetans from other regions. The Tibetans in Tianzhu have received more genetic influence from surrounding lowland populations. The genetic structure of Sino-Tibetan populations was strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations. Although the among-population variances are relatively small, the genetic components for Tibetan, Lolo-Burmese, and Han Chinese were quite distinctive, especially for the Deng, Nu, and Derung of Lolo-Burmese. Han Chinese but not Tibetans are suggested to share substantial genetic component with southern natives, such as Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien speaking populations, and with other lowland East Asian populations, which implies there might be extensive gene flow between those lowland groups and Han Chinese after Han Chinese were separated from Tibetans. The dataset generated in present study is also valuable for forensic identification and paternity tests in China. PMID:28112227

  16. Process for Assessing the Stability of HAN (Hydroxylamine)-Based Liquid Propellants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-29

    liquid propellants on the basis of HAN according to Fig. 1 can be determined directly by Fischer titration. This method requires a special unit, as the...Wasserreagenzien nach Eugen Scholz fUr die Karl - Fischer -Titration (Guidelines by Messrs. Riedel-de Haen for Titration according to the Karl Fischer ...Propellant components 2 2.2 Methods of determination 3 2.3 Acid/base titration and pK values 4 2.4 The Titroprozessor 636 8 2.5 Propellant analyses 10

  17. Hans Bethe's early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2012-10-01

    In 1937, two years after he moved to the US to escape Nazi persecution, the physicist Hans Bethe sent a letter to his mother in Germany. In it, he wrote, "I think I am about the leading theoretician in America. [Eugene] Wigner is certainly better and [Robert] Oppenheimer and [Edward] Teller probably just as good. But I do more and talk more and that counts too."

  18. G-protein beta 3 subunit polymorphisms and essential hypertension: a case-control association study in northern Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Bei; Li, Chuang; Liu, Jie-Lin; Wang, Li-Juan; Liu, Ya; Wang, Zuo-Guang; Wen, Shao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between the three polymorphisms [ C825T, C1429T and G(-350)A] of the gene encoding the G protein beta 3 subunit (GNB3) and hypertension by performing a case-control study in the northern Han Chinese population. Methods We recruited 731 hypertensive patients and 673 control subjects (the calculated power value was > 0.8). Genotyping was performed to identify C825T, C1429T and G(-350)A polymorphisms using the TaqMan assay. Comparisons of allelic and genotypic frequencies between cases and controls were made by using the chi-square test. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationships between the three polymorphisms of GNB3 gene under different genetic models (additive, dominant and recessive models). Results The genotype distribution and allele frequencies of C825T, C1429T and G(-350)A polymorphisms did not differ significantly between hypertensive patients and control subjects, either when the full sample was assessed, or when the sample was stratified by gender. No significant association was observed between C825T, C1429T and G(-350)A polymorphisms and the risk of essential hypertension in any genetic model. Linkage disequilibrium was only detected between C825T and C1429T polymorphisms. Haplotype analyses observed that none of the three estimated haplotypes significantly increased the risk of hypertension. Conclusions Our study suggested that the GNB3 gene polymorphisms [C825T, C1429T and G(-350)A] were not significantly associated with essential hypertension in northern Han Chinese population. PMID:25870615

  19. [Analysis of genetic polymorphisms and mutations of 20 frequently used STR loci among ethnic Hans from Henan].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdan; Kang, Bing; Gao, Yue; Huo, Xiaodong; Li, Tao; Guo, Qiannan; Zhu, Bofeng; Liao, Shixiu

    2017-04-10

    To study the genetic polymorphisms and mutations of 20 frequently used autosomal microsatellites among ethnic Hans from Henan. Peripheral blood samples of 2604 individuals were collected. DNA was amplified and genotyped using a PowerPlex(TM) 21 system. The frequencies, forensic parameters and mutation rates of the 20 short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed. A total of 323 alleles were found in this population and the allelic frequencies have ranged from 0.0003 to 0.5144. Except for D3S1358, TH01 and TPOX, mutations have been found in all of the remaining 17 STR loci, which totaled 47, with mutation rates ranging from 0 to 3.46 × 10 -3 . The 20 STR loci selected by the PowerPlex(TM) 21 system are highly polymorphic among ethnic Hans from Henan, and may be of great value in forensic and human population studies. As no similar study has been carried out previously, above results may be of great value for individual discrimination and paternal testing.

  20. rs10499194 polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-α inducible protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene is associated with type-1 autoimmune hepatitis risk in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liming; Liu, Honglong

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-α induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) were associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, the role of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms in type-1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-1) remained unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the association of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms with AIH-1 risk in a Chinese Han population. The TaqMan SNP genotyping assay was used to determine the distribution of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms in 432 AIH-1 patients and 500 healthy controls. The association of TNFAIP3 polymorphisms and clinical characteristic was further evaluated. Five TNFAIP3 polymorphisms (rs2230926, rs5029939, rs10499194, rs6920220, rs582757) were analyzed in the present study. No significant association could be observed between rs2230926, rs5029939, rs6920220, rs582757 and the susceptibility to AIH-1 in Chinese Han population. Compared with wild-type genotype CC at rs10499194, individuals carrying CT genotype had a significantly increased risk for developing AIH-1 (OR = 2.32, 95%CI 1.44–3.74). Under a dominant model, CT/TT carriers have a 140% increased risk of AIH-1 than CC carriers (OR = 2.40, 95%CI 1.50–3.87). The rs10499194 T allele was also found to be significantly associated with AIH-1 risk (OR = 2.41, 95%CI 1.51–3.82). In addition, higher serum ALT, AST levels and more common cirrhosis were observed in AIH-1 patients with T allele (CT/TT) than those with CC genotype. In conclusion, TNFAIP3 rs10499194 T allele and CT genotype were associated with an increased risk for AIH-1, suggesting rs10499194 polymorphism as a candidate of susceptibility locus to AIH-1. PMID:28448618

  1. Optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio for detecting cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among Han adults in Xinjiang, which is located in the center of Asia, is unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between different WHRs and cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang, and determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR. Methods The Cardiovascular Risk Survey was conducted from October 2007 to March 2010. A total of 14618 representative participants were selected using a four-stage stratified sampling method. A total of 5757 Han participants were included in the study. The present statistical analysis was restricted to the 5595 Han subjects who had complete anthropometric data. The sensitivity, specificity, and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in each WHR level were calculated. The shortest distance in the ROC curves was used to determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR for detecting cardiovascular risk factors. Results In women, the WHR was positively associated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum concentrations of serum total cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia increased as the WHR increased. The same results were not observed among men. The optimal WHR cutoffs for predicting hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and ≥ two of these risk factors for Han adults in Xinjiang were 0.92, 0.92, 0.91, 0.92 in men and 0.88, 0.89, 0.88, 0.89 in women, respectively. Conclusions Higher cutoffs for the WHR are required in the identification of Han adults aged ≥ 35 years with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases in Xinjiang. PMID:25074400

  2. Process for Assessing the Stability of HAN (Hydroxylammonium Nitrate)-Based Liquid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-09

    Scholz, Guidelines by Messrs. Riedel - de Haen for Titration according to the Karl Fischer Method ), 3. Auflage/3rd Edition 1982 /22/ JANDER; G. and... Potentiometric determination of the equivalence point is the most suitable method /15/. Time is saved by using automatically recording titration 33...propellant. The water content of liquid propellants on the basis of HAN according to Fig. 6 can be determined directly by Karl Fischer titration. This

  3. Polymorphism of rs7688672 and rs10033237 in cGKII/PRKG2 and gout susceptibility of Han population in northern China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Cheng, Zhifeng; Li, Changgui; Li, Shanshan; Li, Ming; Wang, Mingli; Xu, Jinmei; Tang, Yingying; Wang, Yujing; Qiu, Wenli; Liu, Xiaomin

    2015-05-10

    Gout is a genetic or acquired metabolic disease caused by increase of uric acid synthesis resulted from purine metabolic abnormalities. Whether cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2 (cGKII/PRKG2) is correlated with gout remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between polymorphism of cGKII/PRKG2 and gout susceptibility of Han population in northern China. Four hundred and five male patients with gout in the case group and 429 controls in the control group were collected from the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. A case-control study method was used to study the correlation between cGKII/PRKG2 polymorphism rs7688672 and rs10033237 and gout susceptibility. The genotype frequencies of rs7688672 and rs10033237 polymorphisms of cGKII/PRKG2 in the case group and the control group both were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were significant differences of rs10033237 in the allele frequencies and genotype distributions (P<0.05) between the two groups, while no association was found between rs7688672 and gout. Combined mutation sites AA(*) from rs7688672 and rs10033237 were negatively correlated with gout susceptibility, whereas haplotype GG(*) was positively correlated with gout susceptibility. In conclusion, patients with rs10033237 polymorphism of cGKII/PRKG2 gene are more likely to suffer from gout. With regard to haplotypes of rs10033237 and rs7688672, both AA(*) and GG(*) are related to gout. AA(*) is a gout susceptible gene, whereas GG(*) is a protective gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age at onset of major depressive disorder in Han Chinese women: Relationship with clinical features and family history☆

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Zhen; Zou, Ying; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiao, Dongdong; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Hu, Jian; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Du, Bo; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Gan, Zhaoyu; Peng, Juyi; Wei, Bo; Pan, Jiyang; Chen, Honghui; Sun, Shufan; Jia, Hong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qiaoling; Wang, Xueyi; Cao, Juling; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Ha, Baowei; Ning, Yuping; Chen, YiPing; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Flint, Jonathan; Shi, Shenxun

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals with early-onset depression may be a clinically distinct group with particular symptom patterns, illness course, comorbidity and family history. This question has not been previously investigated in a Han Chinese population. Methods We examined the clinical features of 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models was used to determine the association between age at onset (AAO) with continuous, binary and discrete characteristic clinical features of MDD. Results Earlier AAO was associated with more suicidal ideation and attempts and higher neuroticism, but fewer sleep, appetite and weight changes. Patients with an earlier AAO were more likely to suffer a chronic course (longer illness duration, more MDD episodes and longer index episode), increased rates of MDD in their parents and a lower likelihood of marriage. They tend to have higher comorbidity with anxiety disorders (general anxiety disorder, social phobia and agoraphobia) and dysthymia. Conclusions Early AAO in MDD may be an index of a more severe, highly comorbid and familial disorder. Our findings indicate that the features of MDD in China are similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. PMID:21782247

  5. HAN-Based Monopropellant Propulsion System with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Oleson, Steven R.

    1997-01-01

    NASA is developing a new monopropellant propulsion system for small, cost-driven spacecraft with AV requirements in the range of 10-150 m/sec. This system is based on a hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)/water/fuel monopropellant blend which is extremely dense, environmentally benign, and promises good performance and simplicity. State-of-art (SOA) small spacecraft typically employ either hydrazine or high pressure stored gas. Herein, a 'typical' small satellite bus is used to illustrate how a HAN-based monopropellant propulsion system fulfills small satellite propulsion requirements by providing mass and/or volume savings of SOA hydrazine monopropellants with the cost benefits of a stored nitrogen gas.

  6. X-ray cross-complementing groups 1 rs1799782 C>T polymorphisms and colorectal cancer susceptibility: A meta-analysis based on Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liming; Qian, Junfeng; Ying, Chunxiao; Zhuang, Yongwei; Shang, Xingjie; Xu, Fang

    2016-12-01

    X-ray cross-complementing groups 1 (XRCC1) rs1799782 C>T polymorphisms and colorectal cancer susceptibility were not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between XRCC1 rs1799782 C>T polymorphisms and colorectal cancer susceptibility by meta-analysis. Related databases of Medline, CNKI, and Wanfang were systematic searched for the studies related to XRCC1 rs1799782 C>T polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese Han population. The genotype distribution of CC, CT and TT were extracted from each included studies in the colorectal cancer patients and healthy control subjects. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess the correlation between genetype and colorectal cancer risk. The publications for this study was evaluated by Begg's funnel plot and Egger's line regression test. The median frequency of CC, CT, and TT genotype in cancer group were 48%, 41% and 11%; For control group, they were 51%, 40% and 8%; the pooled results showed that OR = 1.32 (95% CI: 1.041-1.67, P < 0.05). The pooled results indicated that XRCC1 rs1799782 C>T polymorphisms was associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility in recessive genetic model OR = 1.32 (95% CI: 1.041-1.67, P < 0.05), dominant genetic model OR = 1.21 (95% CI: 1.00-1.46, P < 0.05) and homozygous genetic model OR = 1.43 (95% CI: 1.07-1.91, P < 0.05). The funnel plot was significant asymmetric at the bottom and the Egger's test also indicated significant publication bias (t = 2.43, P = 0.04) for recessive genetic model. But, no publication bias was found in dominant and homozygous model (P > 0.05). Chinese Han people with rs1799782 TT/CT genotype of XRCC1 gene may have increased risk of developing colorectal.

  7. Validation of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Variants Identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies in Northern Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Ge, Si-Qi; Wang, An-Xin; Yu, Xin-Wei; Alzain, Mohamed Ali; Veronica, Andrea Katherine; Qiu, Jing; Song, Man-Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Hao; Fang, Hong-Hong; Gao, Qing; Wang, You-Xin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: More than 60 genetic susceptibility loci associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been established in populations of Asian and European ancestry. Given ethnic differences and environmental factors, validation of the effects of genetic risk variants with reported associations identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWASs) is essential. The study aims at evaluating the associations of T2DM with 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 19 candidate genes derived from GWASs in a northern Han Chinese population. Method: In this case-control study, 461 T2DM-diagnosed patients and 434 controls were recruited at the Jidong oil field hospital (Hebei, China) from January 2009 to October 2013. A cumulative genetic risk score (cGRS) was calculated by summation of the number of risk alleles, and a weight GRS (wGRS) was calculated as the sum of risk alleles at each locus multiplied by their effect sizes for T2DM, using the independent variants selected. Result: The allelic frequency of the “A” allele at rs17106184 (Fas-associated factor 1, FAF1) was significantly higher in the T2DM patients than that of the healthy controls (11.7% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.001). Individuals in the highestquartile of wGRS had an over three-fold increased risk for developing T2DM compared with those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.92–4.88, p < 0.001) adjusted for age, sex, BMI, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The results were similar when analyzed with the cGRS. Conclusions: We confirmed the association between rs17106184 (FAF1) and T2DM in a northern Han Chinese population. The GRS calculated based on T2DM susceptibility variants may be a useful tool for predicting the T2DM susceptibility. PMID:27589775

  8. Genetic association between Interleukin-17A gene polymorphisms and the pathogenesis of Graves' disease in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yicheng; Zheng, Huan; Liu, Nan; Guo, Ting; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Shu; Cui, Bin; Ning, Guang

    2015-01-19

    Graves' disease, one of the commonest autoimmune disorders, has a complex genetic basis. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is an important cytokine involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. This case-control study sought to investigate genetic association between the IL-17A gene and the process of Graves' disease (GD). Our pilot study was performed on a cohort from Shanghai, which included 713 patients with GD and 756 healthy controls. A replicate cohort was from Xiamen, recruiting 444 patients with GD and 427 healthy subjects. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4711998, rs3819024, rs2275913, rs8193037, rs3819025 and rs3748067) within the IL-17A gene were genotyped by the SNPstream Genotyping Systems and Taqman PCR method. In Shanghai cohorts, the frequencies of rs8193037 alleles were strongly different between patients with Graves' disease (G, 87·6% and A, 12·4%) and healthy controls (G, 91·4% and A, 8·6%) (P = 0·00067). The A carriers were associated with increased Graves' disease risks when compared with the G carriers (OR = 1·51, 95%CI = 1·19-1·92). In replicate cohorts, the proportion of individuals carrying the A allele of rs8193037 was significantly higher in patients with Graves' disease than in controls [Graves' disease vs control, 14·3% vs 9·1%, OR = 1·66 (95% CI: 1·23-2·24), P allele  = 0·0082]. In addition, rs8193037 and rs3748067 were found to be different in both genotype and allele distributions in Graves' disease-associated ophthalmopathy patients and controls in Shanghai cohorts. Haplotype association analysis also identified five main haplotypes of those six SNPs. These results suggested that the polymorphism of IL-17A rs8193037 was strongly associated with Graves' disease susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.z. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Overweight, high blood pressure and impaired fasting glucose in Uyghur, Han, and Kazakh Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yan, W L; Li, X S; Wang, Q; Huang, Y D; Zhang, W G; Zhai, X H; Wang, C C; Lee, J H

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the levels of blood pressure and fasting glucose differ among Chinese children of three different ethnicities (i.e., Uyghurs, Kazakhs, and Hans) and whether the differences are explained by childhood obesity. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a large three ethnic pediatric population (n = 6633), whose ages ranged from 7 to 18 years. Anthropometrics and blood pressure were measured using standard protocols. Fasting glucose was measured in a subset of children (n = 2295) who were randomly selected based on ethnicity and age. The age-sex stratified Chinese national cut-offs were used to define obesity and high blood pressure (HBP). The prevalence of HBP, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), mean levels of blood pressure, and glucose were compared among three ethnic groups. 2142 Uyghurs, 2078 Han, and 1997 Kazakhs were analyzed. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the mean blood pressure for Uyghurs was on average, 2-4 mm Hg lower than those for Hans and Kazakhs. Kazakhs had the lowest mean fasting glucose compared with Hans and Uyghurs (4.5 vs. 5.0 vs. 4.8 mmol/L, respectively). The differences in blood pressure and fasting glucose persisted even after adjusting for age and BMI, and the differences among ethnic groups in blood pressure levels and fasting glucose levels were observed as early as 7-9 years of age. The prevalence of HBP and IFG differed significantly among Uyghurs, Hans, and Kazakhs, and the ethnic differences observed in childhood were consistent with those observed in adults from the same region. While childhood obesity is a significant risk factor for hypertension and elevated glucose, the differences among ethnic groups were not explained by obesity alone.

  10. Association study of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Yue, Weihua; Liu, Huiguo; Zhang, Jishui; Zhang, Xianghui; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Tieqiao; Liu, Pozi; Hao, Wei

    2008-11-01

    Since the serotonin (5-HT) is associated with circadian rhythm and breathing regulation, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which plays an important role in serotoninergic transmission, might be a strong candidate gene in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). To investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphisms with OSAS and clinical characteristics. We genotyped the 5-HTT gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and a variable number of tandem repeats at intron 2 (STin2.VNTR) in 254 OSAS patients and 338 healthy controls in Chinese Han population. In total sample, the 10-repeat allele of STin2.VNTR was significantly associated with OSAS (P = 0.007, OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.15-2.58), but no association was found in 5-HTTLPR. In male subjects, both polymorphisms showed significant association with OSAS (Allele L: P = 0.005, OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.87; Allele 10: P = 0.002, OR= 1.94, 95% CI = 1.26 to 3.00). Two haplotypes, S-12 and L-10, constructed by the above polymorphisms also revealed significant associations with OSAS (global P-values were 0.020 for total sample and 0.0006 for male subjects, respectively). Male patients carrying the haplotype S-12 showed a significantly lower apnea / hypopnea index (AHI), depressive factor, plasma 5-HT level and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, but higher episodic memory, when compared with non-S-12 carriers (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in excessive daytime sleepiness or other psychological function across haplotype carriers (P > 0.05). These findings support that 5-HTT gene may be involved in susceptibility to OSAS, especially with sex-dependent effect.

  11. Variant rs2237892 of KCNQ1 Is Potentially Associated with Hypertension and Macrovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in A Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanlin; Wang, Hailing; Guan, Xiaomin; Niu, Qing; Li, Wei

    2015-12-01

    KCNQ1 has been identified as a susceptibility gene of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian populations through genome-wide association studies. However, studies on the association between gene polymorphism of KCNQ1 and T2DM complications remain unclear. To further analyze the association between different alleles at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2237892 within KCNQ1 and TD2M and its complications, we conducted a case-control study in a Chinese Han population. The C allele of rs2237892 variant contributed to susceptibility to T2DM (odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.75). Genotypes CT (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.24-3.15) and CC (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.57-3.95) were associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Multivariate regression analysis was performed with adjustment of age, gender, and body mass index. We found that systolic blood pressure (P=0.015), prevalence of hypertension (P=0.037), and risk of macrovascular disease (OR, 2.10; CI, 1.00-4.45) were significantly higher in subjects with the CC genotype than in the combined population with genotype either CT or TT. Therefore, our data support that KCNQ1 is associated with an increased risk for T2DM and might contribute to the higher incidence of hypertension and macrovascular complications in patients with T2DM carrying the risk allele C though it needs further to be confirmed in a larger population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated methods for teaching population health.

