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Sample records for hancza ne poland

  1. Using the geodetic and hydroacoustic measurements to investigate the bathymetric and morphometric parameters of Lake Hancza (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popielarczyk, Dariusz; Templin, Tomasz; Łopata, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Most of the inland lakes do not have up-to-date bathymetry. However, a significant progress in surveying technologies creates a possibility to quickly and accurately describe the underwater environment. Modern geodetic and global positioning techniques integrated with hydroacoustic systems provide a great opportunity to study the bottom shape with high resolution. Our study presents a reliable methodology for investigation of bathymetry and morphometric parameters with the use of GNSS positioning techniques and single beam echosounder. The research was implemented on the deepest, glacial reservoir in the central part of European Depression - Lake Hancza. Direct hydroacoustic and geodetic measurements completed by sediment study were conducted by the authors in 2010-2013. After performing a field survey the Digital Elevation Model was constructed and the new bathymetric map and morphometric card were elaborated. The maximum depth was confirmed to be 105.55 m. The final conclusions show that the available bathymetric data and morphometric parameters of lakes are highly dependent on the research methodology used, the precision and accuracy of measurement techniques, proper water level determination, digital elevation model and bathymetric map elaboration processes.

  2. Sedimentary record of a Pleistocene ice-sheet interlobate zone (NE Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszka, Beata; Morawski, Wojciech; Zieliński, Tomasz

    2012-08-01

    Well developed NE-SW trending corridors of outwash in NE Poland are associated with a series of lakes with a similar direction of elongation. The glaciofluvial corridor under study consists of parallel ridges with associated channels and kames. The deposits are flanked by till and hummocky terrain. The gravel ridges are composed of sand and gravel deposits that are cross-stratified, massive or graded, and that contain cut-and-fill structures and large intra-clasts of sand and gravel. Locally the deposits show normal faults. The succession of one of the ridges is interpreted to reflect the infilling of a braided channel in a crevasse. Sedimentation took place in some phases when the ice-sheet regime changed from active to stagnant. Sandy-gravel ridges occur within this complex perpendicular to the Weichselian ice-sheet margin. The corridor is interpreted as an interlobate area in the zone between the Warmia and Mazury ice lobes. The braided-channel deposits are not comparable to typical Polish sandurs. The lithofacies characteristics show higher energy conditions, and the channels are deeper than those typical of Pleistocene lowland sandurs. The sand and gravel ridges are interpreted as interlobate eskers.

  3. Poland.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, Poland's population was 37.5 million and the annual population growth rate was 0.8%. The infant mortality rate was 19.3/1000 and life expectancy stood at 71.6 years. Of the labor force of 17.5 million, 30% were engaged in agriculture, 44% were in industry and commerce, 8% were government employees, and 11% were employed in services. Poland is a communist state. The economy is based on the Soviet model of state ownership of most of the country's productive assets, although the private sector predominates in agriculture. The rights of private farmers are now protected through a 1983 amendment to the constitution. Poland's economy has performed poorly in comparison with other Eastern European economies. The economic growth rate is 5% and inflation averages 20%. Per capita income is US$2000. Industries were centralized following World War II, and this systemic rigidity is considered to have contributed to the economy's poor performance. Another important factor has been low reliance of foreign trade, meaning that Poland's industries have failed to develop competitiveness. The government has committed itself to a so-called second-stage of economic reform, but to date there have been few concrete accomplishments. PMID:12177960

  4. Celebration 2000: Crustal Structure In The Tesz (from NE To SE Poland) Along Ttz Cel03 Seismic Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebration 2000 Working Group; Janik, T.

    New seismic refraction and wide angle reflection experiment CELEBRATION was made in Central Europe in June 2000 as an international cooperation. One of the profiles of the experiment, CEL03, about 430 km long, was located in the Teisseyre- Tornquist zone (TTZ) in central and SE Poland. Twelve shot points were located along the profile. Location of the NW most shot coincided with the position of shot point 05 from TTZ profile on which measurements were carried out in TTZ (NW and central Poland) in 1993 (Grad et al., 1999). NW part of the TTZ profile, up to SP05 (with 13 shot points), 294 km long, and profile CEL03 with a total length of 720 km, were interpreted together. This line runs in TESZ parallel to edge of East European Craton (EEC) through whole territory of Poland. In this area the depth of the consolidated basement, with a P-wave velocity of about 5.8 km/s, is 8 to 10 km. However, down to a depth of 15 - 20 km the P-wave velocity is very low, no greater then about 6.0 km/s. In NE part of the profile, a high velocity body (HVB) (Vp=6.9 km/s) was detected at a depth of 15 km. Thickness of the crust varies from 35 to 45 km. We discussed the results together with other seismic results of this region. References Grad M., Janik T., Yliniemi J., Guterch A., Luosto U., Komminaho K., Sroda P., Höing ´ K., Makris J., and Lund C-E. 1999. Crustal structure of the Mid Polish Trough beneath TTZ seismic profile. Tectonophysics, 314, 1-3: 145-160

  5. Stable isotopic perturbation at the Ordovician-Silurian transition in NE Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, A.; Gruszczynski, M.; Malkowski, K. . Paleobiology Inst.); Satir, M. ); Halas, S. . Physics Inst.)

    1992-01-01

    An interpretation of the time series of stable isotopic proportions of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur in rock samples from subsurface Ordovician-Silurian transition in north-eastern Poland demonstrates a clearcut perturbation that must imply some global scale controlling factors. This perturbation is particularly emphasized by its comparison to the sustained secular Paleozoic trend in isotopic characteristics of the oceanic system. On the other hand, this isotopic perturbation contrasts with unidirectional local changes in geochemical elemental proportions in the same rock samples. The perturbation is most parsimoniously explained as linked to the onset of a major glaciation. Its relationship to the second largest mass extinction in the history of the biosphere still remains to be elucidated.

  6. Heavy Metal Enrichment History in annually laminated Lake Tiefer See (NE-Germany) and Lake Czechowskie (N-Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Dräger, Nadine; Kienel, Ulrike; Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Within the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analyses (ICLEA) high-resolution geo-archives (e.g. lakes as natural data loggers) of the northeastern german and northern polish lowlands are investigated to identify influences of land-use on the landscape evolution. For two annually laminated lake sediment records, situated in rural environments in NE-Germany (Lake Tiefer See) and N-Poland (Czechowskie Lake), we present a detailed heavy metal enrichment history for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn for the last two hundred years at 1 cm intervals. Both lakes show a similar pattern of relatively low heavy metal concentrations if compared to the so-called index of geoaccumulation (Müller 1979), which is based on the average global metal content in shales (Turekian and Wedepohl, 1961). Only Pb, Zn and Cd show a clear parallel pattern of enrichment in both lakes starting around 1850 according to mainly atmospheric input due to increasing industrialization within the framework of the Industrial Revolution. Highest input for Cd, Zn, and Pb occur around 1960 to 1980 and thereafter a clear pattern of declining anthropogenic input is registered. On the base of heavy-metal analysis of pre-industrial sediments and different sediment types (e.g. calcareous gyttja, organic gyttja etc.) the local and specific geogenic background values for various metals are determined. These results provide means to calculate and quantify with sub-decadal resolution anthropogenic heavy metal accumulations and enrichment factors as well as to define regional measures for a state of reference, reflecting natural conditions without human impact. Müller, G. (1979): Schwermetalle in den Sedimenten des Rheins - Veränderungen seit 1971. Umschau 79: 778-783. Turekian, K. and Wedepohl, K. (1961): Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth's crust. Bull.Geol.Soc.Am. 72: 175-192.

  7. Long-term spatiotemporal stability and dynamic changes in the haemoparasite community of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in NE Poland.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Anna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke-Borowczyk, Jolanta; Siński, Edward; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2014-08-01

    Long-term field studies on parasite communities are rare but provide a powerful insight into the ecological and evolutionary processes shaping host-parasite interactions. The aim of our study was to identify the principal factors regulating long-term trends in the haemoparasite communities of bank voles, and to this end, we sampled three semi-isolated populations of bank voles (n = 880) in 1999, 2002, 2006 and 2010 in the Mazury lake district region of NE Poland. Overall, 90.8 % of the bank voles harboured at least one of the species of haemoparasites studied. Whilst overall prevalence (all species combined) did not vary significantly between the surveys, different temporal changes were detected among voles in each of the three sites. In voles from Urwitałt, prevalence increased consistently with successive surveys, whereas in Tałty, the peak years were 2002 and 2006, and in Pilchy, prevalence oscillated without a clear pattern. Across the study, bank voles harboured a mean of 1.75 ± 0.034 haemoparasite species, and species richness remained stable with no significant between-year fluctuations or trends. However, each of the five constituent species/genera showed a different pattern of spatio-temporal changes. The overall prevalence of Babesia microti was 4.9 %, but this varied significantly between years peaking in 2006 and declining again by 2010. For Bartonella spp., overall prevalence was 38.7 %, and this varied with year of study, but the temporal pattern of changes differed among the three sites. The overall prevalence of Haemobartonella (Mycoplasma) was 68.3 % with an increase in prevalence with year of study in all three sites. Hepatozoon erhardovae had an overall prevalence of 46.8 % but showed a marked reduction with each successive year of the study, and this was consistent in all three sites. The overall prevalence of Trypanosoma evotomys was 15.4 % varying significantly between sites, but showing temporal stability. While overall prevalence

  8. Stable isotope record in annually laminated lake sediments from Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) for the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabryś, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope record of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) has been analysed from an annually laminated sediment from Lake Zabinskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland) with high resolution (1-3 yrs). The sediment layers which were formed in each year during the last millennium contain information about environmental changes in the past. The calcite layers are formed in lake sediment in warm months of the year, therefore the reconstruction of summer climate variables in the past is potentially possible. The investigation of correlation between isotope dataset and instrumental climate data for years 1897-2008 AD confirmed that theory. The record of temperature, precipitation and SPEI (Standardised Precipitation Evaporation Index) coefficient, which is a combination of both temperature and precipitation, was tested. The strongest linear correlations were found for most samples for June, July, August (JJA) months but in some cases the correlation coefficient was stronger when also May was taken into account. For the whole 120-yrs series the correlation between δ18O and average JJA temperature is 0.007, average JJA precipitation is 0.16 and average JJA SPEI is 0.20. Analyzing the results for 1897-2008 we can distinguish period 1960-2008 with relevantly stronger correlations: R(temperature) = 0.19, R(precipitation) = 0.20 and R(SPEI) = 0.45. This period is connected with cessation of human activity close to Lake Zabinskie. Reconstruction of climate variables for the last millennium was made using transfer function obtained for calibration period (1897-2008). Reconstructions showed that known climate extremes like Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age with Sporer (1420-1570), Maunder (1645-1715) and Dalton (1790-1820) Minimum was recorded in sediment from Lake Zabinskie. The presented study is a part of the project "Climate of northern Poland during the last 1000 years: Constraining the future with the past (CLIMPOL)", funded within Polish-Swiss Research Programme. http://www.climpol.ug.edu.pl

  9. Paleoenvironmental changes during the last 8,500 years recorded in annually laminated sediments from Lake Szurpiły, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinder, Małgorzata; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bubak, Iwona; Enters, Dirk; Kupryjanowicz, Mirosława; Mayr, Christoph; Ohlendorf, Christian; Piotrowska, Natalia; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments provide a precise time scale for high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstructions of climatic change and human impact. We reconstructed the environmental changes from Lake Szurpiły (NE Poland) using varve chronology and multi-proxy interdisciplinary approach. Our reconstruction is one of the few for NE Poland and extends the geographical network of laminated lacustrine sediments. This research was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education grants (N N306 275635, N N306 009337, N N306 291639). It is a contribution to the bilateral scientific program "Northern Polish Lake Research" (NORPOLAR). Parallel overlapping sediment cores with total length of 12.38 m and extending back to the Late Glacial were retrieved in 2007. The geochemical (X-ray Fluorescence, CNS, stable isotopes), microscopic (varve thickness and structure), biological (diatoms, pollen) and statistical analyses were applied and combined in an annual scale based on the varve chronology, which was verified by independent radiometric dating (Pb-210, Cs-137 and AMS radiocarbon dating). Due to the large slump, this study focuses on the almost continuously varved uppermost 7.58-m long section of the profile, covering the last 8,500 years. The climate fluctuations were the main cause of the environmental changes during the first 6,000 years. The geochemical record is mainly driven by the lake productivity, oxic conditions and minerogenic input. Although the first evidence of the anthropogenic impact is documented in pollen record at 8,000 BP, the environmental conditions were relatively stable until 2,500 BP, when the human activity increased significantly. Since that time the climatic and human influence are combined and more difficult to disentangle. Three settlement phases separated by natural regeneration of the environment occurred between 2,500-400 BP. The variation of geochemical and pollen data at 400-100 BP reflects climate

  10. The modal mantle metasomatism in the NE part of the Cenozoic Central European Volcanic Province: the example of the Wołek basanite (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M.; Puziewicz, J.; Grégoire, M.; Muszyński, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Cenozoic lava occurrences in SW Poland belong to the Central European Volcanic Province (CEVP). In some of them (ca.10) mantle xenoliths were recognized. Most of xenoliths show no signs of modal metasomatism (Blusztajn and Shimizu 1994, Matusiak-Małek et al. 2010, Puziewicz et al. 2011). One of the rare exposures with amphibole-bearing peridotite xenoliths in SW Poland is the Wołek Hill basanite. It is located about 100 km south-west of Wrocław (Nowak et al. 2010) in the Złotoryja volcanic field (Matusiak-Małek et al. 2010). Peridotite xenoliths from Wołek

  11. A chrysophyte-based quantitative reconstruction of winter severity from varved lake sediments in NE Poland during the past millennium and its relationship to natural climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Almeida, I.; Grosjean, M.; Przybylak, R.; Tylmann, W.

    2015-08-01

    Chrysophyte cysts are recognized as powerful proxies of cold-season temperatures. In this paper we use the relationship between chrysophyte assemblages and the number of days below 4 °C (DB4 °C) in the epilimnion of a lake in northern Poland to develop a transfer function and to reconstruct winter severity in Poland for the last millennium. DB4 °C is a climate variable related to the length of the winter. Multivariate ordination techniques were used to study the distribution of chrysophytes from sediment traps of 37 low-land lakes distributed along a variety of environmental and climatic gradients in northern Poland. Of all the environmental variables measured, stepwise variable selection and individual Redundancy analyses (RDA) identified DB4 °C as the most important variable for chrysophytes, explaining a portion of variance independent of variables related to water chemistry (conductivity, chlorides, K, sulfates), which were also important. A quantitative transfer function was created to estimate DB4 °C from sedimentary assemblages using partial least square regression (PLS). The two-component model (PLS-2) had a coefficient of determination of Rcross2 = 0.58, with root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP, based on leave-one-out) of 3.41 days. The resulting transfer function was applied to an annually-varved sediment core from Lake Żabińskie, providing a new sub-decadal quantitative reconstruction of DB4 °C with high chronological accuracy for the period AD 1000-2010. During Medieval Times (AD 1180-1440) winters were generally shorter (warmer) except for a decade with very long and severe winters around AD 1260-1270 (following the AD 1258 volcanic eruption). The 16th and 17th centuries and the beginning of the 19th century experienced very long severe winters. Comparison with other European cold-season reconstructions and atmospheric indices for this region indicates that large parts of the winter variability (reconstructed DB4 °C) is due to the

  12. Extrinsic- and intrinsic-dependent variation in component communities and patterns of aggregations in helminth parasites of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) from N.E. Poland.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Zaleśny, Grzegorz

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effect extrinsic (habitat and season) and intrinsic (host's age and sex) factors on the richness, diversity, and structure of parasite component communities and aggregation patterns in the helminth fauna of the great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo from northeastern Poland. The helminth fauna of cormorants from the brackish water habitat was far richer (30 species) than in those from freshwater lakes (18 species) and strongly depend on season and age of the host. The values of diversity index strongly varied in relation to habitat and host age with clear seasonal differences in the value of diversity index, i.e., its value increased over time in adults from the brackish water habitat and decreased in those from the freshwater lakes. The number of helminths in adult and immature birds varied, depending on the season and habitat: in the brackish water habitat, the overall percentage of helminths was higher in spring than in summer, while in the freshwater habitat a higher proportion of helminths was recorded in summer. During spring, in the brackish water habitat, we observed a higher level of aggregation (for all groups of helminths) than in autumn. The opposite pattern was found in the freshwater habitat. However, this regularity was typical of adult birds only. In immature hosts, the level of aggregation was not predictable and varied among the higher taxa. Our study clearly showed that processes determinate diversity, structure, richness, and patterns of aggregation in helminth assemblages of avian hosts are multi-origin and highly complex. PMID:24297694

  13. Spring-temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Tylmann, Wojciech; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution, well-calibrated records of lake sediments are fundamental for assessments of climatic and environmental changes. Varved lake sediments are particularly robust archives in this context, providing quantitative insights into climate-state variables at annual resolution. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems, the key issue is to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, particularly during the 20th century. Here we present a multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and geochemical data from Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, North-East Poland) with the aim to detect and differentiate climate-driven changes from other environmental controls. The lake is dimictic, 44-meter deep and ice-covered from January to early March. It exhibits biogeochemical varves with a high content of organic matter (terrestrial and aquatic, macrophytes, algae and bacteria), a simple inorganic composition (predominantly summer-precipitated endogenous calcite) and high sedimentation rates (5 - 8 mm/yr). We analyzed a 51-cm long sediment core from the deepest part of the lake basin covering the last 100 years. Pigments were extracted at 1-cm resolution using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We also measured pigments with Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy (VIS-RS; 380 - 730 nm) to assess whether the down-core resolution could be increased with this rapid non-destructive technique. We show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven change for the period 1907-2008 AD. The eutrophication signal is evidenced by a recent change in the algal community from green algae (rich in chlorophyll a) to more competitive blue-green algae (rich in ß-carotene), which leads to an environment with light-limiting conditions for chlorophyte growth. This provides a basis for the preservation of the climate signal in the sediments. Using

  14. Findings of historical Icelandic (Askja AD 1875) tephras in varved lake records from Lake Tiefer See and Lake Czechowskie: a new potential for synchronizing the recent environmental history in NE Germany and N central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Sabine; Dräger, Nadine; Ott, Florian; Serb, Johanna; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    Identification of remnants of volcanic ashes (tephras) intercalated in lake sediments has become a crucial point for dating purposes and for synchronization of different sediment records. During the Late Glacial and the Holocene Northeastern Germany and Northern-central Poland were episodically impacted by ash clouds of larger eruptions from Icelandic volcanoes (e.g. Saksunarvatn, 10.2 cal ka BP, and Vedde Ash, 12.1 cal ka BP); the most recent ones in 2010 and 2011 occurred from rather low-scale eruptions from Eyjafjallajökull and Grimsvötn resulting in an interruption of air traffic and local deposition of fine grained ash. We have started an intense search for traces of these volcanic ashes (cryptotephras) and other historic Icelandic tephras in two annually laminated palaeoclimate records, Lake Tiefer See (NE Germany) and Lake Czechowskie (N central Poland), in order to verify the 14C supported varve chronologies of these sequences. Lake Czechowskie and Lake Tiefer See are both located within the terminal moraine of the Pomeranian ice advance of the last glaciation and encompass continuous sediment records since the Late Glacial. First results of tephrochronological investigations revealed a cryptotephra finding of the rhyolitic Askja AD 1875 ash in both sequences. The Phreatoplinian Askja AD 1875 eruption is considered as the largest Icelandic eruption in history, comparable with the 1991-Pinatubo eruption. Due to strong westerly winds the Askja AD 1875 Tephra was distributed towards the east as evidenced by documentary records and occurrences in numerous peat bogs in Norway and Sweden. A tentative finding was reported from Grambower Moor in N Germany suggesting a subsequent southward moving ash cloud over Sweden (van den Bogaard and Schmincke, 2002). With the ultra-distal cryptotephra findings in Lake Tiefer See and Lake Czechowskie, ca. 2060 km and 2300 km SE of the Icelandic source, respectively, we can confirm the southward ash dispersal and provide an

  15. Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous polyphase metamorphic evolution of the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome (NE Bohemian Massif, Poland): evidence from Th-U-total Pb monazite dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Jastrzębski, Mirosław; Stawikowski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    The Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, located in the NE part of the Bohemian Massif, mainly consists of Cambro-Ordovician orthogneisses and the metavolcano-sedimentary Młynowiec and Stronie Formations. This study constrains electron microprobe Th-U-total Pb ages of monazite in (1) orthogneisses, (2) paragneisses of the Młynowiec Formation (MF), (3) mica schists of the Stronie Formation (SF) and (4) light quartzites. The latter light quartzites form a continuous 'horizon' between two metavolcano-sedimentary formations, however, they are traditionally treated as the lowest member of the Stronie Formation (SF). Our field and structural studies conducted along the transects crossing the boundaries between the above-mentioned rocks indicate that there is a stratigraphic and structural continuity between the Młynowiec and Stronie Formations. Samples for the monazite dating were collected at different distances from the contact between orthogneisses and metasediments. The aim of this study was to provide a new data to verify a hypothesis of Cambro-Ordovician contact or regional metamorphism of the Młynowiec-Stronie Group and to constrain age of the Variscan metamorphic events in the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome. Monazite from medium-grained orthogneiss yield dates ranging from 546 to 322 Ma, while three age domains of ca. 481 Ma, ca. 421 Ma and ca. 370 Ma are defined in fine-grained orthogneiss. Monazite in two porphyroblastic paragneisses (MF) yields two age domains of 369-361 Ma and 340-336 Ma. It should be noted that the older ages are recorded by inclusions of monazite in staurolite and plagioclase, as well as by matrix monazite. Monazite in leucosome of the migmatized paragneiss (MF) yields ca. 337 Ma age, while matrix monazite in melanosome yields ages of ca. 331 Ma age and a faint record of ca. 355 Ma. In two K-feldspar bearing light quartzites (SF), older spectrum of ages within 524-463 Ma, as well as younger ages of ca. 358 Ma and 347 Ma are obtained. On the other hand, only

  16. Aging in Poland.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. PMID:26315315

  17. Astronomy in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarna, M.; Stępień, K.

    2015-09-01

    Polish post-war astronomy was built virtually from nothing. Currently, about 250 astronomers are employed in seven academic institutes and a few smaller units across Poland. Broad areas of astrophysics are covered and the level of astronomical research in Poland is higher than the world average. Joining ESO has created an atmosphere that is conducive to further improvements in the quality of Polish research, and it marks an important step towards the full integration of Polish astronomers into the international scientific community.

  18. English Teaching Profile: Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Poland begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English language…

  19. Income Affluence in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of income affluence (richness) in Poland during 1998-2007. Using household survey data, the paper estimates several statistical indices of income affluence including income share of the top percentiles, population share of individuals receiving incomes higher than the richness line, and measures that take into…

  20. Lichens of the Knyszyńska Forest (NE Poland).

    PubMed

    Czeczuga, B; Lengiewicz, I

    2001-01-01

    During the period 1991-1999 the lichen species composition of 26 reserves of the Knyszyńska Forest were examined. 315 taxa, including 271 species were found. Epiphytic lichens were predominant, while epilithic species were the least common. Of the coniferous trees, pine (Pinus sylvestis) was the habitat which supported most species (67), and common larch (Larix decidua) the fewest (5). Only two species were found on juniper (Juniper communis). Of deciduous trees, the largest number of species developed on oak bark (Quercus robur) (102), the fewest on elm bark (Ulmus laevis) (2). In the case of deciduous bushes most lichen taxa were noted on hazel (Corylus avellana) (21) and only one on hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). The commonest species were Hypogymnia physodes and Lecanora conizaeoides, which were encountered in all 26 reserves.

  1. Abortion in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Z

    1991-12-01

    As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother. PMID:1777450

  2. Poland's syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Fokin, Alexander A; Robicsek, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Literary data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory of its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. The incidence of Poland's syndrome varies between groups (male versus female patients, congenital versus familial cases, and so on) and ranges from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births. Cases of Poland's syndrome associated with leukemia, carcinoma of the hypoplastic breast, and other conditions, confirm the relationship between developmental defects and tumors, and require oncologic awareness. Various manifestations, age, and gender require different surgical approaches. Our experience, which includes 27 patients (15 male, 12 female), 20 of whom (12 male, 8 female) underwent operation, suggests that the repair should be done in two stages in children and in a single stage in adults. Reconstruction and/or stabilization of the aplastic ribs may be achieved using bone grafts or prosthetic mesh. Muscle flaps and breast implants may be used to correct muscle deficiency and breast hypoplasia and to help achieve a complete cosmetic repair. PMID:12643435

  3. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  4. Psychiatric hospitalization in Poland.

    PubMed

    Frydman, L

    1983-01-01

    An overview of psychiatric hospitalization in Poland is presented in the context of Polish political and socio-cultural developments. The areas addressed include: the characteristics of the patient population; the organization of Polish mental health service; the nature of psychiatric treatment; psychiatric legislation; patients' rights; and the training and social status of the various mental health professionals. In spite of the meager resources allocated to mental health services, and the consequent staff shortages and overcrowded, drab living conditions in psychiatric facilities, the care afforded patients is generally humane and nonoppressive. Polish psychiatry has succeeded in maintaining its professional autonomy and has assumed a leadership role in the modernization of its service delivery system.

  5. [Emigration from Poland].

    PubMed

    Fassmann, H

    1998-01-01

    "Apart from Ireland and Italy Poland belongs to the ¿classical' emigration countries of the 19th and 20th century. Due to economical and political factors a considerable number of Poles left their country.... Spread over many countries on several continents the emigrants established a Polish diaspora and developed a national feeling that is...[connected] with the Polish culture and the Polish ¿community'. The existence of ethnic networks structures characterized the Polish emigration also after 1989/90. Political and ethnic factors become thereby less important in comparison with economical push- and pull-factors. This leads to an emigration of qualified people who get jobs in the urban labour markets of Western Europe in private households, and in the building trade, sometimes under precarious circumstances." (EXCERPT)

  6. Poland: a step backwards.

    PubMed

    1981-04-01

    With the growing political and economic unrest in Poland and the emergence of the free trade union Solidarity, Catholic groups have taken the opportunity to campaign actively and openly against family planning services. These services, consequently, appear to be seriously threatened. Previously, Catholic opposition to family planning, particularly the 1956 Abortion Law, was always manifested in semi-clandestine ways. The activity was largely focused on the publication of critical articles, Church sermons, and the organization of Catholic groups working with youth. Despite pressure from the Catholic deputies in the Sejm, the government firmly refused to permit any discussion in Parliament on the Abortion Law until the mid-1970s, when the situation changed. 2 things were largely responsible: the pronatalism of Edward Gierek, 1st Secretary of the Party; and the growing dissatisfaction of the people. In 1975-1976 the State took the opportunity to save money by curtailing the contraceptive supply. In 1980 working class upheavals and economic crises intensified the government's need for Church support. With the new freedom, certain right-wing Catholic groups were able to work openly. They publish literature, organize seminars on the natural methods of fertility regulation, distribute photographs of fetuses, and visit clinics for the purpose of influencing clients waiting for contraceptive and abortion counseling. Availability of contraception in Poland is poor. The total lack of contraceptives in 1975-1976 means that even now there are big shortages in both quantity and variety. It is not possible to say whether the anti-abortion movement is a Solidarity movement, for there is no official statement of support on behalf of the trade union.

  7. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. PMID:27140431

  8. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting.

  9. Poland health system review.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  10. [Rabies in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Kucharczyk, Bozena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland 70 cases of animal rabies were reported in 2007. Since 1993, when mass oral vaccination of wild animals against rabies was introduced in our country, a positive impact of fox immunisation has been visible on the epizootic situation of rabies in Poland. In 2007 we observed more than forty-fold decrease in number of animal rabies cases in comparison with the year 2001. Sources of wild and domestic animal rabies are still present, mainly in the east part of the country (75% of rabies cases). In Poland out of 6,608 people vaccinated against rabies, 91 (1.4%) were bitten by or had contact with a rabid animal. The main reason for vaccination against rabies was exposure to an animal with not excluded rabies (6,874 cases, 89%). PMID:19799257

  11. [Rabies in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Kucharczyk, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    In Poland 28 cases of animal rabies were reported in 2008. Since 1993, when mass oral vaccination of wild animals against rabies was introduced in our country, a positive impact of fox immunisation has been visible on the epizootic situation of rabies in Poland. However, sources of wild and domestic animal rabies are still present, mainly in the east part of the country. In Poland in 2008 the total 6 495 of people were vaccinated against rabies but only 60 (0.9%) were bitten by or had contact with a rabid animal. The main reason for vaccination against rabies was exposure to an animal with not excluded rabies (5 806 cases, 89%). PMID:20731232

  12. [Rabies in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata; Łabuńska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In Poland 81 cases of animal rabies were reported in 2006. Since 1993, when mass oral vaccination of wild animals against rabies was introduced in our country, a positive impact of fox immunisation has been visible on the epizootic situation of rabies in Poland. In 2006 we observed almost forty-fold decrease in number of animal rabies cases in comparison with the year 2001. Sources of wild and domestic animal rabies are still present, mainly in the east part of the country (80% of rabies cases). In Poland out of 7 225 people vaccinated against rabies, 99 (1.3%) were bitten by or had contact with a rabid animal. The main reason for vaccination against rabies was exposure to an animal with not excluded rabies (6 502 cases, 90%) or animals healthy at the moment of the exposition (624 cases, 8.6%). PMID:18807477

  13. Seismic event near Jarocin (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizurek, Grzegorz; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiejacz, Paweł; Wiszniowski, Jan; Trojanowski, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    The earthquake of magnitude M L = 3:8 (EMSC) took place on Friday, 6 January 2012, north-east of the town of Jarocin in Wielkopolska Region, Poland. The only historical information about past earthquakes in the region was found in the diary from 1824; apart of it, there was a seismic event noticed in the vicinity of Wielkopolska in 1606 (Pagaczewski 1982). The scope of this paper is to describe the 6 January 2012 event in view of instrumental seismology, macroseismic data analysis and known tectonics of the region, which should be useful in future seismic hazard analysis of Poland.

  14. MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanski, Ray; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    To begin, we examine the relationship between MiniBooNE and the neutrino beam geometry at Fermilab. In Figure 1, a schematic representation is shown of the plan view of the location of MiniBooNE relative to SciBooNE and the NuMI target, where it can be seen that SciBooNE and MiniBooNE share the same beamline and neutrino flux, and therefore share some of the same systematic effects -- A combined analysis between the two experimental groups could yield a superior result compared to segregated individual analysis. MiniBooNE makes an angle of 6.3 degrees with the NuMI beamline, an off-axis measurement if you will, that provides a relatively high yield of electron neutrinos from kaon decay. Furthermore, the proton beam incident on the MiniBooNE target possesses a 53 MHz structure that will be important in timing studies related to the low energy excess. Let's review of the results of the MiniBooNE: As is well known, MiniBooNE, a test of the LSND effect [1], adds experimental inspiration to the possible existence of new phenomena; although two neutrino-family oscillations were shown to be an unlikely candidate to explain the LSND effect, a low energy excess of 3.0 sigma in the neutrino sector at energies between 200 to 475 MeV [2] - an effect that appears to have no counterpart in the antineutrino sector [3], combined with the 3.8 sigma LSND result - at roughly 50 MeV - strains phenomenology for insight. Miniboones continues to run and collect antineutrino data; will combine disappearance analysis with SciBooNE; take data from the NuMI target, an unusual source with a potentially new look at the low energy anomaly; and use beam timing techniques to further constrain phenomenological models. In this paper we will review current topics related to MiniBooNE and other associated experiments and phenomenology.

  15. MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Sorel, Michel; /Columbia U.

    2006-02-01

    The physics motivations, design, and status of the Booster Neutrino Experiment at Fermilab, MiniBooNE, are briefly discussed. Particular emphasis is given on the ongoing preparatory work that is needed for the MiniBooNE muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation appearance search. This search aims to confirm or refute in a definitive and independent way the evidence for neutrino oscillations reported by the LSND experiment.

  16. MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna Mcconnel; /Columbia U.

    2007-03-01

    MiniBooNE is a short baseline neutrino experiment designed to confirm or refute the LSND observed excess of electron anti neutrinos in a muon anti neutrino beam. The experimental setup, data samples, and oscillation fit method are discussed. Although the result was not public at the time of the talk, MiniBooNE has since published results, which are discussed briefly as well.

  17. Making Media Policy in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goban-Klas, Tomasz

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the creation of the new media policy in Poland formed at the 1989 "round table" negotiations between the Polish leadership and Solidarity, a Polish trade union. Discusses the issues of censorship, access to newsprint and to the airwaves (primarily to television), and the legalization of underground publications. (KEH)

  18. Emerging Business Schools in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmielecka, Ewa; Osterczuk, Anna M.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in postsecondary business education in Poland are examined, drawing on results of recent surveys. Topics addressed include the design and evaluation of programs at different levels, influences of Western programs and pedagogy, demand for business education, and implications for further development of the system. (MSE)

  19. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  20. Air protection strategy in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  1. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed

    David, T J

    1982-06-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated.

  2. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated. PMID:7092316

  3. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. ); Balandynowicz, H.W. . Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  4. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, 140.115 cases of chickenpox were reported in Poland. The incidence 367.2 per 100,000 was higher compared to 2008 (340.2). Children 5-9 years old were the most affected age group--3252.8 per 100 000. Of 140.115 cases, 969 (0.69%) were hospitalized and 4 deaths attributed to chickenpox were reported.

  5. [Chickenpox in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 129.662 cases ofchickenpox were reported in Poland. The incidence 340.2 per 100,000 was lower compared to 2007 (420.2) and to the median incidence in 2002-2006 (370.7). Children 5-9 year old were the most affected age group - 3057.1 per 100 000. Of 129 662 cases, 800 (0.62%) were hospitalized and no deaths attributed to chickenpox were reported.

  6. New moldavites from SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Four newly discovered moldavites from the East and West Gozdnica pits, SW Poland, are characterized. All specimens, including other four, reported earlier, are from Upper Miocene fluvial sediments of the Gozdnica Formation. Their weight varies between 0.529 and 1.196 g. The moldavites are bottle green in colour and have bubbles and inclusions of lechatelierite. Low degree of corrosion suggests short river transport, apparently eastward from Lusatia.

  7. Poland syndrome with dextrocardia: case report.

    PubMed

    Galiwango, G W; Swan, M C; Nyende, R; Hodges, A M

    2010-11-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital condition presentingwith typical features including an absent costosternal head of pectoralis major andipsilateral brachysyndactyly. There are many clinical variations of the syndrome including rib defects, absence of shoulder girdle muscle and breast hypoplasia or agenesis. Dextrocardia is rarely associated with Poland Syndrome with only 22 cases being previously reported in the worldwide literature. Whereas 'classical' Poland syndrome is predominantly right sided, all cases associated with dextrocardia have been left sided. We report a further case of left sided Poland syndrome with dextrocardia which might have important implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of this unusual condition.

  8. Context view from NE ridge of Daybreak Canyon running NE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view from NE ridge of Daybreak Canyon running NE from lookout tower shows fire line on right and NE side of lookout tower in the far distance. Tree in foreground is Pondaross Pine that survived fires of 1991 and 1994. Camera is pointed SW with wide-angle lens. - Chelan Butte Lookout, Summit of Chelan Butte, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  9. Registration of NE Trailblazer C-1, NE Trailblazer C0, NE Trailblazer C2, NE Trailblazer C3, NE Trailblazer C4, and NE Trailblazer C5 Switchgrass Germplasms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NE Trailblazer C-1 (GP-101, PI 672015), NE Trailblazer C0 (GP-100, PI 672014), NE Trailblazer C2 (GP-102, PI 672016), NE Trailblazer C3 (GP-103, PI 672017), NE Trailblazer C4 (GP-104, PI 672018), and NE Trailblazer C5 (GP-105, PI 672019) switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) germplasms were released by ...

  10. Agroforestry Systems In Poland A Preliminary Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to use state-of-the-art knowledge to depict the foundations and prospects for agroforestry systems in Poland to develop, in line with political, legal, historical and environmental conditions pertaining in the country. The main legal provisions concerning the presence of trees in agriculture are presented prior to a first-ever defining of key traditional agroforestry systems in Poland.

  11. Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Richard C.; Strzemieczny, Jacek

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of civic education for democracy in Poland. Focuses on the largest, most comprehensive project, Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland (EDCP). Discusses the context of civic education, project origins and goals, international partnerships, project funding, project-developed curricula, teacher-education activities, and…

  12. [Legionellosis in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Czerwiński, Michał

    2011-01-01

    In 2009--10 cases of legionellosis were reported in Poland, the incidence rate was 0.026/100 000 (in 2008--15 cases, incidence rate 0.039). All cases were laboratory confirmed. Most of them were diagnosed with serological tests--determination with ELISA test the anti-legionella antibodies in IgM fraction of serum gamma globulins, as the most recent reaction for Legionella infection. Four cases were diagnosed by detection of legionella antigen in urine. In 2005-2009 27 cases were associated with tr avel, including 24 imported cases. PMID:21913463

  13. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis. PMID:19799261

  14. [Influenza in Poland in 2001].

    PubMed

    Kuszewski, Krzysztof; Brydak, Lidia B; Machała, Magdalena

    2003-01-01

    In 2001 the number of cases of influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI) registered in Poland amounted to 576,449. This is 36.1% of the number of cases recorded in 2000. The highest influenza incidence was found in Dolnoślaskie voivodship (3013.4 per 100,000), Mazowieckie voivodship (2688.5 per 100,000) and Zachodniopomorskie voivodship (2132.2 per 100,000). In children aged 0 to 14 years the number of influenza and ILI cases amounted to 275,358 (incidence was 3851.4 per 100,000) and this is 47.8% of the total number of cases recorded in 2001. The number of patients referred to hospitals amounted to 678 and 26 persons died. One influenza strain A(H1N1) was isolated from the patient aged 10. Immunofluorescence tests carried out in over 900 specimens did not confirm infection with influenza virus. Sero-surveys performed in the epidemic season 2001/2002 showed that the levels of antihemagglutinin antibodies were comparable for three antigens: A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B. The highest antibody titers were recorded in the age group 15-25. Since May 2001 Poland is a member of the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme. PMID:12926309

  15. Poland's other Thirty Years' War.

    PubMed

    Kozakiewicz, M

    1990-06-01

    The Polish Family Development Association (Towarzystwo Rozwoju Rodziny (TRR)) was founded in 1957. At the end of 1988, TRR owned and ran 89 medical clinics, 5 youth centers, 25 premarital and family counseling centers, and 6 prenatal training schools. 140,000 patients were served in 1988, and 140,000 in 1989. But there was a decline in the number of family counseling and premarital centers. It fell to 22 at the end of 1989 and 16 in the 1/4 of 1990. The nonCommunist government took crisis measures. From January 1 onward, the government suspended all kinds of subsidies for nongovernmental organizations in Poland. The TRR was compelled to dissolve 12 local branches. Nothing is certain anymore, even the Minister of Health has changed. Poland's Catholic Church has been in conflict with TRR. The Church is against abortions, contraception, and secular, modern sex education. Because of Church opposition to contraception, the abortion rate is very high. Official statistics tell only the number of abortions done in hospitals. The real abortion numbers are subject to controversy. The Church claims that the real number of is 1 million a year. However, the real estimate is about 400,00 to 600,000 a year, resulting in a ratio of 70 to 100 abortions/100 live births. The powerful Pro-Life movement is partly supported and financed by American "Pro-Life" interests and partly by Solidarity (which is split on the issue). Pro-Life campaigns for declaring the 1957 abortion law illegal. 76% of the people in towns and 87% in villages rely solely on the natural methods accepted by the Church. The supply and demand of modern contraceptives is unreliable. Political changes in Poland may have a negative effect on family planning and sex education. Sex education (from age 11) in the narrow sense of telling where babies come from has been compulsory since 1972. But real sex education has only been compulsory since 1987. It is taught in all secondary schools (ages 15-19) for 1 hour every other

  16. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2001.