    PubMed

    Sistrom, Maria Gilson; Zeigen, Laura; Jones, Melissa; Durham, Korana Fiol; Boudrot, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends reforms to public health education to better prepare the public health workforce. This study addresses the application of two of the recommended reforms in the population health nursing curriculum at one university: use of an ecological model and distance learning methods. Using interdisciplinary faculty, integrated teaching and learning methods, and a multimedia curriculum, this study examined the following question: can distance learning be designed to support learning goals and outcomes specific to an ecological approach and population health concepts in general? Course content was evaluated using students' perception of practice utility and understanding of population health concepts. Integrated teaching methods were evaluated using a scale as well as comparison to other student distance learning experiences within the university. Findings demonstrated that both the ecological model and distance learning methods were successfully used to teach population health to a large nursing student cohort. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (P<0.05). A higher level of total cholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223-2.334, P<0.01). However, no association was found between APOE status and serum levels of glucose (adjusted odds ratio 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.720-1.336, P=0.903) or total triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759-1.429, P=0.800). A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  14. Identification of vaginal fluid, saliva, and feces using microbial signatures in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zou, Kai-Nan; Ren, Li-Jie; Ping, Yuan; Ma, Ke; Li, Hui; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Huai-Gu; Wei, Yi-Liang

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, forensic scientists have focused on the discrimination of body fluids using microbial signatures. In this study, we performed PCR-based detection of microbial signatures of vaginal fluid, saliva, and feces in a Han Chinese population. We investigated the 16S rRNA genes of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus iners, and Atopobium vaginae in vaginal fluid, the 16S rRNA and the glucosyltransferase enzyme genes of Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans in saliva, and the 16S rRNA genes of Enterococcus species, the RNA polymerase β-subunit gene of Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides vulgatus, and the α-1-6 mannanase gene of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in feces. As a result, the detection proportions of L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii, L. iners, and A. vaginae were 15/16, 5/16, 8/16, 14/16, and 3/16 in 16 vaginal fluid donors, respectively. L. crispatus and L. jensenii were specifically detected in vaginal fluid; L. gasseri, L. iners, and A. vaginae were also detected in non-vaginal fluid. S. salivarius and S. mutans were not specifically detected in saliva. The detection proportions of Enterococcus species, B. uniformis, B. vulgatus, and B. thetaiotaomicron in 16 feces samples were 16/16, 12/16, 15/16, and 11/16, respectively. B. uniformis and B. thetaiotaomicron were specifically detected in feces. In addition, DNA samples prepared for the identification of body fluid can also be used for individual identification by short tandem repeat typing. The mean detection sensitivities of L. crispatus and L. jensenii were 0.362 and 0.249 pg/uL, respectively. In conclusion, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, B. uniformis, and B. thetaiotaomicron can be used as effective markers for forensic identification of vaginal fluid and feces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between the KRAS Gene Polymorphisms and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Ning, Lifeng; Rao, Wenwang; Yu, Yaqin; Liu, Xiaoli; Pan, Yuchen; Ma, Yuan; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shangchao; Sun, Hui; Yu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the association between MAPK signaling pathway gene polymorphisms and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). KRAS gene, an oncogene from the mammalian RAS gene family plays an important role in the MAPK pathway. This study aimed to identify the potential association of KRAS gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to PTC in a Han Chinese population. A total of 861 patients with PTC, 562 disease controls with nodular goiter and 897 healthy controls were recruited. Four tagSNP polymorphisms (rs12427141, rs712, rs7315339 and rs7960917) of KRAS gene were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) . Statistical analyses and haplotype estimations were conducted using Haploview and Unphased softwares. Only significant differences were observed in genotypic frequencies of the rs7315339 polymorphism (χ 2 =7.234, df=2, p=0.027) between PTC and disease controls. Statistically significant differences in both allelic and genotypic genotypes frequencies for rs712 (Genotype, χ 2 =8.258, p=0.016) and rs12427141 (Allele, χ 2 =3.992, p=0.046; Genotype, χ 2 =8.140, p=0.017) were observed between PTC patients and controls. Haplotype analyses revealed higher frequencies of GA and TA haplotypes (p=0.039 and p=0.003, respectively) from rs712- rs12427141 (two-SNP) or TGA and TTG haplotype containing the alleles from rs7960917, rs712 and rs12427141, as well as the GAT haplotype containing the alleles from rs712, rs12427141 and rs7315339 in PTC patients than in healthy controls (p=0.042, p=0.037, p=0.027, respectively). Inversely, the haplotype TTA from rs7960917, rs712 and rs12427141 or the haplotype TAC from rs712, rs12427141 and rs7315339 was significantly less frequent in the PTC patients than in normal control (p=0.003, p=0.003, respectively). These findings suggest the role of these KRAS gene variants in susceptibility to PTC. Moreover, significant differences of the KRAS gene polymorphisms may

  16. Human leukocyte antigen-C and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene polymorphisms among patients with syphilis in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yun-Long; Ren, Gui-Jie; Tian, Ke-Li; Li, Xin-Ye; Zhu, Yong-Bao; Liu, Jin-Ling; Si, Gui-Ling; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Li; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Da-Jian; Zhu, Chuan-Fu

    2012-10-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum spirochete bacterium. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), interacting with human leukocyte antigens (HLA), regulate the activations of natural killer (NK) cells and certain T-cell subsets in response to microbe infection. The objective of this study was to explore whether KIR and HLA-C gene polymorphisms were associated with syphilis in a Chinese Han population. Polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method was used to genotype KIR and HLA-C genes in 231 syphilis patients and 247 healthy controls. Framework genes KIR2DL4, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3 and KIR3DP1 were present in all individuals. The frequencies of KIR2DS3 and KIR3DS1 were higher in syphilis patients than in healthy controls (p = 0.030 and p = 0.038, respectively), while the frequency of KIR2DS5 was higher in healthy controls than in syphilis patients (p = 0.015; OR = 0.575). The homozygote for HLA-C1 allele (HLA-C1C1) was more common in controls compared with syphilis patients (p = 0.030; OR = 0.667). The frequency of individuals with HLA-C1C1 and KIR2DL3 genotype was higher in control group relative to syphilis patient group (p = 0.018; OR = 0.647). These data indicated that KIR2DS3 and KIR3DS1 were more prevalent in syphilis patients than in controls, and that KIR2DS5, HLA-C1C1 and HLA-C1C1-KIR2DL3 were more prevalent in controls than in syphilis patients, respectively. These will require further investigation using functional studies. © 2012 The Authors APMIS © 2012 APMIS.

  17. A Genetic Variant in Vitamin B12 Metabolic Genes That Reduces the Risk of Congenital Heart Disease in Han Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Peng, Qian-Qian; Hou, Jia; Sun, Shu-Na; Gui, Yong-Hao; Duan, Wen-Yuan; Qiao, Bin; Wang, Hong-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies on components of the one-carbon metabolic pathway revealed that human vitamin B12 levels could be significantly influenced by variationsinthefucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2), cubilin (CUBN), and transcobalamin-I (TCN1) genes. An altered vitamin B12 level is an important factor that disturbs the homeostasis of the folate metabolism pathway, which in turn can potentially lead to the development of congenital heart disease (CHD). Therefore, we investigated the association between the variants of vitamin B12-related genes and CHD in Han Chinese populations. Methods and Results Six variants of the vitamin B12-related genes were selected for analysis in two independent case-control studies, with a total of 868 CHD patients and 931 controls. The variant rs11254363 of the CUBN gene was associated with a decreased risk of developing CHD in both the separate and combined case-control studies. Combined samples from the two cohorts had a significant decrease in CHD risk for the G allele (OR = 0.48, P = 1.7×10−5) and AG+GG genotypes (OR = 0.49, P = 4×10−5), compared with the wild-type A allele and AA genotype, respectively. Conclusions Considering the G allele of variant rs11254363 of the CUBN gene was associated with an increased level of circulating vitamin B12. This result suggested that the carriers of the G allele would benefit from the protection offered by the high vitamin B12 concentration during critical heart development stages. This finding shed light on the unexpected role of CUBN in CHD development and highlighted the interplay of diet, genetics, and human birth defects. PMID:24533076

  18. Increased blood-oxygen binding affinity in Tibetan and Han Chinese residents at 4200 m

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, T.S.; Wei, G.; Wagner, H.E.; Wuren, T.; Bui, A.; Fine, J.M.; Qin, G.; Beltrami, F.G.; Yan, M.; Wagner, P.D.; Ge, Ri Li

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude natives are challenged by hypoxia and a potential compensation could be reduced blood P50, as seen in several high-altitude mammalian species. In 21 Qinghai Tibetan males and 9 Han Chinese, all resident at 4200 m, standard P50 was calculated from measurements of arterial PO2 and forehead oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2), which was validated in a separate examination of 13 healthy sea-level subjects. In both Tibetans and Han Chinese, standard P50 was 24.5 (± 1.4 and 2.0 mmHg, respectively) and was lower than in the sea-level subjects (26.2 ± 0.6 mm Hg, p < 0.01). There was no relationship between P50 and [Hb] (the latter ranging from 15.2 and 22.9 g/dl in Tibetans). During peak exercise, P50 was not associated with alveolar-arterial PO2 difference or VO2/kg. There appears to be no apparent benefit of a lower P50 in this adult high-altitude Tibetan population. PMID:25172885

  19. Lung function among 9- to 10-year-old Tibetan and Han Chinese schoolchildren living at different altitudes in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Yangzong; Berntsen, Sveinung; Bjertness, Espen; Stigum, Hein; Gonggalanzi; Bianba; Nafstad, Per

    2013-03-01

    Tibetans have lived at high altitude longer than any other high-altitude population. Still little is known about their lung function and especially among children. This study compared lung function values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of FVC (FEF50) in children living at various altitudes in Tibet and with different ancestries. A cross-sectional study of lung function was performed among 9-10-year-old native Tibetan and Han Chinese children living at 3700 meters above sea level, and among native Tibetan children living at 4300 meters above sea level. The adjusted FVC and FEV1 were significantly higher in Tibetan children living at 4300 m above sea level as compared to Tibetans living at 3700 m. Tibetans living at 3700 m had higher FVC and FEV1 than Han Chinese living at the same altitude. All Tibetan children had on average higher FEF50 than Han Chinese. Tibetan children living at an altitude of 4300 m had relatively higher lung function than those living at 3700 m, and there were differences in lung function between Tibetans and Han Chinese who live at the same altitude. It seems likely that genetic factors involved in long-term adaptation to high altitude and cultural attributes could have contributed to the study findings.

  20. A sex-specific association of common variants of neuroligin genes (NLGN3 and NLGN4X) with autism spectrum disorders in a Chinese Han cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Synaptic genes, NLGN3 and NLGN4X, two homologous members of the neuroligin family, have been supposed as predisposition loci for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and defects of these two genes have been identified in a small fraction of individuals with ASDs. But no such rare variant in these two genes has as yet been adequately replicated in Chinese population and no common variant has been further investigated to be associated with ASDs. Methods 7 known ASDs-related rare variants in NLGN3 and NLGN4X genes were screened for replication of the initial findings and 12 intronic tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped for case-control association analysis in a total of 229 ASDs cases and 184 control individuals in a Chinese Han cohort, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Results We found that a common intronic variant, SNP rs4844285 in NLGN3 gene, and a specific 3-marker haplotype XA-XG-XT (rs11795613-rs4844285-rs4844286) containing this individual SNP were associated with ASDs and showed a male bias, even after correction for multiple testing (SNP allele: P = 0.048, haplotype:P = 0.032). Simultaneously, none of these 7 known rare mutation of NLGN3 and NLGN4X genes was identified, neither in our patients with ASDs nor controls, giving further evidence that these known rare variants might be not enriched in Chinese Han cohort. Conclusion The present study provides initial evidence that a common variant in NLGN3 gene may play a role in the etiology of ASDs among affected males in Chinese Han population, and further supports the hypothesis that defect of synapse might involvement in the pathophysiology of ASDs. PMID:21569590

  1. Research on the Solar Eclipse Records in the Wuxingzhi of Both {Han} Dynasties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the paper Lianghan Rishi Kao (inspect the solar-eclipse records in Both {Han} dynasties) written by {Zhu Wenxin} when compared the solar-eclipse records with those in the book Zhongguo Gudai Tianxiang Jilu Zong ji (collection of Chinese ancient astronomical records), and find 38 (61) records with the same dates in Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty, equal to 70% (85%) of total. Our results have 42 (61) with the same dates in Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty as just 78% (85%) of the total. There are totally 126 solar-eclipse records in the Wuxingzhi of both {Han} Dynasties. We confirm that there are 21 no occurred, 7 invisible in the capital then, 9 occurred before sunrise, 1 after sunset, and the left 88 are seen, occupying 70% as usually occurred in the capital area. With the help of our transformation platform as from Chinese ancient 60-day-cycle style dates to Gregorian calendar dates, we check the date records of solar eclipses in the Wuxingzhi of both {Han} dynasties, and then review the accuracy of the calendar. The standard errors of month and day are respectively 0.31 month (0.17 month) and 0.97 day (0.74 day) in the Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty. At the same time, the standard errors of solar location of the records are determined, they are 11.08° (6.63°) in Western (Eastern) {Han} dynasty, and after excluding the possible misrecords the accuracy changes to 9.30° (3.59°). If the Juxing (key star of this constellation) was the same in both {Han} dynasties, the average value of observation error of solar location in Eastern {Han} dynasty is 2.8°, far better than 8.2° in Western {Han} dynasty. Otherwise, they most likely appear in some constellations with larger deviation. We try to determine the Δ T (ET-UT) value of solar-eclipse records with the magnitude descriptions, and at the same time, it is concluded that the magnitude of Ji (total eclipse) is 0.969-1.0, Jijin (the sun is covered almost all) is 0.829-0.985, and

  2. Optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio for detecting cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang-Shuang; Pan, Shuo; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Xie, Xiang; Liu, Fen; Chen, You; Chen, Bang-Dang; Yu, Zi-Xiang; He, Chun-Hui; Zheng, Ying-Ying; Abudukeremu, Nuremanguli; Abuzhalihan, Jialin; Wang, Yong-Tao

    2014-07-29

    The optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among Han adults in Xinjiang, which is located in the center of Asia, is unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between different WHRs and cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang, and determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR. The Cardiovascular Risk Survey was conducted from October 2007 to March 2010. A total of 14618 representative participants were selected using a four-stage stratified sampling method. A total of 5757 Han participants were included in the study. The present statistical analysis was restricted to the 5595 Han subjects who had complete anthropometric data. The sensitivity, specificity, and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve in each WHR level were calculated. The shortest distance in the ROC curves was used to determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR for detecting cardiovascular risk factors. In women, the WHR was positively associated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum concentrations of serum total cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia increased as the WHR increased. The same results were not observed among men. The optimal WHR cutoffs for predicting hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and ≥ two of these risk factors for Han adults in Xinjiang were 0.92, 0.92, 0.91, 0.92 in men and 0.88, 0.89, 0.88, 0.89 in women, respectively. Higher cutoffs for the WHR are required in the identification of Han adults aged ≥ 35 years with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases in Xinjiang.

  3. Factor analysis and cluster analysis applied to assess the water quality of middle and lower Han River in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Liu, Wen-Wen

    2015-04-01

    pollution both significantly influence water quality in the middle and lower Han River. This study provides an effective method for watershed management and pollution control in Han River.

  4. Association and interaction of myopia with SNP markers rs13382811 and rs6469937 at ZFHX1B and SNTB1 in Han Chinese and European populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiali; Jiao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qingjiong; Hejtmancik, J Fielding

    2017-01-01

    Previously, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified rs13382811 (near ZFHX1B) and rs6469937 (near SNTB1) to be associated with high myopia. The present study evaluates the association of these two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with moderate to high myopia in two Chinese cohorts and two cohorts of European populations. Two Chinese university student cohorts, including one with 300 unrelated subjects with high myopia and 308 emmetropic controls from Guangzhou and a second with 96 unrelated individuals with moderate to high myopia and 96 emmetropic controls of Chaoshanese origin in Guangzhou, were enrolled in this study. Two SNPs, rs6469937 and rs13382811, were selected for genotyping based on their reported associations with severe myopia. The SNPs were genotyped via DNA sequencing. In addition, association analysis of both SNPs was performed using genotype data from the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) involving a total of 2,423 samples in two independent cohorts of European-derived populations, as follows: Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA) and TwinsUK. The allelic and genotypic distribution among cases and controls were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the SNP-SNP interaction. Fisher's exact test was used for two-SNP comparisons. In the Guangzhou cohort, SNP rs13382811 near ZFHX1B showed significant association with high myopia ( p allelic = 0.0001, p genotypic = 4.07 × 10 -5 ), with the minor T allele showing an increased risk of high myopia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-2.20). SNP rs6469937 near SNTB1 showed nominal evidence of association ( p allelic = 0.0085, p genotypic = 0.0166), which did not withstand correction for multiple testing. No significant association was detected in the smaller Chaoshan cohort alone. The association of SNPs rs13382811 and rs6469937 remained significant when both Han Chinese cohorts were combined

  5. Development of a massively parallel sequencing assay for investigating sequence polymorphisms of 15 short tandem repeats in a Chinese Northern Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Xia; Yang, Meng; Pan, Ya-Jiao; Zhao, Jing; Qu, Bao-Wang; Cheng, Feng; Yang, Ya-Ran; Jiao, Zhang-Ping; Liu, Li; Yan, Jiang-Wei

    2018-05-17

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has been used in forensic genetics in recent years owing to several advantages, e.g. MPS can provide precise descriptions of the repeat allele structure and variation in the repeat-flanking regions, increasing the discriminating power among loci and individuals. However, it cannot be fully utilized unless sufficient population data are available for all loci. Thus, there is a pressing need to perform population studies providing a basis for the introduction of MPS into forensic practice. Here, we constructed a multiplex PCR system with fusion primers for one-directional PCR for MPS of 15 commonly used forensic autosomal STRs and amelogenin. Samples from 554 unrelated Chinese Northern Han individuals were typed using this MPS assay. In total, 313 alleles obtained by MPS for all 15 STRs were observed, and the corresponding allele frequencies ranged between 0.0009 and 0.5162. Of all 15 loci, the number of alleles identified for 12 loci increased compared to capillary electrophoresis approaches, and for the following six loci more than double the number of alleles was found: D2S1338, D5S818, D21S11, D13S317, vWA, and D3S1358. Forensic parameters were calculated based on length and sequence-based alleles. D21S11 showed the highest heterozygosity (0.8791), discrimination power (0.9865), and paternity exclusion probability in trios (0.7529). The cumulative match probability for MPS was approximately 2.3157 × 10 -20 . © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Association of HLA-B27 and ERAP1 with ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility in Beijing Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Dai, D; Yu, K; Yuan, F; Jin, J; Ding, L; Hao, Y; Liang, F; Liu, N; Zhao, X; Long, J; Xi, Y; Sun, Y-Y

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the genetic polymorphisms of HLA-B27, together with polymorphisms on endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), and susceptibility for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the Beijing Han population. A case-control study was carried out for 602 AS patient samples and 619 matched controls of Han Chinese. HLA-B27 genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP), and four ERAP1 SNPs (rs27037, rs27980, rs27582, and rs27434) were selected and genotyped on the Sequenom iPlex platform (Sequenom, San Diego, CA). Association analysis was performed using the likelihood ratio χ(2) test. This study identified four HLA-B27 alleles in Beijing Han AS patients, B*27:02, B*27:04, B*27:05, and B*27:07, of which B*27:05 was the most significant geographical different subtype among AS patients in Chinese. Our results confirmed that HLA-B27 was strongly associated with AS (P=1.9 × 10(-150) ), and the most strongly associated alleles were B*27:04, B*27:05, and B*27:02. Our study also confirmed a weak association between ERAP1 (rs27434) and AS. We also observed that for HLA-B*27:02 and HLA-B*27:04 positive AS patients, rs27434 and rs27582 were associated with AS. In contrast, for HLA-B27-negative and HLA-B*27:05-positive AS patients, this association was not observed. This is the first study to show that both B27 and ERAP1 are AS genetic susceptibility genes in Beijing Han. Interactions between ERAP1 and HLA-B*27:02 and B*27:04 may play an important role in the AS pathogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. RAGE gene three polymorphisms with Crohn's disease susceptibility in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Ting; Hu, Jia-Jia; Fan, Rong; Zhou, Jie; Zhong, Jie

    2014-03-07

    To investigate the association of three polymorphisms in the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) gene with Crohn's disease (CD) risk in a Chinese population. A hospital-based case-control association study involving 312 CD patients and 479 healthy controls was conducted. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 791 study subjects, and genomic DNA was extracted. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. The association between polymorphic genotype and CD predisposition was determined using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were analyzed using Haplo.stats program. Significant differences were observed between patients and controls in allele/genotype distributions of rs1800624 (P(allele)=0.012; P(genotype)=0.005) and in allele distributions of rs2070600 (P=0.02). The risk for CD associated with the rs1800624-A mutant allele decreased by 36% (95%CI: 0.47-0.88, P = 0.005) under the additive model and by 35% (95%CI: 0.46-0.91, P=0.013) under the dominant model. Carriers of rs2070600-A mutant allele showed a 37% (95%CI: 1.02-1.83, P=0.036) increased risk of developing CD relative to the GG genotype carriers. In haplotype analysis, haplotype T-A-G (in the order rs1800625, rs1800624, and rs2070600) decreased the odds of CD by 33% (95%CI: 0.49-0.94, P=0.018). CD is an immune-related disease with genetic predisposition. Genetic defects in the RAGE gene are strongly associated with CD in Chinese population.

  8. Correlations Between COL2A and Aggrecan Genetic Polymorphisms and the Risk and Clinicopathological Features of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in a Chinese Han Population: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Tan, Xin-Ti; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Xin

    2017-02-01

    This case-control study was designed to evaluate the association of three COL2A1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) (rs1793953, rs2276454, and rs1793937) and Aggrecan variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms with the risk and clinicopathological features of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) in a Chinese Han population. Data from 295 IVDD patients (case group) and 324 healthy volunteers (control group) were collected between January 2012 and December 2014. Magnetic resonance examinations were conducted on all included subjects. The frequency distributions of the COL2A1 and Aggrecan polymorphisms were detected using direct sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis, respectively. The genotype and allele frequencies of the COL2A1 genetic polymorphisms (rs1793953 and rs2276454) and the Aggrecan VNTR polymorphisms differed significantly between the case group and the control group (all p < 0.05). The haplotype analysis indicated that the frequencies of ACGL (L, long) and GTCL haplotypes were lower in the case group than in the control group (both p < 0.05). In the case group, the genotype and allele frequencies of the COL2A1 genes, rs1793953 and rs2276454, and Aggrecan VNTR significantly differed in terms of Pfirrmann grades III, IV, and V (all p < 0.05). Personal history of spine sprain or crush injury, history of IVDD in a first-degree relative, and COL2A1 rs2276454 and Aggrecan VNTR presence may be independent risk factors of IVDD (all p < 0.05, odds ratio [OR] >1), whereas tea drinking habit, part-time sports participation, and COL2A1 rs1793953 presence may be protective factors of IVDD (all p < 0.05, OR <1). Our study provides evidence that COL2A1 and Aggrecan genetic polymorphisms may be correlated with the risk and clinicopathological features of IVDD in a Chinese Han population, and ACGL and GTCL haplotypes may be protective factors of IVDD.

  9. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating

  10. Annual Conference (4th) on HAN-Based Liquid Propellants. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    TEFLON STOPCOCK pH METERI HAN PRODUCT RESERVOIR MAGNETIC STIRRER I 148 EQUIPMENT FOR ION EXCHANGE RESIN HNO 3 + HAN [~0.6 M HNO 3 1 __ REGENERANT [10% NH4...34Study of Thermal Diffusive-Reactive Instability in Liquid Propellants: The Effects of Surface Tension and Gravity " by R. C. Armstrong and S. B. Margolis

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Lidocaine Hydrochloride Metabolized by CYP3A4 in Chinese Han Volunteers Living at Low Altitude and in Native Han and Tibetan Chinese Volunteers Living at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juanling; Zhu, Junbo; Yao, Xingchen; Duan, Yabin; Zhou, Xuejiao; Yang, Meng; Li, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in Chinese Han volunteers living at low altitude (LA) and in native Han and Tibetan Chinese volunteers living at high altitude, lidocaine hydrochloride 10 mg was given by intramuscular injection to 3 groups: Han volunteers living at LA, and native Han and Tibetan volunteers living at a high altitude. Blood samples were collected before the (baseline) study drug was given and at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 h after study drug administration. Lidocaine hydrochloride in plasma was determined by RP-HPLC. Pharmacokinetics parameters of lidocaine hydrochloride showed that there were no significant difference between the native Han and Tibetan volunteers, but the t(1/2) was 29.8 and 29.8% higher in 2 groups, respectively, than in the LA group. To study related mechanism, the effects of exposure to chronic high-altitude hypoxia (CHH) on the activity and expression of CYP3A1 were examined in rats. Rats were divided into LA, chronic moderate altitude hypoxia, and CHH groups. CHH caused significant decreases in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of rat CYP3A1 in vivo. This study found significant changes in the disposition of lidocaine hydrochloride in native healthy Tibetan and Han Chinese subjects living at a high altitude in comparison to healthy Han Chinese subjects living at LA, it might be due to significant decreases in the activity and protein and mRNA expression of CYP3A4 under CHH condition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Association Between P2RX7 Gene and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Susceptibility: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaobo; Yu, Jie; Han, Zhiyu; Cheng, Zhigang; Liang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of liver cancer. It is hypothesized that P2RX7 genetic polymorphisms have strong association with HCC susceptibility. Therefore, a case-control study was designed and performed to verify the association between P2RX7 gene polymorphisms and HCC susceptibility. Material/Methods A total of 646 subjects were recruited in our study, including 323 HCC patients and 323 healthy controls. Five gene polymorphisms, −762C>T (rs2393799), 946G>A (rs28360457), 1513A>C (rs3751143), 1068G>A (rs1718119), and 1096C>G (rs2230911), were selected. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to quantify the association between P2RX7 gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to HCC. All tests were performed using SPSS 20 and a 2-sided P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Our results suggest that allelic frequencies of these 5 SNPs all conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). There was no significant difference in genotype and allele distributions of −762C>T and 1096C>G between the case group and the control group. However, an increased risk of HCC was associated with 946G>A (A vs. G: OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.09–2.01, P=0.013; GA+AA vs. GG: OR=1.46, 95%CI=1.03–2.07, P=0.033). A similar increased risk was associated with 1513A>C polymorphism (C vs. A: OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.05–1.79, P=0.021; AC+CC vs. AA: OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.01–1.93, P=0.041). On the other hand, a decreased risk of HCC was associated with gene polymorphism of 1068G>A (A vs. G: OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.51–0.91, P=0.010; GA+AA vs. GG: OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.49–0.96, P=0.027; AA vs. GG: OR=0.42, 95%CI=0.18–0.99, P=0.048). Conclusions Our results suggest that 3 of the 5 polymorphisms of P2RX7 described above (1513A>C, 946G>A, and 1068G>A) are significantly associated with HCC susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. Studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to confirm whether our results will

  13. Analysis of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Yu, Xiaomin; Shu, Chang; Cai, Yimei; Gong, Wei; Wang, Xumin; Wang, Duen-mei; Hu, Songnian

    2011-06-01

    Our study aimed to comprehensively investigate the genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4 in Han Chinese. We sequenced the gene regions of CYP3A4, including its promoter, exons, surrounding introns and 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), from 100 unrelated-healthy Han Chinese individuals. We detected 11 SNPs, three of which are novel. According to in silico functional prediction of novel variants, 20148 A>G in exon 10, resulting in substitution of Tyr319 with Cys (CYP3A4*21), may induce dramatic alteration of protein conformation, and 26908 G>A in 3'UTR may disrupt post-transcriptional regulation. We identified five alleles in Han Chinese, the allele frequencies of CYP3A4*1, *5, *6, *18 and *21 are 97, 0.5, 1, 1 and 0.5%, respectively. Haplotype inference revealed 14 haplotypes, of which the major haplotype CYP3A4*1A constitutes 59% of the total chromosomes. We also examined the possible role of natural selection in shaping the variation of CYP3A4 and confirmed a trend, consistent with the action of positive selection. We systematically screened the genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A4 in Han Chinese, highlighted possible functional impairment of the novel allele and summarized the distinct allele and haplotype frequency distribution, with an emphasis on detecting the footprint of recent positive selection on the CYP3A4 gene in Han Chinese.

  14. In Memoriam: Hans Bethe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard L.; Von Hippel, Frank

    Hans Bethe, who died on March 6 at the age of 98, was exemplary as a scientist; a citizen-advocate seeking to stem the arms race; and an individual of warmth, generosity, tenacity, and modest habits. Bethe made major contributions to several areas of physics during his academic career. He earned a Nobel Prize in 1967 for his research into how the sun generates its energy by converting hydrogen to helium using carbon as a nuclear catalyst. A few years later, he made central contributions to the secret US World War II nuclear-weapon development programs (the "Manhattan Project").

  15. Association of the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G Promoter Polymorphism with Risk of Keloid in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjie; Long, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Background A keloid is pathological scar caused by aberrant response to skin injuries, characterized by excessive accumulation of histological extracellular matrix, and occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of keloid. We investigated the association between PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with keloid risk. Material/Methods A total of 242 Chinese keloid patients and 207 controls were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction technique was used to determine PAI-1 promoter polymorphism (-675 4G/5G and -844 A/G) distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism between keloid patients and healthy controls. 4G/4G carriers were more likely to develop keloid. In contrast, the -844 A/G polymorphism distribution did not vary significantly between keloid patients and controls. The keloid patients group had a significantly higher plasma PAI-1 level than the control group. In the -675 4G/4G carrier population, the plasma PAI-1 levels were significant higher in keloid patients compared with controls. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that PAI-1 promoter polymorphism -675 4G/5G and plasma PAI-1 level are associated with keloid risk. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism may be an important hereditary factor responsible for keloid development in the Chinese Han population. PMID:25350781

  16. Identification of Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2W1 in the Three Main Chinese Ethnicities: Han, Tibetan, and Uighur.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Kang, Xing; Yang, Ge; Dai, Penggao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Huijuan

    2016-09-01

    CYP2W1 is an orphan member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Recently, CYP2W1 has gained great research interest because of its unknown enzymatic function and tumor-specific expression property. This study aims to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2W1 gene in Chinese populations and explore the functions of the detected variants. All of the nine exons and exon-intron junction regions of the CYP2W1 gene were sequenced in 150 Chinese subjects, including 50 Han Chinese, 50 Tibetans, and 50 Uighurs. A total of 26 genetic variants were identified in this study, and 19 polymorphisms were detected in each population. Frequency comparison between populations showed that nine variants exhibited significantly different allelic distributions. A total of 12 different haplotypes were inferred from 150 samples by using the genotype data of nine exonic variants found in this study. CYP2W1*1A, *1B, *2, *4, and *6 were detected as the main alleles/haplotypes. Moreover, one, three, and two ethnically specific haplotypes were observed in the Han, Tibetan, and Uighur samples, respectively. Then, the effects of four detected missense mutations (Ala181Thr, Gly376Ser, Val432Ile, and Pro488Leu) on the CYP2W1 protein function were predicted using three in silico tools: Polymorphism Phenotyping v2, Sorts Intolerant from Tolerant, and MutationTaster. The results showed that Gly376Ser and Pro488Leu may have deleterious effects. In summary, this study showed that the genetic pattern of CYP2W1 is interethnically different among the three Chinese populations, and this finding can extend our understanding of population genetics of CYP2W1 in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Differences of prevalence of dyslipidemia and risk factors related to LDL-c in the patients with abnormal fasting glucose between Uygur and Han in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Quan, Li; Hu, Lin; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of dyslipidemia among Uygur and Han patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). To investigate the influence factors on LDL-c in this population. This cross-sectional study included a total of 4709 participants, consisting of Uygurs patients (n=2053) and Han patients (n=2656) from Xinjiang province, who were screened for diabetes mellitus. A stratified multistage sampling design was used to collect the participants. The influence factors on LDL-c were analyzed by Logistic regression analysis. Among the IFG patients (n=1757), Uighur IFG group had a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia than that of Han IFG group, 99.8% vs. 63.7%, P<0.05. Similar trends were existed in the prevalence of hypercholesteremia, hypertriglyceridemia, high LDL-c and low HDL-c (all P<0.05). Among the Uighur groups, IFG group had higher dyslipidemia rate than that of euglycemia group (74%). However, there was no such difference in the Han groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that risk factors associated with LDL-c were age, total cholesterol and 2 h postprandial blood glucose for the Uighur IFG patients. However, gender and total cholesterol were risk factors for Han IFG patients. Uighur IFG patients had higher incidence of dyslipidemia than that of Han IFG patients. For Uyghur IFG patients, closing follow-up of total cholesterol and 2 h postprandial blood glucose were necessary. As to the Han IFG patients, we should pay more attention to male and total cholesterol in order to lower LDL-c levels. So, appropriately preventive and therapeutic measures should be chosen based on the characteristics of abnormal lipid profiles in different nationality.

  18. Association Study of the β2-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Hypertension in the Northern Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Liu, Ya; Wang, Zuoguang; Liu, Kuo; Wu, Hai; Niu, Qiuli; Gu, Wei; Guo, Yanhong; Li, Zhizhong; Wen, Shaojun

    2011-01-01

    Background The β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene has been widely researched as a candidate gene for essential hypertension (EH), but no consensus has been reached in different ethnicities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between the ADRB2 gene polymorphisms and the EH risk in the Northern Han Chinese population. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included 747 hypertensive subjects and 390 healthy volunteers as control subjects in the Northern Han Chinese. Genotyping was performed to identify the C-47T, A46G and C79G polymorphisms of the ADRB2 gene. G allelic frequency of A46G polymorphism was significantly higher in hypertensive subjects (P = 0.011, OR = 1.287, 95%CI [1.059–1.565]) than that in controls. Significant association could also be found in dominant genetic model (GG+AG vs. AA, P = 0.006, OR = 1.497, 95%CI [1.121–1.998]), in homozygote comparison (GG vs. AA, P = 0.025, OR = 1.568, 95%CI [1.059–2.322]), and in additive genetic model (GG vs. AG vs. AA, P = 0.012, OR = 1.282, 95%CI [1.056–1.555]). Subgroup analyses performed by gender suggested that this association could be found in male, but not in female. Stratification analyses by obesity showed that A46G polymorphism was related to the prevalence of hypertension in the obese population (GG vs. AG vs. AA, P<0.001, OR = 1.645, 95%CI [1.258–2.151]). Significant interaction was found between A46G genotypes and body mass index on EH risk. No significant association could be found between C-47T or C79G polymorphism and EH risk. Linkage disequilibrium was detected between the C-47T, A46G and C79G polymorphisms. Haplotype analyses observed that the T-47-A46-C79 haplotype was a protective haplotype for EH, while the T-47-G46-C79 haplotype increased the risk. Conclusions/Significances We revealed that the ADRB2 A46G polymorphism might increase the risk for EH in the Northern Han Chinese population. PMID:21483652

  19. The hURAT1 rs559946 polymorphism and the incidence of gout in Han Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Yu, Q; Han, L; Wang, C; Chu, N; Liu, S

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study identified rs559946, a human urate transporter 1 (hURAT1) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), as being significantly associated with risk of primary hyperuricaemia (HUA) in a Han Chinese population. In the current study we aimed to identify the genetic effects of rs559946 on gout susceptibility in Han Chinese men. A total of 335 patients with gout and 376 healthy controls were recruited for a case-control association study. To examine the functional effect of rs559946, we performed luciferase reporter assays and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). rs559946 was found to be significantly associated with gout susceptibility (p = 0.004), with T-allele carriers showing a decreased risk of gout [odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-0.89]. Multiple linear regression analysis identified a significant association between rs559946 genotypes and tophi. Luciferase reporter assays show increased transcriptional activity of the hURAT1 promoter with the C allele of rs559946. EMSA detected binding of nuclear proteins to both the T and C alleles, although increased binding was observed with the T allele. Cold competition assays suggest that rs559946 may bind within a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding motif. Our study suggests that the rs559946 polymorphism is associated with increased HUA risk and may also contribute to gout development in Han Chinese men. The T to C substitution within rs559946 increased the transcriptional activity, and potentially increases gout susceptibility.

  20. [Correlation between the genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein M with the susceptibility to rheumatic diseases of Chinese Han populastion in Lanzhou].

    PubMed

    Li, Meiyong; Guo, Xinling; Li, Qiannan; You, Chongge

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein M (ApoM) and the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) among Chinese Han population in Lanzhou. Methods Primers for the two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites (rs805296 and rs805297) in ApoM gene were designed and their genotyping methods of polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melting (PCR-HRM) assay were established. Case-control studies were performed among the 599 cases of RA, 194 cases of SLE, 179 cases of AS and 273 matched healthy controls to analyze the correlations between the two SNPs and the susceptibility to rheumatic diseases. Results The genotype frequencies of rs805296 were AA 87.0%, AG 12.7%, GG 0.3% in RA cases, AA 84.5%, AG 15.0%, GG 0.5% in SLE cases, AA 91.6%, AG 7.3%, GG 1.1% in AS cases, AA 85.0%, AG 15.0%, GG 0% in healthy controls. The ones of rs805297 were GG 38.2%, GT 51.8%, TT 10.0% in RA cases, GG 44.3%, GT 45.4%, TT 10.3% in SLE cases, GG 37.4%, GT 47.5%, TT 15.1% in AS cases, GG 40.7%, GT 46.1%, TT 13.2% in healthy controls. Statistical analyses showed that only the genotype distribution of rs805296 was significantly different between the AS cases and the healthy controls. Under the dominant model, the G allele carriers of rs805296 (AG heterozygote and GG homozygote) were found to significantly decrease the risk for AS development. Conclusion The established PCR-HRM genotyping assays in the present study can successfully achieve the molecular diagnosis of the two SNPs sites (rs805296 and rs805297) from clinical samples, and the study found a significant association between the SNP of rs805296 and the susceptibility to AS among Chinese Han population in Lanzhou.

  1. No association of toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms with Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Tai; Sun, Yan-Ping; Ou, Jiang-Rong; Cui, Wei-Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Lan

    2011-10-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) represents a reasonable functional and positional candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it is located under the linkage region of AD on chromosome 4q, and is functionally involved in the microglia-mediated inflammatory response and amyloid β (Aβ) clearance. In the current study, 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that span the TLR2 were selected and their associations with late-onset AD (LOAD) risk were assessed in a case-control sample comprising 785 individuals in a Han Chinese population. No significant differences in the frequency of TLR2 alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in the AD cases were detected compared with the controls. TLR2 gene might not play a major role in the genetic predisposition to late-onset Alzheimer's disease in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal natural killer cell immunoglobulin receptor genes and human leukocyte antigen-C ligands influence recurrent spontaneous abortion in the Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ning; Wang, Hongdan; Zhang, Bowei; Kang, Yiqing; Guo, Qiannan; Xiao, Hai; Yang, Hecai; Liao, Shixiu

    2018-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) has remained elusive for many years. Several previous studies have suggested that the killer cell immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) gene family is associated with RSA, however, it is not clear exactly how. The present study detected KIR and human leukocyte antigen-C (HLA-C) genes in 110 Han Chinese women with unexplained RSA and 105 Han Chinese healthy females. The aim of the present study was to determine if certain genotypes were more susceptible to the occurrence of miscarriage. The frequency of KIR genes and different KIR haplotypes in the 2 groups demonstrated no statistical differences. However, in women who had miscarried ≥3 times, the frequency of KIR3DL1 was significantly reduced and the BB haplotype frequency was significantly higher compared with the control group. HLA-C2C2 was significantly increased in the KIR AB and KIR BB groups in the RSA groups compared with the control group. The women in the RSA group who had a homozygous HLA-C2C2 had a significantly higher frequency of the 2DS1 gene compared with the control group. The reduction of inhibitory gene and increased activation combinations may induce the activation of uterine natural killer cells, which may reduce the probability of fetal survival. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report demonstrating the association between maternal KIR and HLA-C genes and RSA in women of a Han Chinese ethnicity. The present study revealed that females who miscarry ≥3 times may be used as selection criteria for RSA and so may exhibit higher research value. PMID:29387191

  3. Pulse Pressure, Instead of Brachium-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity, is Associated with Reduced Kidney Function in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linpei; Zhang, Weiguang; Ma, Jie; Chen, Xizhao; Chen, Lei; Li, Zuoxiang; Cai, Guangyan; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Jinping; Bai, Xiaojuan; Feng, Zhe; Sun, Xuefeng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aim to investigate the association between renal function and arterial stiffness in a Chinese Han population, and further to discuss the effects of smoking on renal function. We collected the data of the brachium-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), blood pressure, blood chemistry and smoking status. Then, the multiple linear regression was done to explore the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) and baPWV. Further, the parameters were compared among the four groups divided according to the quartiles of baPWV. Finally, the baPWV, eGFR and albuminuria values were compared between smokers and non-smokers. baPWV is associated with eGFR in the correlation analysis and univariate linear regression model. After adjustment, the pulse pressure (PP) instead of baPWV showed a significant association with eGFR. Nevertheless, the eGFR values differed among the four baPWV groups; the baPWV values were significantly higher in the subjects at the CKD (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and the early CKD stage (eGFR60-80 mL/min/1.73 m2). The baPWV values and the ratio of proteinuria were significantly increased in smokers. PP but not baPWV is a predictor of declined renal function. Smokers have worse arterial stiffness and worse renal function. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Change-in-ratio methods for estimating population size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; McCullough, Dale R.; Barrett, Reginald H.

    2002-01-01

    Change-in-ratio (CIR) methods can provide an effective, low cost approach for estimating the size of wildlife populations. They rely on being able to observe changes in proportions of population subclasses that result from the removal of a known number of individuals from the population. These methods were first introduced in the 1940’s to estimate the size of populations with 2 subclasses under the assumption of equal subclass encounter probabilities. Over the next 40 years, closed population CIR models were developed to consider additional subclasses and use additional sampling periods. Models with assumptions about how encounter probabilities vary over time, rather than between subclasses, also received some attention. Recently, all of these CIR models have been shown to be special cases of a more general model. Under the general model, information from additional samples can be used to test assumptions about the encounter probabilities and to provide estimates of subclass sizes under relaxations of these assumptions. These developments have greatly extended the applicability of the methods. CIR methods are attractive because they do not require the marking of individuals, and subclass proportions often can be estimated with relatively simple sampling procedures. However, CIR methods require a carefully monitored removal of individuals from the population, and the estimates will be of poor quality unless the removals induce substantial changes in subclass proportions. In this paper, we review the state of the art for closed population estimation with CIR methods. Our emphasis is on the assumptions of CIR methods and on identifying situations where these methods are likely to be effective. We also identify some important areas for future CIR research.

  5. ["Snow" and "Walpurgisnacht". Hans Castorp's exemplary maturation crises in "Zauberberg"].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, K; Walter, C

    1995-01-01

    On the occasion of a rather incidental visit in the sanatorium "Berghof" at Davos, Hans Castorp, the--as to his primary personality--asthenic and low-profile protagonist of the "Zauberberg" is gradually getting caught up in the maelstrom of the there prevailing timelessness and irresponsibility, this being interrupted solely by two tapering to crisis episodes: his amouressness to Mme. Chauchat as an erotic crisis and by the visionary daydream during a snowstorm about the abilities of men as a cognitive, mental crisis. Both events are triggered by a pathoid irritability, following the maxim of Th. Mann that illness, decay and death as borderline experiences may be the presupposition for cognition and reversal. Both crises end without consequences--the "Zauberberg" is the negation of the novel of education and development in the narrower sense. The unsuccessfulness and undecidedness of Hans Castorp's existence culminate in the open end of the novel, regarding his surviving on the battle field, and is in strict contrast to Adrian Leverkühn's determined autoinfection with Lues with the aim of artistic perfection and the creative break-through of "Doctor Faustus". Hans Castorp's regression and self-fragmentation within the decadent-morbid atmosphere of the sanatorium lead to his storming into the battles of the First World War as a last and existential crisis; it is here where finally the individual and national fate are merging. Hans Castorp becomes the paradigma of the German pre-war bourgeoisie and its crisis-prone development.

  6. The spatially resolved characterisation of Egyptian blue, Han blue and Han purple by photo-induced luminescence digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Verri, G

    2009-06-01

    The photo-induced luminescence properties of Egyptian blue, Han blue and Han purple were investigated by means of near-infrared digital imaging. These pigments emit infrared radiation when excited in the visible range. The emission can be recorded by means of a modified commercial digital camera equipped with suitable glass filters. A variety of visible light sources were investigated to test their ability to excite luminescence in the pigments. Light-emitting diodes, which do not emit stray infrared radiation, proved an excellent source for the excitation of luminescence in all three compounds. In general, the use of visible radiation emitters with low emission in the infrared range allowed the presence of the pigments to be determined and their distribution to be spatially resolved. This qualitative imaging technique can be easily applied in situ for a rapid characterisation of materials. The results were compared to those for Egyptian green and for historical and modern blue pigments. Examples of the application of the technique on polychrome works of art are presented.

  7. Association of NOS1 gene polymorphisms with cerebral palsy in a Han Chinese population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Xia, Lei; Bi, Dan; Wang, Yangong; Shang, Qing; Zhu, Dengna; Song, Juan; Wang, Yong; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhu, Changlian; Xing, Qinghe

    2018-06-25

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the leading cause of motor disability in children; however, its pathogenesis is unknown in most cases. Growing evidence suggests that Nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) is involved in neural development and neurologic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetic variants of NOS1 contribute to CP susceptibility in a Han Chinese population. A case-control study involving 652 CP patients and 636 healthy controls was conducted. Six SNPs in the NOS1 gene (rs3782219, rs6490121, rs2293054, rs10774909, rs3741475, and rs2682826) were selected, and the MassARRAY typing technique was applied for genotyping. Data analysis was conducted using SHEsis online software, and multiple test corrections were performed using SNPSpD online software. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies between patients and controls for the SNPs except rs6490121, which deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and was excluded from further analyses. Subgroup analysis revealed differences in genotype frequencies between the CP with neonatal encephalopathy group (CP + NE) and control group for rs10774909, rs3741475, and rs2682826 (after SNPSpD correction, p = 0.004, 0.012, and 0.002, respectively). The T allele of NOS1 SNP rs3782219 was negatively associated with spastic quadriplegia (OR = 0.742, 95% CI = 0.600-0.918, after SNPSpD correction, p = 0.023). There were no differences in allele or genotype frequencies between CP subgroups and controls for the other genetic polymorphisms. NOS1 is associated with CP + NE and spastic quadriplegia, suggesting that NOS1 is likely involved in the pathogenesis of CP and that it is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of cerebral injury.

  8. [A cross-sectional survey on behavior problems among eco-migrant children of Hui and Han in Ningxia, China].