    PubMed

    Pepłońska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2002-01-01

    The Central Register of Occupational Diseases keeps the records of all reported and certified occupational diseases in Poland. In this paper the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2001 is discussed on the basis of the data provided by the Register. The changes in the incidence pattern over the recent 30 years are also shown. In 2001, 6,007 cases of occupational diseases were registered, with the incidence rate of 63.2 per 100,000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for seven categories of diseases: the vocal organ diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconioses, contagious and invasive diseases, dermatoses, chronic diseases of bronchi, and vibration syndrome. Altogether these diseases covered 5,239 cases (87.2% of all registered cases). Mining and quarrying, agriculture, hunting and forestry, education, health and social works were the economy activities with the highest incidence of occupational diseases. The majority of occupational diseases (93.9%) have developed after a long-term (over 10 years) exposure to particular harmful factors. As much as 58.5% of cases were recorded in males. The predominant occupational diseases in males were occupational hearing lesions, while in females chronic vocal organ diseases, most common in teachers, were most frequently recognized. In Poland, the diseases of the vocal organ poses a serious problem from the medical and socio-economic points of view. These pathologies show the highest dynamics of the incidence among all registered occupational diseases. Over the last five years the vocal organ diseases have moved upwards to the top in the ranking, both with respect to the number of cases and the incidence rate. Since 1998, the incidence of occupational diseases has been continuously showing a downward tendency. Four categories of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic diseases of vocal organ, contagious and invasive diseases, and

  17. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2001.

    PubMed

    Pepłońska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2002-01-01

    The Central Register of Occupational Diseases keeps the records of all reported and certified occupational diseases in Poland. In this paper the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2001 is discussed on the basis of the data provided by the Register. The changes in the incidence pattern over the recent 30 years are also shown. In 2001, 6,007 cases of occupational diseases were registered, with the incidence rate of 63.2 per 100,000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for seven categories of diseases: the vocal organ diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconioses, contagious and invasive diseases, dermatoses, chronic diseases of bronchi, and vibration syndrome. Altogether these diseases covered 5,239 cases (87.2% of all registered cases). Mining and quarrying, agriculture, hunting and forestry, education, health and social works were the economy activities with the highest incidence of occupational diseases. The majority of occupational diseases (93.9%) have developed after a long-term (over 10 years) exposure to particular harmful factors. As much as 58.5% of cases were recorded in males. The predominant occupational diseases in males were occupational hearing lesions, while in females chronic vocal organ diseases, most common in teachers, were most frequently recognized. In Poland, the diseases of the vocal organ poses a serious problem from the medical and socio-economic points of view. These pathologies show the highest dynamics of the incidence among all registered occupational diseases. Over the last five years the vocal organ diseases have moved upwards to the top in the ranking, both with respect to the number of cases and the incidence rate. Since 1998, the incidence of occupational diseases has been continuously showing a downward tendency. Four categories of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic diseases of vocal organ, contagious and invasive diseases, and

  18. Trees Outside Forest In Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajączkowski, Jacek; Zajączkowski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Increasing environmental threats to agricultural production and the stability of ecosystems have been observed on the Polish lowlands since the 1970s. Several hundred million trees and shrubs have been planted on farmland, mostly along roads and with the involvement of public agencies, with a view to timber being produced, and soil erosion and the water deficit mitigated. On the basis of over 50 years of practical observations and scientific experiments, recommendations have been drawn up as regards the structural and spatial features of new tree planting outside forests that maximize environmental, production-related and social benefits. This paper gives a brief description of the history of the active establishment of woody vegetation across agricultural landscapes in Poland, along with best practices elaborated for this at several scientific centres.

  19. Poland: facing the hidden costs of development

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Polish People's Republic is the eleventh-ranked industrial nation in the world. The by-product of this achievement is some of the worst water, air, and soil pollution in the world. Poland has miles of river water that is unfit for any use and the air pollution in most of the major cities far exceeds any permissible limits. This paper discussed Poland's major ecological problems and its government's desire to deal with these problems.

  20. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  1. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  2. History of rheumaorthopaedics in Poland.

    PubMed

    Małdyk, Paweł; Michalak, Cezary

    2003-10-30

    Rheumaorthopaedics evolved as a division of orthopaedics in the sixties, when new methods of treatment of the RA were developed and introduced into clinical practice. A pioneer of rheumarthopaedics in Poland, also renowned in the world, was Prof. S. Jakubowski. After his training in Heinola he, in 1964, became a head of the Rheumaorthopaedic Department at the Rheumatological Institute in Warsaw. This center, dedicated for rheumatic diseases, serving the whole country, has been a place, where numerous methods and treatments against the disease have been introduced. There were also numerous original methods conceived in this center (e.g. Jakubowski MCP prosthesis, postoperative steroid prevention of stiffness, operative wrist stabilization). Also, hip and knee prosthetic replacement were brought there for clinical use in the R.A. Experience, gathered for years, fruited in obtaining of basic rules of surgical care and treatment of the rheumatoid patient. Second important center for rheumaorthopaedics has been founded in Ustronie - Zawodzie. Rheumaorthopaedic surgeons have been attending international courses, visiting foreign centers, publishing scientific papers and supporting international cooperation. Rheuma-surgeons have been, moreover, active in educational field, organizing courses, lectures and conventions for the colleagues, and also active in social professional organizations, like Polish Orthopaedic.

  3. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  4. The Geographical Distribution Of The Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia L.) In Poland And Its Role On Non-Forest Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojda, Tomasz; Klisz, Marcin; Jastrzębowski, Szymon; Mionskowski, Marcin; Szyp-Borowska, Iwona; Szczygieł, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) has been present in Poland for more than 200 years now, its range coming to encompass the entire country, albeit with a particular concentration of occurrence in the west. Overall, it is present in 3.4% of the stands making up Poland's "State Forests National Forest Holding" (Państwowe Gospodarstwo Leśne Lasy Państwowe), and is the dominant species in 0.1% of stands. Thanks to its producing durable wood of favourable energetic properties, this species is used in medium-rotation (≤ 40-year) plantations as well as in biomass energy plantations (where there is a 5-7-year rotation). In terms of its nectar production, the black locust is second only to lime as the Polish tree best serving the production of honey. While the species shows marked expansiveness in Poland, it has not thus far been placed on the list of aliens capable of threatening native species or natural habitats. Breeding of the species has been engaged in - if to only a limited extent - in Poland for some 20 years now, and 2 selected seed stands have been registered, as well as 34 plus trees and 2 seed orchards.

  5. NE V in planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, F. P.; Burke, V. M.; Aggarwal, K. M.

    1991-04-01

    The improved atomic data of Lennon and Burke (1991) are used there to rederive Ne V diagnostic line ratios applicable to PNe for a range of electron temperatures and densities. These results are found to be somewhat different from those determined when the earlier R-matrix atomic data of Baluja et al. (1980) and Aggarwal (1983) are used in the line ratio calculations. It is shown that it is unwise to use R1 or R3 alone as a temperature or density diagnostic, unless the density or temperature of the Ne V emitting region of the plasma has been independently determined. However, reliable estimates of both Ne and Te may be found when R1 and R3 are used together, while R2 may be used by itself as an accurate Ne diagnostic.

  6. [Polymorphism of 11 non-CODIS STRs in a population sample of ethnic minority of Polish Tatars residing in northeastern Poland].

    PubMed

    Pepiński, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Aleksandrowicz-Bukin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Population genetic data for 11 STRs included in the Humantype Chimera kit were obtained by multiplex PCR and subsequent automated fluorescent detection (ABI 310) from a sample of 125 unrelated individuals of ethnic minority of Polish Tatars residing in Podlasie Region (NE Poland). The genotype distributions conformed to HWE for all the analyzed loci except D2S1360 and D21S2055. The highly polymorphic systems exhibit high informativeness and are a potential extension to CODIS loci.

  7. Joseph F. Poland (1908-1991)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    On June 4, 1991, AGU Fellow Joseph Fairfield Poland died in a Sacramento, Calif., hospital at the age of 83 after a long fight with Parkinson's Disease. A recognized expert on land subsidence and a retiree from the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division, his death occurred only 2 weeks after the end of the 4th International Symposium on Land Subsidence, held in Houston, Tex. Frequently known as “Mr. Land Subsidence,” it was appropriate that the proceedings of that symposium had been dedicated to him.Born in Boston, Poland earned a bachelor's degree in geology from Harvard University in 1929. He was resident geologist for Tropical Oil Company in Colombia from 1929 to 1931. After returning to the United States, Poland earned his master's degree in geology from Stanford University in 1935, taught groundwater hydrology, and consulted on groundwater and geophysical problems in the West and Southwest.

  8. Natural VOC emissions from forests in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidorov, V.; Jaroszynska, J.; Sacharewicz, T.; Piroznikow, E.

    On the basis of the last inventory of forests and climatic conditions in Poland, a national evaluation of the emissions of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was carried out. Calculations took into account the composition and age structure of forests as well as the temperature dependencies of VOC emission rate for the main European forest-forming tree species. In the case of isoprene, the dependence on illumination level and day length was also taken into account. Estimations were made for all 49 administrative regions of Poland. Depending on weather conditions in different years, the total VOC emission of Polish forests can be in the range 186-763 kt yr -1. For instance, for a moderately warm year, 1992, it was estimated at 440.6 kt, which represents 25% of the total VOC emissions in Poland.

  9. Sepsis: Medical errors in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rorat, Marta; Jurek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Health, safety and medical errors are currently the subject of worldwide discussion. The authors analysed medico-legal opinions trying to determine types of medical errors and their impact on the course of sepsis. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of 66 medico-legal opinions issued by the Wroclaw Department of Forensic Medicine between 2004 and 2013 (at the request of the prosecutor or court) in cases examined for medical errors. Medical errors were confirmed in 55 of the 66 medico-legal opinions. The age of victims varied from 2 weeks to 68 years; 49 patients died. The analysis revealed medical errors committed by 113 health-care workers: 98 physicians, 8 nurses and 8 emergency medical dispatchers. In 33 cases, an error was made before hospitalisation. Hospital errors occurred in 35 victims. Diagnostic errors were discovered in 50 patients, including 46 cases of sepsis being incorrectly recognised and insufficient diagnoses in 37 cases. Therapeutic errors occurred in 37 victims, organisational errors in 9 and technical errors in 2. In addition to sepsis, 8 patients also had a severe concomitant disease and 8 had a chronic disease. In 45 cases, the authors observed glaring errors, which could incur criminal liability. There is an urgent need to introduce a system for reporting and analysing medical errors in Poland. The development and popularisation of standards for identifying and treating sepsis across basic medical professions is essential to improve patient safety and survival rates. Procedures should be introduced to prevent health-care workers from administering incorrect treatment in cases.

  10. Vitamin D status in Poland.

    PubMed

    Płudowski, Paweł; Ducki, Czesław; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Jaworski, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    INTRODUCTION    Epidemiological data on vitamin D status in the Polish population are limited. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to evaluate the vitamin D status in a representative group of adult inhabitants of 22 Polish cities, based on the analysis of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS    This cross-sectional study included a total of 5775 adult volunteers (4464 women; 1311 men; mean age, 54.0 ±15.9 years; range, 15.6-89.8 years), who were enrolled and examined through late winter and spring 2014. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were determined using the Liaison XL system (DiaSorin; CLIA method). Demographic and anthropometric data were also analyzed. RESULTS    The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the studied population was 18.0 ±9.6 ng/ml; 65.8% of the patients had 25(OH)D levels of less than 20 ng/ml; 24.1% had suboptimal levels of 20 to 30 ng/ml; and only 9.1% demonstrated the optimal levels of 30 to 50 ng/ml. In 89.9% of the studied population, 25(OH)D levels of less than 30 ng/ml were found. Obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m2, was associated with lower 25(OH)D levels compared with normal weight (15.8 ±8.5 vs 18.5 ±9.7 ng/ml; P <0.0001). Lower 25(OH)D levels were observed in men, younger individuals, and individuals with excess body weight and higher BMI. CONCLUSIONS    The results of our study, which involved the most representative sample size of Polish adults, support the previously reported data on vitamin D status. The levels of 25(OH)D determined for adults in our study demonstrate that the majority of the Polish population is vitamin D deficient, at least during winter and spring, and that preventive or interventional strategies must be considered to improve the vitamin D status in Poland. PMID:27509842

  11. Poland. A Selection of Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom House, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document is a collection of supplemental classroom materials on Poland to be photocopied for use in secondary schools in conjunction with the Education for Democracy's Classroom-To-Classroom project. The materials offer an historical framework for considering current events, as well as some insight into the events, ideas, issues, and…

  12. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  13. Internees in Poland: psychiatric abuse claim.

    PubMed

    Rich, Vera

    1982-09-30

    The World Psychiatric Association has been asked to intervene on behalf of four Polish internees who are claiming to be victims of psychiatric repression for political reasons. Under martial law, Poland's security forces have shown a renewed interest in psychiatric internment of disruptive persons. PMID:11643799

  14. Education in Poland. Bulletin, 1922, No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Teresa

    1923-01-01

    Poland, reconstituted as a result of the war, comprises the territory formerly divided among the great powers of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Prussia. Its area extends over 149,140 square miles and its population, according to the census of September 30, 1921, is estimated at 27,160,163, of which two-thirds are Poles. The remainder comprises…

  15. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Poland is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  16. Attitudes to Environmental Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobierska, Hanna; Tarabula-Fiertak, Marta; Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses attitudes to the natural environment of Polish secondary school pupils from four selected regions of Poland. These were defined as knowledge regarding the environment and actions for the benefit of the natural environment as these result from the fundamentals of the environmental education curriculum track. Other results of the…

  17. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  18. Illegality of international population movements in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okolski, M

    2000-01-01

    Until the beginning of the 1990s Poland did not receive foreign migrants. Thereafter, the situation changed dramatically. A large part of the inflow proved to be illegal migrants, many of whom were in transit to Western Europe. Although these movements gradually declined in the second half of the decade, some became increasingly identified with relatively sophisticated smuggling of people. Foreigners smuggled from the South to the West, together with the international criminal networks assisting them, became typical of the migratory movements of people in Central and Eastern Europe during the 1990s. This article seeks to describe illegal migration from the perspective of Poland, a country often perceived as a major transit area in the smuggling of persons to Western Europe. The conclusions draw on the findings of several surveys recently carried out in Poland. Basic concepts related to illegal migration are defined and juxtaposed, and various myths and stereotypes concerning it that most often stem from the paucity of empirical evidence are examined. Finally, the trends observed in Poland are interpreted within the larger context of contemporary European migration.

  19. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  20. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign languages other…

  1. Building Civic Education for Democracy in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Richard C., Ed.; Strzemieczny, Jacek, Ed.

    This book provides a reflective analysis of the effort since 1991 of a group of Polish and U.S. educators to develop civic education programs for schools and teachers in Poland. The book contains 13 chapters and three appendices. Chapters include: (1) "Principles of Democracy for the Education of Citizens in Former Communist Countries of Central…

  2. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  3. Autologous fat injection in Poland's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinsolle, V; Chichery, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J P

    2008-07-01

    Poland's syndrome is a deformity of the breast and sometimes of the chest wall. Several techniques, which may be combined if necessary, are generally used to treat the forms involving both the breast and chest wall (breast implants, customised chest wall implants, latissimus dorsi pedicled flap). For some years, we have also grafted autologous fat cells according to Coleman's method to treat this rare disorder. We report the preliminary results of this technique and demonstrate its value in the treatment of Poland's syndrome. We studied patients treated for Poland's syndrome by autologous fat injection between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005. We recorded their age, gender, the other surgical techniques used, and grade of Poland's syndrome according to the classification of Foucras. Concerning fat injections, we recorded the number of sessions, volumes injected and complications. The series was composed of seven women and one man, mean age 25 years (range 13 to 40 years). Four patients were grade I, three were grade II and one grade III. The mean number of fat injection sessions was 2.1 (range 1-5) and mean volume injected 96 cc (range 25-200 cc). Lipofilling was used alone in one case and associated with other reconstruction techniques in seven. We had one complication, fat necrosis which progressed favourably after surgical drainage. Autologous fat injection appears to us to be a treatment which can be used alone, or more often associated with traditional reconstruction techniques in all grades of Poland's syndrome. This technique is useful to add volume and especially to correct the contour defects of this syndrome such as the subclavicular hollow and absence of anterior axillary fold.

  4. Health care under transformation in Poland.

    PubMed

    Tymowska, K

    2001-05-01

    The general health insurance introduced in Poland in 1999 is essentially a social insurance. In this article, the main features of the present health care system are discussed, i.e. the sources and principles of financing, ownership relations, structures, entitlements to obtain medical services and the rules of access to services. Emphasis has been put on the operations of various entities operating within the health care sector, including opportunistic conduct of the providers of services financed from public sources, cost dumping, establishing provider alliances, methods of cost control, and the fact that some patients leave the publicly financed system. In Poland, a parallel private system has been developing for many years. Systemic transformations have not changed that direction, but increased considerably the significance of household income and education as the factors that differentiate patient in equality. This article is concluded with the note on the opportunities for the development of supplementary private insurance.

  5. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The 2008 was another year when the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. In total there were 11,179 cases registered and the incidence was 29,3 per 100,000 population ranging from 11.5 in podkarpackie voievodeship to 53.0 in opolskie voievodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less then 15 years of age accounted for 93.1% of all cases. The incidence peaked among 5 years old children (435.9). Incidence in men (33.9) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (25.1) and incidence in urban areas (32.5) that in rural areas (24.4). Approximately 1.7% of all cases were hospitalized and there were no deaths due to scarlet fever in Poland in 2008.

  6. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 was another year when the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. In total there were 10,740 cases registered and the incidence was 28.2 per 100,000 population ranging from 11.4 in zachodniopomorskie voivodeship to 54.1 in lubelskie voivodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less then 15 years of age accounted for 92.1% of all cases. The incidence peaked among 5 years old children (433.4). Incidence in men (32.7) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (24.0) and incidence in urban areas (31.3) that in rural areas (23.2). Approximately 1.6% of all cases were hospitalized and there were no deaths due to scarlet fever in Poland in 2007.

  7. Recent urban and population change in Poland.

    PubMed

    Korcelli, P

    1990-01-01

    "This paper documents recent changes in urban and population trends in Poland. These changes include a sharp decrease in the spatial mobility of the population, a transition from population concentration to deconcentration at interregional scale, and a weakening of the dominance of metropolitan core areas vis-a-vis metropolitan rings." The author suggests that rates of internal migration will increase in the 1990s as the large cohorts born in the 1970s enter the labor force.

  8. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  9. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. PMID:27378393

  10. [Social aspect of clinical research in Poland].

    PubMed

    Masełbas, Wojciech; Czarkowski, Marek

    2007-12-01

    Each year more than 400 new clinical studies are registered in Poland. They gather above 50.000 of study participants. Social opinion on clinical trials is an important factor. The paper presents the review of actual opinions on clinical research in Poland. It provides the description of standards of protection of study participants, benefits and risks related to the participation in clinical research and the role of media in creating and influencing of the social perception of clinical trials. Results of conducted questionnaire studies imply that Poles correctly identify and assess the risk of participation in clinical experiments. The primary reason for the participation seams to be the possibility to help other patients, contribution to the progress of science and standards of medical care and potential benefits for other sufferers. The need of testing the safety and efficacy of the new medication in man is generally well recognized. At the same time a substantial part of the society is concerned with the possible corruption of investigators and unethical behaviour of sponsors. The social perception of clinical research in Poland is in majority of analyzed parameters not substantially different from opinions in other member states of EU. However, the medical society should be more active in influencing and changing some negative impressions.

  11. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations.

  12. Comparison of the triple-point temperatures of {sup 20}Ne, {sup 22}Ne and normal Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, T.; Tamura, O.; Nagao, K.

    2013-09-11

    At the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), the triple points of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne were realized using modular sealed cells, Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22, made by the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM) in Italy. The difference of the triple-point temperatures of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne was estimated by using the sub-range of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) calibrated by NMIJ on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The melting curves obtained with the Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22 cells show narrow widths (0.1 mK) over a wide range of the inverse of the melted fraction (1/F) from 1/F=1 to 1/F=10. The liquidus point T{sub tp} estimated by the melting curves from F∼0.5 to F∼0.85 using the Ec8Ne22 is 0.146 29 (4) K higher than that using the Ec3Ne20 cell, which is in good agreement with that observed by INRiM using the same cells. After correction of the effect of impurities and other isotopes for Ec3Ne20 and Ec8Ne22 cells, the difference of T{sub tp} between pure {sup 20}Ne and pure {sup 22}Ne is estimated to be 0.146 61 (4) K, which is consistent with the recent results reported elsewhere. The sub-ranges of SPRTs computed by using the triple point of {sup 20}Ne or {sup 22}Ne realized by the Ec3Ne20 cell or the Ec8Ne22 cell in place of the triple point of Ne for the defining fixed point of the ITS-90 are in good agreement with those realized on the basis of the ITS-90 at NMIJ within 0.03 mK, which is much smaller than the non-uniqueness and the sub-range inconsistency of SPRTs.

  13. Isotopic Fractionation of 20Ne, 21Ne, and 22Ne in a Simulated Thermal Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, B.; Dominguez, G.

    2014-12-01

    Computer simulations allow for the analysis of the thermodynamic properties of systems which are difficult or impossible to do experimentally. Isotopic fractionation in thermal gradients is an example of a system which is not fully understood but could provide background for understanding variations in fractionations like those observed for noble gases in terrestrial and extraterrestrial material. Using a recently developed molecular dynamics simulation focused on the accuracy of the simulated physics, the isotopic fractionation of Neon in a thermal gradient was analyzed in order to provide a correlation between the fractionation and the experimental system's properties. Various ratios of isotopes 20Ne, 21Ne, and 22Ne were simulated in a thermal gradient ranging from 218 K to 233 K for a variety of time scales. Data was collected for various configurations including box sizes on the order of 1 nm to 100 μm. The simulated thermal conductivity was determined and compared with known values. The analysis indicates that the dimensions of the box heavily influence the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation in the thermal gradient.

  14. Rare combination of dextrocardia with right-sided Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jae Bum; Park, Nam Hee; Keum, Dong Yoon; Kim, Yeo Hyang

    2012-10-01

    The combination of right-sided Poland syndrome and dextrocardia is rare. To our knowledge, reports regarding this subject are lacking in the published literature to date. Previous reports suggested that dextrocardia may be part of the left sided Poland syndrome. We report and discuss this rare combination.

  15. Cultural Policy in Poland. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balicki, Stanislaw Witold; And Others

    A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…

  16. The Problems of Acquisition of Library Collections in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankiewicz, W.

    This discussion of the difficulties Poland faces in acquiring materials for its libraries' collections centers on four aspects: (1) historical background, (2) publishing output versus acquisition of collections, (3) decentralization of acquisition as the basis for distribution of collection in Poland, and (4) centralization of information about…

  17. Creativity and School Grades: A Case from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralewski, Jacek; Karwowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relationship between the creative abilities and the school grades of high school students in Poland. Almost six hundred (N = 589) students from 34 high schools from all over Poland participated in the study. Their creative abilities were measured by using the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production…

  18. Care and Education of Orphaned Children in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna

    2004-01-01

    Poland is going through tremendous changes in its educational and health-care systems. These changes may bring reforms in the care of orphaned children, because the new politics and economy are forcing educators to look for new solutions and forms of care. There are many problems with the care of orphan children in Poland in both Children's Homes…

  19. Application of intravenous helium-neon (He-Ne) laser therapy to patients with respiratory insufficiency: introductory report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisula, K.; Gaszynski, W.; Piotrowski, D.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper the authors present an unconventional method of intravenous laser therapy applied to nine patients treated in ICU for acute respiratory insufficiency. The laser therapy treatment was applied twice in 24 hours by introducing a quartz light pipe into a peripheral vein of the forearm connected to the He-Ne laser produced by Amber, Poland. In order to irradiate the whole circulating blood the procedure lasted twenty minutes. The initial observation showed the improvement of the respiratory parameters and the decrease of leucocytosis. During the intravenous laser therapy the ARDS was not observed in the patients, despite the existence of risk factors.

  20. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues. PMID:21531026

  1. Collisions of F(+) with Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hottoka, Matti; Roos, Bjorn; Delos, J. B.; Srivastava, R.; Sharma, R. B.

    1987-06-01

    Measurements of inelastic collisions of F(+) with Ne have been made. Transitions between 3P and 1D terms of F(+) are seen, with the inelastically scattered ions sharply focused in the forward direction. Potential energy curves of (FNe)/+/ have been calculated. The 3Sigma and 3Pi curves correlating to F(+)/(3P) are repulsive, while the 1Sigma correlating to F(+)(1D) is attractive. Several curve crossings are identified, where transitions occur through spin-orbit coupling. Scattering angles and differential cross sections have been calculated, and they show the presence of a 'glory' (or halo) effect, which account for the forward scattering of ions.

  2. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2004].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing. In 2004 this tendency was reversed as a consequence of the epidemic cycle of scarlet fever which in Poland has the duration of 7-9 years. In total 5,964 cases were registered (54% more then in 2003) corresponding to the incidence of 15,6 per 100,000. Regionally the incidence ranged from 32.6 per 100,000 in kujawsko-pomorskie voivodeship to 4.8 in lubelskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (18.9) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (10.5) and the incidence in men (17.6) exceeded the incidence in women (13.8). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode--6 years; incidence 236.7. Approximately 3% of cases were hospitalised. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2004.

  3. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2005].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing. In 2004-2005 this tendency was reversed as a consequence of the epidemic cycle of scarlet fever which in Poland has the duration of 7-9 years. In total 9,911 cases were registered (66.3% more then in 2004) corresponding to the incidence of 26.0 per 100,000. Regionally the incidence ranged from 58.0 per 100,000 in warminsko-mazurskie voivodeship to 10.8 in lubelskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (29.4) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (20.5) and the incidence in men (28.4) exceeded the incidence in women (23.7). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode - 6 years; incidence 406.5. Approximately 2% of cases were hospitalised. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2004.

  4. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara; Staszewska, Ewa

    2011-01-01

    After the last outbreak of scarlet fever, when the peak was recorded in 1985, now is observed the visible extension of disease epidemic period and the weakness of the dynamics of the annual changes of incidence. In 2009, as in previous years, the scarlet fever incidence in Poland increased. There were 13,968 cases registered in total and the incidence was 36.6 per 100,000 population ranging from 18.4 in podkarpackie voivodeship to 62.1 in opolskie voivodeship. Cases among children and adolescents of less than 15 years of age accounted for 95.3% of all cases. The highest incidence was observed among 4 years old children (566.5) and 6 years old children (564.70). Incidence in men (41.5) markedly exceeded the incidence in women (32.1) and incidence in urban areas (40.5) and in rural areas (30.6). Approximately 1.1% of all cases were hospitalized. Due to scarlet fever there were no deaths in Poland in 2009.

  5. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2002].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P

    2004-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing, on average 20% per year. The downward trend continued in 2002, the overall incidence rate being 10.6 per 100,000. It was the lowest incidence registered in Poland since the introduction of mandatory reporting of scarlet fever in 1918 (the lowest so far registered incidence rates were 15.2 in 2001 and 17.5 in 1918). Spatial distribution of cases was relatively even--incidence ranged from 5.0 per 100,000 in łódzkie voivodeship to 25.1 in opolskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (12.0) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (8.4) and the incidence in men (11.7) exceeded the incidence in women (9.6). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode--6 years). Two percent of cases were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2002.

  6. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  7. Multimodality imaging of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia and limb anomalies.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramesh S; Parisi, Marguerite T

    2012-08-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare disorder featuring unilateral anterior thoracic and upper extremity anomalies. These include hypoplasia of the pectoralis major costosternal head, absent pectoralis minor, breast hypoplasia, and absent upper rib cartilage. Pulmonary hypoplasia may occur secondarily. The postulated etiology is underdevelopment of the subclavian artery. Less than 50 cases of Poland syndrome with dextrocardia have been reported. Rib anomalies cause rightward cardiac displacement in fetal life. This case of left-sided Poland syndrome in a young girl is unique not only because of dextrocardia, but also because the condition preferentially afflicts the right side and males.

  8. Erection of gasifier by Poland to begin in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    Erection of a coal gasification project in Poland is to resume in 1987. The plant is to be built by Krupp Koppers at Libiaz in southern Poland. Equipment for the plant has been stored at Libiaz for several years. The project, which began in 1980, has been stalled due to political difficulties in Poland. The Libiaz project will reportedly use approximately 1 million metric tons per year of high sulfur coal. Synthesis gas produced by the Koppers Totzek technology will be utilized to produce methanol.

  9. Date-rape drugs scene in Poland.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginnings of twenty-first century in Poland increasing number of reports about the drug-facilitated sexual assaults have been observed. Many drugs have been identified as so-called "date-rape drugs", because of their pharmacological properties, especially inducing amnesia. These drugs are used for the purpose of "drugging" unsuspected victims and than raping them. In a typical scenario, the perpetrator surreptitiously adds "date-rape drug" to the alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person, who is subsequently sexually assaulted while under the influence of this substance. Many victims do not report the incident until several days after the event or even do not report it at all. They report the incident so late after the events because they often have problems with remember the course of incident. It causes that victim is not reliable witness for justice. Detection of "date-rape drugs" in biological fluids is unequivocal evidence of perpetration. Analysis of biological fluids collected from victims of rapes for presence of drugs was rare in Poland up to now. The aim of this study is to show the use of "date-rape drugs" in Poland. Materials for this study were from the routine casework elaborated at the Institute of Forensic Research in Kraków. APCI-LC-MS methods were applied for screening of biological fluids (blood and/or urine) for amphetamine and its 6 analogues, for 12 substances from benzodiazepine group and for quantification of the detected drugs. HPLC-DAD was used as a screening method for wide range of medicinal drugs, and NCI-GC-MS methods for determination of ketamine and tetrahydrocannabinols (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 9THC) and its metabolite (11-nor-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THCCOOH). In 2000-2004, the biological fluids taken from 33 persons, both sexually assaulted or perpetrators were analysed. In 2000 and 2002 not any case of this type was registered, in 2001 only two cases were recorded. After 2003

  10. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Djurcic, Zelimir; /Columbia U.

    2009-07-01

    These proceedings summarize the MiniBooNE {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} results, describe the first {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} result, and current analysis effort with the NuMI neutrinos detected in the miniBooNE detector.

  11. Production of Ne Auger electrons by Ne/+/ bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of experiments which provide evidence for the production of an inner shell vacancy in the Ne by the asymmetric Ne-Mg and Ne-Al collision. In addition, autoionization states of neutral Ne have been observed. These states are to be distinguished from the more usual case in Auger electron spectroscopy of de-excitation of an ion with a core vacancy. The experiments involved the bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces with Ne(+) ions. A LEED-Auger system equipped with an ion gun and a four-grid retarding potential analyzer operated in the usual dN(E)/dE mode was used.

  12. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-06-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19(th) century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I.

  13. Research of medical gases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter. PMID:23916016

  14. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19th century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I. PMID:26336508

  15. Project on chemical safety in Poland.

    PubMed

    Indulski, J A; Krajewski, J A; Majka, J; Dutkiewicz, T

    1990-01-01

    This work focuses on main aspects of a proposed system of chemical safety in Poland. General principles have been formulated, including theoretical guidelines, definitions and functions. Additionally, organizational and legislative structures have been proposed. A basic principal of the system says that each activity related to the application of chemical compounds creates a risk of adverse health and environmental effects. According to the definition adopted, chemical safety means such levels of chemical compounds in the environment, coming from various sources, which ensure that the risk of adverse health effects and other negative effects will not surpass socially acceptable levels. The chemical safety system is aimed at preventing and limiting the risk of undesirable health and environmental effects from chemical compounds. It is proposed that the system be coordinated by the National Coordinating Committee on Chemical Safety. The most urgent task of the Committee would be to draft a law on human health protection against the harmful effects of chemical compounds.

  16. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Turczyńska, Aleksandra; Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    In Poland, 2 475 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2008, of which 979 had bacterial aetiology, 1 122--viral aetiology, and 374--other or unknown origin. The etiological agent was determined in 555 (56%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 220 cases, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) in 23 cases and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 151 cases. An increasing trend in meningococcal infections incidence has been observed in 2008, and a substantial decrease of Hib incidence, related to increasing vaccination coverage. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2008 decreased compared to year 2007. Among confirmed cases, there were 202 cases of tick-borne encephalitis. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  17. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    In Poland, 2 517 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2009, of which 865 had bacterial aetiology, 1 244--viral aetiology, and 408-- other or unknown origin. The etiological agent was determined in 493 (57%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 190 cases, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) in 13 cases and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 163 cases. An increasing trend in pneumococcal infections incidence has been observed since 2005, and a substantial decrease of Hib incidence, related to increasing vaccination coverage. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2009 increased compared to year 2008. Among confirmed cases, there were 351 cases of tick-borne encephalitis. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  18. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Lankiewicz, Aleksandra; Polkowska, Aleksandra; Chrześcijańska, Irena; Kicman-Gawłowska, Agnieszka; Stefanoff, Paweł

    2009-01-01

    In Poland, 3,361 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2007, of which 1,078 had bacterial etiology, 1,717--viral aetiology, and 566--other or unknown origin. The etiological agent was determined in 611 (57%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them N. meningitidis was found in 224 cases, H. influenzae type B (Hib) in 35 cases and S. pneumoniae in 161 cases. An increasing trend in meningococcal infections incidence has been observed in 2007, and a substantial decrease ofHib incidence, related to increasing vaccination coverage. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2007 increased compared to year 2006. Among confirmed cases, there were 233 cases oftick-borne encephalitis. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  19. [Scarlet fever in Poland in 2003].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Mirosław P; Kondej, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Following the last epidemic in 1995 the scarlet fever incidence in Poland has been gradually decreasing. The downward trend continued in 2003, with overall incidence rate of 10.1 per 100,000. The incidence registered during 2001-2003 dropped below the lowest level noted ever sine the introduction of mandatory reporting in 1918. Regionally the incidence ranged from 3.4 per 100,000 in lódzkie voivodeship to 21.8 in opolskie voivodeship. As observed previously incidence in the urban areas (11.8) was significantly higher then in the rural areas (7.5) and the incidence in men (11.1) exceeded the incidence in women (9.2). The majority of cases occurred in children and adolescents younger then 15 years (mode--6 years; incidence 132.3). Approximately 3% of cases were hospitalized. There were no deaths due to scarlet fever reported in 2003.

  20. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-06-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19(th) century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I. PMID:26336508

  1. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  2. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  3. Climate reconstructions from tree-ring widths for the last 850 years in Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Ingo; Knorr, Antje; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Slowinski, Michal; Helle, Gerhard; Simard, Sonia; Scharnweber, Tobias; Buras, Allan; Beck, Wolfgang; Wilmking, Martin; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    temperature r = 0,61 and N-Poland pine-tracheid-lumen-area-chronology with mean Feb-to-June temperature r = -0,66). By using only raw values, low-frequency signals could be sustained in the chronologies. Liang, W.; Heinrich, I.; Helle, G.; Dorado Liñán, I.; Heinken, T. (2013a): Applying CLSM to increment core surfaces for histometric analyses: A novel advance in quantitative wood anatomy. Dendrochronologia 31, 140-145. Liang, W.; Heinrich, I.; Simard, S.; Helle, G.; Dorado Liñán, I.; Heinken, T. (2013b): Climate signals derived from cell anatomy of Scots pine in NE Germany. Tree Physiology 33, 833-844.

  4. Poland action plan for water and wastewater: Bielsko-biala and Warsaw, Poland. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-09

    The Goczalkowice Reservoir in the Katowice voivodeship in the Upper Silesia area of Poland. It serves as a major source of water for the population of the Upper Selesia region. In 1987 a major shift took place in the ecology of the reservoir. The shift resulted in major algae blooms which caused problems at the water treatment plant. The primary purpose of the study was to more specifically define the water quality problem of the Goczalkowice Reservoir, to determine it causes and to develop a set of recommendations leading to a solution. The report would then become the basis for proposals for financing of one or more projects needed to implement its recommendations.

  5. The NeXus data format

    PubMed Central

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data. PMID:26089752

  6. Web life: Mahalo.ne.Trash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    Mahalo.ne.Trash is the personal blog of John Asher Johnson, an astronomer at Harvard University in the US who began blogging in 2007, when he was about to begin a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Hawaii.

  7. The NeXus data format

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; et al

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitionsmore » for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.« less

  8. The NeXus data format

    SciTech Connect

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  9. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  10. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  11. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresińska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular

  12. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  13. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  14. MicroBooNE Detector Move

    SciTech Connect

    Flemming, Bonnie; Rameika, Gina

    2014-06-25

    On Monday, June 23, 2014 the MicroBooNE detector -- a 30-ton vessel that will be used to study ghostly particles called neutrinos -- was transported three miles across the Fermilab site and gently lowered into the laboratory's Liquid-Argon Test Facility. This video documents that move, some taken with time-lapse camerad, and shows the process of getting the MicroBooNE detector to its new home.

  15. MicroBooNE Detector Move

    ScienceCinema

    Flemming, Bonnie; Rameika, Gina

    2016-07-12

    On Monday, June 23, 2014 the MicroBooNE detector -- a 30-ton vessel that will be used to study ghostly particles called neutrinos -- was transported three miles across the Fermilab site and gently lowered into the laboratory's Liquid-Argon Test Facility. This video documents that move, some taken with time-lapse camerad, and shows the process of getting the MicroBooNE detector to its new home.

  16. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    PubMed

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers.

  17. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2005].

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Rosińska, Magdalena

    2007-01-01

    In Poland, 2 806 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2005, of which 998 had bacterial aetiology, 1469 viral, and 339 cases had other or unknown origin. Incidence of bacterial neuroin-fections increased in 2003-2005, following a decreasing trend observed during the past decade. Etiological factor was determined in 486 (49%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 135 cases, Haemophilus influenzae in 59 cases and Streptococ-cus pneumoniae in 111 cases. Unlike previously in 2005 serogroup B was no longer the predominant type of N. meningitidis cultured from patients. Both types B and C constituted similar proportions of all strains serotyped in 2005. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2005 remained on the same level as in 2004. Etiological factor of central nervous system aseptic infections were established only in minor proportion of cases--3% of meningitis and 20% of encephalitis. Among confirmed cases, there were 177 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 13 cases of herpetic encephalitis. Tick borne encephalitis incidence decreased in 2005 (0.46), compared to 2003-2004. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of northeastern part of the country.

  18. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Kicman-Gawłowska, Agnieszka; Chrześcijańska, Irena; Stefanoff, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    In Poland, 3 693 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2006, of which 989 had bacterial aetiology, 1 874--viral aetiology, and 512--other or unknown origin. The etiological agent was determined in 455 (46%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 148 cases, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) in 39 cases and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 119 cases. An increasing trend in meningococcal infections incidence has been observed in 2006, and a substantial decrease of Hib incidence, related to increasing vaccination coverage. Viral neuroinfections incidence in 2006 increased compared to year 2005. Etiological factors of central nervous system aseptic infections were established only in minor proportion of cases--3% of meningitis and 20% of encephalitis. Among confirmed cases, there were 317 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 31 cases of herpetic encephalitis. Tick borne encephalitis incidence increased in 2006 (0.83), compared to 2004 - 2005. Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  19. [Meningitis and encephalitis in Poland in 2004].

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Rosińska, Magdalena

    2006-01-01

    In Poland, 2 725 cases of neuroinfections were reported in 2004, of which 945 had bacterial etiology, 1427 viral, and 353 cases had other or unknown origin. Incidence of bacterial neuroinfections increased in 2004, despite a decreasing trend observed during the past decade. Etiological factor was determined in 433 (46%) cases of bacterial neuroinfections. Among them Neisseria meningitidis was found in 119 cases, Haemophilus influenzae in 77 cases and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 107 cases. As in the previous years, serotype B was the predominant type of N. meningitidis cultured from patients, but type C appears to be systematically increasing, accounting for 27% of the strains serotyped in 2004. Viral neuroinfections were less common in 2004, compared to previous years. Etiological factor of central nervous system aseptic infections were established only in 17% of cases. Among confirmed cases, there were 262 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 15 cases of herpetic encephalitis. Tick borne encephalitis incidence decreased in 2004 (0.7), compared to 2003 (339 cases, incidence 0.9). Most of the cases were reported from endemic areas of north-eastern part of the country.