    PubMed

    Yan, Guoli; Fang, Jianqun; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Feng, Liping; Wu, Jinrong; Ma, Fuli; Chen, Shiqi; Zhao, Ranran; Wang, Yingli; Wang, Zhizhong

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the detection rate and correlates of behavioral problems among eco-migrant children in Hui and Han ethnicities. Using multistage randomized sampling method, 2 653 eco-migrant teenagers, 3 174 indigenous and 2 334 homeland peers were selected. Their parents were asked to finish the Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a self-developed correlates questionnaire. 765 eco-migrant children with behavioral problems were detected, with detection rate as 28.8%, higher than that of homeland group (24.2%) and native group (19.3%) (χ(2) = 73.547, P < 0.012 5). Ecological migration mainly influenced factors as bad contacts, depression, obsessive-compulsive, discipline, attack for boys aged 6-11, bad contacts for boys aged 12-16 and extraversion behavioral problems for girls aged 12-16, in Hui. These factors both associated to eco-migrant children's behavioral problems in Hui and Han:cesarean section (OR = 1.863, 95% CI:1.144-3.035, for Han) and (OR = 2.979, 95% CI:2.067-4.293, for Hui), physical defects (OR = 1.730, 95%CI:1.087-2.751, for Han) and (OR = 2.552, 95%CI:1.649-3.950, for Hui), arable as a main income way(OR = 1.272, 95%CI:1.066-1.518, for Han) and (OR = 1.212, 95%CI: 1.033-1.422, for Hui), parents' education level above middle school (OR = 0.709, 95% CI: 0.539-0.932, for Han) and (OR = 0.698, 95%CI: 0.542-0.898, for Hui), parents' frequently in good mood (OR = 0.710, 95%CI:0.613-0.821, for Han) and (OR = 0.826, 95%CI:0.718-0.949, for Hui). However, major diseases in the process of growth (OR = 1.794, 95% CI:1.163-2.767), and parents with chronic illness or disability (OR = 1.463, 95% CI:1.061-2.016) only associated with that in Han;single-parent or remarried families(OR = 1.583, 95% CI:1.078-2.325), parents often drinking (OR = 1.557, 95%CI:1.019- 2.379), the time of parents' work longer than half a year (OR = 1.494, 95% CI:1.197-1.864), parents' more content to life now(OR = 0.813, 95% CI:0.700-0.945), and children in older age (OR = 0

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs3774261 in the AdipoQ gene is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Northeast Han Chinese population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kanu, Joseph Sam; Gu, Yulu; Zhi, Sun; Yu, Mingxi; Lu, Yuping; Cong, Yetong; Liu, Yunkai; Li, Yong; Yu, Yaqin; Cheng, Yi; Liu, Yawen

    2016-01-12

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death in the world with a projected global 82 million DALYs by 2020. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to CHD development. Here, the authors investigate the association between CHD risk and three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AdipoQ gene (rs3774261, rs1063537 and rs2082940); and the interaction of this association with environmental factors, in Northeast Han Chinese population. Using a case-control study design, 1514 participants (754 cases and 760 controls) were investigated. Three variants in the AdipoQ gene (rs3774261, rs1063537 and rs2082940) were selected and genotyped. The online SNPstats program and SPSS 21.0 software were used for data analyses. The authors found that the rs3774261G allele is associated with the risk of CHD but that the rs2082940T allele protects against CHD. No significant association was found between rs1063537 and CHD risk. The study also found significant interactions between triglyceride levels and the SNPs studied (P < 0.0001 for rs3774261, P = 0.014 for rs1063537, and P = 0.031 for rs2082940). Variations in AdipoQ gene can protect against CHD (as with rs2082940T) or associated with CHD risk (as with rs3774261G) in Northeast Han Chinese - findings that will help shed light on the reported conflicting roles of AdipoQ in cardiovascular diseases. Serum triglycerides levels also interact in the AdipoQ - CHD association, thus further highlighting the roles environmental factors play in the genetic aspect of diseases.

  10. Freud's Little Oedipus: Hans as exception to the oedipal rule.

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2008-09-01

    Freud's "The Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" is regarded by Freud and by analytic readers and commentators as a prototype of his conception of the oedipus complex. A literary methodology is used to show that the interpretation of the oedipus complex at work in Freud's text in fact differs from Freud's standard view of it. While studying the paper as text, not as case report, may obscure or distort some clinical matters, it is valuable in that it makes legible a sort of theoretical unconscious in the text. In contrast to Freud's typically tragic view of the oedipus complex (in the tradition of ancient Greek tragedy), the Hans study evokes a comic vision (in the tradition of Greek New Comedy). This comic vision allows Hans a happy imaginative ending to the oedipal dilemma, challenges certain epistemic pretensions, and emphasizes the oedipus complex as a set of abiding existential questions. Given the deep link between Freud"s oedipus concept and a tragic view of human life, this departure in the Hans paper is a fascinating anomaly.

  11. Distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of children aged 3-5 years of Uygur and Han nationality and their genotype in caries-active groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, N; Lin, J; Wu, L; Zhao, J

    2015-01-30

    We analyzed the distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of 3-5-year-old children of Uygur and Han nationalities as well as their genotypes in caries-active groups in the Urumqi municipality. CHROMagar Candida was separately cultivated, and we identified 359 Uygur and Han children aged 3-5 years. We randomly selected 20 Han children and 20 Uygur children for this study. We chose a bacterial strain for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 25S rDNA genotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genotyping. The rate of caries-active in Han children was higher than that in Uygur children, with values of 39.6 and 24.3%, respectively. The detection rate of C. albicans was closely correlated to the caries filling index classification (X(2) = 31.037, P = 0.000, r = 0.421; X(2) = 80.454, P = 0.000, r = 0.497). PCR of 25S rDNA from 40 strains of Han and Uygur children revealed 3 genotypes, while RAPD analysis revealed 5 genotypes. The distribution of 25S rDNA genotyping of Han children from PCR differed from that of Uygur children (X(2) = 7.697, P = 0.021), both of which were mainly the A type. RAPD genotyping of both Han and Uygur children showed similar results (X(2) = 1.573, P = 0.814). There were differences in the distributions of C. albicans in children of different nationalities. C. albicans is a key factor causing caries. The PCR 25S rDNA genotyping method is simple and sensitive, while the RAPD genotyping method is reliable and comprehensive.

  12. [Polymorphism of DYS287 on Y chromosome in 28 ethnic populations of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Chu, Jia-you; Yu, Jian-kun; Yu, Liang; Sun, Hao; Lin, Ke-qin; Tao, Yu-fen; Shi, Lei; Huang, Xiao-qin; Shi, Tie-liu; Fu, Song-bin

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the polymorphism of DYS287 among 28 ethnic populations in 9 provinces of China. YAP element was detected by Touchdown PCR amplification and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. YAP+ frequencies in these ethnic populations were as follows: Zang 36.7%, Tu 23.8%, Yi 18.4%, Pumi 11.3%, Tajik 7.4%, Bai 6.7%, Jino 5.1%, Shandong Han 4%, Mulao 2.7%, and Maonan 1.3%. The rest ethnic populations in our study, including Gansu Han, Yunnan Han, Zhuangzu, Daizu, Lizu, Nuzu, Lisu, Naxi, Lahu, Dulong, Hani, Shezu, Weiwuer, Sala, Kerkizi, Dongxiang, Vazu, and Korea didn't carry YAP + element. Zangzu, Tuzu, Yizu, Pumi, Jino, and Baizu, which belong to Sino-Tibetan language family, carry a high YAP + frequency. Sala, Tuzu, and Tajik, regarded as Central Asia by origin in history and linguistics, also have a high YAP + frequency. Mulao and Maonan, which origin from "Baiyue" ancient ethnic groups, also have a considerable YAP + frequency.

  13. Risk of macular degeneration affected by polymorphisms in Matrix metalloproteinase-2: A case-control study in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Hao, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhongchen

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Matrix metalloproteinase -2 (MMP-2) gene and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Chinese Han population.A total of 126 AMD patients and 141 healthy controls participated in this study. Genotypes of MMP-2 gene polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). χtest was used to detect the differences of genotypes and alleles frequencies between case and control groups. Relative risk of AMD was evaluated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Distribution of variant allele carriers (computed tomography + TT genotypes) of MMP-2 gene rs243865 SNP was significantly different between case and control groups, and might act as protective factors for the onset of AMD (P = .044, OR = 0.583, 95% CI = 0.344-0.987). Nevertheless, the T allele might reduce the AMD risk (P = .030, OR = 0.611, 95% CI = 0.390-0.956). However, no significant association existed between rs243865 and AMD risk in the subgroup analysis based on age. GA + AA genotypes of rs243866 SNP may associate with a decreased risk of AMD in the age≤65 years subgroup (P = .028, OR = 0.399, 95% CI = 0.174-0.915).MMP-2 gene rs243865 and rs243866 SNPs associated with the risk of AMD. Further studies should be performed to confirm the results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of ghrelin polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome in Han Nationality Chinese.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Hong-Ding; Qiu, Chang-Chun; Xu, Qun

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the association of ghrelin gene polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome in Han Nationality Chinese. A total of 240 patients with metabolic syndrome and 427 adults aged above forty years were recruited. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The allelic frequency of the Leu72Met polymorphism was 17.3% in the patient group and 11.9% in the control group (chi2 = 7.36, P = 0.007). Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent among carriers of the Met72 variant (43.8 vs 33.1%, age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, P = 0.01). No Arg51Gln variants were found in our study subjects. Rather than being associated with its individual components, Leu72Met polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome in the Han Nationality Chinese. Arg51Gln polymorphism is rare in the Han Nationality Chinese.

  15. The European GWAS-identified risk SNP rs457717 within IQGAP2 is not associated with age-related hearing impairment in Han male Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Wu, Hao; Shen, Hailian; Chen, Haifeng; Yang, Tao; Huang, Zhiwu; Jin, Xiaojie; Pang, Xiuhong; Li, Lei; Hu, Xianting; Jiang, Xuemei; Fan, Zhuping; Li, Jiping

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to test the association between the European GWAS-identified risk IQGAP2 SNP rs457717 (A>G) and age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in a Han male Chinese (HMC) population. A total of 2420 HMC subjects were divided into two groups [group 70+: >70 years (n = 1306), and group 70-: ≤70 years (n = 1114)]. The participants were categorised into case and control groups according to Z high scores for group 70- and the severity of hearing loss and different audiogram shapes identified by K-means cluster analysis for group 70+. The IQGAP2 tagSNP rs457717 was genotyped in accordance with the different ARHI phenotypes. The genotype distributions of IQGAP2 (AA/AG/GG) were not significantly different between the case and control groups (P = 0.613 for group 70-; P = 0.602 for group 70+). Compared with genotype AA, the ORs of genotypes AG and GG for ARHI were not significantly different following adjustment for other environmental risk factors. We demonstrated that the IQGAP2 TagSNP rs457717 (A/G) was not associated with ARHI in HMC individuals.

  16. Association of IL8 -251A/T, IL12B -1188A/C and TNF-α -238A/G polymorphisms with Tourette syndrome in a family-based association study in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguo; Yi, Mingji; Wang, Meijian; Sun, Yuping; Che, Fengyuan; Ma, Xu

    2011-05-16

    An earlier study indicated a possible relationship between Tourette syndrome (TS) and the cytokines. To explore this further, we analyzed the association of the polymorphisms, IL8 -251A/T, IL12B -1188A/C and TNF-α -238A/G, in the IL8, IL12B and TNF-α cytokine genes with TS in a Chinese Han population. A total of 108 patients diagnosed with TS and their parents were recruited for the study. The genetic contributions of the IL8 -251A/T, IL12B -1188A/C, and TNF-α -238A/G polymorphisms were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion (PCR-RFLP) and haplotype relative risk (HRR) and transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) statistics. Our results revealed no significant associations between the IL8 -251A/T, IL12B -1188A/C and TNF-α -238A/G polymorphisms and TS (for IL8 -251A/T, TDT=0.418, df=1, P=0.518; HRR=2.17, X(2)=3.000, P=0.083, 95%CI: 0.900-5.230; for IL12B -1188A/C, TDT=1.131, df=1, P=0.288; HRR=1.27, X(2)=0.35, P=0.549, 95%CI: 0.580-2.790; for TNF-α -238A/G, TDT=2.793, df=1, P=0.095; HRR=0.27, X(2)=2.90, P=0.089, 95%CI: 0.061-1.217). This result was confirmed using haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) which allows the two alleles in each genotype to be considered separately. Our data suggests that the IL-8 -251A/T, IL-12B -1188A/C and TNF-α -238A/G polymorphisms may not be associated with susceptibility to TS in the Chinese Han population studied. However, these results need to be replicated using larger datasets collected from different populations. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of TMPRSS6 polymorphisms with ferritin, hemoglobin, and type 2 diabetes risk in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Gan, Wei; Guan, Yu; Wu, Qian; An, Peng; Zhu, Jingwen; Lu, Ling; Jing, Li; Yu, Yu; Ruan, Sheng; Xie, Dong; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Anderson, Gregory J; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu; Wang, Fudi

    2012-03-01

    Transmembrane protease serine 6 (TMPRSS6) regulates iron homeostasis by inhibiting the expression of hepcidin. Multiple common variants in TMPRSS6 were significantly associated with serum iron in recent genome-wide association studies, but their effects in the Chinese remain to be elucidated. The objective was to determine whether the TMPRSS6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs855791(V736A) and rs4820268(D521D) were associated with blood hemoglobin and plasma ferritin concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese individuals. The SNPs rs855791(V736A) and rs4820268(D521D) in the TMPRSS6 gene were genotyped and tested for their associations with plasma iron and type 2 diabetes risk in 1574 unrelated Chinese Hans from Beijing. The 2 TMPRSS6 SNPs rs855791(V736A) and rs4820268(D521D) were both significantly associated with plasma ferritin (P ≤ 0.0058), hemoglobin (P ≤ 0.0013), iron overload risk (P ≤ 0.0068), and type 2 diabetes risk (P ≤ 0.0314). None of the associations with hemoglobin or plasma ferritin remained significant (P ≥ 0.1229) when the 2 variants were both included in one linear regression model. A haplotype carrying both iron-lowering alleles from the 2 TMPRSS SNPs showed significant associations with lower hemoglobin (P = 0.0014), lower plasma ferritin (P = 0.0027), and a reduced risk of iron overload (P = 0.0017) and of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.0277). These findings suggest that TMPRSS6 variants were significantly associated with plasma ferritin, hemoglobin, risk of iron overload, and type 2 diabetes in Chinese Hans. The type 2 diabetes risk conferred by the TMPRSS6 SNPs is possibly mediated by plasma ferritin.

  18. Major depressive disorder and suicide risk among adult outpatients at several general hospitals in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Luo, Xinni; Ke, Xiaoyin; Dai, Qing; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Chanjuan; Cassidy, Ryan M; Soares, Jair C; Zhang, XiangYang; Ning, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    Somatic complaints are often the presenting symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the outpatient context, because this may go unrecognized. It is well understood that MDD carries an increased risk of suicide. This study aimed to identify the risk factors and association with both MDD and suicidality among Han Chinese outpatients. A multicenter study was carried out in 5189 outpatient adults (≥18 years old) in four general hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The 1392 patients who had the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥ 5, indicating depressive symptoms were offered an interview with a psychiatrist by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI); 819 patients consented and completed the MINI interview. MINI module B was used to assess suicidality. Stepwise binary logistic models were used to estimate the relationship between a significant risk factor and suicide or MDD. According to with or without MDD, the secondary analysis was performed using the logistic regression model for the risk of suicidility. The current prevalence of MDD and the one month prevalence of suicidality were 3.7% and 2.3% respectively. The odds ratio of suicidality in women was more than twice that in men (OR = 2.62; 95% CI 1.45-4.76). Other risk factors which were significantly associated with suicidality were: living alone, higher education, self-reported depression, getting psychiatric diagnoses (MDD, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorders). Significant risk factors for MDD were also noticed, such as comorbid anxiety disorders, self-reported anxiety, insomnia, suicidal ideation. It's a cross-sectional study in outpatient clinics using self-report questionnaires. This study provides valuable data about the risk factors and association of MDD and suicide risk in adult outpatients in Han Chinese. Those factors allow better the employment of preventative measures.

  19. Attachment and sibling rivalry in Little Hans: the fantasy of the two giraffes revisited.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Freud's interpretation of Little Hans's "phantasy of the two giraffes" is pivotal to his oedipal analysis that Hans has inchoate desires for sexual intercourse with his mother. Bowlby argued that Freud's focus on his oedipal theory led him to ignore preoedipal attachment-related factors that have equal plausibility in explaining the clinical data. However, Bowlby did not attempt to apply the attachment perspective to the interpretation of Hans's fantasies that form the core of the case material. A microanalysis of Hans's giraffe fantasy and the evidence used to support Freud's claims about it yields an attachment-based sibling rivalry account arguably of greater explanatory power than the oedipal account. Consistent with Bowlby's hypothesis, the evidence suggests that Hans's giraffe fantasy is about the sibling rivalry triangle involved in caregiver attachment access, rather than (or in addition to) the oedipal triangle. The issue of multiple levels of meaning and the methodological challenges raised by multiple determination is also considered. The giraffe fantasy's attachment-theoretic explanation encourages a rethinking of this classic case and strengthens Bowlby's claim that the case is fruitfully viewed from an attachment perspective.

  20. [Gene and haplotype frequencies for the loci HLA-A, B and DRB1 in 11755 north Chinese Han bone marrow registry donors].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang-Ju; Liu, Meng-Li; Qi, Jun; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Xiao-Qian

    2007-04-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, B, DRB1 alleles and haplotype frequencies and the characteristics of linkage disequilibrium in north Chinese Han bone marrow donors. HLA phenotype data of 11 755 north Chinese Han bone marrow donors were identified by PCR-SSP and PCR-SSO. HLA-A, B, DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies were calculated by computer software named Arleguin which was based on Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms. The results showed that the population of 11755 unrelated-donors was tested by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 18,42 and 15 specificities of HLA alleles were identified on the HLA-A, B, DRB1 locus respectively, including HLA-A25, B42, B53, B73 and DR3 which were rarely reported in Han population. HLA-A36, A43, A80, B78, B82 and DR18 were not detected in this study. The most frequent alleles with a frequency of over 0.05 were HLA-A*02, A*11, A*24, A*33, A*30, A*01, A*03, A*13, B62, B*51, B*46, B60, B61, B*35, B*44, DRB1*15, DRB1*09, DRB1*04, DRB1*07, DRB1*12, DRB1*11, DRB1*14, DRB1*08, DRB1*13. There were a total of 2 026 kinds of HLA-A-B-DR haplotypes (with a frequency of over 10(-6)) to be obtained. The each frequency of 26 kinds of three-locus haplotypes including HLA-A30-B13-DR7, A2-B46-DR9, A33-B58-DR17 etc was higher than 0.005. A30-B13-DR7 was the most frequent haplotype in north Chinese Han population. There were a total of 538 kinds of haplotypes for HLA-A-B, 227 kinds for A-DR and 522 kinds for B-DR to be obtained, and there were 409, 195, 423 kinds of haplotypes respectively with a frequency higher than 10 - 6. There were 28 kinds of HLA-A-B haplotypes including A30-B13, A2-B46, A33-B58 etc, 26 kinds of HLA-A-DR haplotypes including A2-DR9, A2-DR15, A30-DR7 etc, and 24 kinds of HLA-B-DR haplotypes including B13-DR7, B46-DR9, B13-DR12 etc with a frequency higher than 0.01. 296 (72%) kinds of HLA-A-B, 130 (67%) kinds of A-DR and 308 (73%) kinds of B-DR haplotypes were statistical linkage

  1. The genetic difference between Western and Chinese urothelial cell carcinomas: infrequent FGFR3 mutation in Han Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaotian; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Kun; Liu, Li; Liu, Tiantian; Ge, Nan; Kong, Feng; Yang, Liu; Björkholm, Magnus; Fan, Yidong; Zhao, Shengtian; Xu, Dawei

    2016-05-03

    Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) includes urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC), renal pelvic carcinoma (RPC) and ureter carcinoma (UC), and its incidence varies dependent on geographical areas and tumor locations, which indicates different oncogenic mechanisms and/or different genetic susceptibility/environment exposure. The activating mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter are the most frequent genetic events in UCCs. These mutations have clinical utilities in UCC initial diagnostics, prognosis, recurrence monitoring and management. However, the vast majority of the results are obtained from studies of UCC patients in Western countries, and little has been known about these in Han Chinese patients. In the present study, we screened the FGFR3 gene and TERT promoter for mutations in 116 UBC, 91 RPC and 115 UC tumors from Han Chinese patients by using Sanger Sequencing. TERT promoter mutations occurred at a high frequency in these UCC patients, comparable with that seen in Western patients, however, the FGFR3 mutation was surprisingly lower, only 9.4% for UBCs, 8.8% for RPCs and 2.6% for UCs, respectively. Taken together, the FGFR3 gene is an infrequent target in the pathogenesis of Han Chinese UCCs, and its mutation detection and targeted therapy have limited clinical utility in these patients. Our results underscore the need for extensive characterization of cancer genomes from diverse patient populations, thereby contributing to precision medicine for cancer treatment and prevention.

  2. Trans-ethnic fine mapping identifies a novel independent locus at the 3' end of CDKAL1 and novel variants of several susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jane Z; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Assimes, Themistocles L; Hung, Yi-Jen; Absher, Devin; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Mak, Jordan; Wang, Jun-Sing; Kwon, Soonil; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Goodarzi, Mark O; Lee, I-Te; Knowles, Joshua W; Miller, Brittany E; Lee, Wen-Jane; Juang, Jyh-Ming J; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Guo, Xiuqing; Taylor, Kent D; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Hsiung, Chao A; Quertermous, Thomas; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I

    2013-12-01

    Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified ∼60 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes. A majority of these loci have been discovered and tested only in European populations. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and extent of trans-ethnic effects of these loci in an East Asian population. A total of 9,335 unrelated Chinese Han individuals, including 4,535 with type 2 diabetes and 4,800 non-diabetic ethnically matched controls, were genotyped using the Illumina 200K Metabochip. We tested 50 established loci for type 2 diabetes and related traits (fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2 h glucose). Disease association with the additive model of inheritance was analysed with logistic regression. We found that 14 loci significantly transferred to the Chinese population, with two loci (p = 5.7 × 10(-12) for KCNQ1; p = 5.0 × 10(-8) for CDKN2A/B-CDKN2BAS) reaching independent genome-wide statistical significance. Five of these 14 loci had similar lead single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as were found in the European studies while the other nine were different. Further stepwise conditional analysis identified a total of seven secondary signals and an independent novel locus at the 3' end of CDKAL1. These results suggest that many loci associated with type 2 diabetes are commonly shared between European and Chinese populations. Identification of population-specific SNPs may increase our understanding of the genetic architecture underlying type 2 diabetes in different ethnic populations.

  3. Association of HLA class I alleles with aloplecia areata in Chinese Hans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng-Li; Yang, Sen; Yan, Kai-lin; Cui, Yong; Liang, Yan-Hua; Zhou, Fu-Sheng; Du, Wen-Hui; Gao, Min; Sun, Liang-Dan; Fan, Xing; Chen, Jian-Jun; Wang, Pei-Guang; Zhu, Ya-Gang; Zhou, Shun-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2006-02-01

    Some studies suggested that human HLA status may potentiate development of the AA phenotype and exists ethic differences. No report has been published about HLA class I alleles associated with AA in Chinese Hans. To study the distribution of HLA class I alleles and haplotypes in Chinese Hans AA patients and the relation of HLA class I profile with age of onset, severity, duration of current attack, past history and family history. The polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method was used to analyze the distribution of HLA class I alleles in 192 patients with AA and 252 healthy controls in Chinese Hans. The frequencies of HLA-A*02, -A*03, -B*18, -B*27, -B*52 and -Cw*0704 were significantly higher in patients than in controls. The A*2-B*18, A*2-B*27, A*2-B*52, A*2-Cw*0704, B*18-Cw*0704, B*27-Cw*0704, B*52-Cw*0704 were found as high-risk haplotypes in developing AA in this study. The HLA-A*02 and -A*03 were observed increased frequencies in patients less than 50% hair loss, and HLA-B*27 equally in patients of 50-99% hair loss, alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis. The frequencies of HLA-A*02 and -B*27 were significantly raised in recurrent patients, and ones of HLA-A*02, -A*03 and -B*27 similarly in patients without a positive family history. This study demonstrated the positive association of HLA class I alleles and haplotypes with AA. There may be differences in genetic background in patients with different age of onset, grade of scalp hair loss, duration of current attack, a past history and a family history.

  4. Fundamental supply of skin blood flow in the Chinese Han population: Measurements by a full-field laser perfusion imager.

    PubMed

    Fei, W; Xu, S; Ma, J; Zhai, W; Cheng, S; Chang, Y; Wang, X; Gao, J; Tang, H; Yang, S; Zhang, X

    2018-05-08

    Skin blood flow is believed to link with many diseases, and shows a significant heterogeneity. There are several papers on basal cutaneous microcirculation perfusion in different races, while the data in Chinese is vacant. The aim was to establish the database of absolute fundamental supply of skin blood flow in the Chinese Han population. With a full-field laser perfusion imager (FLPI), the skin blood flow can be quantified. Cutaneous perfusion values were determined in 17 selected skin areas in 406 healthy participants aged between 20 and 80 years (mean 35.05 ± 11.33). Essential parameters such as weight, height were also measured and values of BMI were calculated. The perfusion values were reported in Arbitrary Perfusion Units (APU). The highest cutaneous perfusion value fell on eyelid (931.20 ± 242.59 in male and 967.83 ± 225.49 in female), and pretibial had the lowest value (89.09 ± 30.28 in male and 85.08 ± 33.59 in female). The values were higher in men than women on the bank of fingertips, nose, forehead, cheek, neck and earlobe (P < .05). Perfusion values on stretch and flexion side of forearm had negative correlation with age (P = .01 and P = 4.88 × 10 -3 , respectively) in male. Abdomen was negatively correlated with BMI in both gender (P = .02, respectively). Skin blood flow values vary with skin regions. There is a tendency to measure higher perfusion values in men than in women. And the values are irrelevant with age or BMI. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving population density functions of cortical pyramidal and thalamic neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Hsu; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-02-01

    Compared with the Monte Carlo method, the population density method is efficient for modeling collective dynamics of neuronal populations in human brain. In this method, a population density function describes the probabilistic distribution of states of all neurons in the population and it is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation. In the past, the problem was mainly solved by using the finite difference method. In a previous study, a continuous Galerkin finite element method was found better than the finite difference method for solving the hyperbolic partial differential equation; however, the population density function often has discontinuity and both methods suffer from a numerical stability problem. The goal of this study is to improve the numerical stability of the solution using discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. To test the performance of the new approach, interaction of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons and a population of thalamic neurons was simulated. The numerical results showed good agreement between results of discontinuous Galerkin finite element and Monte Carlo methods. The convergence and accuracy of the solutions are excellent. The numerical stability problem could be resolved using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which has total-variation-diminishing property. The efficient approach will be employed to simulate the electroencephalogram or dynamics of thalamocortical network which involves three populations, namely, thalamic reticular neurons, thalamocortical neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hans Kueng's Paradigm Theology and Some Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Dietze, Erich

    1998-01-01

    Identifies some controversies and issues that arise from Hans Kueng's adaptation of Thomas Kuhn's paradigm theory to theology, particularly those associated with the conflict presented between the educational theory advocated by Kuhn and that contained in Kueng's wider thinking. Argues that the dilemma presents ironies that Kueng must somehow…

  7. Experimental analysis of methods for measuring small mammal populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1946-01-01

    SUMMARY: The Peromyscus leucopus on a 17-acre study area were live-trapped, marked, and released over a seven-day period. On the three following nights intensive snap-trapping was done on the central acre of the study plot. The animals caught by snap traps in the central acre represented the population of the central acre and several surrounding acres. By the currently accepted methods of interpreting snap-trap data, the population per acre would be considered to be 23 adults. The live-trap data show that the true population was between six and seven adults per acre. Modern methods of live-trapping are shown to be valid for population studies. Two methods are presented for the conversion of live-trap data into per acre figures. Errors involved in the current use of snap-trap data are discussed and snap-trap methods are shown to be invalid for determining actual population numbers. It should be practical to use a snap-trap quadrant technique to obtain a relative measure or index figure for small mammal populations.

  8. Association Between Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 Promoter Polymorphism of −1590 C>A and Lung Cancer Susceptibility in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaofang; Liu, Zhao; Ren, Jinghua

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a negative correlation between serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the risk of lung cancer. In this study, polymorphisms present at the −1590 site of the IGFBP-3 promoter were evaluated in relation to lung cancer risk in a Chinese Han population. A total of 248 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and 29 small cell lung cancer cases were compared with 252 matched, healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assays were used to detect polymorphisms present. The A/A genotype and an A allele were both associated with an increased risk of NSCLC after being adjusted for age and gender (adjusted odds ratio = 2.296, 95% confidence interval = 1.133–4.655; and adjusted odds ratio = 1.390, 95% confidence interval = 1.042–1.854, respectively). In conclusion, the A/A genotype and A allele of the IGFBP-3 promoter −1590 site may represent a genetic risk factor for NSCLC, with the A/A genotype being associated with a higher risk for squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma. PMID:21254935

  9. Regression models evaluating THMs, HAAs and HANs formation upon chloramination of source water collected from Yangtze River Delta Region, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiajia; Chen, Xi; Ansheng, Zhu; Hong, Huachang; Liang, Yan; Sun, Hongjie; Lin, Hongjun; Chen, Jianrong

    2018-09-30

    Present study aimed to generate multiple regression models to estimate the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) during chloramination of source water obtained from Yangtze River Delta Region, China. The results showed that the regression models for trichloromethane (TCM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs), 5 HAAs species regulated by U.S. EPA (HAA 5 ) and total haloacetic acids (HAA 9 ) have good evaluation ability (prediction accuracy reached 81-94%), while the models for total haloacetonitriles (HAN 4 ), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), trihaloacetic acids (THAAs) and total trihalomethanes (THM 4 ), they appeared relative low prediction accuracy (58-72%). For THMs, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was their key organic precursor, yet for HAN, DHAAs and THAAs, UVA 254 played the dominant role. The other key factors influencing DBP formation included the bromide (THM 4 , DHAAs and HAA 9 ), reaction time (DCAN, HAN 4 ), chloramine dose (TCM, DCAA, TCAA, HAA 5 and THAAs). These results provided important information for water works to optimize the water treatment process to control DBPs, and give an evaluating method for DBPs levels when estimating the health risks related with DBP exposure during chloramination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of Chinese Muslim populations Dongxiang and Hui

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong-Bing; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Tao, Xiaolan; Shang, Lei; Wen, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Bofeng; Kang, Longli; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    There is a long-going debate on the genetic origin of Chinese Muslim populations, such as Uygur, Dongxiang, and Hui. However, genetic information for those Muslim populations except Uygur is extremely limited. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure and ancestry of Chinese Muslims by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats in 652 individuals from Dongxiang, Hui, and Han Chinese populations in Gansu province. Both genetic distance and Bayesian-clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between the two Muslim populations and East Asian populations, suggesting a common genetic ancestry. Our analysis found no evidence of substantial gene flow from Middle East or Europe into Dongxiang and Hui people during their Islamization. The dataset generated in present study are also valuable for forensic identification and paternity tests in China. PMID:27924949

  11. Gender-specific interactions of MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms with overweight/obesity on serum lipid levels in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Xueyuan; Yang, Boyi; Fan, Shujun; Wang, Yanxun; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-10-28

    Little is known regarding the interactions of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms with overweight/obesity on serum lipid profiles. The aim of the current study was to explore interactions between the two polymorphisms and overweight/obesity on four common lipid levels in a Chinese Han population and further to evaluate whether these interactions exhibit gender-specificity. A total of 2239 participants (750 females and 1489 males) were enrolled into this study. The genotypes of the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G were determined by a TaqMan assay. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index between 24 and 27.99 and ≥ 28 kg/m 2 , respectively. The interactions were examined by factorial design covariance analysis, and further multiple comparisons were conducted by Bonferroni correction. There was no significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between females and males (MTHFR 677 T allele: 54.47 % for females and 54.40 % for males; MTRR 66G allele: 24.73 % for females and 24.71 % for males). Interaction between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and overweight/obesity on serum triglyceride levels, and interaction between the MTRR A66G polymorphism and overweight/obesity on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were detected in women (P = 0.015 and P = 0.056, respectively). For female subjects with overweight/obesity, the serum triglyceride levels in MTHFR 677TT genotype [1.09 (0.78-1.50) mmol/L] were significantly higher as compared with MTHFR 677CC genotype [0.90 (0.60-1.15) mmol/L, P = 0.007], and the MTRR 66GG genotype carriers had higher serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than those with MTRR 66AG genotype (1.46 ± 0.50 vs. 1.19 ± 0.31 mmol/L, P = 0.058). Furthermore, in male subjects with overweight/obesity, the MTHFR 677CT genotype carriers had higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than those

  12. Associations between INSR and MTOR polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy in a Northeast Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, A N; Yang, X X; Sun, M Y; Zhang, Z X; Li, M

    2015-03-13

    We explored the associations of INSR and mTOR, 2 key genes in the insulin signaling pathway, and the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1799817, rs1051690, and rs2059806) in INSR and 3 SNPs (rs7211818, rs7212142, and rs9674559) in mTOR were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform in 89 type 2 diabetes patients without diabetic nephropathy, 134 type 2 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy, and 120 healthy control subjects. Statistical analysis based on unconditional logistic regression was carried out to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for each SNP. Combination analyses between rs2059806 and rs7212142 were also performed using the X(2) test and logistic regression. Among these 6 SNPs, 4 (rs1799817, rs1051690, rs7211818, and rs9674559) showed no association with type 2 diabetes mellitus or diabetic nephropathy. However, rs2059806 in INSR was associated with both type 2 diabetes mellitus (P = 0.033) and type 2 diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.018). The rs7212142 polymorphism in mTOR was associated with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.010, OR = 0.501, 95%CI = 0.288- 0.871), but showed no relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Combination analysis revealed that rs2059806 and rs7212142 had a combined effect on susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. Our results suggest that both INSR and mTOR play a role in the predisposition of the Han Chinese population to type 2 diabetic nephropathy, but the genetic predisposition may show some differences.

  13. Helping HAN for hybrid rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Dowler, Warren

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyl amine nitrate (HAN) is a powerful oxidizer for hybrid rocket flight motors. Miscible with water up to 95% by mass, it also has high density and has been extensively characterized for materials compatibility, safety, transportation, storage and handling. Before any serious attempt to use the proposed oxidizer in hybrids, though, the usual performance figures must first be obtained. The simplest are time-independent, equilibrium rocket performance numbers that include chamber temperature, temperature at the nozzle throat, and key species in the exhaust. These numbers must be followed by several other important performance evaluation, including burning rates, pressure dependence, susceptibility to instabilities and temperature sensitivity.

  14. Relation between HLA-DQA1 genes and genetic susceptibility to duodenal ulcer in Wuhan Hans

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi-Ping; Deng, Chang-Sheng; Lu, De-Yin; Huang, Mei-Fang; Guo, Shu-Fang; Hou, Wei

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study the genetic susceptibility of HLA-DQA1 alleles to duodenal ulcer in Wuhan Hans. METHODS: Seventy patients with duodenal ulcer and fifty health y controls were examined for HLA-DQA1 genotypes. HLA-DQA1 typing was carried out by digesting the locus specific polymerase chain reaction amplified products with alleles specific restriction enzymes (PCR-RFLP), i.e. Apal I, Bsaj I, Hph I, Fok I, Mbo II and Mnl I. RESULTS: The allele frequencies of DQA1*0301 and DQA1*0102 in patients with duodenal ulcer were significantly higher and lower respectivel y than those in healthy controls (0.40 vs 0.20, P = 0.003, Pc orret = 0.024) and (0.05 vs 0.14, P = 0.012, but P corret > 0.05), respectively. CONCLUSION: DQA1*0301 is a susceptible gene for duodenal ulcer in Wuhan Hans, and there are immunogenetic differences in HLA-DQA1 locus between duodenal ulcer patients and healthy controls. PMID:11819534

  15. [On the rational distribution of Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z

    1980-01-01

    In 1949, the population distribution in China was characterized by the following distinct features. First, it was unbalanced, with high density in the eastern regions, in the plains, and in areas adjacent to railroads, river navigation routes and other transportation axes. Low population density was found in the western regions, mountainous regions, and areas far from transportation routes. Second, Hans were largest in number and distributed throughout the country, with major concentration in the eastern regions, while the minorities constituted about 10% of the total population and were distributed mainly in the far southwestern and northwestern areas. Third, over 89% of the 540 million of the population was distributed in rural areas while only about 10% in towns and cities, with high densities in some coastal cities. During the past 3 decades, the unbalanced nature of China's population has remained basically unchanged. This can be attributed to factors relating to natural conditions and resources, productivities, socioeconomic conditions, and technological development in different regions. In order to achieve a rational distribution of the Chinese population the following measures should be taken: 1) controlling the birth rate of the Hans and increasing the population of minorities; 2) moving the population of the dense areas to the border provinces in the western regions to develop their natural resources and to elevate the living standards; 3) modernizing the rural areas; 4) strictly controlling the industrial developments of large cities and their population growth; and 5) strictly restricting the unplanned migration of population to and from cities.

  16. Combustion of Han-Based Monopropellant Droplets in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, B. D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study combustion of monopropellant droplets and monopropellant droplet components in reduced-gravity environments so that spherical symmetry is strongly promoted. The experiments will use hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN, chemical formula NH3OHNO3) based monopropellants. This class of monopropellant is selected for study because of its current relevance and also because it is relatively benign and safe to work with. The experimental studies will allow for accurate determination of fundamental data on deflagration rates, gas-phase temperature profiles, transient gas-phase flame behaviors, the onset of bubbling in droplets at lower pressures, and the low-pressure deflagration limit. The theoretical studies will provide rational models of deflagration mechanisms of HAN-based liquid propellants. Besides advancing fundamental knowledge, the proposed research should aid in applications (e.g., spacecraft thrusters and liquid propellant guns) of this unique class of monopropellants.

  17. Hans Bethe, Powering the Stars, and Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov Websites

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Hans Bethe, Energy Production in Stars, and Nuclear Physics physics, built atomic weapons, and called for a halt to their proliferation. Bethe's dual legacy is one of Laboratory] from 1943 to 1946. Prior to joining the Manhattan Project, Bethe taught physics at Cornell

  18. MADD-FOLH1 Polymorphisms and Their Haplotypes with Serum Lipid Levels and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Feng; Yin, Rui-Xing; Cao, Xiao-Li; Huang, Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Chen, Wu-Xian

    2016-04-08

    This study aimed to detect the association of the MADD-FOLH1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke (IS) in a Chinese Han population. Six SNPs of rs7395662, rs326214, rs326217, rs1051006, rs3736101, and rs7120118 were genotyped in 584 CHD and 555 IS patients, and 596 healthy controls. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of the rs7395662 SNP were different between controls and patients, and the genotypes of the rs7395662 SNP were associated with the risk of CHD and IS in different genetic models. Six main haplotypes among the rs1051006, rs326214, rs326217, rs3736101, and rs7120118 SNPs were detected in our study population, the haplotypes of G-G-T-G-C and G-A-T-G-T were associated with an increased risk of CHD and IS, respectively. The subjects with rs7395662GG genotype in controls had higher triglyceride (TG) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than the subjects with AA/AG genotypes. Several SNPs interacted with alcohol consumption to influence serum TG (rs326214, rs326217, and rs7120118) and HDL-C (rs7395662) levels. The SNP of rs3736101 interacted with cigarette smoking to modify serum HDL-C levels. The SNP of rs1051006 interacted with body mass index ≥24 kg/m² to modulate serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The interactions of several haplotypes and alcohol consumption on the risk of CHD and IS were also observed.

  19. Methods for the survey and genetic analysis of populations

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Matthew

    2003-09-02

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  20. Polymorphisms of Glutathione S-transferases Omega-1 among ethnic populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Songbo; Wu, Jie; Chen, Feng; Sun, Dianjun; Fu, Songbin

    2008-01-01

    Background Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is a genetic factor for many diseases and exhibits great diversities among various populations. We assessed association of the genotypes of Glutathione S-transferases Omega-1 (GSTO1) A140D with ethnicity in China. Results Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 1314 individuals from 14 ethnic groups. Polymorphisms of GSTO1 A140D were measured using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Logistic regression was employed to adjustment for regional factor. The frequency of GSTO1 140A allele was 15.49% in the total 14 ethnic populations. Compared to Han ethnic group, two ethnic populations were more likely to have AA or CA genotype [odds ratio (OR): 1.77, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.05–2.98 for Uygur and OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.18–2.69 for Hui]. However, there were no statistically significant differences across 14 ethnic groups when region factor was adjusted. In Han ethnicity, region was significantly associated with AA or CA genotype. Han individuals who resided in North-west of China were more likely to have these genotypes than those in South of China (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21–2.20). Conclusion The prevalence of the GSTO1 140A varied significantly among different regional populations in China, which showed that geography played a more important role in the population differentiation for this allele than the ethnicity/race. PMID:18400112

  1. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  2. Genome-wide copy number variation analysis identified deletions in SFMBT1 associated with fasting plasma glucose in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ren-Hua; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hung, Yi-Jen; Lee, Wen-Jane; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Wei; Chen, Yii-Der I; Quertermous, Thomas; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-08-08

    Fasting glucose and fasting insulin are glycemic traits closely related to diabetes, and understanding the role of genetic factors in these traits can help reveal the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several candidate genes have been found to be associated with fasting glucose and fasting insulin, copy number variations (CNVs), which have been reported to be associated with several complex traits, have not been reported for association with these two traits. We aimed to identify CNVs associated with fasting glucose and fasting insulin. We conducted a genome-wide CNV association analysis for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting plasma insulin (FPI) using a family-based genome-wide association study sample from a Han Chinese population in Taiwan. A family-based CNV association test was developed in this study to identify common CNVs (i.e., CNVs with frequencies ≥ 5%), and a generalized estimating equation approach was used to test the associations between the traits and counts of global rare CNVs (i.e., CNVs with frequencies <5%). We found a significant genome-wide association for common deletions with a frequency of 5.2% in the Scm-like with four mbt domains 1 (SFMBT1) gene with FPG (association p-value = 2×10 -4 and an adjusted p-value = 0.0478 for multiple testing). No significant association was observed between global rare CNVs and FPG or FPI. The deletions in 20 individuals with DNA samples available were successfully validated using PCR-based amplification. The association of the deletions in SFMBT1 with FPG was further evaluated using an independent population-based replication sample obtained from the Taiwan Biobank. An association p-value of 0.065, which was close to the significance level of 0.05, for FPG was obtained by testing 9 individuals with CNVs in the SFMBT1 gene region and 11,692 individuals with normal copies in the replication cohort. Previous studies have found that SNPs in SFMBT1 are

  3. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer in the Chinese population: an update meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Wang, Xin; Chen, Hong; Shang, Li-Xin; Wu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although many epidemiologic studies investigated the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and its association with cervical cancer (CC), definite conclusions cannot be drawn. Aim of the study: To evaluate the association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer in the Chinese population. Methods: A computerized literature search was carried out in PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Wanfang Database to collect relevant articles. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strength of association. Results: A total of 16 studies including 1684 CC cases and 1178 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, significant increased association was found between the Pro/Pro carriers and CC risk when all studies in Chinese population pooled into the meta-analysis (heterozygous model: OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.46). In subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity and source of controls, the same results were observed in Han and in hospital-based studies. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism may be potential biomarkers for CC risk in the Chinese population, especially for Han Chinese, and studies with wider spectrum of population are required for definite conclusions. PMID:26309559

  4. Polymorphisms in IRG1 gene associated with immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population and function to restrain the HBV life cycle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Zhang, Li; Wu, Xiao-Pan; Zhu, Xi-Lin; Pan, Li-Ping; Li, Tao; Yan, Bing-Yu; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Li, Hui; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Vaccination against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is extensively used as an effective method to prevent HBV infection. However, nearly 10% of healthy adults fail to produce a protective level of antibodies against the hepatitis B vaccine, and multiple genetic variants are known to affect the immune response to the hepatitis B vaccine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) gene and the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the IRG1 gene were genotyped in 1230 high-responders and 451 non-responders to hepatitis B vaccination. The SNPs rs17470171 and rs17385627 were associated with the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination (P = 0.014 and 0.029, respectively). In addition, the haplotypes G-A-A-A (rs614171-rs17470171-rs9530614-rs17385627, P = 0.0042, OR = 0.68) and A-A (rs17470171-rs17385627, P = 0.0065, OR = 0.72) exerted a protective role in the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination. Allele 'A' of rs17470171 and allele 'A' of rs17385627 show higher levels of expression for the IRG1 gene compared with allele 'C' of rs17470171 and allele 'T' of rs17385627 as demonstrated by luciferase reporter and overexpression assays. In addition, we observed that IRG1 inhibited the HBV life cycle and that IRG1 rs17385627 allele 'A' was more effective than rs17385627 allele 'T' at eliminating HBV in HepG2.2.15 cells. These findings suggest that polymorphisms in the IRG1 gene are associated with the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination. The antiviral effect of IRG1 was confirmed using HBV infection cell models. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genetic Variations of COL4A1 Gene and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Outcome: A Cohort Study in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chao; Lin, Sen; Yang, Jie; He, Sha; Li, Hao; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes of COL4A1 gene and the outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In our study, 181 patients with hypertensive ICH were enrolled and followed up at 3 and 6 months. Outcome data included any cause of death and disability. Genomic DNA was extracted by DNA extraction kit, and the 6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of the COL4A1 gene was detected through MassARRAY Analyzer. Unphased 3.1.4 and SPSS 19.0 were used to analyze the association between alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes of the COL4A1 gene and the outcomes of ICH. Of the 181 patients with hypertensive ICH, 12 were lost in follow-up, which accounted for 6.6%. Our association analysis showed that the rs532625 AA genotype of the COL4A1 gene may increase risk of disability at 3 months; the rs532625 A allele and AA genotype were association factors of the risk of disability at 6 months; the rs532625 AA genotype was an association factor of the risk of death/disability at 6 months. After adjusting for gender, age, coma, and severe neurologic deficits, only the rs532625 AA genotype was independently associated with the risk of disability at 3 and 6 months and the risk of death/disability at 6 months. Our study found that the rs532625 AA genotype in the COL4A1 gene was independently associated with the risk of disability at 3 and 6 months and death/disability at 6 months in a Chinese Han population. These conclusions need to be verified in future studies with larger samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijers, Ralph

    2007-12-01

    of massive stellar cores would cause them to collapse to well above nuclear density, contrary to prevailing opinion. With James Applegate and James Lattimer, they published their finding in the BBAL ('"babble") paper of 1979. After that, astrophysics never quite left Bethe again, and with Brown (his "junior collaborator"), he took an interest in the fate of massive stars and black holes more generally. The series of papers on formation of black holes, gamma-ray bursts, and gravity-wave sources continued until close to his death. These papers are done very much the H.A. Bethe Way, often finding simple approximations to much more complicated work of others, and are quite straightforward. An inevitable part of the Bethe-Brown collaboration was a January stay in California; during the 1999 edition I had the good fortune of becoming a small footnote to the great Bethe story. Gerry and Hans invited me to join them for a while, to discuss issues of binary star evolution and population synthesis. I have to admit to being rather taken aback by the way in which the 93-year old gave me a good intellectual runaround every day. And yet, as many others have commented, there was nothing facetious or overbearing in his manner: He made me feel like a valuable colleague and welcome guest. Good meals were an essential part of Hans's every day, and during a dinner prepared by Rose Bethe and Betty Brown, the old stories surfaced. I could not resist asking about the legendary story of Rose and Hans's evening walk under the stars. Hans, so says the story, tried to impress his fiancée by commenting that at that moment, he was probably the only person on Earth who understood why the stars shine. Hans grinned a bit sheepishly, but Rose roundly confirmed the story with a big smile. Not too impressed, she had replied: "That's nice." And so it was.