  20. Verification of COSMO model over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej; Wyszogrodzki, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The Polish National Weather Service and Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI, Warsaw, Poland) joined the Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO) in 2002. Thanks to cooperation in the consortium the meteorological model COSMO is run operationally at IMWM-NRI at both 2.8km and 7km horizontal resolutions. In research mode, data assimilation tests have been carried out using a 6-hourly cycle nudging scheme. We would like to present verification results of the COSMO model, comparing model generated surface temperature, wind and rain fall rates with the Synop measurements. In addition, verification results of vertical profiles for chosen variables will also be analyzed and presented. The verification is divided into the following areas: i) assessing impact of data assimilation on the quality of 2.8km resolution model forecasts by switching data assimilation on and off, ii) spatio-temporal verification of model results at 7km resolution and iii) conditional verification of selected parameters against chosen meteorological condition(s).

  1. Bioethical committees and data protection issues in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ligocka, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee. The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law. In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007. PMID:18541070

  2. Bioethical committees and data protection issues in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ligocka, Danuta

    2008-06-05

    In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee.The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law.In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz.The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007.

  3. Double ionization of rare-gas dimers: NeKr+e. -->. NeKr/sup 2 +/

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, K.; Maerk, T.D.; Helm, H.

    1982-11-01

    The existence of the doubly charged dimer ion NeKr/sup 2 +/ is substantiated by electron-impact ionization of the mixed van der Waals dimer NeKr. The stability of this doubly charged molecule is discussed with the use of semiquantative potential energy curves. The electron-impact-ionization appearance potential confirms the prediction from the potential-energy curves.

  4. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-05-15

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  5. A case of Poland Syndrome associated with dextroposition.

    PubMed

    Lacorte, Doriana; Marsella, Maria; Guerrini, Pietro

    2010-02-20

    Classical Poland Syndrome (PS) is characterized by unilateral, partial or complete absence of the sternocostal head of the major pectoral muscle and brachysyndactyly of fingers on the same side. We report the case of a newborn infant with dextrocardia and PS located on the left side. This association is very rare: to date only 19 cases have been described in scientific literature. In all reported cases, as in the present, the Poland defect involved the left side and was associated to rib defects, whereas most cases of PS are on the right side and few have rib defects. This case supports the view that dextrocardia follows the loss of volume of the left hemithorax caused by Poland sequence and that the combination of PS and dextrocardia is not coincidental.

  6. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    PubMed

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle. PMID:26054214

  7. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest. PMID:23453291

  8. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    PubMed

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle.

  9. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest.

  10. Englacial kames near Jeziorany (Warmia — western Masurian Lakeland, Poland): Morphology, internal structure and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Groups of hills on a regional Vistulian (Weichselian) deglaciation plateau (Warmia, NE Poland) are covered by till of up to a dozen metres thick. It is the same till of the main stadial of the Vistulian glaciation that outcrops in the upland. The internal parts of the hills consist of fine-grained sands. These glacial landforms are referred to as englacial kames; they result from infilling of englacial caverns with sand. The orientation of the kame fields and the form pattern within these fields coincide with the system of primary crevasses in the ice, as it was reconstructed on the basis of the orientation of postglacial crevasse forms. The origin of the englacial caverns at crossing points of crevasse surfaces in the glacier is discussed. Structural analysis (relationship with a circular lineament, local differentiation of the complete profile of the Pleistocene deposits, possibility of occurrence of faults — festoon glacitectonics) suggests that the origin of these landforms is related to movements in the substratum.

  11. [Dysentery and amoebiasis in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Baumann, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The number as well as incidence rate of notified as shigellosis, bacillary dysentery cases in XXI century are every year lower. Only 33 cases were notified in the year 2008 (incidence rate 0.09/100 000 population), while the 64 cases were notified in 2007 (incidence rate 0.17/100 000), but 35 (incidence rate 0.09) were notified in 2006 and median in the 2002-2006 years was 75 cases, incidence rate 0.2/100 000 population. Since 2000 no one-death case was notified. Several imported cases were notified as they got infection being abroad, polish citizens on holiday abroad, and foreign children coming for vacations in Poland from countries with higher incidence rate for ex. from Ukraine. Out of 11 imported cases three were due to Shigella sp., eight to S. sonnei. Two persons were found infected by S. boydii 8-11 but no one of S. dysentery. In the period of low frequency of Shigella infections, the external quality assessment control of the quality of bacteriological media, laboratory and prae-laboratory procedures for detection of different Shigella groups and types should be executed. A lower number of amoebic dysentery cases were registered 5 cases in 2008 (incidence rate 0.013/100 000 population), but in 2007: the 19 cases, incidence rate 0.05/100 000, and even more in 2006 the 21 cases, incidence rate 0.055/100 000. The cases were registered in 3 voivodeships; infection was probably imported from underdeveloped countries.

  12. Viral infections in goose flocks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozdruń, W; Woźniakowski, G; Samorek-Salamonowicz, E; Czekaj, H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the infectious agents isolated from infection - suspected geese sent for the diagnostic examination to National Veterinary Research Institute. The birds were sent from goose flocks localized in different parts of Poland. Totally, 1,013 birds from 122 flocks were examined. The presence of goose parvovirus (GPV), goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV), and goose circovirus (GoCV) was detected by triplex PCR. The presence of GPV DNA was shown in 36 flocks. The disease was most frequently diagnosed in goslings aging 3.5 weeks (ten flocks), and 2.5 weeks (six flocks). The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of VP1 encoding region has shown close similarity of Polish GPV strains within the group which ranged from 92% to 100%. Moreover, the similarity level of these strains with GPV isolated in Europe was from 91.3% to 100%. The occurrence of GoCV DNA was shown in 25 goose flocks. The presence of GoCV DNA was found among geese aged from 2 to 6 weeks, but predominantly in those aging 3.5 (three flocks) and 5 weeks (five flocks). The sequence analysis of PCR products from the sequenced region of ORFC1 capsid protein of GoCV has shown that Polish isolates share from 85% to 91% similarity with the sequences of GoCV strains isolated in other countries. The presence of DNA of GHPV was found in 3-week-old geese. During the last 2 years the presence of GHPV was confirmed in three flocks of goslings at the age from 3 to 3.5 weeks. During the last 12 years the occurrence of co-infection with GPV and GoCV was detected in six flocks aging from 5 to 6 weeks.

  13. Very large hail occurrence in Poland from 2007 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilorz, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Very large hail is known as a presence of a hailstone greater or equal to 5 cm in diameter. This phenomenon is rare but its significant consequences, not only to agriculture but also to automobiles, households and people outdoor makes it essential thing to examine. Hail appearance is strictly connected with storms frequency and its kind. The most hail-endangered kind of storm is supercell storm. Geographical distribution of hailstorms was compared with geographical distribution of storms in Poland. Similarities were found. The area of the largest number of storms is southeastern Poland. Analyzed European Severe Weather Database (ESWD) data showed that most of very large hail reports occurred in this part of Poland. The probable reason for this situation is the longest period of lasting tropical airmasses in southeastern Poland. Spatial distribution analysis shows also more hail incidents over Upper Silesia, Lesser Poland, Subcarpathia and Świętokrzyskie regions. The information source about hail occurrence was ESWD - open database, where everyone can add report and find reports which meet given search criteria. 69 hailstorms in the period of 2007 - 2015 were examined. They caused 121 very large hail reports. It was found that there is large disproportion in number of hailstorms and hail reports between individual years. Very large hail season in Poland begins in May and ends in September with cumulation in July. Most of hail occurs between 12:00 and 17:00 UTC, but there were some cases of very large (one extremely large) hail at night and early morning hours. However very large hail is a spectacular phenomenon, its local character determines potentially high information loss rate and it is the most significant problem in hail research.

  14. The sequence and origin of mineralization in the tectonic zones in the Suwalki Anorthosite Massif, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiszniewska, J.; Cymerman, Z.; Gaweda, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Suwalki Anorthosite Massif (SAM) is emplaced within the Mesoproterozoic rapakivi-type Mazury Complex (ca. 1.56 Ga) of the AMCG affinity. This massif has been subjected by several tectono-hydrothermal events resulted in extensive mineralization. A comprehensive structural study of the SAM requires investigation of numerous (99) boreholes because each well displays several structural components and the combination of these data can be used to summarize SAM evolution. The style of deformation in the SAM area ranges from localised ductile flow, producing shear zones (from a few cm to tens of metre wide) with a mylonitic foliation and a stretching lineation, to brittle fracturing and accompanying brecciation. The SAM features alternating zones of high- and low-strain, both in ductile and brittle conditions. Dip-parallel stretching lineations are inferred to be remnants of the Gothian shortening and ductile thrusting. Almost all shear sense indicators indicate reverse sense of movements. Younger planar fabrics in the fault zones include a well-developed pressure-solution cleavage and or fracture cleavage. Locally, the cleavage become parallel to the fault direction, suggesting rotation of a passive marker during shearing and shortening. The fault zones commonly exhibit newly formed subhorizontal stretching lineations that overprint the former dip-parallel stretching lineations. The kaolinization was the first brittle process, restricted to the close vicinity of the mylonitic structures. The syntectonic C_1 carbonate (calcite or Fe-dolomite) precipitated on the C planes of the S-C composite fabric. C_1 (calcite) carbonate is accompanied by the Fe-Mg chlorite. The further faulting process was accompanied by the crushing, brecciation and pseudotachylite formation. The cracks and fissures are filed by fine grained quartz and C_2 calcite, forming the cement of the tectonic breccias. The following relaxation event caused the opening of the earlier formed cracks and the crystallization of the teeth-like idiomorphic C_3 carbonate accompanied by the trioctahedral smectite and locally interrupted by the precipitation of fine-grained quartz, due to the changes of fluid composition / the concentration of silica. The crystallization of C_3 calcite continued in the open fissures and was followed by idiomorphic to hipidiomorphic barite precipitation. The last mineral in the crystallization sequence was anhydrite, sometimes accompanied by quartz, forming both the late-stage, post-deformational filling of the composite mineral veins as well as the irregular impregnations in the deformed and kaolinitized host rocks. The composite mineralization is supposed to be originated from the mixed hydrothermal to hypergenic fluids with admixture of marine-type sulphate waters in the last stage of mineralization.

  15. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  16. An overview of occupational voice disorders in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2013-10-01

    Occupational voice disorders make the most frequently certified category of occupational diseases in Poland, making up approximately 20% of all cases. This study presents the current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis of occupational voice disorders. It stresses the importance of the evaluation of vocal loading by means of objective measurements. Furthermore, this study discusses the medico-legal aspects of the procedure of certifying occupational voice disorders in Poland. The paper also describes the preventive programs addressed particularly to teachers, including multidisciplinary and holistic management of occupational dysphonia. Their role in the improvement of occupational safety and health (OSH) arrangement for vocally demanding professions is emphasized.

  17. Isotopic investigations of contemporary carbonate sedimentation in lakes from N Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; Gabryś, Alicja; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja

    2015-04-01

    The study area of NE Poland is a region of most pronounced seasonal climatic contrasts and best preserved varved sediments in lakes. Within the project "Climate of northern Poland during the last 1000 years: Constraining the future with the past (CLIMPOL)" the isotopic investigations have been performed aiming at the creation of transfer functions for the reconstruction of temperature in the past. The presented study will be focused on the results of isotopic measurements (δ2H, δ13C and δ18O) for samples of water and contemporary carbonates collected from the lakes along the West-East transect in northern Poland, which have been chosen to form the CLIMPOL training set for calibration space-for-time. The measurements have been performed with use of continuous-flow IRMS Isoprime coupled with automated carbonate/water preparation device Multiflow. The measurements of δ18O for lake water (47 samples) demonstrate variability of values from -7.7 to -1.9‰ (VSMOW) and show a general W to E gradient. The δ2H measurements have been performed so far for 22 samples and the results vary from -71 to -19‰ (VSMOW). The plot of δ2H versus δ18O reveals linear correlation with the equation: δ2H = 7.9δ18O - 4.6 (R² = 0.80), which slope is identical to GMWL, while intercept is ca. 15‰ lower. The δ18O and δ13C of carbonates from sediment traps have been determined for 35 samples, and the results range from -13.1 to -6.1‰ (δ18O, VPDB) and from -10.6 to +0.15‰ (δ13C, VPDB). The obtained results have been used to calculate temperatures from δ18O according to so-called "temperature equation" (Kim and O'Neil, 1997), which produced exotic results of 35°C on the average. These results demonstrate that during the CaCO3 precipitation the isotopic equilibrium is not present. On the other hand, the correlation between δ18O in water and δ18O in carbonates (R² = 0.76) suggests that carbonates record the isotope composition of water in which they are formed. It seems that

  18. Improving noble gas based paleoclimate reconstruction and groundwater dating using 20Ne/ 22Ne ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Frank; Beyerle, Urs; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Holocher, Johannes; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Kipfer, Rolf

    The interpretation of noble gas concentrations in groundwater with respect to recharge temperature and fractionated excess gas leads to different results on paleo-climatic conditions and on residence times depending on the choice of the gas partitioning model. Two fractionation models for the gas excess are in use, one assuming partial re-equilibration of groundwater supersaturated by excess air (PR-model, Stute et al., 1995), the other assuming closed-system equilibration of groundwater with entrapped air (CE-model, Aeschbach-Hertig et al., 2000). In the example of the Continental Terminal aquifers in Niger, PR- and CE- model are both consistent with the data on elemental noble gas concentrations (Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe). Only by including the isotope ratio 20Ne/ 22Ne it can be demonstrated that the PR-model has to be rejected and the CE-model should be applied to the data. In dating applications 3He of atmospheric origin ( 3He atm) required to calculate 3H- 3He water ages is commonly estimated from the Ne excess presuming that gas excess is unfractionated air (UA-model). Including in addition to the Ne concentration the 20Ne/ 22Ne ratio and the concentration of Ar enables a rigorous distinction between PR-, CE- and UA-model and a reliable determination of 3He atm and of 3H- 3He water ages.

  19. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  20. [Spatial concentration of the population in Poland, 1946-1976].

    PubMed

    Kucinski, K

    1979-01-01

    The author investigates the effects of factors such as urbanization, industrialization, depopulation of rural areas, and internal deconcentration on the spatial distribution of the population of Poland. The consequences of these factors with respect to the conditions prevailing in a given period are examined (SUMMARY IN ENG, RUS)

  1. Radiotherapy facilities, equipment, and staffing in Poland: 2005–2011

    PubMed Central

    Reinfuss, Marian; Byrski, Edward; Malicki, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose To evaluate the current status of radiotherapy facilities, staffing, and equipment, treatment and patients in Poland for the years 2005–2011 following implementation of the National Cancer Programme. Methods A survey was sent to the radiotherapy centres in Poland to collect data on available equipment, staffing, and treatments in the years 2005–2011. Results In 2011, 76,000 patients were treated with radiotherapy at 32 centres vs. 63,000 patients at 23 centres in 2005. Number of patients increased by 21%. In 2011, there were 453 radiation oncologists – specialists (1 in 168 patients), 325 medical physicists (1 in 215 patients), and 883 radiotherapy technicians (1 in 86 patients) vs. 320, 188, and 652, respectively, in 2005. The number of linear accelerators increased by 60%, from 70 units in 2005 to 112 in 2011. The current linac/patient ratio in Poland is 1 linac per 678 patients. Waiting times from diagnosis to the start of treatment has decreased. Conclusion Compared to 2005, there are more treatment facilities, more and better equipment (linacs), and more cancer care specialists. There are still large differences between the 16 Polish provinces in terms of equipment availability and ease of access to treatment. However, radiotherapy services in Poland have improved dramatically since the year 2005. PMID:24416548

  2. Vocational Education and Training against Social Exclusion: Poland. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The problem of social exclusion in Poland was examined along with possible strategies for combating social exclusion through vocational education and training (VET). The examination began with an analysis of the special needs of individuals who have reduced opportunities within the labor market and/or are members of national and ethnic minorities.…

  3. Application of ICT by Students at Selected Universities in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorencowicz, Edmund; Kocira, Slawomir; Uziak, Jacek; Tarasinska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate access and use of computers and internet by students during their studies. The results are based on a survey conducted in 2009-2012 on groups of 320 to 405 students (each year) from two universities in eastern Poland. It was concluded that during the period under study access of students to computers and…

  4. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland.

  5. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  6. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. PMID:27417333

  7. [Current problems in psychiatric health care in Poland (2005)].

    PubMed

    Puzyński, Stanisław; Langiewicz, Wanda; Pietrzykowska, Bozena

    2006-01-01

    The paper is a presentation of the most important and actual psychiatric health care problems in Poland: the financial situation of hospitals, the risk faced by the out-patient psychiatric care,ethical problems related to clinical practice, as well as issues on postgraduate education.

  8. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  9. 76 FR 53020 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00041

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00041 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Nebraska (FEMA... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  10. 76 FR 53018 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... CONTACT: A Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street,...

  11. 75 FR 42470 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  12. 76 FR 53021 - Nebraska Disaster #NE-00043

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster NE-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business. ADMINISTRATION ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  13. Data ingestion into NeQuick 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Radicella, S. M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2011-12-01

    NeQuick 2 is the latest version of the NeQuick ionosphere electron density model developed at the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) - Trieste, Italy with the collaboration of the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. It is a quick-run model particularly designed for trans-ionospheric propagation applications that has been conceived to reproduce the median behavior of the ionosphere. To provide 3-D specification of the ionosphere electron density for current conditions, different ionosphere electron density retrieval techniques based on the NeQuick adaptation to GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) data and ionosonde measured peak parameters values have been developed. In the present paper the technique based on the ingestion of global vertical TEC map into NeQuick 2 will be validated and an assessment of the capability of the model to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day variability will also be performed. For this purpose hourly GPS-derived global vertical TEC maps and hourly foF2 values from about 20 ionosondes corresponding to one month in high solar activity and one month in low solar activity period will be used. Furthermore, the first results concerning the ingestion of space-based GPS-derived TEC data will be presented.

  14. MiniBooNE oscillation searches

    SciTech Connect

    Brice, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The range of oscillation analyses being pursued by the MiniBooNE collaboration is described. Focus is given to the various searches for electron neutrino appearance, but the disappearance of muon neutrinos and the appearance search for electron anti-neutrinos are covered as well.

  15. Facilities of early rehabilitation after stroke in Poland 2010.

    PubMed

    Opara, Jozef A; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early poststroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for poststroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging healthcare planners to look for new organizational solutions of services that could enable rehabilitation as early as possible after disease onset. Early poststroke rehabilitation includes many elements that provide for early-onset rehabilitation and its continuation after discharge from the stroke unit. Two questionnaires evaluating neurorehabilitation of individuals who had stroke were designed and distributed: the first questionnaire was distributed to 221 neurological wards and the second questionnaire was distributed to 154 rehabilitation departments in Poland. We obtained information about delay before admission from neurological wards to rehabilitation departments, the number of sessions per day, the time duration of one session, the number of sessions per week, the average length of stay in department, the methods of outcome measurement, etc. We sent out 375 questionnaires and received 129 (35%) responses, 78 from neurological wards and 51 from rehabilitation departments. Only 25% of all patients were moved from neurological wards to the rehabilitation department after stroke (15% directly). Of those moved to rehabilitation departments, only 54% were treated early after stroke; that is, within 3 months of stroke. Considering that about half of stroke survivors will require rehabilitation (30 days after stroke onset), the current facilities of early poststroke rehabilitation in Poland cannot meet this need. We should do our best to introduce rehabilitation services such as early home-supported discharge after stroke, which is currently not available in Poland. Although we have focused on resources in Poland, we anticipate

  16. Colorectal cancer management in Poland: current improvements and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly identified malignant neoplasm diagnosed in men (12% of total cancers) and women (11%) in Poland, while CRC mortality is second in men (10.1%) and third in women (11.2%). The main reasons for increasing incidence and mortality are an aging population and an increase in environmental and lifestyle factors which may lead to cancer. In Poland there is a lack of historical (regularly published and accessible) data on cancer morbidity and survival rates. The Oncology Centre published cancer data for the first time in February 2009 the 2006, which, also for the first time, embraced the entire country. Oncology data collection in Poland is based on a network of 16 Regional Cancer Registries reporting to the Polish National Cancer Registry in Warsaw. An additional source of oncology data is the National Health Fund and the Central Statistical Office. The National Cancer Programme (2005) provides funding at ca 780 million euro, which includes amongst others the Early CRC Detection Programme to promote a free screening colonoscopy. Oncology services in Poland are funded almost entirely by public resources--the national budget as sustained by tax revenues (Ministry of Health) and the National Health Fund as sustained by the obligatory public health insurance contribution. Oncology expenditure covered by the national budget (Ministry of Health) and the National Cancer Programme in 2006 amounted to 44.8 million euro and 105.2 million euro, respectively. All these preventive, curative and organizational efforts have significantly improved access to efficient therapies (including radiotherapy) and diagnostic procedures in recent years in Poland, although, clearly, a lot remains to be done.

  17. Power supply expansion and the nuclear option in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, C.; Pickle, S.

    1997-06-01

    Poland is in the process of liberalizing and modernizing its electric power system. Given its heavy reliance on coal and a consequent history of often severe environmental externalities associated with power production, the nature of capacity expansion in Poland has important environmental and social implications. To better understand capacity expansion in Poland, we constructed a data set of the Polish power sector for use with the Elfin capacity expansion planning model. Using Elfin, we derived four scenarios and several sensitivities for new generating capacity construction. These scenarios simulate choices among several generic generating technologies made to achieve the lowest overall net present cost of operating the power system through 2015. We find that natural gas is a highly desirable fuel for future power generation in Poland, but primarily as a peaking resource. As the current system is inflexible and peaking capacity appears to be the most pressing need, this result is not surprising. However, when nuclear power is included as a generation option, natural gas is less desirable than the Polish Power Grid Company (PPGCo) has suggested, and, despite the PPGCo`s claims to the contrary, nuclear power cannot be ruled out in Poland on economic grounds alone. In the unconstrained Elfin scenarios, using PPGCo assumptions, nuclear power is attractive, especially after 2010. The attractiveness of nuclear generation proves sensitive to certain input variables, however, notably fixed operating and maintenance cost, and possible carbon taxes. Moreover, we find that the effectiveness of conservation efforts designed to reduce airborne emissions is limited under scenarios in which nuclear generation is adopted. 23 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. NeXO Web: the NeXO ontology database and visualization platform

    PubMed Central

    Dutkowski, Janusz; Ono, Keiichiro; Kramer, Michael; Yu, Michael; Pratt, Dexter; Demchak, Barry; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    The Network-extracted Ontology (NeXO) is a gene ontology inferred directly from large-scale molecular networks. While most ontologies are constructed through manual expert curation, NeXO uses a principled computational approach which integrates evidence from hundreds of thousands of individual gene and protein interactions to construct a global hierarchy of cellular components and processes. Here, we describe the development of the NeXO Web platform (http://www.nexontology.org)—an online database and graphical user interface for visualizing, browsing and performing term enrichment analysis using NeXO and the gene ontology. The platform applies state-of-the-art web technology and visualization techniques to provide an intuitive framework for investigating biological machinery captured by both data-driven and manually curated ontologies. PMID:24271398

  19. Electron impact excitation of the Ne II and Ne III fine structure levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.; Cumbee, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Ballance, C. P.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    Electron impact excitation cross sections and rate coefficients of the low lying levels of the Ne II and Ne III ions are of great interest in cool molecular environments including young stellar objects, photodissociation regions, active galactic nuclei, and X-ray dominated regions. We have carried out details computations for cross sections and rate coefficients using the Dirac R-matrix codes (DARC), the Breit-Pauli R-matrix codes (BP) and the Intermediate Coupling Frame Transformation (ICFT) codes, for both Ne II and Ne III. We also compare our results with previous calculations. We are primarily interested in rate coefficients in the temperature range below 1000 K, and the focus is on obtaining the most accurate rate coefficients for those temperatures. We present both a recommended set of effective collision strengths and an indication of the uncertainties on these values. Work at Auburn University and UGA partly supported by NASA Grant NNX15AE47G.

  20. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2008-10-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  1. The disappearance of a "classical" ice marginal position in NE-Germany: the Frankfurt phase puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böse, Margot; Lüthgens, Christopher; Nitzsche, Carolin; Hardt, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    The Frankfurt phase of the Weichselian glaciation is a classical ice marginal position in the North European plain according to all geological and geomorphological maps since the end of the 19th century. Its detection is based on the connection of prominent, but rather isolated landscape features to a supposed ice margin. As in NE-Germany no till layer is connected to the proposed ice marginal position, it is usually considered to represent an active ice margin which formed during a stability phase of the downwasting from the maximum Weichselian ice extent, the Brandenburg phase, which is located about 60 km further south. This is in contrast to the supposed equivalent of the Frankfurt ice marginal position in Poland, the Poznan phase, which is documented by a more prominent landform record and an associated till. New investigations and a reinterpretation of the topography, a reevaluation of sediments in sand pits, as well as geochronological data of glaciofluvial sediments give new insights into the glacial processes as well as in the timing. The landscape was widely formed by glaciofluvial processes forming a complex pattern of intercalated outwash sediments of the advancing, as well as of the downwasting glacier of the Brandenburg phase. A detailed study of the topography by LIDAR data gives evidence of a successive ice retreat pattern south of the so called Frankfurt ice marginal area, documented in the form of a differentiated pattern of glaciofluvial sediments and till on top. An outwash plain, the Müncheberger Sandur, on which several eskers have been mapped, was classically interpreted as a proglacial feature of the Frankfurt ice marginal position. Nevertheless, a series of OSL-ages shows Weichselian ages which are not in accordance with the supposed timing as an outwash plain related to the Frankfurt ice marginal position. The ages, as well as sedimentological evidence suggest that the sandy glaciofluvial sediments belong to the proglacial sediment cycle

  2. Hungary and Poland: The Transformation from a Command to a Market Economy, 1989-1998. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1998 (Hungary/Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael

    This paper examines the economic changes that have taken place in recent years in two central European countries, Hungary and Poland. Findings in the paper are based on materials gathered during the summer of 1998 on a Fulbright-Hays seminar visit to Hungary and Poland and from talks with officials and professors in those countries. Observations…

  3. The DA{phi}NE-Light Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burattini, Emilio; Cinque, Gianfelice; Dabagov, Sultan; Grilli, Antonio; Marcelli, Augusto; Pace, Elisabetta; Piccinini, Massimo; Raco, Agostino; Monti, Francesca

    2004-05-12

    The new Synchrotron Radiation facility at Frascati exploits the intense photon emission from DA{phi}NE, the 0,51 GeV storage ring circulating over 1 A of electrons. Among the three beamlines commissioned, the Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At Da{phi}ne (SINBAD) is fully operational by a brilliant SR beam spanning the entire IR. Recently, the soft X-ray beamline has been characterized and, once implemented the double-crystal monocromator, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is applied on material standards in the distinguishing energy region below 4 keV. An UltraViolet line, presently dedicated to photobiology dosimetry, has also given first results on cell irradiation in the UVB band.

  4. The Finuda Experiment at DAΦNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucherini, V.

    2010-10-01

    The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦNE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  5. The Finuda Experiment at DAΦNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucherini, V.

    The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦNE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  6. The Finuda Experiment on DAΦNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucherini, Vincenzo

    FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦne) is a spectrometer built to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on spectroscopy and decay of Λ-hypernuclei. Due to the nice performances of the apparatus and its ability to reconstruct secondary vertices, it proved suited to study also final states with several particles (including neutron), hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  7. CLIPS on the NeXT computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnock, Elizabeth; Eng, Norman

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the integration of CLIPS into a hybrid expert system neural network AI tool for the NeXT computer. The main discussion is devoted to the joining of these two AI paradigms in a mutually beneficial relationship. We conclude that expert systems and neural networks should not be considered as competing AI implementation methods, but rather as complimentary components of a whole.

  8. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  9. UCB-NE-101 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide users of UCB-NE-101 with the information necessary to use UCB-NE-101 effectively. UCB-NE-101 calculates the concentration of solubility-limited species as a function of space and time and its mass flux rates from a waste sphere buried in a nuclear waste repository in water-saturated rock. The waste is surrounded by one type of rock, and some distance away, there is another type of rock. The inner layer of rock can be a backfill around a nuclear waste package and the outer layer the natural rock. The mass flux calculated is at the interface of the two layers. The species concentration calculated is in the inner layer. A constant concentration of the species, usually the solubility, is specified at the waste sphere/inner layer interface. Dissolution and transport is governed by the solubility of the species, and diffusion in the porous media. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  10. The new approach to science and technology in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Karczewski, W.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, the entire field of science and technology in Poland was divided into three sectors: the Academy of Sciences, the universities and other academic institutions, and the research and development institutes. The level of collaboration among these sectors was low, and the system of financing science and technology was centralized, bureaucratic, and inefficient. The present Science Bill,' which came into force in January, 1991, has three important new features: autonomy, scientific merit, and openness. The coordination of government policy in this field has been entrusted to the KBN (State Committee for Scientific Research). Members of the Committee and its two commissions - one each for basic and applied research - are elected by the scientific community in direct two-stage elections. This new approach to the management of scientific research organization and financing should result in better utilization of budgetary resources allocated for science in Poland.

  11. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-07-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  12. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  13. Domestic refrigeration appliances in Poland: Potential for improving energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Lebot, B.

    1993-08-01

    This report is based on information collected from the main Polish manufacturer of refrigeration appliances. We describe their production facilities, and show that the energy consumption of their models for domestic sale is substantially higher than the average for similar models made in W. Europe. Lack of data and uncertainty about future production costs in Poland limits our evaluation of the cost-effective potential to increase energy efficiency, but it appears likely that considerable improvement would be economic from a societal perspective. Many design options are likely to have a simple payback of less than five years. We found that the production facilities are in need of substantial modernization in order to produce higher quality and more efficient appliances. We discuss policy options that could help to build a market for more efficient appliances in Poland and thereby encourage investment to produce such equipment.

  14. Pelagic crinoids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea) discovered in the Neogene of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Ferré, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Until recently, it has been assumed that pelagic crinoids, the roveacrinids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea), became extinct during the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary event. Recent finds of well-preserved roveacrinidal remains (brachials and radials) in the Danian (Early Paleogene) of Poland showed that they survived into the earliest Cenozoic. This group was thus characterized as a "dead clade walking". Here, we present fossil evidence that these pelagic crinoids survived in Poland until at least the Middle Miocene (Badenian, ca. 14 Myr ago)—more than 50 Myr after their supposed extinction. These Miocene roveacrinids constitute the first documented evidence of Roveacrinida in strata of Neogene age, thus prolonging the stratigraphic range of pelagic crinoids. This find characterizes the order as a "Lazarus taxon" rather than a "dead clade walking" group.

  15. The sex reform movement and eugenics in interwar Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawin, Magdalena

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.

  16. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  17. Porosphaera globularis (Phillips, 1829) (Porifera, Calcarea) in the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) of extra-Carpathian Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkowska, Agata; Świerczewska-Gładysz, Ewa; Dubicka, Zofia; Olszewska-Nejbert, Danuta

    2015-03-01

    The stratigraphical distribution of Porosphaera globularis, a common calcareous sponge in the Upper Cretaceous (mostly Campanian and Maastrichtian) of Poland was studied. The presented material, both new and from museum collections, comes from the Campanian of the Miechow Synclinorium, in southern Poland, and from the Lower Campanian of Mielnik in the south-eastern part of the Mazury-Podlasie Homocline, in eastern Poland. The significance of the species in extra-regional correlation, its palaeobiogeography and stratigraphical potential is critically reviewed.

  18. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Ignarra, Christina M.

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  19. Emigration preferences and plans among medical students in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared. PMID:22546006

  20. Uplift and late orogenic deformation of the Central European Variscan belt as revealed by sediment provenance and structural record in the Carboniferous foreland basin of western Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, S.; Aleksandrowski, P.; Turniak, K.; Krzemiński, L.; Mastalerz, K.; Górecka-Nowak, A.; Kurowski, L.; Krzywiec, P.; Żelaźniewicz, A.; Fanning, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    The Carboniferous foreland basin of western Poland contains a coherent succession of late Viséan through Westphalian turbidites derived from a uniform group of sources located within a continental magmatic arc. Detrital zircon geochronology indicates that two main crustal components were present in the source area of Namurian A sediments. They represent Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous ages, respectively. The detritus from Westphalian D beds is much more diversified and contains admixture of Late Carboniferous zircons suggesting rapid unroofing of Variscan igneous intrusions in the hinterland between Namurian A and Westphalian D times. Tectonic repetitions of tens of metres thick fault-bounded stratigraphic intervals, recorded in several wells, provide evidence for compressional regime that occurred in the SW part of the Carboniferous basin not earlier than during the Westphalian C and produced NW-SE trending folds, concordant with the structural grain of the adjacent, NE part of the Bohemian Massif.

  1. West Nile virus and USUTU--a threat to Poland.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna; Czupryna, Piotr; Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna; Siemieniako, Agnieszka; Pancewicz, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    In recent years emergence of new infectious diseases and the growing spread of pathogens to new areas is observed. Most of these pathogens are zoonotic viruses and their transmission route is from animals to humans and vice versa. These so called emerging and re-emerging pathogens that were present previously only in Africa and Asia are becoming a threat to European countries. These include, e.g. West Nile virus and USUTU virus. The aim of the study is to present the clinical course of infections caused by WVN and USUTU, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities and, above all, the current epidemiological situation of these infections in the world. We also tried to answer the question whether, there is a risk of infection with these viruses in Poland. After analyzing the available literature we venture a conclusion that in Poland there is a risk of WNV and USUTU infection. Global warming, change of socio-economic conditions, travelling greatly affect the spread of these viruses. In addition there are confirmed human cases of these diseases in countries neighboring Poland, as well as presence of both viruses and the presence of vectors (Culex pipiens sl and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae)) in our country. All these facts indicate that there is a necessity of epidemiological studies and consideration of these pathogens in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness and neuroinfection. PMID:27344466

  2. Pesticide residues in cereal crop grains in Poland in 2013.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz; Sosnowski, Jacek; Wiśniewska-Kadżajan, Beata

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the audit on pesticide residues in cereal grains throughout Poland in 2013. The number of all samples of cereal grains was 380. Altogether 292 active substances of plant protection products were checked in the audit. Qualitative and quantative analyses were done according to Polish Standard PN-EN 15562:2008, using the LC-MS/MS technique. The methods (QuEChERS) is based on extraction of residues of plant protection products from a sample using acetonitrile. In the samples analyzed, 62 % of them did not contain any pesticide residues, 34 % of samples of cereal grains contained such residues but below the maximum residue limit, 3 % contained residues over the maximum limit, whereas 1 % of the samples contained illegal substances. The lowest amounts of pesticide residues were found in cereal grains coming from fields with cereal mixtures and in Avena grains, while the highest amounts were in Hordeum and Triticum grains. The substances found most often were fungicide residues. In northern and southern regions of Poland (Silesian, Pomeranian, and Kuyavian-Pomeranian voivodeships), cereal grains with pesticide residues were much more common than in other regions of Poland.

  3. First molecular evidence for Puumala hantavirus in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Drewes, Stephan; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Groschup, Martin H; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Pawel; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different European countries, little is known about the presence of this virus in Poland. During population studies in 2009 a total of 45 bank voles were trapped at three sites in north-eastern Poland, namely islands on Dejguny and Dobskie Lakes and in a forest near Mikołajki. S and M segment-specific RT-PCR assays detected PUUV RNA in three animals from the Mikołajki site. The obtained partial S and M segment sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to the corresponding segments of a PUUV strain from Latvia. Analysis of chest cavity fluid samples by IgG ELISA using a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein resulted in the detection of two seropositive samples, both being also RT-PCR positive. Interestingly, at the trapping site in Mikołajki PUUV-positive bank voles belong to the Carpathian and Eastern genetic lineages within this species. In conclusion, we herein present the first molecular evidence for PUUV in the rodent reservoir from Poland. PMID:24452006

  4. West Nile virus and USUTU--a threat to Poland.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna; Czupryna, Piotr; Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna; Siemieniako, Agnieszka; Pancewicz, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    In recent years emergence of new infectious diseases and the growing spread of pathogens to new areas is observed. Most of these pathogens are zoonotic viruses and their transmission route is from animals to humans and vice versa. These so called emerging and re-emerging pathogens that were present previously only in Africa and Asia are becoming a threat to European countries. These include, e.g. West Nile virus and USUTU virus. The aim of the study is to present the clinical course of infections caused by WVN and USUTU, diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities and, above all, the current epidemiological situation of these infections in the world. We also tried to answer the question whether, there is a risk of infection with these viruses in Poland. After analyzing the available literature we venture a conclusion that in Poland there is a risk of WNV and USUTU infection. Global warming, change of socio-economic conditions, travelling greatly affect the spread of these viruses. In addition there are confirmed human cases of these diseases in countries neighboring Poland, as well as presence of both viruses and the presence of vectors (Culex pipiens sl and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae)) in our country. All these facts indicate that there is a necessity of epidemiological studies and consideration of these pathogens in the differential diagnosis of febrile illness and neuroinfection.

  5. Genotypic characterization of amoeba isolated from Acanthamoeba keratitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Solarczyk, Piotr; Cholewiński, Marcin; Hadaś, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba are the causative factor of many diseases. Among others, they cause Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a condition that usually occurs in contact lens wearers, though it is also observed in non-wearers. The number of diagnosed cases of AK increased more than eightfold during 8 years in the USA, and a proportional increase in frequency also occurred in Poland and Europe. Cases of AK are usually diagnosed late, and their therapy is difficult and rarely successful. AK is an uncommon diagnosis in Poland. The increased number of positive cases observed in our laboratory may reflect the growing at-risk population of contact lens wearers. Acanthamoeba as a genus of facultative human parasites is currently classified into 17 genotypes. Isolates belonging to seven genotypes were found to be associated with AK. One genotype in particular, T4, was found to be overrepresented in human disease. The main finding of our study is that in Poland, AK is almost always associated with the T4 genotype.

  6. Influenza vaccines and vaccinations in Poland - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Brydak, Lidia B; Woźniak Kosek, Agnieszka; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta

    2012-11-01

    Influenza causes seasonal infections worldwide that can lead to complications and deaths in every age group. The most effective and cheapest way to combat influenza is through vaccination. In many countries, including Poland, for each age group, the rate of vaccination against influenza is still at a very low level, which generates high social costs, not infrequently family tragedies in the case of irreversible complications of influenza, or death of a loved one. Regular vaccination should be part of good medical practice, as well as an individual's engagement in their own health and in that of their family. Based on numerous studies, it is estimated that the effectiveness of current inactivated influenza vaccine in reducing morbidity and mortality in high-risk groups ranges from 50-70%. According to data from the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene, the rate of vaccination in children in 2008 in Poland was very low. In the group of children aged from 6 months to 14 years, only 1.1-1.6% were vaccinated. Although influenza vaccination for people aged over 65 years was free of charge in many provinces in this group, only 13.4% of this population was immunized, while in the case of people with chronic diseases, only 11.1% were immunized. The vaccination rate among health care employees is an embarrassing 6.4%. More educational activities addressed to both medical professionals and patients are required in order to increase influenza vaccine coverage in Poland.

  7. Evaluation of patient exposure in computerised tomogram in Poland.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, M A

    2002-01-01

    The increasing number of computerised tomography (CT) procedures performed in Poland in recent years has resulted in a growing contribution of these examinations to the whole exposure of the population to ionising radiation from medical sources. (The number of CT examinations in Poland was 170,000 in 1995 and 460,000 in 1999.) An evaluation is presented of doses to patients in CT examinations performed with different types of CT unit. To evaluate the exposure to patients dose linear product (DLP) was measured using a NOMEX dosemeter with a pencil chamber (PTW, Frieburg) and the cylindrical PMMA phantoms 'head' and 'body'. CTDI values were evaluated according to current methodology as described in European Guidelines (EUR 16262). The measurements were performed for seven types of CT unit made by different companies. The CTDI values were also compared to reference levels recommended by IAEA. In conclusion it was found that the value of collective effective dose (2200 man.Sv), has increased in Poland nearly 4 times in comparison to 1995, whereas the number of CT examinations increased nearly 3 times in this period. For most of the 'controlled' CT scanners the values of CTDI in head procedures are near to or higher than the IAEA Reference Level (50 mGy); this can result from the protocols, which are chosen without a dose analysis. PMID:12120672

  8. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  9. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  10. Masses and Charge Radii of {sup 17-22}Ne and the Two-Proton-Halo Candidate {sup 17}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Geithner, W.; Kappertz, S.; Keim, M.; Neugart, R.; Wilbert, S.; Neff, T.; Feldmeier, H.; Herfurth, F.; Yazidjian, C.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Blaum, K.; George, S.; Delahaye, P.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kowalska, M.; Herlert, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Lievens, P.