  7. The effect of geographical indices on left ventricular structure in healthy Han Chinese population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Minyi; Ge, Miao; Liu, Yonglin; Wang, Congxia; Yang, Shaofang

    2017-02-01

    The left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) are generally regarded as the functional parts of the left ventricular (LV) structure. This paper aims to examine the effects of geographical indices on healthy Han adults' LV structural indices and to offer a scientific basis for developing a unified standard for the reference values of adults' LV structural indices in China. Fifteen terrain, climate, and soil indices were examined as geographical explanatory variables. Statistical analysis was performed using correlation analysis. Moreover, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) and a support vector regression (SVR) were applied to developing models to predict the values of two indices. After the prediction models were built, distribution maps were produced. The results show that LV structural indices are characteristically associated with latitude, longitude, altitude, average temperature, average wind velocity, topsoil sand fraction, topsoil silt fraction, topsoil organic carbon, and topsoil sodicity. The model test analyses show the BPNN model possesses better simulative and predictive ability in comparison with the SVR model. The distribution maps of the LV structural indices show that, in China, the values are higher in the west and lower in the east. These results demonstrate that the reference values of the adults' LV structural indices will be different affected by different geographical environment. The reference values of LV structural indices in one region can be calculated by setting up a BPNN, which showed better applicability in this study. The distribution of the reference values of the LV structural indices can be seen clearly on the geographical distribution map.

  8. The effect of geographical indices on left ventricular structure in healthy Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Cen, Minyi; Ge, Miao; Liu, Yonglin; Wang, Congxia; Yang, Shaofang

    2017-02-01

    The left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT) and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) are generally regarded as the functional parts of the left ventricular (LV) structure. This paper aims to examine the effects of geographical indices on healthy Han adults' LV structural indices and to offer a scientific basis for developing a unified standard for the reference values of adults' LV structural indices in China. Fifteen terrain, climate, and soil indices were examined as geographical explanatory variables. Statistical analysis was performed using correlation analysis. Moreover, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) and a support vector regression (SVR) were applied to developing models to predict the values of two indices. After the prediction models were built, distribution maps were produced. The results show that LV structural indices are characteristically associated with latitude, longitude, altitude, average temperature, average wind velocity, topsoil sand fraction, topsoil silt fraction, topsoil organic carbon, and topsoil sodicity. The model test analyses show the BPNN model possesses better simulative and predictive ability in comparison with the SVR model. The distribution maps of the LV structural indices show that, in China, the values are higher in the west and lower in the east. These results demonstrate that the reference values of the adults' LV structural indices will be different affected by different geographical environment. The reference values of LV structural indices in one region can be calculated by setting up a BPNN, which showed better applicability in this study. The distribution of the reference values of the LV structural indices can be seen clearly on the geographical distribution map.

  9. [Relationship between crown form of upper central incisors and papilla filling in Chinese Han-nationality youth].

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Le, D; Zhang, Y L; Liang, L Z; Yang, G; Hu, W J

    2016-10-18

    To explore a crown form classification method for upper central incisor which is more objective and scientific than traditional classification method based on the standardized photography technique. To analyze the relationship between crown form of upper central incisors and papilla filling in periodontally healthy Chinese Han-nationality youth. In the study, 180 periodontally healthy Chinese youth ( 75 males, and 105 females ) aged 20-30 (24.3±4.5) years were included. With the standardized upper central incisor photography technique, pictures of 360 upper central incisors were obtained. Each tooth was classified as triangular, ovoid or square by 13 experienced specialist majors in prothodontics independently and the final classification result was decided by most evaluators in order to ensure objectivity. The standardized digital photo was also used to evaluate the gingival papilla filling situation. The papilla filling result was recorded as present or absent according to naked eye observation. The papilla filling rates of different crown forms were analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 19.0. The proportions of triangle, ovoid and square forms of upper central incisor in Chinese Han-nationality youth were 31.4% (113/360), 37.2% (134/360) and 31.4% (113/360 ), respectively, and no statistical difference was found between the males and females. Average κ value between each two evaluators was 0.381. Average κ value was raised up to 0.563 when compared with the final classification result. In the study, 24 upper central incisors without contact were excluded, and the papilla filling rates of triangle, ovoid and square crown were 56.4% (62/110), 69.6% (87/125), 76.2% (77/101) separately. The papilla filling rate of square form was higher (P=0.007). The proportion of clinical crown form of upper central incisor in Chinese Han-nationality youth is obtained. Compared with triangle form, square form is found to favor a gingival papilla that fills the

  10. Challenges in application of bioanalytical method on different populations and effect of population on PK.

    PubMed

    Kale, Prashant; Shukla, Manoj; Soni, Gunjan; Patel, Ronak; Gupta, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Prashant Kale has 22 years of immense experience in the analytical and bioanalytical domain. He is Senior Vice President, Bioequivalence Operations of Lambda Therapeutic Research, India which includes Bioanalytical, Clinics, Clinical data management, Pharmacokinetics and Biostatistics, Protocol writing, Clinical lab and Quality Assurance departments. He has been with Lambda for over 14 years. By qualification he is a M.Sc. and an MBA. Mr. Kale is responsible for the management, technical and administrative functions of the BE unit located at Ahmedabad and Mumbai, India. He is also responsible for leading the process of integration between bioanalytical laboratories and services offered by Lambda at global locations (India and Canada). Mr. Kale has faced several regulatory audits and inspections from leading regulatory bodies including but not limited to DCGI, USFDA, ANVISA, Health Canada, UK MHRA, Turkey MoH, WHO. There are many challenges involved in the application of bioanalytical method on different populations. This includes difference in equipment, material and environment across laboratories, variations in the matrix characteristics in different populations, differences in techniques between analysts such as sample processing and handling and others. Additionally, there is variability in the PK of a drug in different populations. This article shows the effect of different populations on validated bioanalytical method and on the PK of a drug. Hence, the bioanalytical method developed and validated for a specific population may need required modification when applied to another population. Critical consideration of all such aspects is the key to successful implementation of a validated method on different populations.

  11. Pathogenic variants screening in seventeen candidate genes on 2p15 for association with ankylosing spondylitis in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengmeng; Xin, Lihong; Cai, Guoqi; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Xiao; Li, Xiaona; Xia, Qing; Wang, Li; Xu, Shengqian; Xu, Jianhua; Shuai, Zongwen; Ding, Changhai; Pan, Faming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found the association between rs10865331 in 2p15 area and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study aimed to identify additional functional genetic variants in 2p15 region associated with AS susceptibility. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) in 100 AS cases and 100 healthy controls to screen AS susceptible genetic variants, and validated these variants in 620 cases and 620 controls by using imLDRTM technique for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Totally, we identified 12 SNPs that might confer susceptibility to AS. Of those SNPs, three (rs14170, rs2123111 and rs1729674) were nominally associated (P<0.05) with AS, but were no longer statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. After stratified by gender, another two SNPs (rs11428092 and rs10208769 in USP34) were associated with AS in males but not females, though this was not statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. In addition, rs1729674, rs14170, rs2123111 and rs10208769 were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and were further enrolled in haplotype analysis. A novel haplotype TAGA was found to be associated with a decreased risk of AS (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.832 (0.705-0.982)). Beyond that, we also demonstrated a strong relationship between rs10865331 and AS susceptibility (OR (95% CI) = 1.303(1.111-1.526)). rs14170 and rs2123111 inUSP34 and rs1729674 in C2orf74 may be associated with AS susceptibility in Han Chinese population. USP34 and C2orf74 in 2p15 region may be AS novel susceptibility genes.

  12. Association of TNF-α rs1799964 and IL-1β rs16944 polymorphisms with multiple system atrophy in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Chunrong; Chen, Zhao; Peng, Yun; Peng, Huirong; Hou, Xuan; Ye, Wei; Qiu, Rong; Xia, Kun; Tang, Beisha; Jiang, Hong

    2018-01-07

    Recent evidence suggested that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of inflammation-related genes (TNF-α rs1799964, IL-1α rs1800587, IL-1β rs16944, IL-8 rs4073, ICAM-1 rs5498) were associated with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Herein, we conducted this case-control study to evaluate the possible correlation between the five SNPs related to inflammation and MSA in Chinese Han population. We recruited 154 sporadic patients with MSA and 223 health controls in this study. All subjects were genotyped for the five SNPs using polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing. TNF-α rs1799964, genotype distribution and minor allele frequency (MAF) showed significant differences between patients and controls, which might illustrate the minor allele C may increase the risk for MSA (genotype, P = 0.006, OR = 1.245, 95% CI = [1.066-1.455]; allele, P = 0.001, OR = 1.887, 95% CI = [1.303-2.733]). For rs16944, patients carrying AA genotype showed a nearly 5-year early age at onset (AAO) than GG genotype (50.52 ± 7.45 years vs. 54.90 ± 7.21 years, P = 0.037). No differences were found in genotype distribution and MAF of the five SNPs between patients with MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) and with predominant Parkinsonism (MSA-P). Our study suggests that rs1799964 of TNF-α may act as a risk factor for MSA and the IL-1β rs16944 might be a genetic factor that modifies the AAO in MSA. Moreover, the exact mechanism of neuroinflammatory response in MSA deserves further exploration.

  13. Association of HSD17B3 and HSD3B1 polymorphisms with acne vulgaris in Southwestern Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Wen-Juan; Yang, Cheng; Yang, Ting; He, Jun-Dong; Yang, Zhi; He, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder. Previous studies have indicated that genetic background factors play key roles in the onset of acne. Our previous investigation implicated several genes in the androgen metabolism pathway with acne vulgaris in the Han Chinese population. Thus, we further investigated genes and genetic variants that play important roles in this pathway for their relationship with the pathology of acne. In this study, a total of 610 subjects, including 403 acne patients and 207 healthy controls, were genotyped for 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 genes. This study shows that rs6428829 in HSD3B1 was associated with acne vulgaris in Han patients from Southwest China, even after adjusting for age and sex. The GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris (p < 0.05) and G allele carriers were associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris (p < 0.05). In addition, the haplotype AAT in HSD3B1 significantly increased the risk of acne vulgaris in the case-control study (p < 0.05). Furthermore, for another gene in this pathway, HSD17B3, the haplotype H8 was significantly associated with an increased risk of acne vulgaris. Based on these analyses, our study indicates that the cutaneous androgen metabolism-regulated genes HSD3B1 and HSD17B3 increase the susceptibility to acne vulgaris in Han Chinese from Southwest China. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Neck circumference might predict gestational diabetes mellitus in Han Chinese women: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    He, Fang; He, Hua; Liu, Wenqi; Lin, Junyu; Chen, Bingjun; Lin, Yucong; Zhao, Yitao; Tao, Wen; Xia, Xuefeng

    2017-03-01

    A large neck circumference might be an indicator of metabolic syndrome and its components, and for certain patients is more practical as an index than waist circumference. The demarcation value for neck circumference that suggests metabolic syndrome appears to vary by ethnic group. Gestational diabetes mellitus is considered a component of metabolic syndrome in pregnant women. We investigated whether neck circumference in Han Chinese women is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy, and determined a predictive demarcation value. A nested case-control study was carried out with 255 women aged 18-35 years. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association through a 2-h, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Of the total population, 41 (16%) women developed gestational diabetes mellitus by 24-28 weeks of gestation. Neck circumference at gestational week 16 positively correlated with pre-pregnancy waist circumference, bodyweight and body mass index, and maternal age (P = 0.029) and hemoglobin A1c at gestational week 24 (P ≤ 0.001). By binary logistic regression, neck circumference was an independent predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 1.840, 95% confidence interval 1.040-3.254; P = 0.036). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve, for predicting gestational diabetes mellitus the optimal demarcation for neck circumference at gestational week 16 was 35.15 cm. Neck circumference is a viable tool to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus. In this population of pregnant Han Chinese women, a neck circumference of ≥35.15 cm was a predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative), GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST SHOWING SOCIAL HALL. - First Presbyterian Church, 101 Plymouth Avenue South, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  16. Evaluation of the Association Between Common Genetic Variants Near the ABCA1 Gene and Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma in a Han Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huaichao; Chen, Yuhong; Ye, Zimeng; Sun, Xinghuai; Shi, Yi; Luo, Qian; Gong, Bo; Shuai, Ping; Yang, Jiyun; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Kaijiong; Tan, Chang; Li, Yuanfeng; Lin, Ying; Yang, Zhenglin

    2015-10-01

    Recently, three large genome-wide association studies have identified multiple variants associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) near the ABCA1 gene. Considering that POAG and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) share many similar clinical manifestations, the present study was conducted to investigate whether these genetic variants were also associated with PACG in a Han Chinese population. A case-control association study of 1122 cases (PACG/PAC) and 1311 normal, matched controls was undertaken. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the ABCA1 gene, including rs2422493, rs2487042, rs2472496, rs2472493, rs2487032, rs2472459, and rs2472519, were genotyped. Genotype and allele frequencies were assessed using χ² tests. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure was analyzed by computer software. Among the SNPs genotyped, no association was observed between these SNPs and PACG. However, we discovered that two haplotypes, CATTTAC (corrected P = 0.048) and CGCCCGC (corrected P = 0.048), remained significantly associated with PACG/PAC after Bonferroni correction. Subjects with the CATTTAC haplotype have a 1.71-fold increased possibility of having PACG/PAC, whereas subjects with the CGCCCGC haplotype have 0.47-fold decreased possibility of developing PACG. Our findings suggest that the genetic backgrounds of PACG and POAG might be different. However, whether or not ABCA1 plays a role in the development of PACG is still not made certain by this study. Thus, further research is needed to find the role of ABCA1 in the progress of PACG.

  17. Genetic association between BDNF gene polymorphisms and phobic disorders: a case-control study among mainland Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bing; Wang, Binbin; Suo, Peisu; Kou, Changgui; Wang, Jing; Meng, Xiangfei; Cheng, Longfei; Ma, Xu; Yu, Yaqin

    2011-07-01

    Phobic disorders are a common group of syndromes comprising persistently recurring, irrational severe anxiety of specific objects, activities, or situations with avoidance behavior of the phobic stimulus. The present study investigated the association between whole region polymorphisms, (including the Val66Met variant), in the BDNF gene and phobic disorders among Han Chinese young adults. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the genetic association between BDNF polymorphisms and phobic disorders among mainland Chinese. One hundred and twenty young adults with phobic disorders and 267 matched controls were recruited. Three tag SNPs of BDNF were successfully genotyped by using PCR-based ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR). We found significant differences in allele distributions of SNP rs10835210 (P<0.001) between the experimental and the control groups. In the haplotype analysis based on linkage-disequilibrium across this gene locus, we demonstrated significant association between phobic disorders and BDNF haplotype CAC (P=0.004). Association was significant after 10(4) permutation tests (P<0.001). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the BDNF gene may play a significant role in the etiology of phobic disorders in the Han Chinese population. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Nagashima-type palmoplantar keratosis in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Guolong; Ni, Cheng; Cheng, Ruhong; Liang, Jianying; Li, Ming; Yao, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Nagashima-type palmoplantar keratosis (NPPK) is an autosomal recessive form of palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK), which is caused by mutations in the SERPINB7 gene. NPPK has only been reported in Japanese and Chinese populations. The present study was conducted on 12 unrelated Chinese patients who were clinically predicted to suffer from NPPK. Mutation screening was performed by direct sequencing of the entire coding regions of SERPINB7, SLURP1, AQP5, CSTA, KRT1 and KRT9 genes. Direct sequencing of SERPINB7 revealed five homozygous founder mutations (c.796C>T) and four compound heterozygous mutations in nine patients, including one novel mutation (c.122_127delTGGTCC). Nine out of the 12 patients were diagnosed with NPPK due to SERPINB7 pathogenic mutations, and the results expanded the known mutation spectrum of NPPK. Taking the other seven reported Chinese patients, who had been definitively diagnosed with NPPK by genetic testing, into account, the present study further demonstrated that NPPK is a common entity in Mainland China, and c.796C>T is the most prevalent mutation and exerts a founder effect. Furthermore, the NPPK cases described in the current study presented a consistently mild phenotype, as compared with the degrees of phenotypic variability associated with other types of relatively severe PPK, including Mal de Meleda and Olmsted syndrome. PMID:27666198

  19. The interaction of miR-34b/c polymorphisms and negative life events increases susceptibility to major depressive disorder in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Yang, Chunxia; Zhang, Aixia; Xu, Yong; Li, Xinrong; Liu, Zhifen; Liu, Sha; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Kerang

    2017-06-09

    Previous studies have shown that microRNAs(miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of MDD; in particular, miR-34b/c has been implicated in MDD risk and found to exert antidepressant effects. However, the effects of miR-34b/c polymorphisms on MDD risk have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of miR-34b/c gene polymorphisms and their interaction with negative life events in relation to MDD, using data from 381 Han Chinese patients with MDD and 291 healthy volunteers. Allelic, genotypic, haplotypic, and gene-environment associations were analyzed using UNPHASED and SPSS software. After discarding data with extremely severe negative life events in our study population, we found an association between rs4938723, rs2187473 polymorphisms and MDD in the dominant models (TC/CC vs. TT, OR=1.45, P=0.027; TC/CC vs. TT, OR=3.32, P=0.030). In haplotype analysis, the C-G haplotype (rs4938723/rs28757623) showed the strongest association with MDD (OR=1.95, P=0.026). Additionally, we found significant gene-environment combination rs4938723 C allele, rs28757623 G allele and high level of negative life events (C-G-HN) was significantly associated with MDD (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.62-9.13). In addition, the combination of (C-C-HN) is of significance (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.36-6.60), indicating that the rs28757623 C allele may contribute to the risk of MDD as well. The sample size was small and the role of miR-34b/c polymorphisms for MDD should be assessed using independent samples from other ethnic populations. Our results suggest that miR-34b/c is a susceptibility factor for MDD stratified by negative life events and that rs4938723 is a significant association locus for gene-environment interaction in relation to MDD risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Noninvasive methods for monitoring bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a grizzly bear research project in 2009 in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) of northwestern Montana. This work uses hair collection and DNA analysis methods similar to those used in the 2004 Northern Divide Grizzly Bear Project. However, instead of producing a snapshot of population size, the objectives of this new work are to estimate population growth rates by collecting hair at natural bear rubs along trails, roads, and fence and power lines. This approach holds promise of providing reliable estimates of population trends in an efficient, cost-effective, and unobtrusive way.

  1. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism Impacts Task-Evoked and Resting-State Activities of the Amygdala in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sufang; Zou, Qihong; Li, Jun; Li, Jin; Wang, Deyi; Yan, Chaogan; Dong, Qi; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown that the amygdala of carriers of the short allele (s) of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene (5-HTTLPR) have a larger response to negative emotional stimuli and higher spontaneous activity during the resting state than non-carriers. However, recent studies have suggested that the effects of 5-HTTLPR may be specific to different ethnic groups. Few studies have been conducted to address this issue. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted on thirty-eight healthy Han Chinese subjects (l/l group, n = 19; s/s group, n = 19) during the resting state and during an emotional processing task. Compared with the s/s group, the l/l group showed significantly increased regional homogeneity or local synchronization in the right amygdala during the resting state (|t|>2.028, p<0.05, corrected), but no significant difference was found in the bilateral amygdala in response to negative stimuli in the emotional processing task. Conclusions/Significance 5-HTTLPR can alter the spontaneous activity of the amygdala in Han Chinese. However, the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala both in task state and resting state in Asian population was no similar with Caucasians. They suggest that the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala may be modulated by ethnic differences. PMID:22574175

  2. Medieval orthopaedic history in Germany: Hieronymus Brunschwig and Hans von Gersdorff.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Hans von Gerssdorff and Hieronymus Brunschwig, who flourished in Germany in the latter half of the fifteenth century, have both left early printed treatises on Surgery which give excellent woodcuts showing pictures of instruments, operations, and costumes, at the end of the medieval period. Hieronymus Brunschwig or Hieronymus Brunschwygk (ca. 1450 - ca. 1512), was a German surgeon (wundartzot), alchemist and botanist. He was notable for his methods of treatment of gunshot wounds. His most influential book was the Buch der Cirurgia. Gersdorff(1455-1529) was a military surgeon who gained wide experience during 40 years of campaigning and was an expert in the treatment of battlefield injuries. His work covers anatomy, surgery, leprosy, and glossaries of anatomical terms, diseases, and medications.

  3. Analysis of estrogen receptor β gene methylation in autistic males in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelai; Liang, Shuang; Sun, Yi; Li, Haixin; Endo, Fumio; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Noriko; Wu, Lijie

    2017-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disorder with abnormalities of social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviors. The higher prevalence of ASD in men implies a potential relationship between sex hormones and ASD etiology. The ESR2 gene encodes estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) and plays an important role during brain development. A relationship between ESR2 and ASD has been suggested by studies on single nucleotide polymorphisms and mRNA and protein expression levels in ASD patients. Here, we explored the possible epigenetic regulation of the ESR2 gene in autism. We collected genomic DNA from the peripheral blood of Chinese Han males with autism and age-matched normal males and measured DNA methylation of CpG islands in the ESR2 gene, which consisted of 41 CpG sites among the proximal promoter region and an untranslated exon, by bisulfite sequencing. We also investigated a relationship between DNA methylation and phenotypic features of autism, as assessed by the Children Autism Rating Scale. We found little overall difference in the DNA methylation of the ESR2 5'-flanking region in individuals with autism compared with normal individuals. However, detailed analyses revealed that eight specific CpG sites were hypermethylated in autistic individuals and that four specific CpG sites were positively associated with the severity of autistic symptoms. Our study indicates that the epigenetic dysregulation of ESR2 may govern the development of autism.

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Hans Padelt, Photographer Winter 1968 (2 1/4' x 2 3/4' negative), FIRST FLOOR, GENERAL VIEW OF DINING ROOM WITH FURNITURE DESIGNED BY FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT. - E. E. Boynton House, 16 East Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  5. Combining the Hanning windowed interpolated FFT in both directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kui Fu; Li, Yan Feng

    2008-06-01

    The interpolated fast Fourier transform (IFFT) has been proposed as a way to eliminate the picket fence effect (PFE) of the fast Fourier transform. The modulus based IFFT, cited in most relevant references, makes use of only the 1st and 2nd highest spectral lines. An approach using three principal spectral lines is proposed. This new approach combines both directions of the complex spectrum based IFFT with the Hanning window. The optimal weight to minimize the estimation variance is established on the first order Taylor series expansion of noise interference. A numerical simulation is carried out, and the results are compared with the Cramer-Rao bound. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach has a lower estimation variance than the two-spectral-line approach. The improvement depends on the extent of sampling deviating from the coherent condition, and the best is decreasing variance by 2/7. However, it is also shown that the estimation variance of the windowed IFFT with the Hanning is significantly higher than that of without windowing.