    2008-12-19

    High-precision mass and charge radius measurements on {sup 17-22}Ne, including the proton-halo candidate {sup 17}Ne, have been performed with Penning trap mass spectrometry and collinear laser spectroscopy. The {sup 17}Ne mass uncertainty is improved by factor 50, and the charge radii of {sup 17-19}Ne are determined for the first time. The fermionic molecular dynamics model explains the pronounced changes in the ground-state structure. It attributes the large charge radius of {sup 17}Ne to an extended proton configuration with an s{sup 2} component of about 40%. In {sup 18}Ne the smaller radius is due to a significantly smaller s{sup 2} component. The radii increase again for {sup 19-22}Ne due to cluster admixtures.

  11. Model-based selection of areas for the restoration of Acrocephalus paludicola habitats in NE Germany.

    PubMed

    Frick, Annett; Tanneberger, Franziska; Bellebaum, Jochen

    2014-04-01

    The global Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola, Vieillot, 1817) population has suffered a major decline due to the large-scale destruction of its natural habitat (fen mires). The species is at risk of extinction, especially in NE Germany/NW Poland. In this study, we developed habitat suitability models based on satellite and environmental data to identify potential areas for habitat restoration on which further surveys and planning should be focused. To create a reliable model, we used all Aquatic Warbler presences in the study area since 1990 as well as additional potentially suitable habitats identified in the field. We combined the presence/absence regression tree algorithm Cubist with the presence-only algorithm Maxent since both commonly outperform other algorithms. To integrate the separate model results, we present a new way to create a metamodel using the initial model results as variables. Additionally, a histogram approach was applied to further reduce the final search area to the most promising sites. Accuracy increased when using both remote sensing and environmental data. It was highest for the integrated metamodel (Cohen's Kappa of 0.4, P < 0.001). The final result of this study supports the selection of the most promising sites for Aquatic Warbler habitat restoration. PMID:24446053

  12. Model-Based Selection of Areas for the Restoration of Acrocephalus paludicola Habitats in NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Annett; Tanneberger, Franziska; Bellebaum, Jochen

    2014-04-01

    The global Aquatic Warbler ( Acrocephalus paludicola, Vieillot, 1817) population has suffered a major decline due to the large-scale destruction of its natural habitat (fen mires). The species is at risk of extinction, especially in NE Germany/NW Poland. In this study, we developed habitat suitability models based on satellite and environmental data to identify potential areas for habitat restoration on which further surveys and planning should be focused. To create a reliable model, we used all Aquatic Warbler presences in the study area since 1990 as well as additional potentially suitable habitats identified in the field. We combined the presence/absence regression tree algorithm Cubist with the presence-only algorithm Maxent since both commonly outperform other algorithms. To integrate the separate model results, we present a new way to create a metamodel using the initial model results as variables. Additionally, a histogram approach was applied to further reduce the final search area to the most promising sites. Accuracy increased when using both remote sensing and environmental data. It was highest for the integrated metamodel (Cohen's Kappa of 0.4, P < 0.001). The final result of this study supports the selection of the most promising sites for Aquatic Warbler habitat restoration.

  13. The MiniBooNE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have been observed in three sectors : solar ({nu}{sub e} disappearance) [1], atmospheric ({nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance) [2], and accelerator ({bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e}) [3]. The probability for two-neutrino oscillation is a function of four variables : two are determined by the conditions of the experiment, and two are the quantities fit for when performing an oscillation search (sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) and {Delta}m{sup 2}). {Delta}m{sup 2} is the difference in squares of the mass states of the neutrinos ({Delta}m{sub 12}{sup 2} = m{sub 2}{sup 2}-m{sub 1}{sup 2}). If the observed oscillations only occur between neutrinos in the Standard Model a summation law of the {Delta}m{sup 2} is valid ({Delta}m{sub 13}{sup 2} = {Delta}m{sub 12}{sup 2} + {Delta}m{sub 23}{sup 2}). The observed oscillations do not follow this summation law. This implies one of the results is incorrect or there exists physics beyond the Standard Model. While the solar and atmospheric results have been confirmed by several different experiments, the accelerator based result, from the Los Alamos LSND experiment [3], has yet to be fully vetted. The MiniBooNE experiment [4], located at Fermi National Laboratory, is designed to fully explore the LSND result. MiniBooNE is in the final stages of performing a blind oscillation search ({nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e}) using neutrino data collected through November, 2005. A blind analysis is one in which you may analyze some of the information in all of the data, all of the information in some of the data, but not all of the information in all of the data. As MiniBooNE hasn't yet opened the box, this discussion will focus on the different components of MiniBooNE relevant for the oscillation analysis.

  14. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (66 FR 46777..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (72 FR 44830). The Commission is now conducting second... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this...

  15. Life in a Democratic Society: A Primary School Civics Course for Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzakalik, Krystayna; And Others

    This document summarizes a civics course for primary schools in Poland, grades 6-8. The curriculum was developed as part of the Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland Project, a cooperative effort of the Polish Ministry of National Education and the Mershon Center, The Ohio State University (United States). The project aims to help schools…

  16. Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) - a new species for Poland.

    PubMed

    Musik, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marcin; Depa, Lukasz; Lukasz Junkiert; Anna Jedynowicz

    2013-01-01

    Single macropterous female of Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 has been found during the faunistic studies in semi-natural plant communities of Oświęcim city in southern Poland. It is the first record of this species in Poland. Trigonocranus emmeae is rarely collected within the wide range of its distribution, mostly due to its hidden life mode.

  17. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  18. Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) – a new species for Poland

    PubMed Central

    Musik, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marcin; Depa, Łukasz; Łukasz Junkiert; Anna Jedynowicz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Single macropterous female of Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 has been found during the faunistic studies in semi-natural plant communities of Oświęcim city in southern Poland. It is the first record of this species in Poland. Trigonocranus emmeae is rarely collected within the wide range of its distribution, mostly due to its hidden life mode. PMID:24039522

  19. Higher Education Institutions in the Process of Social Transformation: The Case of Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Kazimierz Z.

    1999-01-01

    States that universities are the weakest point in the Polish educational system. Provides information on the universities in Poland. Contends that the disintegration of the three functions of higher education (education, research, and public service) is an important aspect of the crisis of universities in Poland. (CMK)

  20. Future Perfect? Conflict and Agency in Higher Education Reform in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz; Stankiewicz, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper is based on an analysis of interviews with individuals engaged in systemic reform of higher education (HE) in Poland. The reform is perceived as controversial: it is supported by the media and claimed to be in line with the expectations of external stakeholders of HE, as well as being congruent with Poland's international…

  1. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  2. 13. WEST END, LOOKING NE, PHILADELPHIA ZOO LION SCULPTURE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST END, LOOKING NE, PHILADELPHIA ZOO LION SCULPTURE IN FOREGROUND. - Connecting Railway, Schuylkill River Bridge, Spanning Schuylkill River, north of Girard Avenue Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Neutron unbound states in 28Ne and 25F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. K.; Baumann, T.; Brown, B. A.; Christian, G.; Finck, J. E.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kohley, Z.; Mosby, S.; Novak, J. F.; Quinn, S. J.; Snyder, J.; Spyrou, A.; Strongman, M. J.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-11-01

    Unbound states in 28Ne and 25F were populated in the reaction of a 102 MeV/nucleon 29Na beam on a beryllium target. The measured decay energy of 32(22) keV in the 27Ne+n system corresponds to an unbound excited state in 28Ne at 3.86(11) MeV. This is the first measured unbound state of 28Ne. The decay energy of the 24F+n system was measured as 300(170) keV. This places the second measured unbound state of 25F at 4.66(17) MeV.

  4. [Evaluation of the burden of diabetes in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kissimova-Skarbek, K; Pach, D; Płaczkiewicz, E; Szurkowska, M; Szybiński, Z

    2001-09-01

    Burden of diabetes in terms of economic costs and life years lost due to premature deaths and disability in Poland is analyzed. This study calculates direct costs of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Poland in 1998 and burden of diabetes in terms of years of life lost using Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) measure within the Polish Multicenter Study of Diabetes Epidemiology (1998-1999). There is a consequent need to evaluate the burden of diabetes for the society and to develop affordable and cost-effective preventing strategies. The burden of diabetes is examined in terms of resources used by diabetic patients and time lost due to premature deaths and disability caused by diabetes. The profile of "a standard patient" (type 1 and type 2 diabetes) resource utilization is created using patient survey in Krakow. This includes main elements of cost associated with prevention, diagnosis and treatment: ambulatory care (visits); hospital care (bed/days and dialysis sessions); pharmaceuticals (goods consumed) and diagnosis (tests). This study calculates direct costs to the health sector of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Poland 1998. Burden of diabetes in Poland in terms of time lost in 1998 is expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) unit of measurement. DALY is a combination of two dimensions: YLL--number of years lost due to premature mortality; YLD--loss of healthy years due to disability caused by diabetes (with and without complications). The incidence approach is applied for the YLD caused by diabetes type 1 calculations by gender and age groups (0-29 years). Incidence rates are obtained from the prospective data collection [1, 2]. Other data as average age of onset, average duration of the disease (with or without complications), severity (age specific disability weight for treated or untreated forms of diabetes--with or without complications) are obtained from the GBD study for the Formerly Socialist Economies of Europe [9]. Discounting and age

  5. Chrysophyte cyst-inferred variability of warm season lake water chemistry and climate in northern Poland: training set and downcore reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja

    2014-05-01

    Transfer Functions based on modern training sets are well established and powerful tools in quantitative paleolimnology and environmental/climate reconstructions. Lake sediments are excellent natural archive to reconstruct long-term climate and environmental fluctuations. In this sense, the project 'Climate of northern Poland during the last 1000 years: Constraining the future with the past' (CLIMPOL) aims to develop quantitative climate reconstruction in northern Poland during the last millennium using lake sediments. The Polish training set consists of Chrysophyte cyst (golden brown algae, class Chrysophyceae) sediment trap and surface sediment samples, and data for 19 environmental variables collected from 50 lakes in northern Poland. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) revealed that water electric conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, turbidity, cation and anion compositions (Ca2+, HCO3-) contributed significantly to explaining chrysophytes distribution in the lakes of the training set. A quantitative transfer function was then developed to estimate Ca2+ (log10 transformed) from modern chrysophyte cysts assemblages using weighted-averaging regression (WA) with classical deshrinking. The bootstrapped regression coefficient (R2boot) was 0.68, with a root-mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.143 (log10 units). The calibration model was applied to a varved sedimentary sequence (AD 1898-2010) from Lake Żabińskie, Masurian Lakeland (NE Poland). Cyst-inferred lake water Ca2+ concentrations were significantly correlated with zonal wind speed (m•s-1) (R=0.50; padj<0.001; AD 1898-2010; 3-yr filtered). We suggest that these changes in calcite precipitation in Lake Żabińskie depend on the lake mixing regime, driven by westerly winds. Observational data from this lake show that the Ca2+ variability in the epilimnion depends on the efficiency of Ca2+ scavenging by CaCO3 precipitation in early summer which, in turn, is a function of water column

  6. Retrieval of water quality algorithms from airborne HySpex camera for oxbow lakes in north-eastern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slapinska, Malgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Frąk, Magdalena; Chormański, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to retrieve empirical formulas for water quality of oxbow lakes in Lower Biebrza Basin (river located in NE Poland) using HySpex airborne imaging spectrometer. Biebrza River is one of the biggest wetland in Europe. It is characterised by low contamination level and small human influence. Because of those characteristics Biebrza River can be treated as a reference area for other floodplains and fen ecosystem in Europe. Oxbow lakes are important part of Lower Biebrza Basin due to their retention and habitat function. Hyperspectral remote sensing data were acquired by the HySpex sensor (which covers the range of 400-2500 nm) on 01-02.08.2015 with the ground measurements campaign conducted 03-04.08.2015. The ground measurements consisted of two parts. First part included spectral reflectance sampling with spectroradiometer ASD FieldSpec 3, which covered the wavelength range of 350-2500 nm at 1 nm intervals. In situ data were collected both for water and for specific objects within the area. Second part of the campaign included water parameters such as Secchi disc depth (SDD), electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature and phytoplankton. Measured reflectance enabled empirical line atmospheric correction which was conducted for the HySpex data. Our results indicated that proper atmospheric correction was very important for further data analysis. The empirical formulas for our water parameters were retrieved based on reflecatance data. This study confirmed applicability of HySpex camera to retrieve water quality.

  7. Environmental impact of melting buried ice blocks (North Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blaszkiewicz, M.; Brauer, A.; Noryskiewicz, B.; Tyszkowski, S.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the research was to decipher the impacts of the role of dead ice melting on landscape evolution in the Lateglacial and early Holocene Central Europe. Here, we present the paleoecological results from the middle section of the Wda river which is located in northern Poland (Central Europe), on the outwash plain formed during the Pomeranian phase of the last (Vistulian) glacial period ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The Wda river has a typical polygenetic valley in young glacial areas of the northern central European lowlands. We reconstructed environmental changes using biotic proxies (plant macrofossil and pollen analyses) and geomorphological investigations. In this study we focused on a short terrestrial sediment core (48 cm) representing four phases of landscape evolution: telmatic, lacustrine, lacustrine-fluvial and alluvial. Abrupt changes in lithology and sediment structures show rapid changes and threshold processes in environmental conditions. The AMS 14C dating of terrestrial plant remains reveals an age for the basal sediments of 11 223 × 23 cal yr BP and thus falls within the Preboreal biozone. Our results showed that existence of buried ice blocks in northern Poland even at the beginning of the Holocene is clear evidence that locally discontinuous permafrost still was present at that time. The results of our study prove a strong influence of melting buried ice blocks on the geomorphological development, hydrological changes in the catchment, and the biotic environment even in the early Holocene. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367). This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. Financial support by the COST Action ES0907 INTIMATE is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Back to "hell?" The threatening family planning crisis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mrugala, G

    1990-12-01

    The Polish Senate proposed an anti-abortion law that less 5 main points: the one performing the abortion can be sentenced for up to 2 years of imprisonment, women who induce or allow someone to abort their fetus are not subject to punishment, abortions done to save the life of the woman or because the pregnancy was induced by an illegal act are exempt, a tribunal can renounce the penalty, and persons who use force or threat to induce an abortion can be sentenced for up to 5 years of imprisonment. The bill must go to the Parliament and pass in order to become a law. This proposed bill has caused a large scale public debate. Many women and doctors have publicly protested against the bill. The political force behind the bill is the Catholic population of Poland, including the Catholic Church. The current abortion law in Poland adopted in 1956 allows for the abortion for social indications, until week 20; medical indications, until the 2nd trimester; or when pregnancy was a result of rape. The law resulted an elimination of deaths related to abortion, also a reduction in the number of miscarriages. However since 1955 the number of abortions performed has increased. Causes are low levels of sexual knowledge in the public, few contraceptives, and limited sexual education. The abortion issue represents a larger problem in Polish society. The lack of governmental sponsored family planning results in a large number of unintended pregnancies. It is the author's opinion that the women of Poland should be allowed to have the choice to have an abortion.

  9. [Problem of noise in production sections of dairies in Poland].

    PubMed

    Wilkus, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the study of noise levels in three production sections--cottage cheese, cheese and butter--at 14 dairies in 7 regions (vovoidships) of Poland. Measurements were carried out in dB(A) and dB(Lin) and the octave analysis was performed within the range of 31.5-8.000 Hz. It was found that the cottage cheese and butter sections proved to be the source of harmful effect on workers' hearing while the cheese section did not present any danger.

  10. The Cancer Mortality in High Natural Radiation Areas in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech; Dobrzyński, Ludwik

    2012-01-01

    The cancer mortality ratios (CMRs) in Poland in high and low level radiation areas were analyzed based on information from national cancer registry. Presented ecological study concerned six regions, extending from the largest administration areas (a group of voivodeships), to the smallest regions (single counties). The data show that the relative risk of cancer deaths is lower in the higher radiation level areas. The decrease by 1.17%/mSv/year (p = 0.02) of all cancer deaths and by 0.82%/mSv/year (p = 0.2) of lung cancers only are observed. Tribute to Prof. Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927–2011) PMID:23304104

  11. Glacially induced stresses in sedimentary rocks of northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    During the Pleistocene large continental ice sheets developed in Scandinavia and North America. Ice-loading caused bending of the lithosphere and outward flow in the mantle. Glacial loading is one of the most prominent tectono-mechanical event in the geological history of northern Poland. The Pomeranian region was subjected several times to a load equivalent of more than 1 km of rocks, which led to severe increase in both vertical and horizontal stresses in the upper crustal rocks. During deglaciation a rapid decrease in vertical stress is observed, which leads to destabilization of the crust - most recent postglacial faults scarps in northern Sweden indicate glacially induced earthquakes of magnitude ~Mw8. The presence of the ice-sheet altered as well the near-surface thermal structure - thermal gradient inversion is still observable in NW Poland. The glacially related processes might have left an important mark in the sedimentary cover of northern Poland, especially with regard to fracture reopening, changes in stress state, and damage development. In the present study, we model lithospheric bending caused by glacial load, but our point of interest lies in the overlying sediments. Typical glacial isostatic studies model the response of (visco-) elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic or viscous asthenosphere subjected to external loads. In our model, we introduce viscoelastic sedimentary layers at the top of this stack and examine the stress relaxation patterns therein. As a case study for our modelling, we used geological profiles from northern Poland, near locality of Wejherowo, which are considered to have unconventional gas potential. The Paleozoic profile of this area is dominated by almost 1 km thick Silurian-Ordovician shale deposits, which are interbedded with thin and strong limestone layers. This sequence is underlain by Cambrian shales and sandstones, and finally at ~3 km depth - Precambrian crystalline rocks. Above the Silurian there are approximately

  12. [A new (?) multiple abnormality complex similar to the Poland syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gugliantini, P; Saguì, L; Parri, C; Seganti, G; Cavalletti, P

    1984-01-01

    The report describes a case Poland's Syndrome - like in which the hypoplasia of the left major pectoralis muscle was associated with: subtotal aplasia of sternal body, severe hypoplasia of the ipsilateral scapula, humerus and forearm bones, tetradactyly in the ipsilateral hand, partial defect of the diaphragm with thoracic migration of the left hepatic lobe and secondary dextrocardia (false dextrocardia). Syndactyly was absent. The contribution is aimed to join out the radiological characteristics of the syndrome as well as the specific contribution provided in the case by Ultrasounds and aortography. Furthermore, the analysis of the case seems to indicate a strict relationship between the abnormalities of diaphragm, pectoralis muscle and homolateral upper limb.

  13. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland.

    PubMed

    Brom, Krzysztof R; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution. PMID:26373558

  14. Helminths in migrating and wintering birds recorded in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among 544 species of helminths recorded in birds on the territory of Poland, probably some (17 species of Digenea, 21 Cestoda, 13 Nematoda and 5 Acanthocephala) do not belong to the native fauna. These are helminths obtained in mature stage from birds shortly after their arrival from wintering grounds, or from foreign populations wintering with us, or being in the course of spring or autumn migration through the area of our country. In general, these helminth species have been recorded sporadically in the examined birds. PMID:24930242

  15. Prerequisites and Effects of CRM Systems Use in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchnowska, Dorota; Wrycza, Stanislaw

    It has been demonstrated in numerous studies that CRM implementation is beneficial in terms of higher revenues and lower costs (Aberdeen Group 2004: Thompson 2004) However, many potential CRM users in Poland are discouraged by high implementation costs and a high proportion of abortive implementations. Managers complain about lack of best practices that might convince them about the advisability of their strategy. The high failure rate in CRM implementation (Hellweg 2002) is often the result of the fact that the firms responsible for implementation lack an adequate and proven methodology.

  16. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland.

    PubMed

    Brom, Krzysztof R; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  17. Development of silica glass microstructured optical fibers technology in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, J.; Janoszczyk, B.; Poturaj, K.; Makara, M.; Walewski, A.; Mergo, P.; Klimek, J.; Skorupski, K.; Czyżewska, L.

    2007-04-01

    Paper presents the state of advance of the silica glass microstructured optical fibers technology n Poland especially in Department of Optical Fibers Technology Maria Curie Sklodowska University. Only in this Department there are the technological apparatus for advanced investigations on the technology of the silica glass optical fibers. In paper was describe the technology of optical fiber photonic structure manufacturing, high silica glass synthesis from vapor phase with MCVD and OVD methods. Next was describe some kinds of microstructured optical fibers witch technologies elaborated in UMCS in support of own and received from cooperated research teams optical fibers structures, modeling and measurements results.

  18. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Krzysztof R.; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  19. La fin du jeûne?

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Christopher; Sidhu, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter une mise à jour sur l’utilité clinique de ne pas être à jeun par rapport à l’être pour l’analyse des lipides dans le but d’améliorer l’observance par les patients, leur sécurité et l’évaluation clinique dans les tests du cholestérol. Qualité des données Les recommandations sont classées comme étant fondées sur des données probantes fortes, acceptables ou faibles (conflictuelles ou insuffisantes), selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs. Message principal Le dépistage de la dyslipidémie comme facteur de risque de coronaropathie et la prescription de médicaments hypolipidémiants sont des activités importantes en soins primaires. De récentes données probantes remettent en question la nécessité d’être à jeun pour la mesure des lipides. Dans des études sur la population, le cholestérol total, le cholestérol à lipoprotéines de haute densité et le cholestérol à lipoprotéines autres qu’à haute densité variaient tous d’en moyenne 2 % à jeun. Pour un dépistage de routine, la mesure du cholestérol sans être à jeun est maintenant une option de rechange raisonnable à l’analyse à jeun. Pour les patients diabétiques, l’exigence d’être à jeun peut représenter un important problème de sécurité en raison des possibilités d’hypoglycémie. Pour la surveillance des triglycérides et du cholestérol à lipoprotéines de basse densité chez les patients qui prennent des médicaments hypolipidémiants, le jeûne devient important. Conclusion Être à jeun pour la détermination routinière des niveaux lipidiques est largement inutile et il est improbable que le jeûne influence la stratification du risque clinique chez le patient, tandis que la mesure sans être à jeun pourrait améliorer l’observance par le patient et sa sécurité.

  20. MiniBooNE Oscillation Results 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Djurcic, Zelimir

    2012-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino oscillation search experiment at Fermilab has recently updated results from a search for {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillations, using a data sample corresponding to 8.58 x 10{sup 20} protons on target in anti-neutrino mode. This high statistics result represent an increase in statistics of 52% compared to result published in 2010. An excess of 57.7 {+-} 28.5 events is observed in the energy range 200 MeV < E{sub {nu}} < 3000 MeV. The data favor LSND-like {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillations over a background only hypothesis at 91.1% confidence level in the energy range 475 < E{sub {nu}} < 3000 MeV.

  1. He-Ne laser extravascular irradiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong; Chen, Huifang; Xie, Shusen; Chen, Yanjiao; Zhang, Yanrong

    2000-10-01

    Based on the study of tissue optics related with the laser irradiation blood therapy, a new treatment method, extravascular low-level laser irradiation therapy (ELLLI) is developed. The veins of 30 patients with cerebrovascular disease combined with diabetes, asthma were treated by He-Ne laser (632.8nm, 25mW) which was delivered by an optics fiber. The fiber was outside the patient's skin and the laser irradiated on the blood vessel perpendicularly. The therapy time was 60 minutes each time and about 7-10 times a course of the treatment. The values of blood sugar, blood- fat and hemorrheology were measured as the effective indexes. After the treatment the effective indexes and the symptoms of the patients were all improved. With the advantages of simplicity and safety (no medical infection), laser extravascular irradiation therapy is likely to be a new medical method for heart brain and other diseases.

  2. Active Eruptions in the NE Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J. A.; Embley, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    NE Lau Response Team: K Rubin, E Baker, J Lupton, M Lilley, T Shank, S Merle, R Dziak, T Collasius (Jason 2 Expedition Leader), N Buck, T Baumberger, D Butterfield, D Clague, D Conlin, J Cowen, R Davis, L Evans, J Huber, M Keith, N Keller, P Michael, E Podowski, A-L Reysenbach, K Roe, H Thomas, S Walker. During a May 2009 cruise to W Mata volcano in the NE Lau Basin, we made the first observations of an active eruption on the deep-sea floor. The cruise was organized after volcanic activity was detected at two sites (W Mata volcano and NE Lau Spreading Center, NELSC) during a Nov. 2008 NOAA-PMEL expedition. At that time, both sites had elevated H2 concentrations and volcaniclastic shards in the hydrothermal plumes. Moored hydrophone data since Jan 2009 indicate that the activity at W Mata has been continuous between these expeditions. Results of our cruise and other work suggest that the NE Lau Basin hosts an unusually high level of magmatic activity, making it an ideal location to study the effects of magmatic processes on hydrothermal activity and associated ecosystems. W Mata was visited with 5 ROV Jason 2 dives and 2 dives with the MBARI autonomous mapping vehicle in May 2009. It was actively erupting at the 1200 m deep summit during each, so a hydrophone was deployed locally to collect acoustic data. Ship and shore-based analysis of HD video, molten lava, rocks, sediments, hot spring waters, and micro- and macro biological specimens collected by Jason 2 have provided a wealth of data. The eruption itself was characterized by extrusion of red, molten lava, extensive degassing, formation of large magma bubbles, explosive pyroclast ejection, and the active extrusion of pillow lavas. The erupting magmas are boninite, a relatively rare magma type found only at convergent margins. The hydrothermal fluids are generally acidic and all diffuse fluids collected were microbially active, even those at pH <3. W Mata was host to shrimp similar to those found at several other

  3. He-Ne laser treatment on menorrhagia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ai-Hua

    1993-03-01

    By using He-Ne laser treatment, 84.7 - 91.1% of patients with menorrhagia, a common symptom of multiple gynecological diseases, are treated effectively. After laser irradiation, the amount of vaginal bleeding was reduced 47.1% on average. It has been proven that low-energy laser is an effective non-traumatic, painless, and easily acceptable new physical method in patients with menorrhagia. To study the mechanisms of efficiency, the quantitative determination of PGE2, PGF2(alpha ), 6-Keto-PGF1(alpha ), TXB2 in endometrium and blood flow before and after treatment were carried out. The results suggest that the effectiveness may be due to the recovery regulation of local uterine PGS level.

  4. [Problems of prevention and control of poliomyelitis in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mazurowska-Magdzik, Wiesława; Bucholc, Bozenna; Janaszek-Seydlitz, Wiesława; Szkoda, Tomasz; Magdzik, Wiesław

    2010-01-01

    In the fifties and the sixties of 20th century big epidemic and increasing numbers of poliomyelitis cases were observed in Poland as well in other countries of Europe and world. Inactivated Salk's vaccine in injections as well as oral attenuated vaccine were introduced to the control and prevention of this disease. As the result of it poliomyelitis was eradicated in American, European and of West Pacific Region of WHO. Since 1984 poliomyelitis cases were not registered in Poland, VAPP were observed in small numbers. Just now new vaccines with poliomyelitis component as Boostrix Polio and Adacel Polio are convenient to use as booster doses of poliomyelitis vaccine. Actually inactivated polio vaccine is used in majority of west European countries, USA, Canada, Australia. Inactivated vaccine in basic and attenuated vaccine in booster doses were used in Central and East European countries and only attenuated vaccine are used in big African, South and Central American countries, China, India and countries, witch were the part of past Soviet Union.

  5. A Neanderthal lower molar from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, P; Nowaczewska, W; Stringer, C B; Compton, T; Kruszyński, R; Nadachowski, A; Stefaniak, K; Urbanowski, M

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a taxonomic assessment of the second of three isolated human teeth found in the Stajnia Cave (north of the Carpathians, Poland) in 2008. The specimen was located near a human tooth (S5000), which was identified by Urbanowski et al. (2010) as a Neanderthal permanent upper molar. Both of these teeth were excavated from the D2 layer, which belongs to the D stratigraphic complex comprising the archaeological assemblage associated with the Micoquian tradition. An Ursus spelaeus bone and Mammuthus primigenius tooth that were also excavated from the D2 layer were dated to >49,000 years BP (by AMS (14)C) and 52.9 ka BP (by U-Th), respectively. The sediment overlying stratigraphic complex D was dated to 45.9 ka BP by the OSL method. The S4300 tooth is a lower first or second permanent molar belonging to an individual other than that who once possessed the S5000 tooth. The S4300 tooth exhibits a combination of traits typical of Neanderthal lower molars, including a mid-trigonid crest, large anterior fovea, taurodontism and subvertical grooves on the interproximal face, indicating that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal individual. The S4300 tooth from Stajnia Cave is one of the oldest human remains found in Poland.

  6. Environmental Surveillance of Non-polio Enteroviruses in Poland, 2011.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Ciąćka, Agnieszka; Witek, Agnieszka; Kuryk, Łukasz; Żuk-Wasek, Anna

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to apply environmental surveillance to evaluate circulation of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in sewage in Poland. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December, 2011. Sewage samples were concentrated prior to analysis by RT-PCR and isolation in cells (RD, L20B and Caco-2). Out of the 165 analysed samples, 127 (77%) were positive for enteroviruses using RT-PCR and 109 (66%) were positive for enteroviruses using cell culture methods and the highest detection rate was observed in the summer and autumn. In total, 141 enteroviruses were identified using neutralization test (107 NPEVs and 34 polioviruses). Accounting for 52% of all the detected NPEVs, E11 and E3 were the predominant serotypes identified in raw sewage. Retrospectively, E11 was the known aetiology for the past aseptic meningitis outbreaks in Poland, as E3 being rarely associated with any outbreak prior to 2013. In conclusion, the environmental surveillance provides data which may help in understanding the epidemiology of enteroviruses in humans.

  7. A Neanderthal lower molar from Stajnia Cave, Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, P; Nowaczewska, W; Stringer, C B; Compton, T; Kruszyński, R; Nadachowski, A; Stefaniak, K; Urbanowski, M

    2013-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a taxonomic assessment of the second of three isolated human teeth found in the Stajnia Cave (north of the Carpathians, Poland) in 2008. The specimen was located near a human tooth (S5000), which was identified by Urbanowski et al. (2010) as a Neanderthal permanent upper molar. Both of these teeth were excavated from the D2 layer, which belongs to the D stratigraphic complex comprising the archaeological assemblage associated with the Micoquian tradition. An Ursus spelaeus bone and Mammuthus primigenius tooth that were also excavated from the D2 layer were dated to >49,000 years BP (by AMS (14)C) and 52.9 ka BP (by U-Th), respectively. The sediment overlying stratigraphic complex D was dated to 45.9 ka BP by the OSL method. The S4300 tooth is a lower first or second permanent molar belonging to an individual other than that who once possessed the S5000 tooth. The S4300 tooth exhibits a combination of traits typical of Neanderthal lower molars, including a mid-trigonid crest, large anterior fovea, taurodontism and subvertical grooves on the interproximal face, indicating that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal individual. The S4300 tooth from Stajnia Cave is one of the oldest human remains found in Poland. PMID:23415376

  8. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  9. Cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in breast milk in Poland.

    PubMed

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Mother's milk is the fundamental food for infants. It contains proteins, fat, carbohydrates and essential metals which are necessary to ensure correct functioning of the organism. Unfortunately, breast milk is a potential source of toxic metals, which are dangerous for a baby. In Poland, previous research concerning the content of metals in breast milk was very scarce or its results were unavailable. The present study aimed at assessing the content of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in human breast milk, as well as estimating the mean weekly intake of these metals by breast-fed infants from Poland. The average concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were 2.114 μg/l, 6.331 μg/l, 0.137 mg/l and 1.623 mg/l, respectively. The admissible levels of supply of these toxic metals has not been exceeded, but their contents were high, particularly in 6-month-old infants (nearly 85 % TWI for Cd and nearly 70 % BMDL₀₁ for Pb). The daily intake of Cu and Zn did not fully satisfy the infant's requirements determined by Polish standards and WHO recommendations. Since the lifestyle of lactating women has a direct influence on the content of these elements in breast milk, women should be educated in this respect with particular focus on eliminating tobacco smoking, both by breastfeeding mothers and by their direct environment.

  10. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme.

  11. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  12. Costs of smoking-attributable productivity losses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lasocka, Joanna; Jakubczyk, Michal; Siekmeier, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    In Poland smoking poses a severe socioeconomic problem. Not only does tobacco consumption cause an increase in direct medical costs due to the necessity for treatment of smoking-attributable diseases, but it also generates indirect costs due to productivity losses. The aim of this paper was to estimate the annual productivity loss due to smoking in Poland from the societal perspective and to compare the obtained results with the equivalent research in other selected countries (Germany, Sweden, and USA). The assessment was performed by the use of the human capital approach, considering loss of productivity until achieving the retirement age and gross income. Four distinct components of indirect costs of nicotine consumption were included: costs of premature mortality, costs of acquired disability, as well as costs of absenteeism and presenteeism caused by smokers. The costs of smoking-attributable productivity loss within a year amount to more than 15 billion PLN (1 Euro approx. 4 PLN) which is about 402 PLN per capita and 1418 PLN per smoker. This represents about 2.6% of Polish annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is more than in Germany, Sweden, or the USA. This amount clearly shows the enormous socioeconomic burden and suggests the need for taking measures to reduce it.

  13. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds

  14. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds.

  15. Occurrence and genetic diversity of pigeon circovirus strains in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria

    2014-06-01

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is an immunosuppressive agent widespread throughout the world, which causes a disease in pigeons called Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of PiCV in Poland and investigate the genetic diversity relative to other known PiCV isolates. Samples from 152 pigeon flocks (88 flocks of racing pigeons and 64 flocks of fancy pigeons) from various regions of Poland were tested by polymerase chain reaction and an approximately 326-base fragment of the capsid protein gene (Cap gene) of the virus was amplified. The average viral prevalence was found to be 70.3% (76.13% in racing pigeons and 62.5% in fancy pigeons). Among the obtained positive samples, 21 were selected for sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. It was found that the majority of Polish PiCV isolates, to varying degrees, are related to isolates occurring in Europe. It was also observed that the Cap gene is variable and mutations often occur in it, which impacts the amino acid sequences in the capsid protein (nucleotide similarity averaged 86.57%, amino acid similarity averaged 89.02%).

  16. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  17. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  18. Addendum to the MiniBooNE Run Plab. MinneBooNE Physics in 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.

    2004-11-02

    The primary physics goal of Mini BooNE is to confirm or rule out the LSND vμ→ve oscilliation observation with high significance. In the 2003 Run Plan document presented to the PAC, we outlined the need for 1 X 1021 protons on target (POT) to achieve this goal. In this document, we present an addendum to our run plan for fiscal year 2006 (FY2006).

  19. Preliminar Performance Assessment of NeQuick2-Plas Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoya Orue, Yenca; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro M.

    NeQuick is a semi-empirical model that describes spatial and temporal variations of the ionospheric electron density at global scale. It was jointly developed by the Aeronomy and Radiopropagation Laboratory of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy and the Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and Meteorology of the University of Graz, Austria. The model is able to calculate the electron concentration at any given location in the ionosphere as well as the total electron content (TEC) along any ground-to-satellite ray-path. One of the recent major changes introduced in the NeQuick2 model is the integration of the plasmasphere formulation of IRI-Plas that gave origin to the NeQuick-Plas. The plasmasphere extension of IRI, IRI-Plas, is an empirical model derived from many years of measurements designed to represent typical ionospheric conditions as a function of geomagnetic and solar activity. For the smooth fitting of the NeQuick and plasmasphere models, the half-peak density point, h0.5p is searched iteratively from NeQuick topside electron density profile. The present study uses median values of IGS combined global vertical TEC maps as reference to be compared with NeQuick 2 and NeQuick-Plas models. Representative months of years of high, moderate and low solar activity have been utilized. The preliminary results indicate an improvement of the NeQuick 2 -Plas with respect to NeQuick 2 especially during periods of high and moderate solar activity as indicated by the average and standard deviation of the TEC error distributions (e.g. IGS-NeQ2 mean is -9.73, standard deviation is 5.6 while IGS-NePlas mean is 2.87, with a standard deviation of 4.8 for October 2000; IGS-NeQ2 mean is -5.28, standard deviation is 0.37 while IGS-NeQ-Plas mean is 1.25, standard deviation of 0.49 for Jul 2003). During low solar activity (year 2008), instead, there is a slight tendency of NeQuick-Plas to overestimate TEC values and so increase the

  20. Photoionization and Recombination of ne IV and Excitation of NeV in Nebular Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Palay, Ethan; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2013-06-01

    %TEXT OF YOUR ABSTRACT The inverse processes of photoionization and electron-ion recombination are dominant in photoionized astrophysical plasmas. They determine the ionization fractions in photoionization equilibrium, physical conditions, and chemical abundances. We employ the unified theory of electron-ion recombination to study photoionization of Ne IV in photoionized nebulae. That leads to the production of Ne V and spectral emission of forbidden optical and mid-infrared [Ne V] lines via collisional excitation. These lines are prominent in the observations made by infrared space observatories SPITZER, SOFIA, and HERSCHEL. The unified method for electronic recombination provides self-consistent data for photoionization and recombination that is necessary to eliminate uncertainties in the determination of ionization fractions. To wit: Precise abundance of neon in the Sun is unknown owing to lack of accurate atomic data. A 20-level wave function expansion is used for the calculations of photoionization, recombination, and collisional excitation employing the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method in the close coupling approximation. We find and delineate extensive resonance structures at low energies that considerably enhance the effective cross sections and rates in astrophysical sources. Acknowledgement: Partially supported by DOE and NSF. Computational work was carried out at the Ohio Supercomputer Center

  1. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    The Cenozoic basanite from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) belongs to numerous lavas occurring in the NE part of the Central European Volcanic Province. Basanite contains clinopyroxene megacrysts up to 3 cm in size. The clinopyroxene has the composition of aluminian-sodian diopside (mg# 0.61-0.70, 0.08-0.12 atoms Na pfu and 0.88-0.93 atoms Ca pfu). Cr is absent. The REE contents are above the primitive mantle reaching up to 18 x PM at Nd. Primitive-mantle normalized REE patterns show enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=3.81-5.01). The REE patterns of all the megacrysts show deflection in La-Nd. The trace element patterns are characterized by positive Zr, Hf and in some cases also Ta anomalies, and negative U, La, Sr, Ti and Pb ones. In some samples strong depletion (down to 0.01 x PM) in Rb and Ba is observed.The Ostrzyca megacrysts formed cumulate, which crystallized from magma similar to the host basanite, but more fractionated and enriched in REE, particularly in LREE (Lipa et al., 2014). This happened at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km) and the new pulse of basanitic magma entrained the crystals forming the non-solidified cumulate and brought them to the surface (Lipa et al., 2014). Clinopyroxene megacrysts contain large, transparent, euhedral apatite crystals up to 7 mm. The major element composition indicates the fluor-apatite with F content ranging from 0.87 to 1.93 wt.%. Chlorine content is strongly variable between grains (0.05-1.75 wt.%). Apatite is strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE (LaN/LuN=60.39-62.23, about 1000 x PM for LREE and about 10 x PM for HREE). The REE patterns are nearly linear, with slight positive Nd and Gd anomalies. The trace element patterns are characterized by very strong negative anomalies of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti) and Pb, and weaker negative Sr anomaly. Concentration of Yb and Lu is on the level 10 x PM, whereas Rb, Hf and Ti are depleted relative to PM. Apatite preceded clinopyroxene

  2. Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to norepinephrine (NE) requires conversion of NE to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Sasikiran; Sule, Nitesh; Cohn, William B; MacKenzie, Duncan S; Jayaraman, Arul; Manson, Michael D

    2014-12-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, has been reported to be a chemoattractant for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Here we show that nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 grown in the presence of 2 μM NE is also attracted to NE. Growth with NE induces transcription of genes encoding the tyramine oxidase, TynA, and the aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase, FeaB, whose respective activities can, in principle, convert NE to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DHMA). Our results indicate that the apparent attractant response to NE is in fact chemotaxis to DHMA, which was found to be a strong attractant for E. coli. Only strains of E. coli K-12 that produce TynA and FeaB exhibited an attractant response to NE. We demonstrate that DHMA is sensed by the serine chemoreceptor Tsr and that the chemotaxis response requires an intact serine-binding site. The threshold concentration for detection is ≤5 nM DHMA, and the response is inhibited at DHMA concentrations above 50 μM. Cells producing a heterodimeric Tsr receptor containing only one functional serine-binding site still respond like the wild type to low concentrations of DHMA, but their response persists at higher concentrations. We propose that chemotaxis to DHMA generated from NE by bacteria that have already colonized the intestinal epithelium may recruit E. coli and other enteric bacteria that possess a Tsr-like receptor to preferred sites of infection.

  3. Nuclear deformation of {sup 20}Ne from {sup 20}Ne(105 MeV)+{sup 208}Pb scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Strojek, I.; Czarnacki, W.; Keeley, N.; Kisielinski, M.; Piasecki, E.; Rusek, K.; Kliczewski, S.; Siudak, R.; Kordiasz, A.; Trzcinska, A.; Koshchiy, E.; Kowalczyk, M.; Piorkowska, A.; Stuad, A.

    2010-04-26

    We have measured differential cross section for quasielastic scattering of {sup 20}Ne+{sup 208}Pb at a lab energy of 105 MeV. The data are analyzed by a rotational-model coupled-channels calculation including the 0{sup +} ground state, 2{sup +} and 4{sup +} states of {sup 20}Ne.

  4. Chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to norepinephrine (NE) requires conversion of NE to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Sasikiran; Sule, Nitesh; Cohn, William B; MacKenzie, Duncan S; Jayaraman, Arul; Manson, Michael D

    2014-12-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, has been reported to be a chemoattractant for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Here we show that nonpathogenic E. coli K-12 grown in the presence of 2 μM NE is also attracted to NE. Growth with NE induces transcription of genes encoding the tyramine oxidase, TynA, and the aromatic aldehyde dehydrogenase, FeaB, whose respective activities can, in principle, convert NE to 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DHMA). Our results indicate that the apparent attractant response to NE is in fact chemotaxis to DHMA, which was found to be a strong attractant for E. coli. Only strains of E. coli K-12 that produce TynA and FeaB exhibited an attractant response to NE. We demonstrate that DHMA is sensed by the serine chemoreceptor Tsr and that the chemotaxis response requires an intact serine-binding site. The threshold concentration for detection is ≤5 nM DHMA, and the response is inhibited at DHMA concentrations above 50 μM. Cells producing a heterodimeric Tsr receptor containing only one functional serine-binding site still respond like the wild type to low concentrations of DHMA, but their response persists at higher concentrations. We propose that chemotaxis to DHMA generated from NE by bacteria that have already colonized the intestinal epithelium may recruit E. coli and other enteric bacteria that possess a Tsr-like receptor to preferred sites of infection. PMID:25182492

  5. Freshwater oligochaeta in mining subsidence ponds in the Upper Silesia region of southern Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Krodkiewska, M.

    2006-03-15

    I surveyed the benthic oligochaetes in three coal mining subsidence ponds in a heavily industrialized region of Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The fauna present differed in many respects from that living in natural and unpolluted water bodies. Nineteen species (11 Naididae and eight Tubificidae) were found. The two most consistently abundant species in all three ponds were Limnodrilus hoffimeisteri and Tubifex tubifex, both of which are ubiquitous and common in Poland. Polamothrix bavaricus, which is considered a rare species in Poland, was found consistently in the ponds.

  6. Application Bayesian Model Averaging method for ensemble system for Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzikowski, Jakub; Czerwinska, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate methods for generating numerical ensemble weather prediction using a meteorological data from The Weather Research & Forecasting Model and calibrating this data by means of Bayesian Model Averaging (WRF BMA) approach. We are constructing height resolution short range ensemble forecasts using meteorological data (temperature) generated by nine WRF's models. WRF models have 35 vertical levels and 2.5 km x 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The main emphasis is that the used ensemble members has a different parameterization of the physical phenomena occurring in the boundary layer. To calibrate an ensemble forecast we use Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) approach. The BMA predictive Probability Density Function (PDF) is a weighted average of predictive PDFs associated with each individual ensemble member, with weights that reflect the member's relative skill. For test we chose a case with heat wave and convective weather conditions in Poland area from 23th July to 1st August 2013. From 23th July to 29th July 2013 temperature oscillated below or above 30 Celsius degree in many meteorology stations and new temperature records were added. During this time the growth of the hospitalized patients with cardiovascular system problems was registered. On 29th July 2013 an advection of moist tropical air masses was recorded in the area of Poland causes strong convection event with mesoscale convection system (MCS). MCS caused local flooding, damage to the transport infrastructure, destroyed buildings, trees and injuries and direct threat of life. Comparison of the meteorological data from ensemble system with the data recorded on 74 weather stations localized in Poland is made. We prepare a set of the model - observations pairs. Then, the obtained data from single ensemble members and median from WRF BMA system are evaluated on the basis of the deterministic statistical error Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE). To evaluation

  7. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH+(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH+ + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N.

    2016-01-01

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH+(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH+ + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]+ structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH+ asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  8. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH(+)(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH(+) + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Koner, Debasish; Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás; Panda, Aditya N

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH(+)(v0 = 0, j0 = 0) → NeH(+) + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe](+) structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH(+) asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction. PMID:26801030

  9. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  10. Pion inelastic scattering from sup 20 Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Burlein, M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-12-01

    Angular distributions for {sup 20}Ne({pi}{sup {plus minus}}, {pi}{sup {plus minus}}{prime}) were measured on the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS) at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Data were taken with both {pi}{sup {plus}} and {pi}{sup {minus}} over an angular range of 12{degree} to 90{degree} for T{sub {pi}}=180 MeV and with {pi}{sup +} from 15{degree} to 90{degree} for T{sub {pi}}=120 MeV. The data were analyzed using both the distorted-wave impulse approximation (DWIA) and the coupled-channels impulse approximation (CCIA) with collective transition densities. In addition, microscopic transition densities were used in the DWIA analysis for states in the lowest rotational bands. The transitions to the 6.73-MeV 0{sup +} and several 1{sup {minus}} states, including the states at 5.79 MeV and 8.71 MeV, were studied using several models for the transition density. Strong evidence for the importance of two-step routes in pion inelastic scattering was seen in several angular distributions, including the 5.79-MeV 1{sup {minus}}, the first three 4{sup +} states, and the 8.78-MeV 6{sup +}. 100 refs., 81 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. MiniBooNE liner integrity study

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Stefanski, Phil Martin and Jeff Sims

    2001-11-09

    The civil construction for the MiniBooNE project includes a 50-m decay path and beam absorbers. The decay path is a six-foot diameter corrugated metal pipe (CMP). To prevent activation of the groundwater, the CMP and beam absorbers are surrounded by crushed aggregate, and enclosed in a double-walled geotextile membrane, referred to as the liner. The minimum distance from the beam centerline to the liner is 10 feet. The double-wall construction of the liner forms three regions, the containment volume, the interstitial volume, and the exterior. Each of these volumes is connected to monitoring wells at both the upstream and downstream ends of the decay volume, i.e. a total of six monitoring pipes extend to the surface. To confirm the integrity of the liner system following its placement, the firm Earth Tech was contracted to perform tests. Michael Williams was the primary contact with Earth Tech. The following is the report from Earth Tech, with minor changes in the interest of clarity. A sketch of the decay region is shown; only one of the layers of the liner is shown, and only one monitoring port. At the time of these tests, the excavation in general, but particularly in the vicinity of the monitoring wells had not been backfilled in the final grade, as indicated by the dashed lines.

  12. Studies of ^18Ne using ANASEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhardt, L. E.; Blackmon, J. C.; Gardiner, H. E.; Matos, M.; Rasco, B. C.; Macon, K. T.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Baby, L.; Koshchiy, E.; Johnson, E. D.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Rogachev, G.; Bardayan, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    Efficient and selective techniques are required to study reactions important in stellar explosions with radioactive ion beams. The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics Studies with Exotic Nuclei (ANASEN) is designed to study charged-particle reactions important in the αp- and rp- processes with essentially complete solid angle coverage using an array of 40 silicon-strip detectors backed with CsI scintillators, covering an area of roughly 1300 cm^2. ANASEN also includes an active gas target/detector using a position-sensitive annular gas proportional counter that allows direct measurement of (α,p) reactions in inverse kinematics. Results from some of the first measurements using a partial implementation of ANASEN at the RESOLUT radioactive ion beam facility will be presented, focusing on measurements of ^17F(p,p)^17F and ^17F(p,α)^14O reactions that are important to understanding the structure of ^18Ne and the ^14O(α,p)^17F reaction rate.

  13. Reconstructing the cosmogenic 21Ne inventory of Neogene sedimentary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Finlay; Sinclair, Hugh; McCann, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides, in particular 10Be, have found use in modern sediments as a way of determining the erosion rate of river catchments. Cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz is easier and faster to measure than 10Be and has the potential to record erosion rates back 10s million years. However the routine use of cosmogenic 21Ne in quartz sand is hampered by ubiquitous nucleogenic 21Ne. When the eroding lithology can be identified it is possible to measure the nucleogenic in samples that are shielded from cosmic rays and correct for it in exposed bedrock [1]. However, identifying the lithologies that contributes quartz sand in large river catchments, and determining precise nucleogenic contributions is more problematic. The North and South Platte rivers drain early Prototerozoic lithologies of the Laramie and Front Ranges in the high Rockies of Wyoming. They have deposited several km of coarse clastic fluvial deposits on the Great Plains of Nebraska and Colorado up to 200 km from the mountain front. Quartz from shielded samples of granite and gneiss - the dominant quartz-bearing rocks - has high concentrations of nucleogenic 21Ne (60-140 e6 atoms/g). The 21Ne concentration in modern sand from the river (n=10) overlaps that measured in the shielded granite and gneiss. The sand data rarely lie on the air-spallation mixing line in the Ne three isotope plot indicating that it is dominantly derived from the granite and gneiss and has no resolvable cosmogenic 21Ne. Building on previous studies of cosmogenic 21Ne in pebbles [2] we have started a programme of analysis of pebbles derived from the Medicine Bow quartzite that are abundant throughout the Cenozoic alluvial sequence. Nucleogenic 21Ne in shielded quartzite is lower than granites (3-7 e6 atoms/g, n=4) and the data tend to lie on the air-spallation mixing line. All pebbles (n=14) from modern sediments analysed so far contain 2-80 times more excess 21Ne than the highest shielded quartzite suggesting that cosmogenic 21

  14. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  15. Motherhood after the age of 35 in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rybińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Postponing motherhood is a widespread phenomenon across developed countries, however only few studies look into very late motherhood in post-socialist countries using individual level data. In this study, I look at the context of the first childbirth in Poland in the midst of the political transformation of 1989. Employing sequence analysis I reconstructed life trajectories of women who experienced the transition to adulthood during the late 1980's and the early 1990's and have just completed their fertility histories. Individual data from the 2011 GGS-PL and the 2011 FAMWELL Survey were used. Comparing paths of mothers’ lives, I searched for differences in educational, professional and conjugal careers between women who gave birth before the age of 30 and after the age of 35. The results show how various life careers crisscross over the life course leading women to late motherhood. PMID:25641993

  16. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  18. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziszewska-Zielina, Elżbieta; Gleń, Monika

    2014-11-01

    The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one's own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  19. Inbreeding rate and genetic structure of cat populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mucha, S; Wolc, A; Gradowska, A; Szwaczkowski, T

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze effective population size and inbreeding level in populations of cat breeds registered in the Polish Studbook. The Association of Purebred Cat Breeders in Poland provided access to pedigrees of 26725 cats from seven breeds. The most frequent breed was Persian, however increasing tendency in numbers of registered animals from other breeds was recorded in later years. Although the percentage of inbred individuals was increasing over time, mating of close relatives was avoided by most of the breeders, and the average inbreeding coefficient exceeded 5% only for Siberian and Russian breeds. Current analysis suggests that the Polish pedigree cat populations are not threatened by negative effects of inbreeding.

  20. The Myszkow porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Eppinger, R.G.; Lason, K.; Slosarz, J.; Podemski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Myszkow, south-central Poland, lies in the Cracow-Silesian orogenic belt, in the vicinity of a Paleozoic boundary between two tectonic plates. The deposit is hosted in a complex that includes early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks intruded in the late Paleozoic by a predominantly granodioritic pluton. This deposit exhibits many features that are typical of porphyry copper deposits associated with calc-alkaline intrusive rocks, including ore- and alteration-mineral suites, zoning of ore and alteration minerals, fluid-inclusion chemistry, tectonic setting, and structural style of veining. Unusual features of the Myszkow deposit include high concentrations of tungsten and the late Paleozoic (Variscan) age. -Authors

  1. [Workplace health promotion in public health policies in Poland].

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the author analyses how far in Poland the idea of workplace health promotion (WHP) does exist in the area of public health understood in its broadest sense. The analysis encapsulates the following issues: (a) the national legislative policy, (b) strategies, programs and projects concerning health issues launched or coordinated by the state or local administration, (c) grassroots initiatives for health promotion supported by local and regional administration, (d) civic projects or business strategies for health. In addition, the author emphasizes the marginalization of workplace health promotion and lack of cohesive policy in this field as well as, the fact that health problems of the working population arising from current demographic, technological, economic and social changes that could be dealt with through developing and implementing WHP projects are not yet fully perceived by public health policy makers.

  2. [Challenges for smoking cessation interventions targeted at women in Poland].

    PubMed

    Goszczyńska, Eliza

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of smoking among women. Based on the literature review of research conducted on large representative samples of Poles to define the range of this unhealthy behavior and its gender differences, the groups of Polish women who should especially become the target of smoking cessation interventions were identified. Furthermore, an attempt was made to characterize factors contributing to the initiation and continuation of tobacco smoking among adult women and the specificity of this unhealthy habit among those planning a pregnancy and expecting mothers. This information was based on the outcomes reported in the available literature on this issue. Finally, the guidelines for organizing smoking cessation interventions targeted at women in Poland are provided.

  3. [Typhoid fever imported from the tropic in Poland].

    PubMed

    Olszyńiska-Krowicka, Maria; Borkowski, Piotr Karol

    2007-01-01

    We present three cases of typhoid fever imported to Poland from India in the beginning of the year 2006 treated in our Zoonosis and Tropical Medicine Department. Two of them, with mild course of the disease, were vaccinated with Typhim Vi vaccine, the third didn't obtain any, and had very heavy, almost classical course of the disease. All of them behaved in India in improper way, probably also because were convinced they were protected by the vaccine. We emphasize that proper prophylaxis against typhoid fever for travelers should consist of vaccination with two vaccines, oral Ty 21a and parenteral Typhim Vi and it doesn't release travelers from avoiding risky behavior.

  4. The negative health consequences of unemployment: the case of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Sławomir; Lopuszańska, Monika; Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna

    2010-07-01

    In the 1990s Poland began to make a transition to a free-market economy: a transition accompanied by a variety of negative socio-economic developments, most notably a rise in unemployment. The aim of this study is to shed light on the relationship between occupational status (including unemployment) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), by examining the experience of 542 men and 572 women between the ages of 40 and 50 of the town of Wroclaw in 2006. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which uses certain health and life-style parameters to predict the risk of major coronary problems over a 10-year period, was calculated, and the effect of occupational status on the FRS was assessed. The results showed that the FRS varied according to sex and to occupational status, with the highest FRS rating among unemployed men. Thus governmental policies to counter the adverse effects of unemployment should be developed to remedy the problem.

  5. Prevention methods for pest control and their use in Poland.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques.

  6. Statistical analysis of NWP rainfall data from Poland..

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna

    2010-05-01

    A goal of this work is to summarize the latest results of precipitation verification in Poland. In IMGW, COSMO_PL version 4.0 has been running. The model configuration is: 14 km horizontal grid spacing, initial time at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, the forecast range 72 h. The fields from the model had been verified with Polish SYNOP stations. The verification was performed using a new verification tool. For the accumulated precipitation indices FBI, POD, FAR, ETS from contingency table are calculated. In this paper the comparison of monthly and seasonal verification of 6h, 12h, 24h accumulated precipitation in 2009 is presented. Since February 2010 the model with 7 km grid spacing will be running in IMGW. The results of precipitation verification for two different models' resolution will be shown.

  7. [Incidence of various types of viral hepatitis in Poland 1988].

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, B; Małolepsza, E; Magdzik, W; Naruszewicz-Lesiuk, D; Nowosławski, A

    1990-01-01

    109 sera from patients in the early phase of acute hepatitis non-B were tested by immunoenzymatic methods for presence of serologic markers of infections with HBV, HAV and CMV. The analysis of the results showed that 14 patients were infected with HBV, 20 with HAV and 2 with CMV. The remaining 73 cases could apparently be attributed to the infection with HCV. It has been estimated that in 1988, 69.5% of hepatitis cases in Poland could have resulted from the infection with HBV, 24%--from the infection with NANB viruses and only, and only 6.5%--from the infection with HAV. These data even if representing a slight overestimate of the incidence of hepatitis due to the parenteral spread of infections agents support the postulate that measures to prevent these infections should be strengthened. PMID:1966117

  8. The eastern extent of the Variscan belt in SE Poland and W Ukraine revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzywiec, Piotr; Mazur, Stanisław; Gągała, Łukasz; Kufrasa, Mateusz; Hatcher, Robert D., Jr.; Buffenmyer, Vinton; Kurovets, Ihor

    2015-04-01

    High-quality seismic reflection data recently acquired in SE Poland provide new insights into the structure of the contact between the East European Craton (EEC) and the younger terranes to the SW. Our study focuses on two regional tectonic units: (1) the Radom-Kraśnik Block (RKB), a NW-SE elongate structural high where early Palaeozoic to Devonian strata subcrop beneath the Permo-Mesozoic cover, and (2) the Lublin Basin (LB), a major Palaeozoic sedimentary basin developed above the SW slope of the EEC and filled by the Neoproterozoic - Carboniferous strata. The RKB separates the LB from the Małopolska Massif (MM) and Łysogóry Unit (LU) that are usually considered early Palaeozoic terranes docked to the SW EEC margin. The seismic data show a continuous top-EEC basement that descends from ~2 km in the NE to ~20 km under the SW part of the RKB. The RKB and LB represent a NE-vergent thin-skinned system thrust toward the EEC with the thin-skinned fabric oriented oblique to the slope of the EEC basement. The RKB is a thrust stack that imbricates a 10-12 km thick pile of ?Neoproterozoic to Devonian sediments. A leading edge of the RKB is a triangle zone related to the jump of the basal detachment from a basement-cover interface to Silurian shales. The passive roof of this triangle zone involves Carboniferous strata. This defines the age of thrusting as Variscan. A minor amount of slip that has been conveyed to the Lublin Basin has been accommodated by a gentle deformation of the post-Silurian series. The thin-skinned deformation front is given by the Kock Fault Zone (KFZ) that is a frontal thrust forced to emerge above a step in the Precambrian basement. The KFZ could be partly regarded as an analogue to MUSHWAD structures described in the Appalachian foreland fold-and-thrust belt. It also could be a triangle zone like those in the Appalachian Plateau, but is more similar to the type triangle zone in the Canadian Rockies Foothills. Reinterpretation of published

  9. [Biological levels of lead in residents of Poland].

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, M

    1993-01-01

    The author discussed current data on sources of the environmental exposure to lead, health effects of exposure in adults and children as well as recommended admissible concentrations of lead in blood. The review of studies on biological monitoring of exposure to lead in Poland permits to state that the results of measurements of Pb-B concentrations performed by laboratories which did not participate in the inter-laboratory programme of quality assurance were often overestimated evoking public concern. The outcome of investigations carried out by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz and other institutions which are provided with appropriate analytical equipment, tested under the inter-laboratory programme of quality assurance gives the ground for a hypothesis that an excessive environmental exposure to lead in Poland may result only from industrial emission. The mean geometric lead blood concentrations in persons living in areas free from industrial emissions of lead range from 40 to 70 micrograms/l and they do not prove any potential hazard for adults. Exposure of children and pregnant women living in areas polluted with lead due to industrial emissions and where mean geometric Pb-B concentrations reach 100-170 micrograms/l may create a significant problem. The results obtained emphasize the need for targetted surveillance aimed at identifying areas of excessive lead contamination, measurements of Pb-B concentrations in populations living in those areas and necessary preventive measurements. Collection of blood samples and measurements of lead levels should be performed only by those laboratories which satisfy necessary requirements.

  10. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why

  11. [The need of prenatal public health initiatives in Poland].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2012-11-01

    The author emphasizes the achievements of the Polish Gynecological Society in the field of improving the health indicators concerning perinatal mortality among infants during the last two decades in Poland. Attention is paid to the contribution of the members of the Society to organizational change in Polish health care after 1990, which resulted in the improvement of the care of mother and child. It is also underlined that the members of the Society contributed to the creation of early detection system of breast and cervical cancer in Poland. However it is noteworthy that in 'Polish Gynecology' - the publication of the Polish Gynecological Society - the number of reports devoted to risky health behaviors of women during periconceptional period and pregnancy is scarce. The author draws attention to the percentage of women who smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol before and during pregnancy Emphasis is also placed on the problem of nutritional disorders (mainly pathological methods of dieting) among Polish women during the reproductive period and in the first weeks of pregnancy (before the pregnancy is confirmed). These aspects may result in epigenetic changes shaping the phenotype of the offspring. The author refers to the Barker's theory of Developmental Origins of Adult Diseases and warns that the above-mentioned health behaviors of women may bring about negative effects for the offspring and future generations, namely susceptibility to chronic diseases: arterial hypertension, obesity type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Negative effects for the health of offspring may also result from low level of physical activity of women before and during pregnancy The author concludes that it is necessary to intensify the efforts of the Polish Gynecological Society in the area of prenatal public health.

  12. [Modern threats and burden of respiratory system diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2013-11-01

    Polish population according to the National Census of Population and Housing, which was conducted in 2011, was 38 511.8 thousand. The average life expectancy in Poland is 71.0 years for men and 79.7 years for women. The reason for hospitalization in Poland are primarily cardiovascular disease (18%), tumors (11.4%), digestive diseases (10.6%), respiratory (9.3%), trauma (9.1%), infectious diseases (2.3%) and others (39%). Mortality rates determined on the basis of the analyzes and simulations in different disease groups indicates that the predominant causes of death of Polish citizens are strongly cardiovascular disease and cancer. Respiratory diseases occupy fourth place. World analyses clearly show that the number of deaths in 2030 due to lung diseases will be the fourth (COPD), fifth (pneumonia) and sixth (lung cancer) cause of death. As it turns out, the existence of various pathologies affecting the country's economic status. Respiratory allergies are observed more often, including in approximately 20% of Europeans are symptoms of allergic rhinitis (15-20% severe) and in 5-11% are diagnosed with asthma. Malignant tumors are the second most common causes of death in the group with the highest risk of life for the residents of Polish, particularly for men, is lung cancer, because of which in 2001, 20 570 people died. Incurred costs of the social security system are mainly caused by inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, which corresponds to the number of days of sick leave, especially in the age group 19-28 years, with a decrease in the age group above 59 years of age. Numbers hospitalized for respiratory diseases according to data from the National Health Fund also clearly indicate the cause of inflammation and cancer, and in the population aged 41-60 years, the need for hospital treatment is multiplied. The data indicate the constant threat of respiratory diseases.

  13. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  14. The 20Ne(d,p)21Ne transfer reaction in relation to the s-process abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsangu, C. T.; Laird, A. M.; Parikh, A.; Adsley, P.; Birch, M. D.; Chen, A. A.; Faestermann, T.; Fox, S. P.; Fulton, B. R.; Hertenberger, R.; Irvine, D.; Kay, B. P.; Longland, R.; Manwell, S.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Schmitt, K.; de Séréville, N.; Tomlinson, J. R.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2016-01-01

    A study of the 20Ne(d,p)21Ne transfer reaction was performed using the Quadrupole Dipole Dipole Dipole (Q3D) magnetic spectrograph in Garching, Germany. The experiment probed excitation energies in 21Ne ranging from 6.9 MeV to 8.5 MeV. The aim was to investigate the spectroscopic information of 21Ne within the Gamow window of core helium burning in massive stars. Further information in this region will help reduce the uncertainties on the extrapolation down to Gamow window cross sections of the 17O(α,γ)21Ne reaction. In low metallicity stars, this reaction has a direct impact on s-process abundances by determining the fate of 16O as either a neutron poison or a neutron absorber. The experiment used a 22-MeV deuteron beam, with intensities varying from 0.5-1 μA, and an implanted target of 20Ne of 7 μg/cm2 in 40 μg/cm2 carbon foils. Sixteen 21Ne peaks have been identified in the Ex = 6.9-8.5 MeV range, of which only thirteen peaks correspond to known states. Only the previously-known Ex = 7.960 MeV state was observed within the Gamow window.

  15. Implementation of the Decisions of the Prague Convention--A Case Study: Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowska-Kuszteljak, Julia; Rzycki, Jerzy

    1986-01-01

    Poland's participation in the 1972 Prague convention on the international recognition among socialist countries of secondary school diplomas, specialized secondary school credentials, higher education degrees, and higher academic titles and degrees is outlined. (MSE)

  16. A New Moldavite Sub-Strewn Field in Lower Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skála, R.; Jonášová, Š.; Žák, K.; Ďurišová, J.; Brachaniec, T.; Magna, T.

    2016-08-01

    The moldavites found close to Strzegom (Poland) represent the Central European tektites most distant (~475 km) from the source crater, the Ries impact structure. They were redeposited from yet unknown sub-strewn field north of the Sudetic Mountains.

  17. History of the development of rocket technology and astronautics in Poland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of rocket technology in Poland is outlined. The history cites 13th century use of war rockets in combating Tartars as well as 20th century studies of the future and reality of space flights.

  18. Ethical Reasoning in a Time of Revolution: A Study of Local Officials in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra W; Sprinthall, Norman; Siemienska, Renata

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 485 local officials in Poland showed that both elected and appointed officials strongly preferred principled reasoning for ethical decision making. Gender and attitude toward the change from Communism made a difference in preferred modes of ethical reasoning. (SK)

  19. Distribution and hosts of Eutrombidium trigonum (Hermann, 1804) (Acari: Prostigmata: Eutrombidiidae) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Haitlinger, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    New hosts: Chorthippus (Glyptobotchrus) biguttulus (L.), C. (G.) mollis (Charp.), C. (G.) brunneus (Thunb.), C. (G.) ?apricarius (L.), Omocestus viridulus (L.) and new localities for Eutrombidium trigonum (Hermann) from Poland are presented.

  20. Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen.

    PubMed

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Singh, Amit; Jana, Manisha

    2014-02-23

    Poland syndrome is characterised by unilateral absence of the large pectoral muscle, ipsilateral symbrachydactyly and occasionally other malformations of the anterior chest wall and breast. The condition is more frequent among men and usually occurs on the right hemithorax in the unilateral form. This case is unique because we believe it is a rare case of Poland syndrome involving the left hemithorax along with dextrocardia and herniation of the spleen from the left subcostal region.

  1. A rare association of pulmonary hypertension and dextrocardia with Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Raval, Jwalant; Nagaraja, Vinayak; Burgess, David; Eshoo, Suzanne; Sadick, Norman; Denniss, A Robert

    2013-09-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality with an estimated incidence of 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 30,000 live births. We report and discuss this rare combination of pulmonary hypertension and dextrocardia with Poland syndrome. This case report also highlights the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms during foetal development and the potential to misdiagnose cardiac ischaemia in a patient with an anatomic anomaly.

  2. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  3. 6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Water treatment plant, view NE, berm in foreground - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  4. BLDG 47, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF NE END OF HARBOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 47, FRONT ELEVATION DETAIL OF NE END OF HARBOR SIDE WITH POLE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Explosive & Small Train Depot, Main wharf area adjacent to Wharf No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. BLDG 47, ELEVATION DETAIL AT NE END OF HARBOR SIDE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 47, ELEVATION DETAIL AT NE END OF HARBOR SIDE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Explosive & Small Train Depot, Main wharf area adjacent to Wharf No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing doubletrack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing double-track rail system leading to upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  7. First observation of the unbound nucleus 15Ne.

    PubMed

    Wamers, F; Marganiec, J; Aksouh, F; Aksyutina, Yu; Álvarez-Pol, H; Aumann, T; Beceiro-Novo, S; Boretzky, K; Borge, M J G; Chartier, M; Chatillon, A; Chulkov, L V; Cortina-Gil, D; Emling, H; Ershova, O; Fraile, L M; Fynbo, H O U; Galaviz, D; Geissel, H; Heil, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Johansson, H T; Jonson, B; Karagiannis, C; Kiselev, O A; Kratz, J V; Kulessa, R; Kurz, N; Langer, C; Lantz, M; Le Bleis, T; Lemmon, R; Litvinov, Yu A; Mahata, K; Müntz, C; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Nyman, G; Ott, W; Panin, V; Paschalis, S; Perea, A; Plag, R; Reifarth, R; Richter, A; Rodriguez-Tajes, C; Rossi, D; Riisager, K; Savran, D; Schrieder, G; Simon, H; Stroth, J; Sümmerer, K; Tengblad, O; Weick, H; Wimmer, C; Zhukov, M V

    2014-04-01

    We report on the first observation of the unbound proton-rich nucleus 15Ne. Its ground state and first excited state were populated in two-neutron knockout reactions from a beam of 500 MeV/u 17Ne. The 15Ne ground state is found to be unbound by 2.522(66) MeV. The decay proceeds directly to 13O with simultaneous two-proton emission. No evidence for sequential decay via the energetically allowed 2- and 1- states in 14F is observed. The 15Ne ground state is shown to have a strong configuration with two protons in the (sd) shell around 13O with a 63(5)% (1s1/2)2 component.

  8. Comparing pion production models to MiniBooNE data

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, P. A.

    2015-05-15

    Predictions for neutrino-induced charged- and neutral-current single pion production on CH{sub 2} from theoretical models and Monte Carlo event generators are compared with the cross section measurements from the MiniBooNE experiment.

  9. 28. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower framed by Watchtower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower framed by Watchtower Building and underside of pedestrain bridge. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  10. 27. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower from rooftop of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower from rooftop of Watchtower Building in Brooklyn. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  11. 24. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower showing approach span. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View looking NE at Brooklyn Tower showing approach span. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  12. 6. INTERIOR VIEW, NE, OF PANELS AND INCLINED END POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW, NE, OF PANELS AND INCLINED END POST SHOWING DIAGONAL BRACING IN UPPER CHORD AND DIAGONALS IN PANELS. - Slates' Mill Bridge, Township Road 439 spanning South Branch of Tunkhannock Creek in Benton Township, Dalton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. 10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Reagan's Tub Mill and Roadway looking NE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  15. View of twofamily house at 520522 Rison Ave., NE, originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of two-family house at 520-522 Rison Ave., NE, originally occupied by workers in nearby mills. Note original asbestos shingle roof - 520-522 Rison Avenue, Northeast (House), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marganiec, J.; Wamers, F.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Tengblad, O.; Typel, S.; Weick, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.

    2016-08-01

    New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the 15O + p + p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  17. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  18. 3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  19. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiński, Piotr; Górecki, Krzysztof; Bogdanowicz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the selected articles presented at the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference, held in Gdansk, Poland on September 20-23, 2015 (IMAPS Poland 2015). The conference has been held under the scientific patronage of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Poland Chapter and the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunication, Polish Academy of Science and jointly hosted by the Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics (GUT) and the Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (GMU). The IMAPS Poland conference series aims to advance interdisciplinary scientific information exchange and the discussion of the science and technology of advanced electronics. The IMAPS Poland 2015 conference took place in the heart of Gdansk, two minutes walking distance from the beach. The surroundings and location of the venue guaranteed excellent working and leisure conditions. The three-day conference highlighted invited talks by outstanding scientists working in important areas of electronics and electronic material science. The eight sessions covered areas in the fields of electronics packaging, interconnects on PCB, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), MEMS devices, transducers, sensors and modelling of electronic devices. The conference was attended by 99 participants from 11 countries. The conference schedule included 18 invited presentations and 78 poster presentations.

  20. Status of FNAL SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    SciBooNE is a new experiment at FNAL which will make precision neutrino-nucleus cross section measurements in the one GeV region. These measurements are essential for the future neutrino oscillation experiments. We started data taking in the antineutrino mode on June 8, 2007, and collected 5.19 x 10{sup 19} protons on target (POT) before the accelerator shutdown in August. The first data from SciBooNE are reported in this article.

  1. Neutral Current Elastic Interactions in MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan; /Alabama U.

    2011-10-01

    Neutral Current Elastic (NCE) interactions in MiniBooNE are discussed. In the neutrino mode MiniBooNE reported: the flux averaged NCE differential cross section as a function of four-momentum transferred squared, an axial mass (M{sub A}) measurement, and a measurement of the strange quark spin content of the nucleon, {Delta}s. In the antineutrino mode we present the background-subtracted data which is compared with the Monte Carlo predictions.

  2. Hungary and Poland: "Hungary" Stable Partner in Democracy. Building Partnership for Europe: Poland after a Decade System of Transformation. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Steven M.

    This curriculum project provides insight into the transformation processes in which the nations of Hungary and Poland have been participating, from approximately 1979-2002. A major focus of the project is to organize a set of information that teachers and students can analyze and understand the Hungarian and Polish quality of life during the…

  3. MicroBooNE and the broader SBN program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchum, Wesley

    2016-03-01

    MicroBooNE has begun collecting and analyzing neutrino interaction events in its Liquid Argon Time-Projection Chamber (LArTPC) located on the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB) at Fermilab. Over the coming years, MicroBooNE will measure neutrino-Ar interactions, elucidate the origin of the ``low-energy excess'' observed by the MiniBooNE experiment, and further the development of LArTPC detector technology and event reconstruction. MicroBooNE is also the beginning of Fermilab's short-baseline neutrino program, which will see two new detectors located on the BNB starting in 2018. Together, these three detectors will perform a search for eV mass-scale sterile neutrinos through measurements of standard neutrino oscillations in both appearance and disappearance channels. I will describe the MicroBooNE LArTPC, highlight the advantages and challenges of LArTPCs as neutrino detectors, show the status of the event reconstruction and analysis, and discuss the future plans for MicroBooNE and the short-baseline neutrino program at Fermilab.

  4. Estimation of the extraterrestrial 3He and 20Ne fluxes on Earth from He and Ne systematics in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavrit, Déborah; Moreira, Manuel A.; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Sediments contain interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) carrying extraterrestrial noble gases, such as 3He, which have previously been used to estimate the IDP accretion flux over time and the duration of past environmental events. However, due to its high diffusivity, He can be lost by diffusion either due to frictional heating during entry in the atmosphere, or once it has been incorporated in the sediments. Therefore the absolute values of 3He IDP fluxes cannot be known. Due to its lower diffusivity, Ne is less likely to be lost by diffusion than He and can potentially provide an absolute IDP flux value. Here, we studied the Ne and He isotopic composition of 21 sediments of different ages (3 to 38 Myr, 56 Myr and 183 Myr) in order to better constrain the retention of 3He in such deposits. The samples are carbonates from 2 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which previously showed evidence of detectable extraterrestrial 3He, and from the Sancerre core in the Paris basin. The 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of decarbonated residues vary respectively from 0.09 ×10-6 to 76.5 ×10-6, 9.54 ± 0.08 to 11.30 ± 0.60 and from 0.0295 ± 0.0001 to 0.0344 ± 0.0003. These isotopic compositions can be explained by a mixing between two terrestrial components (atmosphere and radiogenic He and nucleogenic Ne present in the terrigenous fractions) and an extraterrestrial component. The linear relationship between 20Ne/22Ne and 3He/22Ne ratios shows that the extraterrestrial component has a unique composition and is similar to the He and Ne composition of implanted solar wind. This composition is different from the individual stratospheric IDPs for which the Ne and He isotopic compositions have been measured. We suggest that this difference is due to a bias in the sampling of the individual IDPs previously analyzed toward the largest ones that are more likely to lose He during entry in the atmosphere. Our data further constrains the size of the majority

  5. Estimation of the extraterrestrial 3He and 20Ne fluxes on Earth from He and Ne systematics in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavrit, Déborah; Moreira, Manuel; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contain interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) carrying extraterrestrial noble gases, such as 3He, which have previously been used to estimate the IDP accretion flux over time and the duration of past environmental events. However, due to its high diffusivity, He can be lost by diffusion either due to frictional heating during entry in the atmosphere, or once it has been incorporated in the sediments. Therefore the absolute values of 3He IDP fluxes cannot be known. Due to its lower diffusivity, Ne is less likely to be lost by diffusion than He and can potentially provide an absolute IDP flux value. Here, we studied the Ne and He isotopic composition of 21 sediments of different ages (3 to 38 Myr, 56 Myr and 183 Myr) in order to better constrain the retention of 3He in such deposits. The samples are carbonates from 2 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which previously showed evidence of detectable extraterrestrial 3He, and from the Sancerre core in the Paris basin. The 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of decarbonated residues vary respectively from 0.09×10-6 to 76.5×10-6, 9.54±0.08 to 11.30±0.60 and from 0.0295±0.0001 to 0.0344±0.0003. These isotopic compositions can be explained by a mixing between two terrestrial components (atmosphere and radiogenic He and nucleogenic Ne present in the terrigenous fractions) and an extraterrestrial component. The linear relationship between 20Ne/22Ne and 3He/22Ne ratios shows that the extraterrestrial component has a unique composition and is similar to the He and Ne composition of implanted solar wind. This composition is different from the individual stratospheric IDPs for which the Ne and He isotopic compositions have been measured. We suggest that this difference is due to a bias in the sampling of the individual IDPs previously analyzed toward the largest ones that are more likely to lose He during entry in the atmosphere. Our data further constrains the size of the majority of the

  6. Estimation of the extraterrestrial 3He and 20Ne fluxes on Earth from He and Ne systematics in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavrit, Déborah; Moreira, Manuel; Moynier, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contain interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) carrying extraterrestrial noble gases, such as 3He, which have previously been used to estimate the IDP accretion flux over time and the duration of past environmental events. However, due to its high diffusivity, He can be lost by diffusion either due to frictional heating during entry in the atmosphere, or once it has been incorporated in the sediments. Therefore the absolute values of 3He IDP fluxes cannot be known. Due to its lower diffusivity, Ne is less likely to be lost by diffusion than He and can potentially provide an absolute IDP flux value. Here, we studied the Ne and He isotopic composition of 21 sediments of different ages (3 to 38 Myr, 56 Myr and 183 Myr) in order to better constrain the retention of 3He in such deposits. The samples are carbonates from 2 sites of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which previously showed evidence of detectable extraterrestrial 3He, and from the Sancerre core in the Paris basin. The 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 21Ne/22Ne ratios of decarbonated residues vary respectively from 0.09×10‑6 to 76.5×10‑6, 9.54±0.08 to 11.30±0.60 and from 0.0295±0.0001 to 0.0344±0.0003. These isotopic compositions can be explained by a mixing between two terrestrial components (atmosphere and radiogenic He and nucleogenic Ne present in the terrigenous fractions) and an extraterrestrial component. The linear relationship between 20Ne/22Ne and 3He/22Ne ratios shows that the extraterrestrial component has a unique composition and is similar to the He and Ne composition of implanted solar wind. This composition is different from the individual stratospheric IDPs for which the Ne and He isotopic compositions have been measured. We suggest that this difference is due to a bias in the sampling of the individual IDPs previously analyzed toward the largest ones that are more likely to lose He during entry in the atmosphere. Our data further constrains the size of the majority of

  7. The Variscan accretionary prism in the Kaczawa Mountains (W Sudetes, SW Poland): lithostratigraphic, sedimentological, volcanic, metamorphic and structural evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryza, Ryszard; Kostylew, Joanna; Zalasiewicz, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The Sudetes (SW Poland) at the NE edge of the Bohemian Massif (Central-European Variscides) are a structural mosaic comprising various basement units, some interpreted as fragments of a Variscan accretionary prism (Baranowski et al., 1990; Collins et al., 2000; Kryza & Zalasiewicz, 2008). The best example is the Kaczawa structural unit in the West Sudetes. Its accretionary nature is evident from: Lithostratigraphy, sedimentology and volcanism. Neighbouring tectonic units of the Kaczawa Mountains contain different fragments of Palaeozoic successions: (a) a Cambrian (and Neoproterozoic?) - Ordovician volcano-sedimentary sequence (with WP type bimodal volcanic and shallow-water sedimentary rocks), (b) Silurian - Devonian MORB-type metabasalts, shales and cherts (with graptolites and conodonts), and (c) Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous polygenetic mélange bodies that record overlapping dynamic sedimentary and tectonic processes. This suggests evolving palaeotectonic environments, from initial rift within continental crust, through mature basin likely underlined by oceanic-type lithosphere, to a subduction setting (mélanges; Baranowski et al., 1990; Collins et al., 2000; Kryza & Zalasiewicz, 2008, and refs. therein). Metamorphism. Diverse PT metamorphic paths detected in various tectonic units of the Kaczawa Mountains are strong evidence for the subduction/accretionary affinity. Relatively higher-grade metamorphic units bear evidence of blueschist-facies metamorphism, overprinted by a low-T greenschist facies event (pseudosection modelling yielded: ~270oC and 8.5 kb for the peak-P, and ~310oC and 6 kb for the peak-T stages). The estimated P/T gradient of ~10 oC/km is typical of a subduction setting (Kryza et al., 2011). Other tectonic units, including the mélange bodies, experienced lower-grade metamorphic parageneses (e.g. widespread pumpellyite) and white-mica structural data (Kostylew et al., 2013; and refs. therein). The diverse metamorphic PT paths indicate

  8. Analytical potential energy function for the Van der Waals molecule He 2Ne +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Zhu, Z. H.