  6. Interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with Behcet's disease but not with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome in the Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianmin; Hou, Shengping; Zhu, Xueping; Fang, Jing; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yunjia; Bai, Lin; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphisms with Behcet's disease (BD) and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome in the Chinese Han population. A two-stage association study was performed on 718 BD patients, 300 VKH patients, and 1,753 controls. Genotyping of the IL-10 gene was performed for six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800896, rs3021094, rs3790622, and rs1554286 using PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism or TaqMan SNP assays. Real-time PCR was performed to test the IL-10 mRNA expression of the associated polymorphisms. The first-stage result showed significantly increased frequencies of the rs1800871 T allele, rs1800872 A allele, and rs1554286 T allele in BD patients compared with controls (Pcorrected (Pcorr)=1.82×10(-5), OR=1.837; Pcorr=6.1×10(-5), OR=1.780; Pcorr=3.15×10(-5), OR=1.794, respectively). There was no association of the tested six SNPs with VKH syndrome. A second-stage study was therefore performed in BD patients to validate the result of the first stage, showing a significantly increased frequency of the rs1800871 T allele (Second stage, Pcorr=5.59×10(-5), OR=1.493; Combined data, Pcorr=3.65×10(-11), OR=1.632). Compared to the controls, an increased frequency of the rs1800871 T allele was observed in BD patients with extraocular findings, including genital ulcers, skin lesions, and a positive pathergy test. No difference was found among the mRNA expressions of IL-10 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of controls with different genotypes of rs1800871 after stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. The findings showed that IL-10 is a risk gene for BD but not for VKH syndrome.

  7. [Daytime hypercapnia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in Han and Uygur nationality].

    PubMed

    He, Z M; Jiang, X L; Da, Piliqing; Ye, Z; Li, J P; Zhang, Q L; Chen, Y; Shi, J; Li, M; Han, F

    2016-11-29

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and factors related to daytime hypercapnia in Han and Uygur patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Methods: There were 221 patients with OSAHS (include 179 Han patients and 42 Uygur patients) in Sleep Center of Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of Karamay Central Hospital from 2015, Jan to Dec. All the patients underwent polysomnography (PSG), nocturnal oximetry, daytime blood gas analysis, pulmonary function test and Mouth occlusion pressure (P 0.1 ) results were recorded. The features of hypercapnia was analyzed for patients with OSAHS, and linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO 2 ) levels and related factors. Results: Daytime hypercapnia occurred in 16.7% (37/221) of the 221 patients with OSAHS. Compare with no hypercapnia groups, the body mass [(31.6±5.6) vs (27.9±1.7) kg/m 2 ], sleep apnea index (AHI) [(40.9±26.3) vs (32.2±20.1) times/h], the percentage of time spent at oxygen saturation below 90 (SIT 90 ) [(38.6±31.9)% vs (23.9±23.6)%], P 0.1 [(3.08±2.86) vs (2.03±1.20) mmHg, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa] were higher in hypercapnia groups, but the mean nocturnal arterial oxygen saturation (MSaO 2 ) [(86.0±15.5)% vs (92.0±3.0)%], the nadir arterial oxygen saturation (LSaO 2 ) [(68.9±13.0)% vs (75.3±9.9)%] and arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ) [(74.5±23.0) vs (86.1±14.8) were lower in hypercapnia groups (all P <0.05). Compare with Han patients with OSAHS, MSaO 2 and LSaO 2 was lower, PaCO 2 and P 0.1 was higher in Uygur patients (all P <0.05). Conclusions: Uygur OSAHS patients with hypercapnia have a higher daytime PaCO 2 than the Han counterparts. BMI, AHI, MSaO 2 , P 0.1 level are all related with daytime hypercapnia in OSAHS.

  8. Microbial community development on the surface of Hans and Werenskiold Glaciers (Svalbard, Arctic): a comparison.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Górniak, Dorota; Świątecki, Aleksander; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Szatraj, Katarzyna; Zdanowski, Marek K

    2015-09-01

    Surface ice and cryoconite holes of two types of polythermal Svalbard Glaciers (Hans Glacier--grounded tidewater glacier and Werenskiold Glacier-land-based valley glacier) were investigated in terms of chemical composition, microbial abundance and diversity. Gathered data served to describe supraglacial habitats and to compare microbe-environment interactions on those different type glaciers. Hans Glacier samples displayed elevated nutrient levels (DOC, nitrogen and seston) compared to Werenskiold Glacier. Adjacent tundra formations, bird nesting sites and marine aerosol were candidates for allochtonic enrichment sources. Microbial numbers were comparable on both glaciers, with surface ice containing cells in the range of 10(4) mL(-1) and cryoconite sediment 10(8) g(-1) dry weight. Denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis band-based clustering revealed differences between glaciers in terms of dominant bacterial taxa structure. Microbial community on Werenskiold Glacier benefited from the snow-released substances. On Hans Glacier, this effect was not as pronounced, affecting mainly the photoautotrophs. Over-fertilization of Hans Glacier surface was proposed as the major factor, desensitizing the microbial community to the snow melt event. Nitrogen emerged as a limiting factor in surface ice habitats, especially to Eukaryotic algae.

  9. Age at onset of major depressive disorder in Han Chinese women: relationship with clinical features and family history.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Zhen; Zou, Ying; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiao, Dongdong; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Hu, Jian; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Du, Bo; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Gan, Zhaoyu; Peng, Juyi; Wei, Bo; Pan, Jiyang; Chen, Honghui; Sun, Shufan; Jia, Hong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qiaoling; Wang, Xueyi; Cao, Juling; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Ha, Baowei; Ning, Yuping; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Shi, Shenxun

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with early-onset depression may be a clinically distinct group with particular symptom patterns, illness course, comorbidity and family history. This question has not been previously investigated in a Han Chinese population. We examined the clinical features of 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models was used to determine the association between age at onset (AAO) with continuous, binary and discrete characteristic clinical features of MDD. Earlier AAO was associated with more suicidal ideation and attempts and higher neuroticism, but fewer sleep, appetite and weight changes. Patients with an earlier AAO were more likely to suffer a chronic course (longer illness duration, more MDD episodes and longer index episode), increased rates of MDD in their parents and a lower likelihood of marriage. They tend to have higher comorbidity with anxiety disorders (general anxiety disorder, social phobia and agoraphobia) and dysthymia. Early AAO in MDD may be an index of a more severe, highly comorbid and familial disorder. Our findings indicate that the features of MDD in China are similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mismatch Negativity in Han Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yanbing; Ll, Xianbin; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Chuanyue

    2017-10-25

    Previous meta-analysis revealed that mismatch negativity(MMN) amplitude decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls (Cohen's d, d about 1), leading to the possibility of mismatch negativity being used as a biomarker for schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether MMN is reliably changed in Chinese patients. It is necessary to carry out a meta-analysis on MMN of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. To investigate whether MMN could be used as a biomarker for Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials on MMN in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients published before May 8, 2017, by searching the Chinese language databases CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP Data and PubMed. The effects of MMN deficits were evaluated for MMN amplitude by calculating standard mean difference (SMDs) between schizophrenia patient groups and healthy control groups. A total of 11 studies were included in the analysis. The total quality of all the studies were more than 6 as evaluated by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta-analysis of data from these studies had a pooled sample of 432 patients with schizophrenia and 392 healthy controls. There exists significant MMN deficit in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls (Cohen's d =1.004). When studies were excluded due to heterogeneity, the pooled effect size of the MMN differences between the patient group and healthy controls dropped to 0.79 (Cohen's d =0.79). Subgroup analysis showed that MMN amplitude deficits of schizophrenia over three years had the pooled effect size of 0.95, and less than three years had the pooled effect size of 0.77. Publication bias conducted via Egger regression test ( t = 1.83; p = 0.101), suggested that there was no publication bias. The effect size of MMN amplitude between Chinese patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls is consistent with other meta-analyses published on this topic, suggesting that Han Chinese

  11. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.

  12. [Analysis of HLA haplotype frequency and linkage disequilibrium in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia from Northern Chinese Han].

    PubMed

    Gao, Su-qing; Cheng, Liang-hong; Lu, Liang; Jing, Shi-zheng; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Yin-ze; Zou, Hong-yan; Deng, Zhi-hui

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the difference between the frequencies of HLA-A-B, B-DRB1 and A-B-DRB1 haplotype, as well as their linkage disequilibrium pattern in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL) and healthy controls from Northern Chinese Han. The frequencies of HLA-A-B, B-DRB1, A-B-DR haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium were estimated by Expectation Maximization method based on the genotypes of 643 patients with ALL and 2 0359 unrelated healthy donors, and the statistical significance between the two groups were estimated by chi-square test. Linkage disequilibrium was analyzed with population genetic methods. The most common HLA-A-B, B-DRB1, and A-B-DR haplotypes were A30-B13, A2-B46, A33-B58, B13-DR7, B46-DR9, B52-DR15, B58-DR17, A30-B13-DR7, A33-B58-DR17 and A1-B37-DR10 in both groups. The frequencies of A30-B13, A2-B46, A33-B44, B13-DR7, A30-B13-DR7 and A2-B46-DR9 haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium value were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the patient group than that in the control group. On the other hand, the frequencies of A2-B52, A31-B61, A24- B8, B60-DR9, B27-DR4, B52-DR14, B44-DR17, B27-DR12 and A11-B27-DR12 haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium value were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the patient group than that in the control group. There are some common and positive linkage disequilibrium haplotypes in both the ALL patients and the healthy donors in Northern Chinese Han. Interestingly, some haplotypes and their linkage disequilibrium patterns had significantly different distributions between the two groups. The study provided basic data for the relationship of ALL and HLA haplotype and for finding the HLA-A, B, DR matching donors.

  13. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong].

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations.

  14. A map of copy number variations in Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Lou, Haiyi; Li, Shilin; Yang, Yajun; Kang, Longli; Zhang, Xin; Jin, Wenfei; Wu, Bailin; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that the human genome contains extensive copy number variations (CNVs). Investigating the medical and evolutionary impacts of CNVs requires the knowledge of locations, sizes and frequency distribution of them within and between populations. However, CNV study of Chinese minorities, which harbor the majority of genetic diversity of Chinese populations, has been underrepresented considering the same efforts in other populations. Here we constructed, to our knowledge, a first CNV map in seven Chinese populations representing the major linguistic groups in China with 1,440 CNV regions identified using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Array. Considerable differences in distributions of CNV regions between populations and substantial population structures were observed. We showed that ∼35% of CNV regions identified in minority ethnic groups are not shared by Han Chinese population, indicating that the contribution of the minorities to genetic architecture of Chinese population could not be ignored. We further identified highly differentiated CNV regions between populations. For example, a common deletion in Dong and Zhuang (44.4% and 50%), which overlaps two keratin-associated protein genes contributing to the structure of hair fibers, was not observed in Han Chinese. Interestingly, the most differentiated CNV deletion between HapMap CEU and YRI containing CCL3L1 gene reported in previous studies was also the highest differentiated regions between Tibetan and other populations. Besides, by jointly analyzing CNVs and SNPs, we found a CNV region containing gene CTDSPL were in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium between flanking SNPs in Tibetan while not in other populations except HapMap CHD. Furthermore, we found the SNP taggability of CNVs in Chinese populations was much lower than that in European populations. Our results suggest the necessity of a full characterization of CNVs in Chinese populations, and the CNV map we constructed serves as a useful resource in

  15. A Map of Copy Number Variations in Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yajun; Kang, Longli; Zhang, Xin; Jin, Wenfei; Wu, Bailin; Jin, Li; Xu, Shuhua

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that the human genome contains extensive copy number variations (CNVs). Investigating the medical and evolutionary impacts of CNVs requires the knowledge of locations, sizes and frequency distribution of them within and between populations. However, CNV study of Chinese minorities, which harbor the majority of genetic diversity of Chinese populations, has been underrepresented considering the same efforts in other populations. Here we constructed, to our knowledge, a first CNV map in seven Chinese populations representing the major linguistic groups in China with 1,440 CNV regions identified using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 Array. Considerable differences in distributions of CNV regions between populations and substantial population structures were observed. We showed that ∼35% of CNV regions identified in minority ethnic groups are not shared by Han Chinese population, indicating that the contribution of the minorities to genetic architecture of Chinese population could not be ignored. We further identified highly differentiated CNV regions between populations. For example, a common deletion in Dong and Zhuang (44.4% and 50%), which overlaps two keratin-associated protein genes contributing to the structure of hair fibers, was not observed in Han Chinese. Interestingly, the most differentiated CNV deletion between HapMap CEU and YRI containing CCL3L1 gene reported in previous studies was also the highest differentiated regions between Tibetan and other populations. Besides, by jointly analyzing CNVs and SNPs, we found a CNV region containing gene CTDSPL were in almost perfect linkage disequilibrium between flanking SNPs in Tibetan while not in other populations except HapMap CHD. Furthermore, we found the SNP taggability of CNVs in Chinese populations was much lower than that in European populations. Our results suggest the necessity of a full characterization of CNVs in Chinese populations, and the CNV map we constructed serves as a useful resource in

  16. Hans Christian Ørsted, Narratives, Oeuvres and Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    In 1820 the Danish scientist Hans Christian Ørsted discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism by his famous wire-compass experiment. Ørsted was one of the foremost scientists of the nineteenth century, and he was also one of the leading figures in Denmark in the 19th century with a vital influence in the fields of aesthetics,…

  17. [ANTHROPOMETRIC PROPORTIONALITY METHOD ELECTION IN A SPORT POPULATION; COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS].

    PubMed

    Almagià, Atilio; Araneda, Alberto; Sánchez, Javier; Sánchez, Patricio; Zúñiga, Maximiliano; Plaza, Paula

    2015-09-01

    the proportionality model application, based on ideal proportions, would have a great impact on high performance sports, due to best athletes to resemble anthropometrically. the objective of this study was to compare the following anthropometric methods of proportionality: Phantom, Combined and Scalable, in male champion university Chilean soccer players in 2012 and 2013, using South American professional soccer players as criterion, in order to find the most appropriate proportionality method to sports populations. the measerement of 22 kinanthropometric variables was performed, according to the ISAK protocol, to a sample constituted of 13 members of the men's soccer team of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. The Z-values of the anthropometrics variables of each method were obtained using their respective equations. It was used as criterion population South American soccer players. a similar trend was observed between the three methods. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in some Z-values of Scalable and Combined methods compared to Phantom method. No significant differences were observed between the results obtained by the Combined and Scalable methods, except in wrist, thigh and hip perimeters. it is more appropriate to use the Scalable method over the Combined and Phantom methods for the comparison of Z values in kinanthropometric variables in athletes of the same discipline. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Prefer feeling bad? Subcultural differences in emotional preferences between Han Chinese and Mongolian Chinese.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinmei; Cheng, Chen; Chow, Hiu Mei; Ding, Xuechen

    2018-03-01

    As a multi-ethnic country that is comprised of diverse cultural systems, there has been little research on the subcultural differences in emotional preferences in China. Also, little attention has been paid to examine how explicit and implicit attitudes towards emotions influence emotional preferences interactively. In this study, we manipulated explicit attitudes towards emotions among Han (N = 62) and Mongolian Chinese individuals (N = 70). We assessed participants' implicit attitudes towards emotions to explore their contributions to emotional preferences. (a) Han Chinese had lower preferences for pleasant emotions than Mongolian Chinese after inducing contra-hedonic attitudes towards emotions, and (b) after priming contra-hedonic attitudes towards emotions, the more Han Chinese participants evaluated pleasant emotions as negative implicitly, the less they preferred to engage in pleasant emotional activities. These findings contribute to the growing literature of subcultural differences and demonstrate that explicit and implicit attitudes towards emotions interactively influence individuals' emotional preferences between different subculture groups. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. The construction of the spatio-temporal database of the ancient Silk Road within Xinjiang province during the Han and Tang dynasties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Jiantao; Luo, Guilin; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia

    2014-03-01

    As the bridge over the Chinese and Western civilization, the ancient Silk Road has made a huge contribution to cultural, economic, political exchanges between China and western countries. In this paper, we treated the historical period of Western Han Dynasty, Eastern Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty as the research time domain, and the Western Regions' countries that were existed along the Silk Road at the mean time as the research spatial domain. Then we imported these data into the SQL Server database we constructed, from which we could either query the attribute information such as population, military force, the era of the Central Plains empire, the significant events taking place in the country and some related attribute information of these events like the happened calendar year in addition to some related spatial information such as the present location, the coordinates of the capital and the territory by inputting the name of the Western countries. At the same time we could query the significant events, government institution in Central Plains and the existent Western countries at the mean time by inputting the calendar year. Based on the database, associated with GIS, RS, Flex, C# and other related information technology and network technology, we could not only browsing, searching and editing the information of the ancient Silk Road in Xinjiang Province during the Han and Tang Dynasties, but preliminary analysing as well. This is the combination of archaeology and modern information technology, and the database could also be a reference to further study, research and practice in the related fields in the future.

  20. A sex-specific association of common variants of neuroligin genes (NLGN3 and NLGN4X) with autism spectrum disorders in a Chinese Han cohort.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jindan; He, Xue; Yao, Dan; Li, Zhongyue; Li, Hui; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2011-05-14

    Synaptic genes, NLGN3 and NLGN4X, two homologous members of the neuroligin family, have been supposed as predisposition loci for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and defects of these two genes have been identified in a small fraction of individuals with ASDs. But no such rare variant in these two genes has as yet been adequately replicated in Chinese population and no common variant has been further investigated to be associated with ASDs. 7 known ASDs-related rare variants in NLGN3 and NLGN4X genes were screened for replication of the initial findings and 12 intronic tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped for case-control association analysis in a total of 229 ASDs cases and 184 control individuals in a Chinese Han cohort, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. We found that a common intronic variant, SNP rs4844285 in NLGN3 gene, and a specific 3-marker haplotype XA-XG-XT (rs11795613-rs4844285-rs4844286) containing this individual SNP were associated with ASDs and showed a male bias, even after correction for multiple testing (SNP allele: P = 0.048, haplotype:P = 0.032). Simultaneously, none of these 7 known rare mutation of NLGN3 and NLGN4X genes was identified, neither in our patients with ASDs nor controls, giving further evidence that these known rare variants might be not enriched in Chinese Han cohort. The present study provides initial evidence that a common variant in NLGN3 gene may play a role in the etiology of ASDs among affected males in Chinese Han population, and further supports the hypothesis that defect of synapse might involvement in the pathophysiology of ASDs.

  1. Influence of Environmental Variables on the Distribution of Macrobenthos in the Han River Estuary, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ok Hwan; Lee, Hyung-Gon; Lee, Jae-Hac

    2012-12-01

    We compared environmental effects on the macrobenthic community of the Han River Estuary in summer, when freshwater input from the Han River increased, and in spring, when freshwater input decreased. Field samples were taken from the upper region of the Shingok reservoir to the southern area of Ganghwado at 18 sampling sites after rainy (August 2006) and dry (March 2007) seasons. Macrobenthic fauna were collected using a Van Veen Grab (0.025 m2 and 0.1 m2) and environmental factors were measured simultaneously. Dominant species of macrobenthic fauna and the macrobenthic community were divided into two areas, the area of the Han River with no salinity (< 0.1 psu) and the southern part of Ganghwado with salinity (> 20 psu). The dominant species Byblis japonicus appeared at Junruri in the dry season. The distributions of two polychaetes, Hediste japonica and Nephtys caeca, were divided into the lower and upper areas of the Singok submerged weir. BIO-ENV (the matching of biotic to environmental patterns) analysis revealed that salinity was the most important factor affecting macrobenthic communities in the Han River Estuary, with other factors such as sediment grain size, bottom dissolved oxygen, and total organic carbon of sediment being secondary.

  2. IFNG polymorphisms are associated with tuberculosis in Han Chinese pediatric female population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Jiao, Wei-Wei; Feng, Wei-Xing; Wu, Xi-Rong; Xiao, Jing; Miao, Qing; Sun, Lin; Wang, Bin-Bin; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fang; Shen, Dan; Shen, A-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Host genetic factors play a major role in determining differential susceptibility to human tuberculosis (TB), a re-emerging infectious disease throughout the world. Genetic variations in the IFNG gene coding for interferon gamma (IFN-γ), have been identified in TB patients. To investigate the association of the IFNG polymorphisms with TB susceptibility in Chinese pediatric population. A case-control study of 189 TB patients and 164 controls was performed using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes in peripheral blood. Three SNPs of IFNG, including -1616C/T (rs2069705), +874A/T (rs2430561), and +3234C/T (rs2069718), were selected for genotyping and analysis. The +874A and +3234C alleles were more frequent among TB patients (P = 0.108 and P = 0.088), especially in females (both P = 0.029), although this difference was not significant since Bonferroni corrected significance threshold was 0.025 (two of three SNPs were found to be in linkage disequilibrium). More pronounced differences for the +874 and +3234 polymorphisms were found under the genotype comparison between TB cases and controls in the total population [P = 0.026 (borderline non-significance) and P = 0.020, respectively], and in the female subgroup (P = 0.020 and P = 0.020). The dominant model of inheritance was shown to be significant for +874A and +3234C alleles (both P = 0.019) in the female subgroup. The +874A and +3234C alleles were more frequently found in extrapulmonary TB patients than in controls (P = 0.039). Haplotype analysis carried out on these three SNPs showed the TTT haplotype to be more frequent in controls than in TB cases, and this difference showed a strong significance (P = 0.005). The +874A and +3234C alleles may be related to TB susceptibility in the female subgroup in the Chinese pediatric population of North China. The higher rate of +874A (known to correlate with lower IFN-γ expression) in the extrapulmonary

  3. Association of the VDAC3 gene polymorphism with sperm count in Han-Chinese population with idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lianjun; Liu, Qingzhen; Li, Jingyun; Wu, Wei; Wang, Xinru; Zhao, Dan; Ma, Jiehua

    2017-07-11

    Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a multifunctional channel protein across the outer mitochondrial membrane of somatic cells and participates in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Up to now, only a few studies, including our previous studies, showed that VDAC exists in mammalian spermatozoa and is involved in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. There is no report about VDAC genetic variants in germinal tissues or cells. To investigate the possible association between VDAC genetic variants and human sperm quality, we performed semen analysis and variant Genotyping of VDAC3 subtype (rs7004637, rs16891278 and rs6773) of 523 Han-Chinese males with idiopathic infertility respectively by computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping assay. No significant association was found between rs7004637 and rs6773 genotypes and semen quality. However, the AG genotype of rs16891278 showed a significantly lower sperm concentration compared with the AA genotype (P = 0.044). Our findings suggest that VDAC3 genetic variants may be associated with human sperm count.