    1998-01-01

    A potential energy function has been derived for the two linear isomer structures He 2Ne +(X 2Σ +) using ab initio calculations with the {QCISD(T)}/{6-31++ G(d,p)} method. Because we use the reasonable dissociation limit (3) instead of the unacceptable one (1), our potential energy function represents considerable topographical features in detail, including the linear [HeNe +He] structure ( R HeNe = 1.4694 Å, R He'Ne = 2.0069 Å ∠HeNeHe = 180°) with two symmetric linear saddles ( R HeNe = R He'Ne = 1.80 Å, ∠HeNeHe = 180° and R HeNe = 1.5 Å, R He'Ne = 3.2 A°, ∠HeNeHe = 180°), and the topographical minimum of the [HeHeNe +] structure ( R HeHe = 2.2217 Å, R HeNe = 1.4426 Å, ∠HeHeNe = 180°), with a linear saddle ( R HeHe' = 3.0 Å, R HeNe = 1.8 Å, ∠HeHeNe = 180°).

  9. Rotational spectrum and structure of the Ne-HCN dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowsky, H. S.; Keen, J. D.; Germann, T. C.; Emilsson, T.; Augspurger, J. D.; Dykstra, C. E.

    1993-05-01

    Microwave rotational transitions have been observed at low J (0-3) for several isotopic species of the Ne-HCN dimer using the Balle/Flygare Mark II Fourier transform spectrometer with a pulsed nozzle as the source. For 20Ne-HC 14N, the main K=0 transitions give rotational constants B¯, DJ, and HJ of 2772.816 and 1.280 MHz and 1.173 kHz. The 14N nuclear quadrupole constant increases linearly with J(J+1) at a slope Dχ of -12.7 kHz from a value for χa(14N) of -0.957 MHz at J=0. The pseudodiatomic approximation for B¯ and χa(14N) leads to a value of 3.89 Å for the Ne to HC 14N center-of-mass (c.m.) distance R, and to 46.8° for the ``average'' bend angle θ of HC 14N. Some of the K=0, J=1→2, and J=2→3 transitions exhibit one or two weak satellites ˜30 MHz away, usually below, but also both above and below. The J=1→2 low frequency satellites for 20Ne-HC 14N and 20Ne-HC 15N, nominally 111→212, are symmetrical doublets with splittings of 305 and 439 kHz, respectively. The 14N hyperfine structure (hfs) is identical for the two 20Ne-HC 14N components as is the Stark effect for 20Ne-HC 15N. The molecular mechanics for clusters (MMC) model was used to calculate potential energy surfaces for Rg-HCN dimers, giving stabilities of 21, 37, 85, and 108 cm-1 with He, Ne, Ar, and Kr as the rare gas. A qualitative comparison of the experimental properties for the dimers with Ne, Ar, and Kr as the rare gas is based on the surfaces. The extremely mobile internal dynamics of Ne-HCN are attributed to its potential surface, which is both very shallow and isotropic.

  10. Mid-Infrared [NeII] and [NeIII] Emission Line Profiles in Starbursts and AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonyan, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Line profiles and velocities of the [CII] 157μm line observed with the Herschel PACS instrument are compared to high resolution [NeII] 12.81μm and [NeIII] 15.55μm emission lines observed with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). We are analysing spectra of at least 400 galaxies having both IRS high resolution and Herschel PACS [CII] line profiles that are available from the public archives. The goal of the work is the comparison of emission line velocity profiles and fluxes to locate and understand differences in the origins of [CII] compared to the mid-infrared Neon lines. Line velocities and widths are carefully measured, and errors are analyzed to determine if there is any kinematic evidence for [CII] arising from clouds not visible in the mid-infrared emission lines. This will give an answer to two questions: 1. Is there evidence that [CII] is more diffuse, distributed throughout galaxies, than the mid infrared starburst indicators [NeII] and [NeIII]?; 2. Is there evidence for specific, very dusty clouds of [CII] with so much extinction that the [CII] can be seen but the [NeII] and [NeIII] is not seen?

  11. Atmospheric 21Ne abundance determined by the Helix-MC Plus mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Zhang, X.; Phillips, D.; Hamilton, D.; Deerberg, M.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Analyses of noble gas isotopes by multi-collector, high resolution mass spectrometry have the potential to revolutionise applications in the cosmo-geo-sciences. The Helix-MC Plus noble gas mass spectrometer installed at the Australian National University (ANU) is equipped with unique high mass resolution collectors [mass resolution (MR): ~1,800 and mass resolving power (MRP): ~8,000], including fixed axial (Ax), adjustable high mass (H2) and adjustable low mass (L2) detectors. The high mass resolution of the L2, Ax and H2 collectors permits complete separation of 20Ne (measured on L2 detector) from doubly charged interfering 40Ar (required MR of 1,777), 1H19F (MR = 1450), 1H218O (MR = 894) and partial separation of the 21Ne peak (on Ax detector) from interfering 20Ne1H (MR = 3,271), and 22Ne (on H2 detector) from interfering doubly charged CO2 (MR = 6,231). Because of the high MRP of ~8,000, 21Ne can be measured, essentially without interference from 20Ne1H, by setting the magnet position on a 20Ne1H interference-free position. This capability provides an important opportunity to re-evaluate the 21Ne abundance in the atmosphere. Our analyses demonstrate that 20Ne1H contributes ~4% to atmospheric 21Ne measurements, with the corresponding production ratio of 20Ne1H to 20Ne being ~1E-4. We calculate a new atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne ratio of 0.00287 relative to an atmospheric 22Ne/20Ne ratio of 0.102; this new value is distinctly lower than the current IUPAC recommended 21Ne/20Ne value of 0.00298. There are several significant implications ensuing from the newly determined atmospheric 21Ne abundance. For example, in the area of Earth sciences the most critical issue relates to cosmogenic 21Ne surface exposure ages, which involve the calculation of 21Ne concentrations from excess 21Ne, relative to the atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne ratio. For young samples, where cosmogenic 21Ne contents are small and the 21Ne/20Ne ratio is close to the atmospheric value, the revised value could

  12. Dew Formation and Chemistry Near a Motorway in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, Grzegorz; Sobik, Mieczysław; Błaś, Marek; Polkowska, Żaneta; Cichała-Kamrowska, Katarzyna

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the influence of traffic intensity on dew formation efficiency and chemistry is presented. The measurements were conducted near the A4 motorway in SW Poland in almost flat land relief with intense agricultural activity. The dew/hoarfrost was collected by means of insulated plain passive radiative condensers at three sites: AN and AS located in the close vicinity of the motorway (30 m) on the opposite sides of the road, and AR, representing rural background conditions beyond the motorway influence. Measurements were conducted in two short campaigns in April and September 2009 with 9 and 10 collection days respectively. The average daily efficiency of dew formation was 0.179 L/m2. Its value for AN, AS and AR was on average 0.170, 0.199 and 0.173 L/m2, respectively. The efficiency of dew formation at measurement sites located on both sides of the road differed by up to about 200% during an individual dew episode. Maximum daily value reached 0.389 L/m2. The average volume-weighted pH was acidic and ranged from 4.29 (AS) to 4.58 (AR). The electric conductivity (EC) at all measurement sites was relatively low reaching on average 55.9 μS/cm for AN, 62.2 μS/cm for AS and 35.8 μS/cm for AR. The average volume-weighted TIC parameter (total ionic content) reached the value of 0.62 meq/L (AN and AS) and 0.38 meq/L (AR). Both EC and TIC values indicated strong influence of the motorway at sites located in its close vicinity (AN and AS). Depending on airflow direction during individual dew collection events, AN or AS sites were situated alternatively on windward or leeward side of the road, which distinctly influenced dew formation and chemistry: the leeward condenser was characterized by smaller water volume, higher EC and higher TIC when compared both with its windward counterpart and the background site. The ionic structure of the collected samples was similar at all measurement sites. The largest share had NO3 - anion (28-32%) and Ca2+ cation (22-25%). Thus

  13. [Occupational neoplasms in Poland in the years 1971-1994].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Strzelecka, A; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of the incidence of malignant neoplasms, recognised as occupational disease, in Poland during the years 1971-94 was based on occupational disease certificates sent obligatory to the Nofer institute of Occupational Medicine (Lódz) by all sanitary and epidemiological stations under the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and the Polish State Railways. During the period study 1118 occupational neoplasms were diagnosed, including 1042 cases (93.2%) of neoplasms in males. Among males malignant Ineoplasms of lung (36.1%), larynx (25.5%), bladder (14.7), skin (6%), lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue (3.4%) and pleura (2.9%) were most common. The rate occupational neoplasms in the total number of neoplasms registered accounted for 0.11% in males and 0.01% in females. PAH (29.1%), asbestos dust (18.8%), ionizing radiation (13.8%), chromium and its compounds (13.5%) and benzidine (9.8%) belong to the most frequent causes of malignant neoplasms in males, and ionizing radiation (31.5%) and asbestos dust (30.3%) in females. The number of neoplasms recognised as occupational disease is very low. Underestimation of occupational neoplasms is very common throughout the world, but it is particularly high in Poland if we take the incidence of pleura mesothelioma as an example. This is mainly due to: (1) the lack of clinical and morphological specificity of occupationally induced neoplasms; (2) a long latency; (3) the influence of other factors confounding the effect of occupational exposure; (4) a relatively small number of occupational carcinogens identified thus far; (5) limited knowledge of occupational carcinogens and criteria for occupational disease certification, and unsatisfactory interviewing skills among doctors who diagnose cancer disease. The identification of a harmful factor and the size of exposure to it, belongs to the weakest point in certifying the occupational background of the disease. The essential conclusions presented stress the urgent need for

  14. Social attitudes towards floods in Poland - spatial differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacki, W.; Działek, J.; Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat

  15. Legal regulations on occupational health system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dawydzik, L T

    2001-01-01

    Occupational health care has a long tradition in Poland. It has evolved from the industrial health care system established in the post-war period to a modern system defined in the Occupational Health Services Act of 1997. When the process of political and economic transformation began in Poland in 1989, the reforms of the workers' health care became inevitable. The process of introducing and implementing new legal regulations comprised three phases: 1. Introduction of amendments to the Polish Labor Code, according to which employers are now committed to provide their workers with occupational health services (OHS) appropriate to given working conditions. 2. Incorporation into the 1991 Health Care Institutions Act the provisions which allow for the establishment of alternative non-public structures responsible for the health care of the working population. 3. Adoption of the Occupational Health Services Act in 1997, the most important law providing grounds for establishing a most comprehensive system of occupational health services. The Occupational Health Services Act introduces, for the first time, the concept of the OHS system that encompasses the whole working population. The Act outlines a broad range of OHS competences; defines individual tasks; and provides the up-to-date definition of the OHS structure with its two organizational levels, consisting of primary and regional occupational health centers. In addition, the Act specifies the sources of finance for the accomplishment of the defined tasks. Pursuant to the provisions of the Act, OHS units co-operate with employers and employees, bodies supervising working conditions and other organizations involved in occupational health that become their partners in activities aimed at protecting and promoting health of workers. In order to further develop the workers' health care system its constant adaptation to changing conditions is absolutely necessary through: developing modern training for specialists in the

  16. Legal regulations on occupational health system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dawydzik, L T

    2001-01-01

    Occupational health care has a long tradition in Poland. It has evolved from the industrial health care system established in the post-war period to a modern system defined in the Occupational Health Services Act of 1997. When the process of political and economic transformation began in Poland in 1989, the reforms of the workers' health care became inevitable. The process of introducing and implementing new legal regulations comprised three phases: 1. Introduction of amendments to the Polish Labor Code, according to which employers are now committed to provide their workers with occupational health services (OHS) appropriate to given working conditions. 2. Incorporation into the 1991 Health Care Institutions Act the provisions which allow for the establishment of alternative non-public structures responsible for the health care of the working population. 3. Adoption of the Occupational Health Services Act in 1997, the most important law providing grounds for establishing a most comprehensive system of occupational health services. The Occupational Health Services Act introduces, for the first time, the concept of the OHS system that encompasses the whole working population. The Act outlines a broad range of OHS competences; defines individual tasks; and provides the up-to-date definition of the OHS structure with its two organizational levels, consisting of primary and regional occupational health centers. In addition, the Act specifies the sources of finance for the accomplishment of the defined tasks. Pursuant to the provisions of the Act, OHS units co-operate with employers and employees, bodies supervising working conditions and other organizations involved in occupational health that become their partners in activities aimed at protecting and promoting health of workers. In order to further develop the workers' health care system its constant adaptation to changing conditions is absolutely necessary through: developing modern training for specialists in the

  17. Infrared and Microwave Spectra of Ne-WATER Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xunchen; Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie; Hou, Dan; Li, Hui

    2016-06-01

    The binary complex of rare gas atom and water is an ideal model to study the anisotropic potential energy surface of van der Waals interaction and the large amplitude motion. Although Xe-H_2O, Kr-H_2O, Ar-H_2O, Ar-D_2O and even Ne-D_2O complexes were studied by microwave or high resolution infrared spectroscopy, the lighter Ne-H_2O complex has remained unidentified. In this talk, we will present the theoretical and experimental investigation of the Ne-H_2O complex. A four-dimension PES for H_2O-Ne which only depended on the intramolecular (Q2) normal-mode coordinate of H2O monomer was calculated in this work to determine the rovibrational energy levels and mid-infrared transitions. Aided with the calculated transitions, we were able to assigned the high resolution mid-infrared spectra of both 20Ne-H_2O and 22Ne-H_2O complexes that are generated with a pulsed supersonic molecular beam in a multipass direct absorption spectrometer equiped with an external cavity quantum cascade laser at 6 μm. Several bands of both para and ortho Ne-H2O were assigned and fitted using the Hamiltonian with strong Coriolis and angular-radical coupling terms. The predicted groud state energy levels are then confirmed by the J=1-0 and J=2-1 transitions measurement using a cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer.

  18. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  19. Polonium 210Po in cigarettes produced in Poland.

    PubMed

    Skwarzec, B; Strumińska, D I; Borylo, A; Ulatowski, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of 210Po determinations in the fourteen most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes, which constitute over 80% of total cigarette consumption in Poland. The 210Po activity in the cigarette samples analysed (tobacco, ash, filter before and after smoking) were measured using alpha spectrometry (Canberra-Packard). The data indicates that there is considerable variation in the polonium content of these brands. The highest 210Po content per sample was found in the cheap "Popularne" brand (24.12 mBq), the lowest in "Caro" (4.23 mBq). There was also a large difference between the polonium remaining in the ash in comparison with its total content in the tobacco in all the brands (from 4.3% for "Golden American" to 71.0% for "Sobieski King-Size"). The analysis has demonstrated that filters absorbed only a small amount of the polonium contained in the tobacco. "Caro" cigarettes have the most efficient filter, retaining 25.1% of the polonium contained in the tobacco, but most filters absorbed only 0.1-7.2% of polonium. The daily inhalation of 210Po by Polish smokers who get through one pack per day ranges from 20 to 215 mBq, but people smoking two or more packs of "Popularne" brand will inhale over 430 mBq of polonium per day.

  20. Burden of disease caused by local transport in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Transport is a major source of air pollution, noise, injuries and physical activity in the urban environment. The quantification of the health risks and benefits arising from these factors would provide useful information for the planning of cost-effective mitigation actions. In this study we quantified the burden of disease caused by local transport in the city of Warsaw, Poland. The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated for transport related air pollution (particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cadmium, lead and nickel), noise, injuries and physical activity. Exposure to these factors was based on local and international data, and the exposure-response functions (ERFs) were based on published reviews and recommendations. The uncertainties were quantified and propagated with the Monte Carlo method. Local transport generated air pollution, noise and injuries were estimated to cause approximately 58,000 DALYs in the study area. From this burden 44% was due to air pollution and 46% due to noise. Transport related physical activity was estimated to cause a health benefit of 17,000 DALYs. Main quantified uncertainties were related to disability weight for the annoyance (due to noise) and to the ERFs for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and walking. The results indicate that the health burden of transport could be mitigated by reducing motorized transport, which causes air pollution and noise, and by encouraging walking and cycling in the study area. PMID:26516622

  1. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  2. [AIDS and HIV infection in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Nitka, Anna; Rosińska, Magdalena; Janiec, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    The cumulative number of AIDS cases diagnosed in Poland in 1986 to 2006 reached 1929, and 855 AIDS deaths were registered during this time. In recent years a minor upward trend in AIDS incidence is observed with the highest numbers of incident cases in 2004- 175 (incidence 0.46 per 100,000) and 2006 -156 (0.41 per 100,000). The number of reported deaths decreased from 64 in 2005 to 44 in 2006. Taking into account the official life statistics data, AIDS deaths might be underreported. In 2006, with 750 newly detected HIV infections, the incidence (2.0 per 100,000) was higher than observed during recent years. Injecting drug users constituted the most numerous risk group both among the AIDS cases (51.9%) and the HIV infection cases (15.2% of all cases and 52.5% of cases with known transmission route). In 2006 the infection was diagnosed in 15 children of infected mothers. The proportion of reports of HIV infections with missing information on the risk group though remained very high (71.1% of all 2006 reports). In order to monitor the epidemiological situation better quality of data will need to be assured.

  3. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources.

  4. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland: 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorosz, Jan; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors, chairs of the 15th Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications OFTA2014, and editors of the conference proceedings summarize the developments of optical fiber technology in Poland (during the period of 2012-2014) on the basis of papers presented there and consecutively published in this volume. The digest covers the periodically presented work results every 18 months during the meetings on optical fibers in Białystok - Lipowy Most (with emphasis on technology and applications) and Lublin - Nałęczow (with emphasis on materials and technologies). The XVth Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications was held in Białystok and Lipowy Most on 29.01-01.02.2014. The first conference from this cycle was organized in Jabłonna in 1976. Conference topics were: optical fiber technology, materials for optoelectronics and photonics, rare earth doped and luminescent materials, metrology of optical fibers, components and optoelectronic circuits, applications of optical fibers, waveguides and optical fiber sensors, and lighting technology. The conference was attended by 120 participants, including international guests, and 90 papers were presented. Conference papers are traditionally published in Proceedings SPIE.

  5. [Incidence of pleural mesotheliomas in Poland (preliminary report)].

    PubMed

    Szturmowicz, M; Vertun-Baranowska, B; Rowińska-Zakrzewska, E; Szymańska, D

    1991-01-01

    Mesothelioma is a rare malignancy, difficult to diagnose and rarely found in a population not exposed to asbestos. In the immediate past incidence rates of this disease have increased due to extensive use of this mineral in the industry of the 1950's. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of mesotheliomas basing on results of a questionnaire posted in 1987 to all pneumonology clinics, oncological departments in Poland, and data from the Central Oncological Register from the years 1970-1985. Incidence of this malignant disease was 1-2 cases per 1,000,000 of general population during the years 1970-1985 and did not rise in 1986. Regional differences were observed, in some areas the incidence rate was 5-6 per 1,000,000. Data from the Occupational Medicine Institute disclosed in these regions more extensive industrial use of this mineral. The authors have also concluded that "at-life" diagnosis of mesothelioma rises, mainly due to the use of open pleural biopsy.

  6. Radioactivity of honeys from Poland after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Maria H; Kapała, Jacek; Puścion-Jakubik, Anna; Horembała, Justyna; Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata

    2013-11-01

    Concentration of radioactive isotopes in honey constitutes an important bioindicator of environmental radiation. One hundred six honey samples were collected from hives and from bottled honey provided by beekeepers from north-eastern Poland in 2010, before the Fukushima accident, and during the two-year period directly following this catastrophe (2011-2012). Cesium-137 (Cs-137) and potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in lime, multifloral, buckwheat, honeydew and other kinds of honey samples. The obtained mean concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40 (Bq kg(-1)) in honey samples were: 1.19 and 32.92 in 2010, 0.90 and 31.13 in 2011, 1.31 and 36.06 in 2012, respectively. Significant differences were not observed. Therefore, the studied honey samples collected after the Fukushima accident are found to be safe for humans with levels of Cs-137 and K-40 not posing any threats. However, the total concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in samples stopped decreasing in 2010-2011 and showed a slight increase in 2012. This relation may suggest the impact of pollution from Fukushima and requires further research in the coming years.

  7. Genesis of transverse kame trains in eastern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpiłowski, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    Transverse kames, forming trains perpendicular to the direction of ice-sheet advance, are rare morphological elements in previously glaciated areas. The genesis of an example from the ice-contact zone of the Wartanian glaciation in eastern Poland is discussed. The transverse kames there form two main, distinctly separated, sub-parallel trains. Their sedimentary successions fill erosional troughs incised in the pre-Wartanian deposits on northern slopes. They consist of thick glaciofluvial sand and glaciofluvial/glaciolacustrine sandy/silty units that are covered with a thin, usually discontinuous, glacial till succession. The genesis of this kame type has been modelled. It is concluded that transverse kames developed in two phases: (1) erosion of the substratum in subglacial channels during initial deglaciation, and (2) glaciofluvial deposition in crevasses during advanced deglaciation (in the form of low-energy fans periodically submerged under stagnant water), followed locally by a cover of flowtills. Both the ablation of the ice and the accumulation of the kame deposits were controlled by the co-occurrence of ice zones either enriched or impoverished with sediment. Zonal enrichment of ice with debris was determined by the development of shear zones over substratum elevations that were inclined up-ice. The formation and subsequent infilling of crevasses both took place in zones of relatively clean ice, so that the resulting kames form a train perpendicular to the direction of ice movement.

  8. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Wójcik, Waldemar

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a digest of works presented during the XVIth National Symposium on Optical Fibres and Their Applications. The Symposium is organized since 1976. OFTA 2015 was organized by Optical Fibre Laboratory of the Faculty of Chemistry at University of Maria Curie Skłodowska, and Institute of Electronics and Information Technology of Lublin University of Technology, in Nałęczów on 22-25 September 2015. The meeting has gathered around 120 participants who presented 85 research and technical papers. The Symposium organized every 18 months is a good portrait of optical fibre technology development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. Topical tracks of the Symposium were: optical and photonic materials, technology of classical, tailored and structural photonic optical fibres, light propagation physics in optical fibres, passive and active optical fibre components, optical fibre sensors, passive and active optical fibre networks, optical fibre amplifiers and lasers, optical fibre network issues: modulation, architectures, economy, etc.

  9. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  10. [Bacillus subtilis a legislative health problem in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to discuss the problems related to the classification of B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria to the 2nd risk group under the 2005 decree of the Ministry of Health on hazardous biological agents (Law Gazette No. 81, item 716 with later amendments). The decree is a Polish implementation of the Directive 2000/54/EC generally consistent with its recommendations, but in the case of certain microorganisms a separate decision has been taken and having in mind the health of workers, changes in the list of hazardous agents existing in Poland have been made. The paper presents in detail the legal situation in this field, as well as current knowledge about the biology of these microorganisms, their use in the biotechnology industry and related production of allergenic proteins, and their effect on the human health. Placement ofB. subtilis and B. thuringiensis in the 2nd risk group resulted in the interpretative difficulties encountered by employers who use products containing these bacteria, institutions involved in such products trade and inspectorates supervising working conditions. Based on the literature review it is suggested to initiate actions leading to the development of hygiene norms for certain enzymes/bioinsecticides present in the air, the more that the tests to assess air concentrations of some of them are available. This solution would permit to remove B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria from the 2nd risk group without the risk for the care of workers' health. PMID:22774467

  11. [Fluoride content of soft drinks produced in Poland].

    PubMed

    Jedra, Małgorzata; Urbanek-Karłowska, Bogumiła; Gawarska, Halina; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Fluoride content of 81 commercial brands of soft drinks and bottled waters were determined using potentiometric method with ion selective electrode. In the beverages produced in the same factory fluoride level were similar. The connection between elevation of fluoride levels and ingredients of investigated products such as juice or cola extract was not found. However, in some samples of ice tea drinks containing the tea extract fluoride levels might have been raised up to 1.28 mg/l. Fluoride contents of beverages from 28 producers ranged from 0.01 to 0.30 mg/l and only from 4 producers up to 0.60 mg/l. The highest level of fluoride (1.39 mg/l) has been determined in one sample of mineral water. In conclusion, ice tea beverages and certain mineral water, made and sold in Poland, may constitute an important source of fluoride in diet. Their consumption, particularly in case of children, must be controlled.

  12. A Biological Stone from a Medieval Cemetery in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J.; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus. PMID:25275551

  13. Defining HIV Risk and Determining Responsibility in Postsocialist Poland

    PubMed Central

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on 15 months of ethnographic research on HIV prevention programs in Poland, I explore the consequences of the shift from models of HIV prevention that emphasize “risk groups” and AIDS blame, to models that focus on “risky behaviors” and universal risk. The centrality of choice making and individual risk management in these models suggests objective risk assessment free from moralizing arguments. The Polish national prevention strategy shifted to focus on choice making, address all risk groups, and include concrete prevention strategies. This shift created a backlash that resulted in the reassertion of moral arguments about risk and risk groups that positioned those most vulnerable to HIV outside the purview of prevention efforts. AIDS organizations working with marginalized, “morally problematic” populations used the label “at risk” to legitimize claims to resources. They enacted a model of risk reduction in which the relevant actor is the individual buffeted by social forces, and behavior change, and therefore HIV risk reduction, is a long process because of myriad forms of vulnerability clients face. Despite efforts to reconceptualize risk, organizations positioned the individual as the locus of HIV prevention interventions, rather than attempting to address the social context that shapes risk. PMID:20092052

  14. Phenological changes and reduced seasonal synchrony in western Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Górska-Zajączkowska, Maria; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2011-05-01

    Botanical gardens offer continuity for phenological recording in observers, protocols and plant specimens that may not be achievable from other sources. Here, we examine phenological change and synchrony from one such garden in western Poland. We analysed 66 botanical phenophases and 18 interphase intervals recorded between 1977 and 2007 from the Poznań Botanical Garden. These were examined for trends through time and responsiveness to temperature. Furthermore, we derived measures of synchrony for start of spring and end of autumn events to assess if these had changed over time. All 39 events with a mean date before mid-July demonstrated a significant negative relationship with temperature. Where autumn events were significantly related to temperature, they indicated a positive relationship. Typically, spring events showed an advance over time and autumn events a delay. Interphase intervals tended to lengthen over the study period. The measures of synchrony changed significantly over time suggesting less synchrony among spring events and also among autumn events. In combination, these results suggest increases in growing season length. However, responses to a changing climate were species-specific. Thus, the transitions from winter into spring and from autumn into winter are becoming less clearly defined.

  15. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS.

  16. Asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms in centenarians living in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mossakowska, M; Pawlinska-Chmara, R; Broczek, K M

    2008-12-01

    According to National Census, there were 1541 people over the age of 100 years (centenarians) in Poland, in 2002, including 1215 females and 326 males. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of asthma, allergy, and respiratory symptoms in centenarians included in the Polish Centenarians Program, POLSTU 2001, conducted between 2001 and 2004. The study group consisted of 301 subjects including 258 females and 43 males. Research data were gathered in a questionnaire designed exclusively for the study, completed by the interviewer during meetings with the subjects and their families. According to the medical history reported by the subjects, 10 persons (3.3%) suffered from asthma and 41 (13.6%) from allergy. There were no subjects with childhood onset asthma. Allergy to food and medicinal products was the most prevalent. One in four centenarians reported dyspnea and one in eight complained of cough. When analyzed in relation to gender, cough was more prevalent in males, which might have been related to cigarette smoking. Respiratory disorders are frequent in elderly populations, but symptoms may be underreported, especially in the situation of coexisting medical problems. Moreover, it might be difficult to perform full diagnostic procedures in the very elderly due to disability, cognitive impairment, and technical problems. Thus, medical care for the aged should be based on thorough medical evaluation supported by the medical history and reliable information on physician-diagnosed diseases.

  17. Early Holocene hydrology and environments of the Ner River (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Piotr; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Borówka, Ryszard K.; Okupny, Daniel; Pawłowski, Dominik; Peyron, Odille; Stachowicz-Rybka, Renata; Obremska, Milena; Cywa, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    The Ner River valley (central Poland) underwent substantial transformation during the Weichselian-Holocene transition as a result of fluvial processes and climate changes, resulting in the establishment of its present shape in the Holocene. A multiproxy study based on organic deposits from a palaeochannel fill (Lutomiersk-Koziówki) shows that after the channel was cut off during the late glacial termination, it became a shallow oxbow, fed by local springs. In the Boreal period, the oxbow lake was also fed by precipitation and became a telmatic environment overgrown by rush and swamp vegetation. Finally, it was covered by overbank deposits. The first flooding phase (9900-9600 cal. BP) was followed by the accumulation of overbank sediments (after 9500 cal. BP) and flooding increased after ca. 9300-9000 cal. BP. Pollen data provide information on the regional vegetation context for local and regional changes. In the Atlantic period, an increase in both summer and winter temperatures is inferred from the pollen data, corresponding to an expansion of thermophilous deciduous forests. While in general, flooding phases of the Early Holocene are poorly recognised in Eastern Europe, the Lutomiersk-Koziówki site may be considered as one of the reference points for this phenomenon in the region.

  18. Lessons from Norovirus Outbreak in Warsaw, Poland, December 2012.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Sylwia; Kruszewska, Żaneta; Lejbrandt, Elżbieta; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Efficient foodborne outbreak investigations are important for identification of gaps in food safety and public health practice. This article reports on an investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak linked to catering food following a Christmas reception at the National Institute of Public Health-National Institute of Hygiene (NIPH-NIH) in Warsaw in December 2012. Of 192 employees eating food at the catering event, 97 (50.5%) developed symptoms. Persons eating dishes with recipes containing frozen carrots were five times more likely to develop gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those who did not eat carrots. Laboratory analysis identified norovirus in stool samples taken from symptomatic persons. Leftover food was not available for testing. The investigators did not collect stool specimens from food handlers and did not conduct trace backs for the suspected food ingredients. This investigation underlines the need for a revision of an existing procedures and importance of their complementation with detailed instructions for the local public health authorities for effective completion of foodborne outbreaks investigations in Poland.

  19. Eligibility of stroke units in Poland for administration of intravenous thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Członkowska, A; Sarzyńska-Długosz, I; Niewada, M; Kobayashi, A

    2006-03-01

    Systemic thrombolysis treatment was approved in Poland in 2003 and should be performed in specialist stroke units (SU). We performed a survey to determine stroke service preparedness for thrombolysis treatment in Poland. We sent a questionnaire evaluating the neurological departments in Poland, where stroke patients are treated. We divided them into four categories: (i) class A SU (fulfilling criteria of the National Program for Stroke Prevention and Therapy and European Stroke Initiative guidelines), (ii) class B (conditionally fulfilling criteria), (iii) class C (not fulfilling criteria), and (iv) departments without SU. Only class A units are eligible for implementing thrombolysis. We obtained response from 194 of 222 (87.4%) departments; 90 (46.4%) declared having an SU. According to criteria, 20 class A, 56 class B, 14 class C. During one year, 71 208 patients were admitted to hospitals; 69,982 (98.2%) to neurological departments. A total of 10,959 (15.4%) were treated in class A SU, 23,650 (33.2%) in class B, 5153 (7.2%) in class C, whereas 30,220 (42.4%) in neurological departments without SU. Our survey showed that only 15.4% stroke patients in Poland are admitted to high-quality SU, where thrombolysis may potentially be administered. Improvement of SU quality in Poland is necessary for wide implementation of new methods of stroke therapy.

  20. Influence of He-Ne laser irradiation on giant chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gregory E.; Panina, Nadezda P.; Sonin, Vadim K.; Belyanina, Svetlana I.

    1996-01-01

    Influence of He-Ne laser irradiation (lambda - 632.8 nm, power density - 1.5 mW/cm2) on polytene chromosomes of salivary glands cells of Chironomus plumosus in different conditions of exposure was studied. Living larvae or isolated salivary glands were exposed to irradiation. He-Ne laser irradiation was stated to influence the functional activity of polytene chromosomes. The response of the genetic apparatus to the laser light action was shown to depend on the irradiation dose and fractional character of the dose exposure, on the initial functional state of chromosome loci and may be manifested both by activation and inhibition of definite regions of the genome. The phenomenon of adaptation of the genetic system to He- Ne laser irradiation is revealed.

  1. Level-resolved R-matrix calculations for the electron-impact excitation of Ne3+ and Ne6+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, J. A.; Lee, T. G.; Ballance, C. P.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2011-08-01

    Large-scale R-matrix calculations are carried out for the electron-impact excitation of Ne3+ and Ne6+. For Ne3+, a 581-LSJ-level R-matrix intermediate coupling frame transformation calculation is made for excitations up to the n=4 shell. For some transitions, large effective collision strength differences are found with current 23-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix and earlier 22-LSJ-level R-matrix jj omega (JAJOM) calculations. For Ne6+, a 171-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculation is made for excitations up to the n=5 shell. For some transitions, large effective collision strength differences are found with current 46-jKJ-level Breit-Pauli R-matrix and earlier 46-LSJ-level R-matrix JAJOM calculations. Together with existing R-matrix calculations for other ion stages, high-quality excitation data are now available for astrophysical and laboratory plasma modeling along the entire Ne isonuclear sequence.

  2. Study of the 20,22Ne+20,22Ne and 10,12,13,14,15C+12C Fusion Reactions with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, M. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; DiGiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Pardo, R. C.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.; Talwar, R.; Ugalde, C.

    2016-05-01

    A highly efficient MUlti-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) detector has been developed for measurements of fusion reactions. A study of fusion cross sections in the 10,12,13,14,15C+12C and 20,22Ne+20,22Ne systems has been performed at ATLAS. Experimental results and comparison with theoretical predictions are presented. Furthermore, results of direct measurements of the 17O(α, n)20Ne, 23Ne(α, p)26Mg and 23Ne(α, n)26Al reactions will be discussed.

  3. Giving the Spirit a National Form: From Rousseau's Advice to Poland to Habermas' Advice to the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Rousseau's philosophy of education is contained not only in "Emile" (1762), but also in "The Government of Poland" (1772). In each of them he emphasises different aspects of education: How to be a human being? And: How to be a citizen? The main theme investigated by Rousseau in "The Government of Poland", is how a minor nation surrounded by such…

  4. Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

  5. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

  6. Projects Submitted by Participants of the Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Poland and Hungary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    These curriculum projects were developed by participants of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Poland and Hungary during the summer of 2000. The following 11 projects are in the collection: "A Thematic Multicultural Interactive School Event on Poland and Hungary: Exploration and Learning for 6-to-9-Year-Olds" (Ruth Albert); "Once upon a…

  7. [Digenea of Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) from middle and north-western Poland].

    PubMed

    Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Rzad, Izabella; Sitko, Jilji; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2008 eight white-tailed eagles and two ospreys from middle and north-western Poland were examined for the presence of parasites. Nine birds were infected with 5 digenean species: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, Strigeafalconis, Metorchis crassiusculus and Nematostrigea serpens. M. crassiusculus was found for the first time in an eagle from Poland. PMID:19338229

  8. L’acétaminophène chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Question Je suggère fréquemment aux parents d’utiliser de l’acétaminophène comme traitement de la fièvre et de la douleur pour leurs enfants. J’ai récemment reçu un enfant à mon cabinet qui s’est présenté avec une éruption cutanée sous forme de lésions en cibles une journée après avoir pris de l’acétaminophène. L’éruption s’est résorbée 3 jours après qu’on ait arrêté l’administration d’acétaminophène. L’acétaminophène comporte-t-elle des risques d’événements indésirables comme celui-ci? Réponse Comme les autres médicaments ou substances actives, les préparations d’acétaminophène pourraient poser des risques d’événements indésirables. Au cours des dernières années, on a procédé à une investigation concernant une association potentielle entre l’acétaminophène et l’asthme et la Food and Drug Administration des États-Unis a récemment publié un avertissement à propos de réactions cutanées éventuelles, graves mais rares, associées à l’acétaminophène. Même si l’acétaminophène est principalement un médicament sûr, les professionnels de la santé devraient être alertes et informer les parents à propos de la possibilité d’événements indésirables rares mais sévères.

  9. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  10. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of 22Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Käppeler, F.

    2009-01-01

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important 22Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched 22Ne and CH4 were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7±0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  11. The Fe XI-excited fluorescent cascade in Ne IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Kastner, S. O.

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical spectroscopic investigation of the fluorescent cascade to be expected in nitrogen-like Ne IV, when it is resonantly photoexcited by Fe XI in the solar atmosphere, symbiotic stars, or novae, is described. Primary and secondary cascade intensities are obtained as functions of photoexcitation rate, and expected absolute intensities in the solar atmosphere are derived on the basis of observed Fe XI and Ne EUV emission. Comparisons between the spatially resolved solar situation and spatially unresolved stellar cases of cataclysmic variables, in which these ions have been found to coexist, are made. An interesting possibility of periodic time-dependent fluorescence exists for the binary cataclysmics.

  12. (222)Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of (222)Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential. PMID:24657989

  13. (222)Rn activity concentration differences in groundwaters of three Variscan granitoid massifs in the Sudetes (NE Bohemian Massif, SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Przylibski, Tadeusz A; Gorecka, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Based on research conducted in three Variscan granitoid massifs located within the crystalline Bohemian Massif, the authors confirmed that the higher the degree of their erosional dissection, the smaller the concentration of (222)Rn in groundwaters circulating in these massifs. This notion implies that radon waters and high-radon waters, from which at least some of the dissolved radon should be removed before feeding them as drinking water to the water-supply system, could be expected in granitoid massifs which have been poorly exposed by erosion. At the same time, such massifs must be taken into account as the areas of possible occurrence of radon medicinal waters, which in some countries can be used for balneotherapy in health resorts. Slightly eroded granitoid massifs should be also regarded as very probable radon prone areas or areas of high radon potential.

  14. Resilience, rapid transitions and regime shifts: fingerprinting the responses of Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) to climate variability and human disturbance since 1000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; José Gómez Navarro, Juan; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Bonk, Alicja; Enters, Dirk; Ustrzycka, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few quantitative observational data exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine quantitative summer and winter climate reconstructions, climate model simulations and proxies for three major environmental pressures (land use, nutrients and erosion) to explore the system dynamics, resilience, and the role of disturbance regimes in varved eutrophic Lake Żabińskie since AD 1000. Comparison between regional and global climate simulations and quantitative climate reconstructions indicate that proxy data capture noticeably natural forced climate variability, while internal variability appears as the dominant source of climate variability in the climate model simulations during most parts of the last millennium. Using different multivariate analyses and change point detection techniques, we identify ecosystem changes through time and shifts between rather stable states and highly variable ones, as expressed by the proxies for land-use, erosion and productivity in the lake. Prior to AD 1600, the lake ecosystem was characterized by a high stability and resilience against considerable observed natural climate variability. In contrast, lake-ecosystem conditions started to fluctuate at high frequency across a broad range of states after AD 1600. The period AD 1748-1868 represents the phase with the strongest human disturbance of the ecosystem. Analyses of the frequency of change points in the multi-proxy dataset suggests that the last 400 years were highly variable and flickering with increasing vulnerability of the ecosystem to the combined effects of climate variability and anthropogenic disturbances. This led to significant rapid ecosystem transformations.