  4. Association between PNPLA3 gene polymorphisms and risk of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma in Han population in China:a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xia; Liu, Wenxuan; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaolin; Ma, Ning; Wang, Liqin; Yan, Lina; Tang, Longmei; Yang, Haitao; Liu, Dianwu

    2017-10-01

    Several recent studies showed that the genetic polymorphisms in the PNPLA3 region (rs738408, rs738409, rs2294918, rs2294919 and rs2281135) were with related to various kinds of liver diseases. We analyzed the five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for major HBV outcomes in Han Chinese. A total of 2410 samples were involved and peripheral blood samples were collected in this study. The SNPs in the PNPLA3 region were genotyped by using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Our study indicated the clear relationship between the PNPLA3 rs2294918, rs2294919 and HBV-related HCC after control for the effects of sex, drinking and smoking. Health subjects with the PNPLA3 rs2294919 TC genotype would have a 0.605 (95% CI: 0.413, 0.886; p = .010) times lower odds of having HCC, and those with the rs2294918 AG genotype would have a 1.872 (95% CI: 1.256, 2.792; p = .002) times higher odds of having HCC, whereas the values of sex, age, drinking and smoking were fixed. In addition, CA haplotype of the haplotype block of rs738409 and rs2281135 was also associated with HBV-related HCC. Our study suggested that PNPLA3 loci (rs2294918, rs2294919) were associated with HBV-related HCC in Han Chinese.

  5. Association of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene -675 4G/5G and -844 A/G promoter polymorphism with risk of keloid in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Long, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yang

    2014-10-28

    A keloid is pathological scar caused by aberrant response to skin injuries, characterized by excessive accumulation of histological extracellular matrix, and occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of keloid. We investigated the association between PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with keloid risk. A total of 242 Chinese keloid patients and 207 controls were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction technique was used to determine PAI-1 promoter polymorphism (-675 4G/5G and -844 A/G) distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism between keloid patients and healthy controls. 4G/4G carriers were more likely to develop keloid. In contrast, the -844 A/G polymorphism distribution did not vary significantly between keloid patients and controls. The keloid patients group had a significantly higher plasma PAI-1 level than the control group. In the -675 4G/4G carrier population, the plasma PAI-1 levels were significant higher in keloid patients compared with controls. Our study provides evidence that PAI-1 promoter polymorphism -675 4G/5G and plasma PAI-1 level are associated with keloid risk. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism may be an important hereditary factor responsible for keloid development in the Chinese Han population.

  6. Prevalence of Obesity and Related Factors among Bouyei and Han Peoples in Guizhou Province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Dong, Fen; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Jonasson, Junmei Miao; Wu, Zhenglai; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and associated factors in Bouyei and Han peoples. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Guizhou province, southwest China in 2012, with multi-stage sampling to enroll 4551 participants aged 20 to 80 years. General and abdominal obesity were defined by World Health Organization (WHO) for Chinese. A design-based analysis was performed to evaluate prevalence of obesity and its related factors. Bouyei people had a significantly lower prevalence of general obesity (4.8% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.05) and abdominal obesity (13.6% vs. 26.8%, p < 0.05) than that in Han people. Prevalence of obesity increased with age until middle-age period and declined thereafter. Men aged 40-49 years group and women aged 50-59 years group have the highest prevalence of general obesity. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was higher than that of general obesity. Middle-age, Higher income, Han people were significantly associated with an increased risk of General/abdominal obesity. Bouyei people had a lower prevalence of general and abdominal obesity than the Han people. Etiological studies should be conducted to determine underlying genetic factors and dietary factors.

  7. Validity of body composition methods across ethnic population groups.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Deurenberg-Yap, M

    2003-10-01

    Most in vivo body composition methods rely on assumptions that may vary among different population groups as well as within the same population group. The assumptions are based on in vitro body composition (carcass) analyses. The majority of body composition studies were performed on Caucasians and much of the information on validity methods and assumptions were available only for this ethnic group. It is assumed that these assumptions are also valid for other ethnic groups. However, if apparent differences across ethnic groups in body composition 'constants' and body composition 'rules' are not taken into account, biased information on body composition will be the result. This in turn may lead to misclassification of obesity or underweight at an individual as well as a population level. There is a need for more cross-ethnic population studies on body composition. Those studies should be carried out carefully, with adequate methodology and standardization for the obtained information to be valuable.

  8. Influence of the South-to-North Water Transfer and the Yangtze River Mitigation Projects on the water quality of Han River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Kuo, Y. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Middle Route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer (MSNW) and Yangtze-Han River Water Diversion (YHWD) Projects have been operated since 2014, which may deteriorate water quality in Han River. The 11 water sampling sites distributed from the middle and down streams of Han River watershed were monitored monthly between July 2014 and December 2015. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to investigate the major pollution types and main variables influencing water quality in Han River. The factor analysis distinguishes three main pollution types (agricultural nonpoint source, organic, and phosphorus point source pollution) affecting water quality of Han River. Cluster analysis classified all sampling sites into four groups and determined their pollution source for both Dry and Wet seasons. The sites located at central city receive point source pollution in both seasons. The water quality in downstream Han River (excluding central city sites) was influenced by nonpoint source pollution from Jianghan Plain. Variations of water qualities are associated with hydrological conditions varied from operations of engineering projects and seasonal variability especially in Dry season. Good water quality as Class III mainly occurred when flow rate is greater than 800 cms in Dry season. The low average flow rate below 583 cms will degrade water quality as Class V at almost all sites. Elevating the flow rate discharged from MSNW and YHWD Projects to Han River can avoid degrading water quality especially in low flow conditions and may decrease the probability of algal bloom occurrence in Han River. Increasing the flow rate from 400 cms to 700 cms in main Han River can obviously improve the water quality of Han River. The investigation of relationships between water quality and flow rate in both projects can provide management strategies of water quality for various flow conditions.

  9. Serum IL-18 level, clinical symptoms and IL-18-607A/C polymorphism among chronic patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Tan, Yun-Long; Chen, Da-Chun; Tan, Shu-Ping; Malouta, Michelle Z; Bernard, Jared D; Combs, Jessica L; Bhatti, Sarai; Davis, Michael C; Kosten, Thomas R; Soares, Jair C

    2016-06-01

    Literature suggests that alterations in the inflammatory and immune systems are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Specifically, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia exhibit increased IL-18, a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine in type 1 T-helper (Th1) responses. The functional 607A/C promoter polymorphism of the IL-18 gene is also associated with the psychopathology of this disorder. However, no current study has explored its role in the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia as mediated through IL-18 levels. We recruited 772 inpatients with schizophrenia and 775 healthy controls in a Han Chinese population and genotyped the IL-18-607A/C polymorphism. Patient psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Serum IL-18 levels were measured in 80 patients and 93 healthy controls. Our results showed that there were no significant differences in the distribution of the allele and genotype frequencies between the patients and controls. Both increased IL-18 serum level and the IL-18-607A/C polymorphism were positively associated with the PANSS general psychopathology subscore and the PANSS total score. Moreover, interaction of increased IL-18 serum level and the IL-18-607A/C polymorphism influenced the clinical psychopathological symptoms, indicating that association of IL-18 level with the PANSS general psychopathology subscale or the total scores was present only among patients carrying the C allele. We demonstrate an association between the IL-18-607A/C variant and clinical psychopathological symptoms in schizophrenia. Findings suggest that the association between higher IL-18 levels and clinical symptoms in schizophrenia is dependent on the IL-18-607A/C polymorphism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between PPAP2B gene polymorphisms and coronary heart disease susceptibility in Chinese Han males and females.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xiao; Gao, Chuan-Yu; Lu, Yang; Fu, Xin; Jia, Jun-Ge; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Li, Lian-Dong; Dui, Hong-Zhi; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Li, Zhi-Ying; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Yuan, Yi-Qiang

    2017-02-21

    Little is known about gender-related differences in the association between PPAP2B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chinese Han males and females. We therefore conducted a case-control study with 456 cases and 685 healthy controls divided into male and female subgroups. Five PPAP2B polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and genotyped using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age and gender. Allelic model analysis revealed that for PPAP2B rs1759752, allele frequency distributions differed between cases and controls in the male subgroup (p = 0.015, OR: 1.401, 95%CI: 1.066-1.481). Genetic model analysis revealed that in the male subgroup, rs1759752 was associated with increased CHD risk in the dominant model (p = 0.035) and overdominant model (p = 0.045). In the female subgroup, rs12566304 was associated with a decreased CHD risk in the codominant model (p = 0.038) and overdominant model (p = 0.031). Additionally, the "GC" haplotypes of rs1759752 and rs1930760 were protective against CHD in males. These observations shed new light on gender-related differences in the association between PPAP2B gene polymorphisms and CHD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.

  11. Increased vital and total lung capacities in Tibetan compared to Han residents of Lhasa (3,658 m).

    PubMed

    Droma, T; McCullough, R G; McCullough, R E; Zhuang, J G; Cymerman, A; Sun, S F; Sutton, J R; Moore, L G

    1991-11-01

    Larger chest dimensions and lung volumes have been reported for Andean high-altitude natives compared with sea-level residents and implicated in raising lung diffusing capacity. Studies conducted in Nepal suggested that lifelong Himalayan residents did not have enlarged chest dimensions. To determine if high-altitude Himalayans (Tibetans) had larger lung volumes than acclimatized newcomers (Han "Chinese"), we studied 38 Tibetan and 43 Han residents of Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, China (elevation 3,658 m) matched for age, height, weight, and smoking history. The Tibetan compared with the Han subjects had a larger total lung capacity [6.80 +/- 0.19 (mean +/- SEM) vs 6.24 +/- 0.18 l BTPS, P less than 0.05], vital capacity (5.00 +/- 0.08 vs 4.51 +/- 0.10 1 BTPS, P less than 0.05), and tended to have a greater residual volume (1.86 +/- 0.12 vs 1.56 +/- 0.09 1 BTPS, P less than 0.06). Chest circumference was greater in the Tibetan than the Han subjects (85 +/- 1 vs 82 +/- 1 cm, P less than 0.05) and correlated with vital capacity in each group as well as in the two groups combined (r = 0.69, P less than 0.05). Han who had migrated to high altitude as children (less than or equal to 5 years old, n = 6) compared to Han adult migrants (greater than or equal to 18 years old, n = 26) were shorter but had similar lung volumes and capacities when normalized for body size. The Tibetans' vital capacity and total lung capacity in relation to body size were similar to values reported previously for lifelong residents of high altitude in South and North America. Thus, Tibetans, like North and South American high-altitude residents, have larger lung volumes. This may be important for raising lung diffusing capacity and preserving arterial oxygen saturation during exercise.

  12. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor, Insulin Receptor Substrate-1, and Hypocretin Neuropeptide Precursor Genes and Susceptibility to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Tang, Tingyu; Du, Jianzong; Wu, Wenjuan; Zhou, Xiaoxi; Qin, Guangyue

    2016-01-01

    To investigate genotype-phenotype changes between rs29230 in γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABBR1), rs1801278 in insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and rs9902709 in hypocretin neuropeptide precursor (HCRT) and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in Chinese Han individuals. A total of 130 patients with OSAHS and 136 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. A brief description of DNA extraction and genotyping is given. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender and age was used to estimate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs29230 (GABBR1), rs1801278 (IRS-1), and rs9902709 (HCRT) with OSAHS risk. Subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate differences in these SNPs among subgroups according to gender, body mass index (BMI), and severity of disease. Genotype and allele frequencies of rs29230 were significantly different between cases and controls (p = 0.0205 and p = 0.0191, respectively; odds ratio = 0.493, 95% confidence interval = 0.271-0.896), especially for male patients (p = 0.0259 and p = 0.0202, respectively). Subgroup analysis according to BMI also revealed a significant allele difference for rs29230 between cases and controls in the overweight subgroup (p = 0.0333). Furthermore, allele and genotype frequencies of rs1801278 showed significant differences between cases and controls (p = 0.0488 and p = 0.0471, respectively). However, no association was observed between rs9902709 and OSAHS risk (p = 0.2762), and no differences were identified in other subgroups. In this study, there was an association between variants of rs29230 and rs1801278 and OSAHS risk in the Chinese Han population but not for rs9902709. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Relationship between High-Resolution HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 Alleles and Haplotype Polymorphisms with Myeloid Leukemia of Han People in North China].

    PubMed

    Qi, Jun; Wang, Tian-Ju; Chen, Li-Ping; Wang, Man-Ni; Wu, Jun-Hua; DU, Dan

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the potential relationship between the high-resolution HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 alleles and haplotype polymorphism with actute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) of Han people in North China. A total of 1241 healthy unrelated Han people's bone marrow donors in North China were used as a control group, 259 patients with myeloid leukemia were genotyped at high-resolution level by means of PCR-SBT, -SSO and -SSP typing methods for HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 loci. The frequencies of HLA allele and haplotype were calculated by software Arleguin 3.5.2. The different distribution of genes and haplotypes was analyzed by case control study, and the odd ratio (OR) of leukemia was also calculated. The structural difference of HLA alleles was analyzed 111by HLA three-dimensional structure modeling and software Swiss-PdbViewer v4.1. χ 2 test and correction showed that an increased frequency of A*02:07 (8.47% vs 5.28%, P' =0.013), A*29:01 (1.85% vs 0.68%, P=0.044), B*07:02 (5.29% vs 3.10%, P=0.029), B*07:05:01G (1.85% vs 0.68%, P=0.044) and B*35:02 (1.06% vs 0.20%, P=0.023) were found in AML patients (n=189) as compared with controls, respectively; whereas A*02:03 was less frequent in AML as compared with controls (0.79% vs 3.10%, P=0.011). The frequency of B*46:01 was lower in CML patients (n=70) as compared with controls (2.86% vs 7.82%, P=0.031). However, the above-mentioned discrepancies were not statistically significant by Bonferroni correction. Through Fisher exact test and Bonferroni correction, the frequency of DRB1*11:28 and its haplotype A*24:02-B*15:01-DRB1*11:28 in CML group were very significantly higher than in controls (1.43% vs 0.00%, Pc=0.015; 1.43% vs 0.00%, P=0.003). Three-dimensional structure modeling of DRB1*11:28 and DRB1*11:01 presented significant structure differentiation (RMSD=0.09 nm) in peptide binding region of the backbone calculated by Swiss-PdbViewer v4.1. The haplotype A*03:01-B*50:01-DRB1*07:01 in AML and A*11:01-B*40:06-DRB1

  14. Reliability of Different Mark-Recapture Methods for Population Size Estimation Tested against Reference Population Sizes Constructed from Field Data

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Annegret; Gruber, Bernd; Henle, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Reliable estimates of population size are fundamental in many ecological studies and biodiversity conservation. Selecting appropriate methods to estimate abundance is often very difficult, especially if data are scarce. Most studies concerning the reliability of different estimators used simulation data based on assumptions about capture variability that do not necessarily reflect conditions in natural populations. Here, we used data from an intensively studied closed population of the arboreal gecko Gehyra variegata to construct reference population sizes for assessing twelve different population size estimators in terms of bias, precision, accuracy, and their 95%-confidence intervals. Two of the reference populations reflect natural biological entities, whereas the other reference populations reflect artificial subsets of the population. Since individual heterogeneity was assumed, we tested modifications of the Lincoln-Petersen estimator, a set of models in programs MARK and CARE-2, and a truncated geometric distribution. Ranking of methods was similar across criteria. Models accounting for individual heterogeneity performed best in all assessment criteria. For populations from heterogeneous habitats without obvious covariates explaining individual heterogeneity, we recommend using the moment estimator or the interpolated jackknife estimator (both implemented in CAPTURE/MARK). If data for capture frequencies are substantial, we recommend the sample coverage or the estimating equation (both models implemented in CARE-2). Depending on the distribution of catchabilities, our proposed multiple Lincoln-Petersen and a truncated geometric distribution obtained comparably good results. The former usually resulted in a minimum population size and the latter can be recommended when there is a long tail of low capture probabilities. Models with covariates and mixture models performed poorly. Our approach identified suitable methods and extended options to evaluate the

  15. Serum reference interval of ARCHITECT alpha-fetoprotein in healthy Chinese Han adults: Sub-analysis of a prospective multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Cunling; Yang, Jia; Wei, Lianhua; Hu, Jian; Song, Jiaqi; Wang, Xiaoqin; Han, Ruilin; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Soh, Andrew; Beshiri, Agim; Fan, Zhuping; Zheng, Yijie; Chen, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been widely used in clinical practice for decades. However, large-scale survey of serum reference interval for ARCHITECT AFP is still absent in Chinese population. This study aimed to measure serum AFP levels in healthy Chinese Han subjects, which is a sub-analysis of an ongoing prospective, cross-sectional, multi-center study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03047603). This analysis included a total of 530 participants (41.43±12.14years of age on average, 48.49% males), enrolled from 5 regional centers. Serum AFP level was measured by ARCHITECT immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS 9.4 and R software. AFP distribution did not show significant correlation with age or sex. The overall median and interquartile range of AFP was 2.87 (2.09, 3.83) ng/mL. AFP level did not show a trend of increasing with age. The new reference interval was 2.0-7.07ng/mL (LOQ- 97.5th percentiles). The reference interval for ARCHITECT AFP is updated with the data of adequate number of healthy Han adults. This new reference interval is more practical and applicable in Chinese adults. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Population control methods in stochastic extinction and outbreak scenarios.

    PubMed

    Segura, Juan; Hilker, Frank M; Franco, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive limiter control (ALC) and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH) are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural resources. Here, we consider population models that include biological mechanisms characteristic for causing extinctions on the one hand and pest outbreaks on the other hand. These models include Allee effects and the impact of natural enemies (as is typical of forest defoliating insects). We study the impacts of noise and different levels of biological parameters in three extinction and two outbreak scenarios. Our results show that ALC and ATH have an effect on extinction and outbreak risks only for sufficiently large control intensities. Moreover, there is a clear disparity between the two control methods: in the extinction scenarios, ALC can be effective and ATH can be counterproductive, whereas in the outbreak scenarios the situation is reversed, with ATH being effective and ALC being potentially counterproductive.

  17. Determining Global Population Distribution: Methods, Applications and Data

    PubMed Central

    Balk, D.L.; Deichmann, U.; Yetman, G.; Pozzi, F.; Hay, S.I.; Nelson, A.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the total numbers of people at risk from infectious disease in the world requires not just tabular population data, but data that are spatially explicit and global in extent at a moderate resolution. This review describes the basic methods for constructing estimates of global population distribution with attention to recent advances in improving both spatial and temporal resolution. To evaluate the optimal resolution for the study of disease, the native resolution of the data inputs as well as that of the resulting outputs are discussed. Assumptions used to produce different population data sets are also described, with their implications for the study of infectious disease. Lastly, the application of these population data sets in studies to assess disease distribution and health impacts is reviewed. The data described in this review are distributed in the accompanying DVD. PMID:16647969

  18. Forensic efficiency and genetic variation of 30 InDels in Vietnamese and Nigerian populations.

    PubMed

    Du, Weian; Peng, Zhiyong; Feng, Chunlei; Zhu, Bofeng; Wang, Bangchao; Wang, Yue; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ling

    2017-10-24

    Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels) are ubiquitous diallelic genetic markers that have drawn increasing attention from forensic researchers. Here, we investigated 30 InDel loci in Vietnamese and Nigerian populations and evaluated their usefulness in forensic genetics. The polymorphic information content of these populations ranged, respectively, from 0.164 to 0.375 and from 0.090 to 0.375 across loci. After Bonferroni correction, no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found, except for HLD97 in the Nigerian population. The cumulative power of exclusion for all 30 loci in the Vietnamese and Nigerian populations was 0.9870 and 0.9676, respectively, indicating that this InDel set is not suitable for paternity testing in these populations, but could be included as a supplement. For the Vietnamese and the Nigerian populations, the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.5917 and 0.6268, and the combined discrimination power of the 30 loci was 0.9999999999767 and 0.9999999999603, respectively. These findings indicated that these InDels may be suitable for personal forensic identification in the studied populations. The results of D A distance, phylogenetic tree, principal component, and cluster analyses were consistent and indicated a clear pattern of regional distribution. Moreover, the Vietnamese population was shown to have close genetic relationships with the Guangdong Han and Shanghai Han populations.

  19. Forensic efficiency and genetic variation of 30 InDels in Vietnamese and Nigerian populations

    PubMed Central

    Du, Weian; Peng, Zhiyong; Feng, Chunlei; Zhu, Bofeng; Wang, Bangchao; Wang, Yue; Liu, Chao; Chen, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels) are ubiquitous diallelic genetic markers that have drawn increasing attention from forensic researchers. Here, we investigated 30 InDel loci in Vietnamese and Nigerian populations and evaluated their usefulness in forensic genetics. The polymorphic information content of these populations ranged, respectively, from 0.164 to 0.375 and from 0.090 to 0.375 across loci. After Bonferroni correction, no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found, except for HLD97 in the Nigerian population. The cumulative power of exclusion for all 30 loci in the Vietnamese and Nigerian populations was 0.9870 and 0.9676, respectively, indicating that this InDel set is not suitable for paternity testing in these populations, but could be included as a supplement. For the Vietnamese and the Nigerian populations, the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.5917 and 0.6268, and the combined discrimination power of the 30 loci was 0.9999999999767 and 0.9999999999603, respectively. These findings indicated that these InDels may be suitable for personal forensic identification in the studied populations. The results of DA distance, phylogenetic tree, principal component, and cluster analyses were consistent and indicated a clear pattern of regional distribution. Moreover, the Vietnamese population was shown to have close genetic relationships with the Guangdong Han and Shanghai Han populations. PMID:29179488

  20. Temporal and spatial variation of hydrological condition in the Ziwu River Basin of the Han River in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziyan; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Qiang; Bai, Tao; Zhou, Shuai; Lin, Mu

    2018-06-01

    The middle route of South-To-North Water Diversion in China transfers water from the Han River and Han-To-Wei Water Diversion project of Shaanxi Province will transfer water from the Ziwu River, which is a tributary of the Han River. In order to gain a better understanding of future changes in the hydrological conditions within the Ziwu River basin, a Mann-Kendall (M-K) trend analysis is coupled with a persistence analysis using the rescaled range analysis (R/S) method. The future change in the hydrological characteristics of the Ziwu River basin is obtained by analysing the change of meteorological factors. The results show that, the future precipitation and potential evaporation are seasonal, and the spatial variation is significant. The proportion of basin area where the spring, summer, autumn and winter precipitation is predicted to continue increase is 0.00, 100.00, 19.00 and 16.00 %, meanwhile, the proportion of basin area that will continue to decrease in the future respectively will be 100.00, 0.00, 81.00 and 74.00 %.The future potential evapotranspiration of the four seasons in the basin shows a decreasing trend. The future water supply situation in the spring and autumn of the Ziwu River basin will degrade, and the future water supply situation in the summer and winter will improve. In addition, the areas with the same water supply situation are relatively concentrated. The results will provide scientific basis for the planning and management of river basin water resources and socio-hydrological processes analysis.