  15. Iodine prophylaxis in pregnant women in Poland - where we are? (update 2015).

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, Arkadiusz; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of the model of iodine prophylaxis based on the consumption of iodized salt in 1997 has eliminated the iodine deficiency in Poland. However, in accordance with the current recommendations, all women who are planning to be pregnant or are pregnant or breastfeeding should receive an additional dose of iodine at 150-200 mcg / day because of the increased body's need for iodine during this period. Studies show that only part of women in Poland conduct a proper iodine prophylaxis and it is often initiated in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. The authors try to analyze the possible causes of this situation, pointing out what could be done to increase the degree of compliance with iodine prophylaxis during pregnancy and physiological lactation in Poland. PMID:26649074

  16. Non-market valuation supporting water management: the case study in Czestochowa, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Y.; Godyn, I.; Sauer, J.

    2014-07-01

    Water resources in Poland continue to be under stress despite systematic efforts to safeguard ground and surface water quality and quantity. Groundwater protection from nitrate pollution of human origin requires the development of sewerage systems. Such investments are often financed from public funds that must be formally appraised. The appraisal should be done by a comparison of benefits and costs of investment measures - not only financial but also environmental and social. A significant challenge is the monetization of the effects on the environment. In this paper we use non-market valuation to examine residents' preferences and estimate their willingness to pay for improving drinking water quality. This paper also contributes to the narrow literature on valuation of benefits of measures for groundwater quality improvement by presenting an application of the choice experiment method in the Czestochowa Region of Poland. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study estimating the value of benefits of the groundwater quality improvement in Poland.

  17. ‘Other’ Posts in ‘Other’ Places: Poland through a Postcolonial Lens?

    PubMed Central

    Mayblin, Lucy; Piekut, Aneta; Valentine, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Postcolonial theory has tended to focus on those spaces where European colonialism has had a territorial and political history. This is unsurprising, as much of the world is in this sense ‘postcolonial’. But not all of it. This article focuses on Poland, often theorised as peripheral to ‘old Europe’, and explores the application of postcolonial analyses to this ‘other’ place. The article draws upon reflections arising from a study of responses to ethnic diversity in Warsaw, Poland. In doing so we conclude that postcolonialism does indeed offer some important insights into understanding Polish attitudes to other nationalities, and yet more work also needs to be done to make the theoretical bridge. In the case of Poland we propose the ‘triple relation’ be the starting point for such work. PMID:26877557

  18. [JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT AND FRENCH SCIENTISTS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN 1770-1780].

    PubMed

    Beauvois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The author is trying to remind us of great role of French culture and French people in spreading the ideas of Enlightenment in Poland. Common use of French language in high societies in 18th century and excellent knowledge of books from Paris created favourite conditions for contacts of Poland with France. The best evidence of common culture of Enlightenment was the Commission of National Education (KEN) and the deep social changes. The direct contacts of French thinkers, writers and scientists with Poland also caused the changes of horizons of aristocracy and gentry. We will remind the main animators of this movement followed A. Jobert. J.E. Gilibert takes a very important place among the animators of Enlightenment. Author intends to present the phases of knowing him, generally mentioning the main conclusions of many research on Gilibert. At the same time author leaves to next speakers a detailed analyze of Gilbert's contribution to the development of Polish science.

  19. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation among women in Poland and Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Donna; Szpakowska, Ilona; Swami, Viren

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the process of transmigration has detrimental effects on the body image of migrants relative to women in the country of origin. In the present work, we examined the body image of Polish migrants in Britain (n=153), Polish women in Poland (n=153), and a comparison group of British White women (n=110). Participants completed a measure of actual-ideal weight discrepancy and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Contrary to hypotheses, our results showed that Polish women in Poland had significantly higher weight discrepancy than their counterparts in Britain. Further analyses showed that the BAS reduced to two dimensions among Polish participants, with Polish participants in Poland having significantly lower body appreciation than Polish migrants. We suggest that the sociocultural changes that have taken place in Eastern Europe may place women in that region at relatively high risk for developing negative body image. PMID:23972729

  20. Demographic and settlement transformations in peripheral regions (based on the example of eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszczuk, Andrzej; Wesołowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show specific demographic processes and accompanied transformations of settlement structure in eastern Poland at the turn of the 21st cent. Eastern Poland, covering Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeships, acquired the features of peripheral area in terms of communication and socio-economic aspects as a result of long-lasting historical processes. Unfavourable demographic processes can be observed in eastern Poland. They are accompanied by changes in settlement structure. Depopulation has significant social and economic consequences. The process increases social polarization between different regions in the country and between rural and urban areas. Moreover, the outflow of young and most active population to other regions or abroad is an important barrier for economic revival in peripheral regions. Consequently, unfavourable socio-economic structure in these areas is consolidated or even strengthened. This primarily concerns Lubelskie and Podlaskie voivodeships.

  1. [JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT AND FRENCH SCIENTISTS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN 1770-1780].

    PubMed

    Beauvois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The author is trying to remind us of great role of French culture and French people in spreading the ideas of Enlightenment in Poland. Common use of French language in high societies in 18th century and excellent knowledge of books from Paris created favourite conditions for contacts of Poland with France. The best evidence of common culture of Enlightenment was the Commission of National Education (KEN) and the deep social changes. The direct contacts of French thinkers, writers and scientists with Poland also caused the changes of horizons of aristocracy and gentry. We will remind the main animators of this movement followed A. Jobert. J.E. Gilibert takes a very important place among the animators of Enlightenment. Author intends to present the phases of knowing him, generally mentioning the main conclusions of many research on Gilibert. At the same time author leaves to next speakers a detailed analyze of Gilbert's contribution to the development of Polish science. PMID:26445742

  2. The Presence of Stimulant Drugs in Wastewater from Krakow (Poland): A Snapshot.

    PubMed

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Dudarska, Agnieszka; Zuba, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of wastewater from Krakow (Poland) for the presence of controlled and uncontrolled stimulant drugs of abuse was performed. Samples were collected from the Plaszow wastewater treatment plant, Krakow, Poland, and prepared by solid phase extraction. The LC-QTOFMS method was applied for identification and quantification of popular stimulants: MDMA, mephedrone, 4-MEC, MDPV and mCPP. Environmental loads of illicit drugs were calculated; the WWTP discharged loads ranging from 3.6 to 6.7 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of MDMA, 3.6 to 7.1 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of mephedrone and 4.8 to 5.8 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of 4-MEC. The results confirmed the growing popularity of new psychoactive substances in Poland. PMID:27365137

  3. [Epidemiological situation of malaria in Poland--past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Dzbeński, Tadeusz H

    2008-01-01

    In Poland malaria was endemic up to the middle of 60th years of the 20th century. After eradication a total of 11 to 38 imported cases are reported each year, however, no secondary cases or airport malaria have ever been observed in Poland. Is the present favourable epidemiological situation likely to change as a result of global warming and predicted risk of uncontrollable resurgence of malaria in Europe? An epidemiological analysis of past and present malaria situation in Poland allows to conclude, that global warming alone will not be enough to reintroduce malaria into this country. However, re-establishment of endemic malaria will be possible under condition of mass disorganization of public services and mass migration caused usually by wars or natural calamities.

  4. Dew chemistry near a motorway in SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Błaś, M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this project is to show the influence of a large linear source of air pollution on dew formation and chemistry. Dew sampling was performed during the growing season of 2009 at 3 sites near Wroclaw in SW Poland in the vicinity of A4 motorway which connects southern part of Poland with Germany and other EU countries. The road crosses in this part a rural landscape from WSW to ENE direction. The traffic is notoriously heavy, even at night, and lorries constitute about one third of vehicles. Two of the sampling sites were set in a distance of 30 meters from the motorway edge on the opposite sides (SE and NW) of the road to monitor dew efficiency and chemistry depending on wind direction. The third one was set 1.25 km to the NNW of the former pair to represent background rural conditions beyond the road influence. All three sites and the motorway are surrounded by vast arable grounds with intense agriculture activity. Three insulated plane radiative condensers, each 1 m2 in area, inclined at 15°, were installed at measurement sites. Two series of measurements were performed: the first in April lasted twenty days including several days without sampling, the second in September was continuous and lasted eleven days. Altogether there were nineteen dew or hoar frost sampling days, nine in April and ten in September. Basic meteorological data were gathered three times daily. Water yield of three condensers was compared to meteorological data and between each other. The research findings show that the most favorable weather conditions corresponding to high amounts of dew or hoar frost were characterized by synoptic scale warm air advection, high relative humidity, moderate wind speed i.e. 2-3 m/s and radiative weather. The samples from condenser located in calm air site usually had less volume than the other in windy place. The motorway heat source imposed a strong impact on efficiency of dew. The condenser on the leeward site of the road was characterized

  5. 2000 years of human activity in Tuchola Pinewoods (northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    During the last two millennia human activity and their settlements together with varying climate conditions strongly influenced landscape scale changes. Especially within palaeoecological records these environmental responses are well expressed. However, a robust age control is needed for the evaluation and interpretation of biotic proxies.We present a record from the annually laminated (varved) sediments of Lake Czechowskie, located in northern Poland. The investigated record covers the past 2000 years and demonstrates the continuous vegetation history and human activity in the Northern part of the Tuchola Pinewoods. The chronology was established by varve counting and confirmed by AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity measurement and a tephra layer (Askja 1875). We used high-resolution biotic (pollen, green algae and diatom analysis) sedimentological (varve and sublayer thickness variations) and geochemical (µ-XRF data) proxies to reconstruct the environmental changes within a time of increasing human activity and fluctuating climatic conditions. Based on different spatial sampling and measuring increments the temporal resolution varies between subseasonal (µ-XRF), annual (varves) up to five-varveresolution (biotic proxies) making it possible to trace even short lasting local and regional changes. Our results display visible human pressure in this area between 50- 350 yr. AD (Roman Period) exerted by tribes related to the Wielbark Culture. The development of persisting settlements and agriculture took place at expense of surrounding hornbeam forests. An intensification of lake productivity (expressed as an increase of varve thickness) started after 250 AD. If this lake ecosystem response relates to an intensified agriculture (and a possible transport of nutrients from neighboring rural lands) or to a climate shift will be further discussed. The rapid decline of human indicators about 350 years AD at the transition to the migration period might be related to cooler

  6. New prospects in Cambrian platform orthoquartzites in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Labecki, J.; Weil, W. ); Schleicher, M.; Kulke, H.; Koester, J. )

    1991-08-01

    Middle Cambrian orthoquartzites produce oil in two small fields northwest of Gdansk, Poland; few developed offshore discoveries exist in the southeastern Baltic Sea. This joint Polish-German study on these poorly porous sandstones is aimed at delineating areas of better reservoir quality development and thus of future prospects. In the Polish part of the East European platform, Cambrian deposits exist in four geologic provinces (Lublin slope, Podiassle depression, Warsaw synclinorium, Baltic syneclise). In these areas, the Cambrian, which in part is more than 500 m thick, has been buried to depths between 300 and approximately 6000 m. The Middle Cambrian orthoquartzitic sandstones represent a shallow-marine sequences with interbedded claystones. Their porosities range form 2 to 8%, and oil production is improved by natural fractures. A major source rock for the oil accumulations is represented by Upper Cambrian black shales (TOC values, 3-13%; thickness approximately 1-10 m in northern onshore Baltic syneclise, up to 50 m in southern Scania, Sweden). The Middle Cambrian shales show low TOC contents (average, 0.3-0.6%) and a thickness of approximately 200 m. Despite their low organic content, they also could have been contributed to the reservoired oil because both black shales show maturities within the oil window and both contain an oil-prone algal kerogen. Therefore, in the northeast Polish oil province the restricted pore volume of the orthoquartzites and not the source rock parameters represents the major limiting factor for larger oil accumulations. Future prospects will be difficult to predict because the occurrence of traps might be much more controlled by diagenesis than by (tectonic) structures.

  7. EGNOS APV-I and HEDGE projects implementation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, A.; Trómiński, P.; Banaszek, K.

    2009-04-01

    The implementation of the EGNOS system to APV-I precision approach operations, according to ICAO requirements in Annex 10. This need many analysis accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability SIS (Signal in Space) to define useful and certification EGNOS like SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System) in aviation, especially in landing. Also, the project will try to exploit the excellent accuracy performances of EGNOS to analyse the implementation of GLS (GNSS Landing System) approaches (Cat I-like approached using SBAS, with a decision height of 200 ft), Chełm Town located near Polish-Ukrainian border is also at the east border of planned EGNOS coverage for ECAC states. In this place there is a navigation center with EGNOS and EUPOS receivers. The starting of the project is close to October 2008. According to current EGNOS programme schedule, the project activities will be done with EGNOS system v2.2, which is the version released for civil aviation certification. Therefore, the project will allow to demonstrate the feasibility of the EGNOS certifiable version for civil applications. Other project that we will present in our article is HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe). The project objectives are to achieve the following by the end of the project: - To develop the helicopter SOAP (SBAS Offshore Approach Procedure) procedure (and necessary avionics) and then to successfully demonstrate it to the user community. - To develop helicopter PINS (Point in Space) procedures for mountain rescue and HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Services), and to then successfully demonstrate them to the user community. - To demonstrate EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) APV (approach with vertical guidance) approaches to general aviation in Spain, Poland and Greece. - To develop an integrated navigation/surveillance concept and demonstrate it in Greece.

  8. The airborne pollen calendar for Lublin, central-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    An aerobiological study was conducted to investigate the quantity and quality of pollen in the atmosphere of Lublin in central-eastern Poland. Pollen monitoring was carried out in the period 2001-2012 using a Hirst-type volumetric spore trap. The atmospheric pollen season in Lublin lasted, on average, from the end of January to the beginning of October. The mean air temperature during the study period was found to be higher by 1.1 °C than the mean temperature in the period 1951-2000. 56 types of pollen of plants belonging to 41 families were identified. 28 types represented woody plants and 28 represented herbaceous plants. The study distinguished 5 plant taxa the pollen of which was present most abundantly in the air of Lublin, which altogether accounted for 73.4%: Betula, Urtica, Pinus, Poaceae, and Alnus. The mean annual pollen index was 68 706; the largest amount of pollen was recorded in April and accounted for 33.3% of the annual pollen index. The pollen calendar included 28 allergenic plant taxa. The pollen of woody plants had the highest percentage in the pollen spectrum, on average 58.4%. The parameters of the pollen calendar for Lublin were compared with the calendar for central-eastern Europe with regard to the start of the pollen season of particular taxa. The pollen calendar for Lublin was demonstrated to show greater similarity to the calendar for Münster (Germany) than to the calendar for Bratislava (Slovakia). PMID:25292125

  9. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasińska, Grażyna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ∼100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze Łęgi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe.

  10. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system. PMID:26519842

  11. Patient's rights in Poland against the background of new regulations.

    PubMed

    Rabiega-Przylecka, Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Patient rights are the specification of general human rights. The rights define the patient position in relation to health institutions or medical professions providing, broadly understood, health services. The protection system of patient rights outlined by international legal and ethical regulations is detailed to specific social, political and economic realities by internal legal systems of individual states. Imperfections of the Polish health care system in relation to achieving adequate protection of patient rights, resulting, inter alia, from the lack of comprehensive regulation of the matter of patient rights, led the legislature to introduce new regulations concerning this aspect to the Polish legal order. The new Act of 6 November 2008 on Patient Rights and the Patient Rights Ombudsman (binding from 5 March 2009) is the first universally binding legal act in the Polish legal system entirely dealing with the matter of patient rights. It regulates the rights of the patient and correlated with them obligations of health care providers (public and non-public) irrespectively of both the legal form providers, as well as the sources of funding of the benefits provided. In particular, the Act states: the patient right to health services, right to obtain information, right to confidentiality of patient-linked information, right to consent to obtain health services, right to respect privacy and dignity of the patients, right to medical records and objecting to the doctor's opinion or decision, right to respect private and family life, right to pastoral care. The new regulations--besides the specification of the catalogue of patient rights--reinforced the institutional protection of patient rights by establishing a new central public administrative body having jurisdiction to protect patient rights--the Patient Rights Ombudsman. Poland, like other European countries, makes an attempt to improve the protection of patient rights. The introduction of the Act entirely

  12. Evaluation of the new gravity control in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sękowski, M.; Dykowski, P.; Krynski, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The new gravity control in Poland is based on absolute gravity measurements. It consists of 28 fundamental stations and 168 base stations. Fundamental stations are located in laboratories; they are to be surveyed in 2014 with the FG5-230 of the Warsaw University of Technology. Base stations are monumented field stations; they were surveyed in 2012 and 2013 with the A10-020 gravimeter. They are the subject of the paper. Besides absolute gravity measurements the vertical gravity gradient was precisely determined at all 168 base stations. Inconsistency of the determined vertical gravity gradients with respect to the normal ones has been presented. 77 base stations are also the stations of the previous gravity (POGK98) established in 90. of 20 century. Differences between newly determined gravity at those stations with those of POGK98 were evaluated. Alongside the establishment of the base stations of the gravity control multiple additional activities were performed to assure and provide the proper gravity reference level. They concerned regular gravity measurements on monthly basis with the A10-020 at three sites in Borowa Gora Geodetic-Geophysical Observatory, calibrations of metrological parameters of the A10-020 gravimeter and scale factor calibrations of LCR gravimeters, participation with the A10-020 in the international (ECAG2011, ICAG2013) and regional comparison campaigns of absolute gravimeters, and local comparisons of the A10-020 with the FG5-230. The summary of the work performed during the establishment of the gravity control is best described by total uncertainty budget for the A10-020 gravimeter determined on each of the 168 gravity stations.

  13. Patient's rights in Poland against the background of new regulations.

    PubMed

    Rabiega-Przylecka, Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Patient rights are the specification of general human rights. The rights define the patient position in relation to health institutions or medical professions providing, broadly understood, health services. The protection system of patient rights outlined by international legal and ethical regulations is detailed to specific social, political and economic realities by internal legal systems of individual states. Imperfections of the Polish health care system in relation to achieving adequate protection of patient rights, resulting, inter alia, from the lack of comprehensive regulation of the matter of patient rights, led the legislature to introduce new regulations concerning this aspect to the Polish legal order. The new Act of 6 November 2008 on Patient Rights and the Patient Rights Ombudsman (binding from 5 March 2009) is the first universally binding legal act in the Polish legal system entirely dealing with the matter of patient rights. It regulates the rights of the patient and correlated with them obligations of health care providers (public and non-public) irrespectively of both the legal form providers, as well as the sources of funding of the benefits provided. In particular, the Act states: the patient right to health services, right to obtain information, right to confidentiality of patient-linked information, right to consent to obtain health services, right to respect privacy and dignity of the patients, right to medical records and objecting to the doctor's opinion or decision, right to respect private and family life, right to pastoral care. The new regulations--besides the specification of the catalogue of patient rights--reinforced the institutional protection of patient rights by establishing a new central public administrative body having jurisdiction to protect patient rights--the Patient Rights Ombudsman. Poland, like other European countries, makes an attempt to improve the protection of patient rights. The introduction of the Act entirely

  14. Desorption of cluster ions from solid Ne by low-energy ion impact.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, T; Fukai, K; Koizumi, T; Hirayama, T

    2010-12-01

    We investigated Ne(+) ions and Ne(n)(+) (n = 2-20) cluster ions desorbed from the surface of solid Ne by 1.0 keV Ar(+) ion impact. Kinetic energy analysis shows a considerably narrower energy distribution for Ne(n)(+) (n ≥ 3) ions than for Ne(n)(+) (n = 1, 2) ions. The dependence of ion yields on Ne film thickness indicates that cluster ions (n ≥ 3) are desorbed only from relatively thick films. We conclude that desorbed ions grow into large cluster ions during the outflow of deep bulk atoms to the vacuum.

  15. Evaluation of SMOS L2 soil moisture data over the Eastern Poland using ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Jerzy; Łukowski, Mateusz; Słomiński, Jan; Stankiewicz, Krystyna; Usowicz, Bogusław; Lipiec, Jerzy; Marczewski, Wojciech

    2013-04-01

    Validation of SMOS products is vital for their further use in the study of climate and hydrology. Several authors [1,2] have recently evaluated SMOS soil moisture data with an aid of in-situ observations of soil moisture. Collow and Robock have reported a dry bias as compared to in situ observations. Since their results are not much conclusive, they call for further studies using more data. Bircher and co-authors have also noted significant discrepancies between Danish network and SMOS soil moisture. SWEX_POLAND soil moisture network consists of 9 stations located in Eastern Poland. These stations are located on the areas representing variety types of land use: meadows, cultivated fields, wetlands and forests. We have expanded our analysis, as presented in the EGU 2012, using data from all network stations. Similarly as before, we have used three methods in our comparison studies: the Bland-Altman method, concordance correlation coefficient and total deviation index. Using these methods we have confirmed a fair/moderate agreement of SMOS L2 SM data and network observations. Like the other authors we have also noted the significant biases in SMOS soil moisture. However, the general trends in dynamics of soil moisture revealed by SMOS, the SWEX_POLAND network and referred to GLDAS, are in a considerable relevancy. We have shown that the SMOS satellite measurements are reliable, so can be used to detect areas of dry and moist soil. In Poland the trends indicating the growth of agricultural droughts are depicted by SMOS L2 very well, even better than national drought services for the agriculture. It is worth to note that the year 2011 was more variable and drier than the 2010 for Poland. Moreover, SMOS data prove the well-known property of central Poland to be drier than the rest of the country. It is expected that further mitigation of RFI contamination in Poland will be available due to the cooperation of ESA SMOS to the national spectrum control services (UKE

  16. Lidar Measurements of Canadian Forest Fire Smoke Episode Observed in July 2013 over Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Heese, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of aerosol optical properties of air-mass advected on 10th July 2013 from Canada above Warsaw, Poland, during the forest fire event that occurred in Quebec at the beginning of July 2013. The observations were conducted with use of the modern version of 8-channel PollyXT lidar capable of measuring at 3β+2α+2δ+VW and interpreted with available information from the MACC model, the CALIPSO and MODIS satellite sensors, the AERONET data products and the data gathered within the Poland-AOD network.

  17. Hard Coal in the Fuel-Mix Of Poland: The Long-Term Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Kaliski, Maciej; Kamiński, Jacek; Sikora, Andrzej P.; Szurlej, Adam

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the coal policy of Poland. It analyzes the forecasts of production and consumption of hard coal, the size of exports and imports and its importance for the energy sector on the basis of strategic documents. The main aim of the article is to show the role of hard coal in the fuel - energy balance of Poland until 2050. The adoption of appropriate assumptions for each scenario, including the maximum supply of hard coal from domestic mines, coal price curves, CO2 emission allowances and several calculations performed allowed to obtain certain results on the basis of which the future role of hard coal was determined.

  18. The Jewish psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, Poland.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-03-01

    The T4 euthanasia programme within Nazi Germany has been well researched, but much less is known about the extermination of psychiatric patients in Nazi-occupied territories during the same period. In Poland 20,000 mentally ill patients were deliberately killed during the German occupation. This paper traces the history of one psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, south-east of Warsaw. The hospital once served the Jewish population of Poland and was the largest, most prestigious neuropsychiatric centre in the country. It is now in ruins and said to be haunted by ghosts.

  19. Drug coverage insurance as a novel element of private health insurance in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czerw, Aleksandra; Religioni, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there have been observed increased costs of health care in Poland. The patient's out of pocket expenses on drug have grown too. To the above, the insurance companies have offered patients drug coverage insurance policies since recently. Drug insurance policy covers the cost of purchasing pharmaceutical products not reimbursed by the National Health Fund is a modern product on the Polish health insurance market. The aim of the article is to characterize drug coverage insurance policies on the health insurance market in Poland. The Polish insurance market and entities offered these types of insurance are also presented.

  20. Response of mosses to the heavy metal deposition in Poland--an overview.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a common moss species, were used to indicate relative levels of atmospheric deposition in Poland in the years 1975-1998. Spatial and temporal differences in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses were found. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in the moss samples from the southern, most industrialised part of the country, and the lowest from north-eastern Poland. A significant decrease of heavy metals over 20 years (1975-1998) was found. PMID:11584642

  1. Selected Problems of Applying the Law in Adaptation and Modernization of Buildings in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbel, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Chosen problems of law implementation in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland. One of the major problems in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland is the pluralism of different interpretations of chosen legal terms, existing in the contemporary building code. Incorrect interpretation, results in the incorrect application to the authorities for the proper building permit and as the effect, it causes the lost of time and money. The article tries to identify some of these problems and seeks the solution to solve them, through the evolutionary method of building law creation.

  2. Trends in the Incidence Rates of Chronic Hepatitis B in Poland in the Years 2005 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Stawinska-Witoszynska, Barbara; Zysnarska, Monika; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Wojtyła-Buciorab, Paulina; Krzyzaniak, Alicja; Wieckowska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic hepatitis is decisive for the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B observed in Poland. Objectives We aimed to determine the chronic hepatitis B incidence trends in Poland, taking into consideration the ages, genders, and environments of the patients. Methods The study is based on aggregated data from Polish descriptive epidemiological studies for the period of 2005 to 2013 (i.e., hepatitis B incidence numbers and ratios, including mixed HBV and HCV infections) as published in the annual bulletins Choroby zakazne i zatrucia w Polsce (Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland] drawn up by the laboratory for the monitoring and analysis of epidemiological status of the department of epidemiology at the national institute of public health - national institute of hygiene (NIPH-NIH). Poland, a central European country situated in the humid continental climate zone, is classified as a highly developed country. In the analyzed period, the Polish population consisted of about 38 million people, more than 19 million of whom were women, and more than 18 million of whom were men. Among European countries, Poland has the smallest number of national and ethnic minorities. For the purposes of epidemiological supervision, a special definition of acute hepatitis B was adopted in Poland in 2005, which facilitated separate registration of acute and chronic cases. Results A significantly increasing chronic hepatitis B incidence trend was observed in the population of Poland, with considerable increases in incidence rates for both men and women alike. The incidence rates for inhabitants of both urban and rural areas also showed an increasing tendency. Chronic hepatitis B occurred more frequently in men and in urban areas. For each of the five-year age groups encompassing patients between 20 and 54 years of age, the increase in the incidence rate proved to be significant. Conclusions The registered increase in the

  3. The Palaeoproterozoic accretionary crustal growth: implications from new age data on the crystalline basement in Lithuania, NW Belarus and N Poland (the East European Craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, G.; Bogdanova, S.; Taran, L.; Wiszniewska, J.

    2012-04-01

    widespread c. 1.80-1.76 Ga metamorphism and tholeiitic magmatism related to post-collisional extension constrain the maximum age of the final accretion of the terranes. It is evidenced by numerous 1.80-1.79 Ga gabbro-noritic, dioritic and granitic intrusions in NE Poland and elsewhere in Lithuania and Belarus (Claesson, 2001; Vejelyte, 2011). The later reworking at c. 1.70-1.45 Ga and c. 1.60-1.45 Ga AMCG magmatism affected the already accreted craton. Evolutionary, a 1.90-1.87 Ga continental margin was established in present-day E Lithuania and NW Belarus, while younger volcanic arcs were still forming to the west and south at 1.86-1.84 Ga. They had been subsequently accreted to the c. 1.89 Ga continental margin in the time span of 1.84-1.80 Ga, and a new continental margin emerged. After the youngest c. 1.83-1.80 Ga island arcs were docked, the ocean was closed and the crust was finally cratonized. The younger 1.70-1.45 Ga events were intracratonic reflections of active geological processes further west. This is a contribution to the project "Precambrian rock provinces and active tectonic boundaries across the Baltic Sea and in adjacent areas" of the Visby Programme (the Swedish Institute), Lithuanian Science Council grant MIP-034/2011 and SYNTHESYS project SE-TAF-1535

  4. Single Pion Measurement Capabilities at SciBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Y.; /Kyoto U.

    2007-12-01

    The precise knowledge of the single pion production cross-section of neutrino around the {approx}1 GeV energy region is an essential ingredient in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation experiments. The unique opportunities and prospects of single pion measurements at SciBooNE are described.

  5. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  6. 75 FR 12166 - Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    .... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE AGENCY: Federal...

  7. Seismic tomographic evidence for upwelling mantle plume in NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we collected teleseismic data recorded by permanent and mobile seismic stations and carried out a teleseismic P-wave tomographic study. The results reveal low velocity perturbation regions at the central part of NE China and specifically in the Songliao basin at different depths, which correspond to the location of a proposed upwelling mantle plume identified by receiver function in a recent study. Receiver function data show a predominantly mafic/ultra-mafic lower crust in the Songliao basin, in contrast to the predominantly felsic lower crust in the other regions. The vestige of upwelling mantle plume is well defined at the mantle transition region. Based on the above results, we suggest that the volcanism in NE China and the Songliao basin formation might be related to Mesozoic mantle plume beneath NE China. We also evaluate alternate models on lower crustal delamination contributing to the volcanism in NE China following collision and amalgamation between the Siberia craton and the North China-Mongolian block during late Jurassic and early Cretaceous.

  8. 1. Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Front view of steam engine and mill, looking NE, showing (l to r) 6-column beam engine, flywheel, reduction gears and 3-roll cane mill. - Hacienda Azucarera La Esperanza, Steam Engine & Mill, 2.65 Mi. N of PR Rt. 2 Bridge over Manati River, Manati, Manati Municipio, PR

  9. KInNeSS: a modular framework for computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Versace, Massimiliano; Ames, Heather; Léveillé, Jasmin; Fortenberry, Bret; Gorchetchnikov, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    Making use of very detailed neurophysiological, anatomical, and behavioral data to build biologically-realistic computational models of animal behavior is often a difficult task. Until recently, many software packages have tried to resolve this mismatched granularity with different approaches. This paper presents KInNeSS, the KDE Integrated NeuroSimulation Software environment, as an alternative solution to bridge the gap between data and model behavior. This open source neural simulation software package provides an expandable framework incorporating features such as ease of use, scalability, an XML based schema, and multiple levels of granularity within a modern object oriented programming design. KInNeSS is best suited to simulate networks of hundreds to thousands of branched multi-compartmental neurons with biophysical properties such as membrane potential, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, the presence of gap junctions or ionic diffusion, neuromodulation channel gating, the mechanism for habituative or depressive synapses, axonal delays, and synaptic plasticity. KInNeSS outputs include compartment membrane voltage, spikes, local-field potentials, and current source densities, as well as visualization of the behavior of a simulated agent. An explanation of the modeling philosophy and plug-in development is also presented. Further development of KInNeSS is ongoing with the ultimate goal of creating a modular framework that will help researchers across different disciplines to effectively collaborate using a modern neural simulation platform. PMID:18695948

  10. Fresnel Diffraction Using a He-Ne Gas Laser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Allen L.; Vander Meulen, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes an advanced laboratory experiment of Fresnel diffraction which uses a He-Ne gas laser as the source and a wire as the opaque diffracting strip. A photograph of the diffraction pattern is compared with the intensity diagram predicted by the Cornu spiral method. Agreement is clear and impressive, although minor differences are detectable.…

  11. KInNeSS: a modular framework for computational neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Versace, Massimiliano; Ames, Heather; Léveillé, Jasmin; Fortenberry, Bret; Gorchetchnikov, Anatoli

    2008-01-01

    Making use of very detailed neurophysiological, anatomical, and behavioral data to build biologically-realistic computational models of animal behavior is often a difficult task. Until recently, many software packages have tried to resolve this mismatched granularity with different approaches. This paper presents KInNeSS, the KDE Integrated NeuroSimulation Software environment, as an alternative solution to bridge the gap between data and model behavior. This open source neural simulation software package provides an expandable framework incorporating features such as ease of use, scalability, an XML based schema, and multiple levels of granularity within a modern object oriented programming design. KInNeSS is best suited to simulate networks of hundreds to thousands of branched multi-compartmental neurons with biophysical properties such as membrane potential, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, the presence of gap junctions or ionic diffusion, neuromodulation channel gating, the mechanism for habituative or depressive synapses, axonal delays, and synaptic plasticity. KInNeSS outputs include compartment membrane voltage, spikes, local-field potentials, and current source densities, as well as visualization of the behavior of a simulated agent. An explanation of the modeling philosophy and plug-in development is also presented. Further development of KInNeSS is ongoing with the ultimate goal of creating a modular framework that will help researchers across different disciplines to effectively collaborate using a modern neural simulation platform.

  12. LabVIEW Data Acquisition for NE213 Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gangadharan, Dhevan

    2003-09-23

    A neutron spectroscopy system based on a NE213 liquid scintillation detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center measures neutron energies from a few MeV up to 800 MeV. The neutrons are produced from the electron beam and target interactions. The NE 213 scintillator, coupled with a Photomultiplier Tube (PMT), detects and converts radiation into electric pulses for signal processing. Signals are processed through Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) modules. The processed pulses are then fed into a CAMAC analog to digital converter module (ADC). The ADC classifies the incoming analog pulses into one of 2048 digital channels. Data acquisition (DAQ) software based on LabVIEW version 7.0 acquires and organizes data from the CAMAC ADC. The DAQ system presents a spectrum showing a relationship between pulse events and respective charge (digital channel number). Various photon sources, such as Co-60, Y-88, and AmBe-241, are used to calibrate the NE213 detector. For each source, a Compton edge and reference energy in MeVee is obtained, resulting in a calibration curve. This project is focused on the development of a DAQ system and control setup to collect and process information from a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. A manual is also created to document the process of the development and interpretation of the LabVIEW-based DAQ system.

  13. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING NE FROM WEST BANK OF SUSQUEHANNA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW, LOOKING NE FROM WEST BANK OF SUSQUEHANNA RIVER. PIERS FROM SOUTH PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD AT LEFT, PHILADELPHIA & READING RAILROAD BRIDGE AT RIGHT. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Susquehanna River Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River, North of I-83 Bridge, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  14. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab.

  15. Unbound Excited States in ^28Ne and ^25F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jenna; Brown, B. Alex; Christian, Greg; Mosby, Shea; Novak, John F.; Quinn, Steven J.; Snyder, Jesse; Spyrou, Artemis; Strongman, Michael J.; Thoennessen, Michael; Baumann, Thomas; Kohley, Zachary; Finck, Joseph E.; Hoffman, Calem R.

    2012-10-01

    The neutron dripline has only been conclusively mapped out to Z=8. The unbound structure of isotopes with Z>8 has not been studied until recently, when multiple studies have focused on unbound states in neutron-rich fluorine isotopes. Unbound states in ^28Ne and ^25F were populated in the reaction of a 102 MeV/nucleon ^29Na beam on a beryllium target. This is the first such state in ^28Ne and the second such state in ^25F. The measured decay energy of 32(22) keV in the ^27Ne + n system corresponds to an unbound excited state in ^28Ne of 3.86(11) MeV. The decay energy of the ^24F + n system was measured as 300(170) keV, which places the second measured unbound state of ^25F at 4.66(17) MeV. Measured decay energy spectra and a discussion of results will be presented.

  16. 75 FR 55619 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) Roger B. Garland, Acting Associate Administrator for Disaster...

  17. 75 FR 17178 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... declaration remains unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) James...

  18. 75 FR 55618 - Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00038.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Nebraska Disaster Number NE-00038. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... unchanged. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Numbers 59002 and 59008) Roger B. Garland,...

  19. 1. LOOKING NE TOWARD CABRINI GREEN HOUSING PROJECT, NORTH HALSTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NE TOWARD CABRINI GREEN HOUSING PROJECT, NORTH HALSTED STREET AT RIGHT, WEST DIVISION STREET AT LEFT; GOOSE ISLAND AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - North Halsted Street Canal Bridge, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Halsted Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. Experimental Constraints on He, Ne, and Ar Solubility in Serpentinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, J. A.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Smye, A.; Jackson, C.; Cooper, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments have been performed to constrain the solubility of He, Ne, and Ar in natural samples of antigorite from three locations. Geochemical analyses of exhumed subduction zone material [1] and well gases [2] indicate that noble gases are recycled from the surface of the earth into the mantle. The mechanism by which uncharged atoms can be bound to a mineral and subsequently recycled remains unclear, but recent experimental work suggests that ring structures in silicate minerals are ideal sites for noble gases [3]. Serpentine contains such ring structures and is abundant in subducting slabs, providing significant potential for control of the recycling of noble gases. Experiments were performed in a cold seal pressure vessel at 350°C using a mix of equal parts He, Ne, and Ar as the pressure media (Brown University, USA). Pressures varied from 0.15 to 1.13 kbar total pressure and durations varied from 20 to 188 hours. Samples were analyzed by UV laser ablation, noble gas mass spectrometry (Open University, UK). He and Ne reached equilibrium during the experiments and both exhibit Henrian behavior. Data from the cleanest sample reduces the error by approximately an order of magnitude over previous work [3] and confirms that He is significantly more soluble (HCHe=6.05x10-10 mol/g/bar) than Ne (HCNe=5.12x10-12 mol/g/bar) in antigorite. Preliminary data from the cleanest sample suggests that Ar is more soluble than both He and Ne (HCAr=1.94x10-10 mol/g/bar). This provides a mechanism for fractionation of noble gases during recycling. 1. Kendrick, M.A., Scambelluri, M., Honda, M., Phillips, D., Nature Geoscience, 4, 807-812, 2011 2. Holland, G., and Ballentine, C.J., Nature, 441, 186-191, 2006 3. Jackson, C.R.M., Parman, S.W., Kelley, S.P., Cooper, R.F., GCA, 159, 1-15, 2015

  1. Precision angle-resolved autoionization resonances in Ar and Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Berrah, N.; Langer, B.; Gorczyca, T.W.

    1997-04-01

    Theoretical work has shown that the electron angular distribution and the shape of the autoionization resonances are crucial to the understanding of certain types of electron-electron correlation. Autoionization resonances in Ne (Ar) result from the decay of the excited discrete state Ne{sup *} 2s2p{sup 6} np (Ar{sup *} 3s3p{sup 6} np) into the continuum state Ne{sup +} 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd) (Ar{sup +} 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5} + e{sup {minus}} (ks,kd)). Since the continuum can also be reached by direct photoionization, both paths add coherently, giving rise to interferences that produce the characteristic Beutler-Fano line shape. In this work, the authors report on quantitative angle-resolved electron spectrometry studies of (a) the Ne 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2s2p{sup 6} np (n=3-5) autoionizing resonances and the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 2p{sup 4}3s3p doubly excited resonance, (b) the Ar 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6} {r_arrow} 3s3p{sup 6} np (n=4-9) autoionization resonances and extended R-matrix calculations of the angular-distribution parameters for both Ne and Ar measurements. Their results are compared with previous theoretical work by Taylor.

  2. HAER NE9B (sheet 2 of 2) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-B (sheet 2 of 2) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. HAER NE9A (sheet 1 of 1) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-A (sheet 1 of 1) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  4. HAER NE9B (sheet 1 of 2) Offutt Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER NE-9-B (sheet 1 of 2) - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. Observation of strong emission from NeIX and NeX transitions in a laser-driven plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, J.K.; Ditmire, T.; Nguyen, H.; Perry, M.D.

    1994-07-01

    The authors observe strong emission from the 1s{sup 2}-1snp Rydberg series in He-like neon and from the Lyman-{alpha} transition in H-like neon. These emissions are observed when 1.05 {mu}m light from a 650 femtosecond laser is focused into the dense, localized output of a pulsed, supersonic nozzle. The maximum focal irradiance of the laser was measured at full power in a vacuum to be 2 {times} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Although emissions from lower charge states such as Ne{sup 6+} and Ne{sup 7+} closely follow rates predicted by tunneling theory, emissions from Ne{sup 8+} and Ne{sup 9+} are observed at irradiances two order of magnitude below tunneling theory estimates (e.g. the He-{alpha} line appears at 2 {times} 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}). They discuss the origins of these anomalously high charge states and the implications to recombination-pumped x-rays lasers.

  6. NeXT Application Development Workshop. [Use and Design of Instructional Applications on the NeXT Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Don; And Others

    Instructional applications for NeXT computers were developed by nine faculty members from the biology, mathematics and computer science, fine arts, chemistry, physics and astronomy, and geology departments as part of a grant awarded to the California State University at Los Angeles. These notes provide a schedule of events and reports from a 2-day…

  7. Holocene and Late Glacial varved sediments from Czechowskie Lake (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Słowiński, Michał; Dulski, Peter; Plessen, Birgit; Blaszkiewicz, Miroslaw

    2013-04-01

    Annual laminated (varved) sediment records are essential for detailed paleoclimate and environmental reconstructions as they function as a natural memory beyond instrumental datasets. In order to determine Holocene inter-annual and decadal-scale variability we investigated varved Lake Czechowskie (53°52' N/ 18°14' E, 108 m asl.), northern Poland. During two coring campaigns in 2009 and 2012 we recovered several long and short cores with the longest core reaching 14.5 m. Based on correlation with a biostratigraphically and tephrochronologically dated neighboring paleolake sediment record (Trzechowskie mire) the record extends back in to the Late Glacial. Lake Czechowskie is well suited for climate reconstruction as varves are almost entirely well (88 %) or poorly (5%) preserved. Only 7 % of the sediment profile are non-varved. Detailed investigations have been carried out for the last 2000 years of the sediment profile applying micro-facies analyses combined with X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) at 200 µm resolution and carbon and nitrogen analyses (TOC, TC, TN) at five-varveresolution. The chronology has been established by a multiple dating approach with 137Cs (for the last ca. 50 years), AMS 14C on plant macro remains (back to 2800 cal BP) and varve counting. Varve formation and preservation ceases at the beginning of the 20th century whereas the younger sediments are again faintly varved. Micro-facies analyses reveal that the sediment consists of biogenic calcite varves with intercalated diatom rich layers. Three distinct 100 to 200 years long periods of up to threefold thicker varves (approx. 1.4 to 5.0 mm/year) are predominantly caused by an increase in the diatom sub-layers and indicate distinct short-term climatic and environmental fluctuations. Possible reasons for these changes that occurred abruptly with only few years are either changes in lake water circulation or in nutrient supply to the lake. This study is a contribution to the Virtual

  8. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6... Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine AGENCY: United...

  9. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, People's Republic of China, Poland, Republic of Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777... South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007). On July 2, 2012, the... of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 77 FR...

  10. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777 (September 7, 2001). On August 9, 2007, the Department revoked the..., Poland, and Ukraine, 78 FR 41079 (July 9, 2013). Scope of the Orders The product covered by the orders is... Reinforcing Bars from South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007)....

  11. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  12. A unique variant of Poland-Mobius syndrome with dextrocardia and a 3q23 gain.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Ross, J R; Tullius, T G; Levin, G S

    2013-07-01

    The combined Poland and Mobius syndrome occurs rarely and with a wide range of features. There is no consensus on the etiology of this syndrome; familial, sporadic cases and likely environmental insult cases have been reported. This sporadic case represents a unique variant in the spectrum of this syndrome.

  13. A unique case of right-sided Poland syndrome with true dextrocardia and total situs inversus.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Halil I; Yavuz, Taner; Altunrende, Sevil; Guven, Melih; Kılıcgun, Ali; Polat, Omer; Yesiller, Erkan; Duzenli, Selma

    2013-02-01

    Poland syndrome has been reported to be associated with true dextrocardia, but not with true situs inversus. In this report, we describe the first patient with total situs inversus in medical literature and try to highlight the syndrome's probable etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms in utero.

  14. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  15. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  16. Job Search Strategies of Recent University Graduates in Poland: Plans and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to highlight plans versus actual actions of university graduates in Poland aimed at finding employment. The paper also empirically verifies the impact of chosen job-seeking strategies on the success or failure of their transition to employment. The study was Polish-wide and included graduates of geography. It…

  17. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  18. To Teach the Holocaust in Poland: Understanding Teachers' Motivations to Engage the Painful Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Magdalena H.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of teachers in confronting traumatic, hidden wartime histories in communities traumatized by them. The study illuminates patterns based on field observations, emails, and surveys of 60 teachers who participated in a Holocaust teacher preparation program in Poland during the summer of 2010. The teachers surveyed…

  19. The Role of Urban Green Areas in the Education for Sustainable Development: Focus on Krakow, Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Aleksandra; Orlewicz-Musial, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Four selected green areas in Krakow (Poland) were compared, including: (1) the historical centre of Krakow with the green belt of Planty; (2) Blonia--grassland situated near the city centre; (3) the Park of Aviators, situated between the old part of Krakow and the industrial district of Nowa Huta and (4) the Nowa Huta Meadows. All these areas have…

  20. National Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplant Registry in Poland: Nationwide Internet Reporting System and Results.

    PubMed

    Łęczycka, A; Dudkiewicz, M; Czerwiński, J; Malanowski, P; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, J; Danielewicz, R

    2016-06-01

    History of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Poland begins in early 1980s; the 1st bone marrow allotransplantation was performed in 1983 in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Military Medical Academy in Warsaw. Following years brought the 1st autologous stem cell transplantations. Ten years later, unrelated bone marrow transplantation was performed for the 1st time by the team of the Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Unit in Katowice. Since then, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation developed to be standard procedure and one of the most important therapies applied in leukemia treatment. The number of allotransplantations in Poland has grown significantly in the past 2 decades, which generated new needs and problems. In 2005, based on a new Transplant Law, a National Transplants Registry was created. Its main role is to collect data (registration of procedures and follow-up data) related to every transplantation case for stem cells and tissues as well as for organs. We present statistics concerning stem cell transplantations performed in Poland, as collected in the National Transplants Registry in the years 2006-2014. There are 18 centers transplanting hematopoietic stem cells in Poland. The total number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations performed in 2006-2014 was 3,537, with allotransplantations from relatives accounted for 1,491 and from unrelated donors for 2,046. The main indication for allotransplantation in past years was acute leukemia. PMID:27496493

  1. [Education of women and changes in the family model in Poland].

    PubMed

    Koptas, G

    1988-05-01

    Trends in women's education in Poland for the period 1960-1986 are reviewed, with a focus on the status of women and the allocation of women's time. The author concludes that the rapid changes in women's educational status that have occurred are not matched by equally rapid changes in family behavior.

  2. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  3. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    PubMed

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland. PMID:22790322

  4. Measurements with Reticle Micrometer Performed by a New Double Stars Observing Group from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskupski, Marcin; Banacka, Natalia; Cupryjak, Justyna; Malinowska, Malgorzata; Bujel, Kamil; Koltek, Zdzislaw; Mazur, Jaroslaw; Muskala, Marcin; Plotkowski, Lukasz; Prowans, Barlomiej; Szkaplewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of 19 double stars using a reticle micrometer eyepiece are reported. The observational program was held in spring and summer of 2015 as an extended workshop for a new double stars observing group from Szczecin, Poland. The goal of the program was to learn how to measure position angle and separation using a reticle micrometer eyepiece.

  5. Determinants of Higher Education Choices and Student Satisfaction: The Case of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sojkin, Bogdan; Bartkowiak, Pawel; Skuza, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic changes in tertiary education that were observed in Poland for the last 20 years transformed the Polish educational market and led to the immense expansion of educational institutions. The rapid increase in the number of students that continued until 2006 is however over and Polish universities have begun to compete for their clients.…

  6. Adult Educators: An Example of the New Approach to Lifelong Learning in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    This article presents reflections arising from a study on adult learning professions in Poland. Changes in the socio-political and legal context created phenomena that have occurred in the adult education systems, mechanisms and approaches. The article focuses on the impact of those processes on a specific professional group--adult educators.…

  7. Entrepreneurial Management Education Needs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabic, Marina; Vlajcic, Davor; Novak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to take the emergence of the knowledge mobilization as an opportunity to develop an understanding of needs for catching up appropriate knowledge application in SMEs in the Republic of Croatia, Poland and the UK. It draws upon the "frame mobilization" literature, which illuminates the role that acts…

  8. Poland's syndrome and head-and-neck tumour: an unusual association causing a reconstruction dilemma.

    PubMed

    Gerlinger, Imre; Járai, Tamás; Lujber, László; Pytel, József

    2007-05-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. The literature data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory concerning its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. Relationships have been demonstrated between tumours and Poland's syndrome and also between tumours and other developmental defects. The explanation may lie in abnormal homeobox and tumour suppressor genes. This paper presents the first literature report of a malignant tonsillo-lingual tumour with metastatic neck involvement in a patient with partial Poland's sequence. In consequence of the aplasia of the pectoralis major muscle, an alternative (a free radical forearm flap) to the routine head-and-neck reconstruction (pedicled pectoralis major flap) was necessitated following tumour excision and radical neck dissection. This case report surveys the diagnostic and therapeutic considerations when previously unnoticed Poland's syndrome is diagnosed in a patient with head-and-neck cancer. One year following major head-and-neck surgery, our patient is tumour-free.

  9. Equity in an Educational Boom: Lessons from the Expansion and Marketisation of Tertiary Schooling in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Rok, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland during the period of the educational boom. It also analyses how the socio-economic status influences the choices between full-time and part-time studies (the latter being of relatively low quality), and the probability of…

  10. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... persons can obtain information on this matter by contacting the Commission's TDD terminal on 202-205- 1810... both the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 39254, July 2... bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Poland, and Ukraine to promote administrative efficiency in...

  11. National Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplant Registry in Poland: Nationwide Internet Reporting System and Results.

    PubMed

    Łęczycka, A; Dudkiewicz, M; Czerwiński, J; Malanowski, P; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, J; Danielewicz, R

    2016-06-01

    History of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Poland begins in early 1980s; the 1st bone marrow allotransplantation was performed in 1983 in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Military Medical Academy in Warsaw. Following years brought the 1st autologous stem cell transplantations. Ten years later, unrelated bone marrow transplantation was performed for the 1st time by the team of the Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Unit in Katowice. Since then, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation developed to be standard procedure and one of the most important therapies applied in leukemia treatment. The number of allotransplantations in Poland has grown significantly in the past 2 decades, which generated new needs and problems. In 2005, based on a new Transplant Law, a National Transplants Registry was created. Its main role is to collect data (registration of procedures and follow-up data) related to every transplantation case for stem cells and tissues as well as for organs. We present statistics concerning stem cell transplantations performed in Poland, as collected in the National Transplants Registry in the years 2006-2014. There are 18 centers transplanting hematopoietic stem cells in Poland. The total number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations performed in 2006-2014 was 3,537, with allotransplantations from relatives accounted for 1,491 and from unrelated donors for 2,046. The main indication for allotransplantation in past years was acute leukemia.

  12. Purity and Epidemic Danger in German Occupied Poland during the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Explores the efforts of the German public-health authorities to cleanse occupied areas of formerly Russian Poland of pathogenic hazards during the First World War. The program used sanitary measures and educational programs to encourage a more hygienic lifestyle. Originally sympathetic to the Jewish population, it grew increasingly anti-semitic.…

  13. Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

  14. The Changing Role of Students' Representation in Poland: An Historical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Pinheiro, Rómulo; Smuzewska, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Student representation in Poland has a relatively short but turbulent history. This article offers an historical appraisal of the development of student representation at the national level in the context of rapid and deep structural changes in Polish higher education. Based on a desktop analysis of official documentation, legislation, ideological…

  15. Report on the Vocational Education and Training System in Poland. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory of Poland, Warsaw.

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in Poland has nine chapters. Chapter 1 presents the socioeconomic situation; explains reasons for different rates of development in particular regions; and presents trends in job creation and rise and fall in unemployment. Chapter 2 deals with changes in the VET field in these areas: VET's…

  16. Reform and Development of Higher Education in Europe: France, The Netherlands, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document examines reform and development of higher education in France, Poland, and the Netherlands. Part I examines facets of higher education in France including the tasks of the universities: research, teaching, and development of higher training and continuing education; present structures of French universities; increase in student…

  17. Health Care and Social Services in the Peoples Republic of Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    Health care and social services in Poland are affected by the culture context of geography, demography, and culturally induced expansion in historical periods. Health and financing of health services are issues with significant political ramifications and, despite egalitarian ideology, there is differential access to care and services. The…

  18. The Admission and Placement of Students from the Republic of Poland. A Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silny, Josef; And Others

    This volume is designed to be a comprehensive description of the Polish educational system as it existed under the communist regime, and of the radical changes currently taking place, as well as of possible future trends. Chapter 1 describes Poland's history, geography, and population. Chapter 2 describes the background and structure of its…

  19. Secondary Education in Poland. Guide to Secondary Education in Europe Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piwowarski, Rafal

    This publication contains a brief description of secondary education in Poland. The first section provides an overview of the societal and political context in which the educational system exists. The second section discusses current educational issues, including policy formation, finance, the school role in the community, administration and…

  20. Directions of Change in the System of Educational Administration in the Republic of Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Miroslaw

    This paper argues that changes in educational administration in Poland must be seen in the context of the enormous social and political changes that have occurred in that country in recent years. Centralized bureaucratic planning of social and economic programs has been discarded. The changes have impacted the system of educational administration…

  1. New Tasks for Teachers of English in Poland in Light of Social, Economic, and Political Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhalt, Ewa

    The weakness of English and other language instruction in Poland is due largely to the political system after World War II. Political and economic change and gradual recognition of the importance of English have recently increased rapidly. Expanded contact with the West calls for immediate qualitative and quantitative changes in English language…

  2. A Health Education Program in Poland from the Perspective of Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopacz, Marek S.

    2008-01-01

    Poland subscribes to an abstinence-only model of reproductive health education called "Education for Life in the Family." The aim of this study was to determine if the perceptions of adolescent mothers could be used to improve delivery of the Polish model of education. This study was conducted using focus group interviews with fourteen adolescent…

  3. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wapiennik, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in Poland is estimated at 47.8/10,000 among the population aged over 15 years. Although progress has recently been documented in the development of more positive attitudes toward integration of people with disabilities in society, social distance toward those with ID is persistent. Several Acts of…

  4. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branska, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    In Poland centre-based education and care for children from birth to the age of entry into compulsory school education, i.e. 7 years, is provided in creches ("zlobki") for children aged 0-3 years and in nursery schools ("przedszkola") for children from 3 years of age to the age of entry into primary school. Creches are part of the healthcare…

  5. Experiential Learning of History through Youth Journeys to Poland: Israeli Jewish Youth and the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Lev, Michal

    2007-01-01

    National history and collective memory and their impact on adolescents' knowledge and attitudes are the topic of this article. A follow-up study, it examines the long-term impact of a journey to historical monuments. Israeli Jewish high-school students have the option of experiential study, visiting cities and death camps in Poland. The first…

  6. From System Expansion to System Contraction: Access to Higher Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Poland is changing due to the demography of smaller cohorts of potential students. Following a demand-driven educational expansion after the collapse of communism in 1989, the higher education system is now contracting. Such expansion/contraction and growth/decline in European higher education has rarely been…

  7. The Effects of Delaying Tracking in Secondary School: Evidence from the 1999 Education Reform in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski, Maciej; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Porta, Emilio Ernesto; Wisniewski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Delaying tracking, extending students' exposure to a general academic education and increasing their time on task on basic competences (reading, mathematics) could improve academic outcomes. To test the hypothesis that delayed vocational streaming improves academic outcomes, this paper analyzes Poland's significant improvements in international…

  8. Determinants and Options in the Development of Higher Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozefowicz, Adam; Kluczynski, Jan

    Trends affecting the future development of higher education in Poland are considered. It is projected that the demographic pool of higher education enrollment will in 1995-2000 return to a level roughly comparable with the peak pressures for college entry in the years 1971-75. It is suggested that demographic changes alone can explain but a…

  9. Civic Education in Emerging Democracies: Lessons from Post-Communist Poland and Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kerri

    2010-01-01

    The 1999 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education Study revealed that most countries having recently undergone political and social transformations had lower civic knowledge scores than more stable nations. However, Poland, which instituted policies aimed at educating citizens for democratic…

  10. The New Biology in Poland after the Second World War: Polish Lysenkoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJong-Lambert, William

    2009-01-01

    Genetic research was banned in the Polish People's Republic from 1949 to 1956 as a result of the activities of Trofim D. Lysenko, a pseudo-biologist in the Soviet Union. This article examines the impact upon education in biology in Poland, including textbook revision, curriculum reform and revised understandings of the purpose of scientific…

  11. Project on School Staff Health Promotion in Poland: The First Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woynarowska-Soldan, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: The project was implemented in 2012 in…

  12. The Impact of Poland's 1990 Bill on Schools of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    This article is the product of the writer's deliberations about the impact of Poland's 1990 Bill on Schools of Higher Education using an information technology theoretical model consisting of three parts: (1) participation; (2) feedback; and (3) partnership. The main findings of the investigation revealed that: (1) there is wide participation in…

  13. The Meaning of Working among Professional Employees in Germany, Poland and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Borchert, Margret; Rozanski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an empirical study of the meaning of working, individual level work outcomes, and job and career satisfaction, among professional level employees in business organizations in Russia, Poland, and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework for the study was based on…

  14. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    PubMed

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland.

  15. Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmas Among Men with NGU in Upper Silesia, Poland. Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Ekiel, Alicja; Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Kłuciński, Piotr; Smolec, Dominika; Wiechuła, Barbara; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Martirosian, Gayane

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in men with NGU in Upper Silesia (Poland) was studied. Mycoplasmas were detected in 36.7% men (Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma genitalium were found in 30% and 16.7% respectively). Urealyticum urealyticum was not detected. We suggest including M. genitalium in the diagnostic scheme for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). PMID:27281999

  16. Matching Supply with Demand: Higher Education and the Labor Market. A Comparison of Kenya and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, R. Rees; And Others

    Conditions in Kenya and Poland concerning the labor market and educational preparation for jobs are discussed, along with public policy. In the decade of the 1980s, both nations reached saturation in the labor market and underwent changes in the demand for university-trained workers. Kenya needed highly trained personnel to replace expatriates…

  17. Neuroendocrine (NE) cells in rat neonatal lungs. A histochemical and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Pascual, A; Martin-Lacave, I; Moreno, A M; Fernandez, A; Galera, H

    1990-06-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the presence of NE cells in the newborn rat lung. The localization of these cell was achieved by an argyrophil method. Both single NE and NEB, were found. Immunoperoxidase techniques were performed to determine NSE, serotonin and calcitonin production in these NE formations.

  18. Relationships between individualism-collectivism, gender, and direct or indirect aggression: a study in China, Poland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Gordon; Zhang, Xiaoying; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Haas, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Direct and indirect aggression were studied in college students from China (women n=122; men n=97), a highly collectivistic culture; the US (women n=137; men n=136), a highly individualistic culture; and Poland (women n=105; men n=119), a culture with intermediate levels of collectivism and individualism. Consistent with a hypothesis derived from national differences in relative levels of collectivism and individualism, both direct and indirect aggression were higher in the US than in Poland and higher in Poland than in China. The theoretical implication of these results and directions for future research were discussed.

  19. [Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland--the aim and current experiences].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries, where smoking is widely spread and smoking-induced diseases have become a significant health and socio-economic issue. Since 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with partner organizations have been working on the implementation of the global control system known as the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS). This system expands the opportunities of individual countries in the area of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive anti-tobacco programs. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has been incorporated into the GTSS system in 2007. The aim of the work is to explain and promote the objectives of GATS and the process of its implementation in Poland based on current experiences of the WHO Country Office for Poland. GATS concentrates on monitoring of tobacco use by adults (aged over 15 years). It is a representative, national survey of households, standardized on a global scale. GATS is supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies as a part of the Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Two executive agencies, the M. Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw and the Warsaw Medical University, have been assigned to implement the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. The prepatory works for pre-testing and further stages of the survey implementation are currently under the final phase. Data gathered by GATS will enable us to learn more about the use of tobacco by the adult population in Poland. They will also indicate the most effective methods of the tobacco control in our country. PMID:19746887

  20. [Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland--the aim and current experiences].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries, where smoking is widely spread and smoking-induced diseases have become a significant health and socio-economic issue. Since 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with partner organizations have been working on the implementation of the global control system known as the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS). This system expands the opportunities of individual countries in the area of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive anti-tobacco programs. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has been incorporated into the GTSS system in 2007. The aim of the work is to explain and promote the objectives of GATS and the process of its implementation in Poland based on current experiences of the WHO Country Office for Poland. GATS concentrates on monitoring of tobacco use by adults (aged over 15 years). It is a representative, national survey of households, standardized on a global scale. GATS is supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies as a part of the Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Two executive agencies, the M. Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw and the Warsaw Medical University, have been assigned to implement the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. The prepatory works for pre-testing and further stages of the survey implementation are currently under the final phase. Data gathered by GATS will enable us to learn more about the use of tobacco by the adult population in Poland. They will also indicate the most effective methods of the tobacco control in our country.

  1. MiniBooNE "Windows on the Universe"

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanski, Ray; /Fermilab

    2010-12-09

    Progress in the last few decades has left neutrino physics with several vexing issues. Among them are the following questions: (1) Why are lepton mixing angles so different from those in the quark sector? (2) What is the most probable range of the reactor mixing angle? (3) Is the atmospheric mixing angle maximal? (4) What is the number of fermion generations? These are some of the issues that neutrino science hopes to study; this article will explore these questions as part of a more general scientific landscape, and will discuss the part MiniBooNE might play in this exploration. We discuss the current state of measurements taken by MiniBooNE, and emphasize the uniqueness of neutrino oscillations as an important probe into the 'Windows on the Universe.'

  2. Overview of DOE-NE Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sadasivan, Pratap

    2012-08-24

    Research objectives are: (1) Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; (2) Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy; (3) Develop Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles; and (4) Understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The goal is to enable the use of risk information to inform NE R&D program planning. The PTRA program supports DOE-NE's goal of using risk information to inform R&D program planning. The FY12 PTRA program is focused on terrorism risk. The program includes a mix of innovative methods that support the general practice of risk assessments, and selected applications.

  3. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  4. Photon Events at MiniBooNE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xilin; Serot, Brian D.

    2012-03-01

    The neutral-current production of photon at MiniBooNE experiment is analyzed, which is motivated by the low-energy excess-event puzzle in the experiment [A. A. Aquilar-Arevalo et al. (MiniBooNE Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 032301 (2008); Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 181801 (2010)]. The calculation is done in a manifestly Lorentz-covariant framework, and includes contributions from Delta resonance's radiative decay and from non-resonance diagrams. The medium-effects are considered, including the modifications of Delta's behavior and nucleon's spectrum and Pauli blocking. Different kinds of event distributions are calculated based on the experimental setup. The possibility of the photon event to be the excess event will be discussed. The model-dependence of the results will also be presented. Possible connections of this analysis to other neutrino-oscillation experiment will be mentioned.

  5. Spectroscopy and nonadiabatic predissociation of CN-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, W. G.; Chen, Yaling; Heaven, Michael C.

    1997-11-01

    The spectroscopy and predissociation dynamics of CN-Ne were investigated using a variety of laser excitation techniques. Properties of the A 2Π state (vibrational levels v=2, 3, and 4) were characterized through studies of the A-X system. Both spin-orbit components of CN(A)-Ne were subject to predissociation. The upper component (Ω=1/2) was predissociated by rapid spin-orbit relaxation (τ≈6 ps, no vibrational dependence). The lower component (Ω=3/2) was predissociated by the nonadiabatic internal conversion process, CN(A 2Π3/2,v)-Ne→CN(X 2 Σ+,v+4)+Ne. Rates for predissociation by internal conversion were found to be exponentially dependent on the energy gap between the initial and final CN levels. These rates were relatively slow, permitting observation of rotationally resolved spectra for bands associated with the monomer Ω=3/2 v=3 and 4 levels. Double resonance techniques were used to simplify the spectra and establish ro-vibronic assignments. Details of the intermolecular potential-energy surfaces were derived from these data. CN final state population distributions resulting from spin-orbit and internal conversion predissociation were characterized. For the former, excess energy was channeled into rotational excitation of CN, and levels of-parity were preferentially populated. The excess energy in predissociation by internal conversion was released primarily to translational recoil. In the accompanying paper, Yang and Alexander present ab initio potential surfaces for CN-Ne. From these surfaces they predict ro-vibronic energies and predissociation rates for levels associated with A, v=3. Results that depended on the A state surface alone were found to be in good agreement with experiment. Comparison of the internal conversion predissociation rates indicates that the ab initio calculations underestimated the coupling between the A and X states.

  6. Lake Powell, SE Utah and NE Arizona, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Glen Canyon National Recreation Area with Lake Powell and Monument Valley in both SE Utah and NE Arizona (36.5N, 110.0W) are well known tourist areas in the southwest. Water from Lake Powell feeds the Colorado River before it rages through the Grand Canyon. The darker green areas indicate the high forested country of Navajo Mountain and Black Mesa in Arizona. Shadows from the many steep sided hills add a near three dimensional effect to the scene.

  7. 2. Creosote plant site (NE side) as viewed from passenger ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Creosote plant site (NE side) as viewed from passenger deck of Washington State Ferry as it approaches the Winslow landing. Remnants of Milwaukee Bock are visible on far left. Building at left is Office Engine Room Building with sloped roof is at center behind tanks. To the right is Boiler Building with stack. Long building is Machine Shop. Dock on right is West Dock. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. Neutrino and Antineutrino Cross sections at MiniBooNE

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan; /Alabama U.

    2011-10-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has reported a number of high statistics neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections -among which are the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) and neutral current elastic (NCE) neutrino scattering on mineral oil (CH2). Recently a study of the neutrino contamination of the anti-neutrino beam has concluded and the analysis of the anti-neutrino CCQE and NCE scattering is ongoing.

  9. LabVIEW DAQ for NE213 Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Adeeb, Mohammed

    2003-09-23

    A neutron spectroscopy system, based on a NE213 liquid scintillation detector, to be placed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to measure neutron spectra from a few MeV up to 800 MeV, beyond shielding. The NE213 scintillator, coupled with a Photomultiplier Tube (PMT), detects and converts radiation into current for signal processing. Signals are processed through Nuclear Instrument Modules (NIM) and Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) modules. CAMAC is a computer automated data acquisition and handling system. Pulses are properly prepared and fed into an analog to digital converter (ADC), a standard CAMAC module. The ADC classifies the incoming analog pulses into 1 of 2048 digital channels. Data acquisition (DAQ) software based on LabVIEW, version 7.0, acquires and organizes data from the CAMAC ADC. The DAQ system presents a spectrum showing a relationship between pulse events and respective charge (digital channel number). Various photon sources, such as Co-60, Y-88, and AmBe-241, are used to calibrate the NE213 detector. For each source, a Compton edge and reference energy [units of MeVee] is obtained. A complete calibration curve results (at a given applied voltage to the PMT and pre-amplification gain) when the Compton edge and reference energy for each source is plotted. This project is focused to development of a DAQ system and control setup to collect and process information from a NE213 liquid scintillation detector. A manual is created to document the process of the development and interpretation of the LabVIEW-based DAQ system. Future high-energy neutron measurements can be referenced and normalized according to this calibration curve.

  10. The Markoye Shear Zone in NE Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.; Marquis, Pascal

    2009-12-01

    Birimian supracrustal sequences in NE Burkina Faso are dominated by meta-volcaniclastic greywacke, intercalated meta-conglomerate, siltstone and shale. The sequences where subjected to two phases of deformation and contact metamorphosed to hornblende-hornfels facies during emplacement of pyroxenite-gabbro-norite (Yacouba Mafic complex), granodiorite-tonalite (Tin Taradat granodiorite-tonalite) and dolerite dykes. Structural studies indicated that the NE-trending, first-order crustal-scale Markoye Shear Zone (MSZ; Markoye Fault of [Jeambrun, M., Delfour, J., Gravost, M., 1970. Carte géologique de L'Oudalan. Bureau De Recherches Geologiques et Miniéres, Burkina Faso.]) has undergone at least two phases of reactivation concomitant to two phases of regional deformation. The first phase of deformation, D1, resulted in the formation of NNW-NW trending folds and thrusts during dextral-reverse displacement on the MSZ. The deformation is termed the Tangaean Event and predates the Eburnean Orogeny. D2 phase involved a period of SE-NW crustal shortening and sinistral-reverse displacement on the MSZ, and is correlated to the Eburnean Orogeny ˜2.1 Ga. Deformation in D2 is characterised by NE-trending regional folds (F2) and a pervasive NE-trending foliation (S2-C to S2). Within the MSZ, deformation is characterised by NNE-trending zones of mylonite that are bordered in the hangingwall and footwall by pseudotachylite veins. Buck quartz-carbonate veins and quartz cataclasite veins crosscut the mylonite zones and are, in turn, crosscut by quartz-chlorite-(muscovite) shears that formed during reactivation of the MSZ late in D2. Several generations of veins are recognised at the Essakane main deposit (EMZ): Arsenopyrite-pyrite-gold mineralization in quartz veins formed in D1 during metasomatic alteration of the host rocks; Vein-stockwork gold mineralization is interpreted to have formed late in D2.

  11. Crustal high-velocity anomaly at the East European Craton margin in SE Poland (TESZ) modelled by 3-D seismic tomography of refracted and reflected arrivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Środa, Piotr; Dec, Monika

    2016-04-01

    The area of Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland represents a contact of major tectonic units of different consolidation age - from the Precambrian East European Craton, through Palaeozoic West European Platform to Cenozoic Carpathian orogen. The region was built by several phases of crustal accretion, which resulted in a complex collage of tectonic blocks. In 2000, this region was studied by several seismic wide-angle profiles of CELEBRATION 2000 experiment, providing a dense coverage of seismic data in SE Poland and allowing for detailed investigations of the crustal structure and properties in this area. Beneath the marginal part of the EEC, the 2-D modelling of in-line data form several CELEBRATION profiles revealed a prominent high P-wave velocity anomaly in the upper crust, with Vp of 6.7-7.1 km/s, starting at 10-16 km depth (e.g., Środa et al., 2006). Anomalously high velocities are observed in the area located approximately beneath Lublin trough, to the NE of Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone. Based on 3-D tomography of first arrivals of in- and off-line CELEBRATION 2000 recordings (Malinowski et al., 2008), elevated velocities are also reported in the same area and seem to continue to the SW, off the craton margin. Gravimetric modelling also revealed anomalously high density in the same region at similar depths. High seismic velocities and densities are interpreted as indicative for a pronounced mafic intrusion, possibly related to extensional processes at the EEC margin. Previous 3-D models of the high-velocity intrusion were based on first arrivals (crustal refractions) only. In this study, also off-line reflections (not modelled up to now) are used, in order to enlarge the data set and to better constrain the geometry and properties of the velocity anomaly. A code for 3-D joint tomographic inversion of refracted and reflected arrivals, with model parametrization allowing for velocity discontinuities was used (Rawlinson, 2007). With this approach, besides the

  12. EUGÈNE'HOM: a generic similarity-based gene finder using multiple homologous sequences

    PubMed Central

    Foissac, Sylvain; Bardou, Philippe; Moisan, Annick; Cros, Marie-Josée; Schiex, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    EUGÈNE'HOM is a gene prediction software for eukaryotic organisms based on comparative analysis. EUGÈNE'HOM is able to take into account multiple homologous sequences from more or less closely related organisms. It integrates the results of TBLASTX analysis, splice site and start codon prediction and a robust coding/non-coding probabilistic model which allows EUGÈNE'HOM to handle sequences from a variety of organisms. The current target of EUGÈNE'HOM is plant sequences. The EUGÈNE'HOM web site is available at http://genopole.toulouse.inra.fr/bioinfo/eugene/EuGeneHom/cgi-bin/EuGeneHom.pl. PMID:12824408

  13. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ne III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Thomas, R. J.; Landi, E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ne III. The configurations used are 2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 4),2s2p(sup 5),2s(sup 2) 2p(sup 3)3s, and 2s(sup 2)3p(sup 3)3d giving rise to 57 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of logT,(K)=5.0, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ne III. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14) per cubic centimeter. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted Ne III line intensities are compared with SERTS rocket measurements of a solar active region and of a laboratory EUV light source.

  14. Radioactivities by light fragment (C, Ne, Mg) emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourani, E.; Hussonnois, M.; Poenaru, D. N.

    Recently, heavy nuclei known as ?-emitters like Ra and U isotopes have been found to present parallel emissions of 14C, 24Ne and 28Mg with very low branching ratios (< 10-9). Today, the spontaneous emission by heavy nuclei of fragments intermediate between 4He and fission fragments has become a well established field of research. The theory has been developed since 1980 and the first experimental discovery was published in 1984. Now, there are four known 14C emitters (222,223,224, 226Ra) and four 24Ne emitters (230Th, 231Pa, 232, 233U). Probably 25Ne is present in the results of 233U. Two kinds of radioactivity, 28Mg and Ne (probably 24Ne and 26Ne), have been measured from 234U, previously known for its cold fission. Some measurements gave upper limits in branching ratios ; in particular, an upper limit for the Si emission from 241 Am of ~ 10-15 relative to ? emission has been set. After a brief review of the theoretical models which have oriented the experimental discoveries, the experiments are described. They are grouped according to the technique used to identify the emitted fragment : 'E x E telescope in direct view of the source, magnetic spectrometers and solid state track detectors. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions. We present the systematics studies which have given evidence of odd-even effects in the parent nucleus, have analysed the nuclear deformation effects and have proposed a unified approach of α-decay, fragment emissions and cold fission. Finally, it is shown how these new radioactivities are being used to test and refine very elaborate models of α-decay and fission. Récemment, on a découvert que des noyaux lourds émetteurs α comme les isotopes du Ra et de l'U ont des émissions parallèles de 14C, 24Ne et 28Mg avec des rapports d'embranchement très faibles (< 10-9). Actuellement, I'émission spontanée par les noyaux lourds de fragments intermédiaires entre 1'4He et les fragments de la fission est

  15. Geochemical evolution of lithospheric mantle underlying Intrasudetic Fault (SW Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    The Pilchowice basanite (SW Poland) forms volcanic plug located exactly on Intrasudetic Fault, which is one of the major tectonic lines in northern part of the Bohemian Massif. It originated during the formation of Variscan Orogen and marks the contact between two different crustal domains. The basanite is rhönite-bearing (Ladenberger et al., 2005. Min.Pol-Spec. Pap.) and contains small (<3 cm) xenoliths of clinopyroxene-bearing spinel harzburgites and spinel dunites. Numerous, fine-grained aggregates formed of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel and glass occur interstitially. A "glassy patch" enclosing subhedral clinopyroxene occurs in one of the xenoliths. The Fo content in olivine forming xenoliths varies from 91.4 down to 83.2%, but the NiO content is always high (0.31-0.45 % wt.). Orthopyroxene has the composition of Al-Cr-Fe enstatite (mg# 0.86- 0.92). It is either LREE-depleted or shows U-shaped REE patterns. Clinopyroxene is Al-Ti-Cr diopside (mg# = 0.80-0.95). Spinel is mainly chromite with wide variation of cr# (0.40-0.80). Clinopyroxene is usually LREE-enriched with convex upward REE pattern. Two other types of REE patterns in clinopyroxene are also present: convex downward (U-shaped) and with constant enrichment in LREE. All the clinopyroxenes show distinct Ti and Zr-Hf negative anomalies. Low Al2O3 content in orthopyroxene suggests that Pilchowice peridotites are restites after extensive (16-35%) partial melting (Faccini et al., 2013, JoP), which is in an opposition to modal content of clinopyroxene (0-4.1 vol.%). This suggests, that clinopyroxene is a "stealth" metasomatic phase (O'Reillly and Griffin, 2013, Springer). As trace element composition of clinopyroxene shows features typical for reaction with alkaline silicate melt (negative inflection at the most incompatible trace elements) and carbonatite (Ti, Zr, Hf anomalies), we suggest that majority of xenoliths were metasomatized by the an agent being a carbonatite-silicate melt or by CO2-bearing

  16. [Cancer risk in asbestos-cement industry workers in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W

    1997-01-01

    A cohort study was carried out in order to evaluate the cancer risk in the asbestos-cement industry workers. The cohort consisted of workers employed in four asbestos-cement plants. One of those plants was established in 1924, the other three in the 1960s and 1970s. Currently only two of these plants continue their production. The plants used mainly chrysotile asbestos as well as crocidolite and amosite. Amphibolite asbestos was used before the mid-nineteen eighties in production of pressure pipes utilising about 15% of the total quantity of asbestos used. The measurements of the asbestos fibre concentration at work-sites have been taken occasionally since the mid 1980s, thus, the determination of a cumulative dose for individual persons in the cohort and the evaluation of the dose-effect relationship were not feasible. It could only be supposed that the concentrations at the preparatory work-site during first years of the plants' operation accounted for several tens fibres/cm3 in the production that employed the dry method. The cohort consisted of workers employed in the plant for at least three months between beginning of the plant during the post-war period, and 1980, that is during the period when amphibolite asbestos was in use. The retrospective observation was completed on 31 December 1991. The analysis of the death risk by causes was based on a standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) calculated using the person-years method. Statistical significance of SMRs was assessed by means of Poisson distribution one-sided test. The general population of Poland was used as the reference population to estimate the death risk. The cohort comprised 4,712 persons (3,563 males and 1,149 females). Of this number 4,500 persons (3,405 males and 1,095 females) were followed. The cohort availability were 95.5%. Male mortality, both total (473 deaths; SMR = 83) and due to malignant neoplasms (108 deaths; SMR = 86) was lower than in the general population. An excess of deaths from

  17. Nucleosynthesis in novae - A source of Ne-E and Al-26

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillebrandt, W.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown upon computation of the nucleosynthesis products of explosive hydrogen burning, in the framework of recent nova models, that nova condensates will probably contain isotopic anomalies in Ne-22, from Na-22 decay, and Mg-26, from Al-26 decay. It is found, for all the models considered, that while too much Ne-20 and -21 is produced relative to Ne-22 to explain the presumably almost pure Ne-22 meteoritic Ne-E component, the Na-22 abundance is high enough to explain Ne-E as its decay product if nova condensates are preserved in Ne samples. It is also determined that while Al-26 is coproduced with Na-22, its total amount strongly depends on the uncertain, Si-27(p, gamma)P-28 reaction rate. The abundances of all nuclides, up to Ar, are computed and found to be clearly nonsolar in many cases.

  18. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Russia; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States...

  19. Time-Resolved Emission Spectroscopy of High-Pressure Discharge Plasmas in Ne and Ne/H2 Gas Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurunczi, Peter; Becker, Kurt

    2001-10-01

    Microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) plasmas in pure rare gases at or near atmospheric pressure are known to be efficient sources of excimer radiation. We also demonstrated that a high-pressure MHCD plasma in Ne with a trace admixture of H2 gives rise to very intense, monochromatic H Lyman-a emission at 121.6 nm. This is the result of a very efficient near-resonant energy transfer process between the Ne excimer and the H2 molecule. Time-resolved emission spectroscopic studies of the Ne excimer radiation at 84 nm and of the H Lyman-a radiation at 121.6 nm were carried out in an effort to elucidate the microscopic details of the excimer formation process and the near-resonant energy transfer reaction. We report results of the determination of the rate constant of the near-resonant energy transfer process and its dependence on the gas temperature in the MHCD plasma. Work supported by NSF and DARPA.

  20. Length and terms of occurrence of thermal seasons in Poland - are any changes observed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choryński, Adam; Graczyk, Dariusz; Szwed, Małgorzata

    2014-05-01

    While thinking of seasons, one mostly has in mind astronomical seasons which are very often mentioned by media. These are set using Sun's position above the equator and the tropics. Seasons defined by these manners very frequently do not match with prevailing climatic conditions in Poland. Therefore, especially in scientific research, different ways of setting the beginning and ending of seasons in Poland are employed. Climatic seasons are used very broadly. They divide the year into four parts of almost equal duration. Nevertheless, for Poland, this method is also not fully representative, because it does not take into account regional differentiation of climatic conditions. More objective criteria are used in phenological seasons, where their duration is set by, for example the terms of florescence and maturation of plants. In this research, thermal criterion is applied for setting the duration of seasons - terms of persistent exceedances of characteristic thresholds of mean daily air temperature (5 degrees C for autumn and spring, 0 degrees C for winter and 15 degrees C for summer). The climate of Poland is characterised by large long-term variability of thermal conditions. It results in the possibility of evident differences in the length and terms of seasons beginning and ending between years. The winter season 2012/2013 in Poland was exceptionally long, and very low temperatures occurred during the whole March, even in the first decade of April in some parts of the country. At the same year at the end of April temperatures exceeded 20 degrees C (summer conditions). It resulted in another wide discussion on evident changes of length or even fading of some seasons in the media. Based on meteorological data from 10 Polish meteorological stations, that represent different regions of the country, authors are researching how the length of thermal seasons changed between years 1951 and 2013 in Poland. The length of seasons in three multiannual periods (1951